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Sample records for leaves mentha spicata

  1. Investigation of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and M. longifolia (L.) L. subsp. typhoides (Briq.) Harley Decoction and Infusion

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZER, Züleyha

    2018-01-01

    In present study, we report phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of decoctionand infusion of Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicataand M. longifolia (L.) L. subsp. typhoides (Briq.) Harley. The quantitativeamounts of the phenolic contents were determined by LC-MS/MS.  The main compounds and amounts of M. spicata weredetermined as follow for decoction; caffeic acid, quercetagetin-3,6-dimethyletherand penduletin (4126.6; 2141.5; 1472.7 mg/kg dried herba, respectively), for infusion;fumaric aci...

  2. Effect of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae) teas on androgen levels in women with hirsutism.

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    Akdoğan, Mehmet; Tamer, Mehmet Numan; Cüre, Erkan; Cüre, Medine Cumhur; Köroğlu, Banu Kale; Delibaş, Namik

    2007-05-01

    Mentha spicata Labiatae, known as spearmint and Mentha piperita Labiatae, known as peppermint can be used for various kinds of illnesses in herbal medicine and flavoring in industry. M. spicata Labiatae grows on the Anamas plateau of Yenithornarbademli town of Isparta, located in southwest part of Turkey. In this town, clinicians thought that consumption of tea steeped with M. spicata or M. piperita caused a diminished libido. Because antiandrogenic effects of spearmint and peppermint were found previously in rats, it was decided to observe the effect of this herbal tea on the androgen levels in hirsute women.Twenty-one female hirsute patients, 12 with polycystic ovary syndrome and 9 with idiopathic hirsutism were included to the study. They were took a cup of herbal tea which was steeped with M. spicata for 5 days twice a day in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycles. After treatment with spearmint teas, there was a significant decrease in free testosterone and increase in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol. There were no significant decreases in total testosterone or dehydroepiandrostenedione sulphate levels. Spearmint can be an alternative to antiandrogenic treatment for mild hirsutism. Further studies are needed to test the reliability of these results and the availability of spearmint as a drug for hirsutism. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Mentha spicata L. infusions as sources of antioxidant phenolic compounds: emerging reserve lots with special harvest requirements.

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    Rita, Ingride; Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-10-12

    Mentha spicata L., commonly known as spearmint, is widely used in both fresh and dry forms, for infusion preparation or in European and Indian cuisines. Recently, with the evolution of the tea market, several novel products with added value are emerging, and the standard lots have evolved to reserve lots, with special harvest requirements that confer them with enhanced organoleptic and sensorial characteristics. The apical leaves of these batches are collected in specific conditions having, then, a different chemical profile. In the present study, standard and reserve lots of M. spicata were assessed in terms of the antioxidants present in infusions prepared from the different lots. The reserve lots presented the highest concentration in all the compounds identified in relation to the standard lots, with 326 and 188 μg mL -1 of total phenolic compounds, respectively. Both types of samples presented rosmarinic acid as the most abundant phenolic compound, at concentrations of 169 and 101 μg mL -1 for reserve and standard lots, respectively. The antioxidant activity was higher in the reserve lots which had the highest total phenolic compounds content, with EC 50 values ranging from 152 to 336 μg mL -1 . The obtained results provide scientific information that may allow the consumer to make a conscientious choice.

  4. Effect of adding herbs (Ziziphora clinopodioides, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium in milk on performance, blood metabolites and fecal microbial population on Holstein calves

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    narges ghahhari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Many herbal products (herbs and essential oils are currently used as feed additives by the feed industry in the European Union and elsewhere. These phytogenic substances which increase feed aroma or palatability of feeds are classified as sensory additives by European Council. However, several publications show that some essential oils may have beneficial effects on animal performance and health status because of other properties except their sensory characteristics. These claimed properties are stimulation of digestive secretions; antimicrobial, coccidiostat, anthelmintic, and anti-inflammatory activities; and antioxidant properties. Most research revealed that supplementing herbal essential oils to diets resulted in reducing blood cholesterol, increasing palatability of feed and stimulating the immune system in poultry, while different results obtained by ruminants because of rumen microbial population and ruminal fermentation conditions. The use of large and repeated quantities of antibiotics in animal feed may cause to eliminate beneficial intestinal microflora and innate immune system and subsequently cause to antibiotic resistance and remains antibiotics in animal products. Recently, many herbal products because having flavoring and antimicrobial properties as introduced as good alternatives for antibiotics. The aim of the present investigation was to study of effect of Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium on the performance of suckling calves, dry matter digestibility, blood parameters and the immune system, the effect on the incidence of diarrhea and fecal microbial population (Escherichia coli, lactobacillus and total aerobic bacteria. Materials and Methods In the present study, extraction of essential oils from three plant species (Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS were analyzed. In order to determine the

  5. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on Mentha spicata essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karousou, R.; Grammatikopoulos, G.; Lanaras, T.; Manetas, Y.; Kokkini, S.

    1998-01-01

    In vitro propagated plantlets representing two distinct chemotypes of Mentha spicata, viz. plants producing essential oils rich in piperitone oxide and piperitenone oxide (chemotype I) and rich in carvone and dihydrocarvone (chemotype II), were grown in the field under ambient or ambient plus supplemental UV-B radiation, biologically equivalent to a 15% ozone depletion over Patras (38.3°N, 29.1°E), Greece. Enhanced UV-B radiation stimulated essential oil production in chemotype II substantially, while a similar, non-significant trend was observed in chemotype I. No effect was found on the qualitative composition of the essential oils, whereas the quantitative composition was slightly modified in chemotype I. This is the first investigation reporting an improved essential oil content under UV-B supplementation in aromatic plants under field conditions

  6. The effect of inoculation with mycorrhizal arbuscular fungi on expression of limonene synthase in Mentha spicata L. genotypes

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    Leila Shabani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spearmint (Mentha spicata L. is an important economical and medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, which has gained research attraction as a model for biosynthesis of essential oils due to its high capability for synthesis of monoterpenes. Limonene is a simple monoterpene and its biosynthesis is catalyzed by limonene synthase a key regulatory enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of monoterpenes in spearmint plant. This study was concerned with the effect of colonization of roots with Funneliformis mosseae and F. etunicatum fungi on spearmint plant growth indices, leaf essential oils and changes in the expression of limonene synthase (LS gene. This study also explained the application of GADPH gene as the internal standard for real-time quantitative PCR (RTqPCR analysis of LS in spearmints. Our results showed that essential oil content of leaf in spearmint genotype Meybod inoculated with F. etunicatum was higher than that of genotypes from populations Kashan and Bojnourd and was 130% higher than the control. According to the results of this study, increase in transcript accumulation of the LS gene in leaves of spearmint plants inoculated with F. etunicatum was concordant with the increased essential oil contents and was dependent on the plant genotype.

  7. Chemical Composition of Mentha spicata L. subsp. tomentosa and M. pulegium L., and their Antimicrobial Activity on Strong Pathogen Microorganisms

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    Emre SEVİNDİK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentha L., recognized as a medical and aromatic plant, is a general name affiliated to mint species and belongs to Labiatae family. Some species are used as fresh vegetables in the Turkish kitchen and they can also be used in salads. In addition, some species have been used as a spice in food. In this study, chemical composition and antimicrobial activity towards some pathogenics (gram + and gram - microorganisms of the essential oils Mentha spicata L. subsp. tomentosa (Briq. Harley, Mentha pulegium L. grown under West Anatolian ecological conditions were investigated. Extractions were carried out with Clevenger apparatus and essential oil composition was determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Microorganisms used for the antimicrobial studies were Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterecoccus faecium DSM 13590, Escherichia coli Q157:H7 and Bacillus cereus CCM99.  As a result, M. pulegium and M. spicata subsp. tomentosa were found to be rich in piperitenone oxide: 72.77% and 28.84%, respectively. Each of the oils was found to possess antimicrobial properties against test microorganisms. Essential oils obtained from Mentha species give positive effect on all microorganisms.

  8. Application of carboxymethyl cellulose and chitosan coatings containing Mentha spicata essential oil in fresh strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan (CH) coatings containing Mentha spicata essential oil (MSO 0.1 and 0.2%) on survival of Listeria monocytogenes, and physicochemical (weight loss, titratable acidity and pH), microbial (total viable count, psychrotrophic bacteria as well as yeasts and molds) and sensory (appearance, color, texture and overall acceptability) properties of fresh strawberries during refrigerated storage. The treatments of fruits with CH+MSO 0.2% and CMC+MSO 0.2% resulted in the best microbial, physicochemical and organoleptic properties after 12days storage. The final population of L. monocytogenes in treated samples was decreased by 3.92-3.69 compared to control groups. It can be concluded that CH and CMC coatings enriched with MSO can be used as appropriate active packaging materials to preserve fresh strawberries in the food industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antiproliferative activity of flower hexane extract obtained from Mentha spicata associated with Mentha rotundifolia against the MCF7, KB, and NIH/3T3 cell lines.

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    Nedel, Fernanda; Begnini, Karine; Carvalho, Pedro Henrique de Azambuja; Lund, Rafael Guerra; Beira, Fátima T A; Del Pino, Francisco Augusto B

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the antiproliferative effect in vitro of the flower hexane extract obtained from Mentha spicata associated with Mentha rotundifolia against the human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB), and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines, using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. A cell density of 2×10(4)/well was seeded in 96-well plates, and samples at different concentrations ranging from 10 to 500 mg/mL were tested. The optical density was determined in an ELISA multiplate reader (Thermo Plate TP-Reader). Results demonstrated that the hexane extract presented antiproliferative activity against both the tumor cell lines KB and MCF-7, presenting a GI(50) (MCF-7=13.09 mg/mL), TGI (KB=37.76 mg/mL), and IL(50) (KB=291.07 mg/mL). Also, the hexane extract presented antiproliferative activity toward NIH 3T3 cells GI(50) (183.65 mg/mL), TGI (280.54 mg/mL), and IL(50) (384.59 mg/mL). The results indicate that the flower hexane extract obtained from M. spicata associated with M. rotundifolia presents an antineoplastic activity against KB and MCF-7, although an antiproliferative effect at a high concentration of the extract was observed toward NIH 3T3.

  10. Inhibitory potential of nine mentha species against pathogenic bacteria strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ahmad, N.; Rashid, M.; Ikram, A. U.; Shinwari, Z. K.

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce secondary metabolites, which are used in their growth and defense against pathogenic agents. These plant based metabolites can be used as natural antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria. Synthetic antibiotics caused different side effects and become resistant to bacteria. Therefore the main objective of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory potential of nine Mentha species extracts against pathogenic bacteria. The methanolic leaves extracts of nine Mentha species (Mentha arvensis, Mentha longifolia, Mentha officinalis, Mentha piperita, Mentha citrata, Mentha pulegium, Mentha royleana, Mentha spicata and Mentha suareolens) were compared for antimicrobial activities. These Mentha species showed strong antibacterial activity against four microorganisms tested. Mentha arvensis showed 25 mm and 30 mm zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera and Enterobacter aerogens. Moreover, Mentha longifolia showed 24 mm zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus. Mentha officinalis showed 30 mm zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus. 25 mm inhibitory zone was recorded against Staphylococcus aureus by Mentha piperita. Mentha royleana showed 25 mm zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholera, while Mentha spicata showed 21 mm, 22 mm and 23 mm zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera and Enterobacter aerogens. Moreover most of the Mentha species showed zone of inhibition in the range of 10-20 mm. (author)

  11. In Vitro Study of the Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils Obtained from Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris, and Laurus nobilis.

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    Houicher, Abderrahmane; Hechachna, Hind; Teldji, Hanifa; Ozogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antifungal activity of the essential oils isolated from three aromatic plants against 13 filamentous fungal strains. The major constituents of Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris, and Laurus nobilis essential oils were carvone (52.2%), linalool (78.1%), and 1,8-cineole (45.6%), respectively. There are also some patents suggesting the use of essential oils as natural and safe alternatives to fungicides for plant protection. In the present work, M. spicata essential oil exhibited the strongest activity against all tested fungi in which Fusarium graminearum, F.moniliforme, and Penicillium expansum were the most sensitive to mint oil with lower minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 2.5 μL mL-1 (v/v). Thymus vulgaris essential oil was less active compared to the oil of M. spicata. Aspergillus ochraceus was the most sensitive strain to thyme oil with MIC and MFC values of 2.5 and 5 μL mL-1, respectively. Thymus vulgaris essential oil also exhibited a moderate fungicidal effect against the tested fungi, except for A. niger (MFC >20 μL-1). L. nobilis essential oil showed a similar antifungal activity with thyme oil in which A. parasiticus was the most resistant strain to this oil (MFC >20 μL mL-1). Our findings suggested the use of these essential oils as alternatives to synthetic fungicides in order to prevent pre-and post-harvest infections and ensure product safety. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Protection against LPS-induced cartilage inflammation and degradation provided by a biological extract of Mentha spicata

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    Kott Laima S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of mint [Mentha spicata] has been bred which over-expresses Rosmarinic acid (RA by approximately 20-fold. RA has demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in small rodents; thus it was hypothesized that this plant would demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. The objectives of this study were: a to develop an in vitro extraction procedure which mimics digestion and hepatic metabolism, b to compare anti-inflammatory properties of High-Rosmarinic-Acid Mentha spicata (HRAM with wild-type control M. spicata (CM, and c to quantify the relative contributions of RA and three of its hepatic metabolites [ferulic acid (FA, caffeic acid (CA, coumaric acid (CO] to anti-inflammatory activity of HRAM. Methods HRAM and CM were incubated in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, liver microsomes (from male rat and NADPH. Concentrations of RA, CA, CO, and FA in simulated digest of HRAM (HRAMsim and CM (CMsim were determined (HPLC and compared with concentrations in aqueous extracts of HRAM and CM. Cartilage explants (porcine were cultured with LPS (0 or 3 μg/mL and test article [HRAMsim (0, 8, 40, 80, 240, or 400 μg/mL, or CMsim (0, 1, 5 or 10 mg/mL, or RA (0.640 μg/mL, or CA (0.384 μg/mL, or CO (0.057 μg/mL or FA (0.038 μg/mL] for 96 h. Media samples were analyzed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin 1β (IL-1, glycosaminoglycan (GAG, nitric oxide (NO and cell viability (differential live-dead cell staining. Results RA concentration of HRAMsim and CMsim was 49.3 and 0.4 μg/mL, respectively. CA, FA and CO were identified in HRAMsim but not in aqueous extract of HRAM. HRAMsim (≥ 8 μg/mL inhibited LPS-induced PGE2 and NO; HRAMsim (≥ 80 μg/mL inhibited LPS-induced GAG release. RA inhibited LPS-induced GAG release. No anti-inflammatory or chondroprotective effects of RA metabolites on cartilage explants were identified. Conclusions Our biological extraction procedure produces

  13. [Phenolic compounds in leaves insertions of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná].

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    Tekeľová, Daniela; Bittner Fialová, Silvia; Tóth, Jaroslav; Czigle, Szilvia

    Lamiaceae plants mostly accumulate active ingredients in their leaves. The subfamily Nepetoideae, including the genus Mentha L., is characterized by the presence of essential oil and antioxidant phenolics, chiefly hydroxycinnamic acids with predominance of rosmarinic acid, and flavonoids. Mentha × piperita and M. spicata are the most broadly used mints in both medicine and industry, while M. x villosa is less known in our country. Herbal drugs in the form of leaves are usually analysed unpartitioned, while single leaves insertions have only been studied occasionally. Therefore, the aim of this work was the quantification of the active compounds content in the leaves pairs of Mentha × villosa Huds. cv. Snežná, using pharmacopoeial methods: total hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid (THD) and luteolin-type flavonoids. THD content ranged from 6.7% to 9.4% in the leaves pairs water extracts, and from 6.6% to 14.0% in methanol extracts. Flavonoids contents, expressed as luteolin-7-O-glucoside, ranged from 4.0% to 8.8% in water extracts, and from 4.0% to 10.5% in methanol extracts. Antioxidant activity (DPPH) expressed as SC50 ranged from 10.2 to 16.9 μg.ml-1 (drug dry weight) in water extracts, and from 10.7 to 21.6 μg.ml-1 in methanol extracts. The highest content of phenolic compounds as well as the highest antioxidant activity were found to be in the top sheet, while the lowest content of phenolic compounds and lowest antioxidant activity were detected in the leaves of the middle stem part.Key words: Mentha × villosa Huds cv. Snežná hydroxycinnamic derivatives rosmarinic acid luteolin-7-O-glucoside DPPH.

  14. The antidepressant-like effect of Mentha spicata essential oil in animal models of depression in male mice

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    Behnam Jedi-Behnia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Previous researches have revealed analgesic and sedative properties of Mentha spicata (MS. The aim of present study was to evaluate the antidepressant effects of MS essential oil in forced swim test (FST and tail suspension test (TST in male mice. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 84 male mice were randomly divided into 14 groups of 6: Negative control groups received normal saline (10 ml/kg,i.p., positive control groups received fluoxetine (20mg/kg, i.p. and imipramine (30mg/kg and treatment groups received MS essential oil (30, 60,120 and 240 mg/kg i.p.. In FST, immobility time, swimming time and climbing time and immobility time in TST were recorded in six minutes. Results: Findings indicated that essential oil at doses of 120 and 240 mg/kg, fluoxetine and imipramine reduced immobility time compared to control group in FST and TST (p0.05. In contrast, imipramine increased climbing time without any significant change in swimming time (p>0.05. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, MS essential oil has antidepressant-like activity similar to fluoxetine and probably their compounds (especially carvone with serotonergic mechanism induced their effect. However, further studies are needed to determine the precise mechanism of its action.

  15. Mentha spicata Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Planktonic and Biofilm Cultures of Vibrio spp. Strains

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    Mejdi Snoussi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-Vibrio spp. activities of the essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of Mentha spicata L. (spearmint are investigated in the present study. The effect of the essential oil on Vibrio spp. biofilm inhibition and eradication was tested using the XTT assay. A total of 63 chemical constituents were identified in spearmint oil using GC/MS, constituting 99.9% of the total identified compounds. The main components were carvone (40.8% ± 1.23% and limonene (20.8% ± 1.12%. The antimicrobial activity against 30 Vibrio spp. strains (16 species was evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution assays. All microorganisms were strongly affected, indicating an appreciable antimicrobial potential of the oil. Moreover, the investigated oil exhibited high antioxidant potency, as assessed by four different tests in comparison with BHT. The ability of the oil, belonging to the carvone chemotype, to inhibit or reduce Vibrio spp. biofilm warrants further investigation to explore the use of natural products in antibiofilm adhesion and reinforce the possibility of its use in the pharmaceutical or food industry as a natural antibiotic and seafood preservative against Vibrio contamination.

  16. The effect of monolaurin in combination with Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha spicata L. essential oils on Bacillus cereus and E. coli O157:H7: in vitro study

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    M Neyriz Nagadehi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Monolaurin, pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L., Labiatae and spearmint (Mentha spicata L. essential oils have various antibacterial activities on microorganisms. Enhancement of antibacterial activity and detection of their combined effects on B.cereus ATCC 11778 and E. coli O157:H7 were the purpose of this investigation. Monolaurin preparation, spearmint and pennyroyal essential oils preparation and analysis of their chemical composition with GC-MS method, bacterial inoculums preparation, antimicrobial susceptibility testing using broth micro dilution MIC testing and finally statistic analysis of results with SPSS software package were the material and methods used in this research. MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration of pennyroyal oil, spearmint oil, monolaurin, monolaurin-pennyroyal oil combination and monolaurin-spearmint oil combination on B.cereus and E. coli O157:H7 were significant (p

  17. De vluchtige olie van enkele chemotypen van mentha suaveolens EHRH. en van hybriden met mentha longifolia (L.) HUDSON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Hindrik

    1974-01-01

    De opvatting dat Mentha x piperita L. een bastaard zou zijn van Mentha spicata L. en Mentha aquatica L. werd nader besproken. Hierbij werd Mentha spicata beschouwd als een bastaard van Mentha longifolia (L.) HUDSON en Mentha suaveolens EHRH. ... Zie: Samenvatting.

  18. Antioxidant effect of aromatic volatiles emitted by Lavandula dentata, Mentha spicata, and M. piperita on mouse subjected to low oxygen condition.

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    Hu, Zenghui; Wang, Chunling; Shen, Hong; Zhang, Kezhong; Leng, Pingsheng

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the antioxidant effect of aromatic volatiles of three common aromatic plants, Lavandula dentata, Mentha spicata, and M. piperita. In this study, kunming mice subjected to low oxygen condition were treated with the volatiles emitted from these aromatic plants through inhalation administration. Then the blood cell counts, and the activities and gene expressions of antioxidant enzymes in different tissues were tested. The results showed that low oxygen increased the counts of red blood cells, white blood cells, and blood platelets of mice, and aromatic volatiles decreased their counts. Exposure to aromatic volatiles resulted in decreases in the malonaldehyde contents, and increases in the activities and gene expressions of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in different tissues under low oxygen. In addition, as the main component of aromatic volatiles, eucalyptol was the potential source that imparted positive antioxidant effect.

  19. Inactivation of Spoilage Yeasts by Mentha spicata L. and M. × villosa Huds. Essential Oils in Cashew, Guava, Mango, and Pineapple Juices

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    Erika T. da Cruz Almeida

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of the essential oil from Mentha spicata L. (MSEO and M. × villosa Huds. (MVEO to inactivate Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, Pichia anomala and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Sabouraud dextrose broth and cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple juices during 72 h of refrigerated storage. The effects of the incorporation of an anti-yeast effective dose of MSEO on some physicochemical and sensory characteristics of juices were evaluated. The incorporation of 3.75 μL/mL MSEO or 15 μL/mL MVEO caused a ≥5-log reductions in counts of C. albicans, P. anomala, and S. cerevisiae in Sabouraud dextrose broth. In cashew and guava juices, 1.875 μL/mL MSEO or 15 μL/mL MVEO caused ≥5-log reductions in counts of P. anomala and S. cerevisiae. In pineapple juice, 3.75 μL/mL MSEO caused ≥5-log reductions in counts of P. anomala and S. cerevisiae; 15 μL/mL MVEO caused ≥5-log reductions in counts of S. cerevisiae in mango juice. The incorporation of 1.875 μL/mL MSEO did not affect the physicochemical parameters of juices and did not induce negative impacts to cause their possible sensory rejection. These results show the potential of MSEO and MVEO, primarily MSEO, to comprise strategies to control spoilage yeasts in fruit juices.

  20. Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita

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    Eleni Fitsiou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil, Mentha spicata (spearmint, Pimpinella anisum (anise and Fortunella margarita (kumquat. GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4% in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9% in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1% in anise, and limonene (93.8% in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma.

  1. Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitsiou, Eleni; Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Spyridopoulou, Katerina; Tiptiri-Kourpeti, Angeliki; Vamvakias, Manolis; Bardouki, Haido; Panayiotidis, Mihalis Ι; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Chlichlia, Katerina; Pappa, Aglaia

    2016-08-16

    Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil), Mentha spicata (spearmint), Pimpinella anisum (anise) and Fortunella margarita (kumquat). GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4%) in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9%) in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1%) in anise, and limonene (93.8%) in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma.

  2. Variation in the repellency effects of the leaves of Mentha piperita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... The repellency effects of Mentha piperita leaves, collected from two different locations in ... of trace metals were reported from the soil and plant collected from Malelane (p < 0.05). ... an increased concentration of chromium.

  3. Inter and intra GC-MS differential analysis of the essential oils of three Mentha species growing in Egypt

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    Mokhtar M. Bishr

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis using head space was carried out on the roots, stems and leaves of three different species of Mint grown in Egypt. This study was carried out aiming to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from roots, stem and leaves of Mentha piperita L, Mentha spicata Var. crispa L. and Mentha pulegum L. Also, we are looking to find out any difference in chemical composition between the studied species, through their studied organs. Study of different organs of the same species may give us an idea about the essential oil biosynthetic pathway and may serve as the chemotaxonomic marker for a specific species.Identification of the chemical components of the studied essential oils depends on their retention time, their Kovat retention index and their mass spectrum supported by the data from Wiley library. Results obtained revealed an obvious inter or intra differences in the chemical composition of the three mentioned Mentha species. The common components in all species (in one or more organ are 35 components, the major of which is P-menthone (32.24% in Mentha piperita leaf. Regarding the unique components it was found that Mentha piperita contain 7 unique components the major of which is 2,4-(10-thujadien (3.88%, while Mentha spicata has 18 unique components the major one is Cymene (24.44% and finally Mentha pulegum has 11 unique components the major one is (+-Isomenthol (16.64%. Keywords: Mint species, Mentha piperita, M. spicata and M. pulegum essential oil, GC-MS, Inter and intra differential analysis

  4. Hepatoprotective activity of Mentha arvensis Linn. leaves against CCL4 induced liver damage in rats

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    Kalpana Patil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the Hepatoprotective activity of ethanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts of Mentha arvensis leaves against CCL4 induced liver damage in rats. Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced by CCL4 and the biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transminase (sGPT, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (sGOT, alkaline phosphatase (sALP, serum bilirubin (sB and histopathological changes in liver were studied along with silymarin as standard Hepatoprotective agents. Results: The Phytochemical investigation of the extracts showed presence of flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, phenolic compounds. Treatment of the rats with chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extract with CCL 4 administration caused a significant reduction in the values of sGOT, sGPT, sALP and sB (P<0.01 almost comparable to the silymarin. The Hepatoprotective was confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver tissue of control and treated animals. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded that Mentha arvensis possesses Hepatoprotective effect against CCL4 induced liver damage in rats.

  5. Isolation and identification of antimicrobial compound from Mentha longifolia L. leaves grown wild in Iraq

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    Al-Bayati Firas A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mentha longifolia L. (Lamiaceae leaves have been traditionally implemented in the treatment of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation by the indigenous people of Iraq, although the compounds responsible for the medicinal properties have not been identified. In the present study, an antimicrobial compound was isolated and characterized, and its biological activity was assessed. Methods The compound was isolated and characterized from the extracted essential oil using different spectral techniques: TLC, FTIR spectra and HPLC. Antimicrobial activity of the compound was assessed using both disc diffusion and microdilution method in 96 multi-well microtiter plates. Results A known compound was isolated from the essential oil of the plant and was identified as (- menthol. The isolated compound was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against seven selected pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the yeast Candida albicans. Menthol at different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 was active against all tested bacteria except for P. aeruginosa, and the highest inhibitory effect was observed against S. mutans (zone of inhibition: 25.3 mm using the disc diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentration MIC values ranged from 15.6–125.0 μg/ml, and the most promising results were observed against S. aureus and S. mutans (MIC 15.6 μg/ml while, S. faecalis, S. pyogenis and L. acidophilus ranked next (MIC 31.2 μg/ml. Furthermore, menthol achieved considerable antifungal activity against the yeast C. albicans (zone of inhibition range: 7.1–18.5 mm; MIC: 125.0. Conclusion The isolation of an antimicrobial compound from M. longifolia leaves validates the use of this plant in the treatment of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation.

  6. [Regulation of terpene metabolism]. [Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.

    1989-01-01

    Progress in understanding of the metabolism of monoterpenes by peppermint and spearmint is recorded including the actions of two key enzymes, geranyl pyrophosphate:limonene cyclase and a UDP-glucose dependent glucosyl transferase; concerning the ultrastructure of oil gland senescence; enzyme subcellular localization; regulation of metabolism; and tissue culture systems.

  7. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.D.; Vukojevic, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.D.; Vajs, V.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by

  8. Demonstration that limonene is the first cyclic intermediate in the biosynthesis of oxygenated p-menthane monoterpenes in Mentha piperita and other Mentha species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croteau, R.; Kjonaas, R.

    1983-01-01

    The volatile oil of mature Mentha piperita (peppermint) leaves contains as major components the oxygenated p-menthane monoterpenes l-menthol (47%) and l-menthone (24%) as well as very low levels of the monoterpene olefins limonene (1%) and terpinolene (0.1%), which are considered to be probable precursors of the oxygenated derivatives. Immature leaves, which are actively synthesizing monoterpenes, produce an oil with comparatively higher levels of limonene approx.3%), and isolation of the pure olefin showed this compound to consist of approx.80% of the l-(4S)-enantiomer and approx.20% of the d-(4R)-enantiomer. The time course of incorporation of [U- 14 C]sucrose into the monoterpenes of M. piperita shoot tips was consistent with the inital formation of limonene and its subsequent conversion to menthone via pulegone. d,l-[9- 3 H]Limonene and [9,10- 3 H]terpinolene were prepared and tested directly as precursors of oxygenated p-menthane monoterpenes in M. piperita shoot tips. Limonene was readily incorporated into pulegone, menthone, and other oxygenated derivatives, whereas terpinolene was not appreciably incorporated into these compounds. Similarly, d,l-[9- 3 H]limonene was specifically incorporated into pulegone in Mentha pulegium and into the C-2-oxygenated derivative carvone in Mentha spicata, confirming the role of this olefin as the essential precursor of oxygenated p-menthane monoterpenes. Soluble enzyme preparations from the epidermis of immature M. piperita leaves converted the acyclic terpenoid precursor [1- 3 H]geranyl pyrophosphate to limonene as the major cyclic product

  9. Essential oils of Mentha pulegium and Mentha rotundifolia from Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds. from Uruguay were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Oxygen-containing monoterpenes were the main group of constituents in both oils. Pulegone, isomenthone and menthone were the major components in the oil of M. pulegium, whereas piperitenone oxide and (Z-sabinene hydrate were the major ones in M. rotundifolia. Enantiomerically pure (--menthone, (+-isomenthone, (+-isomenthol, (--menthol and (+-pulegone were detected by multidimensional gas chromatography in the case of M. pulegium oil.

  10. Chemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oil from Leaves of Mentha piperita Grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenliang; Wang, Huiyan; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Lianming; Yang, Peiming

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of essential oil from leaves of Mentha piperita (MEO) grown in China were investigated. Using GC-MS analysis, the chemical composition of MEO was characterized, showing that it was mainly composed of menthol, menthone and menthy acetate. MEO exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activities in a croton oil-induced mouse ear edema model. It could also effectively inhibit nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The cytotoxic effect was assessed against four human cancer cells. MEO was found to be significantly active against human lung carcinoma SPC-A1, human leukemia K562 and human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells, with an IC50 value of 10.89, 16.16 and 38.76 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, MEO had moderate antioxidant activity. The results of this study may provide an experimental basis for further systematic research, rational development and clinical utilization of peppermint resources.

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE GRASS OF VERONICA SPICATA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalyova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of morphological and anatomical studies of Veronica spicata L. Macro- and microscopic features of the grass of Veronica spicata were described. We have determined the principal diagnostic features of leaves and stems of the plant’s active parts. We have found two types of trichomes in active parts of Veronica spicata L.: simple pluricellular fuzz and cephalated glandular fuzz with monocellular pedicle and monocellular or bicellular sphere-like capitulum, anomcytic stomatal apparatus.

  12. Hydrodistillation and in situ microwave-generated hydrodistillation of fresh and dried mint leaves: a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Laura; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Binello, Arianna; Pignata, Giuseppe; Nicola, Silvana; Chemat, Farid

    2012-12-01

    Hydrodistillation (HD) has been used since ancient times for the extraction of essential oils (EO). Despite the intrinsic limitations of this technique, it remains the most common method both in the laboratory and on an industrial scale. The main drawbacks are the long extraction time involved and the risk of thermal degradation. Over the last decade, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and in situ microwave-generated hydrodistillation (MGH) have been shown to be the most promising techniques in improving plant extraction and hydrodistillation. In this study we compare HD with MGH in the extraction of several mint species cultivated in Piedmont: Mentha spicata L. var. rubra, Mentha spicata L. var. viridis and Mentha piperita L. MGH requires either fresh plant or rehydrated material, it is extremely fast and allows a reduction in energy consumption and overall cost. All the EO have been analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A mechanism of microwave-generated essential oil extraction has been proposed to explain the differences in the composition of the oil obtained from this environmentally friendly technique. The yields and composition percentages of the EO obtained by HD and in situ MGH of fresh and dried mint leaves lie in a relatively narrow range, although MGH is faster. MW polarization effects and the water solubility of the components influence extract composition. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The study of the elemental composition of peppermint (Mentha piperita

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    K. V. Andrianov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Our attention was drawn by quite widespread plant, namely peppermint (Mentha piperita of mint family (Lamiaceae L.. It isn’t known as a wild-growing plant, this plant is the hybrid received from crossing water mint (Mentha aquatica with a spicate mint (Mentha spicata or green mint (Mentha viridis. Therapeutic action of plant is caused by the BAS complex, among which essential oil, alkaloids, saponins, organic acids, vitamins, macro - and microelements are. Accumulation of elements in a plant directly depends on sort and species of this plant, climatic conditions and geographical places of growth. Thus, using pharmacognosic research of peppermint, it would be expedient to carry out the comparative analysis of the elements content in leaf of widespread species of this plant, and also to compare to element structure of peppermint from other region of preparation. Studying qualitative structure and quantitative content of macro - and microelements in leaf of 3 samples of peppermint became the purpose of our research. Materials and methods of research The peppermint leaves of 3 samples were the object of our research. They are ‘Chornolistaya’ sort – the sample #1, ‘Zgadka’ sort – the sample #2 (the stocking up place is Dnepropetrovsk region, 2013 and peppermint - the sample #3 (the stocking place is Lebanon, Baalbek surroundings, 2013. In order to study elemental structure of peppermint leaves, atomic emission spectrometry with photographic registration was used. Results and discussions All types of raw materials had identical element structure. According to the content in each type of raw materials, compositions can be divided into some groups: the first one – the content of element was near or above 1000 mg /100 g, the content was higher than 100 mg /100 g, the content of composition was lower than 100 mg /100 g and below than 1 mg /100 g. Thus, the ambit between these groups was deeply emphasized. The following

  14. Chemical content and antimicrobial properties of three different extracts of Mentha pulegium leaves from Mugla Region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan-Güvensen, Nur; Keskin, Dilek

    2016-11-01

    The extract of ethanol, methanol and DMSO of pennyroyal leaves from Mugla Region (Turkey) were tested for antimicrobial activity against eleven bacterial and one yeast strain by disc diffusion method. Among the extracts assayed, the methanol extract of pennyroyal leaves exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus with 20 mm diameter inhibition zone. The DMSO extract of pennyroyal leaves displayed significant activity against S.aureus (19 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (21mm) showing inhibition zone of 19 mm and 21 mm diameter, while the ethanolic extract showed significant antimicrobial activity against S.aureus (17mm) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (20mm) inhibition zones.? On comparint the MIC value of ethanol, methanol and DMSO leaf extract, methanolic extract of pennyroyal presented best activity (MIC 8 mg ml-1) against S. typhimurium CCM 583 and S.aureus ATCC 6538/P. Analyses of GC/MS determined eleven compounds viz., neophytadiene (69.95%), Pulejon 7.85%, Pinane 4.81%, Bicyclo (3.1.1 Heptane 2.6.6.6 trimethyl) 4.68%. In conclusion, methanolic extracts of M. pulegium showed antimicrobial activity because of high neophytadiene content.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of the Chemical Composition, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antinociceptive Effects of the Essential Oils from Three Species of Mentha Cultivated in Romania

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    Cristina Mogosan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at correlating the chemotype of three Mentha species cultivated in Romania with an in vivo study of the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of essential oils. The selected species were Mentha piperita L. var. pallescens (white peppermint, Mentha spicata L. subsp. crispata (spearmint, and Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (pineapple mint. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the essential oils isolated from the selected Mentha species was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils was determined by the rat paw edema test induced by λ-carrageenan. The antinociceptive effect of the essential oils was evaluated by the writhing test in mice, using 1% (v/v acetic acid solution administered intraperitonealy and by the hot plate test in mice. The results showed a menthol chemotype for M. piperita pallescens, a carvone chemotype for M. spicata, and a piperitenone oxide chemotype for M. suaveolens. The essential oil from M. spicata L. (EOMSP produced statistically significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects.

  16. Chemical Composition of Essential Oilsof Thymus and Mentha Speciesand Their Antifungal Activities

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    Leo J. L. D. van Griensven

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass spectral data with those of the Wiley/NBS Library of Mass Spectra. MIC’s and MFC’s of the oils and their components were determined by dilution assays. Thymol (48.9% and p-cymene (19.0% were the main components of T. vulgaris, while carvacrol (12.8%, a-terpinyl acetate (12.3%, cis-myrtanol (11.2% and thymol (10.4% were dominant in T. tosevii. Both Thymus species showed very strong antifungal activities. In M. piperita oil menthol (37.4%, menthyl acetate (17.4% and menthone (12.7% were the main components, whereas those of M. spicata oil were carvone (69.5% and menthone (21.9%. Mentha sp. showed strong antifungal activities, however lower than Thymus sp. The commercial fungicide, bifonazole, used as a control, had much lower antifungal activity than the oils and components investigated. It is concluded that essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species possess great antifungal potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides.

  17. Essential oil composition of sixteen elite cultivars of Mentha from western Himalayan region, India

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    Rajendra C. Padalia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodistilled essential oils of 16 cultivars of Mentha, viz. M. arvensis L., M. spicata L. and M. citrata Ehrh., were analysed and compared by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fifty-seven constituents representing 92.8-99.8% of the total essential oil composition were identified. Monoterpenoids (88.1-98.6% are the major constituents of the essential oils. The major constituents of the oils in 9 cultivars of M. arvensis are menthol (73.7-85.8%, menthone (1.5-11.0%, menthyl acetate (0.5-5.3%, isomenthone (2.1-3.9%, limonene (1.2-3.3% and neomenthol (1.9-2.5%. Carvone (51.3-65.1%, limonene (15.1-25.2%, -pinene (1.3-3.2% and 1,8-cineole (≤0.1-3.6% are the major constituents in 5 cultivars of M. spicata, while in one cultivar (Ganga of M. spicata the major constituents are piperitenone oxide (76.7%, α-terpineol (4.9% and limonene (4.7%. Linalool (59.7%, linalyl acetate (18.4%, nerol (2.0%, trans-p-menth-1-en-2-ol (1.8%, a-terpineol (1.5% and limonene (1.1% are the major constituents of M. citrata.

  18. Chemical composition of essential oil of mentha longifolia l. subsp. longifolia growing wild

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okut, N.; Yagmur, M.; Yildirim, B.

    2017-01-01

    The essential oil of Mentha longifolia L., is very important to some culinary usage and antimicrobial activity. The essential oil of Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia growing in the Bahcesaray area (Van Province, Turkey) was studied. This study designed for determine of essential oil constituent Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia that collected from wild area. Mint leaves sample essential oils obtained by hydro distillation and essential oil components were determined using GC-MS. The main component of wild grown Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia was Menthone (19.31%). Second one and others were Pulegone (12.42%), Piperitone (11.05%), Dihydrocarvon (8.32%), Limonene (6.1%), 3-Terpinolenone (5.66%), 1,8-Cineole (4.37%), Germacrene D (3.38%) and Caryopyllene (3.19%), respectively. (author)

  19. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Mentha Essential Oils Against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts and essential oils (EOs are characterized by their antibacterial properties against various bacterial pathogens, including staphylococci. Some strains of these bacteria are resistant against the adverse effects of the environment including antibiotics, e. g. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. EOs alone cannot substitute for antibiotics but their treatment may be useful to intensify and strengthen the effects of antibiotics on pathogenic staphylococci. In this work, we tested the antibacterial effects of the essential oils of Mentha species with menthol as one of the effective substances against different strains of S. aureus. Two in vitro methods were used, the qualitative disc diffusion assay and the quantitative minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of selected essential oils. Peppermint oil from Mentha piperita, spearmint oil from Mentha spicata var. crispa and cornmint oil from Mentha arvensis were tested in this study against the various strains of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The oils were dissolved in DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide and diluted at the following ratios: 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1 : 5, and 1 : 10. Based on the results determined by the agar disc diffusion test, the highest antibacterial properties were observed in spearmint oil against S. aureus CCM 4223 at 1 : 2 ratio where the inhibition zone varied at a range of 35.67 ± 6.81 mm. We determined also the MIC of all the oils where concentrations of the oils were as follows: 1 %; 0.5 %; 0.25 %; 0.125 % and 0.0625 %. The lowest concentrations of essential oils that possessed inhibitory effects on the growth of S. aureus varied between 0.125 % and 0.25 %.

  20. Weed interference with peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) crops under different herbicide treatments: effects on biomass and essential oil yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkanis, Anestis; Lykas, Christos; Liava, Vasiliki; Bezou, Anna; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    'Minor crops' such as spearmint and peppermint are high added value crops, despite the fact that their production area is comparably small worldwide. The main limiting factor in mint commercial cultivation is weed competition. Thus, field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of weed interference on growth, biomass and essential oil yield in peppermint and spearmint under different herbicide treatments. The application of pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen provided better control of annual weeds resulting in higher crop yield. Additionally, when treated with herbicides both crops were more competitive against annual weeds in the second year than in the first year. All pre-emergence herbicides increased biomass yield, since pendimethalin, linuron and oxyfluorfen reduced the density of annual weeds by 71-92%, 63-74% and 86-95%, respectively. Weed interference and herbicide application had no effect on essential oil content; however, a relatively strong impact on essential oil production per cultivated area unit was observed, mainly due to the adverse effect of weed interference on plant growth. Considering that pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen were effective against annual weeds in both spearmint and peppermint crops, these herbicides should be included in integrated weed management systems for better weed management in mint crops. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. [Comparison of development condition of different Liriope spicata seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Su, He; Zhan, Yan-Ting; Yang, Yang; Dong, Xue-Hui

    2017-04-01

    The study identified the main morphological index of the seedlings classification including seedling age,the root width and number of newborn buds and coarse roots, according to the local agricultural production techniques and assessment of Liriope spicata's growth and development condition. After carrying on K cluster analysis of the morphological, we separated the seedlings into two levels. The first level (Ⅰ): the new talent with the root width exceeding two point five millimeters, the new born buds exceeding three, and with the coarse root exceeding one. The second level (Ⅱ): the old talent with the root width below one millimeters, the newborn buds below two and without coarse root. The study surveyed the plants' growth index dynamics, as well as the yield and quality of the tuberous root. The experimental results suggested that the growth condition of seedling Ⅰwas better, the yield of earthnut higher, the quality of earthnut more excellent. The study lied the foundation of L. spicata's grading standards and standardized production. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Variation in light absorption properties of mentha aquatica L. as a function of leaf form: Implications for plant growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enriquez, Susana; Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2008-01-01

    To understand the association between leaf form and leaf optical properties, we examined light absorption variations in the leaves of Mentha aquatica L., an amphibious freshwater macrophyte. Specific absorption of leaves of M. aquatica showed a 7.5-fold variation, decreasing as pigment per unit...... area increased. This relationship indicates that dispersive samples, such as leaves, although efficient light traps, can also be affected by the "package effect." Mentha aquatica leaves, by expanding their biomass (increased specific leaf area [SLA]), improve their light absorption efficiency per unit...... of both pigment and leaf biomass. Changes in leaf biomass expansion were mainly a result of changes in leaf density, and as a consequence, leaf density appears to be a better descriptor of light absorption efficiency in M. aquatica leaves than does leaf thickness. Light absorption efficiency per unit...

  3. Antibacterial Activity and Mode of Action of Mentha arvensis Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial Activity and Mode of Action of Mentha arvensis Ethanol Extract against ... the antibacterial effect of ethanol extract of Mentha arvensis against multi-drug ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and protein leakage from the ... A. baumannii and acts by inducing lethal cellular damage to the bacterium.

  4. Effects of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium on colour, nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Mentha pulegium (mentha) powders on meat colour, nutrient composition and malondialdehyde (MDA) where broiler chickens were under heat stress. Two hundred one-day-old male chicks were used in a completely randomized design with ...

  5. Mutation breeding of peppermint (Mentha piperita Linn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.N.

    1976-01-01

    Rooted cuttings of Mentha piperita var. Vulgaris were treated with 2,4,6,8 and 10 krad of 60 Co gamma radiation and planted in well-prepared beds, unirradiated cuttings being planted on the same day to serve as control. Data were collected on survival, morphological abnormalities, flowering, fresh and dry weight of herbage and volume of essential oil distilled from fresh and dry herbage harvested after four months of planting. Shoots showing abnormalities were vegetatively propagated to isolate induced somatic mutants. Hairy mutants detected in preliminary experiments were isolated in pure form by repeated vegetative propagation for several years and multiplied for further studies. (M.G.B.)

  6. Evaluating poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) for golf courses in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall; J.W. Van Sambeek

    2010-01-01

    Poverty grass (Danthonia spicata (L.) P. beauv. Ex Roem & Schult. ) results presented here are part of ongoing studies to evaluate its adaptation for golf courses as part of low maintenance natural communities at Lincoln University of Missouri. Because its natural adaptation to shade and poor soils, poverty grass could be established in golf...

  7. Antidepressant effects of Mentha pulegium in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rabiei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the antidepressant effects of Mentha pulegium essential oil in BALB/c mice. Six experimental groups (7 mice each were used. Forced swim test was performed 30 min after essential oil injection. In the groups receiving M. pulegium essential oil (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg, immobility duration significantly decreased compared to the control group. M. pulegium (50 and 75 mg/kg resulted in significant decrease in nitrate/nitrite content in serum compared to the control group. M. pulegium essential oil antidepressant effect that may be due to the inhibition of oxidative stress. The results showed that decrease in nitrate/nitrite content in serum and high anti-oxidant effects of M. pulegium essential oil.

  8. Influência do método de extração no teor de óleo essencial de hortelã (Mentha spicata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regilane Marques Feitosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar quais os métodos que melhor extraiam o óleo essencial de hortelã, visto que, os óleos essenciais têm aplicações desde tratamento de males até na área da beleza. Diante da sua importância, foram aplicados dois métodos: o da hidrodestilação, em função de dois solventes (água e hexano e o de soxhlet, em função de um único solvente (hexano. Conclui-se que a extração pelo soxhlet, foi o método mais eficiente, ou seja, obteve o maior rendimento.

  9. Mentha piperita micropropagation and volatil constituents evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ignacio Zapata

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of in vitro plant tissue culture techniques for the propagation of aromatic and medicinal species, could play very promising role for the economy of small farmers, due to the high potential of industrialization of their essential oils. In this work is shown how the tissue culture technique has been used for the propagation of Mentha piperita, as its essential oil is widely used in the flavor and fragrance industry. Mints from different sources were studied, and evaluation of the yield and quality of the essential oil was carry out, before and after the micropropagation by plant tissue culture. Several basal mediums with different proportion of plant growth regulators and vitamins were tested in order to maximize the propagation results. The constituents of the essential oil were quantified by Gas Chromatography. Lin & Staba (1962 basal medium, supplemented with BAP, and some vitamins, was the best for mints species micropropagation. The yield and quality of essential oil produced by plant tissue culture and its mother plant were very similar.

  10. Human Keratinocytes Radioprotection with Mentha Longifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Berselli, P.; Zava, S.; Negroni, M.; Corsetto, P.; Montorfano, G.; Bertolotti, A.; Ranza, E.; Ottolenghi, A.; Berra, B.

    Antioxidants are suggested to act as radioprotectors, and dietary supplements based on antiox-idants have been proposed for astronauts involved in long-term space missions. Plant extracts with antioxidant properties may be used in dietetic supplements for astronauts; in fact recent nutritional guidelines suggest that "fruits and vegetables may become as important on space-going vessels as limes were on the sea-going vessels of old". Mint presents a large variety of biological properties, such as antiallergenic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, an-tiviral, gastrointestinal protective, hepatoprotective, chemopreventive activities, most of which are attributable to its antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant properties and protective bio-efficacy of a phenol enriched Mentha longifolia ex-tract on gamma rays stressed human keratinocytes (NCTC2544). We assessed first the in vitro antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH), and then evaluated different stress markers in order to investigate various oxidative stress targets: cell viability (MTT); retained proliferating ca-pability (CA); DNA damage (histone H2AX) and protein damage (HSP70 induction). Results indicate that this Mint extract has a higher antioxidant activity respect to fresh extracts, that could be responsible of its really interesting radio-protective effects.

  11. Physiological indexese macro- and micronutrients in plant tissue and essential oil of Mentha piperita L. grown in nutrient solution with variation in N, P, K and Mg levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F.S. David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentha piperita L. is an aromatic and medicinal species of the family Lamiaceae, known as mint or peppermint, and its leaves and branches produce essential oil rich in menthol. This study aimed to evaluate physiological indexes, macro- and micronutrients inthe shootsand essential oil of Mentha piperita L. grown in nutrient solution number 2 of Hoagland and Arnon (1950 with different N, P, K and Mg levels. Shoot length, dry mass of the different organs, total dry mass, leaf area, essential oil yield and composition, and macronutrient (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S and micronutrient (Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn contents in the shoot were evaluated. Plants treated with 65%N/50%P/25%K/100%Mg had a tendency towards longer shoot, greaterroot and leaf blade dry masses, higher essential oil yield, higher menthol levels and lower menthone levels. The results showed that Mentha can be grown in nutrient solution by reducing 65% N, 50% P, 25% K and 100% Mg. This solution had better development compared to the other tested treatments. Therefore,we recommendMentha piperita L. to be grown with such nutrient levels.

  12. Radiosensitivity on the components of essential oil in the genus Mentha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Seiroku

    1992-01-01

    The effects of seed irradiation using X-rays (20KR) on the components of the essential oil in the adult plant were investigated using Mentha arvensis L. var. piperascens Malinvaud (2n=96). 1. X-ray irradiation produced almost no effect on the dry matter weight and content of essential oil at any stage of growth. 2. Using X-ray irradiation, the level of free menthol was increased, and ester menthol and menthone were decreased. This seemed to suggest that menthol was synthesized by the reduction of the menthone. 3. The content of free menthol was found to increase linearly toward leaves of the upper level, while the content of menthone was found to gradually decrease and, finally, to disappear in leaves at fifth level of leaves. 4. No difference was found in the ratios of contents of inorganic component between the first and second harvest seasons. There was also no difference in the content of total nitrogen at any location of leaves, except when an increased concentration of nitrogen at the seventh level of leaves was found. (author)

  13. Avaliação de genótipos de Mentha arvensis, Mentha x piperita e Mentha spp. para a produção de mentol

    OpenAIRE

    Deschamps,Cícero; Monteiro,Rodrigo; Machado,Marília P; Scheer,Agnes de P; Cocco,Lílian; Yamamoto,Carlos

    2013-01-01

    O gênero Mentha possui 18 espécies e diversos quimiotipos com diferenças inter e intra-específicas. Apesar da grande variabilidade fitoquímica, o maior interesse econômico na produção de óleo essencial de menta deve-se à obtenção do constituinte mentol. Objetivou-se avaliar 19 genótipos de três espécies de Mentha para a produção de mentol. O experimento foi conduzido a campo com delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, sendo avaliado o desenvolvimento vegetativo, a produtividade e a ...

  14. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nripendra Nath Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L. has potential antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities that support the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant.

  15. Comparison of mentha extracts obtained by different extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The different methods of mentha extraction, such as steam distillation, extraction by methylene chloride (Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE by carbon dioxide (CO J were investigated. SFE by CO, was performed at pressure of 100 bar and temperature of40°C. The extraction yield, as well as qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained extracts, determined by GC-MS method, were compared.

  16. Evaluating poverty grass (Danthonia spicata L.) for use in tees, fairways, or rough areas in golf courses in the midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall; Brad Fresenburg; J.W. Van Sambeek

    2007-01-01

    Poverty grass (Danthonia spicata L.), a native, cool-season perennial bunchgrass with wide distribution in the United States, is being evaluated for its suitability for use on golf courses. The goal is to identify practices to improve seed germination and successfully establish field plots as monocultures or with other native species to mimic natural...

  17. Genetic variation in adaptive traits and seed transfer zones for Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass) in the northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Bradley St. Clair; Francis F. Kilkenny; Richard C. Johnson; Nancy L. Shaw; George Weaver

    2013-01-01

    A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation in adaptive traits in Pseudoroegneria spicata, a key restoration grass, in the intermountain western United States. Common garden experiments were established at three contrasting sites with seedlings from two maternal parents from each of 114 populations along with five commercial...

  18. Evaluation of drying methods with respect to drying parameters, some nutritional and colour characteristics of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Derya; Ozcan, M. Musa; Menges, Hakan Okyay

    2010-01-01

    Peppermint leaves (Mentha x piperita L.) were dried by using sun, oven (50 deg. C) and microwave oven (700 W) drying methods. Page, Modified page, Midilli and Kuecuek models adequately described the oven, sun and microwave oven drying behaviours of peppermint leaves. The drying process was explicated through the diffusional model in order to obtain effective diffusivity values, which were determined as 3.10 x 10 -12 , 2.68 x 10 -12 and 4.09 x 10 -10 for the sun, oven and microwave oven drying process, respectively. Fresh and dried herbs had high amounts of K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe and Al minerals. Microwave oven drying method leaded to the lowest increase in Ag, Al, B, Na, Mn, Mg and Zn values than the other drying methods. Microwave oven drying shortened the drying time, revealed the highest phenolic content and optimum colour values.

  19. Constituintes voláteis de Mentha pulegium L. e Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng Volatile constituents of Mentha pulegium L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho foi investigado a composição química de óleos essenciais de duas plantas medicinais cultivadas em Ilhéus, Brasil, Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. (hortelã-grosso e Mentha pulegium L. (poejo. Os óleos essenciais foram extraídos das folhas frescas por hidrodestilação e foram analisados por CG/FID e CG-EM, na primavera e no inverno. P. amboinicus forneceu, tanto na primavera como no inverno, 0,10% de óleo sendo timol o componente majoritário. M. pulegium forneceu na primavera 0,20% de óleo e no inverno 0,09%. Os componentes majoritários dos óleos foram pulegona e trans-cariofileno; borneol, mentol e piperitona foram identificados em menores quantidades. No inverno foram observados maiores quantidades de mentol e isomentol. Acetatos de neoisomentila, de mentila e de isometila foram observados somente no inverno. Esse trabalho contribui para o conhecimento das espécies vegetais cultivadas na região do sul da BahiaThis work investigated the chemical composition of the essential oils of two medicinal plants grown in Ilhéus Municipality, Bahia State, Brazil: Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng (Mexican mint and Mentha pulegium L. (pennyroyal. The essential oils were extracted from fresh leaves by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS, in the spring and in the winter. In both seasons, P. amboinicus yielded 0.10% oil and had thymol as major component. M. pulegium yielded 0.20% and 0.09% oil in the spring and winter, respectively. The major components were pulegone and trans-caryophyllene, whereas borneol, menthol and piperitone were identified at small quantities. Higher menthol and isomenthol levels were detected in the winter. In addition, neoisomenthyl, menthyl and isomenthyl acetates were only observed in the winter. This work contributes to the knowledge of plant species grown in southern Bahia

  20. Flavonoids and other constituents from Aletris spicata and their chemotaxonomic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-Zhen; Wang, Meng-Hua; Sun, Jian-Bo; Liang, Jing-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Eleven compounds, including four flavonoids [(2R,3R)-2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (1), 5-hydroxy-7,8,4'-trimethoxy-flavone (2), amentoflavone (10) and apigenin (11)], two penylpropanoids [sinapaldehyde (3) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic aldehyde (4)], three phenolic acids [4-hydroxyl-3,5-dimethoxy-benzaldehyde (5), 4-hydroxyacetophen-one (6) and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (7)], one furan derivative [5-hydroxymethyl furfural (8)] and one steroid saponin [β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucoside (9)], were isolated and identified from Aletris spicata. Among them, compounds 1-7, 9 and 10 were reported from the genus Aletris for the first time. Furthermore, seven of them (1-6, 10) were obtained from the family Liliaceae for the first time. Chemotaxonomy of the isolated compounds is discussed briefly.

  1. Effect of hydrocooling, packaging, and cold storage on the post-harvest quality of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K.R. BARBOSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hydrocooling and polyethylene terephthalate (PET perforated and non-perforated packaging on post-harvest quality of peppermint (Mentha piperita L. leaves stored at 5 and 25ºC. The experiments were conducted using a subdivided parcel layout in a completely randomized design with four replicates. Each parcel used a 2x3 layout (two hydrocooling treatments and three packaging treatments with subparcels for storage time. The shelf life, chlorophyll content, mass loss (ML, relative water content (RWC, total soluble sugars (TSS, reducing sugars (Red, non-reducing sugars (NRed and starch of the leaves were determined. Cold storage increased the shelf life of the peppermint by up to 64 times (>15 days. Hydrocooling increased the RWC of the leaves. Plastic packaging was effective in maintaining the RWC. Unperforated packages more effectively prevented ML in the peppermint leaves and prevented the leaves from wilting for a longer period of time. The chlorophyll content of the leaves varied according to the treatment. The soluble sugars and starch levels varied according to RWC. Hydrocooling with the use of non-perforated plastic packages was the most effective method for maintaining the postharvest quality of the peppermint.

  2. Pb and Cd on growth, leaf ultrastructure and essential oil yield mint (Mentha arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Nery Jezler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of medicinal plants with heavy metals as Pb and Cd can affect the growth and the essential oil production of the plants and represent a risk to those who consume as medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of absorption and localization of Pb and Cd on growth, ultrastructural aspects of leaves and essential oil yield and composition of Mentha arvensis, applied on the soil with increasing concentrations (8, 16, 32, 64 and 128mg kg-1. There was a differential absorption of Pb and Cd by M. arvensis mainly concentrated in the roots. Pb was found in small amounts in the leaves while Cd largely exceeded the safety limit without symptoms of toxicity. The ultrastructural analysis revealed the metal accumulation on vesicles surrounding the mitochondria and the presence of electron dense deposits surrounding the mitochondria, nucleus and chloroplasts. Little changes caused by Pb and Cd application were not enough to affect the growth and essential oil yield and composition of M. arvensis

  3. A new method for microwave assisted ethanolic extraction of Mentha rotundifolia bioactive terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sarrió, María Jesús; Sanz, María Luz; Sanz, Jesús; González-Coloma, Azucena; Cristina Soria, Ana

    2018-04-14

    A new microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method using ethanol as solvent has been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken experimental design for the enhanced extraction of bioactive terpenoids from Mentha rotundifolia leaves; 100°C, 5 min, 1.125 g dry sample: 10 mL solvent and a single extraction cycle were selected as optimal conditions. Improved performance of MAE method in terms of extraction yield and/or reproducibility over conventional solid-liquid extraction and ultrasound assisted extraction was also previously assessed. A comprehensive characterization of MAE extracts was carried out by GC-MS. A total of 46 compounds, mostly terpenoids, were identified; piperitenone oxide and piperitenone were the major compounds determined. Several neophytadiene isomers were also detected for the first time in MAE extracts. Different procedures (solid-phase extraction and activated charcoal (AC) treatment) were also evaluated for clean-up of MAE extracts, with AC providing the highest enrichment in bioactive terpenoids. Finally, the MAE method here developed is shown as a green, fast, efficient and reproducible liquid extraction methodology to obtain M. rotundifolia bioactive extracts for further application, among others, as food preservatives. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Demonstration that menthofuran synthase of mint (Mentha) is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase: cloning, functional expression, and characterization of the responsible gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertea, C.M.; Schalk, M.; Karp, F.; Maffei, M.; Croteau, R.

    2001-01-01

    ( )-Menthofuran is an undesirable monoterpenoid component of peppermint (Mentha x piperita) essential oil that is derived from the ,-unsaturated ketone ( )-pulegone. Microsomal preparations, from the oil gland secretory cells of a high ( )-menthofuran-producing chemotype of Mentha pulegium,

  5. Frequency of chimerism in populations of the kelp Lessonia spicata in central Chile.

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    Alejandra V González

    Full Text Available Chimerism occurs when two genetically distinct conspecific individuals fuse together generating a single entity. Coalescence and chimerism in red seaweeds has been positively related to an increase in body size, and the consequent reduction in susceptibility to mortality factors, thus increasing survival, reproductive potential and tolerance to stress in contrast to genetically homogeneous organisms. In addition, they showed that a particular pattern of post-fusion growth maintains higher genetic diversity and chimerism in the holdfast but homogenous axes. In Chilean kelps (brown seaweeds, intraorganismal genetic heterogeneity (IGH and holdfast coalescence has been described in previous research, but the extent of chimerism in wild populations and the patterns of distribution of the genetically heterogeneous thallus zone have scarcely been studied. Since kelps are under continuous harvesting, with enormous social, ecological and economic importance, natural chimerism can be considered a priceless in-situ reservoir of natural genetic resources and variability. In this study, we therefore examined the frequency of IGH and chimerism in three harvested populations of Lessonia spicata. We then evaluated whether chimeric wild-type holdfasts show higher genetic diversity than erect axes (stipe and lamina and explored the impact of this on the traditional estimation of genetic diversity at the population level. We found a high frequency of IGH (60-100% and chimerism (33.3-86.7%, varying according to the studied population. We evidenced that chimerism occurs mostly in holdfasts, exhibiting heterogeneous tissues, whereas stipes and lamina were more homogeneous, generating a vertical gradient of allele and genotype abundance as well as divergence, constituting the first time "within- plant" genetic patterns have been reported in kelps. This is very different from the chimeric patterns described in land plants and animals. Finally, we evidenced that IGH

  6. Antagonistic Activity Of Endophytic Bacteria Isolated From Mentha Rotundifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhartiti Abla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study is implemented for the isolation purification and identification of endophytic bacteria which produces antifungal substances from the roots of Mentha rotundifolia L. The 59 obtained bacterial isolates were tested for their antagonistic activity by the dual confrontation against the phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum Aspergillus Niger and Botrytis cinerea. Eight bacterial strains were selected for their strong antifungal activity. These are strains M21 M23 M3a M4 M14d and M3c which belong to the family Bacillaceae M12 and M3b which belongs to the family of Pseudomonadaceae. Among these three bacterial strains namely M21 M23 and M12 induce 70 of inhibition of mycelial growth of phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus Niger while the five bacterial strains M3a M3c M3b M4 and M14d have proved to be effective in inhibiting more than 60 of mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea.

  7. Caracterização citogenética para identificação dos níveis de ploidia em cinco espécies do gênero Mentha L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Battistin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi feita a caracterização citogenética da: microsporogênese, tétrades, estimativa da viabilidade do pólen pelo método de coloração e contagem do número máximo de nucléolos por célula interfásica, para identificação dos níveis de ploidia, em cinco espécies do gênero Mentha L. Foram coletadas inflorescências em 30 plantas de cada espécie, em duas florações sucessivas, nos anos 2006 e 2007. As inflorescências foram tratadas em etanol-ácido acético (3:1, em temperatura ambiente durante seis horas, transferidas para álcool 70% (v/v e conservadas em geladeira até análise. Nas análises da microsporogênese, tétrades e pólen o corante usado foi carmin propiônico 2% e na identificação dos nucléolos nitrato de prata (AgNO3. Os resultados demonstraram que as cinco espécies são poliplóides. M. crispa heptaplóide (2n=7x=84 com 11 nucléolos, M. spicata tetraplóide (2n=4x=48 com 8 nucléolos, M.x gentilis pentaplóide (2n=5x=60 com 12 nucleólos, M. piperita e M.x piperita ambas hexaplóides (2n=6x=72 com 8 e 9 nucléolos respectivamente. M. spicata e M. crispa mantiveram as mais altas porcentagens de células normais na microsporogênese, na formação de tétrades e na estimativa da viabilidade do pólen por coloração, sugerindo maior estabilidade meiótica quando comparados aos demais poliplóides estudados.

  8. PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF WATER-ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MENTHA LONGIFOLIA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Grebennikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents data about qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in water-ethanol extract of perspective clone of Mentha longifolia L. of NBE-NSC selection. Phenolic substances content in water-ethanol extract amounted to 3003.3 mg/100g. 13 components were determined in the extract. The extract contains caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid isomers, rosmarinic acid and glycosides of luteolin. Rosmarinic acid (50.2% prevails among phenolic substances of Mentha longifolia extract. The conclusion is that the use of this extract is possible to create products with high biological value

  9. Composición del tejido vegetal y su relación con variables de crecimiento y niveles de nutrientes en el suelo en cultivos comerciales de menta (Mentha spicata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedraza Rafael

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición química del tejido vegetal en menta y su relación con la concentración de nutrientes en el suelo. Se evaluaron parámetros de crecimiento y la concentración de elementos de la parte aérea de la planta al momento de la cosecha, en 35 cultivos comerciales ubicados en el departamento de Cundinamarca (Colombia. Paralelamente se determinaron las propiedades químicas del suelo en que crecían las plantas. La concentración de macroelementos en el tejido vegetal mostró el siguiente orden (% de materia seca: K (1,07-7,23 > N (1,57-4,74 > Ca (0,66-1,36 > P (0,24- 0,64 > Mg (0,14-0,60; para los microelementos (mg· kg-1 fue: Fe (89-596 > Mn (19-303 > Zn (47-134 > B (16-108 > Cu (8-13. No se encontraron relaciones significativas entre los nutrientes en el suelo y la planta que permitieran explicar las variables de crecimiento. Se presentaron correlaciones significativas entre Mg y P en el suelo y sus concentraciones en la planta (r=0,65** y 0,60*, respectivamente y del Mg en el suelo y el Mn en la planta (r=-0,60*. La mejor correlación se presentó entre la relación K/Mg en el suelo y el Mg en el tejido vegetal (r=-0,73**, poniendo de manifiesto el antagonismo entre ambos nutrientes y la importancia del balance catiónico K-Mg en el suelo. En general se puede afirmar que los suelos cultivados con menta no presentaron limitaciones en la disponibilidad de nutrientes, muy probablemente por el manejo intensivo de la fertilización.

  10. Efficiency of Mentha piperita L. and Mentha pulegium L. essential oils on nutritional indices of Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Saeidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Antifeedant activity of plant extracts from Mentha piperita L. and Mentha pulegium L. were tested against the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner. The nutritional indices: relative growth rate (RGR, relative consumption rate (RCR, efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI and feeding deterrence index (FDI were measured for first-instar larvae (15-d old. Treatments were evaluated using a flour disk bioassay in the dark, at 25±1°C and 60±5% R.H. Concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5 and 2 mL/disk were prepared from each essential oil. After 72 h, nutritional indices were calculated. M. piperita oils were more effective than M. pulegium oils, by significantly decreasing the RGR, RCR and FDI. At the highest concentration tested (2 mL/disk, the ECI (9% was significantly reduced.

  11. In Vitro Biodegradation of Hepatotoxic Indospicine in Indigofera spicata and Its Degradation Derivatives by Camel Foregut and Cattle Rumen Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eddie T T; Al Jassim, Rafat; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Fletcher, Mary T

    2017-08-30

    The known accumulation of the hepatotoxin indospicine in tissues of camels and cattle grazing Indigofera pasture plants is unusual in that free amino acids would normally be expected to be degraded during the fermentation processes in these foregut fermenters. In this study, in vitro experiments were carried out to examine the degradability of indospicine of Indigofera spicata by camel and cattle foregut microbiota. In the first experiment, a 48 h in vitro incubation was carried out using foregut fluid samples that were collected from 15 feral camels and also a fistulated cow. Degradability of indospicine ranged between 97% and 99%, with the higher value of 99% for camels. A pooled sample of foregut fluids from three camels that were on a roughage diet was used in a second experiment to examine the time-dependent degradation of indospicine present in the plant materials. Results indicated that camels' foregut fluids have the ability to biodegrade ∼99% of the indospicine in I. spicata within 48 h of incubation and produced 2-aminopimelamic acid and 2-aminopimelic acid. The time-dependent degradation analysis showed rapid indospicine degradation (65 nmol/h) during the first 8-18 h of incubation followed by a slower degradation rate (12 nmol/h) between 18 and 48 h. Indospicine degradation products were also degraded toward the end of the experiment. The results of these in vitro degradation studies suggest that dietary indospicine may undergo extensive degradation in the foregut of the camel, resulting in trace levels after 48 h. The retention time for plant material in the camel foregut varies depending on feed quality, and the results of this study together with the observed accumulation of indospicine in camel tissues suggest that, although indospicine can be degraded by foregut fermentation, this degradation is not complete before the passage of the digesta into the intestine.

  12. Biochemical and Histopathological Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Nigella sativa and Mentha piperita Oils to Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian H. Ghaly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the biochemical and histopathological effects of dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa and Mentha piperita oils to broilers for 6 weeks. A total 80 unsexed one day old Cobb broiler chicks was obtained from Cairo Company with average body weight 55g were used .The chicks were taken and randomly allocated into 4 equal groups (20 each named control, Nigella sativa oil treated group, Mentha piperita oil treated group and Nigella sativa + Mentha piperita oils treated group. Serum samples and tissue samples (liver and kidney were obtained at 21 and 42 days old for some serum biochemical analysis (ALT, AST and ALP activities; creatinine, Urea, Total protein and Albumin levels and histopathological examination (Liver and Kidney processed slide sections. The obtained results indicated that dietary supplementation of broilers diet with Nigella sativa, Mentha piperita and their combination for long period (6 weeks couldn’t alter liver and kidney functions as cleared from biochemical findings but could caused slight hepatic and renal histopathological changes as showed from histopathological examination.

  13. Complete Isolation and Characterization of Polar Portion of Mentha dumetorum Water Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Akşit

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Four flavon glycosides, eriocitrin (1, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (2, hesperidin (3, apigenin-7-O-rutinoside (4 and rosmarinic acid (5 were isolated from the aerial parts of Mentha dumetorum (Lamiaceae for the first time. The structural elucidations of isolated compounds were achieved using spectral methods (1D- and 2D-NMR, and LC-TOF-HRMS.

  14. Anti-biofilm and antimicrobial activity of Mentha pulegium L essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities of essential oil from Mentha pulegieum L. (EOMP) on multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates of A. baumannii, as well as its phytochemical composition, antioxidant properties and cytotoxic activity. Methods: The phytochemical composition of EOMP was ...

  15. [Relativity of commercial specification of Menthae Herba based on chemical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dan; Zhao, Ming; Shao, Yang; Ouyang, Zhen; Peng, Hua-sheng; Han Bang-xing; Zhang, Wei-wan-qi; Gu, Xue-mei

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare the differences of 35 Menthae Herba samples collected on the market and at producing areas, the contents of six total terpenoids, the essential oil and chromatographic fingerprints were analyzed, which provided evidences for drawing up the commodity specifications and grading criteria of Menthae Herba. GC-MS method was used to analyze the chemical constituents of 35 different samples. The chromatographic fingerprints obtained by using GC were then evaluated by similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The relativity between the content of six terpenoids and the essential oil were studied. In this study, the chemical profiles of 35 samples from different producing areas had significant disparity. All samples collected in the report could be categorized into four chemical types, L-menthol, pulegone, carvone and L-menthone, but the chemical profiles had no relationship with the areas. The chromatographic fingerprints of the samples from different types were dissimilar, while the different producing areas were difficult to be separated. It was indicated that the content of volatile oil was positively correlated with the content of L-menthol and the sum of six total terpenoids. The content of the essential oil, L-menthol and the sum of six total terpenoids of Menthae Herba were considered as one of the commercial specifications and grading criteria. These results in the research could be helpful to draw up the commercial specification and grading criteria of Menthae Herba from a view of chemical information.

  16. Metabolism of monoterpenes: early steps in the metabolism of d-neomenthyl-β-D-glucoside in peppermint (Mentha piperita) rhizomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croteau, R.; Sood, V.K.; Renstroem, B.; Bhushan, R.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the monoterpene ketone l-[G- 3 H] menthone is reduced to the epimeric alcohols l-menthol and d-neomenthol in leaves of flowering peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), and that a portion of the menthol is converted to methyl acetate while the bulk of the neomenthol is transformed to neomenthyl-β-D-glucoside which is then transported to the rhizome. Analysis of the disposition of l-[G] 3 H]menthone applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis and transport of the monoterpenyl glucoside to be determined, and gave strong indication that the glucoside was subsequently metabolized in the rhizome. Studies with d-[G- 3 H]neomenthyl-β-D-glucoside as substrate, using excised rhizomes or rhizome segments, confirmed the hydrolysis of the glucoside as an early step in metabolism at this site, and revealed that the terpenoid moiety was further converted to a series of ether-soluble, methanol-soluble, and water-soluble products. The conversion of menthone to the lactone, and of the lactone to more polar products, were confirmed in vivo using l-[G- 3 H]menthone and l-[G- 3 H]-3,4-menthone lactone as substrates. Additional oxidation products were formed in vivo via the desaturation of labeled neomenthol and/or menthone, but none of these transformations appeared to lead to ring opening of the p-menthane skeleton. Each step in the main reaction sequence, from hydrolysis of neomenthyl glucoside to lactonization of menthone, was demonstrated in cell-free extracts from the rhizomes of flowering mint plants. The lactomization step is of particular significance in providing a means of cleaving the p-methane ring to afford an acyclic carbon skeleton that can be further degraded by modifications of the well-known β-oxidation sequence. 41 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  17. A comparison Comparison between analgesic effects of aqueous ethanolic extract of mentha longifolia and morphine in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezatollah Paknia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Long-term consumption of many drugs followed by reduction of their effectiveness has necessitated performing research on new analgesics .Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic effects of mentha longifolia and morphine in mice using writhing and hot plate tests. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 70 male rats were divided into 7 equal groups. The groups included the control, three experimental groups receiving 400, 800, or 1600 mg/kg of mentha extract and three experimental groups which received 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg of morphine .In order to measure pain, the two acceptable tests, writhing and hot plate tests, were applied. Pain scores were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45 or 60 min after administration of algogenic stimulus. Results: It was found that in hot plate test, only the dose of 1600mg/kg of Mentha extract after 60 minutes was significantly able to exert an analgesic effect (P<0.05. In wrighting test, mentha extract at different doses significantly reduced the number and time of wrightes in the rats, comparable to morphine (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that all doses of mentha extract in wrighting test have analgesic effects which indicate chronic pain inhibition of mentha hydroalcholic extract.

  18. Error-prone PCR mutation of Ls-EPSPS gene from Liriope spicata conferring to its enhanced glyphosate-resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chanjuan; Xie, Hongjie; Chen, Shiguo; Valverde, Bernal E; Qiang, Sheng

    2017-09-01

    Liriope spicata (Thunb.) Lour has a unique LsEPSPS structure contributing to the highest-ever-recognized natural glyphosate tolerance. The transformed LsEPSPS confers increased glyphosate resistance to E. coli and A. thaliana. However, the increased glyphosate-resistance level is not high enough to be of commercial value. Therefore, LsEPSPS was subjected to error-prone PCR to screen mutant EPSPS genes capable of endowing higher resistance levels. A mutant designated as ELs-EPSPS having five mutated amino acids (37Val, 67Asn, 277Ser, 351Gly and 422Gly) was selected for its ability to confer improved resistance to glyphosate. Expression of ELs-EPSPS in recombinant E. coli BL21 (DE3) strains enhanced resistance to glyphosate in comparison to both the LsEPSPS-transformed and -untransformed controls. Furthermore, transgenic ELs-EPSPS A. thaliana was about 5.4 fold and 2-fold resistance to glyphosate compared with the wild-type and the Ls-EPSPS-transgenic plants, respectively. Therefore, the mutated ELs-EPSPS gene has potential value for has potential for the development of glyphosate-resistant crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An Aqueous-Ethanol Extract of Liriope spicata var. prolifera Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy through Suppression of Renal Inflammation

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    Hung-Jen Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tuberous root of Liriope spicata var. prolifera (TRLS; Liliaceae family is valued for the ability to promote glucose homeostasis, and it may therefore be utilized as an adjuvant therapy in the control of diabetic complications. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an aqueous ethanol extract from TRLS (TRLS-ext (100 or 200 mg kg−1 per day for eight weeks on rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN. Renal dysfunction in diabetic rats was ameliorated by TRLS-ext as evidenced by reduced creatinine clearance, as well as increased blood urea nitrogen and proteinuria. Treatment with TRLS-ext was found to markedly improve histological architecture in the diabetic kidney. Hyperglycemia induced degradation of inhibitory kappa B and reduced nuclear factor kappa B activation, leading to increased infiltration of macrophages and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α. All of the above abnormalities were reversed by TRLS-ext treatment, which also decreased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and fibronectin in the diabetic kidneys. These findings provide a perspective on the renoprotective effects of TRLS-ext in DN.

  20. Mineral constituents of medicinally important herbs mentha arvensis and ocimum basilicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.; Kazi, G.H.; Kazi, T.; Hafeez-u-Raman Shaikh; Memon, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease are now well established. In this paper we investigate the presence of various elements in very common herbs Mentha arvensis (Mint, vern. Podina) and ocimum basilicum(vern Niazboo or Tulsi). Economically the both herbs have great importance as the source of volatile aromatic oils, medicines. Medicinal drugs like menthol is derived from Mentha arvensis, which is useful in cough and diarrhea. The samples of both plants were collected from surrounding of Hyderabad and vouchers specimens were prepared following the standard Herbarium techniques. The dried parts of each plant were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer technique using air acetylene flame to estimate various metals present in both herbs. (author)

  1. Mineral constituents of medicinally important herbs mentha arvensis and ocimum basilicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahito, S; Kazi, G H; Kazi, T [University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan). Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry; Shar, G Q [Liaquat Univ. of Health and Sciences, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Shaikh, Hafeez-u-Raman [University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan). Inst. of Biochemistry; Memon, A N [University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany

    2003-06-01

    The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease are now well established. In this paper we investigate the presence of various elements in very common herbs Mentha arvensis (Mint, vern. Podina) and ocimum basilicum(vern Niazboo or Tulsi). Economically the both herbs have great importance as the source of volatile aromatic oils, medicines. Medicinal drugs like menthol is derived from Mentha arvensis, which is useful in cough and diarrhea. The samples of both plants were collected from surrounding of Hyderabad and vouchers specimens were prepared following the standard Herbarium techniques. The dried parts of each plant were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer technique using air acetylene flame to estimate various metals present in both herbs. (author)

  2. Identification of a monopartite begomovirus associated with yellow vein mosaic of Mentha longifolia in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Daur, Ihsanullah

    2018-02-01

    Mentha is a very important crop grown and used extensively for many purposes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Begomoviruses are whitefly-transmitted viruses causing serious disease in many important plants exhibiting variable symptoms with significant economic loss globally. During farmers' field survey, yellow vein mosaic disease was observed in Mentha longifolia plants growing near tomato fields in Saudi Arabia. The causative agent was identified in 11 out of 19 samples using begomovirus-specific primers and the association of begomovirus with yellow vein mosaic disease in M. longifolia was confirmed. The full-length viral genome and betasatellite were amplified, cloned, and sequenced bidirectionally. The full DNA-A genome was found to have 2785 nucleotides with 1365 bp-associated betasatellite molecule. An attempt was made to amplify DNA-B, but none of the samples produced any positive amplicon of expected size which indicated the presence of monopartite begomovirus. The sequence identity matrix and phylogenetic analysis, based on full genome showed the highest identity (99.6%) with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and in phylogenetic analysis it formed a closed cluster with Tomato leaf curl virus infecting tomato and Corchorus crop in Saudi Arabia. The sequence analysis results of betasatellites showed the highest identity (98.9%) with Tomato yellow leaf curl betasatellites infecting tomato and phylogenetic analysis using betasatellites formed a close cluster with Tomato yellow leaf curl betasatellites infecting tomato and Corchorus crops, which has already been reported to cause yellow vein mosaic and leaf curl disease in many cultivated and weed crops growing in Saudi Arabia. The identified begomovirus associated with yellow vein mosaic disease in mentha could be a mutated strain of TYLCV and tentatively designated as TYLCV-Mentha isolate. Based on published data and latest information, this is the first report of identification of Tomato yellow leaf

  3. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  4. Separate and Combined Effects of Mentha piperata and Mentha pulegium Essential Oils and a Pathogenic Fungus Lecanicillium muscarium Against Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadollahi, Asgar; Davari, Mahdi; Razmjou, Jabrael; Naseri, Bahram

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, the toxicity of essential oils of Mentha piperata L. and Mentha pulegium L. and pathogenicity of Lecanicillium muscarium (Zare & Gams) were studied in the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover. Analyses of the essential oils by GC-MS indicated limonene (27.28%), menthol (24.71%), menthone (14.01%), and carvol (8.46%) in the M. piperata essential oil and pulegone (73.44%), piperitenone (5.49%), decane (4.99%), and limonene (3.07%) in the essential oil of M. pulegium as the main components. Both essential oils and the pathogenic fungus had useful toxicity against A. gossypii. Probit analysis indicated LC50 values (lethal concentrations to kill 50% of population; 95% confidence limits in parentheses) of M. piperata and M. pulegium essential oils as 15.25 (12.25-19.56) and 23.13 (19.27-28.42) µl/liter air, respectively. Susceptibility to the pathogenic fungus increased with exposure time. Aphid mortality also increased when the essential oils were combined with L. muscarium, although the phenomena was additive rather than synergistic. Mycelial growth inhibition of L. muscarium exposed to the essential oils was also very low. Based on our results, M. piperata and M. pulegium essential oils and the pathogenic fungus L. muscarium have some potential for management of A. gossypii. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  6. The effect of Chitosan on antioxidant activity and some secondary metabolites of Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Salimgandomi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants are almost reach sources of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids which are the most important natural antioxidants. Antioxidant compounds are essential for protecting human body against oxidative stress. However use elicitors could increase the antioxidant activity of plant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Chitosan on the content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and also antioxidant activity Mentha piperita L.In this study, firstly the Mentha piperita L. were grown up for 6-week period at greenhouse conditions and then were treated with 50-100 μm of chitosan, then total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined using spectrophotometry and finally antioxidant activities of extracts were evaluated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH method and the results were analyzed with Excel software and Variance analysis testing method with SPSS software. The results showed the content of phenolic compounds in the methanol extract based on sample mg of Gallic acid /g for control with water, 50μm and 100μm treatments respectively were 146.8,233.1,339.1. Meanwhile the total volume of flavonoid content of the methanol extract per mg of Rutin/g respectively were 9.88,12.11,14.06 and concentration of the said extracts respectively were 196.3,147.7,128.62. In regard to the above results it can be concluded that due to having phenolic and flavonoid contents, Mentha piperita L showed that antioxidant activity could be stimulated upon Chitosan treatment moreover, antioxidant activity increased by increasing Chitosan treatment content. Therefore, this method can be used to increase antioxidant effect of plant as a natural antioxidant and all the phenolic and flavonoid contents.

  7. Diferentes concentrações de solução nutritiva para o cultivo de Mentha piperita e Melissa officinalis Mentha piperita (peppermint and Melissa officinalis (balm development in different concentrations of nutritive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenita L. Haber

    2005-12-01

    da posição mediana.The development of two medicinal, aromatic and condimentar species, Mentha piperita (peppermint and Melissa officinalis (balm was evaluated in different concentrations of nutritive solution in a NFT hidroponic system of cultivation. Three seeds of these two species were sowed on a fenolical spume (2,5x2,5x3 cm, and irrigated daily with water up to the germination and later with a nutrient solution diluted to 50%. After a period of 15 and 16 days for balm and peppermint, respectively, seedlings were transferred to the development workbenches made with polypropylene channels and received the nutrient solution diluted to 75% during 12 days. After this period, plants were transferred to cultivation on workbenches with different concentrations of nutritive solution until the harvest. The experimental design was conducted completely randomized on split-splot scheme, the concentration of nutrient solution being (I - 50%, II - 75%, III - 100%, IV - 125% located on the plot and the position of plants in the channels (I - initial, II - intermediary, III - final on the subplot with a total of three replications per treatment. A total of five plants was used in each position. The evaluated variables were plant height, number of leaves and buds, fresh and dry weight of leaves and roots. Analyzing the position of plants in the channels it was possible to observe significant interaction between treatments and in the number and leaves dry weight of balm and peppermint, respectively, the initial position being the best treatment in terms of plant growth. For balm were observed significant differences between the positions of plants in the channels in relation to plant height, root fresh weight and leaves fresh and dry weight, with the initial position having the higher values, despite of having no significant differences when compared with the intermediary position.

  8. Protection against radiation induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by mentha piperita (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Samarth, Meenakshi [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Dept. of Zoology, Radiation and Cancer Biology Lab.

    2008-07-01

    Mentha piperita linn or peppermint (Family - Labiatae) is aromatic and has stimulant and carminative properties. The protective effects of mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}) for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days of post-irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. There was significantly less degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and Leydig cells. Significant decreases in the LPO and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The methanolic extract of M. piperita showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonol. Leaf extract of M. piperita has significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and flavonol content of extract of M. piperita may be held responsible for its radioprotective effect. (author)

  9. Protection against radiation induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by mentha piperita (Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarth, Ravindra M.; Samarth, Meenakshi

    2008-01-01

    Mentha piperita linn or peppermint (Family - Labiatae) is aromatic and has stimulant and carminative properties. The protective effects of mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g kg -1 day -1 ) for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days of post-irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. There was significantly less degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and Leydig cells. Significant decreases in the LPO and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The methanolic extract of M. piperita showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonol. Leaf extract of M. piperita has significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and flavonol content of extract of M. piperita may be held responsible for its radioprotective effect. (author)

  10. The Role of Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Growth and Essential Oil of Peppermint (Mentha piperita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahmoudzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed by approximately 80% of the vascular plant species in all terrestrial biomes. Using soil microbial potential including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF has been widely considered for improving plant growth, yield and nutrition. Medicinal herbs are known as sources of phyto chemicals or active compounds that are widely sought worldwide for their natural properties. Members of the Lamiaceae family have been used since ancient times as sources of spices and flavorings and for their pharmaceutical properties. Peppermint (Mentha piperita has a long tradition of medicinal use, with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago. Essential oils - are volatile, lipophilic mixtures of secondary plant compounds, mostly consisting of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenylproponoids.Arbuscularmycorrhizal fungi with colonizing plant roots improve nutrient uptake as well as improving essential oil yield of medicinal plants by increasing plant biomass. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of AMF inoculation on essential oil content and some growth parameters of peppermint (Mentha piperita plant under glasshouse condition. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on a loamy sand soil. The samples were air-dried, sieved (

  11. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Mentha longifolia (L. Huds. essential oil

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    Haris Nikšić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present study describes the antimicrobial activity and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC of essential oil from Mentha longifolia (L. Huds. Aim of this study to investigate the quality, antimicrobial andantioxidant activity of wild species Mentha longifolia essential oil from Bosnia and Herzegovina.Methods: The chemical profi le of essential oil was evaluated by the means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and thin-layer chromatography (TLC. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 6bacterial strains. RSC was assessed by measuring the scavenging activity of essential oils on 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH.Results: The main constituents of the essential oil of M. longifoliae folium were oxygenated monoterpenes,piperitone oxide (63.58% and 1,8-cineole (12.03%. Essential oil exhibited very strong antibacterial activity.The most important antibacterial activity essential oil was expressed on Gram negative strains: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerginosa and Salmonella enterica. subsp.enterica serotype ABONY. Antioxidant activity was evaluated as a RSC. Investigated essential oil was able to reduce DPPH radicals into the neutral DPPHH form (IC50=10.5 μg/ml and this activity was dose –dependent.Conclusion: The study revealed signifi cant antimicrobial activity of the investigated essential oil. The examined oil exhibited high RSC, which was found to be in correlation to the content of mainly monoterpeneketones and aldehydes. These results indicate that essential oils could serve as safe antioxidant and antiseptic supplements in pharmaceuticals.

  12. FEMA expert panel review of p-mentha-1,8-dien-7-al genotoxicity testing results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Samuel M.; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J.; Guengerich, F.P.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Smith, Robert L.; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L.; McGowen, Margaret M.; Taylor, Sean V.

    2016-01-01

    p-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-al is a naturally occurring cyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde that is used as a flavoring substance throughout the world. Due to the chemical structure and the potential DNA reactivity of the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl moiety, a battery of genotoxicity assays was

  13. Studies on free-radical scavenging activity and identification of active ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita collected from Sur, Sultanate of Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Aqeela Said Hamed AL Orimi; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine free radical scavenging activity and active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita (M. piperita). Methods: The dried powder leaves of M. piperita were extracted with polar organic solvent by Soxhlet extractor. The crude extract and its fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol crude extracts were prepared. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from M. piperita was carried out by DPPH method with minor modification, and the active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of M. piperita were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: Qualitative analysis of different polarities crude extracts by GC-MS found different types of active organic compounds. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts were found to be in the order of chloroform extract> butanol extract> ethyl acetate extract> hexane extract>methanol extract. Majority identified compounds in the plant crude extracts by GC-MS were biologically active. Conclusions: Therefore, the isolation, purification, identification and characterization of bioactive compounds from various crude extracts of M. piperita might have ecological significance.

  14. Actividad antiparasitaria de una decocción de Mentha piperita Linn

    OpenAIRE

    de la Paz Naranjo, José; Maceira Cubiles, María Acelia; Corral Salvadó, Aida; González Campos, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Con el objetivo de comprobar si la Mentha piperita Linn posee efecto antiparasitario, se valoró una decocción de las hojas de esta planta. El modelo biológico utilizado fue la lombriz terrestre del género rojo California y las dosis empleadas fueron 0,475; 0,950 y 1,900 g/dL. Se formaron además un grupo control negativo (agua destilada) y un grupo control positivo (solución de piperazina al 2,0 %). La evaluación, en placa Petri, se realizó de forma continua durante un período de 8 h. La varia...

  15. Growth and development of Mentha piperita L. in nutrient solution as affected by rates of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Valmorbida

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of potassium on the development of Mentha piperita L. was evaluated in the plants grown in nutritive solution modified by variations in potassium, at 6.0, 3.0, and 1.5 mmol L-1, establishing differences between treatments and corresponding, respectively, to the concentration proposed in Hoagland and Arnon's no. 2 solution and reductions by 50% and 75%. Until 21 days after transplanting, the concentration used was diluted to 50% in the three treatments. Evaluations consisted of leaf area, development of the above-ground part, and dry matter of different plant organs. Plants grown with 1.5/3.0 mmol L-1 K showed greater development of the above-ground part. Other variables were not different among plants in the different treatments.A influência do potássio no desenvolvimento de Mentha piperita L. foi avaliada em plantas cultivadas em solução nutritiva modificada pela variação de potássio, com 6.0, 3.0 e 1.5 mmol L-1, que estabeleceram as diferenças entre tratamentos e corresponderam, respectivamente, a sua concentração proposta na solução nº 2 de Hoagland e Arnon e diminuição em 50% e 75%. Até os 21 dias após o transplante a concentração utilizada foi diluída em 50% nos três tratamentos. Avaliou-se área foliar, desenvolvimento da parte aérea e matéria secas dos diferentes órgãos. Plantas cultivadas com 1.5/3.0 mmol L-1 K apresentaram maior desenvolvimento da parte aérea. Demais variáveis não diferiram entre as plantas dos diferentes tratamentos.

  16. Radioprotective activity of Mentha piperita (Linn) against radiation induced alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarth, R.M.; Goyal, P.K.; Ashok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    The radioprotective role of aqueous extract of Mentha piperita (Linn.) (RUBL 19443) against radiation induced hematological alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 hrs to 30 days. Oral administration of Mentha extract (ME) (1 gm/kg body weight) prior to whole-body irradiation showed a significant protection in terms of survival percentage and hematological parameters. Mice exposed to radiation (10 Gy) without ME pre-treatment exhibited signs of radiation sickness like anorexia, lethargicity, ruffled hairs and diarrhoea and such animals died within 10 days post-irradiation. Conversely, animals pre-treated with ME showed 58 percent survival until 30 days after exposure. A significant decline in hematological constituents was evident until day 5, at later period of observation (day 5 onwards), no animals could survive from control group whereas, in ME pre-treated irradiated group, a gradual recovery was noted in the hematological values. However, these hematological values remained significantly below the normal even till day 30. The results from the present study suggest that Mentha piperita (Linn.) has radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the hematopoietic system thereby enhancing the survival and increasing the hematological constituents in peripheral blood of mice against lethal dose of gamma radiation. (author)

  17. Radioprotective effects of Mentha piperita (LINN) against radiation induced hematological injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samartha, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Present study reports the radioprotective effect of aqueous extract of M. piperita against gamma radiation. Male Swiss albino mice 6-8 weeks old (25±2gm) from inbred colony were selected and divided into two groups. Group-I animals were given equal volume of double distilled water and were exposed to 6, 8 and 10 Gy gamma rays (dose-rate 1.59 Gy/min). Group-II animals were given Mentha extract (ME) 1 gm/kg body wt./day for three consecutive days and then exposed to gamma rays.Regression analysis of survival data yielded LD50/30 as 6.48 ± 0.07 and 11.59 ± 0.21 Gy for control (Irradiation alone) and experimental (ME + Irradiation) animals respectively and produced a dose reduction factor as 1.78. A significant increase in the number of endogenous spleen colonies and spleen weight was observed on day 10 in ME pretreated irradiated animals. Further a significant decrease in hematological values of control animals as compared to normal was observed at all the radiation doses studied. However, at 6 Gy hematological values showed recovery at day 30. The hematological values of ME pretreated irradiated animals showed significant increase over the respective controls at each autopsy interval. Although, initially they had lower values of RBCs, WBCs, Hb and Hct, but later showed gradual recovery and reached to normal at 48 hrs. (6 Gy), and day 5 (8 Gy). A dose-dependent decrease in GSH content was observed in control animals. However, ME pretreated irradiated animals exhibited a significant increase in GSH content and decrease in LPO level but the values remained below the normal. A significant increase in the serum alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in ME pretreated irradiated animals during the entire period of study and normal range was evident at 24 hrs. (6 Gy) and day 5 (8 Gy). However, such level could not be restored even at day 30 in 10 Gy exposed animals. Acid phosphatase activity in ME pretreated irradiated animals was measured significantly

  18. Antimycobacterial natural products from Moroccan medicinal plants: Chemical composition, bacteriostatic and bactericidal profile of Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium essential oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marwa Chraibi; Abdellah Farah; Sara Lebrazi; Oumaima El Amine; Mohammed Iraqui Houssaini; Kawtar Fikri-Benbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium smegmatis in vitro to the essential oils obtained from two medicinal plants: Thymus satureioides(T. satureioides) and Mentha pulegium(M. pulegium), and to study their chemical composition.Methods: The aerial parts of T. satureioides and M. pulegium(leaves and stems) were hydro-distillated using a Clevenger-type apparatus and essential oils were analyzed and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antimycobacterial screening of essential oils was performed on the basis of the inhibition zone diameter by disc diffusion method against two mycobacterial strains whereas the minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration were determined by using the micro-dilution method.Results: Chemical analysis of their aerial part’s essential oils gave as major compounds,borneol(34.26%), carvacrol(31.21%) and thymol(3.71%) for T. satureioides and R(+)-pulegone(75.48%), carvone(6.66%) and dihydrocarvone(4.64%) for M. pulegium.Thereafter their antimycobacterial effect evaluation, using the micro-dilution method,indicated that minimal inhibitory concentration values of T. satureioides essential oil ranged from 0.062% to 0.015%(v/v) and from 0.125% to 0.031%(v/v) for M. pulegium respectively against Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium smegmatis.Conclusions: It is clearly evident from the results obtained that the Moroccan medicinal plants have great potential to be used as anti-tuberculosis agents. These findings may help scientists to undertake several research projects to discover useful natural product as new anti-tuberculosis drug.

  19. Antimycobacterial natural products from Moroccan medicinal plants:Chemical composition, bacteriostatic and bactericidal profile of Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium essential oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marwa Chraibi; Abdellah Farah; Sara Lebrazi; Oumaima El Amine; Mohammed Iraqui Houssaini; Kawtar Fikri-Benbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium smegmatis in vitro to the essential oils obtained from two medicinal plants: Thymus satureioides (T. satureioides) and Mentha pulegium (M. pulegium), and to study their chemical composition. Methods: The aerial parts of T. satureioides and M. pulegium (leaves and stems) were hydro-distillated using a Clevenger-type apparatus and essential oils were analyzed and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antimycobacterial screening of essential oils was performed on the basis of the inhibition zone diameter by disc diffusion method against two mycobacterial strains whereas the minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration were determined by using the micro-dilution method. Results: Chemical analysis of their aerial part's essential oils gave as major compounds, borneol (34.26%), carvacrol (31.21%) and thymol (3.71%) for T. satureioides and R(+)-pulegone (75.48%), carvone (6.66%) and dihydrocarvone (4.64%) for M. pulegium. Thereafter their antimycobacterial effect evaluation, using the micro-dilution method, indicated that minimal inhibitory concentration values of T. satureioides essential oil ranged from 0.062%to 0.015%(v/v) and from 0.125%to 0.031%(v/v) for M. pulegium respectively against Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Conclusions: It is clearly evident from the results obtained that the Moroccan medicinal plants have great potential to be used as anti-tuberculosis agents. These findings may help scientists to undertake several research projects to discover useful natural product as new anti-tuberculosis drug.

  20. Quantitative estimation of pulegone in Mentha longifolia growing in Saudi Arabia. Is it safe to use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Prawez; Saleh, Mahmoud Fayez; Abdel-Kader, Maged Saad

    2016-03-01

    Our TLC study of the volatile oil isolated from Mentha longifolia showed a major UV active spot with higher Rf value than menthol. Based on the fact that the components of the oil from same plant differ quantitatively due to environmental conditions, the major spot was isolated using different chromatographic techniques and identified by spectroscopic means as pulegone. The presence of pulegone in M. longifolia, a plant widely used in Saudi Arabia, raised a hot debate due to its known toxicity. The Scientific Committee on Food, Health & Consumer Protection Directorate General, European Commission set a limit for the presence of pulegone in foodstuffs and beverages. In this paper we attempted to determine the exact amount of pulegone in different extracts, volatile oil as well as tea flavoured with M. longifolia (Habak) by densitometric HPTLC validated methods using normal phase (Method I) and reverse phase (Method II) TLC plates. The study indicated that the style of use of Habak in Saudi Arabia resulted in much less amount of pulegone than the allowed limit.

  1. Coliform bacteria removal from sewage in constructed wetlands planted with Mentha aquatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Fabiana F; de Matos, Antonio T; de Matos, Mateus P; Borges, Alisson C

    2014-08-01

    The present study evaluated the performance of the species Mentha aquatica in constructed wetlands of horizontal subsurface flow (CW-HSSF) with regard to the removal of coliforms bacteria in an effluent from the primary treatment of sewage as well as to obtain adjustment parameters of the bacterial decay kinetic model along the length of the CW-HSSF. Therefore, four CW-HSSFs measuring 24.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.35 m were built and filled with number 0 gravel as the support medium to a height of 0.20m. Two of the CW-HSSFs were planted with the species M. aquatica, while the other two remained uncultivated. Cultivation of M. aquatica in CW-HSSF resulted in total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) removals from 0.9 to 1.3 log units greater than those obtained in the uncultivated experimental plots, for the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4.5 and 6.0 days. For HRT ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 days, the highest removal efficiencies in counts of TC and EC were obtained when using longer HRT. The mathematical models evaluated showed good fit to average counts of TC and EC highlighting the modified first-order kinetic model with the inclusion of the power parameter in the HRT variable.

  2. Phytochemical Properties of Mentha longifolia L. Essential Oil and its Antimicrobial Effects on Staphylococcus Aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mahmodi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Due to the side effects of chemical and synthetic preservatives, consumers have recently become more eager to use foods containing natural preservatives from plants, animals and microbial sources. In the present study, biochemical composition and antibacterial effects (MIC of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus have been evaluated. Methods: In this experimental study, the biochemical composition and antibacterial prosperities of this essential oil was determined by the Gas chromatography/ mass spectrophotometer (GC/MS and micro dilution method respectively. The morphological and membrane changes of the bacterial cell under the effect of this essential oil were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using ANOVA. Results: The chemical analysis of the essential oil by Gas chromatography/ mass spectrophotometer (GC/MS revealed the presence of 22 substances (95.30%, mainly including Pulegon (31.54%, 1,8 Cineol (15.89%, Menthoforan (11.8% and Cis- Isopulegon (9.74%. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oil determined under different temperature and pH values showed to be in the range of 75-1200 µg/ ml. Conclusion: The MIC results and membrane cell damage observed in the electron microscopy evaluation indicated that this essential oil have a high antibacterial activity. Therefore, this essential oil can be combined with other agents for the preservation of foods against pathogenic and toxigenic microorganisms.

  3. Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (Lamiaceae) Essential Oil and Its Main Constituent Piperitenone Oxide: Biological Activities and Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božović, Mijat; Pirolli, Adele; Ragno, Rino

    2015-05-13

    Since herbal medicines play an important role in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, there is a growing need for their quality control and standardization. Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (MS) is an aromatic herb with fruit and a spearmint flavor, used in the Mediterranean areas as a traditional medicine. It has an extensive range of biological activities, including cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive and insecticidal properties, among others. This study aims to review the scientific findings and research reported to date on MS that prove many of the remarkable various biological actions, effects and some uses of this species as a source of bioactive natural compounds. On the other hand, piperitenone oxide (PO), the major chemical constituent of the carvone pathway MS essential oil, has been reported to exhibit numerous bioactivities in cells and animals. Thus, this integrated overview also surveys and interprets the present knowledge of chemistry and analysis of this oxygenated monoterpene, as well as its beneficial bioactivities. Areas for future research are suggested.

  4. Analysis of Non-Volatile Chemical Constituents of Menthae Haplocalycis Herba by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

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    Lu-Lu Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Menthae Haplocalycis herba, one kind of Chinese edible herbs, has been widely utilized for the clinical use in China for thousands of years. Over the last decades, studies on chemical constituents of Menthae Haplocalycis herba have been widely performed. However, less attention has been paid to non-volatile components which are also responsible for its medical efficacy than the volatile constituents. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive method was developed for the comprehensive identification of the non-volatile constituents in Menthae Haplocalycis herba using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap. Separation was performed with Acquity UPLC® BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm with 0.2% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase under gradient conditions. Based on the accurate mass measurement (<5 ppm, MS/MS fragmentation patterns and different chromatographic behaviors, a total of 64 compounds were unambiguously or tentatively characterized, including 30 flavonoids, 20 phenolic acids, 12 terpenoids and two phenylpropanoids. Finally, target isolation of three compounds named Acacetin, Rosmarinic acid and Clemastanin A (first isolated from Menthae Haplocalycis herba were performed based on the obtained results, which further confirmed the deduction of fragmentation patterns and identified the compounds profile in Menthae Haplocalycis herba. Our research firstly systematically elucidated the non-volatile components of Menthae Haplocalycis herba, which laid the foundation for further pharmacological and metabolic studies. Meanwhile, our established method was useful and efficient to screen and identify targeted constituents from traditional Chinese medicine extracts.

  5. Phenological stage effect on phenolic composition and repellent potential of Mentha pulegium against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne

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    Nidhal Salem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate for the first time the phenological stage effect on polyphenol, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium as well as their antioxidant capacities and insecticidal potentials against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne. Methods: Crude methanol extracts from pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium aerial parts were evaluated for their antiradical, reducing power activities and repellent potentials against selected coleopteran insects during different phenological stages. Results: Phenolic contents of pennyroyal aerial parts and their antioxidant effects were significantly dependent on maturity stage of the plant. The maximum of phenol production was reached during the full flowering stage. Apigenin was the major phenol in Mentha pulegium with an amount of 6.01 mg/g of dry vegetable matter during this period. Nevertheless, at fructification stage, the highest antioxidant activity was not related to high phenolic content. The repulsive effect of pennyroyal extract showed that Lasioderma serricorne was more susceptible to pennyroyal extract than Tribolium castaneum with corresponding median repellent dose values of 0.124 and 0.006 mg/mL respectively. Moreover, great differences in insect repulsion depending on extract concentrations, exposure time and developmental stage was observed. For the lowest concentration (0.125 mg/mL, the repellent effect against Tribolium reached its maximum (90% during the fructification stage (after 24 h of exposure while this repellent effect was 80% during the vegetative stage. Conclusions: Due to the strong insecticidal potential of pennyroyal extracts, this study highlights the therapeutic properties of this plant and encourages its use as a safer, environmental-friendly and efficient insecticide in food industry.

  6. Alternativas de propagação na produção de óleo essencial de Mentha canadensis L. no Litoral Norte Catarinense

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,V.M.C.S.; Schneider,T.R.; Bizzo,H.R.; Deschamps,C.

    2012-01-01

    O gênero Mentha é cultivado mundialmente para a produção de óleo essencial, com ênfase no constituinte mentol, amplamente utilizado nas indústrias farmacêutica, cosmética, alimentícia e de higiene pessoal. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da utilização de diferentes estruturas de propagação e épocas de colheita de Mentha canadensis L. no Litoral Norte Catarinense. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 4x2, comparando quatro estruturas de propa...

  7. Variabilité de la composition chimique des huiles essentielles de Mentha rotundifolia du Nord de l’Algérie

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    Georges Lognay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability of the chemical composition of Mentha rotundifolia from Northern Algeria. Algerian oils of Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds., obtained by steam distillation (yield : 0,8%, have been analysed by means of GC-FID and GC/MS. The results indicate clearly the occurrence of two chemotypes which are presently described. The former contains high proportions of piperitone oxide (19,7–31,4% and piperitenone oxide (27,8–29,4% respectively and the latter revealed piperitenone (54,9% and piperitenone oxide (17,6% as the major constituents. Such particular composition is reported for the first time within the M. rotundifolia species.

  8. Flavor retention of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) essential oil spray-dried in modified starches during encapsulation and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baranauskiene, R.; Bylaite, Egle; Zukauskaite, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of different commercial modified food starch carrier materials on the flavor retention of the essential oil (EO) of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) during spray drying and storage was evaluated. The obtained results revealed that the emulsification and encapsulation efficiencies...... individual compounds were observed. Larger differences in the compositions of surface oils from various encapsulation products were obtained. Flavor components were released at different rates by each of the encapsulated products. The aroma binding capacity of different modified starch matrices to lock EO...... droplets depends on the water activity, and the leakage of aromas from encapsulated powder products during storage increased with increasing water activity....

  9. PEG-induced osmotic stress in Mentha x piperita L.: Structural features and metabolic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Búfalo, Jennifer; Rodrigues, Tatiane Maria; de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Tozin, Luiz Ricardo Dos Santos; Marques, Marcia Ortiz Mayo; Boaro, Carmen Silvia Fernandes

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated whether osmotic stress induced by the exposure of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) to moderate and severe stress for short periods of time changes the plant's physiological parameters, leaf anatomy and ultrastructure and essential oil. Plants were exposed to two levels of polyethyleneglycol (50 g L(-1) and 100 g L(-1) of PEG) in a hydroponic experiment. The plants exposed to 50 g L(-1) maintained metabolic functions similar to those of the control group (0 g L(-1)) without changes in gas exchange or structural characteristics. The increase in antioxidant enzyme activity reduced the presence of free radicals and protected membranes, including chloroplasts and mitochondria. In contrast, the osmotic stress caused by 100 g L(-1) of PEG inhibited leaf gas exchange, reduced the essential oil content and changed the oil composition, including a decrease in menthone and an increase in menthofuran. These plants also showed an increase in peroxidase activity, but this increase was not sufficient to decrease the lipid peroxidation level responsible for damaging the membranes of organelles. Morphological changes were correlated with the evaluated physiological features: plants exposed to 100 g L(-1) of PEG showed areas with collapsed cells, increases in mesophyll thickness and the area of the intercellular space, cuticle shrinkage, morphological changes in plastids, and lysis of mitochondria. In summary, our results revealed that PEG-induced osmotic stress in M. x piperita depends on the intensity level of the osmotic stress applied; severe osmotic stress changed the structural characteristics, caused damage at the cellular level, and reduced the essential oil content and quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Cadmium and Lead on Quantitative and Essential Oil Traits of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

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    Shahram AMIRMORADI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb are particularly noteworthy metals that can pollute the air, soil and water contributing to serious environmental problems. Tests were done on concentrations of Pb and Cd; treatments tested in the experiment were as follows; Cd concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 ppm and concentrations of Pb (100, 300, 600, 900, 1200, 1500 ppm and control. Tests were done on Mentha piperita L. in a greenhouse, arranged as a randomized complete block design with three replications. Rhizomes with uniform weight were planted in pots 30�50�35 cm. Plants were irrigated with Cd and Pb chloride after germination of all rhizomes. Results demonstrated that with increasing concentrations of Cd and Pb there was a decrease in fresh and dry weights, main stem height, leaf area per plant, leaf number, number of nodes per main stem and essential oil of peppermint compared to the control. Fresh weights were decreased at 100 ppm of Cd and 1500 ppm of Pb, 18.16% and 24.55%, respectively compared to the control at the first harvest. At the second harvest, these decreases were 15.24% and 32.72%, respectively. At the highest concentrations of Cd and Pb, dry weight of peppermint was dropped 22.92% and 39.01% at the first harvest. For the second harvest, decreased dry weights were 25.88% and 26.77% respectively. It seems that peppermint can tolerate waste water or soil polluted with medium range of Cd and Pb concentrations and the essential oil percentage was not affected by these concentrations.

  11. Effect of Cadmium and Lead on Quantitative and Essential Oil Traits of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram AMIRMORADI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb are particularly noteworthy metals that can pollute the air, soil and water contributing to serious environmental problems. Tests were done on concentrations of Pb and Cd; treatments tested in the experiment were as follows; Cd concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 ppm and concentrations of Pb (100, 300, 600, 900, 1200, 1500 ppm and control. Tests were done on Mentha piperita L. in a greenhouse, arranged as a randomized complete block design with three replications. Rhizomes with uniform weight were planted in pots 305035 cm. Plants were irrigated with Cd and Pb chloride after germination of all rhizomes. Results demonstrated that with increasing concentrations of Cd and Pb there was a decrease in fresh and dry weights, main stem height, leaf area per plant, leaf number, number of nodes per main stem and essential oil of peppermint compared to the control. Fresh weights were decreased at 100 ppm of Cd and 1500 ppm of Pb, 18.16% and 24.55%, respectively compared to the control at the first harvest. At the second harvest, these decreases were 15.24% and 32.72%, respectively. At the highest concentrations of Cd and Pb, dry weight of peppermint was dropped 22.92% and 39.01% at the first harvest. For the second harvest, decreased dry weights were 25.88% and 26.77% respectively. It seems that peppermint can tolerate waste water or soil polluted with medium range of Cd and Pb concentrations and the essential oil percentage was not affected by these concentrations.

  12. Estimating concentration of fluoride in edible leaves locally grown around Raipur, Chhattisgarh

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    Anubhuti Jain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluorine is the 13th most abundant element in the earth crust and is available in various environmental, clinical, and food samples in varied concentrations. Aim: To estimate concentration of fluoride in five medicinal and five nonmedicinal edible leaves locally grown around Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India. Materials and Methods: Samples of ten medicinal and nonmedicinal edible leaves, namely, spinach (Spinacia oleracea, coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum, chawli bhaji (Amaranthus spinach, lal bhaji (Alternanthera bettzickiana, mooli bhaji (Raphanus sativus, neem (Azadirachta indica, tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum, mint leaves (Mentha longifolia, betel leaves (Piper betle, and bael leaves (Aegle marmelos were collected in the clean polyethene bags. After thorough washing with water, leaves were left to dry in ambient temperature and crushed into powder using a mixer grinder. One gram of each of the powdered samples was taken and analyzed for fluoride concentration using a 2-(4-sulfophenylazo 1,8-dihydroxy-3,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium salt spectrophotometric method. Results: The presence of fluoride in varied concentrations in locally grown edible leaves were analyzed. The highest concentration of fluoride was reported in tulsi (6.0 μg/g and lowest in mint leaves (1.1 μg/g. Two edible leaves, neem and bael, showed fluoride concentration below detection limit. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding the importance of edible leaves may be lost in the near future unless efforts are made to educate younger generations about their importance. Hence, the time has come to make good use of centuries-old knowledge through modern approaches for their better economic and therapeutic utilization.

  13. Organic Extractives from Mentha spp. Honey and the Bee-Stomach: Methyl Syringate, Vomifoliol, Terpenediol I, Hotrienol and Other Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Jerković

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The GC and GC/MS analyses of the solvent organic extractive from the stomach of the bees, having collected Mentha spp. nectar, revealed the presence of methyl syringate (6.6%, terpendiol I (5.0% and vomifoliol (3.0% that can be attributed to the plant origin. Other major compounds from the bee-stomach were related to the composition of cuticular waxes and less to pheromones. Organic extractivesfrom Mentha spp. honey were obtained by solvent-free headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major honey headspace compounds were hotrienol (31.1%–38.5%, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (0.5–6.0%, cis- and trans-linalool oxides (0.9–2.8%, linalool (1.0–3.1% and neroloxide (0.9–1.9%. Methyl syringate was the most abundant compound (38.3-56.2% in the honey solvent extractives followed by vomifoliol (7.0–26.6%. Comparison of the honey organic extractives with the corresponding bee-stomach extractive indicated that methyl syringate and vomofoliol were transferred to the honey while terpendiol I was partially transformed to hotrienol in ripened honey.

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Cholinesterase Inhibitory and Antimicrobial Properties of Mentha longifolia subsp. noeana and Its Secondary Metabolites

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    Abdulselam Ertaş

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical structures of the isolated compounds, the essential oil and fatty acid compositions of Mentha longifolia subsp. noeana with their biological activities. Ursolic acid (1, u vaol (2, stigmast-5-ene-3 b -yl formate (3, stigmast-5-en-3-one (4, b -sitosterol (5, bis(2-ethylhexyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate (6,hexacosyl (E-ferulate (7 and 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4'-tetramethoxy flavone (8 were obtained from the aerial parts. The compounds (2-4, 6, 7 were isolated for the first time from a Mentha species. Palmitic acid (40.8% was the major component of the non-polar fraction obtained from the petroleum ether extract. Pulegone (32.3% was the main constituent of the essential oil which exhibited strong butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (77.36 ± 0.29%, moderate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The methanol extract showed 80% inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and the acetone extract possessed moderate DPPH free radical scavenging activity (60% inhibition at 100 m g/mL.

  15. Comparative study of chemistry compositions and antimicrobial potentials of essential oils and oleoresins from dried and fresh Mentha longifolia L.

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    Sunita Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the chemical compositions and antimicrobial potentials of the essential oils and oleoresins obtained from fresh and dried Mentha longifolia L. Methods: Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer techniques were used to determine the profiling of the essential oils and oleoresins. In order to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the volatile oil and oleoresins, the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus niger (1884, Aspergillus flavus (2479, Fusarium monoliforme (1893, Fusarium graminearum (2088 and Penicillium viridicatum (2007 were undertaken whereas four pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis (1790, Staphylococcus aureus (3103 (Gram-positive, Escherichia coli (1672, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1942 (Gram-negative were selected for the present study. Food poisoned, inverted Petri plate, agar well diffusion and disk diffusion methods were employed for investigating antimicrobial potentials. Results: Piperitenone oxide, an oxygenated monoterpene, dominated the chemical compositions of essential oils and oleoresins whose compositions varied from 23.5%–87.8%. Both essential oils showed good antifungal activities against Aspergillus and Fusarium species. The antibacterial investigations revealed that Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oils. Conclusions: Drying the fresh herbal materials influences the chemical contents and the biological activities of the essential oils and oleoresins. Such results indicate that essential oils of Mentha longifolia L. can be possible candidates for further investigations to isolate and characterize their active principles as possible new natural preservatives.

  16. Preliminary study of the antimicrobial activity of Mentha x villosa Hudson essential oil, rotundifolone and its analogues

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    Thúlio. A. Arruda

    Full Text Available Essential oils present antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria and yeasts, including species resistant to antibiotics and antifungicals. In this context, this work aims at the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa Hudson ("hortelã da folha miúda", its major component (rotundifolone and four similar analogues of rotundifolone (limonene oxide, pulegone oxide, carvone epoxide and (+-pulegone against strain standards of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomona aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 76645 and one strain of meticilin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA (171c from human clinic. The method of the diffusion in plates with solid medium was used. The results showed that the oil of Mentha x villosa, rotundifolone, limonene oxide and (+-pulegone, are similar regarding the antimicrobial activity against the tested strains of S. aureus and C. albicans. All of the products present antimocrobial potential with antibacterial activity for S. aureus ATCC 25923 and antifungal activity for C. albicans ATCC 76645. None of the products presented antimicrobial activity for the strains of E. coli ATCC 25922 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, representatives of the Gram negative bacteria.

  17. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general, fami......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  18. In vitro study on the antimicrobial effect of hydroalcoholic extracts from Mentha arvensis L. (Lamiaceae against oral pathogens - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i4.8959

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    Francisco Augusto Burkert Del Pino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In vitro tests could be a valuable tool for the evaluation of medicinal plants’ antimicrobial activity. Mentha arvensis of the Lamiaceae family is one of the most frequently traditional plants used in Brazil. Hydroalcoholic extracts of M. arvensis were analyzed for antimicrobial activity on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Candida albicans. Three different assays (agar diffusion, broth macro- and micro-dilution methods were used to evaluate antimicrobial activity. Although hydroalcoholic extracts of M. arvensis did not show any antibacterial effect, its antifungal activity against C. albicans was revealed. According to the micro-dilution broth assay, MIC of the hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of M. arvensis on Candida albicans strains ranged between 625 and 2500 mg mL-1. Results suggest that M. arvensis hydroalcoholic extract may be considered a potentially antifungal agent against C. albicans, and a possible item for human antibiotic therapy.  However, further biological tests on the plant’s efficacy and side-effects are necessary before its use on humans.  

  19. The Study of the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils Mentha Piperita L. are Grown in Non-Chernozem Zone of Russia

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    L. SUSHKOVA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available By gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry has been investigated the composition of essential oils and the change in the ontogenesis and exogenous effects on the plant Mentha piperita L. drugs retardant type. With the introduction of oil crops from the southern regions to the more northern regions of the component composition of the essential oil practically does not change. There are only minor variations in the content of some terpenoids oils. Exogenous preharvest treatment plant growth regulators can in some cases deliberately influence the activity of various terpenoid biosynthesis and increase the content of the most valuable components of the essential oil.Content and composition of EM is largely determined by factors such as age and leaves of plants, as well as different climatic cal, soil and agronomic conditions. Processing plants different phytoregulators also affects the content and composition of oil. Biosynthesis of terpenoids polyenzyme performed in centers, the activity and the nature of which is determined primarily genetic characteristics of plants, in addition, the activity of certain enzymes of these centers is under the control of hormonal balance and changes in ontogeny, as well as under the influence of exogenous factors.It is shown that the formation of the maximum bioefficiency in ontogeny of aromatic plants, it is advisable to use a two-stage technology to grow them. Plants producing terpenoids of essential oils, the initial step is to create the conditions for the formation of the maximum yield of aboveground mass of plants, including the use of synthetic plant growth regulators. In the second stage "biosynthetic" upon the occurrence of the reproductive phase before harvesting plants, we recommend that inhibit the growth of phytoregulators retardant type. In this case, we observe stimulation accumulation in aboveground mass of secondary metabolites. Inhibition of growth in the preharvest period, aromatic plants

  20. Evaluation of Winter Hardiness in Peppermint (Mentha piperita L. by Electrolyte Leakage Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nezami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peppermint or Mentha is an aromatic, medicinal and perennial herb from Lamiaceae family which has been used for healing a variety of diseases such as common cold, bronchitis, nausea, flatulence, diarrhea, vomiting, indigestion, stomach cramps, menstrual cramps and parasitoids. Peppermint is largely cultivated in Indiana, Mexican and California for the production of peppermint oil. Mentha reveals suitable winter hardiness in warm and temperate regions, But in cold areas, it confronts with winter stresses particularly freezing stress. So recognizing the freeze tolerance of peppermint for successful planting and using of this plant in cold regions such as Mashhad, Iran where peppermint is cultivated now is important. Among the many laboratory methods which have been developed to evaluate freez ing tolerance of plants, electrolyte leakage (EL test is widely used. This test is based on this principle that any damage to the cell membranes results in enhanced leakage of solutes into the apoplastic water, hence measuring the amount of leakage after stress treatments provides an estimation of tissue injury. Often, the 50% level of relative EL, or index of injury, is simply equaled to 50% sample mortality. This study was done to evaluate the freeze tolerance of peppermint organs by electrolyte leakage test and also to determine the winter survival ability of this plant by lethal temperature at which 50% of electrolytes leaked from the cell (LT50el. Materials and methods: In order to evaluate the cold tolerance of peppermint, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with four replications was carried out under controlled conditions. For this aim samples from stolon and rhizome of peppermint were selected monthly (December 2010 to April 2011 from Research Field, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and were exposed to low temperatures (from 0 to -20°C with 4°C intervals in a thermo gradient freezer at

  1. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  2. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  3. Multidisciplinary Approach to Determine the Optimal Time and Period for Extracting the Essential Oil from Mentha suaveolens Ehrh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Garzoli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on essential oils (EOs extracted from some Mentha suaveolens L. samples, collected in the countryside of Tarquinia, is reported. In this study, the procedure for essential oil preparation, in terms of harvesting and extraction time, was analyzed in detail for the first time. The GC/MS analysis, carried out on 18 samples, revealed that piperitenone oxide (PO, the main essential oils’ chemical constituent, is primarily responsible for the related antifungal activity. Nevertheless, EOs with lower PO content indicate that other chemicals, such as para-cymenene, may participate in exerting the EOs’ antifungal effect. Furthermore, the bacterial reverse mutation assay highlighted lack of mutagenic effect in all tested samples. Analysis of the results indicated that for higher activity, the essential oils should be produced with 3 h maximum hydrodistillation, regardless of the harvesting time. Differently, the maximum essential oil yield can be obtained in August and the highest piperitenone oxide percentage is obtainable in July.

  4. Mentha-Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles for High-Performance Colorimetric Detection of Al(III) in Aqueous Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rekha; Dhillon, Ankita; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-03-26

    The present paper reports a facile and selective colorimetric method for the detection of potential environmental and health hazardous metal ions using green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Here the organic functional groups present in the plant extract (Mentha arvensis) are used as reductants and stabilizers in the synthesis of AgNPs. They also provide a suitable binding site to the (Al(III)) analyte in the detection mechanism. The leaf extract of Mentha arvensis was used to synthesize AgNPs at room-temperature and at 80 °C. The AgNPs synthesized at 80 °C exhibit excellent selective colorimetric detection of Al(III). The as-synthesized AgNPs have been characterized, and the synthesis, stabilization of NPs and detection mechanism has also been illustrated by using UV-vis, XPS, FTIR, TEM, EDX, SEM, AAS, and TGA analytical tools and techniques. The selectivity of detection probe was supported by the reaction between probe and metal ions followed first-order kinetics having the highest value of the regression coefficient (R 2  = 0.99) for Al(III) and the analysis of thermodynamic parameters. The prepared sensor showed a lower limit of detection (LOD) of 1 nM (S/N = 3.2) in real water samples. The proposed method can be successfully utilized for the detection of Al(III) from both drinking and real water samples at the nanomolar level.

  5. Effect of sucrose concentration and gamma irradiation on growth and essential oil composition of spearmint plant through tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharnouby, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    In vitro culture of spearmint plant (Mentha spicata L) using different sucrose concentrations and different gamma irradiation treatments was investigated. The shoot tips of spearmint plant were cultured on MS medium without hormones and supplemented with different concentrations of sucrose (10, 20, 30 and 40 g/l) then exposed to different gamma irradiation treatments (2,4,6 and 8 Krad) to determine their effects on growth and chemical composition in different sub-culturing media . The data showed that culturing shoots of Mentha spicata on MS medium containing 10 g/l sucrose produced the highest values of callus than other treatments and the maximum number of shoots was produced on MS medium supplemented with 20 g/l sucrose. Irradiation of spearmint shoots at 8 Krad when cultured on MS medium containing 30 or 40 g/l sucrose caused minimum number of shoots, whereas the longest shoots were produced with MS medium containing 20 g/l sucrose after irradiation at 60 Gy gamma dose. Treating shoots of Mentha spicata by gamma irradiation at 8 Krad and culturing on MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose produced all sub-cultures in shortest length of shoots. Moreover, adding 40 g/l of sucrose in MS medium gave the highest number of leaves than other treatments. Exposing shoots of spearmint plant to gamma irradiation at 8 Krad decreased the number of leaves when culturing on MS medium containing 10 or 30 g/l sucrose. Furthermore, the selected samples showed many differences on spearmint oil composition and proline content regarding sucrose levels and gamma irradiation doses

  6. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  7. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  8. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils against human pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 aromatic plants Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium have been determined.

  9. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of CommonlyConsumed Medicinal Herbs Using an In Vitro Model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Glamoclija, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been

  10. Effects of microwave oven exposed diet on spermatogenesis in testicular tissue of mice and comparative effects of mentha piperita and melatonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naheed, K.; Qamar, K.; Jamal, S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of microwave oven exposed diet on spermatogenesis in the testis of mice and comparative effects of Mentha piperita and melatonin. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Anatomy Department, Army Medical College Rawalpindi, in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad, from Apr 2015 to May 2015. Material and Method: Study comprised of 32 adult male mice (BALBc strain) weighing 25-30 gms. Selection criteria based on non-probability (purposive) simple random sampling. Mice were divided into four equal groups of 8 mice each. Group 1, taken as control, was given standard diet 5-10gm/animal/day daily for four weeks. Group 2 was given 5-10 gm/animal/day of microwave oven exposed mice pellets for four weeks. Group 3 received Mentha piperita leaf extract (1g/kg b.wt./day) along with microwave oven exposed mice pellets (5-10gm/animal/day) for 4 weeks and group 4 received oral dosage of melatonin 12mg/kg/day along with microwave oven exposed mice pellets (5-10gm/animal/day) for 4 weeks. After four weeks animals were dissected. The shape, color and any abnormal finding of the testis were observed. Testis were processed, embedded and stained for histological study. Spermatogenesis was assessed by the Johnsons scoring. SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis. Chi square test was applied for intergroup comparison. Results: Spermatogenesis was suppressed and Johnsons score was decreased from normal spermatogenesis (10) to (6-8) in the experimental group 2 and was more improved in the Mentha piperita treated group as compare to the melatonin. Conclusion: Microwave oven exposed mice pellets suppressed spermatogenesis and Mentha piperita had better ameliorative effects than melatonin on the testis of mice. (author)

  11. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  12. Effect of three 2-allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols on inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kharchouf

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available 2-Allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols P1−P3 synthesized from carvone P are tested as corrosion inhibitors of steel in 1 M HCl using weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarisation and impedance spectroscopy (EIS methods. The addition of 2-allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols reduced the corrosion rate. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies clearly reveal that the presence of inhibitors does not change the mechanism of hydrogen evolution and that they act essentially as cathodic inhibitors. 2-Allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols tested adsorb on the steel surface according to Langmuir isotherm. From the adsorption isotherm some thermodynamic data for the adsorption process are calculated and discussed. EIS measurements show the increase of the charge-transfer resistance with the inhibitor concentration. The highest inhibition efficiency (92% is obtained for P1 at 3 g/L. The corrosion rate decreases with the rise of temperature. The corresponding activation energies are determined.

  13. Isolation, fractionation and identification of chemical constituents from the leaves crude extracts of Mentha piperita L grown in Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: According to the results of the present study, the plant crude extracts could be used as medicine for the treatment of different diseases. The analysis and identification of the chemical compounds in the plant crude extracts by using GC-MS was the first time.

  14. Ultraviolet-B and photosynthetically active radiation interactively affect yield and pattern of monoterpenes in leaves of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, Helen; Albert, Andreas; Marx, Friedhelm; Noga, Georg; Ulbrich, Andreas

    2010-06-23

    Solar radiation is a key environmental signal in regulation of plant secondary metabolism. Since metabolic responses to light and ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure are known to depend on the ratio of spectral ranges (e.g., UV-B/PAR), we examined effects of different UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) levels and ratios on yield and pattern of monoterpenoid essential oil of peppermint. Experiments were performed in exposure chambers, technically equipped for realistic simulation of natural climate and radiation. The experimental design comprised four irradiation regimes created by the combination of two PAR levels including or excluding UV-B radiation. During flowering, the highest essential oil yield was achieved at high PAR (1150 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and approximate ambient UV-B radiation (0.6 W m(-2)). Regarding the monoterpene pattern, low PAR (550 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and the absence of UV-B radiation led to reduced menthol and increased menthone contents and thereby to a substantial decrease in oil quality. Essential oil yield could not be correlated with density or diameter of peltate glandular trichomes, the epidermal structures specialized on biosynthesis, and the accumulation of monoterpenes. The present results lead to the conclusion that production of high quality oils (fulfilling the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia Europaea) requires high levels of natural sunlight. In protected cultivation, the use of UV-B transmitting covering materials is therefore highly recommended.

  15. Characterization and evaluation of antibacterial activity of plant mediated calcium oxide (CaO) nanoparticles by employing Mentha pipertia extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Umber; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmed; Mirza, Saima; Ashar, Ambreen

    2017-10-01

    The antibacterial activity of green synthesized calcium oxide nanoparticles was investigated using leaf extract of Mentha piperita in this study. The synthesized nanomaterial was subjected to characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The SEM images showed agglomeration of disc shaped nanoparticles, and FTIR and EDX spectroscopy indicated intensive peaks for calcium ions and oxygen. Subsequently, the potential of nanoscale CaO was also evaluated for antimicrobial index against E. coli using the well diffusion method. A maximum zone of inhibition up to 42 mm was observed when 100 µg ml-1 material was loaded with inoculum size 50 µl of E. coli in sunlight exposure of 5 h. The experimental conditions were optimized using a central composite design using a response surface methodology. The maximum antimicrobial index of the CaO nanoparticle was 6 mm as a result of the optimized response. Furthermore, the minimum inhibitory concentration of the CaO nanoparticle showed 25 µg ml-1, an effective initial concentration for E.coli removal. The results revealed that the CaO nanocomposite synthesized via a green route was a promising candidate for the removal of E. coli present in drinking water, which is an important fecal indicator.

  16. Impact assessment of mercury accumulation and biochemical and molecular response of Mentha arvensis: a potential hyperaccumulator plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, R; Sahi, S V; Venkatachalam, P

    2015-01-01

    The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zantar, Said; Haouzi, Rachid; Chabbi, Mohamed; Laglaoui, Amin; Mouhib, Mohammed; Mohammed Boujnah; Bakkali, Mohammed; Zerrouk, Mounir Hassani

    2015-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation doses (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium essential oils (EOs) have been studied. The chromatographic analysis showed that the studied EOs were constituted mainly by carvacrol for T. vulgaris and pulegone for M. pulegium. Gamma irradiation on the studied doses, affects quantitatively and not qualitatively some components of the investigated oils. This effect was dose dependent. While the antioxidant activity remains stable at any dose applied for the plants studied, the antimicrobial activity increased in the irradiated samples for gram negative bacteria and did not change for gram+bacteria. This study supports that gamma irradiation employed at sterilizing doses did not compromise the biological activities of medicinal and aromatic plants. - Highlights: • The irradiation affects quantitatively the chemical composition of EO of AMPs. • The irradiation affected significantly the antimicrobial activity. • The antimicrobial activity was more pronounced at higher doses for gram−. • The irradiation up to a dose of 30 kGy did not affect the antioxidant activities. • The irradiation at sterilizing doses did not compromise the biological activities

  18. Comparative glandular trichome transcriptome-based gene characterization reveals reasons for differential (-)-menthol biosynthesis in Mentha species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Md Qussen; Qamar, Nida; Yadav, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Pallavi; Kumar, Ajay; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2017-06-01

    The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome (GT) was carried out. In addition to the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPSs) transcripts were identified from annotation in M. arvensis and M. × piperita, respectively, and correlated to several monoterpenes present in the essential oil. Six isoforms of (-)-menthol dehydrogenases (MD), the last enzyme of the menthol biosynthetic pathway, were identified, cloned and characterized from the transcriptome data (three from each species). Varied expression levels and differential enzyme kinetics of these isoforms indicated the nature and composition of the product, as these isoforms generate both (-)-menthol and (+)-neomenthol from (-)-menthone and converts (-)-menthol to (-)-menthone in the reverse reaction, and hence together determine the quantity of (-)-menthol in the essential oil in these two species. Several genes for high value minor monoterpenes could also be identified from the transcriptome data. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Extraction, Preliminary Characterization and Evaluation of in Vitro Antitumor and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from Mentha piperita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Mentha piperita (MPP. The optimal parameters for the extraction of MPP were obtained by Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM at the ratio of water to raw material of 20, extraction time of 1.5 h and extraction temperature at 80 °C. Chemical composition analysis showed that MPP was mainly composed of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose, and the molecular weight of its two major fractions were estimated to be about 2.843 and 1.139 kDa, respectively. In vitro bioactivity experiments showed that MPP not only inhibited the growth of A549 cells but possessed potent inhibitory action against DNA topoisomerase I (topo I, and an appreciative antioxidant action as well. These results indicate that MPP may be useful for developing safe natural health products.

  20. The Effect of Irrigation Regimes and Mulch Application on Vegetative Indices and Essential Oil Content of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Azizi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peppermint (Mentha piperita L. from Lamiaceae family is one of the most important medicinal plants, used in food, sanitary and cosmetic industries. A field experiment was carried out in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2010-2011 to evaluate the effects of three irrigation levels (100, 80 and 60 percent of water requirements calculated by evaporation pan class A and two mulch types (black plastic and wood chips in comparison to control (without mulch on physiological parameter and essential oils content in a factorial experiments on the basis of Randimised Complete Block Desing with four replications. The data obtained from each harvest analyzed as a factorial experiment on the basis of randomized complete block design with four replications and the results of two harvests analyzed as split plot on time. The results of two harvest indicated that peppermint plants grow better in the first harvest than the second harvest. Plants collected in the first harvest showed higher dry matter and essential oil yield. The highest dry herb yield (44.12 g/plant, the highest percentage of essential oil (2.835 %v/w and the highest essential oil yield (116.7 l/ha detected in plots treated with third level of irrigation and use of wood chips mulch. In conclusion the results also confirmed that the highest dry herb and the highest oil yield per area unit were observed in plots treated with third level of irrigation with use of wood chips mulch.

  1. Effect of irradiation upon the essential oil content of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and its composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowska, Ala

    1980-01-01

    Stolons of peppermint cv Mitcham were irradiated in autumn with gamma ray at the doses of 1,000, 2,500, 5,000, 7,500 and 10,000 r. In spring of the next year, the same doses were applied to the shoots which developed from the irradiated or non-irradiated stolons. The plants were grown first in a greenhouse, then green cuttings were taken and planted in a field, where they were grown for 2 consecutive years. The essential oil content was determined in dry leaves by Deryng's method, and its composition by gas chromatography. Under greenhouse conditions, the essential oil content was markedly increased by irradiation, but the contents of menthol and cineol were decreased. Menthol content increased in the plants which developed from irradiated shoots. Under field conditions, the essential oil content increased in both the first and second growing seasons. In the first year, the increase in menthol content was found only in the plants which developed from the irradiated stolons, but in the second year, significant increase in menthol content was noted in all treatments with low doses (1,000 and 2,500 r). In general, the increase or decrease in menthol content was accompanied by the respective reduction or increase of menthol content in the oil. In all the irradiated plants, the cineol content decreased. In the trial conducted in commercial plantations, the increase in the yield of peppermint and of dry leaves was observed as a result of irradiation of the stolons with dose of 1,000 r. At the same time, the rise in the essential oil content and the increase in the yield of oil per plant were noted. (Kaihara, S.)

  2. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  3. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  4. Micropropagación de plantas de mentha piperita y evaluación de sus constituyentes volátiles

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, Jorge Ignacio; Fernández, Gloria Azucena

    2011-01-01

    La aplicación de técnicas de cultivo de tejidos vegetales in vitro en especies aromáticas y medicinales puede constituirse en un renglón importante para la economía de pequeños agricultores, debido a su alto potencial de comercialización y producción. Se pretende en este trabajo demostrar una vía de aplicación semiindustrial para cultivar masivamente especies vegetales de Mentha piperita, debido a la aceptación y consumo mundial de su aceite esencial. Se estudiaron diferentes variedades de M...

  5. Chemical composition of Mentha pulegium and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and their antileishmanial, antibacterial and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyahya, Abdelhakim; Et-Touys, Abdeslam; Bakri, Youssef; Talbaui, Ahmed; Fellah, Hajiba; Abrini, Jamal; Dakka, Nadia

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was the determination of the chemical composition of Mentha pulegium L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils and the evaluation of their antileishmanial, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Essential oils (EOs) were isolated using steam distillation and the chemical composition was determined using GC-MS analysis. The antibacterial activity was tested against ten pathogenic strains using the diffusion method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) by microtitration assay. The antioxidant activity was estimated by DPPH free radical scavenging ability and ferric-reducing power. The antileishmanial activity was tested against Leishmania major, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum using MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The yield of essential oils (v/w %) M. puleguim and R. officinalis based on dry weight were 5.4 and 2.7% respectively. GC/MS analysis of R. officinalis essential oil (ROEO) revealed the presence of 29 components, mainly represented by oxygenated monoterpenes (63.743%) and hydrocarbons monoterpenes (21.231%). Mentha pulegium essential oil (MPEO) revealed 21 components, mainly represented by oxygenated monoterpenes (83.865%). The major components of ROEO were α-pinene (14.076), 1,8-Cineole (23.673) and camphor (18.743), while menthone (21.164) and pulegone (40.98) were the main major components of MPEO. M. pulegium and R. officinalis EOs showed a significant antioxidant activity compared with ascorbic acid and Trolox to the IC 50 values of 58.27 ± 2.72 and 85.74 ± 7.57 μg/mL respectively revealed by reducing power assay. As for the antibacterial effect, the highest zone diameters were shown by the MPEO against Bacillus subtilis (30 ± 1.43 mm) and Proteus mirabilis (28 ± 1.32 mm). These values are significantly important compared with those of the commercialized antibiotic (Erythromycin and

  6. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  7. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave -

  8. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  9. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  10. Effects of medicinal herbs "Plantago asiatica", "Houttuynia cordata" and "Mentha haplocalyx" on non-specific immune responses of cobia (Rachycentron canadum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Yin-Yu; Ueng, Pien-Sheng; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of orally administered Plantago asiatica, Houttuynia cordata, and Mentha haplocalyx on the growth and nonspecific immune responses of cobia (Rachycentron canadum). The nonspecific immune parameters assessed were weight gain, feed conversion ratio, superoxide anion (O 2 - ) production, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic rate, phagocytic index, lysozyme activity, serum albumin and globulin, and albumin:globulin (A/G) ratio. The growth experiment indicated that 6-week dietary treatments did not significantly affect on the growth of cobia. Nonspecific immune responses showed that O 2 - production, SOD and lysozyme activity, and phagocytosis were significantly increased after the oral administration of P. asiatica and H. cordata, and the serum albumin:globulin ratio (A/G) gradually decreased. In this study, treatment of the Mentha haplocalyx on the cobia didn't present with the inducing of the phagocytosis ability compared with the treatment of P. asiatica and H. cordata. We suggest that oral administration of the 10 g/kg or 20 g/kg of the P. asiatica and H. cordata is exactly inducing the phagocytosis, ROS production, lysozyme activity and SOD production in the cobia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Cadmium and Lead on Quantitative and Essential Oil Traits of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Amirmoradi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available **Introduction Industrialization has been the cause of environmental pollution and one of significant pollutant is that of heavy metals. These hazardous elements can cause to water and soil pollution. These metals can accumulate in the food chain and create damages for human and livestock. Researchers revealed that increasing Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations caused to decreasing of shoot fresh weight and essential oil yield. Scavroni et al (2005 indicated that peppermint was able to accumulate the heavy metals in shoot tissues but did not enter into essential oil. Therefore study the effect of heavy metals on morphological and quantitative traits of medicinal plants is essential. Material and Method The experiment was done in the research greenhouse of the Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2011.The treatments were arranged basis on a randomized block design with three replications. Treatments were included T1:0, T2:10 ppm cd , T3:20 ppm cd,T4:40 ppm cd,T5:60 ppm cd,T6:80 ppm cd cd,T7:100 ppm cd,T8:100ppm pb, T9:300 ppm pb, T10: 600 ppm pb, T11: 900 ppm pb, T12: 1200 ppm pb and T13: 1500 ppm pb. Peppermint was cultivated with uniform weight rhizomes harvested from the research farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Every rhizome had two buds and six rhizomes were planted in pots of dimensions 30×50×35 cm. Treatments were irrigated with cdcl2 and pbcl2 with the administered doses and control was irrigated with distilled water. Plants were harvested two times at the first stages of flowering. The essential oil percentage was measured with 30 grams of dried leaves by Clevenger device. Result and Discussion Increasing cadmium and lead concentrations caused a decline of fresh and dry weight, main stem height, leaf area per plant, leaf number per plant, number of nodes per plant and essential oil percentage compared to the control. At the first harvest, increasing doses of Cd caused a decrease of fresh weight. This

  12. Morphologic alterations on red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m: the effect of Mentha crispa L. (hortela) extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Filho, S.D.; Dire, G.L.; Lima, E.; Pereira, M.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2002-01-01

    The use of natural products, as medicinal plants, is very frequent in the world. Mentha crispa L. (M. crispa) is utilized in herbal medicine. Blood elements labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used in nuclear medicine procedures and this labeling process may be altered by drugs. We have investigated the possibility of M. crispa extract being capable to alter the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with M. crispa extract in various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100%). Stannous chloride solution and Tc-99m, as sodium pertechnetate, were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated. Samples of P and BC were also precipitated, centrifuged and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) in BC, IF-P and IF-BC was calculated. Histological evaluations of the red blood cells (RBC) were performed with blood samples treated with various concentrations of M. Crispa L. and the morphology of the RBC was observed under optical microscope. Important morphological alterations expressed by mean of the perimeter/area of the RBC treated with M. crispa: 6.25% (0.67 ± 0.02), 12.5% (0.77 ± 0.03), 25% (0.73 ± 0.04), 50% (0.76 ± 0.04), 100% (0.69 ± 0.08) and the control cells (0.67 ± 0.05). The %ATI decreased: (i) on BC from 97.3 ± 1.92 to 60.0 ± 2.44; (ii) on IF-P from 74.8 ± 3.78 to 9.99 ± 3.61; (iii) on IF-BC from 88.6 ± 5.41 to 58.4 ± 11.55. The perimeter/area of the RBC showed significant differences (P>0.01) when compared 6.25% and 12.5%, and when compared 6.25% and 50% of M. Crispa L. extract. These findings could also justify the decrease of the labeling of BC with 99mTc in presence of M. Crispa extract

  13. Chemical composition and repellency of essential oils from four medicinal plants against Ixodes ricinus nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seedi, Hesham R; Khalil, Nasr S; Azeem, Muhammad; Taher, Eman A; Göransson, Ulf; Pålsson, Katinka; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2012-09-01

    In our search for effective tick repellents from plant origin, we investigated the effect of essential oils of four medicinal and culinary plants belonging to the family Lamiaceae on nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.). The essential oils of the dry leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) (L.), Mentha spicata (Spearmint) (L.), Origanum majorana (Majoram) (L.), and Ocimum basilicum (Basil) (L.) were isolated by steam distillation and 15 microg/cm2 concentration of oils was tested against ticks in a laboratory bioassay. The oils of R. officinalis, M. spicata, and O. majorana showed strong repellency against the ticks 100, 93.2, and 84.3%, respectively, whereas O. basilicum only showed 64.5% repellency. When tested in the field, the oils of R. officinalis and M. spicata showed 68.3 and 59.4% repellency at a concentration of 6.5 microg/cm2 on the test cloths. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and the major compounds from the most repellent oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, linalool, 4-terpineol, borneol, and carvone.

  14. Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

    1989-01-01

    Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

  15. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  16. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  17. Parental leave and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.

  18. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  19. Effect of aqueous extracts of Mentha arvensis (mint) and Piper betle (betel) on growth and citrinin production from toxigenic Penicillium citrinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Pragyanshree; Aiko, Visenuo; Mehta, Alka

    2015-06-01

    Due to growing concern of consumers about chemical residues in food products, the demand for safe and natural food is increasing greatly. The use of natural additives such as spices and herbal oil as seasoning agents for their antimicrobial activity has been extensively investigated. This paper discusses the efficacy of the aqueous extract of mint (Mentha arvensis) and betel (Piper betle) on the mycelial growth and citrinin production of Penicillium citrinum. The present investigation revealed that mint extract inhibited citrinin production up to 73 % without inhibiting the mycelium growth. The citrinin production decreased with increase in the concentration of mint extract as observed from the data obtained from High pressure liquid chromatography. The samples also showed reduced cytotoxicity on HeLa cells. On the other hand betel extract resulted in stimulatory effect on citrinin production and mycelial growth. The study showed that mint extract has the potential to be used safely for restraining citrinin contamination.

  20. UN MÉTODO PARA LA DESINFECCIÓN Y EL ESTABLECIMIENTO In Vitro DE LA MENTA JAPONESA (Mentha arvensis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Héctor; Martha L. Barrón; Lianette Godoy; B. Díaz; María M. Hernández; A. Torres

    2005-01-01

    El género Mentha constituye una importante fuente de materia prima para varias industrias como la perfumería, cosmética, licorería y farmacéutica. En el estado de Chihuahua, México, se han introducido en los últimos años varias especies de este género con propósitos comerciales, y se ha empleado con relativo éxito la propagación in vitro en la multiplicación masiva de una de ellas. La ocurrencia de contaminaciones endógenas ha sido un problema para el establecimiento in vitro de esta y otras ...

  1. Protective Effect of Aqueous Plant Extracts of Glycyrrhiza Glabra, Melissa Officinalis and Mentha x Piperita Against Indomethacin Induced Gastric Ulcer in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.A.; Ramadan, L.A.; Ashry, O.M.; Kafafy, Y.A.

    2004-01-01

    The extracts of glycyrrhiza, Mentha and Melissa were tested for the antiulcerogenic activities against indomethacin induced ulcer in irradiated rats. Animals were irradiated at radiation dose levels 0.5, 1 and 2 Gy. The extracts were given orally 3 days after irradiation and the antiulcerogenic as well as the antisecretory and cyroprotective effects of the extracts were determined. All plant extracts produced pronounced antiulcerogenic activities and reduced acid output, increased mucin and decreased pepsin secretion in pyloric ligated rats. The antiulcerogenic activity of the plant extracts was also confirmed histologically. The effect of the plant extract could be party due to their flavonoids content and to their free radical scavenging properties. The stomach is a radiosensitive part of the gastriontestinal tract (Friedman, 1992). It does not tolerate radiation doses that are necessary to control cancer. Hoever, some parts of the stomach are often in the primary treatment field in radiotherapy

  2. Comparative Analysis of Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Mentha rotundifolia Essential oils from Algeria extracted by microwave and hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacéra HADDACHE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds growing wild from East Algeria (Naciria at 60Km in East of Algiers obtained by hydrodistillation (HD° and a microwave distillation process (MD have been analysed by means of GC-FID and GC/MS in combination with retention indices. In total, 54 constituents were identified (accounting for 96.7 and 95.6% in HD and MD oils, respectively. The main components were piperitone oxide (25.1 and 29.1% in HD and MD oils, respectively, piperitenone oxide (8.9 – 11.8%, terpinen-4-ol (9.3 – 3.4%, β-caryophyllene (5.4 – 7.3%, allo-aromadendrene (5.3 - 6.4% and Dgermacrène (5.4 – 7.1%. In comparison with HD, MD allows to obtain oil in a very short time, with the reduction of solvent used similar yields, comparable qualities and substantial savings of energy. The antioxidant activity was determined according to the ability of the tested samples to scavenge the free radicals 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*. The essential oil were slightly active (32.6 and 21.8% in HD and MD oils, respectively comparing with BHT (64.7%. The antibacterial activities of the essential oils indicated that Staphylococcus aureus was the more sensitive strain tested to the oils of Mentha rotundifolia with the strongest inhibition zone 28.3 for HD and 26.5 mm for MO.

  3. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, Ann P.; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides quasi-experimental evidence on the impact of paid leave legislation on fathers' leave-taking, as well as on the division of leave between mothers and fathers in dual-earner households. Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, which is the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the United States. Our results show that fathers in Califo...

  4. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Anne P; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the Unites States. Relative to the pre-treatment mean, fathers of infants in California are 46 percent more likely to be on leave when CA-PFL is available. In households where both parents work, we find suggestive evidence that CA-PFL increases both father-only leave-taking (i.e., father on leave while mother is at work) and joint leave-taking (i.e., both parents on leave at the same time). Effects are larger for fathers of first-born children than for fathers of later-born children.

  5. Translocação orgânica, produtividade e rendimento de óleo essencial de Mentha piperita L. cultivada em solução nutritiva com variação dos níveis de N, P, K e Mg Organic translocation, productivity and essential oil yield of Mentha piperita L. cultivated in nutrient solution with varying N, P, K and Mg levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F.S. David

    2009-01-01

    relação às demais plantas. Todos esses índices indicam melhor produtividade das plantas submetidas ao tratamento 65%N/50%P/25%K/100%Mg, que também apresentaram rendimento de óleo essencial, em média, maior durante o ciclo. Conclui-se que a redução de 35% de N, 50% de P, 75% de K (65%N/50%P/25%K/100%Mg é indicada para o cultivo e extração de óleo essencial de M. piperita.This study aimed to evaluate organic translocation, physiologic indexes of growth analysis and essential oil yield of Mentha piperita L. cultivated in nutrient solution with varying levels of N, P, K and Mg. Thus, four treatments were evaluated: 50% N, P, K, 25% Mg; 50% N, P, K, Mg; 65% N, 50% P, 25% K, 100% Mg; and 100% N, P, K, Mg. Organic translocation was assessed through leaf mass ratio (LMR and dry matter distribution to the different organs. The physiologic indexes leaf area ratio (LAR, specific leaf area (SLA, net assimilation rate (NAR and relative growth rate (RGR, derived from growth analysis, were estimated using the software ANACRES, following the quadratic exponential fitting of leaf area and dry mass of leaves and total plant, relative to time. Essential oil yield was calculated as percentage after extraction from shoot using hydrodistillation. Plants subjected to the treatment with complete level of nutrients (100%N/P/K/Mg less efficiently exported organic material from the leaf and LMR showed slower decrease due to the longer retention of such material in its production site. Besides, those plants did not present higher productivity and NAR and RGR curves showed slower decrease. Plants subjected to the treatment with 65%N/50%P/25%K/100%Mg had adequate organic matter exportation from the leaves to the stem and petioles, as demonstrated by LMR and dry matter distribution to these organs. Also in these plants, LAR was higher at the initial development and lower at 94 DAT, indicating leaf shading as a result of growth, and SLA showed less variation during the cycle, reflecting

  6. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  7. Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

  8. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  9. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  10. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  11. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance, health benefits, retirement coverage, and leave accrual). (e) The agency shall determine the... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule... reduced leave schedule unless the employee and the agency agree to do so. (b) Leave under § 630.1203(a) (3...

  12. Mentha arvensis (Linn.-mediated green silver nanoparticles trigger caspase 9-dependent cell death in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee PP

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Prajna Paramita Banerjee,1 Arindam Bandyopadhyay,1 Singapura Nagesh Harsha,2 Rudragoud S Policegoudra,3 Shelley Bhattacharya,4 Niranjan Karak,2 Ansuman Chattopadhyay1 1Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, West Bengal, 2Advanced Polymer and Nanomaterial Laboratory, Department of Chemical Sciences, Center for Polymer Science and Technology, Tezpur University, Napaam, 3Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, Defence Research Laboratory, Tezpur, Assam, 4Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, West Bengal, India Introduction: Leaf extract of Mentha arvensis or mint plant was used as reducing agent for the synthesis of green silver nanoparticles (GSNPs as a cost-effective, eco-friendly process compared to that of chemical synthesis. The existence of nanoparticles was characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic-force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses, which ascertained the formation of spherical GSNPs with a size range of 3–9 nm. Anticancer activities against breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 were studied and compared with those of chemically synthesized (sodium borohydride [NaBH4]-mediated silver nanoparticles (CSNPs. Materials and methods: Cell survival of nanoparticle-treated and untreated cells was studied by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Cell-cycle analyses were carried out using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Cell morphology was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Expression patterns of PARP1, P53, P21, Bcl2, Bax and cleaved caspase 9 as well as caspase 3 proteins in treated and untreated MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were studied by Western blot method. Results: MTT assay results showed that Mentha arvensis-mediated GSNPs

  13. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  14. Leaves of Absence. School Law Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report contains State-by-State statutory summaries on three types of leaves of absence relating to teachers -- sick leave, maternity leave, and sabbatical leave. Only State laws that have specific reference to one of these three types of leaves of absence are included. Not included are those statutes granting boards of education the general…

  15. Desenvolvimento vegetativo de Mentha campestris Schur e produção de mentol em diferentes espaçamentos de plantio e épocas de colheita Vegetative development of Mentha campestris Schur and menthol production in different row spaces and harvest times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de óleos essenciais nas plantas aromáticas é influenciada por fatores bióticos e abióticos. A demanda por esses produtos tem aumentado, sendo os óleos essenciais do gênero Mentha de grande interesse nas indústrias farmacêutica, de cosméticos, alimentícia e agrícola, principalmente em função do composto mentol. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de três espaçamentos de plantio (0,60 x 0,15 m; 0,60 x 0,30 m e 0,60 x 0,45 m e duas épocas de colheita (60 e 90 dias após o plantio na espécie Mentha campestris Schur. O experimento foi conduzido no Centro de Estações Experimentais do Canguiri-UFPR, em Pinhais-PR, no período de janeiro a abril de 2008. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. Houve diferença significativa para todas as variáveis analisadas. As massas secas de folhas, ramos e total foram maiores que na primeira época. Para a biomassa seca de folhas foram observados maiores valores no menor espaçamento de plantio. O rendimento de óleo essencial foi maior na segunda época de colheita e nos espaçamentos maiores. A produtividade do óleo também foi maior na segunda época de colheita, porém no espaçamento mais adensado. Pode-se concluir como recomendação para M. campestris Schur o espaçamento 0,60 x 0,15 m e colheita aos 90 dias, por terem atingido maior biomassa, rendimento de óleo essencial e produtividade de mentol por hectare.Essential oil production in aromatic plants is influenced by biotic and abiotic factors. The demand for these products has increased, and essential oils from the genus Mentha have been of great interest for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agronomic industries, especially because of the compound menthol. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three row spaces (0.60 x 0.15 m; 0.60 x 0.30 m and 0.60 x 0.45 m and two harvest times (60 and 90 days after planting on the species Mentha campestris Schur. The

  16. Chitinase from phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boller, T.; Gehri, A.; Mauch, F.; Vogeli, V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of ethylene on chitinase activity in bean leaves. The authors have purified the enzyme in the course of their work. The purification method is detailed and the colorimetric and radiochemical assays are compared

  17. The Problems of Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2017-10-01

    The United States is the only major industrialized country in the world to not require paid parental leave. Numerous studies have shown that allowing parents time with a newborn makes the child and the parents healthier, both physically and mentally. Many physicians, especially those who work in practices with five or fewer doctors, worry about how to pay for parental leave for themselves and their staff.

  18. Free Radicals Scavenging Activity of Essential Oils and Different Fractions of Methanol Extract of Zataria Multiflora, Salvia Officinalis, Rosmarinus Officinalis, Mentha Pulegium and Cinnamomum Zeylanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Changizi Ashtiani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Essential oils and extracts from medicinal plants are regarded as natural food preservatives and health promoting drugs. Considering their antioxidant activity, most of them can prevent oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to evaluate free radicals scavenging activity of essential oils and different fractions of methanol extracts from cinnamon, pennyroyal, black cumin, sage, rosemary and azkand. Methods: Antioxidant property of essential oils and different fractions of these medicinal plants was studied by determining their DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals scavenging activity. Results: There were significant differences among the free radical scavenging activity of studied essential oils and different fractions. Ethyl acetate fractions were identified as the most active fractions than other ones and even synthetic antioxidant (BHT, IC50 value of 239.5μg/ml with the highest activity in Mentha pulegium (47.2 μg/ml μg/ml. Among others, n-hexane fraction of rosemary (969 μg/ml, dichloromethane fraction of rosemary (205.46 μg/ml and zatar (344 μg/ml and aqueous fractions of cinnamon (117.6 μg/ml and sage (321.3 μg/ml exhibited appreciable antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Regarding considerable activity of studied extracts, they have the potential to be used as natural antioxidants in relevant industries.

  19. Antioxidant Activity and Volatile and Phenolic Profiles of Essential Oil and Different Extracts of Wild Mint (Mentha longifolia from the Pakistani Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahseen Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil and three different extracts of wildly grown Mentha longifolia (M. longifolia were studied. The essential oil from M. longifolia aerial parts was isolated by hydrodistillation technique using Clevenger-type apparatus. The extracts were prepared with three solvents of different polarity (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol using Soxhlet extractor. Maximum extract yield was obtained with methanol (12.6 g/100 g while the minimum with dichloromethane (3.50 g/100 g. The essential oil content was found to be 1.07 g/100 g. A total of 19 constituents were identified in the M. longifolia oil using GC/MS. The main components detected were piperitenone oxide, piperitenone, germacrene D, borneol, and β-caryophyllene. The total phenolics (TP and total flavonoids (TF contents of the methanol extract of M. longifolia were found to be significantly higher than dichloromethane and hexane extracts. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts exhibited excellent antioxidant activity as assessed by 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging ability, bleaching β-carotene, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation assays. The essential oil and hexane extract showed comparatively weaker antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The results of the study have validated the medicinal and antioxidant potential of M. longifolia essential oil and extracts.

  20. Effects of dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) on growth performance, chemical body composition and hematological and immune parameters of fry Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Abedian Amiri, Armin; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Nematolahi, Amin; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is a very popular herb. While numerous effects have been described in mammals, its effects on fish have received so far limited attention. The effects of dietary administration of peppermint on fry Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases of growth parameters (WG and SGR), mucus skin (protein concentration, alkaline phosphatase and antimicrobial activity) and seric (lysozyme and IgM) and blood leucocyte respiratory burst activities and different hematological parameters (number of red and white cells, seric hemoglobin and hematocrit content) were recorded in fry fish fed supplemented diets. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leucocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was increased and decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Present results corroborate that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main hematological and immune humoral (both mucosal and systemic) parameters of fry Caspian white fish. This study may provide new applications of peppermint and, at the same time, promote rational development and utilization of peppermint resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante das espécies Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. e Mentha x villosa (Huds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Correia Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais com potencial terapêutico tem motivado a realização de estudos através de ensaios experimentais que visam fornecer informações úteis e de extrema importância. Assim o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante das espécies de Coleus amboinicus (Lour. e Mentha x villosa (Huds. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em disco, cepas bacterianas padronizadas Gram negativas Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e ATCC 35218, cepas Gram positivas Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 e S. aureus ATCC 27853, assim como fungos padrões de Cryptococcus neoformans (pertencentes à coleção de microrganismos do CESMAC. Como controle positivo foi usado o imipenem e fluconazol e como controle negativo um disco com etanol absoluto. A determinação do potencial antioxidante foi realizada utilizando os métodos DPPH, FTC e determinação de compostos fenólicos. Os extratos etanólicos de C. amboinicus e M. x villosa apresentaram excelentes resultados tanto relacionado à atividade antimicrobiana quanto à antioxidante. Nossos resultados mostram a potencialidade das plantas analisadas na prevenção e no combate de doenças.

  2. Synergistic effect of Carum copticum and Mentha piperita essential oils with ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and gentamicin on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talei, Gholam-Reza; Mohammadi, Mohsen; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Kopaei, Mahmoud Rafieian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Infectious diseases have always been an important health issue in human communities. In the recent years, much research has been conducted on antimicrobial effects of nature-based compounds because of increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance. The present study was conducted to investigate synergistic effect of Carum copticum and Mentha piperita essential oils with ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and gentamicin on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the synergistic effects of C. copticum and M. piperita essential oils with antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 14990), and Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 7644) were studied according to broth microdilution and the MIC and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) of these two essential oils determined. Results: C. copticum essential oil at 30 μg/ml could inhibit S. aureus, and in combination with vancomycin, decreased MIC from 0.5 to 0.12 μg/ml. Moreover, the FIC was derived 0.24 μg/ml which represents a potent synergistic effect with vancomycin against S. aureus growth. C. copticum essential oil alone or combined with other antibiotics is effective in treating bacterial infections. Conclusions: In addition, C. copticum essential oil can strengthen the activities of certain antibiotics, which makes it possible to use this essential oil, especially in drug resistance or to lower dosage or toxicity of the drugs. PMID:28929050

  3. Assessment of the Thermodynamic Properties of DL-p-Mentha-1,8-diene, 4-Isopropyl-1-Methylcyclohexene (DL-limonene) by Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, Negin; Abbasian, Ali; Larijani, Kambiz

    2018-05-10

    Limonene is a colorless liquid hydrocarbon and had been investigated as a plasticizer for many plastics. Prediction of solubility between different materials is an advantage in many ways, one of the most convenient ways to know the compatibility of materials is to determine the degree of solubility of them in each other. The concept of "solubility parameter" can help practitioners in this way.In this study, inverse gas chromatography (IGC) method at infinite dilution was used for determination of the thermodynamic properties of DL-p-mentha-1,8-diene, 4-Isopropyl-1-methylcyclohexene (DL-limonene). The interaction between DL-limonene and 13 solvents were examined in the temperature range of 63-123°C through the assessment of the thermodynamic sorption parameters, the parameters of mixing at infinite dilution, the weight fraction activity coefficient and the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters. Additionally, the solubility parameter for DL-limonene and the temperature dependence of these parameters was investigated as well.Results show that there is a temperature dependence in solubility parameter, which increases by decreasing temperature. However, there were no specific dependence between interaction parameters and temperature, but chemical structure appeared to have a significant effect on them as well as on the type and strength of intermolecular interactions between DL-limonene and investigated solvents. The solubility parameter δ2 of DL-limonene determined to be 19.20 (J/cm3)0.5 at 25°C.

  4. Hollow fibre-based liquid phase microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography for the analysis of flavonoids in Echinophora platyloba DC. and Mentha piperita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjmohammadi, Mohammadreza; Karimiyan, Hanieh; Sharifi, Vahid

    2013-11-15

    A simple, inexpensive and efficient three phase hollow fibre liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) technique combined with HPLC was used for the simultaneous determination of flavonoids in Echinophora platyloba DC. and Mentha piperita. Different factors affecting the HF-LPME procedure were investigated and optimised. The optimised extraction conditions were as follows: 1-octanol as an organic solvent, pHdonor=2, pHacceptor=9.75, stirring rate of 1000rpm, extraction time of 80min, without addition of salt. Under these conditions, the enrichment factors ranged between 146 and 311. The values of intra and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSD) were in the range of 3.18-6.00% and 7.25-11.00%, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged between 0.5 and 7.0ngmL(-1). Among the investigated flavonoids quercetin was found in E. platyloba DC. and luteolin was found in M. piperita. Concentration of quercetin and luteolin was 0.015 and 0.025mgg(-1) respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acaricidal effects of herb essential oils against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) and qualitative analysis of a herb Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, In-Sook

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was undertaken to screen the acaricidal effects of herb essential oils (pennyroyal, ylang ylang, citronella, lemon grass, tea tree, and rosemary) at different doses (0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.00625 µl/cm2) and exposure times (5, 10, 20, 20, 30 and 60 min) on house dust mites Dermatophgoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus. The most effective acaricidal components of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Of these essential oils, the most effective was pennyroyal, which is composed essentially of pulegone (> 99%), at a dose of 0.025 µl/cm2 which at an exposure time of 5 min killed more than 98% of house dust mites. In the pennyroyal fumigation test, the closed method was more effective than the open method and maximum acaricidal effect was 100% at 0.025 µl/cm2, 60 min. The results show that herb essential oils, in particular, pennyroyal was proved to have potent acaricidal activity. PMID:16809961

  6. Effects of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil and nisin alone and in combination on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis in a food model and bacterial ultrastructural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajohi, Mohamad Reza; Tajik, Hossein; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Hadian, Mojtaba

    2011-02-01

    In the face of emerging new pathogens and ever-growing health-conscious customers, food preservation technology remains on the top agenda of food industry. This study was aimed at determining the effects of the essential oil of Mentha longifolia L., alone and in combination with nisin, on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis at 8°C and 25°C in a food model (commercial barley soup) during 15 days. The essential oil alone at 8°C inhibited bacterial growth significantly compared with the control (p < 0.05). However, at 25°C, none of the concentrations of the essential oil alone showed inhibitory effect on bacterial growth. At 8°C, the combination effect of the essential oil and nisin on bacteria was noted at 0.25 μg mL(-1) for nisin and 0.05 μL mL(-1) for the essential oil (p < 0.05). The combination of nisin and the essential oil demonstrated significant inhibitory effects on the vegetative forms of bacteria at 25°C, although it was comparable to that of nisin alone at the same concentrations. Electron microscopy studies revealed a great deal of damage to B. cereus treated with a combination of nisin and the essential oil. However, the combination of nisin with the essential oil led to a complete destruction of cell wall and cytoplasm of vegetative cells of B. subtilis.

  7. Mentha pulegium crude extracts induce thiol oxidation and potentiate hemolysis when associated to t-butyl hydroperoxide in human’s erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATHEUS C. BIANCHINI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mentha pulegium (Lamiaceae tea has been used as a traditional medicine; however, the modulatory effect of M. pulegium extracts on damage to human erythrocytes associated to t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP exposure remains to be investigated. Accordingly, we perform this study in order to test the hypothesis that aqueous and ethanolic extracts of M. pulegium could modulate the hemolysis associated to t-BHP exposure, non-protein thiol (NPSH oxidation and lipid peroxidation (measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances - TBARS in human erythrocytes. Samples were co-incubated with t-BHP (4 mmol/L and/or aqueous or ethanolic extracts (10-1000 mg/mL during 120 min to further analysis. We found that both extracts, when associated to t-BHP, potentiate NPSH oxidation and hemolysis. Moreover, both extracts significantly prevents against t-BHP-induced TBARS production. A significant correlation among hemolysis and NPSH levels was found. Taking together, our data points that the association of M. pulegium extracts with t-BHP culminates in toxic effect to exposed erythrocytes, besides its protective effect against t-BHP-induced TBARS production. So, we infer that the use of this extract may exert negative effect during painful crisis in sickle cell anemia. However, more studies are still necessary to better investigate/understand the mechanism(s involved in the toxic effect resultant from this association.

  8. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF THREE ESSENTIAL OILS FROM PORTUGUESE FLORA

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, M. Rosário; Tinoco, M. Teresa; Almeida, A. S.; Cruz-Morais, J.

    2012-01-01

    The present work reports on the evaluation of chemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils of three aromatic herbs, growing wild in the south of Portugal, used in traditional food preparations: Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha spicata and Rosmarinus officinalis. The principal components of essential oils were anethole (41.2%) for F. vulgare, carvone (41.1%) for M. spicata and myrcene (23.7%) for R. officinalis. Essential oils showed antioxidant activity eit...

  9. [Disability leave and sick leave in Spain. 2016 legislative update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna; Aguado-Benedí, María José; López-González, Angel Arturo; Torres-Alberich, José Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    In Spanish, the concepts of discapacidad (disability leave) and incapacidad (sick leave) jointly refer to the impairment of a person due to injuries, diseases or deficiencies that limit their activity in a social, personal or occupational field. However, this common link does not imply that both concepts are the same. Statistical data from INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Statistic National Institute) show that Spain had in 2015 3.85 million persons with a disability (59.8% were women). Statistical data from 2015 from INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social: Social Security National Institute) show high levels in the number of processes and in workers affected by temporary sick leave, with social costs to the social security system. Both concepts have been updated: about disability leave, Law 39/2006 adjusted terminology by avoiding the use of concepts with discriminating or pejorative connotation. Regarding sick leave, the Ley General de Seguridad Social (General Social Security Law)has been amended and came into effect in January, 2016. It is necessary to know and distinguish these aspects for a better administrative management, and a more oriented information to the affected patient.

  10. Selection of active plant extracts against the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to the development of alternative control methods of the coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae, a search for plants able to produce active substances against this insect was carried out, with species collected during different periods of time in the Alto Rio Grande region, (Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Coffee leaves containing L. coffeella mines were joined with 106 extracts from 77 plant species and, after 48 hours, the dead and alive caterpillars were counted. The extracts from Achillea millefolium, Citrus limon, Glechoma hederacea, Malva sylvestris, Mangifera indica, Mentha spicata, Mirabilis jalapa, Musa sapientum, Ocimum basiculum, Petiveria alliaceae, Porophyllum ruderale, Psidium guajava, Rosmarinus officinalis, Roupala montana, Sambucus nigra and Tropaeolum majus showed the highest mortality rates.

  11. Why People Leave Their Jobs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Domínguez A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the results of the review of literature of relevant studies of the causal elements of intention to leave in the last five years (2009-2013. The method used to evaluate the literature was based on the seven steps for research synthesis: problem formulation, literature search, obtaining information from studies, quality assessment studies, analysis and integration of results, interpretation of evidence and presentation of results. 48 studies from 15 different countries with a sample of 35804 employees of different companies were evaluated. The findings suggest the existence of 89 different variables influencing the intention to leave of employees in an organization. The results of this study will allow researchers to better understand the variables that can be studied to verify the impact of variables such as causal elements, but also see those that have a mediating effect between them for predicting intention to leave as an element of employee turnover. This study makes three important contributions to literature of turnover. First, in this study all the parameters associated with the intention to leave were checked. Second, this study categorizes and displays in proportion relevant interests to the scientific community whom studying employee turnover across the intention to leave. And thirdly provides clues organizations to improve some of its structural and contextual features to control turnover.

  12. Parental leave: the impact of recent legislation on parents' leave taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2003-02-01

    We use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation to examine the impact of leave entitlements on unpaid leave usage by men and women after the birth of a child from 1991 to 1999. The results indicate that legislation providing the right to unpaid leave has not affected men's leave usage. The results for women are mixed: in some specifications, leave entitlements are associated with increased leave taking or longer leaves, but the results depend on how we define leave coverage. Our results point to the limited impact of unpaid leave policies and the potential importance of paid-leave policies.

  13. Algerian mint species:high performance thin layer chromatography quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid and in vitro inhibitory effects on linoleic acid peroxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brahmi Fatiha; Madani Khodir; Stvigny Caroline; Chibane Mohamed; Duez Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the quantitative paremeters of rosmarinic acid in Algerian mints,Mentha spicata L. (M. spicata), Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometric method and screen the effects of these plant extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation.Methods:The analyses were performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform:acetone: formic acid (75:16.5:8.5, v/v) as the mobile phase. Rosmarinic acid was determined in UV at 365 nm and fluorescence at λexc 325 nm with a 550 nm filter, respectively. The effects of plants extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation were measured by an indirect in vitro colorimetric method.Results:Chromatographic resolution permitted reliable quantification in both measurement modes and calibration curves were linear in a range of 150-1000 ng/spot. M. spicata was found to contain significantly higher concentrations of rosmarinic acid. The densitometric quantification allowed the analysis of many samples in a short time with reasonable precision (total precision for Mentha spp extracts, 5.1% and 5.8% for UV and fluorescence detection, respectively). The HPTLC data, allied to assays of linoleic acid peroxidation prevention, suggested the potential of M. spicata (52% Trolox®equivalents) as a natural source for inhibitors of lipid peroxidation.Conclusions:Densitometry can be used for routine determination and quality control of rosmarinic acid in herbal and formulations containing Mentha species.

  14. Algerian mint species: high performance thin layer chromatography quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid and in vitro inhibitory effects on linoleic acid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmi Fatiha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the quantitative paremeters of rosmarinic acid in Algerian mints, Mentha spicata L. (M. spicata, Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC-densitometric method and screen the effects of these plant extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation. Methods: The analyses were performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform: acetone: formic acid (75:16.5:8.5, v/v as the mobile phase. Rosmarinic acid was determined in UV at 365 nm and fluorescence at λexc 325 nm with a 550 nm filter, respectively. The effects of plants extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation were measured by an indirect in vitro colorimetric method. Results: Chromatographic resolution permitted reliable quantification in both measurement modes and calibration curves were linear in a range of 150-1 000 ng/spot. M. spicata was found to contain significantly higher concentrations of rosmarinic acid. The densitometric quantification allowed the analysis of many samples in a short time with reasonable precision (total precision for Mentha spp extracts, 5.1% and 5.8% for UV and fluorescence detection, respectively. The HPTLC data, allied to assays of linoleic acid peroxidation prevention, suggested the potential of M. spicata (52% Trolox® equivalents as a natural source for inhibitors of lipid peroxidation. Conclusions: Densitometry can be used for routine determination and quality control of rosmarinic acid in herbal and formulations containing Mentha species.

  15. An Evaluation of Paid Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    This paper analyzes a labor market program which enables workers to leave employment temporarily with a compensation financed by the taxpayers. The main aim of the program was to increase the chances of the unemployed finding a job. However, the empirical analysis reveals a clear negative...... relationship between the unemployment rate and transition rates from employment into the paid leave scheme. Program participation is low, precisely in those labor market states, where the scheme has a potential to perform as a remedy by increasing the transition rate from unemployment to employment. Several...

  16. Elevated CO2 induces a global metabolic change in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and improves their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jaouni, Soad; Saleh, Ahmed M; Wadaan, Mohammed A M; Hozzein, Wael N; Selim, Samy; AbdElgawad, Hamada

    Many studies have discussed the influence of elevated carbon dioxide (eCO 2 ) on modeling and crop plants. However, much less effort has been dedicated to herbal plants. In this study, a robust monitoring for the levels of 94 primary and secondary metabolites and minerals in two medicinal herbs, basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), grwon under both ambient (aCO 2 , 360 ppm) and eCO 2 (620 ppm) was performed. We also assessed how the changes in herbal tissue chemistry affected their biological activity. Elevated CO 2 significantly increased herbal biomass, improved the rates of photosynthesis and dark respiration, and altered the tissue chemistry. Principal Component Analysis of the full data set revealed that eCO 2 induced a global change in the metabolomes of the two plants. Moreover, Hierarchical Clustering Analyses showed quantitative differences in the metabolic profiles of the two plants and in their responsiveness to eCO 2 . Out of 94 metabolites, 38 and 31 significantly increased in basil and peppermint, respectively, as affected by eCO 2 . Regardless of the plant species, the levels of non-structural carbohydrates, fumarate, glutamine, glutathione, ascorbate, phylloquinone (vitamin K1), anthocyanins and a majority of flavonoids and minerals were significantly improved by eCO 2 . However, some metabolites tended to show species specificity. Interestingly, eCO 2 caused enhancement in antioxidant, antiprotozoal, anti-bacterial and anticancer (against urinary bladder carcinoma; T24P) activities in both plants, which was consequent with improvement in the levels of antioxidant metabolites such as glutathione, ascorbate and flavonoids. Therefore, this study suggests that the metabolic changes triggered by eCO 2 in the target herbal plants improved their biological activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant activity, the content of total phenols and flavonoids in the ethanol extracts of Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson dried by the use of different techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević Dragana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have examined the yield of extracted substances obtained by means of extraction using 70 % ethanol (v/v, the content of total phenols and flavonoids, as well as the antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained from the samples of the herbs dried by means of different techniques. Wild mint Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson was dried naturally in a laboratory oven at a temperature of 45 °C and in an absorptive low temperature condensation oven at 35°C. The highest yield of extracts was obtained from the naturally dried herbs and the lowest from the herbs dried in the low temperature condensation drying oven. The content of total phenols and flavonoids was determined by spectrophotometric methods with an FC reagent and by the complexation reaction with aluminium-chloride, respectively. The extract of the naturally dried herbs had the highest overall content of phenols (113.8±2.0 mg of gallic acid/g of the dry extract and flavonoids (106.7±0.3 mg of rutin/g of the dry extract. The highest antioxidant activity determined by the FRAP and DPPH assay was determined in the extracts obtained from naturally dried herbs (2.76±0.15 mmol Fe2+/mg of the dry extract and EC50=0.022±0.001 mg/ml, while the lowest was obtained from the extracts of herbs dried in the laboratory oven (1.13±0.11 mmol Fe2+/mg of the dry extract and EC50=0.033±0.001 mg/ml. The HPLC-DAD analysis result show that the greatest content of phenolic compounds show extract obtained from naturally dried plant material. The dominant phenolic component in the all extracts is Kaempferol 3-O-glucoside. The content of all phenolic compound strongly depend on the drying conditions.

  18. The Effect of Ethanol Extract of Aerial Parts of the Mentha piperita in the Acquisition, Tolerance Expression and Dependence to Morphine in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Khajeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Morphine dependence is a compulsive pattern of drug taking, resulting from the positive reinforcement of the rewarding effects of drug taking and the negative reinforcement of withdrawal syndrome that accompanies the cessation of drug taking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ethanol extract of aerial parts of the Mentha piperita in the acquisition, tolerance expression and dependence to morphine in adult male mice Methods: In the present study, 75 NMRI mice were divided into fifiteen groups. The Hot-plate test was used to survey the morphine activity. Morphine was injected (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg, i.p. twice daily for seven days, except in 8th day in which morphine was administrated at a single dose (50 mg/kg. The extract (50, 75, 100 mg/kg was injected for eight days. The control animals were intact, and sham animals only received morphine. Naloxone was injected (10 mg/kg five hours after the final dose of morphine and the withdrawal signs were recorded during a 30 minute period. The data were expressed as mean values ± SEM and tested, using analysis of one-way ANOVA test. Results: Peppermint extract at doses of 75 and 100 kg significantly improved the tolerance expression and dependence to morphine in animals and significantly reduced the symptoms of withdrawal. Conclusion: Peppermint extract was commuted morphine tolerance and dependence in mice.The plant contained component(s that alleviate morphine withdrawal syndrome. The extract possibly be effective in improving tolerance to morphine.

  19. Potencial alelopático de extratos aquosos de Melissa officinalis L. e Mentha x villosa L. na germinação e vigor de sementes de Plantago major L. Allelopathic effect of extracts of Melissa officinallis L. and Mentha x villosa L. on seed germination and vigor of Plantago major L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P.G. Bonfim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos extratos aquosos de hortelã e melissa na germinação e vigor de sementes de tanchagem. O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, no mês de abril de 2011. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos (testemunha, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100 % do extrato aquoso de hortelã e melissa e quatro repetições. Os extratos foram preparados utilizando a parte aérea das plantas, na proporção de 100g de planta para 1 L de água destilada. Foram utilizadas 50 sementes de tanchagem em cada caixa gerbox, previamente umedecido com os extratos aquosos (correspondentes aos tratamentos, estas foram levadas para germinar em câmara de germinação, em temperatura de 20°C, fotoperíodo de 16 horas luz e 8 horas escuro, por 14 dias. Durante esse tempo foram feitas às contagens diárias das sementes germinadas para calcular o índice de velocidade de germinação e ao final dos 14 dias foi calculada a porcentagem de germinação. Sementes de tanchagem não submetidas aos extratos aquosos de melissa e hortelã apresentaram-se mais vigorosas quando comparado com as concentrações, evidenciando o potencial alelopático de melissa e hortelã sobre a sua qualidade fisiológica.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of Melissa officinallis and Mentha x villosa for the germination and vigor of Plantago major seeds. The experiment was conducted at the Plant Science Department, Federal University of Viçosa, in April 2011. The design was a completely randomized design with five treatments (control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the aqueous extract of Mentha x villosa and Melissa Officinallis and four replications. The extracts were prepared utulizando the shoots of plants at the rate of 100g of plant to 1 L of distilled water. We used 50 Plantago major seeds in each box incubator and these were subsequently placed in a

  20. Composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils obtained from plants of the Lamiaceae family against pathogenic and beneficial bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán, Lina P; Díaz, Gonzalo J; Duringer, Jennifer M

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative composition and antibacterial activity of six essential oils obtained from plants cultivated in the Colombian Andes (Mentha spicata, Mentha piperita, Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) and a commercial essential oil of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum were investigated. The essential oil composition was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while the antibacterial activity of the essential oils against Escheric...

  1. Watch out for the leaves!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Now that autumn is here, dead leaves falling from the trees form a colourful carpet that is pleasing to the eye. However, the reality is less pleasant for pedestrians, since these leaves increase the risk of slipping and falling, especially when the ground is wet.   These conditions are also hazardous for two- and four-wheeled vehicles, whose grip on the ground can be severely reduced, thereby increasing the risk of them skidding out of control. Cyclists are among the most vulnerable road users when faced with these hazards. It is therefore essential to be alert to the dangers, which can be lessened by taking a few simple precautions such as moderating your speed and wearing suitable shoes. We also invite you to notify the Service Desk if you notice a road or pavement where there is a high concentration of dead leaves. The CERN Roads and Drainage Service will then ensure that the leaves are cleared in order to reduce the risk of accidents in the area.

  2. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the

  3. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek, or hours per workday. A reduced leave schedule is a change in the employee's schedule for a period of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 825.202...

  4. Alternativas de propagação na produção de óleo essencial de Mentha canadensis L. no Litoral Norte Catarinense Propagation alternatives for the production of Mentha canadensis L. essential oil at the Santa Catarina State northern coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.C.S. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Mentha é cultivado mundialmente para a produção de óleo essencial, com ênfase no constituinte mentol, amplamente utilizado nas indústrias farmacêutica, cosmética, alimentícia e de higiene pessoal. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da utilização de diferentes estruturas de propagação e épocas de colheita de Mentha canadensis L. no Litoral Norte Catarinense. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 4x2, comparando quatro estruturas de propagação (estolões com 10, 15 e 20 cm de comprimento e estacas com 5 cm de comprimento e duas épocas de colheita (95 dias após o plantio e 60 dias após a rebrota. Em cada colheita foi avaliado o crescimento vegetativo e produtividade de óleo essencial e de mentol. Na primeira colheita, houve maior acúmulo de massa seca de folhas, caules e total; produtividade de óleo essencial e de mentol quando o plantio foi realizado com mudas obtidas por estaquia. Na segunda colheita, no entanto, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para todas as variáveis analisadas. A primeira colheita resultou em médias superiores em relação à segunda colheita à exceção do plantio por estolão com 10 cm em todas as variáveis e estolão com 20 cm para a massa seca de caules. Os constituintes majoritários do óleo essencial foram mentol, mentona e neomentol. Os teores de mentol foram significativamente superiores na segunda colheita e de mentona na primeira colheita, sendo que o neomentol não apresentou diferença significativa em ambas as colheitas. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a colheita antecipada da rebrota proporciona maior concentração de mentol no óleo essencial. O uso de estolões como estrutura de propagação pode ser considerada uma alternativa viável para menta, pois além de apresentar níveis similares de produção de óleo essencial e de mentol a partir da segunda colheita ao de áreas implantadas com mudas

  5. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... once you leave. This is called a discharge plan. Your health care providers at the hospital will ...

  6. Childcare and the division of parental leave

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Despite several policies aimed at increasing fathers' participation in the caring of children, Swedish mothers still use the bulk of the paid parental leave which may have several negative consequences for the family e.g. in terms of weaker labor market attachment for the mother. Division of parental leave is likely affected by how parents value the costs associated with parental leave. I investigate whether a reduction in the care burden, or a decreased non-monetary cost, of parental leave t...

  7. The efficacy of Mentha arvensis L. and M. piperita L. essential oils in reducing pathogenic bacteria and maintaining quality characteristics in cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Guedes, Jossana Pereira; da Costa Medeiros, José Alberto; de Souza E Silva, Richard Sidney; de Sousa, Janaína Maria Batista; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-12-05

    This study evaluated the ability of the essential oil from Mentha arvensis L. (MAEO) and M. piperita L. (MPEO) to induce ≥5-log reductions in counts (CFU/mL) of E. coli, L. monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in Brain-Heart Infusion broth (BHIB) and cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple juices during refrigerated storage (4±0.5°C). The effects of the incorporation of these essential oils on some physicochemical and sensory parameters of juices were also evaluated. The incorporation of 5, 2.5, 1.25, or 0.625μL/mL of MAEO in BHIB caused a ≥5-log reduction in counts of E. coli and Salmonella Enteritidis after 24h of storage; but only 5μL/mL was able to cause the same reduction in counts of L.monocytogenes. The incorporation of 10μL/mL of MPEO in BHIB caused a ≥5-log reduction in counts of E. coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes after 24h of storage; smaller reductions were observed in BHIB containing 5, 2.5, and 1.25μL/mL of MPEO. Similar reductions were observed when the MAEO or MPEO was incorporated at the same concentrations in mango juice. The incorporation of MAEO or MPEO at all tested concentrations in cashew, guava, and pineapple juices resulted in a ≥5-log reduction in pathogen counts within 1h. The incorporation of MAEO and MPEO (0.625 and 1.25μL/mL, respectively) in fruit juices did not induce alterations in °Brix, pH, and acidity, but negatively affected the taste, aftertaste, and overall acceptance. The use of MAEO or MPEO at low concentrations could constitute an interesting tool to achieve the required 5-log reduction of pathogenic bacteria in cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple fruit juices. However, new methods combining the use of MAEO or MPEO with other technologies are necessary to reduce their negative impacts on specific sensory properties of these juices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Mentha pulegium extract and 8-hydroxy quinoline sulphate to extend the quality and vase life of rose (Rosa hybrid) cut flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemabadi, Davood; Torkashvand, Ali Mohammadi; Kaviani, Behzad; Bagherzadeh, Maryam; Rezaalipour, Mohaddeseh; Zarchini, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Rose is an ornamental plant which contains one of the world's top cut flowers. Vase life of cut rose flower is short. Extracts of Mentha pulegium and 8-hydroxy quinoline sulphate (8-HQS) were used as two preservative solutions, aiming to extend the vase life of cut rose (Rosa hybrid L.) flowers. Rose flowers were treated with a vase solution containing the extract of M. pulegium, at concentrations of 0, 10, 20 and 30%, in combination with 8-HQS at concentrations of 0, 200, 400 and 600 mg l(-1). Longevity of cut roses flowers was determined on the basis of wilting and chlorophyll retention. Cut roses flowers were kept at room temperature (20 ± 2 degrees C) under normal day light and natural ventilation. The vase life of cut flowers studied was prolonged by all 8-HQS and extract treatments. The best concentration of 8-HQS and extractwere 400 mg l(-1) and 10%, respectively. Our results indicated that the flowers treated with the extract and 8-HQS had longer vase life, higher rate of solution uptake and lower SPAD value (total chlorophyll) compared to the control. Also, cut flowers treated with the extract and 8-HQS had least bacterial colonies. The greatest longevity of vase life by 11.20 and 10.25 days was related to 400 mg I(-1) 8-HQS and 10% of extract, respectively. These treatments improved cut vase life more than the control treatment. The maximum solution uptake (1.85 ml g(-1) f.wt.) and minimum SPAD value (2.19) were calculated in 30% extract along with 200 mg l(-1) 8-HQS, and 200 mg l(-1) 8-HQS, respectively. The lowest number of bacterial colonies (55.75) was obtained in treatment of 600 mg l(-1) 8-HQS. Flower quality of specimens treated with extract and 8-HQS was better than those of the control. The experiments were repeated three times with three replicates and a completely randomized design had been used. The present study concludes that it would be possible to use preservative solutions containing extract of M. pulegium L. and 8-HQS to extend vase

  9. An investigation of compositions and effects of local herbal Glycyrrhiza glabra and Mentha pulegium extracts on Helicobacter pylori and cell Line of stomach cancer (AGS by MTT assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Salmani Jamaat1

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim:According to globally development of stomach cancer especially in Ardabil, Iran, as the second major cause of mortality throughout the world, increased drug-resistant bacteria including Helicobacter pylori as the most important risk factors for stomach cancer, and side effects of antibiotics and chemical drugs normally used to treat. Experimental: The current research was conducted to investigate the anticancer and antimicrobial effects of native herbs of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium extractions for finding a solution with the lowest complications in control or treatment of stomach cancer.The extractions were firstly obtained using Soxhlet and methanol solvent and then their compounds were determined by GC/MS. Antimicrobial activity, MIC and MBC of the extractions were assessed respectively using agar diffusion and broth dilution test and the anticancer effect on stomach cancer (cell line AGS was assessed by MTT assay. H. pylori ATCC 26695 was respectively revived and purified on Brucella broth containing 7% citrated horse serum and Columbia agar. Results: The analysis showed that liquorice extract contains 15 compositions, mainly consists of 26.48% Nonane, 23.38% Ethylcyclohexan, 8.29% 3-Bromodecane, 10.31% trans-2-Heptenal, 8.93% 9-Octadecenamide and 4.68% β-pregna and pennyroyal extract contains 17 compositions, mainly including 3.36% Camphor, 22.79% Pulegone, 4.92% Paramenth-3-n8-l, 8.06% Menthoforan, 7.54% Cis-Isopulegon and 24.58% α-Selinene. The bacteria were resistant or semi-sensitive to common antibiotics, whereas had considerable sensitivity to herbal extracts and liquorice showed almost three times more antibacterial effect. Pennyroyal extract had no cytotoxic effects, but the anticancer effect was observed in liquorice extract with optimal concentration of 25 μg/ml after 48 hours. Recommended applications/industries: In conclusion, liquorice extract due to the significant health

  10. Synergistic mixtures of chitosan and Mentha piperita L. essential oil to inhibit Colletotrichum species and anthracnose development in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; Berger, Lúcia Raquel Ramos; de Araújo, Samara Amorim; Câmara, Marcos Paz Saraiva; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of chitosan (CHI) and Mentha piperita L. essential oil (MPEO) alone or in combination to control the mycelial growth of five different Colletotrichum species, C. asianum, C. dianesei, C. fructicola, C. tropicale and C. karstii, identified as potential anthracnose-causing agents in mango (Mangifera indica L.). The efficacy of coatings of CHI and MPEO mixtures in controlling the development of anthracnose in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins was evaluated. CHI (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/mL) and MPEO (0.3, 0.6, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 μL/mL) alone effectively inhibited mycelial growth of all tested Colletotrichum strains in synthetic media. Mixtures of CHI (5 or 7.5 mg/mL) and MPEO (0.3, 0.6 or 1.25 μL/mL) strongly inhibited mycelial growth and showed additive or synergistic inhibitory effects on the tested Colletotrichum strains based on the Abbott index. The application of coatings of CHI (5 or 7.5 mg/mL) and MPEO (0.6 or 1.25 μL/mL) mixtures that presented synergistic interactions decreased anthracnose lesion severity in mango artificially contaminated with either of the tested Colletotrichum strains over 15 days of storage at 25 °C. The anthracnose lesion severity in mango coated with the mixtures of CHI and MPEO was similar or lower than those observed in mango treated with the synthetic fungicides thiophanate-methyl (10 μg a.i./mL) and difenoconazole (0.5 μg a.i./mL). The application of coatings containing low doses of CHI and MPEO may be an effective alternative for controlling the postharvest development of anthracnose in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The CCCTB Rules on Leaving a Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2012-01-01

    The consolidation system proposed in the draft of the CCCTB Directive puts relationships between Member States on edge. This is clearly apparent in the rules that apply when a company leaves a group. In this article the leaving rules are examined. Although the leaving rules are claimed to be

  12. Sugar beet leaves for functional ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    Plant leaves are recognised as a potential source for food applications based on their nutritional profile and interesting technological properties of leaf components, and based on the large availability of plant leaves in agricultural waste streams. Besides proteins, leaves have a rich

  13. Compassionate Care Leave & Benefits. CAUT Briefing Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Compassionate care leave and benefits were introduced in 2003/04 to help employees cope with this difficult work-life balance challenge. Employment Standards legislation and the Employment Insurance program (EI) were amended to provide leave without pay, with payment of EI benefits for compassionate care leave. Collective agreements have been…

  14. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses...

  15. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Examining the Evolution of Paid Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladek, Carol

    While the United States continues to be the only developed nation without mandated paid maternity leave, U.S. employers are blazing their own trail for new parents. This article defines parental leave, explains what's driving the increased interest in paid parental leave among employers offering it and discusses how paid parental leave can benefit employers and employees alike. Finally, the author discusses why not all employers are offering these benefits as well as considerations for employers contemplating whether paid parental leave is right for them.

  17. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs. 630.1015 Section 630.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104 Donations...

  19. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to commence or end work mid-way through a shift, such as... per week, but works only 20 hours a week under a reduced leave schedule, the employee's ten hours of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced...

  20. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their components against the three major pathogens of the cultivated button mushroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Essential oils of Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angusti folia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium and their components; linalyl acetate, linalool, limonene, ¿-pinene, ß-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor,

  1. Larvicidal, nematicidal, antifeedant and antifungal, antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antioxidant activities of Mentha spicata (Lamiaceae) root extracts. Abdullah ... water extract exhibited higher larvicidal (LD50 = 11.77 µg/mL), nematicidal (LD50 = 11.78 µg/mL), antifeedant (LD50 > ... flatulence) and nervous system disorders.

  2. (Lamiaceae) root extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the larvicidal, nematicidal, antifeedant, and antifungal effects of 10 solvent extracts of Mentha spicata root. Methods: Ten solvent extracts were investigated for their total flavonoid and phenolic content and screened for larvicidal, nematicidal, antifeedant, and antifungal activities. The total phenolic ...

  3. Produção e qualidade de óleos essenciais de Mentha arvensis em resposta à inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares Yield and quality of essential oils of Mentha arvensis in response to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Simone Mendonça Freitas

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA na produção e qualidade de óleos essenciais de Mentha arvensis L., cultivada com diferentes doses de fósforo. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação e o delineamento estatístico utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com 20 tratamentos, constituídos pela combinação de cinco tratamentos microbiológicos (Glomus clarum Nicolson & Schenck, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann, Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall, Acaulospora scrobiculata Trappe e controle e quatro doses de P (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg kg-1, com quatro repetições. As plantas foram colhidas 65 dias após o plantio. Sem adubação fosfatada, os fungos Gigaspora margarita e Glomus clarum aumentaram em 206 e 198%, respectivamente, a produção de matéria fresca em relação ao tratamento controle. A maior produção de matéria fresca (90 g por vaso foi observada no tratamento de A. scrobiculata com 133 mg kg-1 de fósforo. Na ausência de adubação fosfatada, teores de óleos essenciais e de mentol no óleo foram menores em plantas sem inoculação, e os tratamentos com inoculação proporcionaram incrementos de até 89% nos teores de óleos e de mentol, em relação ao tratamento sem inoculação. Com o incremento da adubação fosfatada, não foram observados incrementos dos teores de óleos essenciais e mentol em razão dos FMA. As maiores produtividades de óleos essenciais e de mentol nos óleos, 0,69 g e 0,48 g por vaso, respectivamente, foram encontradas em plantas com inoculação de Acaulospora scrobiculata nas doses de P de 126 e 123 mg kg-1 de solo, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the vegetative growth, production and composition of essential oil of Mentha arvensis L., grown in different phosphorus levels. The work was carried out under greenhouse conditions and

  4. RECRUITMENT FINANCED BY SAVED LEAVE (RSL PROGRAMME)

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel; Tel. 73903

    1999-01-01

    Transfer to the saved leave account and saved leave bonusStaff members participating in the RSL programme may opt to transfer up to 10 days of unused annual leave or unused compensatory leave into their saved leave account, at the end of the leave year, i.e. 30 September (as set out in the implementation procedure dated 27 August 1997).A leave transfer request form, which you should complete, sign and return, if you wish to use this possibility, has been addressed you. To allow the necessary time for the processing of your request, you should return it without delay.As foreseen in the implementation procedure, an additional day of saved leave will be granted for each full period of 20 days remaining in the saved leave account on 31 December 1999, for any staff member participating in the RSL programme until that date.For part-time staff members participating in the RSL programme, the above-mentioned days of leave (annual, compensatory and saved) are adjusted proportionally to their contractual working week as...

  5. Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately.

  6. Paid Maternity Leave and Breastfeeding Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the benefits of breastfeeding, rates in the United States are low. Shorter maternity leave is associated with lower initiation and shorter durations of breastfeeding; however, little is known about how paid maternity leave may influence breastfeeding rates. We used data from the 2006-2010 U.S. National Survey of Family Growth on the most recent birth to employed women who delivered a child within the previous 5 years. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe the associations between paid leave duration (0, 1-5, 6-11, ≥ 12 weeks, maternity leave not taken) and three outcomes: 1) breastfeeding initiation, 2) 6-month duration, and 3) 6-month duration among initiators. Twenty-eight percent of prenatally employed women received no paid leave. Women who received 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding compared to women with no paid leave (87.3% vs 66.7%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.83 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.23-6.48]). Similarly, women with 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to breastfeed at 6 months, compared to women with no paid leave (24.9% vs 50.1%, aOR 2.26 [95% CI 1.20-4.26]). Among women who initiated breastfeeding, having received 12 or more weeks' paid leave increased the odds of breastfeeding for 6 or more months; however, the association was not statistically significant in the adjusted model (aOR 1.81 [95% CI 0.93-3.52]). Employed women who received 12 or more weeks of paid maternity leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and be breastfeeding their child at 6 months than those without paid leave. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. [New cerebroside from leaves of pineapple].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Ping; Wang, Hong-Ying; Du, Li-Jun; Ding, Yi; Xing, Dong-Ming; Wang, Wei

    2007-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of pineapple. Chromatographic methods were used to isolate compounds from the leaves of pineapple and spectral methods were used to identify the structures of the isolated compounds. Compound 1 was isolated from the leaves of pineapple. It was identified as 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S, 3R, 4E, 11E)-2-[(2(R)-hydroxydocosanoyl) amido]-4, 11-hexadecanediene-1, 3-diol. Compound 1 was a new compound.

  8. Nurses' leaving intentions: antecedents and mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Yamashita, Noriko; Oba, Keiko

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to investigate how nurses' work values, perceptions of environmental characteristics, and organizational commitment are related to their leaving intentions. Nurse leaving is a serious international problem as it contributes to the nursing shortage that threatens the welfare of society. The characteristics of nurses, the work environment and nurses' feelings towards their jobs (or organizations) have an impact on their leaving intentions. A convenience sample of 849 Registered Nurses was recruited from three public hospitals in the central-west region of Japan during 2006 and 319 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate 39%). Data were analysed using regression analysis. Nurses' work values and their perceptions of their workplace environment interacted to influence leaving intentions. When there was a match between the importance nurses placed on being able to challenge current clinical practices and the number of the actual opportunities to do so, leaving intentions were low. When there was a mismatch, intention to quit the job became stronger. In addition, organizational commitment intervened between nurses' perceptions of the match in clinical challenges and leaving intention. Nurses' leaving intentions, deserve extensive exploration of their causes. Such exploration should include attending to both nurses' needs and organizational characteristics, investigating how the match between them could affect nurses' leaving intention, and exploring factors that intervene between nurses' perceptions of the match and leaving intention.

  9. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    DIVISION HR

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programs) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave. They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave a...

  10. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programmes) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave.They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system 1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave...

  11. Antioxidant activity of Arbutus unedo leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabuçcuoğlu, A; Kivçak, B; Baş, M; Mert, T

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity.

  12. Grass leaves as potential hominin dietary resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. When and Why Dropouts Leave High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across…

  14. [Beneficial effect of maternity leave on delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Séguin, Louise; Goulet, Lise

    2002-01-01

    To identify the contribution of the duration of the prenatal maternity leave on term delivery. Characteristics of the prenatal maternity leave and delivery among 363 working women who had delivered a full-term infant at 1 of 4 hospitals in Montreal during 1996 were studied. The presence of an intervention or complication during delivery was observed in 68.9% of the participants. The average duration of the prenatal maternity leave was about 8 weeks (SD = 7). The adjusted risk of a difficult delivery decreased significantly with the duration of the prenatal maternity leave (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). The duration of the maternity leave before delivery is associated with an easier term delivery for working women.

  15. [Modeling polarimetric BRDF of leaves surfaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong-Hui; Wang, Pei-Juan; Zhu, Qi-Jiang; Zhou, Hong-Min

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to model a physical polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF), which can character not only the non-Lambertian but also the polarized features in order that the pBRDF can be applied to analyze the relationship between the degree of polarization and the physiological and biochemical parameters of leaves quantitatively later. Firstly, the bidirectional polarized reflectance distributions from several leaves surfaces were measured by the polarized goniometer developed by Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The samples of leaves include two pieces of zea mays L. leaves (young leaf and mature leaf) and a piece of E. palcherrima wild leaf. Non-Lambertian characteristics of directional reflectance from the surfaces of these three leaves are obvious. A Cook-Torrance model was modified by coupling the polarized Fresnel equations to simulate the bidirectional polarized reflectance properties of leaves surfaces. The three parameters in the modified pBRDF model, such as diffuse reflectivity, refractive index and roughness of leaf surface were inversed with genetic algorithm (GA). It was found that the pBRDF model can fit with the measured data well. In addition, these parameters in the model are related with both the physiological and biochemical properties and the polarized characteristics of leaves, therefore it is possible to build the relationships between them later.

  16. Effect of salinity stress on some morpho-physiological traits and quantity and quality of essential oils in Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahya Ghorbani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Salinity stress is one of the main environmental stress limiting growth, development and economical yield of plants in different areas of the world, especially in the countries which are located in the arid and semi-arid regions. The extent of damage to the plant and reduction in yield heavily depends on the level of salinity in soil or irrigation water. Reducing growth and morphological development at the initial stages of the stress and accelerate tissue senescence at later stages will result in reduced agricultural productivity. Plant species and cultivars vary in their tolerance to salinity and ability to maintain physiological functions and yield production under stress. Increasing the concentration of salts in the soil solution usually leads to osmotic stress, specific ion toxicity and ionic imbalances and consequently decreases in plant growth. Peppermint (Mentha piperita L. is one of the most important medicinal plants and its essential oils are widely used in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics and hygienic products. This plant is a popular herb that can be used in different forms such as oil, dried powder and leaf extract. Peppermint is comprised of a high amount of natural essential oils, as well as menthol and Menthone. It is known for its refreshing, cooling, bactericidal and anti-irritant properties. The concentrations of various secondary metabolites in different plant species are strongly depended on the growth conditions, especially stress conditions. Although the negative effect of salinity stress on essential oil yield is well documented but the effects of salinity stress on chemical composition of essential oil is not predictable and constant. Therefore in the present study, we have evaluated the effects of the different levels of salinity stress (0, 2, 4 and 6 dS/m on morpho-physiological traits and also essential oil components of Peppermint. Materials and methods In order to evaluate the effects of salinity stress

  17. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fernanda R; Buccini, Gabriela Dos S; Venâncio, Sônia I; da Costa, Teresa H M

    To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among working women. This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Monteiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF among working women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Results: Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Conclusion: Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months.

  19. Maternity and family leave policies in rural family practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainguy, S; Crouse, B J

    1998-09-01

    To help recruit and retain physicians, especially women, rural family practice groups need to establish policies regarding maternity and other family leaves. Also important are policies regarding paternity leave, adoptive leave, and leave to care for elderly parents. We surveyed members of the American Academy of Family Physicians in rural practice in 1995 to assess the prevalence of leave policies, the degree to which physicians are taking family leave, and the characteristics of ideal policies. Currently, both men and women physicians are taking family leaves of absence, which indicates a need for leave policies. Furthermore, a lack of family leave policies may deter women from entering rural practice.

  20. Labour Supply Responses to Paid Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Arizo; Lindahl, Erica; Skogman Thoursie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Women account for the majority of parental leave take-up, which is likely one of the major reasons for the gender gap in income and wages. Consequently, many countries exert effort to promote a more gender equal division of parental leave. Indeed, the last decades have seen an increase in fathers' take-up of parental leave benefits, but the gender earnings gap has remained fairly constant. In this paper we re-evaluate the labour supply responses of both mothers and fathers to three major refo...

  1. Late adolescents' conceptualizations of home-leaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D; Hotch, D F

    1981-02-01

    Separation from the family, a key developmental task, has received scant attention from developmentalists. In this study, college students' dissimilarity ratings and ratings on 22 bipolar adjective scales were obtained for a set of 20 definitions of home-leaving. Results of a cluster analysis revealed that conceptualizations of the definitions are organized in terms of eight clusters. Ratings on the 22 adjective scales provided an empirical means for interpreting the typological structure of the home-leaving definitions. Convergence the results of this inductive study of home-leaving and elements of ego development theory was noted.

  2. Laser induced fluorescence of some plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmi, M.S.; Mohamed, M.M.; Amer, R.; Elshazly, O.; Elraey, M.

    1992-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is successfully used as a technique for remote detection of spectral characteristics of some plants. A pulsed nitrogen laser at 337.1 nm is used to excite cotton, corn and rice leaves. The fluorescence spectrum is detected in the range from 340 nm to 820 nm. It is found that, these plant leaves have common fluorescence maxima at 440 nm, 685 nm and 740 nm. plant leaves are also found to be identifiable by the ratio of the fluorescence intensity at 440 nm to that at 685 nm. The present technique can be further used as a means of assessing, remotely, plant stresses. 5 fig

  3. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    involved’ perform better during the early years than their peers with less involved fathers. This paper analyses data of four OECD countries — Australia; Denmark; United Kingdom; United States — to describe how leave policies may influence father’s behaviours when children are young and whether...... their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...

  4. 78 FR 8833 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... creates a new qualifying exigency leave category for parental care. In military caregiver leave, the Final... covered employers to take job- protected, unpaid leave, or to substitute appropriate accrued paid leave... CFR Part 825 The Family and Medical Leave Act; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 25...

  5. 5 CFR 630.906 - Transfer of annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... employing agency may not be sufficient to meet the needs of the leave recipient; or (3) In the judgment of... specified leave recipient. Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, annual leave may be transferred only to a leave recipient employed by the leave donor's employing agency. (b) Except as provided...

  6. Maternity leave, women's employment, and marital incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J S; Essex, M J; Clark, R; Klein, M H

    2001-09-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the length of women's maternity leave and marital incompatibility, in the context of other variables including the woman's employment, her dissatisfaction with the division of household labor, and her sense of role overload. Length of leave, work hours, and family salience were associated with several forms of dissatisfaction, which in turn predicted role overload. Role overload predicted increased marital incompatibility for experienced mothers but did not for first-time mothers, for whom discrepancies between preferred and actual child care were more important. Length of maternity leave showed significant interactions with other variables, supporting the hypothesis that a short leave is a risk factor that, when combined with another risk factor, contributes to personal and marital distress.

  7. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory effect of tomato leaves and its associated molecular mechanisms have not yet .... dissolved in 10% of culture-grade dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; Sigma-. Aldrich .... In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.

  8. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... needs of individual emergency leave recipients, an employing agency may allow an employee to receive... annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section 630.1111 Administrative Personnel... recipient. An emergency leave recipient may receive a maximum of 240 hours of donated annual leave at any...

  9. On the Motion of Falling Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Razavi, Pedram

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the motion of falling leaves through modeling using papers and the corresponding data collected from more than four thousands experiments. Two series of experiments were designed in order to study the relationship between different parameters which can affect different paths of motion in leaves. In the first series of experiments, the shapes of the potential paths that falling papers can take were investigated as a whole. A new classification scheme was derived from th...

  10. Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason F.; Thunström, Linda

    Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint? While becoming a parent is transformational as one focuses more on the future, the time constraints are more binding right now. Using a unique data set that allows us to compare CO2 emissions from Swedish two-adult households with and without children......, we find becoming a Swedish parent causes a person to leave a larger carbon ootprint—due to changes in transportation patterns and food consumption choices....

  11. Intra-Household Allocation of Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbi, Paula Eugenia; Parys, Juliane; Schwerhoff, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    We introduce childcare sharing in a collective model of household behavior to investigate which factors make spouses increase or decrease their share of parental leave. The concern about future consumption motivates parents to invest in their human capital and to limit their leave duration. Using relative income and the age difference between spouses as distribution factors, we cannot reject Pareto efficiency in childcare sharing. Higher relative incomes and larger age differences shift the c...

  12. Properties of leaves particleboard for sheathing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryawan, Arif; Rahmawaty

    2018-03-01

    Manufacturing particleboard (PB) made of leaves was carried out to make non-structural building components, such as insulation, partition, wall, and sheathing. Raw materials used dry leaves originated from plantation (palm oil leaves) and forest plantation (magahony leaves). The adhesive used was interior type thermosetting commercial resins, namely 10% urea-formaldehyde (UF) based on oven dry leaves. Hardener used for UF resin was 1% and 3% ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) 20% (w/w), respectively. Technically, the target density of PB was 0.8 g/cm3 with the dimension’s size of (250 x 250 x 10) mm3. The pressure, temperature, and time of pressing of the hot press were 25 kgf/cm2, 120C, and 10 minutes, respectively. After conditioning for one week, the PB then was evaluated their physical and mechanical properties according to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 (2003). Results of this work showed: 1) Both types of PB (palm oil and mahagony leaves) were feasible to be produced for non-structural applications; 2) Addition of hardener enhanced the physical and mechanical properties of PB; 3) It was recommended to enhance the performance of the PB by manipulation of the raw materials and the design.

  13. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  14. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  15. Office design's impact on sick leave rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Wulff, Cornelia; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  16. A MODELING METHOD OF FLUTTERING LEAVES BASED ON POINT CLOUD

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tang; Y. Wang; Y. Zhao; Y. Zhao; W. Hao; X. Ning; K. Lv; Z. Shi; M. Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which ar...

  17. ["Paternity leave"? Retrospective view on a delayed reform of maternity leave in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, R

    1984-01-01

    Only 1 of 3 Austrian fathers involves himself daily in child rearing, and the younger the children, the less likely he is to be involved. Austria is among those European countries with the greatest pregnancy benefits. New mothers may take up to 1 year of paid maternity leave without fear of losing their jobs. This article uses 1982 Institute of Demography survey data to determine support for similar paternity leave for fathers. In the last few years, both Social Democrat and Conservative women have worked for this leave, although the movement has also found opposition by women in trade unions, as well as from conservative groups. Survey results show that 46% of married Austrian women, under age 40, favor paternity leave; 1 or 4 women can imagine their husbands taking such leave. Among husbands, 34% favored the leave option, and 1 of 4 could imagine taking the leave for a least part of the baby's first year. The study attempts to identify those husbands most likely to take advantage of paternity leave. At present, most men will not choose to stay with their children at the expense of earnings reduction. Compensation reforms for both mothers and fathers must first occur before men and women in a position to make real decisions on maternity and paternity leave.

  18. Antioxidant and antibacterial effects of Lavandula and Mentha essential oils in minced beef inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus during storage at abuse refrigeration temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenane, Djamel; Aïder, Mohammed; Yangüela, Javier; Idir, Lamia; Gómez, Diego; Roncalés, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of Lavandula angustifolia L. and Mentha piperita L. were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major constituents were linalool (22.35%), linalyl acetate (21.80%), trans-ocimene (6.16%) and 4-terpineol (5.19%) for L. angustifolia and menthol (33.28%), menthone (22.03%), and menthyl acetate (6.40%) for M. piperita. In vitro antibacterial activity of both EOs against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus CECT 4459 showed high inhibition against S. aureus. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were obtained with L. angustifolia (0.25 μL/mL) against S. aureus; M. piperita exhibited a MIC of 0.50 μL/mL against both microorganisms. Both EOs caused a significant decrease of bacterial growth in minced beef (p<0.05) stored at 9±1 °C. Minced beef treated with EOs showed the lowest TBARS values (lipid oxidation). Moreover, the results showed that the addition of EOs significantly extended fresh meat odor even at abuse temperature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) extracts promote growth performance and increase the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) of Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, 1877).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Safari, Reza; Pourgholam, Reza; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-11-01

    The effects of dietary administration of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) on Caspian brown trout fish (Salmo trutta caspius) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases in growth, immune (both in skin mucus and blood serum) and hematological parameters (number of white cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin content), as well as in amylase activity and in the number of lactic acid bacteria on intestine were recorded in fish fed supplemented diets compared to control fish. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leukocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of lymphocytes was decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Furthermore, dietary peppermint supplements have no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters, enzymatic activities of liver determined in serum and total viable aerobic bacterial count on intestine of Caspian brown trout. Present results support that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) and the number of the endogenous lactic acid bacteria of Caspian brown trout. This study underlying several positive effects of dietary administration of peppermint to farmed fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  1. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996-2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first...... episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1...

  2. The dewetting properties of lotus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jihua; Sheng, Xianliang; Jiang, Lei

    2009-02-03

    The high dewetting abilities of lotus leaves can be transited to a complete wetting state by soaking the leaves in water at a depth of 50 cm for 2 h. However, after being dried by N2 gas, the high dewetting behavior of lotus leaves may be mostly restored. This indicates that experimental procedure might considerably affect the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves. To discover the mechanism underlying this interesting dewetting phenomena, the dewetting force was used to characterize the dewetting abilities of surfaces, and model studies to mimic the papillae were done. Surface hydrophobicity, sizes, rise angles, and secondary structures of the models' sides affected their dewetting force with water. So we suggested that the dewetting states, Cassie or Wenzel's state, of lotus surfaces depend much on the depth of water, i.e., the hydraulic pressure. On the other hand, the primary structures of papillae in Cassie's state led to a high receding angle with respect to the plane of the leaf during the dewetting measurement. The secondary structures and micro/nano arrays of papillae increased the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves, since no water intruded between papillae. However, the structures of papillae in Wenzle's state significantly reduced the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves after being soaked at a depth of 50 cm for 2 h. Therefore, as for novel designs of microdevices floating on water, including the use of the high dewetting properties of suphydrophobic materials, surface (primary or secondary) microstructure and external pressure, such as static hydraulic pressure, must be taken into account.

  3. Maternal Employment Effects of Paid Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Bergemann, Annette; Riphahn, Regina T.

    2015-01-01

    We study the short, medium, and longer run employment effects of a substantial change in the parental leave benefit program in Germany. In 2007, a means-tested parental leave transfer program that had paid benefits for up to two years was replaced by an earnings related transfer which paid benefits for up to one year. The reform generated winners and losers with heterogeneous response incentives. We find that the reform speeds up the labor market return of both groups of mothers after benefit...

  4. Does paternity leave affect mothers’ sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Naz, Ghazala

    2009-01-01

    Female labour force participation is high in Norway but sickness absence rates are higher for women than for men. This may be partly a result of unequal sharing of childcare in the family. In this paper, we consider the effect of paternity leave on sickness absence among women who have recently given birth. We draw on a six-year panel taken from full population data from administrative sources. We find that in the 6% of families where fathers take out leave more than the standard quota (gende...

  5. Preparing Apigenin from Leaves of Adinandra nitida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxiang Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Adinandra nitida were used as raw material, and a new industrially significant method of preparing apigenin was established by hydrolyzing a water extract and recrystallizing it with ethanol in order to obtain a new source for the production of this flavone. A yield of about 2.5 % (dry mass was obtained with the purity of 93.05 %, determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Moreover, the main flavonoids in leaves of Adinandra nitida and the product after acid hydrolysis were identified as camellianin A and apigenin, respectively, by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV/VIS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS.

  6. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one...

  7. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth of...

  8. 77 FR 8959 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ...; and extends FMLA military caregiver leave to family members of certain veterans with serious injuries... Medical Leave Act of 1993, Final Rule on November 17, 2008 (2008 final rule). 73 FR 67934. A. What the... covered servicemember (referred to as ``military caregiver leave''). These two leave entitlements are...

  9. Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Claire

    2007-01-01

    From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries

  10. An Internatioal Comparison and Assessment of Maternity Leave Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothea Alewell, Kerstin Pull

    2001-01-01

    Provisions for maternity leave are common among industrialized countries, but their institutional design varies distinctly from country to country. Developing our theory on the impact on maternity leave regulations on women's labor market situation, we argue that a woman on leave creates a re-organization problem for her employer. The costs of re-organization will not simply increase with the duration of maternity leave, but display a hump-shaped curvature which peeks at medium-leave duration...

  11. (annonaceae) leaves-a potential antimalarial drug

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xylopia species are widely available in West Africa. Xylopia parviflora (Benth) plant is used in folk medicine in the management of a number of ailments, one of these is the use of the leaves in the treatment of malaria fever for which a number of patients have reported its beneficial effects. This study was designed to ...

  12. leaves extract on mild steel in acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    The volume of the cathodic hydrogen gas evolved was also plotted as a .... prevent the escape of hydrogen gas. The volume .... Clivia nobilis leaves extract on the flow of current ... behaviour of ethanol extract of Piper guinensis as a green ...

  13. Borneol from Leaves of Blumea balsamifera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and organic solvent of low boiling-point extract. At present ... localized at 800 m altitude, 25° 04´ N and 106°. 28´ E. The ... In HDSE, leaves and water were used in similar amounts .... rate of (–)-borneol did not increase significantly. (p > 0.05) ...

  14. Thaumatococcus daniellii leaves: its chemical compositions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extract of the plant exhibited low 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 615.14 μg/ml. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) characterization of n-hexane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of T. daniellii leaves identified , thirteen and fifteen compounds, with ...

  15. Comparative morphology on leaves of Daphniphyllum (Daphniphyllaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, M.-S.; Yang, Y.-P.; Sheue, C.-R.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative anatomical study on the leaves of nine out of 29 species of the genus Daphniphyllum was performed to seek support for the present infrageneric classification. Daphniphyllum is composed of two sections, Lunata (with one subsection Lunata) and Daphniphyllum (with two subsections,

  16. Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinicke, Kenneth; Cybulski, Franz Wilhelm; Drews, Lea Vedel

    2005-01-01

    In the article it is argued that contemporary fatherhood and masculinity differ increasingly from hegemonic masculinity according to which men are primarily responsible for ensuring the financial basis of the family. The article “Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark”, based on interviews with 15...

  17. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

  18. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses antiinflammatory activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the leaves of tomato plant that contained several active compounds including alkaloid, steroid and flavanoid has been used for the treatment of variety of diseases and as anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-gout. Although, a number of pharmacological properties have already been demonstrated, the ...

  19. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  20. Isolation of chlorophyll a from spinach leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Dikio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for separating chlorophyll a from spinach leaves by column chromatography and solvent extraction techniques has been developed. The purity and identity of the chlorophyll a have been confirmed by UV-Vis, IR and mass spectrometry. Yields from 100 g of freeze-dried spinach were 23 – 24 mg of chlorophyll a.

  1. Why Nannies Leave Their Employing Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn

    The position of nanny as a career option for child care/child development/early childhood education graduates is examined. This study surveyed nannies randomly selected from the 1991 International Nanny Association Directory to determine why nannies leave their employing families. Surveys were mailed to 160 nannies; 62 (39%) nannies responded.…

  2. Talking Leaves, Volume 4, No. 4

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence

    2000-01-01

    Talking Leaves, Spring 2000, Articles: Classroom and Schoolwide Observation Under the Microscope Observing School Restructuring in Multicultural, Multilingual Contexts From the Other Side of the Classroom Looking for Findings in all the Right Places The Classroom Observation Schedule and the Teacher Roles Observation Schedule The Standards Performance Continuum: Measuring CREDE's Standards for Effective Pedagogy The Kentu...

  3. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukiko; Kubo, M. Kenya; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  4. Maternity leave duration and postpartum mental and physical health: implications for leave policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N = 716), twelve weeks (N = 661), six months (N = 625), and twelve months (N = 575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression.

  5. Access to paid parental leave for academic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itum, Dina S; Oltmann, Sarah C; Choti, Michael A; Piper, Hannah G

    2018-01-31

    Parental leave is linked to health benefits for both child and parent. It is unclear whether surgeons at academic centers have access to paid parental leave. The aim of this study was to determine parental leave policies at the top academic medical centers in the United States to identify trends among institutions. The top academic medical centers were identified (US News & World Report 2016). Institutional websites were reviewed, or human resource departments were contacted to determine parental leave policies. "Paid leave" was defined as leave without the mandated use of personal time off. Institutions were categorized based on geographical region, funding, and ranking to determine trends regarding availability and duration of paid parental leave. Among the top 91 ranked medical schools, 48 (53%) offer paid parental leave. Availability of a paid leave policy differed based on private versus public institutions (70% versus 38%, P leaves (>6 wk) than public institutions (67% versus 33%; P = 0.02). No difference in paid leave duration was noted based on region (P = 0.60) or rank (P = 0.81). Approximately, 50% of top academic medical centers offer paid parental leave. Private institutions are more likely to offer paid leave and leave of longer duration. There is considerable variability in access to paid parenteral leave for academic surgeons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Causes and Consequences of a Father's Child Leave: Evidence from a Reform of Leave Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    are the most progressive when it comes to family-friendly policies. An extensive reform of child leave schemes in Denmark affected couples differently depending on whether the parents where employed in the same or in different parts of the public sector. Based on a difference-in-differences strategy, I find...... that economic incentives are very important for intra-household leave-sharing. Increasing the couples' after tax income by $9 per day of leave which is transferred from the mother to the father is found to lead to a one day transfer. This corresponds to a supply elasticity close to unity....

  7. Variação na resistência à ferrugem e na composição do óleo essencial de dois clones de menta Variation on the rust resistance and essential oil composition of two clones of Mentha arvensis L Var piperascens Malinvaud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Guilherme Roberto Donalísio

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas no Centro Experimental de Campinas, entre 1973 e 1976, 450 progênies do clone Samby e 295 do clone Valinhos, ambos da espécie Mentha arvensis L. var. piperascens Malinvaud, que apresentavam alguma resistência à ferrugem causada pelo fungo Puccinia menthae Pers., bom desenvolvimento vegetativo e óleo essencial com alto teor em mentol. As progênies foram obtidas de polinização livre. As plantas que apresentavam pulegona foram eliminadas por seleção olfativa, e as restantes, inoculadas com uredosporos de P. menthae Pers. e, posteriormente, classificadas em três notas de resistência à doença. Em pleno florescimento, as plantas foram destiladas em corrente de vapor, e o óleo essencial obtido analisado em cromatógrafo de gás para avaliação quantitativa de seus componentes principais: mentol, mentona e pulegona. Destacaram-se oito progênies do clone Valinhos e catorze do Samby, respectivamente, mentol entre 75,85-85,18% e 77,12-83,74%, e pulegona entre 0,48-1,36% e 0,94-2,05% pela resistência à ferrugem. Três progênies do clone Valinhos e duas do Samby apresentaram baixos teores do mentol: 56,65, 56,94 e 60,11, e 54,26 e 64,93% respectivamente, semelhantes aos verificados nos óleos desmentolados de M. arvensis L.Seedlings froco two clones of M. arvensis L var. piperascens Malinvaud were selected by olfative test to eliminate the plants with high pulegone content in the essencial oil; the selected plants were inoculated with spore suspension of Puccinia menthae Pers., and classified in three classes of susceptibility. The blooming plants were distilled and the obtained samples of essential oil were analysed by gas chromatography to verify its menthol, menthone and pulegone contents. The data showed that the studied material presents high variability to rust resistance and menthol content in its essencial oil. Eight progenies from Valinhos clone presented high rust resistance, 75.80% to 85.18% menthol and 0.48 to

  8. Father's Rights to Paid Parental Leave in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Haas, L.

    2011-01-01

    to what extent government-provided, paid parental leave and quotas for fathers could bring about equality in the division of leave between men and women by focusing on the pioneers in the field, the Nordic countries – the first nations to offer fathers parental leave and introduce quotas. First, we......European Union policy encourages men and women to share parental leave to balance work and family life and promote gender equality in the labor market. A new directive extends parental leave to four months and introduces a quota, so one month is reserved for each parent. This article explores...... describe the extent to which parental leave policies have been established and implemented in a way that is likely to promote equal sharing of leave. Next, we evaluate the impact of particular configurations of gender equality incentives in present parental leave policies for the actual division of leave...

  9. Women's Reasons for Leaving the Engineering Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wan, Min; Singh, Romila

    2017-01-01

    Among the different Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math fields, engineering continues to have one of the highest rates of attrition (Hewlett et al., 2008). The turnover rate for women engineers from engineering fields is even higher than for men (Frehill, 2010). Despite increased efforts from researchers, there are still large gaps in our understanding of the reasons that women leave engineering. This study aims to address this gap by examining the reasons why women leave engineering. Specifically, we analyze the reasons for departure given by national sample of 1,464 women engineers who left the profession after having worked in the engineering field. We applied a person-environment fit theoretical lens, in particular, the Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA) (Dawis and Lofquist, 1984) to understand and categorize the reasons for leaving the engineering field. According to the TWA, occupations have different "reinforcer patterns," reflected in six occupational values, and a mismatch between the reinforcers provided by the work environment and individuals' needs may trigger departure from the environment. Given the paucity of literature in this area, we posed research questions to explore the reinforcer pattern of values implicated in women's decisions to leave the engineering field. We used qualitative analyses to understand, categorize, and code the 1,863 statements that offered a glimpse into the myriad reasons that women offered in describing their decisions to leave the engineering profession. Our results revealed the top three sets of reasons underlying women's decision to leave the jobs and engineering field were related to: first, poor and/or inequitable compensation, poor working conditions, inflexible and demanding work environment that made work-family balance difficult; second, unmet achievement needs that reflected a dissatisfaction with effective utilization of their math and science skills, and third, unmet needs with regard to lack of recognition

  10. Multiple-stressor impacts on Spartina alterniflora and Distichlis spicata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt marshes are subject to an array of environmental changes that have the potential to alter community structure and function. Manipulative experiments often study environmental changes in isolation, although changes may interactively affect plant and ecosystem response. We rep...

  11. Japanese tea leaves: a possible biological standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuwa, Keiichiro; Notsu, Kenji; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi; Kato, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yuko.

    1978-01-01

    Japanese Tea Leaves, prepared by pulverizing with an agate ball mill and sieving with a Saran fiber sieve (50 mesh) were assessed as a possible biological standard reference material for elemental analysis. The metal content of the tea leaves was determined independently at two laboratories using atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry. Neutron activation analysis was also performed to determine the content (21 elements) of Tea Leaves. For some elements the result from the various methods were compared. The characteristics of Tea Leaves are discussed and the elemental composition is compared to that of Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM, 1571). The most significant characteristic of Tea Leaves was the high manganese content. (auth.)

  12. Don’t leave your baggage unattended

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    “Don’t leave your baggage unattended” is a familiar request to anyone who travels by air, but it’s good advice wherever you may be.    At CERN, if an unattended bag is found anywhere on the site, the Fire and Rescue service will be called to evacuate the area, maintain a security perimeter for as long as necessary, and attempt to identify the owner. If the owner cannot be found in a reasonable amount of time, there’s a very strong chance that the bag will be destroyed. You can take two simple steps to avoid this fate: Don’t leave your baggage unattended;   Make sure that your contact details are clearly visible on the bag or suitcase so that, should you find yourself separated from it, you can easily be reunited.

  13. ANTIANAPHYLACTIC ACTIVITY OF HELIOTROPIUM INDICUM LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    M Shenoy Ashoka; C. Shastry Shashidhar

    2011-01-01

    The alcoholic extract of Heliotropium indicum leaves was evaluated using Wistar rats and Duncan Hartley guinea pigs. The antianaphylactic activity was investigated in rats using the active anaphylaxis model. The effect on mast cell stabilization was performed by ex vivo challenge of antigen in sensitized rat intestinal mesenteries. Antihistaminic activity was studied in guinea pigs using histamine-induced bronchospasm where preconvulsive dyspnea was used as an end point following exposure to ...

  14. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  15. Sickness presence, sick leave and adjustment latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Gerich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous research on the association between adjustment latitude (defined as the opportunity to adjust work efforts in case of illness and sickness absence and sickness presence has produced inconsistent results. In particular, low adjustment latitude has been identified as both a risk factor and a deterrent of sick leave. The present study uses an alternative analytical strategy with the aim of joining these results together. Material and Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, a random sample of employees covered by the Upper Austrian Sickness Fund (N = 930 was analyzed. Logistic and ordinary least square (OLS regression models were used to examine the association between adjustment latitude and days of sickness absence, sickness presence, and an estimator for the individual sickness absence and sickness presence propensity. Results: A high level of adjustment latitude was found to be associated with a reduced number of days of sickness absence and sickness presence, but an elevated propensity for sickness absence. Conclusions: Employees with high adjustment latitude experience fewer days of health complaints associated with lower rates of sick leave and sickness presence compared to those with low adjustment latitude. In case of illness, however, high adjustment latitude is associated with a higher pro­bability of taking sick leave rather than sickness presence.

  16. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juheini Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  17. Turning palm leaves into wood: Opportunities for Egypt's rural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Bedouin women weave handmade baskets, hats, and lamps using dried palm leaves. ... palm tree leaves into hardwood and high-quality wooden products, ... of wood and open doors to job opportunities for rural communities.

  18. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    OpenAIRE

    Beuchert, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation,we estimate the effect of the length of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increa...

  19. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Monteiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF among working women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Results: Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Conclusion: Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Resumo: Objetivos: Descrever perfil das mulheres com filhos menores de 4 meses residentes nas capitais brasileiras e no Distrito Federal segundo situação de trabalho e analisar a influência da licença-maternidade sobre o aleitamento materno exclusivo entre as mulheres trabalhadoras. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com dados extraídos da II Pesquisa Nacional de Prevalência do Aleitamento Materno realizada em 2008

  20. STUDY OF ORGANIC ACIDS IN ALMOND LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Almond (Amygdalus communis is a stone fruit, from the Rosaceae family, closest to the peach. It is spread throughout the entire Mediterranean region and afterwards to the Southwestern USA, Northern Africa, Turkey, Iran, Australia and South Africa. It is sensitive to wet conditions, and therefore is not grown in wet climates. Iran is located in the semi-arid region of the world. Because of its special tolerance to water stress, almond is one of the main agricultural products in rainfed condition in Iran. Almond leaves have been investigated for their phenolic content and antioxidant activity. It was found that total antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds exhibited variations according to season, plant organ (leaf and stem and variety. Analysis of previous research on almonds focused on investigating compounds mostly in seeds and phenolic compounds in leaves, but organic acids in leaves have not been studied. Aim of this study was investigation of organic acids in leaves of almond variety which is distributed in Razavi Khorasan province of Iran. Materials and Methods. In August 2012 almond leaves were collected in Iran, dried and grinded. The study of qualitative composition and quantitative determination of carboxylic acids in almond leaves was carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. For determination organic acids content, to 50 mg of dried plant material in 2 ml vial internal standard (50 μg of tridecane in hexane was added and filled up with 1.0 ml of methylating agent (14 % BCl3 in methanol, Supelco 3-3033. The mixture was kept in a sealed vial during 8 hours at 65 °C. At this time fatty oil was fully extracted, and hydrolyzed into its constituent fatty acids and their methylation was done. At the same time free organic and phenolcarbonic acids were methylated too. The reaction mixture was poured from the plant material sediment and was diluted with 1 ml of distilled water. To extract methyl

  1. 5 CFR 630.1206 - Notice of leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... medical treatment, the employee shall provide notice to the agency of his or her intention to take leave... placement or planned medical treatment requires leave to begin within 30 calendar days, the employee shall... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of leave. 630.1206 Section 630...

  2. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... States (less language training) and the actual days overseas beginning on the date of departure from the.... (e) Military leave. Military leave of not more than 15 calendar days in any calendar year may be... such military leave has been approved in advance by the cognizant Mission Director or Assistant...

  3. Determinants of sick-leave duration : A tool for managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, P.A.; Krol, B.; Groothoff, J.W.

    AIMS: To provide managers with tools to manage episodes of sick-leave of their employees, the influence of factors such as age, gender, duration of tenure, working full-time or part-time, cause and history of sick-leave, salary and education on sick-leave duration was studied. METHOD: In a

  4. 77 FR 22519 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Family and Medical Leave Act AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Department of Labor. ACTION: Extension of... on the proposed revisions to certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA... Family and Medical Act (FMLA) regulations to implement amendments to the military leave provisions of the...

  5. Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbish, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

  6. Konference Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maříková, Hana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 14 (2006), s. 833-835 ISSN 0038-0288. [Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : parental leave * paternity leave * fathering Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.128, year: 2006

  7. Maternity Leave Provisions for Classroom Teachers in Larger School Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Research Service Circular, 1966

    1966-01-01

    Maternity leave provisions for classroom teachers in 129 school systems having enrollments of 25,000 or more are reported for 1965-66 in this national survey. Tables contain information on compulsory absence prior to anticipated date of birth and earliest permissible return from maternity leaves. Brief descriptions of maternity leave practices are…

  8. Early school leaving and lifelong guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter; Oomen, Annemarie

    Early school leaving (ESL) is costly for the individual, for society and for the economy. Not just in economic terms, but also in terms of low self esteem, and the risk of social exclusion. More, and, in particular, better education can lead to positive outcomes, in relation to employment, level...... of salaries, better health, less crime, higher social cohesion, lower public and social costs and higher productivity. This is why ESL is a policy focal point. In these terms, lifelong guidance has a key role to play in terms of both prevention, intervention, and of compensation strategies....

  9. Impact of Ozone Gradient on Grapevine Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebic-Juretic, Ana; Bokan-Vucelic, Itana; Mifka, Boris; Zatezalo, Marija; Zubak, Velimir

    2017-04-01

    Due to complex orography and air mass circulation, the Rijeka Bay area is characterized by O3 gradient, with concentrations risen with the altitude (1). Therefore AOT40 values were often exceeded and should result in harmful effects on vegetation. Based on previous controlled experiments (2), we examined the possible effect of atmospheric ozone on grape leaves under natural O3 gradient. Grapevine leaves (2-5) were collected from May to September 2016 at two sampling points in the proximity of two AQM stations: Site 1 in the city centre (20m asl) and Site 2 (186m asl) in the suburban settlement. Subsequent to weighing and determination of surface area, the leaves (0,5 g) were extracted in 95% ethanol and analysed on chlorophyl a (Chla), chlorophyl b (Chlb) and carotene (Car) content by UV-VIS spectrometry on 3 wavelengths (664, 649, 470 nm) (3) In summer 2016 O3 gradient was not that pronounced as usual (1), but stil the concentrations differed by approx. 20%, exceeding national AOT40 value at both sites (22.360 and 28.061 μg m-3 h, respectively, at Sites 1 and 2). The concentrations of other pollutants were bellow limit values (LV). The Cha and Chb in a sample leaves collected at the end of May at Site 2 are equal to that with filtered O3 in control experiment (2), i.e. without damage caused by ozone, while the Car content is lower approx. 50% and is kept at the same level. The con-centrations of pigments obtained in July prooved the possible damage by O3, while in subsequent months could speed up natural ageing. This is the first evidence of O3 damage on plants in the Rijeka Bay area, in spite of weaker O3 gradient and lacking visible signs of damage. Preliminary results indicate the need for more frequent sampling, particularly in the period included in AOT40 (May-July). References: 1. Alebić-Juretić A (2012) Int J Remote Sensing, 33(2): 335-345 2. Britvec M, Reichenauer T, Soja G., Ljubešić N, Pećina M (2001) Biologia (Bratislava),56/4: 417-424 3. Sumanata

  10. Gender codes why women are leaving computing

    CERN Document Server

    Misa, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    The computing profession is facing a serious gender crisis. Women are abandoning the computing field at an alarming rate. Fewer are entering the profession than anytime in the past twenty-five years, while too many are leaving the field in mid-career. With a maximum of insight and a minimum of jargon, Gender Codes explains the complex social and cultural processes at work in gender and computing today. Edited by Thomas Misa and featuring a Foreword by Linda Shafer, Chair of the IEEE Computer Society Press, this insightful collection of essays explores the persisting gender imbalance in computing and presents a clear course of action for turning things around.

  11. Take It, Leave It, Fold It

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2008-01-01

    This introduction to the volume sets the tone for a reading experience of Federman's works. Since the early 60s, Raymond Federman has been one of the most important American writers. In his highly experimental fictions, in works that bear such titles as Take It or Leave It, Double or Nothing......, and The Twofold Vibrations, he has explored cultural and personal memory, invented intricate narrative strategies, and above all has given readers an experience that exceeds the ordinary. Creating situations that make one really think and really laugh is a tall order for any writer. But Federman did it. He is one...

  12. Flavonoids from the Leaves of Impatiens bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIR, Aurangzeb HASAN and Muhammad Nawaz

    2005-01-01

    Three new flavanone glycosides, naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, naringenin 4'-O-a-L rham\\-nopyranoside and naringenin 4'-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, were characterized from the leaves of Impatiens bicolor, together with 6 known glycosides: naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 5-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 7-O-b-D-xylopyranoside. The...

  13. Flavonoids from the Leaves of Impatiens bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIR, Aurangzeb HASAN and Muhammad Nawaz; HASAN, Aurangzeb

    2014-01-01

    Three new flavanone glycosides, naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, naringenin 4'-O-a-L rham\\-nopyranoside and naringenin 4'-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, were characterized from the leaves of Impatiens bicolor, together with 6 known glycosides: naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 5-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 7-O-b-D-xylo...

  14. Terpenoid constituents from leaves of Guarea kunthiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, Fernanda R.; Garcez, Walmir S.; Bazzo, Rita de Cassia; Silva, Ana Francisca G. da; Resende, Ubirazilda M.

    2004-01-01

    From leaves of Guarea kunthiana one new kaurene diterpene (ent-kaur-16-en-2-one) was isolated along with eight known diterpenes (ent-kaur-16-ene, ent-3α- and 3β-hydroxykaur-16-ene, kolavelool, kolavenol, kolavenal, ent-13-epi-manoyloxide and (-)-nephthenol), four sesquiterpenes (alismol, alismoxide, spathulenol and 4β,10α-aromadendranediol), polyprenol-12 and α- and δ-tocopherols. Kolavenal is reported for the first time as a natural product, as well as the occurrence of cembrane- and ent-kaurane-type diterpenes in the Meliaceae. (author)

  15. Flavones from the leaves of Ficus gomelleira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Daniel F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new flavones, 5 -hydroxy -7,5' -dimethoxy -3',4' -methylenedioxyflavone and 5 -hydroxy -7,3',5' -trimethoxy -4' -(3,3 -dimethylallyloxy flavone, as well as three known flavones: 5,6,7,3',4',5' -hexamethoxyflavone, 5 -hydroxy -8,3',4' -trimethoxy -2'',2'' -dimethylpyrano (5",6":6,7 -flavone and 5 -hydroxy -8,3',4',5' -tetramethoxy -2'',2'' -dimethylpyrano (5",6":6,7 -flavone were isolated from the leaves of Ficus gomelleira. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature data.

  16. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis : A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Appelman-Noordermeer, Simone; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A.F.M.; de Bruin-Weller, MS

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD). The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify

  17. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act.

  18. Parental Leave and Children's Schooling Outcomes: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from a Large Parental Leave Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Danzer; Victor Lavy

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the question whether long-term human capital outcomes are affected by the duration of maternity leave, i.e. by the time mothers spend at home with their newborn before returning to work. Employing RD and difference-in-difference approaches, this paper exploits an unanticipated reform in Austria which extended the maximum duration of paid and job protected parental leave from 12 to 24 months for children born on July 1, 1990 or later. We use test scores from the Austria...

  19. Absorption and translocation of phosphorus-32 in guava leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, William

    1997-01-01

    Phosphorus is easily absorbed by the leaves and translocated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the absorption and translocation of P by guava leaves, with time. When a solution containing 2% MAP and specific activity 0.15 μCi/ml was applied. MAP labelled with 32 P was applied in the 3 rd pair of leaves. These and other leaves, roots and stem were collected separately and analyzed accordingly. The results showed that 20 days after application 12% of the applied P was absorbed by the guava leaves. The translocation of P started immediately after its absorption reaching 20% 2fter 20 days. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Ozone injury and infection of potato leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.; Glickman, M.

    1969-09-01

    Symptoms of ozone injury were observed on older leaves of potato cultivars Norland and Katahdin under experimental conditions. This symptom expression closely resembled flecks observed on potato leaves also blighted by Botrytis cinerea in the field. Inoculation of ozone-injured and noninjured potato leaves with B. cinerea showed that infection was more rapid and disease development more severe on ozone-injured leaves. Infection was frequently observed to originate in ozone-injured leaf areas. Ozone injury, under experimental conditions, appeared to increase the susceptibility of potato leaves to infection by B. cinerea. 6 references.

  1. Maternity leave policies in academic and private radiology practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirt, B.A.; Rauth, V.; Price, A.P.F.; Pagani, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    In 1987, the American Association of Women Radiologists surveyed both academic and private radiology departments regarding pregnancy and maternity leave policies. One hundred academic institutions (70% response), 30 radiotherapy departments (38% response), and 31 private practices responded. Details were obtained regarding maternity leave policy for residents and attending physicians; availability of paternity leave; policies regarding on-call time, fluoroscopy time and intracavitary/interstitial applications during pregnancy; and problems that occurred during resident or attending physician pregnancies. There was a wide range of responses regarding paid leave time, availability of additional time, and the use of vacation time during maternity leave

  2. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils against human pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Sokovic, M.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van, L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 aromatic plants Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium have been determined. Antibacterial activity of these oils and their components; i.e. linalyl acetate, linalool, limonene, pinene, ß-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor, carvacrol, thymol and menthol were assayed against a variety...

  3. Determination of free and glucosidically-bound volatiles in plants. Two case studies: L-menthol in peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and eugenol in clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgorbini, Barbara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Pagani, Alberto; Sganzerla, Marla; Boggia, Lorenzo; Bicchi, Carlo; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    This study arises from both the today's trend towards exploiting plant resources exhaustively, and the wide quantitative discrepancy between the amounts of commercially-valuable markers in aromatic plants and those recovered from the related essential oil. The study addresses the determination of both the qualitative composition and the exhaustive distribution of free and glucosidically-bound L-menthol in peppermint aerial parts (Mentha x piperita L., Lamiaceae) and of eugenol in dried cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry, Myrtaceae), two plants known to provide widely ranging essential oil yields. The two markers were investigated in essential oils and residual hydrodistillation waters, before and after enzymatic hydrolysis. Their amounts were related to those in the headspace taken as reference. The results showed that the difference between marker compound in headspace and in essential oil amounted to 22.8% for L-menthol in peppermint, and 16.5% for eugenol in cloves. The aglycones solubilised in the residual hydrodistillation waters were 7.2% of the headspace reference amount for L-menthol, and 13.3% for eugenol, respectively representing 9.3% and 15.9% of their amounts in the essential oil. The amount of L-menthol from its glucoside in residual hydrodistillation waters was 20.6% of that in the related essential oil, while eugenol from its glucoside accounted for 7.7% of the amount in clove essential oil. The yield of L-menthol, after submitting the plant material to enzymatic hydrolysis before hydrodistillation, increased by 23.1%, and for eugenol the increase was 8.1%, compared to the amount in the respective conventional essential oils. This study also aimed to evaluate the reliability of recently-introduced techniques that are little applied, if at all, in this field. The simultaneous use of high-concentration-capacity sample preparation techniques (SBSE, and HS-SPME and in-solution SPME) to run quali-quantitative analysis without sample

  4. Growth-arresting Activity of Acmella Essential Oil and its Isolated Component D-Limonene (1, 8 P-Mentha Diene) against Trichophyton rubrum (Microbial Type Culture Collection 296).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhan, Diptikanta; Pattnaik, Smaranika; Behera, Ajaya Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Spilanthes acmella is used as a remedy in toothache complaints by the tribal people of Western part of Odisha, India. The objective of this study was to study the growth-arresting activity of an indigenous Acmella essential oil (EO) ( S. acmella Murr, Asteraceae ) and its isolated component, d-limonene against Trichophyton rubrum (microbial type culture collection 296). The EO was extracted from flowers of indigenous S. acmella using Clevenger's apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was carried out to isolate the major constituent. The isolated fraction was subjected to fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The antidermatophytic activity was screened for using "disc diffusion" and "slant dilution" method followed by optical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The molecular dockings were made between d-limonene with cell wall synthesis-related key enzymes (14 methyl deaminase and monooxygenase). The GC-MS analysis EO had inferred the presence of 7 number of major (≥2%) components. The component with highest peak area (%) was found to be 41.02. The HPLC-isolated fraction was identified as d-limonene (1,8 p-Mentha-diene) by FTIR and NMR. Qualitative and quantitative assays had suggested the growth inhibitory activity of Acmella EO and its component. Shrinkage, evacuation, cell wall puncture, and leakage of cellular constituents by the activity of Acmella oil and d-limonene were evidenced from optical, SEM, and TEM studies. The computer simulation had predicted the binding strengths of d-limonene and fluconazole with dermatophyte cell wall enzymes. There could have been synergistic action of all or some of compounds present in indigenous Acmella EO. There was presence of seven number of (d-limonene, ocimene, β-myrcene, cyclohexene, 3-(1, 5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-6-methylene,

  5. Research of photoinduced potentials of pepper leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Chernetchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical potentials of the plants during photostimulation with various intensity values and wave lengths are studied. Suchstimulation provides light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. The universal scheme of registration of bioelectric potentials, which allowsto carry out the experimental study of light stimuli effect on the plant is proposed. All registrations of potentials are observed on the pepper leaves. Photoinduced stimuli are different with intensity changed from 150 to 450 lux and different spectrums of white light and red light with wave length 690 nm. Different parameters of stimuli drive to different types of biopotentials of the plant, quantitative and qualitative relationships of this process are obtained. It is also found that bioelectrical reaction of the leaves is quantitatively different in various spectral ranges of light, but the quality remains the same for all cases, as shown in the study of bioelectric responses during exposure to the light in red spectrum range. The explanation of the additional depolarization phase that occurs during the running of dark reparative process of photosynthesis is given. Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis are accompanied by significant changes in the electrical potential of chloroplasts’ membrane. Besides, the dependence of bioelectrical reaction of the plant on different spectra of light is found. By this way, biophysical relation of plant potentials to the intracellular biophysical mechanisms during photo stimulation is obtained.

  6. Enhancing Water Evaporation with Floating Synthetic Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreyko, Jonathan; Vieitez, Joshua; Berrier, Austin; Roseveare, Matthew; Shi, Weiwei

    2017-11-01

    When a wetted nanoporous medium is exposed to a subsaturated ambient environment, the water menisci assume a concave curvature to achieve a negative pressure. This negative water pressure is required to balance the mismatch in water activity across the water-air interface to achieve local equilibrium. Here, we show that the diffusive evaporation rate of water can be greatly modulated by floating a nanoporous synthetic leaf at the water's free interface. For high ambient humidities, adding the leaf serves to enhance the evaporation rate, presumably by virtue of the menisci enhancing the effective liquid-vapor surface area. For low humidities, the menisci cannot achieve a local equilibrium and retreat partway into the leaf, which increases the local humidity directly above the menisci. In light of these two effects, we find the surprising result that leaves exposed to an ambient humidity of 90 percent can evaporate water at the same rate as leaves exposed to only 50 percent humidity. These findings have implications for using synthetic trees to enhance steam generation or water harvesting. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (CBET-1653631).

  7. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation, we estimate the effect of the lenght...... of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increase in average post-birth maternity leave matters for child or maternal health outcomes and thus we...... complement the existing evidence on maternity leave expansions that tends to find limited effects on children's later deveopmental, educational, and labor market outcomes. Our results suggest that any beneficial effects of increasing the lenght of maternity leave are greater for low-resource families....

  8. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers' adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christina Hansen; Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20-25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9-33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  9. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers’ adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. Aim: This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. Methods: A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Results: Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20–25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9–33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. Conclusions: During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. PMID:27060594

  10. Maternity leave: existing policies in obstetrics and gynecology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J L; Baillie, S; Hodgson, C S; Vontver, L; Platt, L D

    2001-12-01

    To survey program directors in obstetrics and gynecology regarding maternity leave and to determine how programs are dealing with maternity leave coverage. Questionnaires regarding impact and policy on maternity leave were mailed to accredited obstetrics and gynecology residency programs. A total of 188 of 274 (69%) questionnaires were returned completed. Respectively, 80% and 69% of respondents indicated that they have a formal maternity (maximum mean 8.7 weeks) and paternity (mean 5.27 days) leave policy. Approximately 75% of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 8 weeks during the first 3 years. Eighty-five percent of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 6 weeks during the fourth year. Ninety-three percent of programs require residents to make up time if their leave exceeds 20 weeks over the 4 years. Seventy-seven percent of respondents have other residents in their program cover for the absent resident. Thirty-seven percent of programs have schedules flexible enough to allow rearrangement so that some rotations go uncovered. Eighty-three percent of programs surveyed stated that maternity leave has a somewhat to very significant impact on the residents' schedules. Most residency programs have written maternity/paternity leave policies. A more flexible curriculum may help to accommodate the residents on leave without overburdening the residents who are left to cover.

  11. Flavonoids from leaves of Mauritia flexuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma M. de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The chromatographic fractionation of the Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, leaves extract, a plant known by the name of buriti palm tree, resulted in the isolation of six flavonoids: tricin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-6-C-arabinoside, 8-C-glucoside (isoschaftoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (nicotiflorine, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin, luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin and luteolin-6-C-glucoside (isoorientin. The flavonoids were found out and previously reported as constituents of the Arecaceae family plants, but the occurrence of C-glucoside flavonoids, in the species being analyzed, is described for the first time on this study. The structural elucidations of all of the isolated compounds were performed by means of the comparison of their spectral data (¹H and 13C NMR, UV and ESI-MS with those ones of the literature.

  12. Green leaves as indicator for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Alla, A. A. M.

    2004-02-01

    Green leaves of Ficus (Ficus penegalensis) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) were analyzed for their trace metals (Pb, Zn and Cd) contents. The samples were collected and washed according to metal analysis standardization. Solutions of the samples for analysis were obtained by wet-digestion method using nitric perchloric acid mixture. The trace elements lead, zinc and cadmium were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic technique (AAS) for the 18 samples collected from Khartoum (Sharia elneel), Omdurman (Ombadda) and Khartoum North (Kadaro) as heavy-traffic, low-traffic areas and distal area, respectively. The species Ficus and Neem samples were collected each randomly from such areas. The samples were taken from the tips, mids and bottoms of each tree. (Author)

  13. Green leaves as indicator for air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Alla, A. A. M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Juba, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2004-02-15

    Green leaves of Ficus (Ficus penegalensis) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) were analyzed for their trace metals (Pb, Zn and Cd) contents. The samples were collected and washed according to metal analysis standardization. Solutions of the samples for analysis were obtained by wet-digestion method using nitric perchloric acid mixture. The trace elements lead, zinc and cadmium were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic technique (AAS) for the 18 samples collected from Khartoum (Sharia elneel), Omdurman (Ombadda) and Khartoum North (Kadaro) as heavy-traffic, low-traffic areas and distal area, respectively. The species Ficus and Neem samples were collected each randomly from such areas. The samples were taken from the tips, mids and bottoms of each tree. (Author)

  14. a Modeling Method of Fluttering Leaves Based on Point Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Hao, W.; Ning, X.; Lv, K.; Shi, Z.; Zhao, M.

    2017-09-01

    Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which are the rotation falling, the roll falling and the screw roll falling. At the same time, a parallel algorithm based on OpenMP is implemented to satisfy the needs of real-time in practical applications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is amenable to the incorporation of a variety of desirable effects.

  15. A MODELING METHOD OF FLUTTERING LEAVES BASED ON POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which are the rotation falling, the roll falling and the screw roll falling. At the same time, a parallel algorithm based on OpenMP is implemented to satisfy the needs of real-time in practical applications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is amenable to the incorporation of a variety of desirable effects.

  16. Is part-time sick leave helping the unemployed?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters to analyze the effects of degree of sick leave on the probability of full recovery of lost work capacity for employed and unemployed individuals, respectively. Our results indicate that one year after the sick leave spell started, the average potential impact of part-time sick listing on an individual randomly chosen from the population on sick leave was positive for both gr...

  17. Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.; Delilah, M.; Syafrul, L.; Suryadi.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cocoa swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed. (author tr.)

  18. Abscisic acid protects bean leaves from ozone-induced phytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, R.A.; Adedipe, N.O.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1972-01-01

    Abscisic acid treatment of primary bean leaves caused a partial closure of stomates and thus considerably reduced the phytotoxicity of ozone. The symptoms of ozone-induced phytotoxicity in the water-treated leaves are a marked decrease in chlorophyll and slight decreases in the levels of protein and RNA. The evidence indicates that ozone injury to leaves is not metabolically related to normal leaf senescence.

  19. The Duration of Paid Parental Leave and Children's Scholastic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qian; Nordström Skans, Oskar

    2009-01-01

    We study how the duration of paid parental leave affects the accumulation of cognitive skills among children. We use a reform which extended parental leave benefits from 12 to 15 months for Swedish children born after August 1988 to evaluate the effects of prolonged parental leave on children's test scores and grades at age 16. We show that, on average, the reform had no effect on children's scholastic performance. However, we do find positive effects for children of well-educated mothers, a ...

  20. Bio-Pesticides: New Tool for the Control of Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Culicidae: Diptera in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Application of plant extracts as mosquito control strategy was practiced from centuries. These are easily available, non-toxic, biodegradable and exhibit broad-spectrum target specific activities against larval stages of mosquitoes.Method: Different potential parts of locally grown plants, seeds of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans, peel of musambi (Citrus sinensis, leaves of babuna (Matricaria chamomilla, mint (Mentha spicata and ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale selected and evaluated for their larvicidal properties against Aedes (Stegomyis albopictus. Oils were ex­tracted through steam distillation process and extracts were evaluated as per WHO 2005 guidelines for testing of insecticides against larvae of mosquitoes.Result: Among the five plant extracts, C. sinensis had the lowest LC50 (400.81ppm while M. fragrans had the high­est LC50 value (710.30ppm respectively after 24h of exposure. In terms of % age mortality, a series of con­centra­tions (300–800ppm gave high % mortality in case of C. sinensis while M. fragrans gave low % age mortality.Conclusion: All the five plant species have larvicidal effects to certain extant and C. sinensis had great potential. Further small-scale field trials with the extracts of the most promising one (C. sinensis shall be conducted to deter­mine operational feasibility.    

  1. Part-Time Sick Leave as a Treatment Method?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén D; Andrén T

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave on the probability of recovering (i.e., returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity). Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters from a common set of structural parameters. Our results show that part-time sick leave increases the likelihood of recovering and dominates full-time sick leave for sickness spel...

  2. Parental Leave Policies and Pediatric Trainees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Avika; Feldman-Winter, Lori; Szucs, Kinga A

    2015-08-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) states that each residency program should have a clearly delineated, written policy for parental leave. Parental leave has important implications for trainees' ability to achieve their breastfeeding goals. This study aimed to measure the knowledge and awareness among members of the AAP Section on Medical Students, Residents, and Fellowship Trainees (SOMSRFT) regarding parental leave. An online survey was emailed to SOMSRFT members in June 2013. Quantitative data are presented as percentage of respondents. Awareness of leave policies was analyzed based on having children and the sex of respondents. Nine hundred twenty-seven members responded to the survey. Among those with children, 40% needed to extend the duration of their training in order to have longer maternity leave, 44% of whom did so in order to breastfeed longer. Thirty percent of respondents did not know if their program had a written, accessible policy for parental leave. Trainees without children and men were more unaware of specific aspects of parental leave such as eligibility for the Family Medical Leave Act as compared to women and those with children. Despite the fact that United States national policies support parental leave during pediatrics training, and a majority of programs comply, trainees' awareness regarding these policies needs improvement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Responce of leaves of three plant species to aluminium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Water culture experiments were undertaken for 14 days to examine the effect of increasing aluminum level (0, 10, 20 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O on growth of sunflower, red pepper and radish leaves. The early stage of Al toxicity was characterized by curling or rolling of young leaves, marginal and veinal chlorosis, dark green leaves as soon as purpling of margins and veins of leaves. Reduction of leaf size and increased stomata density were observed with increasing Al concentration. Additionally, length of stomata cells decreased after Al-treatment.

  4. Family medical leave as a resilience resource for family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanke, Jayme; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2009-01-01

    Case managers mobilize family networks to care for patients. Family medical leave can be a resource for case managers who seek to enhance resilience among family caregivers. The Family Medical Leave Act, passed in 1993, was the first U.S. policy to regulate employee leaves from work for family care purposes (29 CFR 825.102). This policy offers family caregivers increased flexibility and equality. Current and emerging policies also can reduce financial strain. The discussion examines how case managers can integrate family medical leave into best-practice models to support patients and family caregivers.

  5. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmieke van Os-Medendorp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD. The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. Outcome measures: sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. Results: In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13–1.40 or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83–0.96 may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Conclusion: Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD.

  6. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Appelman-Noordermeer, Simone; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein

    2015-03-27

    Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD). The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13-1.40) or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83-0.96) may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD.

  7. THE EFFECT OF HARVESTING TIME AND DEGREE OF LEAVES MATURATION ON VITEKSIKARPIN LEVEL IN LEGUNDI LEAVES (Vitex trifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosi Bayu Murti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Legundi (Vitex trifolia L. is one of Indonesia’s traditional crops that have not been studied and developed into fitofarmaka. Legundi leaves can be used for therapy in asthmatics with optimum level. Therefore it is necessary for optimization of harvesting Legundi leaves which includes time and degree of maturation of the leaves. Harvesting time optimization by means of harvesting the leaves at the different times i.e. morning, noon, and evening, while the leaf maturation level optimization by way of harvesting leaves numbered one through five of the youngest end, then the time of harvesting and leaves that provide optimum levels of viteksikarpin were assigned. Measurements of viteksikarpin assigned using TLCdensitometry then analyzed using Wincats software and Microsoft Office Excel 2007. The highest viteksikarpin levels in Legundi leaves harvested in the afternoon, then during the day, and the lowest in the morning. The highest viteksikarpin levels of Legundi leaves were on second leaf, first leaf, third leaf, fourth leaf, and the lowest on fifth leaf. Optimum levels of viteksikarpin in Legundi leaves was harvested in the afternoon by picking the first until the third leaf.

  8. Positive and negative consequences of sick leave for the individual, with special focus on part-time sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieurin, Leif; Josephson, Malin; Vingård, Eva

    2009-01-01

    To describe the consequences of long-term sick leave (>28 days) on working situation, health and lifestyle among employees from the public sector in Sweden. Employees in four county councils and two municipalities on long term sick leave on 1 November 2005 (n = 1,128) answered a questionnaire in February 2006. The response rate was 71.7%. Eighty seven per cent were still on sick leave when the questionnaire was answered: 54% part time and 33% full time. Reporting positive consequences was rare but reporting negative consequences, such as effects on the development of salary, the possibilities of pursuing a career or to change to another job were common. Sick leave seemed to lead to a considerable loss of zest for work, even if the respondents were back in work full time. Regardless of the negative consequences at work, 92% of those on part-time sick leave believed that the part-time sick leave was good for them even if many thought it had negative consequences for employer and colleagues. Long-term sick leave has negative consequences for the individual in work situations, even for those back at work full time. The development of salary and career seem to be most affected. The attitude towards part-time sick leave was positive and this result indicates that there is a potential for an increased degree of partial return to work in the group of people on long-term sick leave.

  9. Parental leave for residents and pediatric training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the development of rational, equitable, and effective parental leave policies that are sensitive to the needs of pediatric residents, families, and developing infants and that enable parents to spend adequate and good-quality time with their young children. It is important for each residency program to have a policy for parental leave that is written, that is accessible to residents, and that clearly delineates program practices regarding parental leave. At a minimum, a parental leave policy for residents and fellows should conform legally with the Family Medical Leave Act as well as with respective state laws and should meet institutional requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for accredited programs. Policies should be well formulated and communicated in a culturally sensitive manner. The AAP advocates for extension of benefits consistent with the Family Medical Leave Act to all residents and interns beginning at the time that pediatric residency training begins. The AAP recommends that regardless of gender, residents who become parents should be guaranteed 6 to 8 weeks, at a minimum, of parental leave with pay after the infant's birth. In addition, in conformance with federal law, the resident should be allowed to extend the leave time when necessary by using paid vacation time or leave without pay. Coparenting, adopting, or fostering of a child should entitle the resident, regardless of gender, to the same amount of paid leave (6-8 weeks) as a person who takes maternity/paternity leave. Flexibility, creativity, and advanced planning are necessary to arrange schedules that optimize resident education and experience, cultivate equity in sharing workloads, and protect pregnant residents from overly strenuous work experiences at critical times of their pregnancies.

  10. Qualidade de folhas e rendimento de óleo essencial em hortelã pimenta (Mentha x Piperita L. submetida ao processo de secagem em secador de leito fixo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Gasparin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais e seus derivados para o tratamento de doenças é uma prática antiga e se percebe, atualmente, uma crescente procura por produtos naturais, incluindo medicamentos, produtos alimentícios, e cosméticos. Hortelã pimenta (Mentha x Piperita L, além de ser uma planta medicinal, pode ser utilizada para obtenção de aromatizantes, infusões, e temperos. O processo de secagem se faz necessário para aumentar o tempo de conservação e a vida útil do produto facilitando seu transporte, manuseio, e armazenamento. Para que os produtos derivados da hortelã pimenta tenham qualidade é necessário estudos sobre o processo de pré e de pós-colheita. Objetivou-se neste estudo identificar a temperatura de secagem, em duas velocidades de ar circulante, que minimize a degradação da cor das folhas e permita obter maior rendimento de óleo essencial. Folhas da hortelã foram colhidas manualmente no horário entre 7:15 e 8:00, e submetidas a secagem em duas velocidades do ar (0,3 e 0,5 m.s-1 e em cinco temperaturas (30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 °C. O material seco foi analisado quanto à cor utilizando-se colorímetro com escala do sistema CIELab baseado em coloração dentro dos padrões da Norma DIN 6174 (1979. A quantificação do óleo essencial foi realizada por hidrodestilação em aparelho Clevenger. Observou-se que temperaturas superiores a 50 °C reduzem o rendimento. A cor das folhas submetidas à secagem diferencia-se da cor das folhas frescas. De acordo com a Norma DIN 6174, a cor das folhas submetidas a secagem com temperatura até 40 °C são "Facilmente distinguíveis" e para as folhas submetidas à secagem a temperaturas superior a 50 °C, a diferenciação é "Muito grande". Conclui-se que para obter o máximo de rendimento do óleo essencial e o mínimo de degradação da cor, a secagem deve ser realizada a temperatura de até 50 ºC. A velocidade do ar de secagem, na faixa de 0,3 a 0,5 m.s-1, não afetou os par

  11. Uranium: do leave it in the ground!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyard, P.

    1990-01-01

    A previous author has argued that it would be best in the long run to consume uranium as much as possible in reactors rather than leave it in the ground in order to save the earth and generations into the far distant future from the evils of radiation. The argument is based on a comparison between the radioactive decay processes of fissioned uranium and uranium left in the earth to decay in its own time. It can be shown that from 300 days after reactor shut down onwards, the spent fuel will generate barely 1% of the radioactive energy that it would were it left untouched in the ground. Counter arguments are presented based largely on the risks to human health and life presented by uranium mining and disasters at nuclear plants such as that at Chernobyl. Illustrations are given of the suffering of people living near uranium mines arising from soil contamination by uranium tailings; the widespread radioactive contamination of the surrounding area and increased cancer mortality rates due to the Chernobyl accident are described. Finally, it is pointed out that uranium serves as a radioactive heat source in the gigantic recycling of rocks and the regeneration of the planet. All these arguments lead to the conclusion that uranium is best left in the earth. (UK)

  12. Anticorrosion Coating using Olea sp. Leaves Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhmal, W. M. K. W. M.; Yasmin, M. Y. N.; Fazira, M. F. M.; Rafizah, W. A. W.; Nik, W. B. Wan; Sabri, M. G. M.

    2018-04-01

    Olive leaves extract (OLE) was evaluated as green corrosion inhibitor for stainless steel grade 316L (SS316L) in several media using scanning electron microscope (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results reveals several active compound indicated by O-H stretch, C=O stretch, C-OH stretch and C-N stretch which can be attributed to oleuropein and hydroxtyrosol acting as the main inhibiting sources for corrosion. The results obtained also show the inhibition efficiency of OLE increase with the increase of OLE concentration. Through its inhibitive action elucidate from the electrochemical analysis, the extract was found to act as a mixed type inhibitor. Micrographs by SEM showed that the surface of steel which has been coated with 0% and 20% of OLE coating extract possess a lot of pin holes or pores while the steel with 10% of OLE coating extract shows the surface has multiple cracks. This study clearly shows the efficiency of OLE as anticorrosion coating for control of stainless steel in marine application.

  13. The anticancer effect of Ocimum tenuiflorum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam, S.N.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among females in Malaysia. Ocimum tenuiflorum L., (O. tenuiflorum commonly known as ruku in Malaysia, is usually cultivated as a garden ornamental plant because of its small purplish and some yellowish flower. The specific objective of this research is to investigate the anticancer of O. tenuiflorum against human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and human fibroblast cell line (HS-27. In addition, another objective is to determine the mineral and heavy metal determination of O. tenuiflorum. O. tenuiflorum exhibited anticancer activity against MCF-7 (a hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line. The viability of MCF-7 cells decreased significantly after treatment with various concentrations of methanolic plant extracts (25 and 100 μg/mL, as shown via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The crude extracts show the lower IC50 (less than 100 μg/mL value against the cancer cell lines and show no effect on HS-27. The high content of calcium in the leaves of O. tenuiflorum may play a role in decreasing the risk of certain cancer. The concentrations of heavy metals (Pb and As detected in O. tenuiflorum are safe for consumption.

  14. The energetic characterization of pineapple crown leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, R M; Queiroga, T S; Calixto, G Q; Almeida, H N; Melo, D M A; Melo, M A F; Freitas, J C O; Curbelo, F D S

    2015-12-01

    Energetic characterization of biomass allows for assessing its energy potential for application in different conversion processes into energy. The objective of this study is to physicochemically characterize pineapple crown leaves (PC) for their application in energy conversion processes. PC was characterized according to ASTM E871-82, E1755-01, and E873-82 for determination of moisture, ash, and volatile matter, respectively; the fixed carbon was calculated by difference. Higher heating value was determined by ASTM E711-87 and ash chemical composition was determined by XRF. The thermogravimetric and FTIR analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal decomposition and identify the main functional groups of biomass. PC has potential for application in thermochemical processes, showing high volatile matter (89.5%), bulk density (420.8 kg/m(3)), and higher heating value (18.9 MJ/kg). The results show its energy potential justifying application of this agricultural waste into energy conversion processes, implementing sustainability in the production, and reducing the environmental liabilities caused by its disposal.

  15. [Fat soluble constituents of the leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, P; Liu, J; Li, J

    1997-07-01

    Four compounds were isolated from the fat soluble fraction of the leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum and identified as friedelin (I), epifriedelinol (II), beta-sitosterol(III) and ursolic acid(IV) by IR, NMR and MS. Compound III and IV are isolated from the leaves of this plant for the first time.

  16. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.12 Leave system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time school-term...

  17. Sick leave analysis among self-employed Dutch farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background Agriculture is one of the most physically demanding and risky industries. Aim The objective of this study was to provide baseline data on the diagnoses, occurrence and duration of sick leave of self-employed Dutch farmers. Method A database of 22807 sick leave claims of 12627 farmers

  18. Metabolic changes associated with ozone injury of bean leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L.E.; Starbuck, J.S.

    1972-07-01

    Metabolic processes in primary leaves of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were altered by ozone stress. Decreases in levels of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein, and increases in ribonuclease (RNase) and free amine groups were associated with visible oxidant injury to the leaves. It appears that some air pollution injury to plants may result from changes in metabolic processes. 23 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Hypoglycaemic activity of the leaves extracts of Bersama engleriana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycaemic activity of the leaves extracts of Bersama engleriana in rats. Georgette Nyah Njike, Pierre Watcho, Télesphore Benoît Nguelefack, Albert Kamanyi. Abstract. The hypoglycaemic properties of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves of Bersama engleriana were evaluated in normoglycaemic rats in ...

  20. Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different levels of supplementation with cassava leaves ( Manihot esculenta ) on growth, parasite load and some characteristics of blood in the dwarf goat ... Also, supplementations with fresh cassava leaves do not affect red blood cells, white blood cells, haematocrite and sedimentation speed of the blood of Dwarf ...

  1. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results.

  2. Fathers' use of parental leave. What do we know?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the the literature on fathers' use of parental leave. Parental leave is a work-life reconciliation instrument with great potential to bring about a more equal distribution of paid and unpaid work between men and women. However, policy evaluation studies reveal that simply making

  3. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for 30...

  4. Identification of phytochemical compounds in Calophyllum inophyllum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Febrilliant Susanto

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: C. inophyllum leaves may be used as a good source of fiber. It was found that C. inophyllum leaves have the potential as herbal drugs due to their phytochemical content. The separation, isolation, and purification of bioactive compounds from this methanolic crude extract and their biological activity are under further investigation.

  5. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical,

  6. Phytotoxic activity of the methanol leaves extract of Paullinia pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of the extract against the growth of Lemna minor was used to investigate the phytotoxic activity. The activity of the methanol extract of P. pinnata leaves against Lemna minor increased in a dose- dependent manner and was significant at 1000 μg/ml. Therefore, the methanol leaves extract of P. pinnata exhibited ...

  7. Sensory evaluation of different preparations of cassava leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava leaves are largely consumed in Africa and are among the top three African indigenous vegetables rich in nutrients. Leaves from bitter (Manihot utilissima), sweet (Manihot dulcis) and wild (Manihot glaziovii) species of cassava were cooked by boiling in salted (sodium bicarbonate and table salt) water with the ...

  8. Evaluation of nutrient contents of Gmelina arborea leaves as animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of chemical and mineral composition different forms of Gmelina arborea (GA) leaves was investigated. Experiment 1 involve the determination of the chemical composition, mineral and anti-nutrient of green, yellow and brown leaves of GA. In experiment 2, a free choice intake study was carried out using fifteen ...

  9. Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social…

  10. Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER PC

    ABSTRACT. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium and zinc in leaves of Mangifera indica (Mango), Psidium ... alarm, in some cases, trace heavy metals may accumulate to an ... leaves when released can lead to serious ... shown that it can interact with different hormonal .... 17, 2012. Cadmium Exposure and Bone Mineral.

  11. Leaves as composites of latent developmental and evolutionary shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Across plants, leaves exhibit profound diversity in shape. As a single leaf expands, its shape is in constant flux. Additionally, plants may also produce leaves with different shapes at successive nodes. Because leaf shape can vary in many different ways, theoretically the effects of distinct proces...

  12. Nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus L. leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus were investigated using standard analytical methods in order to assess the numerous potential of the plant leaves. The Proximate analysis showed the percentage moisture content, ash content, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and carbohydrate of the leaves ...

  13. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fernanda R; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L C; Dias, Johny F; da Rosa, Darlan P; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant.

  14. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L leaves (control group. All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant.

  15. Perceptions of the use of indigenous leaves as packaging materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although alternative food packaging materials are available, Ghanaians still use leaves to package some ready-to-eat cornmeal products. This study examines the perceptions of a representative community sample of 70 producers, 40 sellers and 120 consumers of ready-to-eat leaves-packaged cornmeal products in ...

  16. Pharmacognostic Investigation of the Leaves and Stems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Some pharmacognostical investigations were carried out on the leaves and stems of Viburnum erubescens Wall.ex DC to record parameters for identifying and differentiating various species of Viburnum. Methods: The research specimens were authenticated and preserved both in fresh and dry forms. The leaves ...

  17. The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between a so-called "garden leave" clause and a post-termination restraint of trade clause in employment contracts, ...

  18. Summer survival of Phytophthora ramorum in California bay laurel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth J. Fichtner; David M. Rizzo; Shannon C. Lynch; Jennifer Davidson; Gerri Buckles; Jennifer Parker

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death manifests as non-lethal foliar lesions on bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), which support sporulation and survival of Phytophthora ramorum in forest ecosystems. Infected bay laurel leaves are more likely to abscise than uninfected leaves, resulting in an accumulation of inoculum at the forest floor. The pathogen survives the dry...

  19. Challenging Sex Discrimination Through the Courts: Maternity Leave Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottker, Janice

    This study attempted to determine the extent to which school districts had brought their maternity leave policies into compliance with the latest Supreme Court ruling. The study also analyzed the maternity leave requirements of the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC), and sought to determine which variables were associated with…

  20. Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Fringe Benefits: Policies, Practices and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Jennifer

    The study examines the economic implications in Wisconsin of the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guideline which requires employers to treat maternity leave as a temporary disability. First, the static cost of the maternity leave guideline to employers is estimated for the State of Wisconsin. Second, some examination of the economic…

  1. Extraction and application of dyestuffs from the leaves of guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work is aimed at assessing the dyeing and colouring potentials of ethanol extracts from the leaves of guinea corn and the skin of onion. It is intended to apply the purified dye extracts on textile, drink and food. The leaves of guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor) and the skin of onion (Allium cepa) were collected, ...

  2. Evaluation of the Danish Leave Schemes. Summary of a Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Dines; Appeldorn, Alice; Weise, Hanne

    An evaluation examined how the Danish leave schemes, an offer to employed and unemployed persons who qualify for unemployment benefits, were functioning and to what extent the objectives have been achieved. It was found that 60 percent of those taking leave had previously been unemployed; women accounted for two-thirds of those joining the scheme;…

  3. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since from long time the plant, Annona reticulata Linn. is known for its beneficial effects. Leaves of A. reticulata were screened for phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The shade dried leaves were extracted with methanol and aqueous methanolic extract was partitioned successively ...

  4. The accumulation and elimination of 89Sr in tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongxi; Wang Shouxiang; Chen Chuanqun; Sun Zhiming; Hu Bingmin; Huang Dan

    1995-01-01

    The 89 Sr was added to the tea tree-soil system by different ways. The 89 Sr in the system through the over-ground part of tea tree, was much more than that through soil. The 89 Sr concentration in older leaves was higher than in shoot for a definite treatment. The accumulation elimination law of 89 Sr in leaves varied with the treatments. For the treatment through the over-ground part, the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves and shoot was monotonously decreased with time increasing. But for the treatment through soil the 89 Sr concentration in shoot was increased to reach a peak value, and then decreased slowly; while the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves increased quickly in a period, then increased slowly to attain a saturated value. In addition, the concentration factor of 89 Sr in older leaves and shoot were determined

  5. [Chemical components from essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Ge, Fa-Huan

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the chemical compositions of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves essential oil extracted by steam distillation. The essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrum, and the relative content of each component was determined by area normalization method. 128 peaks were separated and 95 compounds were identified, which weighed 97.75%. The main chemical components of the essential oil were phytol (42.15%), squalene (16.81%), what's more pentadecanal (6.17%), pentadecanoic acid (4.49%), 3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (3.83%), phytone (2.05%) and the other 74 chemical compositions were firstly identified from the essential oil of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves. The chemical compositions of Pandanu samaryllifolius leaves essential oil was systematically, deeply isolated and identified for the first time. This experiment has provided scientific foundation for further utilization of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

  6. Proteome analysis of muscadine grape leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M Basha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheikh M Basha1, Ramesh Katam1, Hemanth Vasanthaiah1, Frank Matta21Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Plant and Soil Science Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Muscadine grapes are native to the southeastern United States and are used for making wine and consumed as fresh fruit. Grape berries, as ‘sink organs,’ rely on the use of available carbohydrate resources produced by photosynthesis to support their development and composition. A high throughput two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was conducted on muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia grape leaf proteins to document complexity in their composition and to determine protein identity and function for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency of muscadine grape. 2-DE resolved muscadine leaf proteins into >258 polypeptides with pIs between 3.5 and 8.0 and molecular weight between 12,000 to 15,0000 Daltons. The consistently expressed proteins were excised and subjected to sequencing. Homology search of protein sequences showed 84% identity with Viridi plantae database. Identity of some of these proteins included RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase, pathogenesis-related protein, glyoxisomal malate dehydrogenase, ribonucleoprotein, chloroplast precursor, oxygen evolving enhancer protein. Comparative analysis of 10 muscadine cultivars showed quantitative differences in expression of 39 polypeptides among these genotypes. The results suggested that the polypeptide composition of muscadine grape leaf is complex, and polypeptide number and amount vary widely among muscadine genotypes, and these variations may be responsible for differences in their physiology, berry and stress tolerance characteristics.Keywords: grapevine, leaves, muscadine, proteins, sequencing, 2-DE

  7. Exploring the Link between Maternity Leave and Postpartum Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeind, Katelin R; Sipsma, Heather L

    2018-05-02

    Postpartum depression affects a substantial proportion of new mothers in the United States. Although most employed women return to paid work after birth, the association between duration of maternity leave and postpartum depression is unclear. We therefore aimed to explore this relationship among mothers in the United States. Data included 177 mothers from a national survey who had returned to work full time after having a baby. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the independent association between duration of maternity leave and experiencing of postpartum depressive symptoms in the 2 weeks preceding the postpartum survey completion. Overall, duration of maternity leave was not significantly associated with experiencing postpartum depression symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80-1.01). This effect, however, varied by duration of maternity leave. Among women who took maternity leaves of 12 weeks or less, every additional week of leave was associated with a lesser odds of experiencing postpartum depressive symptoms (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.84). Among women who took maternity leaves longer than 12 weeks, leave duration was not associated with postpartum depression symptoms (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.73-1.29). Maternity leaves equaling 12 weeks or less may contribute additional risk for postpartum depressive symptoms, possibly because mothers are juggling employment alongside of important physical and emotional changes during this period. This association underscores the importance of ensuring that mothers have at least 12 weeks of leave from full-time employment after the birth of a baby. Copyright © 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Paid Educational Leave and Self-Directed Learning: Implications for Legislation on the Learning Leave Scheme in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Cho Hyun; Jo, Sung Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to explore paid educational leave (PEL), self-directed learning (SDL) and the relationship between them; and to identify the implications for legislation on the learning leave scheme in South Korea. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research method of the study is a literature review. Articles were identified…

  9. Parental leave: comparing children's hospitals with Fortune 500 companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A H; Gordon, E J; O'Connor, M E

    1998-07-01

    To identify parental leave policies and availability of support systems for new parents employed by children's hospitals and compare these benefits with those offered by Fortune 500 companies. Telephone or facsimile survey of all (n=118) children's hospitals and pediatric medical centers in the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions 1995 Directory of Members, and 118 geographically matched Fortune 500 companies. Policies for maternity and paternity leave, adoption benefits, and support services for new parents were compared. Ninety-four children's hospitals (80%) and 82 Fortune 500 companies (69%) responded to the survey. No difference in duration of maternity (P>.30) or paternity (P=.12) leave was found. Sixty-two companies (77%) classified maternity leave as short-term disability while 47 hospitals (50%) classified it as sick time (Pleave as short-term disability generally gives better benefits to employees with short duration of service, whereas classifying maternity leave as sick time usually favors employees with longer employment. Companies provided more financial support for adoption expenses (Ppaid or unpaid leave for adoption (P=.14). Hospitals provided more on-site day care (69% vs 42%; Pparental leave benefits than Fortune 500 companies; however, they offer better support systems for parents returning to work after the birth of a child.

  10. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of [ 14 C]-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of [ 14 C]-sucrose during steady-state 14 CO 2 labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, [ 14 C]-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, [ 14 C]-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of 14 CO 2 to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited

  11. RNs and LPNs: emotional exhaustion and intention to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaei, Farinaz; MacPhee, Maura; Dahinten, V Susan

    2016-04-01

    To describe and compare registered nurse (RN) and licensed practical nurse (LPN) emotional exhaustion, intention to leave and reasons for leaving. Different skill mix/care delivery models are being used to address nurse shortages and rising health-care costs. Skill mix may include RNs and LPNs. More LPNs are being employed in areas, such as acute care, that have been previously staffed by all RNs. Little is known about nurse outcomes since the introduction of LPNs to acute care settings. This study was a cross-sectional correlational design. A stratified, random sample of acute care nurses completed surveys via Fluidsurveys. The survey was modelled after the RN4CAST nursing workforce survey. For both groups of nurses higher levels of emotional exhaustion were associated with intention to leave and workload was the most frequent reason cited for intention to leave. More RNs than LPNs cited career advancement as a reason to leave, and more LPNs than RNs identified poor salary as a reason to leave. Emotional exhaustion is linked to intention to leave health care. Nurse managers should address work environment factors associated with turnover intentions, such as professional development opportunities and shared decision-making. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. An experimental study on drying kinetics of some herbal leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Aydin, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, thin-layer drying characteristics of some herbal leaves, mainly nettle and mint leaves, are investigated experimentally in a convective drier. Effects of the drying air parameters including temperature, velocity and relative humidity on the total drying time are determined. Initially, sorption isotherms of the dried leaves are determined for different temperatures and equilibrium relative humidity (e.r.h.). Experiments are conducted for air temperatures at 35, 45 and 55 deg. C, velocities at 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 m/s and, relative humidity values at 40%, 55% and 70%. In the ranges that covered, the values of the moisture diffusivity D eff are obtained between 1.744 x 10 -9 and 4.992 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for nettle leaves and 1.975 x 10 -9 and 6.172 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for mint leaves from the Fick's diffusion model. Using D eff , the value of E a is determined assuming the Arrhenius-type temperature relationship, which varies from 79.873 to 109.003 kJ/mol for nettle leaves and 66.873 to 71.987 kJ/mol for mint leaves

  13. An experimental study on drying kinetics of some herbal leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Aydin, Orhan [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    In this study, thin-layer drying characteristics of some herbal leaves, mainly nettle and mint leaves, are investigated experimentally in a convective drier. Effects of the drying air parameters including temperature, velocity and relative humidity on the total drying time are determined. Initially, sorption isotherms of the dried leaves are determined for different temperatures and equilibrium relative humidity (e.r.h.). Experiments are conducted for air temperatures at 35, 45 and 55 C, velocities at 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 m/s and, relative humidity values at 40%, 55% and 70%. In the ranges that covered, the values of the moisture diffusivity D{sub eff} are obtained between 1.744 x 10{sup -9} and 4.992 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for nettle leaves and 1.975 x 10{sup -9} and 6.172 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for mint leaves from the Fick's diffusion model. Using D{sub eff}, the value of E{sub a} is determined assuming the Arrhenius-type temperature relationship, which varies from 79.873 to 109.003 kJ/mol for nettle leaves and 66.873 to 71.987 kJ/mol for mint leaves. (author)

  14. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves and roots of Xanthium strumarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creelman, R.A.; Gage, D.A.; Stults, J.T.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Research on the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has focused primarily on two pathways: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. The authors have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in 18 O 2 . It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of 18 O from 18 O 2 are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of 18 O incorporated increases with time. One 18 O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in 18 O 2 shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more 18 O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, 18 O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent that it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied 14 C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional 18 O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid

  15. Resveratrols in grape berry skins and leaves in vitis germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were

  16. Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Leaves and Roots of Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Gage, D A; Stults, J T; Zeevaart, J A

    1987-11-01

    RESEARCH ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) HAS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON TWO PATHWAYS: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. We have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in (18)O(2). It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of (18)O from (18)O(2) are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of (18)O incorporated increases with time. One (18)O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in (18)O(2) shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more (18)O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 (carotenoid numbering scheme) plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, (18)O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent than it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied (14)C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional (18)O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

  17. [Teacher sick leave: Prevalence, duration, reasons and covariates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercambre-Jacquot, M-N; Gilbert, F; Billaudeau, N

    2018-02-01

    Absences from work have considerable social and economic impact. In the education sector, the phenomenon is particularly worrying since teacher sick leave has an impact on the overall performance of the education system. Yet, available data are scarce. In April-June 2013, 2653 teachers responded to a population-based postal survey on their quality of life (enquête Qualité de vie des enseignants, MGEN Foundation/Ministry of education, response rate 53 %). Besides questions on work environment and health, teachers were asked to describe their eventual sick leave(s) since the beginning of the school year: duration, type and medical reasons. Self-reported information was reinforced by administrative data from ministerial databases and weighted to be extrapolated to all French teachers. Tobit models adjusted for individual factors of a private nature were used to investigate different occupational risk factors of teacher sick leave, taking into account both the estimated effect on the probability of sick leave and the length of it. More than one in three teachers (36 %) reported having had at least one day of sick leave since the beginning of the school year. Respiratory/ENT diseases were the leading reason for sick leave (37 %). However, and because sick leave duration depended on the underlying health problem, such diseases came in third place among justifications of sick leave days (14 %), far behind musculoskeletal problems (27 %) and neurological and psychological disorders (25 %). Tobit models suggested that some occupational factors significantly associated with the risk of sick leave may represent promising preventive targets, including high psychological demand, workplace violence and unfavorable socio-environmental context. Our study provides objective evidence about the issue of sick leave among French teachers, highlighting the usefulness of implementing actions to minimize its weight. To this end, the study findings point-out the importance of

  18. Ozone injury increases infection of geranium leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.

    1970-04-01

    Detached and attached, inoculated and noninoculated, ozone-injured and noninjured leaves from the lower, middle, and terminal regions of plants of geranium cultivars Enchantress and White Mountain were observed for infection by Botrytis cinerea. Previous exposure to ozone did not appreciably influence the susceptibility of leaves of either geranium cultivar to infection by B. cinerea, unless there was visible ozone injury. Ozone-injured, necrotic tissues on older attached and detached geranium leaves of both cultivars served as infection courts for B. cinerea. 14 references, 1 table.

  19. [Studies on phenolic constituents from leaves of pineapple (Ananas comosus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Xing, Dong-ming; Wang, Jin-ping; Du, Li-jun

    2006-08-01

    To study the phenolic constituents of the leaves of pineapple. Chromatographic methods were used to isolate compounds from the leaves of pineapple and spectroscopic methods were used to identify the structures of the isolated compounds. 7 compounds, ananasate (1), 1-O-caffeoylglycerol (2), 1-O-p-coumaroylglycerol (3), caffeic acid (4), p-coumaric acid (5), beta-sitosterol (6) and daucosterol (7), were isolated from the leaves of pineapple. 1 was a new compound, and others were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  20. Leave-two-out stability of ontology learning algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianzhang; Yu, Xiao; Zhu, Linli; Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Ontology is a semantic analysis and calculation model, which has been applied to many subjects. Ontology similarity calculation and ontology mapping are employed as machine learning approaches. The purpose of this paper is to study the leave-two-out stability of ontology learning algorithm. Several leave-two-out stabilities are defined in ontology learning setting and the relationship among these stabilities are presented. Furthermore, the results manifested reveal that leave-two-out stability is a sufficient and necessary condition for ontology learning algorithm.

  1. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leave intermittently or on a reduced leave schedule for planned medical treatment, then the employee... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. 825... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the...

  2. LEAVE OF ABSENCE PRACTICES IN SOUTH DAKOTA SCHOOLS--SCHOOL YEAR 1964-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Education Association, Pierre.

    IN ADDITION TO SCHOOL POLICIES RELATING TO TEACHER LEAVES OF ABSENCE IN SOUTH DAKOTA, STATE BY STATE SUMMARIES OF EDUCATIONAL LEGISLATION REGARDING SICK LEAVE, MATERNITY LEAVE, AND SABBATICAL LEAVE ARE PRESENTED IN THIS DOCUMENT. OF THE 228 RESPONDING SCHOOLS IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 215 REPORTED EXISTING SICK LEAVE POLICIES. THE MAJORITY OF RESPONDING…

  3. The unintended consequences of maternity leaves: How agency interventions mitigate the negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideg, Ivona; Krstic, Anja; Trau, Raymond N C; Zarina, Tanya

    2018-06-07

    To support women in the workplace, longer legislated maternity leaves have been encouraged in Scandinavian countries and recently in Canada. Yet, past research shows that longer legislated maternity leaves (i.e., 1 year and longer) may unintentionally harm women's career progress. To address this issue, we first sought to identify one potential mechanism underlying negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves: others' lower perceptions of women's agency. Second, we utilize this knowledge to test interventions that boost others' perceptions of women's agency and thus mitigate negative effects of longer legislated maternity leaves. We test our hypotheses in three studies in the context of Canadian maternity leave policies. Specifically, in Study 1, we found that others' lower perceptions of women's agency mediated the negative effects of a longer legislated maternity leave, that is, 1 year (vs. shorter, i.e., 1 month maternity leave) on job commitment. In Study 2, we found that providing information about a woman's agency mitigates the unintended negative effects of a longer legislated maternity leave on job commitment and hireability. In Study 3, we showed that use of a corporate program that enables women to stay in touch with the workplace while on maternity leave (compared to conditions in which no such program was offered; a program was offered but not used by the applicant; and the program was offered, but there was no information about its usage by the applicant) enhances agency perceptions and perceptions of job commitment and hireability. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Guajadial: an unusual meroterpenoid from guava leaves Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Long; Hsieh, Kun-Lung; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2007-11-22

    Guajadial (1), a novel caryophyllene-based meroterpenoid, was isolated from the Leaves of Psidium guajava (guava). The structure and relative stereochemistry of guajadial (1) were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. A possible biosynthetic pathway for 1 was proposed.

  5. Gravity effects on wind-induced flutter of leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmer, Nickalaus; Kopperstad, Karsten; Solano, Tomas; Shoele, Kourosh; Ordonez, Juan

    2017-11-01

    Wind-Induced flutter of leaves depends on both wind velocity and the gravity. To study the gravitational effects on the oscillatory behavior of leaves in the wind, a wind tunnel that can be tilted about the center of the test section is created. This unique rotation capability allows systematic investigation of gravitational effects on the fluttering response of leaves. The flow-induced vibration will be studied for three different leaves at several different tilting angles including the wind travels horizontally, vertically downward and vertically upward. In each situation, the long axis of a leaf is placed parallel to the wind direction and its response is studied at different flow speed. Oscillation of the leaf is recorded via high-speed camera at each of setup, and the effect of the gravity on stabilizing or destabilizing the fluttering response is investigated. Summer REU student at Florida State University.

  6. Utilization of Cassava Leaves as a Vegetable in Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The objectives of this study were to determine cassava species from which leaves are harvested as vegetable and identify leaf preparation methods, consumption rate, price variation, storability and perception of post-harvest losses.

  7. Preventing intimate partner violence through paid parental leave policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Inverno, Ashley Schappell; Reidy, Dennis E; Kearns, Megan C

    2018-05-30

    Paid parental leave policies have the potential to strengthen economic supports, reduce family discord, and provide opportunities to empower women (Basile et al., 2016; Niolon et al., 2017). In this article, we present a theory of change and evidence to suggest how paid parental leave may impact intimate partner violence (IPV). In doing so, we present three mechanisms of change (i.e., reduction in financial stress, increase in egalitarian parenting practices, and promotion of child/parent bonding) through which paid parental leave could reduce rates of IPV. We also describe limitations of the current state of knowledge in this area, as well as opportunities for future research. Ultimately, our goal is to facilitate the identification and implementation of approaches that have the potential to reduce violence at the population level. Paid parental leave embodies the potential of policies to change societal-level factors and serve as an important prevention strategy for IPV. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. THE FLABELLATE-LEAVED SPECIES OF SALACCA (PALMAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHANIS P. MOGEA

    1980-03-01

    Full Text Available Salacca dransfieldiana Mogea, S. magnifica Mogea and S. sarawak-ensis Mogea are proposed as new species of flabellate-leaved Salacca.A key to the four recognized species, descriptions and illustrations arepresented.

  9. An Analysis of Sabbatical Leaves for Navy Surface Warfare Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yardley, Roland J; Thie, Harry J; Brancato, Kevin; Abbott, Megan

    2004-01-01

    ... or to attend to other personal needs. In response to these retention concerns, the Navy is considering several programs that allow greater accommodation of the personal needs of its SWOs, particularly through the increased use of sabbatical leaves...

  10. In Vivo Digestibility of Molasses-Treated Fresh Banana Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated fresh banana leaves in West African Dwarf sheep was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm and Animal Nutrition Laboratory of the University of Dschang between August and September 2009. For this, six sheep were used and ...

  11. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Stein Tore; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore general practitioners ’(GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patientssuffering from subjective health complaints. Design: Focus-group study. Setting: Nine focus-group interviews in three citiesin different regions of Norway. Participants: 48...... GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32–65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certifi cates related to patients with subjective health complaints. Results: TheGPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question...... to sick leave. Conclusions and implications: GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick leave negotiations has...

  12. Factors Predicting Ethiopian Anesthetists' Intention to Leave Their Job

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kols, Adrienne; Kibwana, Sharon; Molla, Yohannes; Ayalew, Firew; Teshome, Mihereteab; van Roosmalen, Jos; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has rapidly expanded training programs for associate clinician anesthetists in order to address shortages of anesthesia providers. However, retaining them in the public health sector has proven challenging. This study aimed to determine anesthetists' intentions to leave their

  13. Munatsi Shoko Abstract After leaving their home country ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Munatsi Shoko Abstract After leaving their home country, international migrants are faced with a challenge to seek a new family, friends, support networks, accommodation and employment. Married migrants may be forced to live separately from their spouses.

  14. Protective effect of Moringa peregrina leaves extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effect of Moringa peregrina leaves extract on acetaminophen - induced liver toxicity in albino rats. Samy Abdelfatah Abdel Azim, Mohamed Taha Abdelrahem, Mostafa Mohamed Said, Alshaimaa Khattab ...

  15. leaves extracts as counter stain in gram staining reaction 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    is a stain with color contrasting to the principal stain, making the stained ... technology today, the Gram's staining method remains ... was aimed at employing the use of Henna leaves extract as ... fragrant, white or rose flowers in clusters. It is.

  16. Dust retaining properties of leaves of some tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusev, M I

    1960-05-01

    A study was made in Tashkent, Russia of the dust-retaining power of leaves of several tree species. Investigations were made in a park where these tree species were growing in close proximity, exposed to the effects of dust from the main city street and from the highway passing through the park. Observations on the dust-retaining power of leaves were made mostly during the summer and fall months. The dust-retaining power of leaves of different tree species varied with the dust concentration in the air. In the summer and fall when rains are scarce a steady accumulation of dust was observed on the surface of the leaves. 1 table.

  17. Consequences Paternity Leave on Allocation of Childcare and Domestic Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of parental leave policies aimed exclusively at fathers is to promote gender equality in the productive and reproductive spheres. The aim of this study is to examine whether the use of paternity leave fosters greater involvement of fathers in the division of tasks within the reproductive sphere, specifi cally child care and housework. Based on data from the survey, ?Social use of parental leave in Spain, 2012?, we have created multivariate models using ordinary least squares regression. The sample used in the analysis consists of 600 fathers who have had at least one child since 2007. The results suggest that paternity leave does encourage greater involvement by fathers in childcare, but the effect is limited, as it is only found for fathers after the birth of their fi rst child.

  18. The Relationship between Restraints of Trade and Garden Leave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeukai Mupangavanhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between a so-called "garden leave" clause and a post-termination restraint of trade clause in employment contracts, in view of the decision in Vodacom (Pty Ltd v Motsa 2016 3 SA 116 (LC. The Labour Court grappled with the question of whether the enforcement of the garden leave provision impacts on the enforcement of a post-termination restraint of trade clause. Enforcement of both these types of clauses may be problematic. It can result in unfairness if an employee ends up being commercially inactive for a long period. The author argues that garden leave has a direct effect on the enforcement of a post- termination restraint of trade clause. Accordingly, a restraint of trade will be enforced only if the employer's proprietary interest requires additional protection beyond what is achieved under the garden leave clause.

  19. Mother on parental leave and child in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    KRUPILOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with currently expanding phenomenon of placing children of mothers on parental leave in kindergarten. This work presents the basic theoretical background of the topic. It defines the contemporary family and its changes, meaning and function of the family, changes in the concept of motherhood and the role of mother, a preschool child, current kindergartens and current legislation regulating parental leave. The second part presents the results of a questionnaire survey among m...

  20. Bioinspired leaves-on-branchlet hybrid carbon nanostructure for supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Guoping; He, Pingge; Lyu, Zhipeng; Chen, Tengfei; Huang, Boyun; Chen, Lei; Fisher, Timothy S.

    2018-01-01

    Designing electrodes in a highly ordered structure simultaneously with appropriate orientation, outstanding mechanical robustness, and high electrical conductivity to achieve excellent electrochemical performance remains a daunting challenge. Inspired by the phenomenon in nature that leaves significantly increase exposed tree surface area to absorb carbon dioxide (like ions) from the environments (like electrolyte) for photosynthesis, we report a design of micro-conduits in a bioinspired leav...

  1. Exploring audit assistants decision to leave the audit profession

    OpenAIRE

    Gertsson, Nellie; Sylvander, Johanna; Broberg, Pernilla; Friberg, Josefine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore why audit assistants leave the audit profession. By including both the perceptions held by audit assistants that left the audit profession and the perceptions of audit assistants still working in the audit profession, this study aims to explore how determinants of job satisfaction are associated with decisions to leave the audit profession. Design/methodology/approach - To explore the association between determinants of job satisfaction and de...

  2. Pharmacognostical Studies On Leaves And Stem Of Cocculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total ash values, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash were found to be 2.20 %, 0.40 %, 0.60 % and 5.2 %,0.60 %, 1.50 % w/w for leaves and stem respectively. The loss on drying was found to be 1.21 % and 1.30 % w/w for the leaves and stem respectively. The leaf constants such as stomatal index (6.50), vein islet ...

  3. Women?s Reasons for Leaving the Engineering Field

    OpenAIRE

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wan, Min; Singh, Romila

    2017-01-01

    Among the different Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math fields, engineering continues to have one of the highest rates of attrition (Hewlett et al., 2008). The turnover rate for women engineers from engineering fields is even higher than for men (Frehill, 2010). Despite increased efforts from researchers, there are still large gaps in our understanding of the reasons that women leave engineering. This study aims to address this gap by examining the reasons why women leave engineering. ...

  4. Beech cupules share endophytic fungi with leaves and twigs

    OpenAIRE

    Tateno, Osamu; Hirose, Dai; Osono, Takashi; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic mycobiota on leaves, twigs and cupules of Fagus crenata were investigated using a culture-dependent method over a growing season to test the hypothesis that endophytic fungi of cupule (a woody phyllome) share some components of the endophytic fungal assemblages with both leaves and twigs. A total of 14 fungal taxa were isolated, and the most frequent taxon was Phomopsis sp., followed by Xylaria sp., Ascochyta fagi and Geniculosporium sp. The compositions of fungal assemblages of le...

  5. Collection of apoplastic fluids from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Svend Roesen; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2016-01-01

    The leaf apoplast comprises the extracellular continuum outside cell membranes. A broad range of processes take place in the apoplast, including intercellular signaling, metabolite transport, and plant-microbe interactions. To study these processes, it is essential to analyze the metabolite conte...... in apoplastic fluids. Due to the fragile nature of leaf tissues, it is a challenge to obtain apoplastic fluids from leaves. Here, methods to collect apoplastic washing fluid and guttation fluid from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves are described....

  6. Carbon partitioning and export from mature cotton leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, D.L.; Grange, R.I.

    1991-01-01

    The partitioning of carbon in intact, mature cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves was examined by steady-state 14 CO 2 labeling. Plants were exposed to dark periods of varying lengths, followed by similar illuminated labeling periods. These treatments produced leaves with a range of starch and soluble sugar contents, carbon exchange, and carbon export rates. Export during the illuminated periods was neither highly correlated with photosynthesis nor was export during the illuminated periods significantly different among the treatments. In contrast, the rate of subsequent nocturnal carbon export from these leaves varied widely and was found to be highly correlated with leaf starch content at the end of the illumination period and with nocturnal leaf respiration. Leaves which had accumulated the highest levels of starch (about 275 micrograms per square centimeter) by the end of the illumination period exhibited nocturnal export rates very similar to those during the daylight hours. Leaves which accumulated starch to only 50 to 75 micrograms per square centimeter virtually ceased nocturnal carbon export. For leaves with starch accumulations of between 50 and 275 micrograms per square centimeter, nocturnal export was directly proportional to leaf starch at the end of the illumination period. After the nocturnal export rate was established, it continued at a constant rate throughout the night even though leaf starch and sucrose contents declined

  7. Fathers’ Experience of Shared Parental Leave in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Chronholm

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the Swedish parental leave reform in 1974, fathers have had the same rights to use parental leave as mothers. Between 2000 and 2003, a research project at the Department of Sociology, University of Gothenburg, focused on fathers who had taken more than four months of paid parental leave. The approach of the study was mainly qualitative, based upon a combination of a survey and interviews. A majority of the fathers who answered the questionnaire had been the main caregivers for their children during their parental leave. During the interviews many of the men described their mothers as role models for their fatherhood. The men also described their own partner as both anxious to get back to her work after her own parental leave period and convinced of the importance of a nurturing father. An early decision to take part of the parental leave probably made it easier for the men to reach workplace agreements. Most of the men described themselves as both nurturing fathers and as sharing housework equally. They stressed the importance of being alone with their child during a long period, to be able to develop a deep relationship with their child.

  8. Carbon partitioning and export from mature cotton leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, D L; Grange, R I

    1991-01-01

    The partitioning of carbon in intact, mature cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves was examined by steady-state (14)CO(2) labeling. Plants were exposed to dark periods of varying lengths, followed by similar illuminated labeling periods. These treatments produced leaves with a range of starch and soluble sugar contents, carbon exchange, and carbon export rates. Export during the illuminated periods was neither highly correlated with photosynthesis nor was export during the illuminated periods significantly different among the treatments. In contrast, the rate of subsequent nocturnal carbon export from these leaves varied widely and was found to be highly correlated with leaf starch content at the end of the illumination period (r = 0.934) and with nocturnal leaf respiration (r = 0.954). Leaves which had accumulated the highest levels of starch (about 275 micrograms per square centimeter) by the end of the illumination period exhibited nocturnal export rates very similar to those during the daylight hours. Leaves which accumulated starch to only 50 to 75 micrograms per square centimeter virtually ceased nocturnal carbon export. For leaves with starch accumulations of between 50 and 275 micrograms per square centimeter, nocturnal export was directly proportional to leaf starch at the end of the illumination period. After the nocturnal export rate was established, it continued at a constant rate throughout the night even though leaf starch and sucrose contents declined.

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Stevia leaves extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguta, Iryna; Stavinskaya, Oksana; Kazakova, Olga; Fesenko, Tetiana; Brychka, Sergey

    2018-02-01

    Three extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) were prepared using different types of raw materials: leaves of plants grown ex situ, leaves of plants grown in vitro, callus culture formed on damaged leaves. Composition of the extracts was studied by means of high-performance liquid chromatography and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry; total phenol content was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau method. Flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were found to be the main groups of phenol antioxidants available in the Stevia leaves, with the amount of these compounds in the extract being dependent on the type of raw material. The reducing properties of phenol compounds identified in the extracts were characterized using quantum chemical method; flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were found to have similar redox parameters. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) colloids were synthesized using three Stevia extracts; AgNPs size distribution were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy. All the extracts revealed significant activity in AgNPs synthesis; the nanoparticles of predominantly spherical shape with the average sizes of 16-25 nm were formed. The reducing properties of the extracts were found to correlate with total phenol content; the activity of extracts from the leaves of plants grown ex situ and from callus culture in Ag+ ions reduction was similar to each other and exceeded the activity of extract from the leaves of plants grown in vitro.

  10. Experiences of occupational therapists returning to work after maternity leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcsi, Lisa; Curtin, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Returning to work after maternity leave can be a challenging, anxious and fraught experience for women, and has been portrayed in the literature as a generally negative experience. Interestingly, although occupational therapists were predominantly women, no research was found focussing on their experiences of returning to work after maternity leave. The aim of this research was to gain an insight into occupational therapists' experiences of returning to work following maternity leave. Principles of interpretive phenomenological analysis were used to explore the individual experiences of six Australian occupational therapists returning to work after a period of maternity leave. Individual semi-structured interviews lasting up to 90 minutes were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and then analysed. Two major themes emerged from the analysis of interviews: compromise and feeling valued. The experience of returning to work was a process of compromise in which women found strategies to cope with their changing roles and demands, to find a balance between home and work life. The women wanted to feel valued by their managers and co-workers, as this enabled them to feel comfortable and confident with some of the compromises they made. Occupational therapists returning to work after maternity leave will make compromises so that they can balance their home and work life. Occupational therapists value managers and co-workers who understand the compromises women make when returning to work following maternity leave and who create a supportive workplace that acknowledges and values their contribution. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  11. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Selected Herbal Leaves: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, I. A. Abd; Ismail, N.; Rahman, N. Abd

    2018-05-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction of carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) is one of new alternative extraction method that has been widely used to isolate bioactive components from variety of plant materials. The method was proved to be clean and safe, compatible for the extraction of edible products such as spices, food additives, medicines and nutritional supplement products compared to traditional extraction techniques such as solvent extraction, hydro distillation and steam distillation. The SC-CO2 extraction was known as highly influenced by its process parameter such as temperature and pressure for obtaining maximum yield. Therefore, a clear review on the optimum range of temperature and pressure for herbal leaves extraction using SC-CO2 is necessary for future reference. The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of temperature and pressure of SC-CO2 process without modifier on extraction yield of some selected herbal leaves i.e clubmoss, drumstick leaves, kratom leaves, mallee and myrtle leaves. The values of investigated parameters were; pressure from 8.9 to 50 MPa and temperature from 35 to 80°C. The results showed that the highest extraction yields were obtained when the pressure and temperature were above 30 MPa and 40°C. The interaction between pressure and temperature for SC-CO2 extraction of plant leaves are crucial since the values cannot be very high or very low in order to preserve the quality of the extracts.

  12. Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawsky, Nora E.; Havens, Donna S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The nurse manager role is critical to staff nurse retention and often the portal to senior nursing leadership, yet little is known about nurse managers' job satisfaction and career plans. The purpose of this study was to describe nurse managers' job satisfaction and intent to leave. Methods An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Findings Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next five years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Conclusions Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. Additional research is needed to understand the determinants and consequences of nurse manager job satisfaction, intent to leave, and turnover. PMID:24689156

  13. Propensity to Leave versus Probability of Leaving: The Relationship between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Satisfaction in the Voluntary Leaving Behavior of IT Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a quantitative analysis of the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction and the voluntary leaving behavior of IT professionals. In addition, the study adds to the validity and reliability of the Udechukwu and Mujtaba Mathematical Turnover Model. Surveyed within the study for their intrinsic and…

  14. Sun and Shade leaves, SIF, and Photosynthetic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J. A.; Badgley, G.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in retrieval of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) have opened up new possibilities for remote sensing of canopy physiology and structure. To date most of the emphasis has been placed on SIF as an indicator of stress and photosynthetic capacity. However, it is clear that canopy structure can also have an influence. To this point, simulations of SIF in land surface models tend to under predict observed variation in SIF. Also, large, systematic differences in SIF from different canopy types seem to correlate well with the photosynthetic capacity of these canopies. SIF emissions from pampered crops can be several-fold that from evergreen, needle-leaf forests. Yet, these may have similar vegetation indices and absorb a similar fraction of incident PAR. SIF photons produced in a conifer canopy do have a lower probability of escaping its dense, clumped foliage. However, this does not explain the correlated differences in photosynthetic rate and SIF. It is useful, in this regard, to consider the separate contributions of sun and shade leaves to the SIF emitted by a canopy. Sun leaves tend to be displayed to intercept the direct solar beam, and these highly illuminated leaves are often visible from above the canopy. Sun leaves produce more SIF and a large fraction of it escapes. Therefore, the intensity of SIF may be a sensitive indicator of the partitioning of absorbed PAR to sun and shade leaves. Many models account tor the different photosynthetic capacity of sun and shade leaves in calculating canopy responses. However, the fraction of leaves in each category is usually parameterized by an assumed leaf angle distribution (e.g. spherical). In reality, the sun/shade fraction can vary over a wide range, and it has been difficult to measure. SIF and possibly near-IR reflectance of canopies can be used to specify this key parameter with obvious importance to understanding photosynthetic rate.

  15. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Stein; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-03-01

    To explore general practitioners' (GPs') specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Focus-group study. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32-65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints. The GPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question of sick leave for patients with subjective health complaints. The first step would be to build an alliance with the patient by complying with the wish for sick leave, and at the same time searching for information to acquire the patient's perspective. This position would become the basis for the main goal: motivating the patient for a rapid return to work by pointing out the positive effects of staying at work, making legal and moral arguments, and warning against long-term sick leave. Additional solutions might also be applied, such as involving other stakeholders in this process to provide alternatives to sick leave. GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick-leave negotiations has been suggested by others to enhance return to work, and should be further encouraged. However, specific effectiveness of this strategy is yet to be proven, and further investigation into the actual dealings between doctor and patients in these complex encounters is needed.

  16. Satisfaction of women urologists with maternity leave and childbirth timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Lori B; Baltrushes, Robin J; Stolzmann, Kelly L; Garshick, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Women physicians must consider many conflicting issues when timing childbirth. We characterized maternity leave, breast-feeding practices and satisfaction associated with pregnancy timing in women urologists. A 114-item anonymous survey including questions on maternity leave duration for firstborn children, workplace policies, attitudes and satisfaction was mailed to all 365 American board certified women urologists in May and July 2007. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with greater satisfaction. A total of 243 women urologists (69%) responded, of whom 158 had at least 1 biological child. Average maternal age at first birth was 32.6 years. Of the children 10%, 32% and 52% were born before, during and after residency, respectively. Only 42% of women reported the existence of a formal maternity leave policy. Of the women 70% took 8 weeks or less of leave. Those with 9 weeks or greater were 3.8 times more likely to report satisfaction (p = 0.001). Although women in practice were 2.0 times more likely to take 9 weeks or greater compared to those in training or earlier (p = 0.046), only 30% in practice took this much time. Dissatisfaction with leave was not related to birth timing (residency vs practice) or maternal age at delivery but to work/residency related issues in 69% of respondents, financial concerns in 13% and personal/other in 18%. For breast-feeding 67% of respondents were satisfied with the duration and 22% were not. Dissatisfaction was secondary to work factors. Satisfaction with leave was related to the amount of maternity leave with women with 9 weeks or greater more likely to report satisfaction. Women in practice were more likely to take 9 weeks or greater but most did not due to strong stressors related to work, partners/peers or finances. Work factors were cited for dissatisfaction with breast-feeding.

  17. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves and roots of Xanthium strumarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Gage, D.A.; Stults, J.T.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1987-11-01

    Research on the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has focused primarily on two pathways: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. The authors have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in /sup 18/O/sub 2/. It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of /sup 18/O from /sup 18/O/sub 2/ are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of /sup 18/O incorporated increases with time. One /sup 18/O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in /sup 18/O/sub 2/ shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more /sup 18/O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, /sup 18/O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent that it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied /sup 14/C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional /sup 18/O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

  18. Endophytic fungi from leaves of Centella asiatica: occurrence and potential interactions within leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniriana, E F; Munaut, F; Decock, C; Randriamampionona, D; Andriambololoniaina, M; Rakotomalala, T; Rakotonirina, E J; Rabemanantsoa, C; Cheuk, K; Ratsimamanga, S U; Mahillon, J; El-Jaziri, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Corbisier, A M

    2008-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from leaves of Centella asiatica (Apiaceae) collected at Mangoro (middle eastern region of Madagascar, 200 km from Antananarivo). Forty- five different taxa were recovered. The overall foliar colonization rate was 78%. The most common endophytes were the non-sporulating species 1 (isolation frequency IF 19.2%) followed by Colletotrichum sp.1 (IF 13.2%), Guignardia sp. (IF 8.5%), Glomerella sp. (IF 7.7%), an unidentified ascomycete (IF 7.2%), the non-sporulating species 2 (IF 3.7%) and Phialophora sp. (IF 3.5%). Using sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, major endophytes (IF > 7%) were identified as xylariaceous taxa or as Colletotrichum higginsianum, Guignardia mangiferae and Glomerella cingulata. Results from in vitro fungal disk experiments showed a strong inhibitory activity of the xylariaceous non-sporulating species 1 against G. mangiferae and C. higginsianum and of C. higginsianum against G. mangiferae. This can be explained by antagonism between dominant taxa.

  19. [Origin of sennosides in health teas including Malva leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T; Kishi, M; Sekita, S; Satake, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf.

  20. Diversity of fungi colonizing leaves of Rhododendron (Rhododendron L. cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kierpiec-Baran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendrons (Rhododendron L. are shrubs whose attractiveness is determined by their multi-coloured flowers and evergreen leaves. Necroses visible on the leaves of rhododendron cuttings diminish the suitability of nursery material for marketing. These symptoms are most frequently caused by fungi. The investigations were conducted in 2010–2011 in an ornamental shrub nursery to identify fungi colonizing the phyllosphere of rhododendron cuttings and causing leaf necroses. The material for analysis consisted of leaves of 11 rhododendron cultivars. 550 leaves were collected from 110 half-year-old cuttings for mycological analysis. Over 350 fungal colonies belonging to 15 species were isolated from the leaves of rhododendron cuttings. The dominants included: Pestalotiopsis sydowiana, Trichoderma koningii and Alternaria alternata. The influents included: Aspergillus brasiliensis, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Epicoccum nigrum, Sordaria fimicola and Umbelopsis isabellina. A large majority of the fungi preferred the phyllosphere environment of Yakushima rhododendron (R. yakushimanum cultivars ‘Sneezy’ and ‘Golden Torch’ as well as of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Flautando’, ‘Dominik’, and ‘Simona’. The phyllosphere of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, and ‘Goldbuckett’ was a reservoir for many fungal colonies and fungi species. The cultivars less susceptible to colonization by fungi and the most promising for planting in green areas and home gardens are the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, ‘Goldbuckett’, ‘Rasputin’, and ‘Roseum Elegans’.

  1. Fathers’ Leave and Fathers’ Involvement: Evidence from Four OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Maria C.; Adema, Willem; Baxter, Jennifer; Han, Wen-Jui; Lausten, Mette; Lee, RaeHyuck; Waldfogel, Jane

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several OECD countries have taken steps to promote policies encouraging fathers to spend more time caring for young children, thereby promoting a more gender equal division of care work. Evidence, mainly for the United States and United Kingdom, has shown fathers taking some time off work around childbirth are more likely to be involved in childcare related activities than fathers who do not take time off. This paper conducts a first cross-national analysis on the association between fathers’ leave taking and fathers’ involvement when children are young. It uses birth cohort data of children born around 2000 from four OECD countries: Australia, Denmark, the United Kingdom and the United States. Results show that the majority of fathers take time off around childbirth independent of the leave policies in place. In all countries, except Denmark, important socio-economic differences between fathers who take leave and those who do not are observed. In addition, fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when children are young. This study adds to the evidence that suggests that parental leave for fathers is positively associated with subsequent paternal involvement. PMID:28479865

  2. Paternity leave in Sweden: costs, savings and health gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Winkvist, Anna

    2007-06-01

    The initial objective is to examine the relationship between paternity leave in 1978-1979 and male mortality during 1981-2001, and the second objective is to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the 1974 parental insurance reform in Sweden. Based on a population of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (45,801 males), the risk of death for men who took paternity leave, compared with men who did not, was estimated by odds ratios. The cost-effectiveness analysis considered costs for information, administration and production losses, minus savings due to decreased sickness leave and inpatient care, compared to health gains in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). It is demonstrated that fathers who took paternity leave have a statistically significant decreased death risk of 16%. Costs minus savings (discounted values) stretch from a net cost of EUR 19 million to a net saving of EUR 11 million, and the base case cost-effectiveness is EUR 8000 per QALY. The study indicates that that the right to paternity leave is a desirable reform based on commonly stated public health, economic, and feminist goals. The critical issue in future research should be to examine impact from health-related selection.

  3. The Effect of Paid Leave on Maternal Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Bidisha

    2018-06-07

    Objectives I examined the relationship between paid maternity leave and maternal mental health among women returning to work within 12 weeks of childbirth, after 12 weeks, and those returning specifically to full-time work within 12 weeks of giving birth. Methods I used data from 3850 women who worked full-time before childbirth from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. I utilized propensity score matching techniques to address selection bias. Mental health was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale, with high scores indicating greater depressive symptoms. Results Returning to work after giving birth provided psychological benefits to women who used to work full-time before childbirth. The average CESD score of women who returned to work was 0.15 standard deviation (p leave, on the other hand, was associated with adverse effects on mental health. The average CESD score of women who returned within 12 weeks of giving birth was 0.13 standard deviation higher (p leave was associated with an improved mental health outcome. Among all women who returned to work within 12 weeks of childbirth, those women who received some paid leave had a 0.17 standard deviation (p leave.

  4. Parental leave policies in graduate medical education: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Laura S; Lyon, Sarah; Garza, Rebecca; Butz, Daniel R; Lemelman, Benjamin; Park, Julie E

    2017-10-01

    A thorough understanding of attitudes toward and program policies for parenthood in graduate medical education (GME) is essential for establishing fair and achievable parental leave policies and fostering a culture of support for trainees during GME. A systematic review of the literature was completed. Non-cohort studies, studies completed or published outside of the United States, and studies not published in English were excluded. Studies that addressed the existence of parental leave policies in GME were identified and were the focus of this study. Twenty-eight studies addressed the topic of the existence of formal parental leave policies in GME, which was found to vary across time and ranged between 22 and 90%. Support for such policies persisted across time. Attention to formal leave policies in GME has traditionally been lacking, but may be increasing. Negative attitudes towards parenthood in GME persist. Active awareness of the challenges faced by parent-trainees combined with formal parental leave policy implementation is important in supporting parenthood in GME. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Oxalate Content of Taro Leaves Grown in Central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Thanh, Hang; Phan Vu, Hai; Vu Van, Hai; Le Duc, Ngoan; Le Minh, Tuan; Savage, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Leaves were harvested from four different cultivars of Colocasia esculenta and three cultivars of Alocasia odora that were growing on nine different farms in central Vietnam. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. Total calcium determinations were also carried out on the same samples. The total oxalate content of the leaves ranged from 433.8 to 856.1 mg/100 g wet matter (WM) while the soluble oxalate ranged from 147.8 to 339.7 mg/100 g WM. The proportion of soluble oxalate ranged from 28% to 41% (overall mean 35%) of the total oxalate content of the leaves. The equivalent insoluble oxalate proportion ranged from 59% to 72% of the total (overall mean 65%). There was little difference between the Colocasia esculenta and Alocasia odora taro cultivars, although the total oxalate content was significantly higher in Alocasia odora cultivars. The overall mean total calcium content was 279.5 mg/100 WM and the percentage of insoluble calcium bound as calcium oxalate ranged from 31.7% to 57.3% of the total calcium content (overall mean 47.1%). The oxalate content in taro leaves is a major factor to consider when different cultivars of taro are recommended for human or animal consumption. PMID:28231080

  6. Oxalate Content of Taro Leaves Grown in Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Du Thanh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves were harvested from four different cultivars of Colocasia esculenta and three cultivars of Alocasia odora that were growing on nine different farms in central Vietnam. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. Total calcium determinations were also carried out on the same samples. The total oxalate content of the leaves ranged from 433.8 to 856.1 mg/100 g wet matter (WM while the soluble oxalate ranged from 147.8 to 339.7 mg/100 g WM. The proportion of soluble oxalate ranged from 28% to 41% (overall mean 35% of the total oxalate content of the leaves. The equivalent insoluble oxalate proportion ranged from 59% to 72% of the total (overall mean 65%. There was little difference between the Colocasia esculenta and Alocasia odora taro cultivars, although the total oxalate content was significantly higher in Alocasia odora cultivars. The overall mean total calcium content was 279.5 mg/100 WM and the percentage of insoluble calcium bound as calcium oxalate ranged from 31.7% to 57.3% of the total calcium content (overall mean 47.1%. The oxalate content in taro leaves is a major factor to consider when different cultivars of taro are recommended for human or animal consumption.

  7. Adsorption Behavior of Uranium and Mechanism Analysis on Banyan Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liangshu; Tan Kaixuan; Wang Xiao; Zheng Weina

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of uranium on banyan leaves was studied with static experiments. The adsorption process was analyzed in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics, and the adsorption mechanism was analyzed with FTIR and SEM. In the studied condition, the equilibrium adsorption data fit to Freundlich isotherms, with a relation coefficient greater than 0.99. The adsorption of uranium on banyan leaves is an endothermic process. Kinetic analysis shows that the adsorption rate is mainly controlled by surface adsorption. The process of adsorption can be described by an equation of Pseudo 2nd-order model. The calculation data are in good agreement with the experimental data,and the relation coefficient is 0.9998. The thermodynamic data indicate that the synergistic uranium biosorption by banyan leaves is a spontaneous and endothermal adsorption process. The adsorption of uranium on banyan leaves changes the cell's surface form of banyan leaves.In the adsorption process, UO 2 2+ mainly chelates with -OH,C=O,P-O and Si=O etc. on the cell's surface and forms the complexes. The adsorption of uranium should be of surface coordination. (authors)

  8. Meaningful work and secondary school teachers' intention to leave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Janik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the relations between secondary school teachers' work-role fit, job enrichment, supervisor relationships, co-worker relationships, psychological meaningfulness of work and intention to leave. A cross-sectional survey was used. The participants were 502 secondary school teachers in Namibia. The following measuring instruments were used: Work-role Fit Scale, Job Enrichment Scale, Co-worker and Supervisor Relationships Scales, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale and Turnover Intention Scale. Work-role fit and job enrichment both had direct positive effect on experiences of psychological meaningfulness at work, while poor work-role fit and low psychological meaningfulness both had a direct effect on teachers' intentions to leave. An analysis of the indirect effects showed that poor work-role fit and poor job enrichment affected intention to leave due to the concomitant experience of low psychological meaningfulness. These findings have implications for the retention of teachers in secondary schools.

  9. Bioactive Components in Moringa Oleifera Leaves Protect against Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Almatrafi, Manal Mused

    2017-01-01

    Moringa Oleifera (MO), a plant from the family Moringacea is a major crop in Asia and Africa. MO has been studied for its health properties, attributed to the numerous bioactive components, including vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, tannins and saponins, which are present in significant amounts in various components of the plant. Moringa Oleifera leaves are the most widely studied and they have shown to be beneficial in several chronic conditions, including hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, diabetes, insulin resistance, non-alcoholic liver disease, cancer and overall inflammation. In this review, we present information on the beneficial results that have been reported on the prevention and alleviation of these chronic conditions in various animal models and in cell studies. The existing limited information on human studies and Moringa Oleifera leaves is also presented. Overall, it has been well documented that Moringa Oleifera leaves are a good strategic for various conditions associated with heart disease, diabetes, cancer and fatty liver. PMID:29144438

  10. Bioactive Components in Moringa Oleifera Leaves Protect against Chronic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vergara-Jimenez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Moringa Oleifera (MO, a plant from the family Moringacea is a major crop in Asia and Africa. MO has been studied for its health properties, attributed to the numerous bioactive components, including vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, tannins and saponins, which are present in significant amounts in various components of the plant. Moringa Oleifera leaves are the most widely studied and they have shown to be beneficial in several chronic conditions, including hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, diabetes, insulin resistance, non-alcoholic liver disease, cancer and overall inflammation. In this review, we present information on the beneficial results that have been reported on the prevention and alleviation of these chronic conditions in various animal models and in cell studies. The existing limited information on human studies and Moringa Oleifera leaves is also presented. Overall, it has been well documented that Moringa Oleifera leaves are a good strategic for various conditions associated with heart disease, diabetes, cancer and fatty liver.

  11. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Santos, Suzana O.; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Waldecy A. da, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: suzirecifeusa@hotmail.com, E-mail: cassia.kellen@hotmail.com, E-mail: acpaiva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: waldecy@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  12. Don’t Leave U.S. Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Arellano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the pace at which Federal and State legislation were implemented to provide working parents and caregivers the ability to take time off for the birth or adoption of a child, to care for the elderly, sick or disabled family members, and others in need of care. Compared with many industrialized nations, the United States ranks alongside the least generous countries in terms of providing a balanced lifestyle between work and family life. For instance, the United States does not even provide national paid family leave. This article provides the history, purpose, and scope of the Family and Medical Leave Act, and later implementations of State programs. Furthermore, this article will present a brief survey of the paternal, maternal, and parental leave policies of other countries and will provide suggestions for changing existing federal policies to provide a more conducive family and work balance for employees.

  13. Analysis preliminary phytochemical raw extract of leaves Nephrolepis pectinata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natally Marreiros Gomes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nephrolepis pectinata popularly known as paulista fern, ladder-heaven, cat tail, belongs to the family Davalliaceae. For the beauty of the arrangements of their leaves ferns are quite commercialized in Brazil, however, have not been described in the literature studies on their pharmacological potential. Thus, the objective of this research was to analyze the phytochemical properties of the crude extract of the leaves of Nephrolepis pectinata. To perform the phytochemical analysis were initially made the collection of the vegetable, preparation of voucher specimen, washing, drying and grinding. Then, extraction by percolation method and end the phytochemical analysis. Preliminary results phytochemicals the crude extract of the leaves of Nephrolepis pectinata tested positive for reducing sugars, phenols/tannins (catechins tannins and catechins.

  14. The chemical constituents from leaves of Acer saccharum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Hong

    2009-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of leaves of Acer saccharum. The leaves of Acer saccharum were extracted by ethanol. The concentrated material was partitioned by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. After extracted by ethyl acetate, the extract was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and recrystallization. The compound structures were identified on the basis of spectral data and chemical methods. Seven compounds were isolated from the leaves of Acer saccharum. Their compound structures were identified as 3-keton-ursane,3beta-hydroxy-12-olean-12-en and 5-en-7-hydroxy-sitosterol. All the three compounds identified are isolated from this genus for the first time.

  15. Bioactive Components in Moringa Oleifera Leaves Protect against Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Almatrafi, Manal Mused; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-11-16

    Moringa Oleifera ( MO ), a plant from the family Moringacea is a major crop in Asia and Africa. MO has been studied for its health properties, attributed to the numerous bioactive components, including vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, tannins and saponins, which are present in significant amounts in various components of the plant. Moringa Oleifera leaves are the most widely studied and they have shown to be beneficial in several chronic conditions, including hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, diabetes, insulin resistance, non-alcoholic liver disease, cancer and overall inflammation. In this review, we present information on the beneficial results that have been reported on the prevention and alleviation of these chronic conditions in various animal models and in cell studies. The existing limited information on human studies and Moringa Oleifera leaves is also presented. Overall, it has been well documented that Moringa Oleifera leaves are a good strategic for various conditions associated with heart disease, diabetes, cancer and fatty liver.

  16. [Maternity leave and experience of working mothers in Lebanon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadé, N; Barbour, B; Salameh, P

    2010-09-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study of 802 Lebanese mothers to evaluate effect of rapid return to work on their health and that of their child. Breastfeeding practices were also assessed. The duration of maternity leave was insufficient for 72.8% of the women. Rapid return to work could cause physical and psychological problems depending on the type of work. The average length of breastfeeding was 4.7 months and while the average desired length was 10.9 months. Breastfeeding depended on the duration of the maternity leave, the possibility of breaks for breastfeeding and the presence of nurseries at work. Urgent interventions are necessary to prolong maternity leave and promote breastfeeding among working women.

  17. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Santos, Suzana O.; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Waldecy A. da

    2015-01-01

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  18. Leaving the grid: An ambition or a real choice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalilpour, Rajab; Vassallo, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The recent rapid decline in PV prices has brought grid parity, or near grid parity for PV in many countries. This, together with an expectation of a similar reduction for battery prices has prompted a new wave of social and academic discussions about the possibility of installing PV–battery systems and “leaving the grid” or “living off-grid”. This, if uncontrolled, has been termed the “death spiral” for utility companies. We have developed a decision support tool for rigorous assessment of the feasibility of leaving the grid. Numerous sensitivity analyses are carried out over critical parameters such as technology costs, system size, consumer load, and feed-in-tariff. The results show that, in most cases, leaving-the-grid is not the best economic option and it might be more beneficial to keep the connection with the grid, but minimize the electricity purchased by installation of an optimized size of PV-battery systems. The policy implication of this study is that, from an economic perspective, widespread disconnection might not be a realistic projection of the future. Rather, a notable reduction of energy demand per connection point is a more realistic option as PV–battery system prices decline further. Therefore, policies could be devised to help electricity network operators develop other sources of revenue rather than increasing energy prices, which have been assumed to be the key driver of the death spiral. -- Highlights: •There is an increasing public and academic interest in “leaving the grid” or “living off-grid”. •Grid defection is argued as a “death spiral” for transmission and distribution industries. •An optimization methodology is developed for assessing the feasibility of leaving the grid. •Leaving the grid with PV–battery is found to be infeasible due to large system requirements. •The best is to preserve connection with the grid, but minimize the electricity purchase

  19. International policies toward parental leave and child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, J

    2001-01-01

    The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child.

  20. Funding child rearing: child allowance and parental leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J R

    1996-01-01

    This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.

  1. Secondary Metabolites from Leaves of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Fernanda Borges; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Romao, Wanderson; Vanini, Gabriela; Costa, Helber Barcelos; França, Hildegardo Seibert; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; Rocha, Leandro

    2015-10-01

    Manilkara subsericea (Sapotaceae) is a species widely spread in the sandbanks of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). It is commonly known as "maçaranduba", "maçarandubinha" and "guracica", being used in this locality as food, and timber. However, M. subsericea remains almost unexplored regarding its chemical constituents, including secondary metabolites from the leaves. Identify the chemical constituents from the leaves of M. subsericea. Leaves were macerated with ethanol (96% v/v), and dried crude ethanolic extract was sequentially washed with the organic solvents in order to obtain an ethyl acetate fraction. Substances from this fraction were identified by different techniques, such as negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Fresh leaves from M. subsericea were also submitted to hydrodistillation in order to obtain volatile substances, which were identified by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. NMR(1)H and (13)C spectra allowed for the identification of the compounds myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol from the ethyl acetate fraction. The negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry mass spectrum also revealed the presence in this fraction of a polyhydroxytriterpene acid (pomolic acid), and some flavonoids, such as quercitrin, and myricitrin. In all 34 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and long chain hydrocarbons. This study describes the first reports concerning the phytochemical information about leaves from M. subsericea. Manilkara subsericea fruits proved to be a rich source of triterpenes. However, no phytochemical studies were carried out with leaves. Thus, we described identification of volatile substances from its essential oils, in addition to non-reported triterpene and flavonoids from this species.

  2. Secondary Metabolites from Leaves of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Fernanda Borges; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Romao, Wanderson; Vanini, Gabriela; Costa, Helber Barcelos; França, Hildegardo Seibert; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; Rocha, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Manilkara subsericea (Sapotaceae) is a species widely spread in the sandbanks of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). It is commonly known as “maçaranduba”, “maçarandubinha” and “guracica”, being used in this locality as food, and timber. However, M. subsericea remains almost unexplored regarding its chemical constituents, including secondary metabolites from the leaves. Objective: Identify the chemical constituents from the leaves of M. subsericea. Materials and Methods: Leaves were macerated with ethanol (96% v/v), and dried crude ethanolic extract was sequentially washed with the organic solvents in order to obtain an ethyl acetate fraction. Substances from this fraction were identified by different techniques, such as negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Fresh leaves from M. subsericea were also submitted to hydrodistillation in order to obtain volatile substances, which were identified by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Results: NMR1H and 13C spectra allowed for the identification of the compounds myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol from the ethyl acetate fraction. The negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry mass spectrum also revealed the presence in this fraction of a polyhydroxytriterpene acid (pomolic acid), and some flavonoids, such as quercitrin, and myricitrin. In all 34 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and long chain hydrocarbons. Conclusion: This study describes the first reports concerning the phytochemical information about leaves from M. subsericea. SUMMARY Manilkara subsericea fruits proved to be a rich source of triterpenes. However, no phytochemical studies were carried out with leaves. Thus, we described identification of volatile substances from its essential oils, in addition to

  3. Factors influencing Macao nurses' intention to leave current employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Luk, Andrew Leung; Leong, Sok Man; Yeung, Siu Ming; Van, Iat Kio

    2009-03-01

    To investigate factors associated with nurses' intention to leave current employment in Macao. The shortage of nursing staff and nurses voluntarily leaving their jobs has continued to be a problem affecting the delivery of health care all over the world. One way to alleviate this shortfall is via recruitment, but this is not always successful. Another way is to reduce the rate at which nurses voluntarily leave their work places. A descriptive survey was conducted and data were collected using a self-reported structured questionnaire. Nurses were recruited in the Health Bureau and one private hospital in Macao. The status of nurses' intention to leave current employment (yes vs. no) was the dependent variable and nurses' predisposing characteristics, organisational environments and five components on job satisfaction outcomes were independent variables. Of 426 nurses, 166 (39.0%) indicated an intention to leave current employment. The results showed that age (p job satisfaction: pay and benefits (p third of the nurses in Macao indicated an intention to leave current employment. This figure may be a cause of concern for the hospital management and highlights the need to implement strategies to improve the communication between nurses and the organisation, to enhance nurse job satisfaction and commitment to the organisation. Our findings outline some issues contributing to this problem and provide the nurse manager with information regarding specific influences on nurses' turnover in Macao. Given the complexity of issues outlined in this analysis, nurse managers should assist their nursing staff to deal with those influences, make efforts to address the nursing shortage that will require additional communications and recognise the needs and values of their staff and empower them to create a better work environment. As a consequence, their commitment to the organisation can be fostered.

  4. Reducing sick leave of Dutch vocational school students: adaptation of a sick leave protocol using the intervention mapping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kroon, Marlou L A; Bulthuis, Jozien; Mulder, Wico; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-12-01

    Since the extent of sick leave and the problems of vocational school students are relatively large, we aimed to tailor a sick leave protocol at Dutch lower secondary education schools to the particular context of vocational schools. Four steps of the iterative process of Intervention Mapping (IM) to adapt this protocol were carried out: (1) performing a needs assessment and defining a program objective, (2) determining the performance and change objectives, (3) identifying theory-based methods and practical strategies and (4) developing a program plan. Interviews with students using structured questionnaires, in-depth interviews with relevant stakeholders, a literature research and, finally, a pilot implementation were carried out. A sick leave protocol was developed that was feasible and acceptable for all stakeholders. The main barriers for widespread implementation are time constraints in both monitoring and acting upon sick leave by school and youth health care. The iterative process of IM has shown its merits in the adaptation of the manual 'A quick return to school is much better' to a sick leave protocol for vocational school students.

  5. Family and Medical Leave Act; Definition of Spouse. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is revising the definition of spouse in its regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a result of the decision by the United States Supreme Court holding section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional. The new definition replaces the existing definition, which contains language from DOMA that refers to "a legal union between one man and one woman.'' The new definition permits Federal employees with same-sex spouses to use FMLA leave in the same manner as Federal employees with opposite-sex spouses.

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Bambusa arundinacea leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Bharat; Shyam, Vasvani; Kaushik, Babiya; Vasoya, Jaydeep; Joseph, Joyce; Savaliya, Chirag; Kumar, Sumit; Parikh, Sachin P.; Thakar, C. M.; Pandya, D. D.; Ravalia, A. B.; Markna, J. H.; Shah, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles using ecofriendly way is an interesting area in advance nanotechnology. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles are usually synthesized by chemicals route, which are quite flammable and toxic in nature. This study deals with a biosynthesis process (environment friendly) of silver nanoparticles using Bambusa arundinacea leaves for its antibacterial activity. The formation and characterization of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from AgNO3 through a simple green route using the latex of Bambusa arundinacea leaves as reducing as well as capping agent. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) study indicates the formation of grains (particles) with different size and shape.

  7. Immediate IPTV channel leave by explicit user tracking in PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peng; Yoshiuchi, Hideya; Yoshizawa, Satoshi

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel IPTV channel leave mechanism for Passive Optical Network (PON). By explicit user tracking and automatic differentiation of IGMP v2 and v3 users, the proposed mechanism can realize immediate channel leave in both Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Unit (ONU) while avoiding removing the channel which still has users. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanism can significantly save the bandwidth consumption during "channel surf" by users, compared to the standard IGMP timeout mechanism.

  8. Isolation of Astilbin from Leaves of Cratoxylum Arborescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsiah Jusoh; Samsiah Jusoh; Zuriati Zakaria; Laily Din

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemicals studies was conducted on the leaves of Cratoxylum arborescens that has been collected from Post Brooke, Gua Musang, Kelantan, Malaysia. Traditionally, latex of the stem bark of C. arborescens is being used for the treatment of wound. Extraction of leaves of C. arborescens using organic solvents followed by purification using standard procedure of purification yielded known compound, astilbin. This compound was identified by NMR spectral data using various 2D-techniques and comparison with the literature data. Reports showed that this compound has a unique immunosuppressive activity, a selective inhibition against activated T lymphocytes. This characteristic of astilbin is beneficial for the treatment of human immune diseases. (author)

  9. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, A. M.; Omar, A. A.; Harraz, F. M.; El Sohafy, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. leaves were subjected to extraction, fractionation and isolation of the flavonoidal compounds. Five flavonoidal compounds were isolated which are quercetin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside was isolated for the first time from the leaves. Fractions together with the isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial studies showed good activities for the extracts and the isolated compounds. PMID:20931082

  10. ''Leave me alone lesions'' of the bone. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamers, S.; Freyschmidt, J.

    2002-01-01

    ''Leave me alone lesions'' are found in such a wide variety of diseases that the survey is published in two parts, in order to be able to devote appropriate space to the description of the various lesions. This part 1 discusses the ''leave me alone lesions'' involved in juvenile bone cysts, metaphyseal cortical irregularities, fibrous metaphyseal defect (FMD), calcifying osteochondroma, osteomas and lipomas. Part 2 will be published in the next following issue of Radiologie up2date, (No.3/2002). (orig./CB) [de

  11. Extraction and identification of bioactive compounds from agarwood leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N. Y.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Idham, Z.; Ruslan, M. S. H.; Aziz, A. H. A.; Irwansyah, N.

    2016-11-01

    Agarwood commonly known as gaharu, aloeswood or eaglewood have been used as traditional medicine for centuries and its essential oil also being used as perfumery ingredients and aroma enhancers in food products. However, there is least study on the agarwood leaves though it contains large number of biomolecules component that show diverse pharmacological activity. Previous study showed that the extracted compounds from the leaves possess activities like anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor and anti-helminthic. The main objectives of this research were to determine bioactive compounds in agarwood leaves; leaves extract and oil yield obtained from maceration and soxhlet extraction methods respectively. The maceration process was performed at different operating temperature of 25°C, 50°C and 75°C and different retention time at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Meanwhile, various solvents were used to extract the oil from agarwood leaves using soxhlet method which are hexane, water, isopropanol and ethanol. The extracted oil from agarwood leaves by soxhlet extraction was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that the highest extract of 1.53% was obtained when increase the temperature to 75 °C and longest retention time of 120 minutes gave the highest oil yield of 2.10 % by using maceration. This is because at higher temperature enhances the solubility solute and diffusivity coefficient, thus increase the extract yield while longer retention time allow the reaction between solvent and solute occurred more rapidly giving higher extract. Furthermore, the soxhlet extraction using n-hexane as the solvent gave the highest oil yield as compared to other solvent due to the non-polar properties of n-hexane increase the efficiency of oil which is also non-polar to soluble in the solvent. In addition, the results also reported that the oil extracted from agarwood leaves contains bioactive compounds which are phytol, squalene, n-hexadecanoic acid and

  12. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: evidence from maternity leave mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy, focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. We also look for impacts of the reform on self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data. For most indicators we find no effect.

  13. Paternity Leave: Current Status and Future Prospects. Working Paper No. 157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleck, Joseph H.

    This paper examines current patterns and trends in the availability and use of parental leave by U.S. fathers. Introductory material focuses on legal and administrative contexts of parental leave and parental leave policies available to employed mothers. The main discussion uses U.S. and Swedish data to explore (1) long-term paid leave at the time…

  14. The Link between National Paid Leave Policy and Work-Family Conflict among Married Working Parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, T.D.; Lapierre, L.M.; Spector, P.E.; Poelmans, S.A.Y.; O'Driscoll, M.P.; Sanchez, J.I.; Cooper, G.L.; Walvoord, A.G.; Antoniou, A.S.; Brough, P.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kinnunen, U.; Pagon, M.; Shima, S.; Woo, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated relationships between four dimensions of work–family conflict (time- and strain-based work interference with family, time- and strain-based family interference with work) and three key national paid leave policies (paid parental leave, paid sick leave, paid annual leave) among a

  15. Characterization of untreated and treated male and female date palm leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMaadeed, M.A.; Kahraman, Ramazan; Noorunnisa Khanam, P.; Al-Maadeed, Somaya

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sheshi female and male date palm leaves were treated with NaOH concentrations. ► Male leaves have lower mechanical properties and improved when treated by NaOH 2%. ► Female leaves have higher thermal stability. ► There are different properties for different types of date leaves. ► Leaves can be used as reinforcements for thermoplastic materials. -- Abstract: This paper describes the characterization of male and female date palm leaves from two different cultivars, Sheshi female and unknown male leaves. Characterization was done for both untreated and NaOH treated date palm leaves by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopic techniques. To our knowledge, the difference in specious reaction to the treatment type of date palm fiber has not been investigated earlier. These leaves were treated with different concentrations of NaOH, 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (w/w). The results from this investigation indicate that female leaves have better tensile properties which deteriorate with the increase of the alkali. The male leaves have lower tensile properties than female leaves and their mechanical properties are improved slightly by NaOH treatment. Female leaves have more pores than male leaves, this was proved and calculated by image analysis. Untreated female leaves have higher thermal stability (353 °C) than male leaves (343 °C). Both can be used as reinforcements in thermoplastic matrix materials whose processing temperatures are below 300 °C.

  16. 5 CFR 630.1014 - Movement between voluntary leave bank programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank programs. 630.1014 Section 630.1014 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1014 Movement between voluntary leave bank...

  17. Students with Special Educational Needs in Secondary Education: Are They Intending to Learn or to Leave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijl, Sip Jan; Frostad, Per; Mjaavatn, Per Egil

    2014-01-01

    During their secondary school years, a considerable number of students seriously consider choosing between learning and leaving. Leaving school early means that students do not complete their education. Early school leaving is the last step in a process in which students gradually lose interest and develop the intention to leave school. This study…

  18. State Maternity/Parental Leave Laws. Facts on Working Women No. 90-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The status of state maternity/parental leave laws throughout the United States is depicted in eight figures and three tables. Information is reported by state for maternity/parental leave laws, months of available leave, maternity/family illness laws, days of leave for family illness, temporary disability insurance laws, temporary disability…

  19. Efficacité des huiles essentielles de Cymbopogon citratus et de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    essential oils extracted from leaves of Cymbopogon citratus and Mentha piperita in conservation of fresh cow's milk in southern Benin. ... Mentha piperita essential oil has menthol (46.7%) and neomenthol (8.28%) as major compounds with a hydrogenated ..... des feuilles et fruits de Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich.

  20. The effects of California's paid family leave program on mothers' leave-taking and subsequent labor market outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers--with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of 1- to 3-year-old children by 10 to 17 percent and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount.

  1. The Effects of California’s Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers’ Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999–2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California’s first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers – with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of one-to-three year-old children by 10 to 17% and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount. PMID:23547324

  2. Administrative circular n°3 (Rev. 2) – Home leave, travel to home station and assimilated leave and travel

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 3 (Rev. 2) entitled “Home leave, travel to the home station and assimilated leave and travel”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 11 October 2012 and entering into force on 1 January 2013, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department.   This circular is applicable to employed members of the personnel. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 3 (Rev. 1) entitled “Travel to the home station and home leave” of June 2002. The circular was revised in order to take into account the new status of Associate Member State and the fact that henceforth, home stations may be situated on territory outside of Europe. It is proposed to introduce a new system of determination of the benefits (Travel expenses, travel time and distance indemnity) granted in the context of home leave and supplementary journeys to the home station.  For t...

  3. Paid maternity leave and breastfeeding practice before and after California's implementation of the nation's first paid family leave program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Yang, Muzhe

    2015-01-01

    California was the first state in the United States to implement a paid family leave (PFL) program in 2004. We use data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study to examine the changes in breastfeeding practices in California relative to other states before and after the implementation of PFL. We find an increase of 3-5 percentage points for exclusive breastfeeding and an increase of 10-20 percentage points for breastfeeding at several important markers of early infancy. Our study supports the recommendation of the Surgeon General to establish paid leave policies as a strategy for promoting breastfeeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid and Pervasive Occupation of Fallen Mangrove Leaves by a Marine Zoosporic Fungus †

    OpenAIRE

    Newell, S. Y.; Miller, J. D.; Fell, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Samples of leaves of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were incubated on an agar medium selective for pythiaceous oomycetes. Leaves on trees above the water did not contain oomycetes. Marine oomycetes, principally Phytophthora vesicula, had colonized leaves within 2 h of leaf submergence, probably finding them by chemotaxis. The frequency of occurrence of P. vesicula in submerged leaves reached 100% within 30 h of submergence. By 43 h most, if not all, parts of leaves were occupied, and surfac...

  5. 29 CFR 825.100 - The Family and Medical Leave Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Family and Medical Leave Act. 825.100 Section 825.100... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.100 The Family and Medical Leave Act. (a) The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended, (FMLA or Act...

  6. Parental Leave Policies, Intra-household Time Allocations and Children's Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Raquel; Fruttero, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a general equilibrium model of marriage and divorce to assess how public policies on parental leave and leave benefits affect intra-household decision making, family structure, intergenerational mobility, and the distribution of income. The benchmark economy is calibrated to US data to replicate some characteristics relevant to the interaction between the marriage and labor markets. The effects of unpaid leave, paid leave benefits, and mandated leave on human capital investmen...

  7. The Effect of New Jersey’s Paid Parental Leave Policy on Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Joshua; Vandegrift, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Paid parental leave policy remains a continuing source of controversy in the United States. Advocates for parental leave policy maintain that it has a positive effect on child rearing outcomes and family happiness. Critics, however, maintain that paid parental leave will cause firms to hire fewer women. This paper evaluates the critics’ claim that paid family leave entitlements will reduce employment using the New Jersey family leave law that took effect in 2009. We conduct a difference-in-di...

  8. General acteoside of rehmanniae leaves in the treatment of primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 400 patients diagnosed with primary chronic glomerulonephritis were recruited from outpatient clinics and were randomly assigned to the treatment group (general acteoside of Rehmanniae leaves, two 200mg tablets, bid) or the control group (piperazine ferulate, four 50-mg tablets, bid ). The primary outcome

  9. Copper and manganese content of the leaves of pepper ( Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degree of Cu uptake by pepper plants was highest in the treatment on chernozem, lower on fluvisol and pseudogley, and lowest on vertisol, while the degree of Mn uptake by pepper plants was highest on chernozem and lowest on pseudogley. The Cu content of pepper leaves in all the treatments was low as compared ...

  10. antispasmodic actions of the leaves of daniellia oliveri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of the plant Daniellia oliveri are usually prescribed traditionally in northern Nigeria for varieties of gastrointestinal complaints. The antispasmodic activity of the n-butanol soluble part of the aqueous portion of the ethanolic extract was evaluated in vitro on isolated guinea pig ileum against three spasmogen; ...

  11. Trypanocidal activity of the aqueous leave extract of Holarrhena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the trypanocidal activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of young Holarrhena africana. The trypanocidal activity was evaluated by treatment of mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei at the peak of infection. The aqueous extract was administered intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days with varied ...

  12. Ethanol extracts of Newbouldia laevis stem and leaves modulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanol extracts of N. laevis leaves and stem possessed antioxidant activity as shown by increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and glutathione levels of the diabetic rats after treatment. High levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), which are typical of oxidative ...

  13. Metabolite modifications in Solanum lycopersicum roots and leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the treatment, Cd accumulated significantly in the roots compared to stems and leaves. Plant growth (root, stem and leaf) decreased when Cd concentration increased. The analysis of 1H-NMR spectra of polar extracts showed clear differences between metabolites amounts (soluble sugars, organic and amino acids) ...

  14. Effect of feeding some evergreen tropical browse plant leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted with thirty (30) weaner rabbits to investigate the nutritive potentials of some evergreen tropical browse plant leaves (Ficcus thoningii, Vitex doniana, Daniela oliveri, Sarcocephalus latifolia). Mixed breed rabbits were used and randomly assigned to five (5) treatments (T1 - T5). The rabbits in ...

  15. Do general dental practitioners leave teeth on 'open drainage'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Barber, M W; Harris, I

    2013-12-01

    There is a need to ascertain the use of evidence-based dentistry in both primary and secondary care in order to tailor education. This study aims to evaluate the use of 'open drainage' as part of endodontic treatment in primary care in South Yorkshire. A questionnaire was circulated to 141 randomly selected general dental practitioners in the South Yorkshire area between January 2012 and January 2013. The response rate was 79% (112/141). Five of the returned questionnaires were incomplete and therefore not usable. Seventy-nine percent of respondents were general dental practitioners (GDPs) working in mainly NHS or mixed practices. The year of graduation varied between 1970 and 2011. Forty-one percent (44/107) stated that they had never left a tooth on open drainage. Twenty-nine percent (31/107) stated that they sometimes leave teeth on open drainage. Of those respondents who currently leave teeth on open drainage, most (68%) would leave teeth on open drainage for one to two days or less. This survey revealed that the practice of leaving teeth on open drainage is still present in general dental practice. Current guidelines do not comment on the use of this treatment modality. There is a need to ascertain further information about practices throughout the United Kingdom in order to provide clear evidence-based guidelines.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of leaves of Pseudocedrela kotschyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... and leaves are used to treat rheumatism and dysentery. In Northern Nigeria, the plant serves as an occasional ingredient for use in arrow poison (Oliver-Bever, 1986). In. West Africa, it has been established that the root of P. kotschyi is widely used as chewing sticks for dental cleaning (Akande and Hayashi, ...

  17. Studies on Antibacterial Effect of The Leaves Of Phyllanthus Niruri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Statistical analysis revealed that the mean diameter zones of inhibition for gentamycin was significantly higher than those of the plant extracts at 0.05 level of probability though, 400mg/ml concentration exhibited high antibacterial activities in both extracts. This study has established the antibacterial effect of P. niruri leaves.

  18. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF FICUS ARNOTTIANA (MIQ) LEAVES EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Chandaker Amol; Saha Rajsekhar

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic extract of leaves of Ficus arnottiana was used to evaluate the analgesic activity. The above activity was evaluated using the eddy’s hot plate and heat conduction method and acetic acid induced writing in mice. The dose used for the test of activity (100, 200. 400 mg/kg i.p). The extract at all doses tested significantly (P

  19. Meaningful Work and Secondary School Teachers' Intention to Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, M.; Rothmann, S.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relations between secondary school teachers' work-role fit, job enrichment, supervisor relationships, co-worker relationships, psychological meaningfulness of work and intention to leave. A cross-sectional survey was used. The participants were 502 secondary school teachers in Namibia. The following measuring instruments…

  20. Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaves Extract on Growth Response of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Mangifera indica leaves extracts on growth response of Oreochromis niloticus was evaluated for 42 days. 5 diets at approximately 40% crude protein containing varying levels of the extracts at 0%, 5%, 15% and 25% were formulated. These were fed to fingerlings of O. niloticus (mean weight, 5.25 – 6.05g) that were ...