WorldWideScience

Sample records for learning whole-language instruction

  1. The Transition from Traditional to Whole Language Instruction: A Continuum from Reformers to Resistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiker, Karyn E.; Barksdale-Ladd, Mary Alice

    Factors that influenced teachers to become reformers, reviewers, or resistors to whole language were investigated with specific examination of school culture. In this study three transitioning school sites were selected on the basis of their similarity in staffing and student size. Participants from each school involved three to four classroom…

  2. The Tao of Whole Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zola, Meguido

    1989-01-01

    Uses the philosophy of Taoism as a metaphor in describing the whole language approach to language arts instruction. The discussion covers the key principles that inform the whole language approach, the resulting holistic nature of language programs, and the role of the teacher in this approach. (16 references) (CLB)

  3. Implementing Whole Language: Collaboration, Communication and Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Colleen

    A parent of a kindergarten child in Texas began observing her child's classroom when she noticed that the whole language instructional approach described to parents before the beginning of school was apparently not being implemented as stated. The parent was surprised when her child's teacher suggested, after only six weeks of instruction, that…

  4. Instructional Style Meets Classroom Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Joan

    1991-01-01

    Nine elementary teachers explain how they design their classrooms to match and support their instructional styles. The teachers focus on whole language programs, student portfolios, science activity set-ups, technology transformation, learning center strategies, and space utilization. (SM)

  5. Evaluating the Whole Language Approach to Language Arts: The Pros and Cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Carolyn

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines the whole language approach and identifies its strengths and weaknesses. An integrated instructional approach is recommended, balancing meaning and exposure to literature with skills instruction and practice. (Author/JDD)

  6. A School-College Consultation Model for Integration of Technology and Whole Language in Elementary Science Instruction. Field Study Report No. 1991.A.BAL, Christopher Columbus Consortium Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    A study examined a new collaborative consultation process to enhance the classroom implementation of whole language science units that make use of computers and multimedia resources. The overall program was divided into three projects, two at the fifth-grade level and one at the third grade level. Each project was staffed by a team of one…

  7. Learning Strategy Instruction Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…

  8. Active Learning through Online Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented…

  9. Whole Language-Based English Reading Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Erlina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This Research and Development (R&D aims at developing English reading materials for undergraduate EFL students of Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN Raden Fatah Palembang, Indonesia. Research data were obtained through questionnaires, tests, and documents. The results of the research show that the existing materials are not relevant to the students’ need, so there is a need for developing new materials based on whole language principles. In general, the new developed materials are considered reliable by the experts, students, and lecturers. The materials are also effective in improving students’ reading achievement. The final product of the materials consists of a course book entitled Whole Language Reading (WLR and a teacher’s manual. WLR provides rich input of reading strategies, variety of topics, concepts, texts, activities, tasks, and evaluations. Using this book makes reading more holistic and meaningful as it provides integration across language skills and subject areas.

  10. Learning from Narrated Instruction Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayrac, Jean-Baptiste; Bojanowski, Piotr; Agrawal, Nishant; Sivic, Josef; Laptev, Ivan; Lacoste-Julien, Simon

    2017-09-05

    Automatic assistants could guide a person or a robot in performing new tasks, such as changing a car tire or repotting a plant. Creating such assistants, however, is non-trivial and requires understanding of visual and verbal content of a video. Towards this goal, we here address the problem of automatically learning the main steps of a task from a set of narrated instruction videos. We develop a new unsupervised learning approach that takes advantage of the complementary nature of the input video and the associated narration. The method sequentially clusters textual and visual representations of a task, where the two clustering problems are linked by joint constraints to obtain a single coherent sequence of steps in both modalities. To evaluate our method, we collect and annotate a new challenging dataset of real-world instruction videos from the Internet. The dataset contains videos for five different tasks with complex interactions between people and objects, captured in a variety of indoor and outdoor settings. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically discover, learn and localize the main steps of a task input videos.

  11. Learning Theories In Instructional Multimedia For English Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Farani, Rizki

    2016-01-01

    Learning theory is the concept of human learning. This concept is one of the important components in instructional for learning, especially English learning. English subject becomes one of important subjects for students but learning English needs specific strategy since it is not our vernacular. Considering human learning process in English learning is expected to increase students' motivation to understand English better. Nowadays, the application of learning theories in English learning ha...

  12. Developing Instructional Leadership through Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Claire Johnson; McKnight, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative learning teams have emerged as an effective tool for teachers to steadily and continuously improve their instruction. Evidence also suggests that a learning teams model can affect school leadership as well. We explored the impact of learning teams on leadership roles of principals and teachers in secondary schools and found that…

  13. How Instructional Systems Will Manage Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, John C.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses trends toward the systems approach in education including the development of effective instructional systems in government and industry; the introduction of teaching machines, programed learning, and computer- assisted instruction; and the increase in both the amount and sophistication of educational research and development. (JF)

  14. Flexible learning and the design of instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Nikolova, Iliana

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of designing flexible learning and instruction. Flexibility is considered both from the learner's and the designer's perspective. The potential of telematics in the design, development and implementation of flexible and distance learning is discussed. A Method for

  15. Instructional Leadership: A Learning-Centered Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Anita Woolfolk; Hoy, Wayne Kolter

    This book was written with the assumption that teachers and administrators must work as colleagues to improve instruction and learning in schools. It was written to be consistent with the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards for school administrators, especially Standards 1 and 2, which emphasize a learning-centered…

  16. Learning to Write with Interactive Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cheri

    2018-01-01

    Interactive writing is a process-oriented instructional approach designed to make the composing and encoding processes of writing overt and explicit for young students who are learning to write. It is particularly suitable for students who struggle with literacy learning. This article describes one first-grade teacher's use of interactive writing…

  17. Embedding Affective Learning Outcomes in Library Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellysa Stern Cahoy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While information literacy in higher education has long been focused on cognitive learning outcomes, attention must be paid to students’ affective, emotional needs throughout the research process. This article identifies models for embedding affective learning outcomes within information literacy instruction, and provides strategies to help librarians discover, articulate, and address students’ self-efficacy, motivation, emotions and attitudes. Worksheets to assist in creating affective learning outcomes are included to bring structure to an area of learning that is often challenging to articulate and measure. Also included in the article are the results of a recent survey of instruction librarians’ familiarity and inclusion of affective learning outcomes within teaching and learning initiatives.

  18. Learning and the Instructional System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Robert B.

    1977-01-01

    Faculty members can use information about six components of the learning situation to increase student learning. The nature, function, and interrelationships of the following elements are described: instructor, content, medium, student, evaluation, environment, and implementation. (Editor/LBH)

  19. Instructional Utility and Learning Efficacy of Common Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConell, David A.; Chapman, LeeAnna; Czaijka, C. Douglas; Jones, Jason P.; Ryker, Katherine D.; Wiggen, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of active learning instructional practices in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses has been shown to result in improvements in student learning, contribute to increased retention rates, and reduce the achievement gap among different student populations. Descriptions of active learning strategies…

  20. Flipped Classroom Instruction for Inclusive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemueller, Lisa; Lindquist, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    The flipped classroom is a teaching methodology that has gained recognition in primary, secondary and higher education settings. The flipped classroom inverts traditional teaching methods, delivering lecture instruction outside class, and devoting class time to problem solving, with the teacher's role becoming that of a learning coach and…

  1. Web-Based Instruction, Learning Effectiveness and Learning Behavior: The Impact of Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Chich-Jen; Liao, Ying; Hu, Ridong

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the effects of Web-based Instruction and Learning Behavior on Learning Effectiveness. Web-based Instruction contains the dimensions of Active Learning, Simulation-based Learning, Interactive Learning, and Accumulative Learning; and, Learning Behavior covers Learning Approach, Learning Habit, and Learning Attitude. The…

  2. Designing Technology-Enabled Instruction to Utilize Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Randall; Nyland, Robert; Bodily, Robert; Chapman, John; Jones, Brian; Young, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A key notion conveyed by those who advocate for the use of data to enhance instruction is an awareness that learning analytics has the potential to improve instruction and learning but is not currently reaching that potential. Gibbons (2014) suggested that a lack of learning facilitated by current technology-enabled instructional systems may be…

  3. The equivalence of learning paths in early science instruction: effect of direct instruction and discovery learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, David; Nigam, Milena

    2004-10-01

    In a study with 112 third- and fourth-grade children, we measured the relative effectiveness of discovery learning and direct instruction at two points in the learning process: (a) during the initial acquisition of the basic cognitive objective (a procedure for designing and interpreting simple, unconfounded experiments) and (b) during the subsequent transfer and application of this basic skill to more diffuse and authentic reasoning associated with the evaluation of science-fair posters. We found not only that many more children learned from direct instruction than from discovery learning, but also that when asked to make broader, richer scientific judgments, the many children who learned about experimental design from direct instruction performed as well as those few children who discovered the method on their own. These results challenge predictions derived from the presumed superiority of discovery approaches in teaching young children basic procedures for early scientific investigations.

  4. Measuring Learning Outcomes in Library Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The author uses clicker technology to incorporate polling and multiple choice question techniques into library instruction classes. Clickers can be used to give a keener understanding of how many students grasp the concepts presented in a specific class session. Typically, a student that aces a definition-type question will fail to answer an application-type question correctly. Immediate, electronic feedback helps to calibrate teaching approaches and gather data about learning outcomes. Th...

  5. Multimodal versus Unimodal Instruction in a Complex Learning Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellevij, Mark; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton; Pieters, Jules

    2002-01-01

    Compared multimodal instruction with text and pictures with unimodal text-only instruction as 44 college students used a visual or textual manual to learn a complex software application. Results initially support dual coding theory and indicate that multimodal instruction led to better performance than unimodal instruction. (SLD)

  6. Content-Based Instruction Approach In Instructional Multimedia For English Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Farani, Rizki

    2016-01-01

    Content-based Instruction (CBI) is an approach in English learning that integrates certain topic and English learning objectives. This approach focuses on using English competencies as a “bridge” to comprehend certain topic or theme in English. Nowadays, this approach can be used in instructional multimedia to support English learning by using computer. Instructional multimedia with computer system refers to the sequential or simultaneous use of variety of media formats in a given presentatio...

  7. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  8. Vicarious reinforcement learning signals when instructing others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Matthew A J; Lesage, Elise; Ramnani, Narender

    2015-02-18

    Reinforcement learning (RL) theory posits that learning is driven by discrepancies between the predicted and actual outcomes of actions (prediction errors [PEs]). In social environments, learning is often guided by similar RL mechanisms. For example, teachers monitor the actions of students and provide feedback to them. This feedback evokes PEs in students that guide their learning. We report the first study that investigates the neural mechanisms that underpin RL signals in the brain of a teacher. Neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) signal PEs when learning from the outcomes of one's own actions but also signal information when outcomes are received by others. Does a teacher's ACC signal PEs when monitoring a student's learning? Using fMRI, we studied brain activity in human subjects (teachers) as they taught a confederate (student) action-outcome associations by providing positive or negative feedback. We examined activity time-locked to the students' responses, when teachers infer student predictions and know actual outcomes. We fitted a RL-based computational model to the behavior of the student to characterize their learning, and examined whether a teacher's ACC signals when a student's predictions are wrong. In line with our hypothesis, activity in the teacher's ACC covaried with the PE values in the model. Additionally, activity in the teacher's insula and ventromedial prefrontal cortex covaried with the predicted value according to the student. Our findings highlight that the ACC signals PEs vicariously for others' erroneous predictions, when monitoring and instructing their learning. These results suggest that RL mechanisms, processed vicariously, may underpin and facilitate teaching behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Apps et al.

  9. The Learning Styles of Students Related to Individualized Typewriting Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B. June

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a study which indicated that relationships exist between students' learning styles and their attitudes toward individualized, competency-based typewriting instruction, particularly for beginning students. (JOW)

  10. Evaluating the Instructional Architecture of Web-Based Learning Tools (WBLTs): Direct Instruction vs. Constructivism Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Web-based learning tools (WBLTs), also known as learning objects, have been evaluated with a wide range of metrics, but rarely with respect to pedagogical design. The current study evaluated the impact of instructional architecture (direct instruction vs. constructive-based) on middle (n = 333)

  11. A Model for Designing Library Instruction for Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Angela Doucet

    2013-01-01

    Providing library instruction in distance learning environments presents a unique set of challenges for instructional librarians. Innovations in computer-mediated communication and advances in cognitive science research provide the opportunity for designing library instruction that meets a variety of student information seeking needs. Using a…

  12. Designing Instructional Strategies which Facilitate Learning for Mastery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Jones, Beau Fly

    The "state of the craft" of instruction within the context of the mastery learning model is discussed. Little has been said in the past about specific instructional strategies that are applicable to particular instructional units or objectives, or to the daily classroom life of teachers. This paper is organized into six major sections. The first…

  13. Increasing instruction time in school does increase learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Humlum, Maria; Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    Increasing instruction time in school is a central element in the attempts of many governments to improve student learning, but prior research—mainly based on observational data—disputes the effect of this approach and points out the potential negative effects on student behavior. Based on a large......-scale, cluster-randomized trial, we find that increasing instruction time increases student learning and that a general increase in instruction time is at least as efficient as an expert-developed, detailed teaching program that increases instruction with the same amount of time. These findings support the value...... of increased instruction time....

  14. Active Learning and Teaching: Improving Postsecondary Library Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Eileen E.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses ways to improve postsecondary library instruction based on theories of active learning. Topics include a historical background of active learning; student achievement and attitudes; cognitive development; risks; active teaching; and instructional techniques, including modified lectures, brainstorming, small group work, cooperative…

  15. Teacher Candidate Technology Integration: For Student Learning or Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cynthia; Zhang, Shaoan; Strudler, Neal

    2015-01-01

    Transfer of instructional technology knowledge for student-centered learning by teacher candidates is investigated in this study. Using the transfer of learning theoretical framework, a mixed methods research design was employed to investigate whether secondary teacher candidates were able to transfer the instructional technology knowledge for…

  16. Cultural dimensions of learning: Addressing the challenges of multicultural instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Parrish; Jennifer A. Linder-VanBerschot

    2010-01-01

    The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify those dimensions of culture that are most likely to impact instructional situations. It presents these in the cultural dimensions of learning framewor...

  17. Toward an Instructionally Oriented Theory of Example-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Learning from examples is a very effective means of initial cognitive skill acquisition. There is an enormous body of research on the specifics of this learning method. This article presents an instructionally oriented theory of example-based learning that integrates theoretical assumptions and findings from three research areas: learning from…

  18. Instructional control of reinforcement learning: a behavioral and neurocomputational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Bradley B; Jacobs, W Jake; Sanfey, Alan G; Frank, Michael J

    2009-11-24

    Humans learn how to behave directly through environmental experience and indirectly through rules and instructions. Behavior analytic research has shown that instructions can control behavior, even when such behavior leads to sub-optimal outcomes (Hayes, S. (Ed.). 1989. Rule-governed behavior: cognition, contingencies, and instructional control. Plenum Press.). Here we examine the control of behavior through instructions in a reinforcement learning task known to depend on striatal dopaminergic function. Participants selected between probabilistically reinforced stimuli, and were (incorrectly) told that a specific stimulus had the highest (or lowest) reinforcement probability. Despite experience to the contrary, instructions drove choice behavior. We present neural network simulations that capture the interactions between instruction-driven and reinforcement-driven behavior via two potential neural circuits: one in which the striatum is inaccurately trained by instruction representations coming from prefrontal cortex/hippocampus (PFC/HC), and another in which the striatum learns the environmentally based reinforcement contingencies, but is "overridden" at decision output. Both models capture the core behavioral phenomena but, because they differ fundamentally on what is learned, make distinct predictions for subsequent behavioral and neuroimaging experiments. Finally, we attempt to distinguish between the proposed computational mechanisms governing instructed behavior by fitting a series of abstract "Q-learning" and Bayesian models to subject data. The best-fitting model supports one of the neural models, suggesting the existence of a "confirmation bias" in which the PFC/HC system trains the reinforcement system by amplifying outcomes that are consistent with instructions while diminishing inconsistent outcomes.

  19. Resource Letter ALIP-1: Active-Learning Instruction in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.

    2012-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research-based active-learning instruction in physics. These are instructional methods that are based on, assessed by, and validated through research on the teaching and learning of physics. They involve students in their own learning more deeply and more intensely than does traditional instruction, particularly during class time. The instructional methods and supporting body of research reviewed here offer potential for significantly improved learning in comparison to traditional lecture-based methods of college and university physics instruction. We begin with an introduction to the history of active learning in physics in the United States, and then discuss some methods for and outcomes of assessing pedagogical effectiveness. We enumerate and describe common characteristics of successful active-learning instructional strategies in physics. We then discuss a range of methods for introducing active-learning instruction in physics and provide references to those methods for which there is published documentation of student learning gains.

  20. Instructional Competencies Needed to Develop Instructional Strategies for Mobile Learning in Fields of Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Travis; Strong, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning is an evolving form of technology-based learning. The novelty of mobile learning gives educators a new tool for evaluating how to develop effective instruction for this new medium. A Delphi study was conducted using a 30-member panel comprised of experts across 20 states. The purpose was to determine the competencies needed to…

  1. Teachers' Beliefs, Instructional Behaviors, and Students' Engagement in Learning from Texts with Instructional Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Sascha; Richter, Tobias; McElvany, Nele; Hachfeld, Axinja; Baumert, Jurgen; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Horz, Holger; Ullrich, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between teachers' pedagogical beliefs and students' self-reported engagement in learning from texts with instructional pictures. Participants were the biology, geography, and German teachers of 46 classes (Grades 5-8) and their students. Teachers' instructional behaviors and students' engagement in learning…

  2. Liberating Learning Object Design from the Learning Style of Student Instructional Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Yavuz

    2007-01-01

    Learning objects are a new form of learning resource, and the design of these digital environments has many facets. To investigate senior instructional design students' use of reflection tools in designing learning objects, a series of studies was conducted using the Reflective Action Instructional Design and Learning Object Review Instrument…

  3. Student-Generated Instructional Videos Facilitate Learning through Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhonen, Juhani; Rasi, Päivi

    2017-01-01

    The central focus of this study is a learning method in which university students produce instructional videos about the content matter as part of their learning process, combined with other learning assignments. The rationale for this is to promote a more multimodal pedagogy, and to provide students opportunities for a more learner-centred,…

  4. Optimizing Classroom Instruction through Self-Paced Learning Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Romiro G.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the learning impact of self-paced learning prototype in optimizing classroom instruction towards students' learning in Chemistry. Two sections of 64 Laboratory High School students in Chemistry were used as subjects of the study. The Quasi-Experimental and Correlation Research Design was used in the study: a pre-test was…

  5. Multimodal versus Unimodal Instructions in a Complex Learning Context.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellevij, M.R.M.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Pieters, Julius Marie

    2002-01-01

    Multimodal instruction with text and pictures was compared with unimodal, text-only instruction. More specifically, 44 students used a visual or a textual manual to learn a complex software application. During 2 103–116-min training sessions, cognitive load, and time and ability to recover from

  6. An Instructional Strategy Framework for Online Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott D.; Aragon, Steven R.

    The rapid growth of Web-based instruction has raised many questions about the quality of online courses. It appears that many online courses are simply modeled after traditional forms of instruction instead of incorporating a design that takes advantage of the unique capabilities of Web-based learning environments. This paper describes a research…

  7. Cultural Dimensions of Learning: Addressing the Challenges of Multicultural Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Patrick; Linder-VanBerschot, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify…

  8. Instructional control of reinforcement learning: A behavioral and neurocomputational investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doll, B.B.; Jacobs, W.J.; Sanfey, A.G.; Frank, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Humans learn how to behave directly through environmental experience and indirectly through rules and instructions. Behavior analytic research has shown that instructions can control behavior, even when such behavior leads to sub-optimal outcomes (Hayes, S (Ed) 1989. Rule-governed behavior:

  9. Energizing Learning: The Instructional Power of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    2009-01-01

    Although intellectual conflict may be an important instructional tool (because of its potential constructive outcomes), conflict is rarely structured in instructional situations (because of its potential destructive outcomes). Many educators may be apprehensive about instigating intellectual conflict among students because of the lack of…

  10. Student-Centred Learning Environments: An Investigation into Student Teachers' Instructional Preferences and Approaches to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien; Parmentier, Emmeline; Vanderbruggen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The use of student-centred learning environments in education has increased. This study investigated student teachers' instructional preferences for these learning environments and how these preferences are related to their approaches to learning. Participants were professional Bachelor students in teacher education. Instructional preferences and…

  11. Shorthand Instruction in Light of Recent Theories of Learning and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Charles T.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the highlights of three learning models (behaviorist, cognitive, and humanist), and examines them for the guidance they offer for instruction and learning in shorthand. Included are the theories of Skinner, Gagne, Carroll, Bloom, Wittrock, Ausubel, Bruner, Dember, Nebes, Scriven, Anderson, and Rogers. (Author/AJ)

  12. Effects of multimedia vocabulary instruction on adolescents with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael J; Deshler, Donald D; Lloyd, John Wills

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  13. Using Technology-Nested Instructional Strategies to Enhance Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lumpkin, PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Students today expect the use of technology in their classes, rather than have to listen to less-than-engaging lectures. College students are connected electronically and incessant technology consumers. As a result, they may prefer the infusion of technologies to help them learn and enjoy the process of learning, rather than having to listen exclusively to lectures. To investigate this, the authors solicited student perceptions to assess the importance of learning through technology-nested instructional strategies. Student perceptions give direction to and affirm the benefits of instructional strategies that increase student motivation to engage more actively in their learning. Based on quantitative and qualitative responses through action research in multiple courses, students perceive their learning as more engaging and enjoyable when technology-nested instructional strategies are infused into their classes.

  14. Student-generated instructional videos facilitate learning through positive emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Pirhonen, Juhani; Rasi, Päivi

    2017-01-01

    The central focus of this study is a learning method in which university students produce instructional videos about the content matter as part of their learning process, combined with other learning assignments. The rationale for this is to promote a more multimodal pedagogy, and to provide students opportunities for a more learner-centred, motivating, active, engaging and productive role in their learning process. As such we designed a ‘video course’ where the students needed to produce an ...

  15. Cooperative learning as applied to resident instruction in radiology reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Donald; Georges, Alexandra; Vaslow, Dale

    2007-12-01

    The study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an active form of resident instruction, cooperative learning, and the residents' response to that form of instruction. The residents dictated three sets of reports both before and after instruction in radiology reporting using the cooperative learning method. The reports were evaluated for word count, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, advancement on clinical spectrum, clarity, and comparison to prior reports. The reports were evaluated for changes in performance characteristics between the pre- and postinstruction dictations. The residents' response to this form of instruction was evaluated by means of a questionnaire. The instruction was effective in changing the resident dictations. The results became shorter (Pcooperative learning activities. The least positive responses related to the amount of time devoted to the project. Sixty-three percent of respondents stated that the time devoted to the project was appropriate. Cooperative learning can be an effective tool in the setting of the radiology residency. Instructional time requirements must be strongly considered in designing a cooperative learning program.

  16. Advances in Temporal Analysis in Learning and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Inge

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on a trend to analyse temporal characteristics of constructs important to learning and instruction. Different researchers have indicated that we should pay more attention to time in our research to enhance explanatory power and increase validity. Constructs formerly viewed as personal traits, such as self-regulated learning and…

  17. Optimizing Computer Assisted Instruction By Applying Principles of Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas O.

    The development of learning theory and its application to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are described. Among the early theoretical constructs thought to be important are E. L. Thorndike's concept of learning connectisms, Neal Miller's theory of motivation, and B. F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. Early devices incorporating those…

  18. Matching Learning Style to Instructional Method: Effects on Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowsky, Beth A.; Calhoun, Barbara M.; Tallal, Paula

    2015-01-01

    While it is hypothesized that providing instruction based on individuals' preferred learning styles improves learning (i.e., reading for visual learners and listening for auditory learners, also referred to as the "meshing hypothesis"), after a critical review of the literature Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer, and Bjork (2008) concluded that…

  19. Preparing Instructional Designers for Game-Based Learning: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirumi, Atsusi; Appelman, Bob; Rieber, Lloyd; Van Eck, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Like many rapidly growing industries, advances in video game technology are far outpacing research on its design and effectiveness. Relatively little is understood about how to apply what we know about teaching and learning to optimize game-based learning. For the most part, instructional designers know little about game development and video game…

  20. ESL Instruction and Adults with Learning Disabilities. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Robin; Terrill, Lynda

    This digest reviews what is known about adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners and learning disabilities, suggests ways to identify and assess ESL adults who may have learning disabilities, and offers practical methods for both instruction and teacher training. Topics covered in some detail include identifying and diagnosing learning…

  1. Computer-based learning: games as an instructional strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J; Goodman, J

    1999-01-01

    Games are a creative teaching strategy that enhances learning and problem solving. Gaming strategies are being used by the authors to make learning interesting, stimulating and fun. This article focuses on the development and implementation of computer games as an instructional strategy. Positive outcomes have resulted from the use of games in the classroom.

  2. Culturally Responsive Reading Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourea, Lefki; Gibson, Lenwood; Werunga, Robai

    2018-01-01

    As student populations are becoming more diverse in ability and ethnicity across American classrooms, teachers are faced with instructional challenges in meeting their students' learning needs. Challenges are heightened for general and special education teachers who teach students with learning disabilities (LD) and have a culturally and…

  3. Educational Modelling Language and Learning Design: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Hans; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Published: Hummel, H. G. K., Manderveld, J. M., Tattersall, C.,& Koper, E. J. R. (2004). Educational Modelling Language: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning. International Journal of Learning Technology, 1, 1, 110-111.

  4. Learning from Online Modules in Diverse Instructional Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen Nugent

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning objects originally developed for use in online learning environments can also be used to enhance face-to-face instruction. This study examined the learning impacts of online learning objects packaged into modules and used in different contexts for undergraduate education offered on campus at three institutions. A multi-case study approach was used, examining learning impacts across a variety of course subjects, course levels (introductory and advanced undergraduate, student levels (undergraduate and graduate, and instructional goals (i.e., replacement for lecture, remediation. A repeated measures design was used, with learning data collected prior to viewing the online module, after completion of the module, and at the end of the semester. The study provided a broad examination of ways that online modules are typically used in a college classroom, as well as measured learning effectiveness based on different instructional purpose and usage contexts. Results showed the effectiveness of the modules in serving as a substitute for classroom lecture, remediation of course prerequisite material, introduction to content with follow-up lab practice, and review for final exams. In each of these cases, the use of the modules resulted in significant learning increases, as well as retention of the learning until the end of the semester.

  5. Cultural dimensions of learning: Addressing the challenges of multicultural instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Parrish

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify those dimensions of culture that are most likely to impact instructional situations. It presents these in the cultural dimensions of learning framework (CDLF, which describes a set of eight cultural parameters regarding social relationships, epistemological beliefs, and temporal perceptions, and illustrates their spectrums of variability as they might be exhibited in instructional situations. The article also explores the literature on instructional design and culture for guidelines on addressing the cross-cultural challenges faced by instructional providers. It suggests that these challenges can be overcome through increased awareness, culturally sensitive communication, modified instructional design processes, and efforts to accommodate the most critical cultural differences. Finally, it describes the use of the CDLF questionnaire as a tool to illuminate the range of preferences existing among learners and to discover the potential range of strategies and tactics that might be useful for a given set of learners.

  6. Service-Learning Instructional Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddrell, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the design of "service-learning" experiences to engage college students in the real-world application of course subject matter. Service learning is an educational approach that combines community service, academic coursework, and work-based applied learning. Based on data gathered during a series of recent interviews…

  7. An impoverished machine: challenges to human learning and instructional technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraban, Roman

    2008-08-01

    Many of the limitations to human learning and processing identified by cognitive psychologists over the last 50 years still hold true, including computational constraints, low learning rates, and unreliable processing. Instructional technology can be used in classrooms and in other learning contexts to address these limitations to learning. However, creating technological innovations is not enough. As part of psychological science, the development and assessment of instructional systems should be guided by theories and practices within the discipline. The technology we develop should become an object of research like other phenomena that are studied. In the present article, I present an informal account of my own work in assessing instructional technology for engineering thermodynamics to show not only the benefits, but also the limitations, in studying the technology we create. I conclude by considering several ways of advancing the development of instructional technology within the SCiP community, including interdisciplinary research and envisioning learning contexts that differ radically from traditional learning focused on lectures and testing.

  8. Preparing medical students for future learning using basic science instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylopoulos, Maria; Woods, Nicole

    2014-07-01

    The construct of 'preparation for future learning' (PFL) is understood as the ability to learn new information from available resources, relate new learning to past experiences and demonstrate innovation and flexibility in problem solving. Preparation for future learning has been proposed as a key competence of adaptive expertise. There is a need for educators to ensure that opportunities are provided for students to develop PFL ability and that assessments accurately measure the development of this form of competence. The objective of this research was to compare the relative impacts of basic science instruction and clinically focused instruction on performance on a PFL assessment (PFLA). This study employed a 'double transfer' design. Fifty-one pre-clerkship students were randomly assigned to either basic science instruction or clinically focused instruction to learn four categories of disease. After completing an initial assessment on the learned material, all participants received clinically focused instruction for four novel diseases and completed a PFLA. The data from the initial assessment and the PFLA were submitted to independent-sample t-tests. Mean ± standard deviation [SD] scores on the diagnostic cases in the initial assessment were similar for participants in the basic science (0.65 ± 0.11) and clinical learning (0.62 ± 0.11) conditions. The difference was not significant (t[42] = 0.90, p = 0.37, d = 0.27). Analysis of the diagnostic cases on the PFLA revealed significantly higher mean ± SD scores for participants in the basic science learning condition (0.72 ± 0.14) compared with those in the clinical learning condition (0.63 ± 0.15) (t[42] = 2.02, p = 0.05, d = 0.62). Our results show that the inclusion of basic science instruction enhanced the learning of novel related content. We discuss this finding within the broader context of research on basic science instruction, development of adaptive expertise and assessment

  9. Deaf Children's Science Content Learning in Direct Instruction Versus Interpreted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Kim B.; Schick, Brenda; Hauser, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    This research study compared learning of 6-9th grade deaf students under two modes of educational delivery--interpreted vs. direct instruction using science lessons. Nineteen deaf students participated in the study in which they were taught six science lessons in American Sign Language. In one condition, the lessons were taught by a hearing…

  10. Learning and instruction with computer simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The present volume presents the results of an inventory of elements of such a computer learning environment. This inventory was conducted within a DELTA project called SIMULATE. In the project a learning environment that provides intelligent support to learners and that has a simulation as its

  11. Learning and performance under alternative instructional manifestations of experimental practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael J.

    Before we can understand how students learn "to do" science, we must make explicit our assumptions about what scientific practice is. This study compares the learning outcomes of two sixth-grade instructional units on experimentation, each based on a particular characterization of practice. In one unit, instruction focused on acquisition and application of the control of variables strategy (CVS; Chen & Klahr, 1999), which is consistent with a popular conception of science education, stemming from Piaget, as the mastery of logical forms. In the other unit, students designed experimental apparatus to answer a target question, and instruction emphasized practices of rendering and transforming the material world in ways that support scientific understanding. Students in both groups were assessed for CVS acquisition and subsequent experimental performance on a novel task, and group performances on these assessments different across instructional conditions. I will argue that student understandings of goals, norms of instructional expectation, and strategies explain these differences, in some cases by supporting performance and in other cases by hindering it. I will also argue that the results question the role typically attributed to logical method in learning to design experiments.

  12. Identifying Instructional Strategies Used to Design Mobile Learning in a Corporate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Butler, Uletta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative embedded multiple case study was to describe what instructional strategies corporate instructional designers were using to design mobile learning and to understand from their experiences which instructional strategies they believed enhance learning. Participants were five instructional designers who were actively…

  13. Software Engineering Design Principles Applied to Instructional Design: What Can We Learn from Our Sister Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Nor Hafizah; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.

    2018-01-01

    The failure of many instructional design initiatives is often attributed to poor instructional design. Current instructional design models do not provide much insight into design processes for creating e-learning instructional solutions. Given the similarities between the fields of instructional design and software engineering, instructional…

  14. EFL LEARNERS’ READING LEARNING IN WEB BASED INSTRUCTION SETTING

    OpenAIRE

    Yusup Supriyono

    2018-01-01

    This research is aimed at exploring reading learning performed by English foreign language learners when Web based instruction is integrated into reading classroom. Teaching learning activity follows the steps:  orientation, discussion, material exploration, action, test, and reflection.  Two data collecting methods—journal and interview are administered to three students of the fourth semester of English Department in University of Siliwangi Tasikmalaya Indonesia after the selected individua...

  15. Learning Through Quests and Contests: Games in Information Literacy Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Maura A Smale

    2011-01-01

    Games-based learning is an innovative pedagogical strategy employed at all levels of education, and much research in education, psychology, and other disciplines supports its effectiveness in engaging and motivating students, as well as increasing student learning. Many libraries have incorporated games into their collections and programming. College and university libraries have begun to use games for information literacy and library instruction. Academic librarians use commercially-produ...

  16. An Inquiry into Flipped Learning in Fourth Grade Math Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'addato, Teresa; Miller, Libbi R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this action research project was to better understand the impact of flipped learning on fourth grade math students in a socioeconomically disadvantaged setting. A flipped instructional model was implemented with the group of students enrolled in the researcher's class. Data was collected in the form of classroom observations,…

  17. Enhancing Instruction through Constructivism, Cooperative Learning, and Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing technologies, such as Google Docs and Microsoft Office Live, have the potential to enhance instructional methods predicated on constructivism and cooperative learning. Cloud-based application features like file sharing and online publishing are prompting departments of education across the nation to adopt these technologies.…

  18. Learning How to Improve Vocabulary Instruction through Teacher Study Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimino, Joseph; Taylor, Mary Jo

    2009-01-01

    Professional development with proven positive effects on vocabulary instruction and student achievement: that's what reading teachers are looking for, and that's what the Teacher Study Group (TSG) model delivers. With the nine complete TSG sessions in this book, K-8 teachers will form dynamic in-school learning groups with their fellow educators…

  19. Instructional Television: Visual Production Techniques and Learning Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbergleid, Michael Ian

    The purpose of this study was to determine if increasing levels of complexity in visual production techniques would increase the viewer's learning comprehension and the degree of likeness expressed for a college level instructional television program. A total of 119 mass communications students at the University of Alabama participated in the…

  20. Designing Online Instruction for Postsecondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncelli, Andrew; Hinson, Janice

    2010-01-01

    This research details the methodologies that could be used to better deliver online course content to students with learning disabilities. Research has shown how the design of the course affects the students' attitudes and performance. This article details the methodology and pedagogical side of the delivery including instructional methods that…

  1. Instructional Advice, Time Advice and Learning Questions in Computer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Gunter Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N = 97) used an introductory text and a computer simulation to learn fundamental concepts about statistical analyses (e.g., analysis of variance, regression analysis and General Linear Model). Each learner was randomly assigned to one cell of a 2 (with or without instructional advice) x 2 (with or without time advice) x 2…

  2. Use of tablets for instruction and learning in microbiology labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karen Louise; Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Georgsen, Marianne

    of this project are to develop a technological infrastructure to support students’ work in the lab and to develop teaching and learning resources. Our research question is: How is teaching and learning in the laboratory influenced by the tablets and the following multimodal teaching and learning materials...... and taken notes by hand. Use of tablets in the lab offers new opportunities. In September 2012, nine tablets were introduced into one of the labs of the college. Groups of students use the tablets to access documents, watch video instructions, and to document results and procedures digitally. The objectives......? The empirical part of the project has been documented through field observations in the lab (in writing and with photos). We have found the following to be characteristic of the work of the students: the students use the tablets collaboratively, take more photos than requested, use the video based instructions...

  3. Distance Learning Delivery Systems: Instructional Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Ray L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the availability of satellite and cable programing to provide distance education opportunities in school districts. Various delivery systems are described, including telephones with speakers, personal computers, and satellite dishes; and a sidebar provides a directory of distance learning opportunities, including telecommunications…

  4. Understanding the variable effect of instructional innovations on student learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Heidi L.

    2012-02-01

    As a result of dissatisfaction with the traditional lecture-based model of education a large number of reform-oriented instructional innovations have been developed, enacted, and studied in undergraduate physics courses. While previous work has shown that the impact of instructional innovations on student learning has been overwhelmingly positive, it has also been highly variable. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate this variability. For this analysis, 79 published studies on undergraduate physics instructional innovations were analyzed with respect to the types of innovations used and the methodological characteristics of the studies themselves. The findings of this analysis have indicated that nearly half of the variability in effect size can be accounted for by study design characteristics rather than by the characteristics of the innovations used. However, a subsequent analysis illustrated that one specific innovation, Workshop/Studio Physics, appears to be particularly effective within the observed sample of studies.

  5. Learning Kriging by an instructive program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuador, José

    2016-04-01

    There are three types of problem classification: the deterministic, the approximated and the stochastic problems. First, in the deterministic problems the law of the phenomenon and the data are known in the entire domain and for each instant of time. In the approximated problems, the law of the phenomenon behavior is unknown but the data can be known in the entire domain and for each instant of time. In the stochastic problems much of the law and the data are unknown in the domain, so in this case the spatial behavior of the data can only be explained with probabilistic laws. This is the most important reason why the students of geo-sciences careers and others related careers need to take courses in advance estimation methods. A good example of this situation is the estimation grades in ore mineral deposit for which the Geostatistics was formalized by G. Matheron in 1962 [6]. Geostatistics is defined as the application of the theory of Random Function to the recognition and estimation of natural phenomenon [4]. Nowadays, Geostatistics is widely used in several fields of earth sciences, for example: Mining, Oil exploration, Environment, Agricultural, Forest and others [3]. It provides a wide variety of tools for spatial data analysis and allows analysing models which are subjected to degrees of uncertainty with the rigor of mathematics and formal statistical analysis [9]. Adequate models for the Kriging interpolator has been developed according to the data behavior; however there are two key steps in applying this interpolator properly: the semivariogram determination and the Kriging neighborhood selection. The main objective of this paper is to present these two elements using an instructive program.

  6. Learning of time series through neuron-to-neuron instruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Y [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, (Japan); Kinzel, W [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Wurzburg, 97074 Wurzburg (Germany); Shinomoto, S [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-02-07

    A model neuron with delayline feedback connections can learn a time series generated by another model neuron. It has been known that some student neurons that have completed such learning under the instruction of a teacher's quasi-periodic sequence mimic the teacher's time series over a long interval, even after instruction has ceased. We found that in addition to such faithful students, there are unfaithful students whose time series eventually diverge exponentially from that of the teacher. In order to understand the circumstances that allow for such a variety of students, the orbit dimension was estimated numerically. The quasi-periodic orbits in question were found to be confined in spaces with dimensions significantly smaller than that of the full phase space.

  7. Learning of time series through neuron-to-neuron instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Y; Kinzel, W; Shinomoto, S

    2003-01-01

    A model neuron with delayline feedback connections can learn a time series generated by another model neuron. It has been known that some student neurons that have completed such learning under the instruction of a teacher's quasi-periodic sequence mimic the teacher's time series over a long interval, even after instruction has ceased. We found that in addition to such faithful students, there are unfaithful students whose time series eventually diverge exponentially from that of the teacher. In order to understand the circumstances that allow for such a variety of students, the orbit dimension was estimated numerically. The quasi-periodic orbits in question were found to be confined in spaces with dimensions significantly smaller than that of the full phase space

  8. Dyadic Instruction for Middle School Students: Liking Promotes Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hartl, Amy C.; DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Denner, Jill; Werner, Linda; Campe, Shannon; Ortiz, Eloy

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether friendship facilitates or hinders learning in a dyadic instructional setting. Working in 80 same-sex pairs, 160 (60 girls, 100 boys) middle school students (M = 12.13 years old) were taught a new computer programming language and programmed a game. Students spent 14 to 30 (M = 22.7) hours in a programming class. At the beginning and the end of the project, each participant separately completed (a) computer programming knowledge assessments and (b) questionnaires ra...

  9. Guided Instruction Improves Elementary Student Learning and Self-Efficacy in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hushman, Carolyn J.; Marley, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the amount of instructional guidance affects science learning and self-efficacy. Sixty 9- and 10-year-old children were randomly assigned to one of the following three instructional conditions: (a) guided instruction consisting of examples and student-generated explanations, (b) direct instruction consisting of a…

  10. Whole Language, Computers and CD-ROM Technology: A Kindergarten Unit on "Benjamin Bunny."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    A kindergarten teacher, two preservice teachers, and a college consultant on educational computer technology designed and developed a 10-day whole-language integrated unit on the theme of Beatrix Potter's "Benjamin Bunny." The project was designed as a demonstration of the potential of integrating the CD-ROM-based version of…

  11. Can Computers Be Used for Whole Language Approaches to Reading and Language Arts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    Holistic approaches to the teaching of reading and writing, most notably the Whole Language movement, reject the philosophy that language skills can be taught. Instead, holistic teachers emphasize process, and they structure the students' classroom activities to be rich in language experience. Computers can be used as tools for whole language…

  12. From Metacognition to Whole Language: The Spectrum of Literacy in Elementary School Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    This paper considers the integration of reading and writing into elementary science teaching by way of the implications of two leading theories pertaining to literacy: metacognitive theory and whole language theory. Discussion of the implications of metacognition includes attention to the issue of helping to overcome readers' nonscientific…

  13. Principals' Perceptions of Instructional Leadership for Middle School Students of Color with Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon-Luster, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    Instructional leadership is the most important responsibility for principals and the most vulnerable students in need of productive instructional leadership are students of color with specific learning disabilities. Instructional leaders are challenged with creating supportive learning environments and school cultures that promotes the education…

  14. The Effects of Goal-Oriented Instructions in Digital Game-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhel, Séverine; Jamet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the effects of the instructions provided in educational computer games on cognitive processing and learning outcomes. In our experiment, we sought to compare the effects on learning outcomes of two different types of goal-oriented instructions: "mastery-goal" instructions, which prompt learners to develop…

  15. Optimizing classroom instruction through self-paced learning prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romiro Gordo Bautista

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the learning impact of self-paced learning prototype in optimizing classroom instruction towards students’ learning in Chemistry. Two sections of 64 Laboratory High School students in Chemistry were used as subjects of the study. The Quasi-Experimental and Correlation Research Design was used in the study: a pre-test was conducted, scored and analyzed which served as the basis in determining the initial learning schema of the respondents. A questionnaire was adopted to find the learning motivation of the students in science. Using Pearson-r correlation, it was found out that there is a highly significant relationship between their internal drive and their academic performance. Moreover, a post-test was conducted after self-paced learning prototype was used in the development of select topics in their curricular plot. It was found out that the students who experienced the self-paced learning prototype performed better in their academic performance as evidenced by the difference of their mean post-test results. ANCOVA results on the post-test mean scores of the respondents were utilized in establishing the causal-effect of the learning prototype to the academic performance of the students in Chemistry. A highly significant effect on their academic performance (R-square value of 70.7% and significant interaction of the models to the experimental grouping and mental abilities of the respondents are concluded in the study.

  16. A Study on Information Technology Integrated Guided Iscovery Instruction towards Students' Learning Achievement and Learning Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Chich-Jen; Yu, Lean

    2016-01-01

    In the information explosion era with constant changes of information, educators have promoted various effective learning strategies for students adapting to the complex modern society. The impact and influence of traditional teaching method have information technology integrated modern instruction and science concept learning play an important…

  17. Grounded Learning Experience: Helping Students Learn Physics through Visuo-Haptic Priming and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Chieh Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effects of a grounded learning experience on college students' mental models of physics systems. The grounded learning experience consisted of a priming stage and an instruction stage, and within each stage, one of two different types of visuo-haptic representation was applied: visuo-gestural simulation…

  18. Faculty Best Practices Using Blended Learning in E-Learning and Face-to-Face Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortera-Gutierrez, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Presenting a higher education case study from Mexico: "Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey" (ITESM-CCM) College, Mexico city campus, describing faculty best and worst practices using a blended learning approach in e-learning and face-to-face instruction. The article comments on conceptual definitions of blended…

  19. The Effects of Textisms on Learning, Study Time, and Instructional Perceptions in an Online Artificial Intelligence Instructional Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Robert; Bryant, Nathan L.; Dodson, Phillip T.; Entwistle, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of textisms (i.e., abbreviated spellings, acronyms, and other shorthand notations) on learning, study time, and instructional perceptions in an online artificial intelligence instructional module. The independent variable in this investigation was experimental condition. For the control…

  20. Learning stoichiometry: A comparison of text and multimedia instructional formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karen L.

    Even after multiple instructional opportunities, first year college chemistry students are often unable to apply stoichiometry knowledge in equilibrium and acid-base chemistry problem solving. Cognitive research findings suggest that for learning to be meaningful, learners need to actively construct their own knowledge by integrating new information into, and reorganizing, their prior understandings. Scaffolded inquiry in which facts, procedures, and principles are introduced as needed within the context of authentic problem solving may provide the practice and encoding opportunities necessary for construction of a memorable and usable knowledge base. The dynamic and interactive capabilities of online technology may facilitate stoichiometry instruction that promotes this meaningful learning. Entering college freshmen were randomly assigned to either a technology-rich or text-only set of cognitively informed stoichiometry review materials. Analysis of posttest scores revealed a significant but small difference in the performance of the two treatment groups, with the technology-rich group having the advantage. Both SAT and gender, however, explained more of the variability in the scores. Analysis of the posttest scores from the technology-rich treatment group revealed that the degree of interaction with the Virtual Lab simulation was significantly related to posttest performance and subsumed any effect of prior knowledge as measured by SAT scores. Future users of the online course should be encouraged to engage with the problem-solving opportunities provided by the Virtual Lab simulation through either explicit instruction and/or implementation of some level of program control within the course's navigational features.

  1. Problem Solving Reasoning and Problem Based Instruction in Geometry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyowati, F.; Budiyono, B.; Slamet, I.

    2017-09-01

    This research aims to analyze the comparison Problem Solving Reasoning (PSR) and Problem Based Instruction (PBI) on problem solving and mathematical communication abilities viewed from Self-Regulated Learning (SRL). Learning was given to grade 8th junior high school students. This research uses quasi experimental method, and then with descriptive analysis. Data were analyzed using two-ways multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with different cells. The result of data analysis were learning model gives different effect, level of SRL gives the same effect, and there is no interaction between the learning model with the SRL on the problem solving and mathematical communication abilities. The t-test statistic was used to find out more effective learning model. Based on the test, regardless of the level of SRL, PSR is more effective than PBI for problemsolving ability. The result of descriptive analysis was PSR had the advantage in creating learning that optimizing the ability of learners in reasoning to solve a mathematical problem. Consequently, the PSR is the right learning model to be applied in the classroom to improve problem solving ability of learners.

  2. Inclusive instruction and learning for deaf students in postsecondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S; Long, G; Snell, K

    1999-01-01

    This article explores how students who are deaf and their instructors experience mainstream college classes. Both quantitative and qualitative procedures were used to examine student access to information and their sense of belonging and engagement in learning. Instructors were asked to discuss their approach to teaching and any instructional modifications made to address the needs of deaf learners. Results indicate that deaf students viewed classroom communication and engagement in a similar manner as their hearing peers. Deaf students were more concerned about the pace of instruction and did not feel as much a part of the 'university family' as did their hearing peers. Faculty generally indicated that they made few if any modifications for deaf students and saw support service faculty as responsible for the success or failure of these students. We discuss results of these and additional findings with regard to barriers to equal access and strategies for overcoming these barriers.

  3. Working Memory Capacity Limits Motor Learning When Implementing Multiple Instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Buszard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although it is generally accepted that certain practice conditions can place large demands on working memory (WM when performing and learning a motor skill, the influence that WM capacity has on the acquisition of motor skills remains unsubstantiated. This study examined the role of WM capacity in a motor skill practice context that promoted WM involvement through the provision of explicit instructions. A cohort of 90 children aged 8 to 10 years were assessed on measures of WM capacity and attention. Children who scored in the lowest and highest thirds on the WM tasks were allocated to lower WM capacity (n = 24 and higher WM capacity (n = 24 groups, respectively. The remaining 42 participants did not participate in the motor task. The motor task required children to practice basketball shooting for 240 trials in blocks of 20 shots, with pre- and post-tests occurring before and after the intervention. A retention test was administered 1 week after the post-test. Prior to every practice block, children were provided with five explicit instructions that were specific to the technique of shooting a basketball. Results revealed that the higher WM capacity group displayed consistent improvements from pre- to post-test and through to the retention test, while the opposite effect occurred in the lower WM capacity group. This implies that the explicit instructions had a negative influence on learning by the lower WM capacity children. Results are discussed in relation to strategy selection for dealing with instructions and the role of attention control.

  4. Learning Semantics of Gestural Instructions for Human-Robot Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dadhichi; Erkent, Özgür; Piater, Justus

    2018-01-01

    Designed to work safely alongside humans, collaborative robots need to be capable partners in human-robot teams. Besides having key capabilities like detecting gestures, recognizing objects, grasping them, and handing them over, these robots need to seamlessly adapt their behavior for efficient human-robot collaboration. In this context we present the fast, supervised Proactive Incremental Learning (PIL) framework for learning associations between human hand gestures and the intended robotic manipulation actions. With the proactive aspect, the robot is competent to predict the human's intent and perform an action without waiting for an instruction. The incremental aspect enables the robot to learn associations on the fly while performing a task. It is a probabilistic, statistically-driven approach. As a proof of concept, we focus on a table assembly task where the robot assists its human partner. We investigate how the accuracy of gesture detection affects the number of interactions required to complete the task. We also conducted a human-robot interaction study with non-roboticist users comparing a proactive with a reactive robot that waits for instructions. PMID:29615888

  5. Learning Semantics of Gestural Instructions for Human-Robot Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dadhichi; Erkent, Özgür; Piater, Justus

    2018-01-01

    Designed to work safely alongside humans, collaborative robots need to be capable partners in human-robot teams. Besides having key capabilities like detecting gestures, recognizing objects, grasping them, and handing them over, these robots need to seamlessly adapt their behavior for efficient human-robot collaboration. In this context we present the fast, supervised Proactive Incremental Learning (PIL) framework for learning associations between human hand gestures and the intended robotic manipulation actions. With the proactive aspect, the robot is competent to predict the human's intent and perform an action without waiting for an instruction. The incremental aspect enables the robot to learn associations on the fly while performing a task. It is a probabilistic, statistically-driven approach. As a proof of concept, we focus on a table assembly task where the robot assists its human partner. We investigate how the accuracy of gesture detection affects the number of interactions required to complete the task. We also conducted a human-robot interaction study with non-roboticist users comparing a proactive with a reactive robot that waits for instructions.

  6. Interactive instruction of cellular physiology for remote learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C; Huang, H K

    2003-12-01

    The biomedical sciences are a rapidly changing discipline that have adapted to innovative technological advances. Despite these many advances, we face two major challenges: a) the number of experts in the field is vastly outnumbered by the number of students, many of whom are separated geographically or temporally and b) the teaching methods used to instruct students and learners have not changed. Today's students have adapted to technology--they use the web as a source of information and communicate via email and chat rooms. Teaching in the biomedical sciences should adopt these new information technologies (IT), but has thus far failed to capitalize on technological opportunity. Creating a "digital textbook" of the traditional learning material is not sufficient for dynamic processes such as cellular physiology. This paper describes innovative teaching techniques that incorporate familiar IT and high-quality interactive learning content with user-centric instruction design models. The Virtual Labs Project from Stanford University has created effective interactive online teaching modules in physiology (simPHYSIO) and delivered them over broadband networks to their undergraduate and medical students. Evaluation results of the modules are given as a measure of success of such innovative teaching method. This learning media strategically merges IT innovations with pedagogy to produce user-driven animations of processes and engaging interactive simulations.

  7. Investigation the Relationship among Language Learning Strategies, English Self-Efficacy, and Explicit Strategy Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Ling; Wang, Ai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship among EFL college learners' language learning strategies, English self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction from the perspectives of Social Cognitive Theory. Three constructs, namely language learning strategies, English learning self-efficacy, and explicit strategy instruction, were…

  8. The Implementation of Service-Learning in Graduate Instructional Design Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Jill E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design of service-learning experiences with a graduate-level instructional design course. Service-learning provides students with real-life experiences in a situated-learning environment. Students were tasked with working on an instructional design project in a real-world setting to gain consultative experience. This paper…

  9. Creating an effective learning environment through an E-Learning Instructional Programme (ELIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jakovljevic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Though numerous research reports have provided a body of information about benefits of e-learning there are barriers such as, asynchronous communication channels, lack of personalisation, which decrease the level of interaction between the learner and instructor [13].The aim of this paper is to discuss and outline a framework on e-learning pedagogical and technology issues which provide a basis for the creation of an e-learning instructional programme (ELIP. The Phase I of this research start with the creation of a framework for an e-learning environment and derivation of the e-learning instructional programme (ELIP; Phase II is aimed to implement a popular audio playback device (iPod and VoIP. In this phase 40 learners, one instructor and three tutors will be observed and their experiences will be evaluated through focus group interviews and documents analysis. This research was based on a qualitative research approach [78],[44].

  10. Learning environment: the impact of clerkship location on instructional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunuske, Jacob P; Deci, David M

    2013-03-01

    Students provide variable feedback on instructional quality at ambulatory training sites. We hypothesized several strengths and weaknesses of placing students at resident and non-resident training sites, including differences in faculty behaviors, patient characteristics, work environment, learning opportunities, and levels of student engagement. We systematically assessed for differences in learning quality between clerkship sites with and without residents. Students completed the MedED IQ, a validated survey assessing four domains of instructional quality, after completing a required primary care rotation. We calculated descriptive and summary statistics and two sample tests of proportion analyzing student agreement with each MedEd IQ item with respect to the presence or absence of resident learners. Of 149 total, 113 (75.8%) students completed the MedEd IQ site survey. A greater percentage of students at resident training sites (25.8%) than at non-resident sites (7.3%) agreed with the statement "The opportunities were too diverse, preventing me from developing proficiency." A greater percentage of students at resident training sites (19.4%) than at non-resident sites (1.2%) agreed with the statement "The health care team was not supportive of my learning." There were no differences between sites with or without residents on 14 items measuring preceptor actions or seven items measuring student involvement. Ambulatory clerkship sites with and without residents provide comparable quality learning experiences and precepting. Students placed at resident training sites may be overwhelmed with diverse opportunities and have a less supportive learning environment than students placed at non-resident sites. Future research should evaluate the impact of health care team development programs designed to foster a more supportive training environment for medical students. Ways of aligning residency and medical student education goals within the training setting should be

  11. The Effects of Apprenticeship of Observation on Teachers Attitudes towards Active Learning Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzhabekova Aliya; Zhaparova Raina

    2016-01-01

    Active learning instruction is promoted by the most recent version of the National Program for the Development of Education in Kazakhstan as it is believed to provide more meaningful learning and deeper understanding compared to traditional instruction. In order to achieve greater utilization of the instructional approach at schools, teachers must be aware of active learning techniques and know how to use them. This paper studies whether ‘apprenticeship of observation’ during a graduate cours...

  12. Multimedia Instruction & Language Learning Attitudes: A Study with University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Izquierdo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of two types of Multimedia Instruction (MI and learners’ second language (L2 proficiency on language learning attitudes. During four weeks, university learners of French received MI on the distinctive use of the perfective and the imperfective past in one of the four following conditions: learners with low L2 proficiency level exposed to MI with (n=17 or without language awareness tasks (n=17, and learners with intermediate L2 proficiency level exposed to MI with (n=14 or without language awareness tasks (n=28. Before and after the experiment, participants completed the Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB. Non-parametric analyses revealed a positive enhancement of classroom-related attitudes only among intermediate learners exposed to MI without Language Awareness Tasks. Nevertheless, the results showed similar as well as stable attitudes towards language learning in all the experimental conditions.

  13. How explicit and implicit test instructions in an implicit learning task affect performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Witt

    Full Text Available Typically developing children aged 5 to 8 years were exposed to artificial grammar learning. Following an implicit exposure phase, half of the participants received neutral instructions at test while the other half received instructions making a direct, explicit reference to the training phase. We first aimed to assess whether implicit learning operated in the two test conditions. We then evaluated the differential impact of age on learning performances as a function of test instructions. The results showed that performance did not vary as a function of age in the implicit instructions condition, while age effects emerged when explicit instructions were employed at test. However, performance was affected differently by age and the instructions given at test, depending on whether the implicit learning of short or long units was assessed. These results suggest that the claim that the implicit learning process is independent of age needs to be revised.

  14. Student Motivation And Instructional Strategies In English Learning In Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mustapha Bin Danquah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Motivation has been referred to as the single most important ingredient of learning Wieman 2013. However it does not come by chance application of appropriate instructional strategies are necessary. The present study conducted in-depth inquiry into the relevance of student motivation and its relationship with higher achievement in L2 learning. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. Using stratified sampling technique 60 students were sampled from three public schools in Kumasi Metropolis. Also by means of purposive sampling six English teachers were selected in the three schools as participants. Set of questionnaires were the instrument for the study and analysis involved simple frequencies percentages tables and Pearsons Correlation Coefficient r. The study revealed that students can be motivated by simplicity clarity practical and insightful analogies making lessons lively and interesting and most importantly generous use of TLMs. Positive relationship also existed between students motivation and the use of effective instructional strategies with the attendant proficiency in English. Unequivocally student motivation is pivotal to facilitating proficiency in English a key to riding the crest of globalization and technology.

  15. Learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation theory with face-to-face versus audiovisual instruction for secondary school students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo Espinosa, Cristina; Nieto Caballero, Sergio; Juguera Rodríguez, Laura; Castejón-Mochón, José Francisco; Segura Melgarejo, Francisca; Sánchez Martínez, Carmen María; López López, Carmen Amalia; Pardo Ríos, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    To compare secondary students' learning of basic life support (BLS) theory and the use of an automatic external defibrillator (AED) through face-to-face classroom instruction versus educational video instruction. A total of 2225 secondary students from 15 schools were randomly assigned to one of the following 5 instructional groups: 1) face-to-face instruction with no audiovisual support, 2) face-to-face instruction with audiovisual support, 3) audiovisual instruction without face-to-face instruction, 4) audiovisual instruction with face-to-face instruction, and 5) a control group that received no instruction. The students took a test of BLS and AED theory before instruction, immediately after instruction, and 2 months later. The median (interquartile range) scores overall were 2.33 (2.17) at baseline, 5.33 (4.66) immediately after instruction (Paudiovisual instruction for learning BLS and AED theory were found in secondary school students either immediately after instruction or 2 months later.

  16. Examining the Influence of Seductive Details in Case-Based Instruction on Pre-Service Teachers' Learning and Learning Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The case-based instructional method uses fictionalized or actual narratives as instructional tools to support learning, decision-making, and improved transfer to practical settings. Educational theorists and researchers specializing in case-based instruction have suggested that cases can be made more realistic, engaging, and challenging, thus…

  17. Understanding and responding the students in learning mathematics through the differentiated instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapsari, T.; Darhim; Dahlan, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    This research discusses the differentiated instruction, a mathematic learning which is as expected by the students in connection with the differentiated instruction itself, its implementation, and the students’ responses. This research employs a survey method which involves 62 students as the research respondents. The mathematics learning types required by the students and their responses to the differentiated instruction are examined through questionnaire and interview. The mathematics learning types in orderly required by the students, from the highest frequency cover the easily understood instructions, slowly/not rushing teaching, fun, not complicated, interspersed with humour, various question practices, not too serious, and conducive class atmosphere for the instructions. Implementing the differentiated instruction is not easy. The teacher should be able to constantly assess the students, s/he should have good knowledge of relevant materials and instructions, and properly prepare the instructions, although it is time-consuming. The differentiated instruction is implemented on the instructions of numerical pattern materials. The strategies implemented are flexible grouping, tiered assignment, and compacting. The students positively respond the differentiated learning instruction that they become more motivated and involved in the instruction.

  18. Authenticity in the process of learning about Instructional Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Wilson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Authentic learning is touted as a powerful learning approach, particularly in the context of problem-based learning (Savery, 2006. Teaching and learning in the area of instructional design appears to offer a strong fit between the tenets of authentic learning and the practice of instructional design. This paper details the efforts to broaden and deepen the understanding of instructional design through a service learning approach to teaching, emphasizing authentic learning and assessment. Students are teamed and assigned to an actual contract with an external client under the supervision of the instructor who acts as project manager for the group. Contracts are negotiated to deliberately offer instructional design services to clients who would not otherwise be able to afford them, such as community-based non-profit groups. The reasons are two fold: first, we want to avoid competing for contracts that would interfere with the business of commercial instructional design groups and contractors; second, we want to impress on our students the idea that instructional design has social importance beyond the profit/loss and cost/effectiveness orientation of many instructional design businesses. In this way, we promote the idea that instructional designers are agents of social change, and their influence crosses interpersonal, professional, institutional and societal dimensions of change (Schwier, Campbell and Kenny, 2007.  Résumé : L’apprentissage authentique est présenté comme une approche efficace en apprentissage, en particulier dans le contexte de l’apprentissage par problèmes (Savery, 2006. Enseigner et apprendre la conception pédagogique semble offrir une correspondance étroite entre les principes de l’apprentissage authentique et la pratique de la conception pédagogique. Cet article présente de manière détaillée les efforts visant à élargir et à approfondir la compréhension qu’ont les étudiants de la conception p

  19. Introducing the Creative Learning Principles: Instructional Tasks Used to Promote Rhizomatic Learning through Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Violet Adams

    2016-01-01

    Proving a child has been adequately educated is manifest through assessments evaluating the recall of facts or the deciphering of codes. How this information is taught and learned is the issue. Webb's depth of knowledge (DOK) and Bloom's taxonomy are cognitive models that drive instruction in today's classrooms. According to these models,…

  20. Peer Instruction in Chemistry Education: Assessment of Students' Learning Strategies, Conceptual Learning and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Tolga; Gok, Ozge

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of peer instruction on learning strategies, problem solving performance, and conceptual understanding of college students in a general chemistry course. The research was performed students enrolled in experimental and control groups of a chemistry course were selected. Students in the…

  1. Influence of learning style on instructional multimedia effects on graduate student cognitive and psychomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A Russell; Cavanaugh, Catherine; Jones, Joyce; Venn, John; Wilson, William

    2006-01-01

    Learning outcomes may improve in graduate healthcare students when attention is given to individual learning styles. Interactive multimedia is one tool shown to increase success in meeting the needs of diverse learners. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning style and type of instruction on physical therapy students' cognitive and psychomotor performance. Participants were obtained by a sample of convenience with students recruited from two physical therapy programs. Twenty-seven students volunteered to participate from Program 1. Twenty-three students volunteered to participate from Program 2. Gregorc learning styles were identified through completion of the Gregorc Style Delineator. Students were randomly assigned to one of two instructional strategies: 1) instructional CD or 2) live demonstration. Differences in cognitive or psychomotor performance following instructional multimedia based on learning style were not demonstrated in this study. Written examination scores improved with both instructional strategies demonstrating no differences between the strategies. Practical examination ankle scores were significantly higher in participants receiving CD instruction than in participants receiving live presentation. Learning style did not significantly affect this improvement. Program 2 performed significantly better on written knee and practical knee and ankle examinations. Learning style had no significant effect on student performance following instruction in clinical skills via interactive multimedia. Future research may include additional measurement instruments assessing other models of learning styles and possible interaction of learning style and instructional strategy on students over longer periods of time, such as a semester or an entire curriculum.

  2. Laparoscopy Instructional Videos : The Effect of Preoperative Compared With Intraoperative Use on Learning Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Theo H.; Talsma, Aaldert K.; Wevers, Kevin P.; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E. N.

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that the use of intraoperative instructional videos has a positive effect on learning laparoscopic procedures. This study investigated the effect of the timing of the instructional videos on learning curves in laparoscopic skills training. DESIGN: After

  3. Comparing the Effectiveness of Peer Instruction to Individual Learning during a Chromatography Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, J.; Michinov, N.; Delaval, M.; Sideridou, A.; Ferrières, V.

    2015-01-01

    Peer instruction has been recognized as an instructional method having a positive impact on learning compared to traditional lectures in science. This method has been widely supported by the socio-constructivist approach to learning giving a positive role to interaction between peers in the construction of knowledge. As far as we know, no study…

  4. A Framework for Intelligent Instructional Systems: An Artificial Intelligence Machine Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee A.

    1987-01-01

    Presents and develops a general model of the nature of a learning system and a classification for learning systems. Highlights include the relationship between artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology; computer-based instructional systems; intelligent instructional systems; and the role of the learner's knowledge base in an intelligent…

  5. Enrolment Purposes, Instructional Activities, and Perceptions of Attitudinal Learning in a Human Trafficking MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sunnie Lee; Kim, Woori

    2016-01-01

    This study examines learner enrolment purposes, perceptions on instructional activities and their relationship to learning gains in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for attitudinal change regarding human trafficking. Using an author-developed survey, learners reported their perceptions on instructional activities and learning gains within the…

  6. Child predictors of learning to control variables via instruction or self-discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagensveld, B.; Segers, P.C.J.; Kleemans, M.A.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the role child factors on the acquisition and transfer of learning the control of variables strategy (CVS) via instruction or self-discovery. Seventy-six fourth graders and 43 sixth graders were randomly assigned to a group receiving direct CVS instruction or a discovery learning group.

  7. Mnemonic Instruction in Science and Social Studies for Students with Learning Problems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Jacqueline; Polloway, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, mnemonic instruction has been promoted as an effective strategy to teach students with learning problems including learning disabilities (LD) or mild intellectual disability (MID). This paper discusses mnemonic instruction, including types, versatility in use, and effectiveness with struggling learners. Specific emphasis then is…

  8. Reading Achievement and Reading Efficacy Changes for Middle School Students with Disabilities through Blended Learning Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Jesse R.; Mellard, Daryl F.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a blended learning instructional experience for sixth-grade students in an English/language arts (ELA) course. Students at two treatment schools participated in a blended learning instructional paradigm, and their ELA test scores were compared to one comparison school that used a face-to-face delivery. Other…

  9. Instructed fear learning, extinction, and recall: additive effects of cognitive information on emotional learning of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, Arash; Duval, Elizabeth R; Cisneros, Maria E; Taylor, Stephan F; Kessler, Daniel; Liberzon, Israel

    2017-08-01

    The effects of instruction on learning of fear and safety are rarely studied. We aimed to examine the effects of cognitive information and experience on fear learning. Fourty healthy participants, randomly assigned to three groups, went through fear conditioning, extinction learning, and extinction recall with two conditioned stimuli (CS+). Information was presented about the presence or absence of conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) contingency at different stages of the experiment. Information about the CS-US contingency prior to fear conditioning enhanced fear response and reduced extinction recall. Information about the absence of CS-US contingency promoted extinction learning and recall, while omission of this information prior to recall resulted in fear renewal. These findings indicate that contingency information can facilitate fear expression during fear learning, and can facilitate extinction learning and recall. Information seems to function as an element of the larger context in which conditioning occurs.

  10. The knowledge-learning-instruction framework: bridging the science-practice chasm to enhance robust student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R; Corbett, Albert T; Perfetti, Charles

    2012-07-01

    Despite the accumulation of substantial cognitive science research relevant to education, there remains confusion and controversy in the application of research to educational practice. In support of a more systematic approach, we describe the Knowledge-Learning-Instruction (KLI) framework. KLI promotes the emergence of instructional principles of high potential for generality, while explicitly identifying constraints of and opportunities for detailed analysis of the knowledge students may acquire in courses. Drawing on research across domains of science, math, and language learning, we illustrate the analyses of knowledge, learning, and instructional events that the KLI framework affords. We present a set of three coordinated taxonomies of knowledge, learning, and instruction. For example, we identify three broad classes of learning events (LEs): (a) memory and fluency processes, (b) induction and refinement processes, and (c) understanding and sense-making processes, and we show how these can lead to different knowledge changes and constraints on optimal instructional choices. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Research-based active-learning instruction in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.

    2013-04-01

    The development of research-based active-learning instructional methods in physics has significantly altered the landscape of U.S. physics education during the past 20 years. Based on a recent review [D.E. Meltzer and R.K. Thornton, Am. J. Phys. 80, 478 (2012)], we define these methods as those (1) explicitly based on research in the learning and teaching of physics, (2) that incorporate classroom and/or laboratory activities that require students to express their thinking through speaking, writing, or other actions that go beyond listening and the copying of notes, or execution of prescribed procedures, and (3) that have been tested repeatedly in actual classroom settings and have yielded objective evidence of improved student learning. We describe some key features common to methods in current use. These features focus on (a) recognizing and addressing students' physics ideas, and (b) guiding students to solve problems in realistic physical settings, in novel and diverse contexts, and to justify or explain the reasoning they have used.

  12. Evaluation of iTunes University Courses through Instructional Design Strategies and m-Learning Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hung Wei; Tang, Yingqi; Morris, Betty

    2016-01-01

    As mobile learning technology promotes learning accessibility and flexibility, students benefit from social interactivity and connective learning process which will also foster students' performance and satisfaction on learning content. The primary purpose of this research was to evaluate iTunes U courses based on instructional design strategies…

  13. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we…

  14. Identifying the Learning Styles and Instructional Tool Preferences of Beginning Food Science and Human Nutrition Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…

  15. D4 S4: A Four Dimensions Instructional Strategy for Web-based and Blended Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy A. ABDELAZIZ,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Web-based education is facing a paradigm shift under the rapid development of information and communication technology. The new paradigm of learning requires special techniques of course design, special instructional models, and special methods of evaluation. This paper investigates the effectiveness of an adaptive instructional strategy for teaching and learning through the Web and blended learning environments. The central theme of this strategy is that instructional strategies give instructors and students a conceptual as well as a practical mode of delivery from which to teach and learn. Considering and applying new instructional strategy can help instructors to understand the uses of pedagogical content knowledge, as well as to reflect the role of technological content knowledge that can be adapted and/or adopted in teaching in all educational levels and environments. The main objective of this paper was to develop a holonomic instructional strategy for Web-based and blended learning. This strategy is guided by the non-linear and interactive features of learning environments. The strategy is consisted of four dimensions: designing, developing, delving and distributing. In this new instructional strategy, learning is holonomic and adaptive. Learning occurs in an open learning environment, in which instructors are designing a shared vision, developing a sharable e-learning task, delving students’ learning through scaffolding and salvaging students’ knowledge. The expected outcome of this instructional strategy is that each learner will develop a cognitive schema to be used to organize and construct knowledge and meaning in similar context of learning which may increase the generalizability, trustworthiness and transferability of learning. The results of applying this new strategy showed that this strategy is effective on developing both achievement and deep learning levels among a sample of graduate students.

  16. Children's Learning in Scientific Thinking: Instructional Approaches and Roles of Variable Identification and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blums, Angela

    The present study examines instructional approaches and cognitive factors involved in elementary school children's thinking and learning the Control of Variables Strategy (CVS), a critical aspect of scientific reasoning. Previous research has identified several features related to effective instruction of CVS, including using a guided learning approach, the use of self-reflective questions, and learning in individual and group contexts. The current study examined the roles of procedural and conceptual instruction in learning CVS and investigated the role of executive function in the learning process. Additionally, this study examined how learning to identify variables is a part of the CVS process. In two studies (individual and classroom experiments), 139 third, fourth, and fifth grade students participated in hands-on and paper and pencil CVS learning activities and, in each study, were assigned to either a procedural instruction, conceptual instruction, or control (no instruction) group. Participants also completed a series of executive function tasks. The study was carried out with two parts--Study 1 used an individual context and Study 2 was carried out in a group setting. Results indicated that procedural and conceptual instruction were more effective than no instruction, and the ability to identify variables was identified as a key piece to the CVS process. Executive function predicted ability to identify variables and predicted success on CVS tasks. Developmental differences were present, in that older children outperformed younger children on CVS tasks, and that conceptual instruction was slightly more effective for older children. Some differences between individual and group instruction were found, with those in the individual context showing some advantage over the those in the group setting in learning CVS concepts. Conceptual implications about scientific thinking and practical implications in science education are discussed.

  17. Learning physics: A comparative analysis between instructional design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Easow

    The purpose of this research was to determine if there were differences in academic performance between students who participated in traditional versus collaborative problem-based learning (PBL) instructional design approaches to physics curricula. This study utilized a quantitative quasi-experimental design methodology to determine the significance of differences in pre- and posttest introductory physics exam performance between students who participated in traditional (i.e., control group) versus collaborative problem solving (PBL) instructional design (i.e., experimental group) approaches to physics curricula over a college semester in 2008. There were 42 student participants (N = 42) enrolled in an introductory physics course at the research site in the Spring 2008 semester who agreed to participate in this study after reading and signing informed consent documents. A total of 22 participants were assigned to the experimental group (n = 22) who participated in a PBL based teaching methodology along with traditional lecture methods. The other 20 students were assigned to the control group (n = 20) who participated in the traditional lecture teaching methodology. Both the courses were taught by experienced professors who have qualifications at the doctoral level. The results indicated statistically significant differences (p traditional (i.e., lower physics posttest scores and lower differences between pre- and posttest scores) versus collaborative (i.e., higher physics posttest scores, and higher differences between pre- and posttest scores) instructional design approaches to physics curricula. Despite some slight differences in control group and experimental group demographic characteristics (gender, ethnicity, and age) there were statistically significant (p = .04) differences between female average academic improvement which was much higher than male average academic improvement (˜63%) in the control group which may indicate that traditional teaching methods

  18. Teaching and Learning Geometry in Drama Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubuz, Behiye; Duatepe-Paksu, Asuman

    2016-01-01

    This paper explains what drama-based instruction is and offers insights into the phases in drama-based instruction. Further, examples of drama-based lessons in geometry related to ring and circle, and altitude of a triangle together with the teacher and students perceptions related to the strengths and limitations of drama based instruction in…

  19. How Instructional Strategies Impact Students' Learning, Motivation, and Learning Strategies in Introductory Geology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D.; Budd, D. A.; Stempien, J. A.; Kraft, K.; Matheney, R. K.; McConnell, D.; Wirth, K. R.; Bykerk-Kauffman, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Geoscience Affective Research Network (GARNET) quantified the relationship between classroom teaching styles, student learning, and students’ motivations and attitudes for 14 different instructors at 2 community colleges, a private college, and 4 large public universities. Instruction was characterized with the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP). The 0-100 scale reflects the span between traditional instructor-centered lecture and interactive, student-centered courses. Every participating instructor was observed at least twice. Student learning was measured using a 15-question concept inventory (CI) focused on geologic time and plate tectonics. Twelve questions were from the Geologic Concept Inventory of Libarkin and Anderson (2005) and 3 questions were added on relative time. Students’ affective domain was measured using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), 81 questions that define 15 motivation and cognitive subcategories. 1152 students completed both surveys in the 2nd and 14th weeks of their class during the 2008-2010 academic years. RTOP scores ranged from 19 to 87. Learning gains ranged from 18.6% to 47.4% with students learning significantly more from instructors with higher RTOP scores. Learning gains and RTOP positively covary (R2 = 0.67). Adjusting for questions on which students scored high prior to instruction (>90% correct), results in an even stronger relationship (R2 = 0.89). Higher RTOP scores correlate to significant declines in many aspects of student motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic goals, task value, control of learning, and effort regulation). Declines occur mainly in lower and/or middle performing students as measured by grades. The highest performing students only show declines with respect to their control of learning beliefs. Students’ self-efficacy also declines with increasing use of student-student interactions. Higher RTOP scores only exhibit positive correlations to a few aspects of

  20. Investigating Postsecondary Self-Regulated Learning Instructional Practices: The Development of the Self-Regulated Learning Observation Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoops, Leah D.; Yu, Shirley L.; Wang, Qianqian; Hollyer, Virginia L.

    2016-01-01

    Promoting students' self-regulated learning (SRL) is one way to improve postsecondary student success. However, few studies have investigated the instructional practices of postsecondary instructors that may support students' SRL. This study sought to fill this gap. An undergraduate mathematics course was observed to determine instruction utilized…

  1. Bridges to Swaziland: Using Task-Based Learning and Computer-Mediated Instruction to Improve English Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Susan Jacques

    2015-01-01

    One way to provide high quality instruction for underserved English Language Learners around the world is to combine Task-Based English Language Learning with Computer- Assisted Instruction. As part of an ongoing project, "Bridges to Swaziland," these approaches have been implemented in a determined effort to improve the ESL program for…

  2. Integrating Curriculum through the Learning Cycle: Content-Based Reading and Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda H.; Guillaume, Andrea M.

    2006-01-01

    The content areas provide rich contexts for developing vocabulary. This article presents some principles and a lesson model--the learning cycle--that can be used to develop vocabulary while building understanding in science. Because science instruction and the learning cycle model promote learning in real-world contexts, they provide students with…

  3. Pre-Service Teachers' Learning Styles and Preferences towards Instructional Technology Activities and Collaborative Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Farrah Dina; Sumari, Melati

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate pre-service teachers' learning styles and their preferences with respect to 15 technology-based instructional activities and collaborative work tasks. Felder and Silverman's online Index of Learning Style (ILS) and a questionnaire were used to measure students' learning styles and…

  4. Can Learning Style Predict Student Satisfaction with Different Instruction Methods and Academic Achievement in Medical Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpinar, Erol; Alimoglu, Mustafa Kemal; Mamakli, Sumer; Aktekin, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The curriculum of our medical school has a hybrid structure including both traditional training (lectures) and problem-based learning (PBL) applications. The purpose of this study was to determine the learning styles of our medical students and investigate the relation of learning styles with each of satisfaction with different instruction methods…

  5. Greeting You Online: Selecting Web-Based Conferencing Tools for Instruction in E-Learning Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Academic distance learning programs have gained popularity and added to the demand for online library services. Librarians are now conducting instruction for distance learning students beyond their traditional work. Technology advancements have enhanced the delivery mode in distance learning across academic disciplines. Online conference tools…

  6. Cooperative Learning: Improving University Instruction by Basing Practice on Validated Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Smith, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is an example of how theory validated by research may be applied to instructional practice. The major theoretical base for cooperative learning is social interdependence theory. It provides clear definitions of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Hundreds of research studies have validated its basic…

  7. Applying the Science of Learning: Evidence-Based Principles for the Design of Multimedia Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 100 years, a major accomplishment of psychology has been the development of a science of learning aimed at understanding how people learn. In attempting to apply the science of learning, a central challenge of psychology and education is the development of a science of instruction aimed at understanding how to present material in…

  8. The Instructed Learning of Form-Function Mappings in the English Article System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Helen; MacWhinney, Brian

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes the instructed learning of the English article system by second language (L2) learners. The Competition Model (MacWhinney, 1987, 2012) was adopted as the theoretical framework for analyzing the cues to article usage and for designing effective computer-based article instruction. Study 1 found that article cues followed a…

  9. The Strategic Use of Scaffolded Instruction in Social Studies Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullo, Stephen; Dimino, Joseph A.

    2017-01-01

    Several components of specialized instruction have historically influenced text-based interventions for students with learning disabilities (LD). This article addresses the unique role of scaffolded instruction, focusing on supporting students with LD to help them to develop strategies that promote reading for understanding and writing in social…

  10. Differentiating Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities: Best Teaching Practices for General and Special Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, William N.

    This book provides classroom-proven strategies designed to empower the teacher to target instructional modifications to the content, process, and products for students with learning disabilities in the general and special education classrooms. Chapter 1 presents the concept of differentiated instruction and how that concept translates into…

  11. Incorporating Kansei Engineering in Instructional Design: Designing Virtual Reality Based Learning Environments from a Novel Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Kee Man; Chen, Chwen Jen; Teh, Chee Siong

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the application of virtual reality (VR) technology in education is rapidly gaining momentum. The educational benefits offered by such technology have prompted many educators as well as instructional designers to investigate ways to create effective and engaging VR learning. Instructional designers have examined widely the…

  12. Multimedia Instructional Tools' Impact on Student Motivation and Learning Strategies in Computer Applications Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Debra; Wang, Shuyan

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia instructional tools (MMIT) have been identified as a way effectively and economically present instructional material. MMITs are commonly used in introductory computer applications courses as MMITs should be effective in increasing student knowledge and positively impact motivation and learning strategies, without increasing costs. This…

  13. Optimising assembly learning in older adults through the manipulation of instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verneau, M.M.N.; van der Kamp, J.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; de Looze, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation assessed the putative benefits of reducing instructions for older adults' learning of an assembly task. Young and older adults had to build a product by assembling six components. Two groups practiced following instruction methods that differed in the degree of explicit

  14. Students with Learning Disabilities Perspective on Reading Comprehension Instruction: A Qualitative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Dale Rennard

    2017-01-01

    The three article dissertation was a presentation of students' with learning disabilities perspectives on reading comprehension instruction. Article 1 set out to provide an historical perspective of reading and reading comprehension instruction. Topics covered in this research review included: reading comprehension, reading and learning…

  15. Effectiveness of Case-Based Learning Instruction on Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes toward Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Aylin; Geban, Omer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning instruction over traditionally designed chemistry instruction on eleventh grade students' epistemological beliefs and their attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 63 eleventh grade students from two intact classes…

  16. Effectiveness of Case-Based Learning Instruction on Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çam, Aylin; Geban, Ömer

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning instruction over traditionally designed chemistry instruction on eleventh grade students' epistemological beliefs and their attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 63 eleventh grade students from two intact classes of an urban high school instructed with same teacher. Each teaching method was randomly assigned to one class. The experimental group received case-based learning and the control group received traditional instruction. At the experimental group, life cases were presented with small group format; at the control group, lecturing and discussion was carried out. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control group with respect to their epistemological beliefs and attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject in favor of case-based learning method group. Thus, case base learning is helpful for development of students' epistemological beliefs and attitudes toward chemistry.

  17. High School Students with Learning Disabilities: Mathematics Instruction, Study Skills, and High Stakes Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews characteristics of high school students with learning disabilities and presents instructional modifications and study skills to help them succeed in algebra and geometry courses and on high stakes mathematics assessments.

  18. The use of active learning strategies in the instruction of Reactor Physics concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Each of the Active Learning strategies employed to teach Reactor Physics material has been or promises to be instructionally successful. The Cooperative Group strategy has demonstrated a statistically significant increase in student performance on the unit exam in teaching conceptually difficult, transport and diffusion theory material. However, this result was achieved at the expense of a modest increase in class time. The Tutorial CBI programs have enabled learning equally as well as classroom lectures without the direct intervention of an instructor. Thus, the Tutorials have been successful as homework assignments, releasing classroom time for other instruction. However, the time required for development of these tools was large, on the order of two hundred hours per hour of instruction. The initial introduction of the Case-Based strategy was roughly as effective as the traditional classroom instruction. Case-Based learning could well, after important modifications, perform better than traditional instruction. A larger percentage of the students prefer active learning strategies than prefer traditional lecture presentations. Student preferences for the active strategies were particularly strong when they believed that the strategies helped them learn the material better than they would have by using a lecture format. In some cases, students also preferred the active strategies because they were different from traditional instruction, a change of pace. Some students preferred lectures to CBI instruction, primarily because the CBI did not afford them the opportunity to question the instructor during the presentation

  19. The use of active learning strategies in the instruction of Reactor Physics concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Each of the Active Learning strategies employed to teach Reactor Physics material has been or promises to be instructionally successful. The Cooperative Group strategy has demonstrated a statistically significant increase in student performance on the unit exam in teaching conceptually difficult, transport and diffusion theory material. However, this result was achieved at the expense of a modest increase in class time. The Tutorial CBI programs have enabled learning equally as well as classroom lectures without the direct intervention of an instructor. Thus, the Tutorials have been successful as homework assignments, releasing classroom time for other instruction. However, the time required for development of these tools was large, on the order of two hundred hours per hour of instruction. The initial introduction of the Case-Based strategy was roughly as effective as the traditional classroom instruction. Case-Based learning could well, after important modifications, perform better than traditional instruction. A larger percentage of the students prefer active learning strategies than prefer traditional lecture presentations. Student preferences for the active strategies were particularly strong when they believed that the strategies helped them learn the material better than they would have by using a lecture format. In some cases, students also preferred the active strategies because they were different from traditional instruction, a change of pace. Some students preferred lectures to CBI instruction, primarily because the CBI did not afford them the opportunity to question the instructor during the presentation.

  20. Instructional strategies for online introductory college physics based on learning styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwue, Eleazer U.

    The practical nature of physics and its reliance on mathematical presentations and problem solving pose a challenge toward presentation of the course in an online environment for effective learning experience. Most first-time introductory college physics students fail to grasp the basic concepts of the course and the problem solving skills if the instructional strategy used to deliver the course is not compatible with the learners' preferred learning styles. This study investigates the effect of four instructional strategies based on four learning styles (listening, reading, iconic, and direct-experience) to improve learning for introductory college physics in an online environment. Learning styles of 146 participants were determined with Canfield Learning Style inventory. Of the 85 learners who completed the study, research results showed a statistically significant increase in learning performance following the online instruction in all four learning style groups. No statistically significant differences in learning were found among the four groups. However, greater significant academic improvement was found among learners with iconic and direct-experience modes of learning. Learners in all four groups expressed that the design of the unit presentation to match their individual learning styles contributed most to their learning experience. They were satisfied with learning a new physics concept online that, in their opinion, is either comparable or better than an instructor-led classroom experience. Findings from this study suggest that learners' performance and satisfaction in an online introductory physics course could be improved by using instructional designs that are tailored to learners' preferred ways of learning. It could contribute toward the challenge of providing viable online physics instruction in colleges and universities.

  1. Learning, awareness, and instruction: subjective contingency awareness does matter in the colour-word contingency learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R; De Houwer, Jan

    2012-12-01

    In three experiments, each of a set colour-unrelated distracting words was presented most often in a particular target print colour (e.g., "month" most often in red). In Experiment 1, half of the participants were told the word-colour contingencies in advance (instructed) and half were not (control). The instructed group showed a larger learning effect. This instruction effect was fully explained by increases in subjective awareness with instruction. In Experiment 2, contingency instructions were again given, but no contingencies were actually present. Although many participants claimed to be aware of these (non-existent) contingencies, they did not produce an instructed contingency effect. In Experiment 3, half of the participants were given contingency instructions that did not correspond to the correct contingencies. Participants with these false instructions learned the actual contingencies worse than controls. Collectively, our results suggest that conscious contingency knowledge might play a moderating role in the strength of implicit learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Storytelling as an Instructional Method: Research Perspectives (Modeling and Simulations for Learning and Instruction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    told. In fact, storytelling does not stop in the classroom or in a formal training setting. Much of the culture and tradition of the military is passed...2010 2. REPORT TYPE Book 3. DATES COVERED 08-11-2006 to 31-12-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Storytelling as an Instructional Method Research...better instructional storytelling because military instructors have historically relied heavily on that technique. One of the workshops major goals was

  3. How Do We Match Instructional Effectiveness with Learning Curves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Taylor, W. Patrick; Carlson, Coleen D.; Lei, Xiaoxuan; Hunter, C. Vincent; Francis, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine the effectiveness of instruction, the authors confront formidable statistical problems, including multivariate structure of classroom observations, longitudinal dependence of both classroom observations and student outcomes. As the authors begin to examine instruction, classroom observations involve multiple variables for which…

  4. Preparing Instructional Designers for Game-Based Learning: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirumi, Atsusi; Appelman, Bob; Rieber, Lloyd; Van Eck, Richard

    2010-01-01

    As noted in part I of this article (published in "TechTrends 54"(3)), advances in technology continue to outpace research on the design and effectiveness of instructional (digital video) games. In general, instructional designers know little about game development, commercial video game developers know little about training, education and…

  5. Minimalist instruction for learning to search the World Wide Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, Adrianus W.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of minimalist instruction to develop self-regulatory skills involved in Web searching. Two versions of minimalist self-regulatory skill instruction were compared to a control group that was merely taught procedural skills to operate the search engine. Acquired skills

  6. Excellence in College Teaching and Learning: Classroom and Online Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, George; Nash, Susan Smith

    2007-01-01

    This book will improve the quality of instruction that college students need. It makes numerous suggestions that must be tended to when teachers instruct students. For example, the authors speculate about ways teachers can present what may at times seem to be a mountain of information without burying students under it; why teachers must…

  7. Revisiting cognitive and learning styles in computer-assisted instruction: not so useful after all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A

    2012-06-01

    In a previous systematic review, the author proposed that adaptation to learners' cognitive and learning styles (CLSs) could improve the efficiency of computer-assisted instruction (CAI). In the present article, he questions that proposition, arguing that CLSs do not make a substantive difference in CAI. To support this argument, the author performed an updated systematic literature search, pooled new findings with those from the previous review, and reinterpreted this evidence with a focus on aptitude-treatment interactions. (An aptitude-treatment interaction occurs when a student with attribute 1 learns better with instructional approach A than with approach B, whereas a student with attribute 2 learns better with instructional approach B).Of 65 analyses reported in 48 studies, only 9 analyses (14%) showed significant interactions between CLS and instructional approach. It seems that aptitude-treatment interactions with CLSs are at best infrequent and small in magnitude. There are several possible explanations for this lack of effect. First, the influence of strong instructional methods likely dominates the impact of CLSs. Second, current methods for assessing CLSs lack validity evidence and are inadequate to accurately characterize the individual learner. Third, theories are vague, and empiric evidence is virtually nonexistent to guide the planning of style-targeted instructional designs. Adaptation to learners' CLSs thus seems unlikely to enhance CAI. The author recommends that educators focus on employing strong instructional methods. Educators might also consider assessing and adapting to learners' prior knowledge or allowing learners to select among alternate instructional approaches.

  8. Constructivist Instructional Practices and Teacher Beliefs Related to Secondary Science Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Adrienne Fleurette

    The purpose of this mixed method research study was to examine the constructivist beliefs and instructional practices of secondary science teachers. The research also explored situations that impacted whether or not student centered instruction occurred. The study revealed science teachers held constructive beliefs pertaining to student questioning of the learning process and student autonomy in interacting with other learners. Teachers held the least constructivist beliefs pertaining to student teacher collaboration on lesson design. Additionally, teacher beliefs and practice were not congruent due to instructional practices being deemed less constructivist than reported. The study found that curricular demands, teacher perceptions about students, inadequate laboratory resources, and the lack of teacher understanding about the components of constructivist instruction inhibited student centered instruction. The results of this study led to six recommendations that can be implemented by school districts in collaboration with science teachers to promote constructivist instruction.

  9. Children Can Learn New Facts Equally Well From Interactive Media Versus Face to Face Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, Kristine; Ghrear, Siba; Li, Vivian; Haddock, Taeh; Coleman, Patrick; Birch, Susan A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Today’s children have more opportunities than ever before to learn from interactive technology, yet experimental research assessing the efficacy of children’s learning from interactive media in comparison to traditional learning approaches is still quite scarce. Moreover, little work has examined the efficacy of using touch-screen devices for research purposes. The current study compared children’s rate of learning factual information about animals during a face-to-face instruction from an ad...

  10. Children's learning of tennis skills is facilitated by external focus instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hadler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of instructions promoting external versus internal foci of attention on the learning of a tennis forehand stroke in 11-year old children. Three groups of participants practiced hitting tennis balls at a target. External focus group participants were instructed to direct their attention to the movement of the racquet, while participants in the internal focus group were asked to direct their attention to the movements of their arm. Participants in a control group did not receive attentional focus instructions. Two days after the practice phase (60 trials, learning was assessed in retention and transfer tests. The results showed that the external focus group demonstrated greater accuracy in hitting a target relative to the two other groups in retention, and relative to the internal focus group in transfer. We conclude that instructions inducing an external focus of attention can enhance children's sport skill learning.

  11. An Instructional and Collaborative Learning System with Content Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiang-wei; Ma, Hong-wei; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of Internet, e-learning has become a new teaching and learning mode. However, lots of e-learning systems deployed on Internet are just electronic learning materials with very limited interactivity and diagnostic capability. This paper presents an integrated e-learning environment named iCLSR. Firstly, iCLSR provides an…

  12. Classroom Preschool Science Learning: The Learner, Instructional Tools, and Peer-Learning Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Jamie M.

    The recent decades have seen an increased focus on improving early science education. Goals include helping young children learn about pertinent concepts in science, and fostering early scientific reasoning and inquiry skills (e.g., NRC 2007, 2012, 2015). However, there is still much to learn about what constitutes appropriate frameworks that blend science education with developmentally appropriate learning environments. An important goal for the construction of early science is a better understanding of appropriate learning experiences and expectations for preschool children. This dissertation examines some of these concerns by focusing on three dimensions of science learning in the preschool classroom: (1) the learner; (2) instructional tools and pedagogy; and (3) the social context of learning with peers. In terms of the learner, the dissertation examines some dimensions of preschool children's scientific reasoning skills in the context of potentially relevant, developing general reasoning abilities. As young children undergo rapid cognitive changes during the preschool years, it is important to explore how these may influence scientific thinking. Two features of cognitive functioning have been carefully studied: (1) the demonstration of an epistemic awareness through an emerging theory of mind, and (2) the rapid improvement in executive functioning capacity. Both continue to develop through childhood and adolescence, but changes in early childhood are especially striking and have been neglected as regards their potential role in scientific thinking. The question is whether such skills relate to young children's capacity for scientific thinking. Another goal was to determine whether simple physics diagrams serve as effective instructional tools in supporting preschool children's scientific thinking. Specifically, in activities involving predicting and checking in scientific contexts, the question is whether such diagrams facilitate children's ability to

  13. Applied CAL on Problem Based Learning Using Gagne’s Instructional Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sundari Purbohadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— In the Problem-Based Learning (PBL model, students are expected to study independently. One of the methods that can improve the ability or skill of learners is using Computer Assisted Learning (CAL. Implementation of CAL in PBL should be able to create Self-Directed Learning (SDL culture through appropriate instructional design and interesting modules. In this paper, the CAL software is developed using multimedia learning principles, convenient appearance, and user-friendly navigation. The CAL’s learning content is designed using Gagne's instructional design. The experiment proved the CAL was able to give effect size 0.89 and developed self-directed learning culture. From the interviews, students were very glad and interested to use the CAL modules because they can learn anytime and can reach the course objectives without a lecturer.

  14. How faculty learn about and implement research-based instructional strategies: The case of Peer Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancy, Melissa; Henderson, Charles; Turpen, Chandra

    2016-06-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] The lack of knowledge about how to effectively spread and sustain the use of research-based instructional strategies is currently a significant barrier to the improvement of undergraduate physics education. In this paper we address this lack of knowledge by reporting on an interview study of 35 physics faculty, of varying institution types, who were self-reported users of, former users of, or knowledgeable nonusers of the research-based instructional strategy Peer Instruction. Interview questions included in this analysis focused on the faculty's experiences, knowledge, and use of Peer Instruction, along with general questions about current and past teaching methods used by the interviewee. The primary findings include the following: (i) Faculty self-reported user status is an unreliable measure of their actual practice. (ii) Faculty generally modify specific instructional strategies and may modify out essential components. (iii) Faculty are often unaware of the essential features of an instructional strategy they claim to know about or use. (iv) Informal social interactions provide a significant communication channel in the dissemination process, in contrast to the formal avenues of workshops, papers, websites, etc., often promoted by change agents, and (v) experience with research-based strategies as a graduate student or through curriculum development work may be highly impactful. These findings indicate that educational transformation can be better facilitated by improving communication with faculty, supporting effective modification by faculty during implementation, and acknowledging and understanding the large impact of informal social interactions as a mode of dissemination.

  15. Comprehensive, Mixed-Methods Assessment of a Blended Learning Model for Geospatial Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, J. J.; Maclachlan, J. C.; Bagg, J.; Chiappetta-Swanson, C.; Vine, M. M.; Vajoczki, S.

    2013-12-01

    Geospatial literacy -- the ability to conceptualize, capture, analyze and communicate spatial phenomena -- represents an important competency for 21st Century learners in a period of 'Geospatial Revolution'. Though relevant to in-course learning, these skills are often taught externally, placing time and resource pressures on the service providers - commonly libraries - that are relied upon to provide instruction. The emergence of online and blended modes of instruction has presented a potential means of increasing the cost-effectiveness of such activities, by simultaneously reducing instructional costs, expanding the audience for these resources, and addressing student preferences for asynchronous learning and '24-7' access. During 2011 and 2012, McMaster University Library coordinated the development, implementation and assessment of blended learning modules for geospatial literacy instruction in first-year undergraduate Social Science courses. In this paper, we present the results of a comprehensive mixed-methods approach to assess the efficacy of implementing blended learning modules to replace traditional (face-to-face), library-led, first-year undergraduate geospatial literacy instruction. Focus groups, personal interviews and an online survey were used to assess modules across dimensions of: student use, satisfaction and accessibility requirements (via Universal Instructional Design [UID] principles); instructor and teaching staff perception of pedagogical efficacy and instructional effectiveness; and, administrator cost-benefit assessment of development and implementation. Results showed that both instructors and students identified significant value in using the online modules in a blended-learning setting. Reaffirming assumptions of students' '24/7' learning preferences, over 80% of students reported using the modules on a repeat basis. Students were more likely to use the modules to better understand course content than simply to increase their grade in

  16. Exploring Effectiveness and Moderators of Language Learning Strategy Instruction on Second Language and Self-Regulated Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardasheva, Yuliya; Wang, Zhe; Adesope, Olusola O.; Valentine, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized recent research on strategy instruction (SI) effectiveness to estimate SI effects and their moderators for two domains: second/foreign language and self-regulated learning. A total of 37 studies (47 independent samples) for language domain and 16 studies (17 independent samples) for self-regulated learning domain…

  17. Professional Learning as a Predictor for Instructional Quality: A Secondary Analysis of TALIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Selçuk; Yurtseven, Nihal

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of teachers' professional learning opportunities on instructional quality, which represents a combined approach of behaviorist, cognitivist, and constructivist principles in teaching. We incorporated professional learning communities (PLCs), professional development (PD) days, as well as 3 PD…

  18. The roles of electronic books in the transformation of learning and instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Ronghuai; Chen, Nian-Shing; Kang, Myunghee; McKenney, Susan; Churchill, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Huang, R., Chen, N., Kang, M. McKenney, S. & Churchill, D. (2013). The roles of electronic books in the transformation of learning and instruction. In N. Chen, R. Huang, Kinshuk, Y. Li, D. G. Sampson (Eds.) Proceedings of the IEEE 13th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies

  19. Problem-Based Learning and Creative Instructional Approaches for Laboratory Exercises in Introductory Crop Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitski, Max; McMahon, Margaret J.

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of problem-based learning (PBL) and other inquiry-driven educational techniques is often resisted by both faculty and students, who may not be comfortable with this learning/instructional style. We present here a hybrid approach, which combines elements of expository education with inquiry-driven laboratory exercises and…

  20. Instructional Theory for Using a Class Wiki to Support Collaborative Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instructional theory for using a class wiki to support collaborative learning in higher education. Although wikis have been identified in theory as one of the most powerful emerging technologies to support collaborative learning, challenges have been revealed in a number of studies regarding student…

  1. Promoting Prospective Elementary Teachers' Learning to Use Formative Assessment for Life Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Jaime L.; Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura

    2015-01-01

    To support elementary students' learning of core, standards-based life science concepts highlighted in the "Next Generation Science Standards," prospective elementary teachers should develop an understanding of life science concepts and learn to apply their content knowledge in instructional practice to craft elementary science learning…

  2. Autonomous Learning through Task-Based Instruction in Fully Online Language Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affordances for autonomous learning in a fully online learning environment involving the implementation of task-based instruction in conjunction with Web 2.0 technologies. To that end, four-skill-integrated tasks and digital tools were incorporated into the coursework. Data were collected using midterm reflections,…

  3. Leading to Learn: Knowledge Management Enables Administrators to Excel as Instructional Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weischadle, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses knowledge management as a means of changing the way administrators carry out their role as instructional leaders. Knowledge management utilizes many concepts from learning organizations, encourages the formation of communities of practice, and employs best practices as a means of leading others to improve learning. Instead of…

  4. Promoting Constructive Activities that Support Vicarious Learning during Computer-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholson, Barry; Craig, Scotty D.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores several ways computer-based instruction can be designed to support constructive activities and promote deep-level comprehension during vicarious learning. Vicarious learning, discussed in the first section, refers to knowledge acquisition under conditions in which the learner is not the addressee and does not physically…

  5. Using Importance-Performance Analysis to Guide Instructional Design of Experiential Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sheri; Hsu, Yu-Chang; Kinney, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Designing experiential learning activities requires an instructor to think about what they want the students to learn. Using importance-performance analysis can assist with the instructional design of the activities. This exploratory study used importance-performance analysis in an online introduction to criminology course. There is limited…

  6. Contributions of Film Introductions and Film Summaries to Learning from Instructional Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, C. W., Jr.; Norford, C. A.

    An exploratory study of the contribution to learning of typical introductory and summarizing sequences in instructional films underlined the need for further experimental work to determine what kinds of introductory and concluding sequences are most useful in promoting learning from films. The first part of the study was concerned with film…

  7. A New Twist on Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Kelly J.; Dieker, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    An essential element of science instruction is content literacy. In order to improve literacy specific to science, vocabulary must be addressed. As Jitendra et al. (2004) pointed out, "because learning vocabulary during independent reading is very inefficient for students with reading difficulties, vocabulary and word learning skills must be…

  8. Instructional Designers' Media Selection Practices for Distributed Problem-Based Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fells, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The design of online or distributed problem-based learning (dPBL) is a nascent, complex design problem. Instructional designers are challenged to effectively unite the constructivist principles of problem-based learning (PBL) with appropriate media in order to create quality dPBL environments. While computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools and…

  9. Evaluating Writing Instruction through an Investigation of Students' Experiences of Learning through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert A.; Taylor, Charlotte E.; Drury, Helen

    2005-01-01

    Learning through writing is a way of learning not only the appropriate written expression of disciplinary knowledge, but also the knowledge itself through reflection and revision. This study investigates the quality of a writing experience provided to university students in a first-year biology subject. The writing instruction methodology used is…

  10. E-Learning: Students Input for Using Mobile Devices in Science Instructional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozkan

    2016-01-01

    A variety of e-learning theories, models, and strategy have been developed to support educational settings. There are many factors for designing good instructional settings. This study set out to determine functionality of mobile devices, students who already have, and the student needs and views in relation to e-learning settings. The study…

  11. Learning from Errors in Dual Vocational Education: Video-Enhanced Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Alberto A. P.; Boldrini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Starting from the identification of some theoretically driven instructional principles, this paper presents a set of empirical cases based on strategies to learn from errors. The purpose of this paper is to provide first evidence about the feasibility and the effectiveness for learning of video-enhanced error-based strategies in…

  12. The impact of computer-based versus "traditional" textbook science instruction on selected student learning outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Alan H.

    This study reports the results of research designed to examine the impact of computer-based science instruction on elementary school level students' science content achievement, their attitude about science learning, their level of critical thinking-inquiry skills, and their level of cognitive and English language development. The study compared these learning outcomes resulting from a computer-based approach compared to the learning outcomes from a traditional, textbook-based approach to science instruction. The computer-based approach was inherent in a curriculum titled The Voyage of the Mimi , published by The Bank Street College Project in Science and Mathematics (1984). The study sample included 209 fifth-grade students enrolled in three schools in a suburban school district. This sample was divided into three groups, each receiving one of the following instructional treatments: (a) Mixed-instruction primarily based on the use of a hardcopy textbook in conjunction with computer-based instructional materials as one component of the science course; (b) Non-Traditional, Technology-Based -instruction fully utilizing computer-based material; and (c) Traditional, Textbook-Based-instruction utilizing only the textbook as the basis for instruction. Pre-test, or pre-treatment, data related to each of the student learning outcomes was collected at the beginning of the school year and post-test data was collected at the end of the school year. Statistical analyses of pre-test data were used as a covariate to account for possible pre-existing differences with regard to the variables examined among the three student groups. This study concluded that non-traditional, computer-based instruction in science significantly improved students' attitudes toward science learning and their level of English language development. Non-significant, positive trends were found for the following student learning outcomes: overall science achievement and development of critical thinking

  13. The Experimental Research on E-Learning Instructional Design Model Based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xianzhong; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Zhongmei

    The paper reports an educational experiment on the e-Learning instructional design model based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory, the experiment were made to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of the model in promoting the learning quality in ill-structured domain. The study performed the experiment on two groups of students: one group learned through the system designed by the model and the other learned by the traditional method. The results of the experiment indicate that the e-Learning designed through the model is helpful to promote the intrinsic motivation, learning quality in ill-structured domains, ability to resolve ill-structured problem and creative thinking ability of the students.

  14. Blended Learning vs. Traditional Instruction as a Predictor of Student Achievement in New York City Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the differences in student achievement on New York State standardized tests between blended learning and traditional instructional methodologies. Specifically, the study compared student achievement in iLearnNYC schools, to their peer schools that deliver instruction in a traditional manner. iLearnNYC is a blended learning…

  15. Library Instruction for Freshman English: A Multi-Year Assessment of Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Gardner Archambault

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The objective of this study was twofold: 1 to assess the effectiveness of curriculum changes made from the 2009 freshman English library instruction curriculum to the 2010 curriculum at Loyola Marymount University (LMU; and 2 to evaluate the effectiveness of library instruction delivered via a “blended” combination of face-to-face and online instruction versus online instruction alone.Methods – An experimental design compared random samples of student scores from 2009 and 2010 worksheets to determine the effects of a new curriculum on student learning. A second experiment examined the effect of delivery method on student learning by comparing scores from a group of students receiving only online instruction against a group receiving blended instruction.Results – The first component of the study, which compared scores between 2009 and 2010 to examine the effects of the curriculum revisions, had mixed results. Students scored a significantly higher mean in 2010 on completing and correctly listing book citation components than in 2009, but a significantly lower mean on constructing a research question. There was a significant difference in the distribution of scores for understanding differences between information found on the Internet versus through the Library that was better in 2010 than 2009, but worse for narrowing a broad research topic. For the study that examined computer aided instruction, the group of students receiving only computer-assisted instruction did significantly better overall than the group receiving blended instruction. When separate tests were run for each skill, two particular skills, generating keywords and completing book citation and location elements, resulted in a significantly higher mean.Conclusions – The comparison of scores between 2009 and 2010 were mixed, but the evaluation process helped us identify continued problems in the teaching materials to address in the next cycle of revisions

  16. Impact of technology-infused interactive learning environments on college professors' instructional decisions and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuda Malwathumullage, Chamathca Priyanwada

    Recent advancements in instructional technology and interactive learning space designs have transformed how undergraduate classrooms are envisioned and conducted today. Large number of research studies have documented the impact of instructional technology and interactive learning spaces on elevated student learning gains, positive attitudes, and increased student engagement in undergraduate classrooms across nation. These research findings combined with the movement towards student-centered instructional strategies have motivated college professors to explore the unfamiliar territories of instructional technology and interactive learning spaces. Only a limited number of research studies that explored college professors' perspective on instructional technology and interactive learning space use in undergraduate classrooms exist in the education research literature. Since college professors are an essential factor in undergraduate students' academic success, investigating how college professors perceive and utilize instructional technology and interactive learning environments can provide insights into designing effective professional development programs for college professors across undergraduate institutions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate college professors' pedagogical reasoning behind incorporating different types of instructional technologies and teaching strategies to foster student learning in technology-infused interactive learning environments. Furthermore, this study explored the extent to which college professors' instructional decisions and practices are affected by teaching in an interactive learning space along with their overall perception of instructional technology and interactive learning spaces. Four college professors from a large public Midwestern university who taught undergraduate science courses in a classroom based on the 'SCALE-UP model' participated in this study. Major data sources included classroom

  17. The effect of team accelerated instruction on students’ mathematics achievement and learning motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Purnami, Agustina; Adi Widodo, Sri; Charitas Indra Prahmana, Rully

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to know the improvement of achievement and motivation of learning mathematics by using Team Accelerated Instruction. The research method used was the experiment with descriptive pre-test post-test experiment. The population in this study was all students of class VIII junior high school in Jogjakarta. The sample was taken using cluster random sampling technique. The instrument used in this research was questionnaire and test. Data analysis technique used was Wilcoxon test. It concluded that there was an increase in motivation and student achievement of class VII on linear equation system material by using the learning model of Team Accelerated Instruction. Based on the results of the learning model Team Accelerated Instruction can be used as a variation model in learning mathematics.

  18. Critical Success Factors in The Infusion of Instructional Technologies for Open Learning in Development Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Uys

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to identify critical success factors for the appropriate infusion of instructional technologies to advance open learning in higher education within developing settings. Describe here is a descriptive account of a two-year case study based on the author’s personal analysis of, and reflection on, factors that contributed to the infusion of instructional technologies to advance open learning at the University of Botswana. The first critical success factors identified in this article include: a clear vision, support of committed leadership, and dedicated personnel/ change agents to ensure successful project implementation. The second critical success factor identified was the need for all involved to fully appreciate and understand the systemic nature of the infusion of instructional technologies for open learning purposes, as well as garner the commitment of strategic partners working in related systems. Finally highlighted, are the requirements needed to address the complex nature of the infusion of instructional technologies into the University’s educational offerings. It is hoped that those involved in education in developing countries, and particularly those desirous of advancing open learning through the use of instructional technologies, will find this descriptive analysis useful. Indeed, those of us involved in implementing instructional technologies in developing nations are still in the initial stages of this exciting yet challenging endeavour.

  19. How Faculty Learn about and Implement Research-Based Instructional Strategies: The Case of Peer Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancy, Melissa; Henderson, Charles; Turpen, Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The lack of knowledge about how to effectively spread and sustain the use of research-based instructional strategies is currently a significant barrier to the improvement of undergraduate physics education. In this paper we address this lack of knowledge by reporting on an interview study of 35 physics faculty, of varying institution types, who…

  20. Aligning the Quantum Perspective of Learning to Instructional Design: Exploring the Seven Definitive Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Janzen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds upon a foundational paper (under review which explores the rudiments of the quantum perspective of learning. The quantum perspective of learning uses the principles of exchange theory or borrowed theory from the field of quantum holism pioneered by quantum physicist David Bohm (1971, 1973 to understand learning in a new way. Bohm proposes that everything exists as wholes, rather than as parts, and that everything is connected. Similarly, the quantum perspective of learning proposes that individuals learn in holistic ways as they interact with temporal and in infinitely extending virtual worlds. Further, according to the quantum perspective of learning, learners have infinite potential. In this paper, the quantum perspective of learning is examined utilizing a combination of Schunk’s (1991 and Ertmer and Newby’s (1993 definitive questions for aligning learning theory with instructional design. These seven definitive questions focus on how learning happens, influential factors in learning, the role of memory, transfer of knowledge, modalities of learning that can best explain the quantum perspective of learning, applicable assumptions, and a discussion of how instruction can be organized to optimize learning. Examples of strategies that facilitate the quantum perspective of learning are provided.

  1. Output-Based Instruction, Learning Styles and Vocabulary Learning in the EFL Context of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Rastegar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Language learners' productive role in teaching and learning processes has recently been the focus of attention. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the effect of oral vs. written output-based instruction on English as a foreign language (EFL learners' vocabulary learning with a focus on reflective vs. impulsive learning styles. To this end, 131 learners were chosen among 182 learners by taking Nelson vocabulary proficiency test. Next, the participants received a valid Persian version of reflective thinking (Kember et al., 2000 and Barratt, Patton and Stanford (1975 BIS (Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale 11 impulsiveness questionnaires, based on which both experimental groups were divided into impulsive and reflective subgroups, but the control group consisted of both impulsive and reflective learners. After 15 sessions of intervention and based on the results through one-way ANOVA and independent t-test it was concluded that both oral output and written output had significant effect on vocabulary learning of reflective and impulsive EFL Learners. It was also observed that the effect of both oral output and written output on impulsive (oral group’s mean=21.04; written groups’ mean= 21.75 learners and reflective learners (oral groups’ mean=22.38; written group’s mean: 22.23 is not significantly different. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  2. An Instructional Design Framework to Improve Student Learning in a First-Year Engineering Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Yelamarthi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, numerous universities have identified benefits of flipped learning environments and have been encouraging instructors to adapt such methodologies in their respective classrooms, at a time when departments are facing significant budget constraints. This article proposes an instructional design framework utilized to strategically enhance traditional flipped methodologies in a first-year engineering course, by using low-cost technology aids and proven pedagogical techniques to enhance student learning. Implemented in a first-year engineering course, this modified flipped model demonstrated an improved student awareness of essential engineering concepts and improved academic performance through collaborative and active learning activities, including flipped learning methodologies, without the need for expensive, formal active learning spaces. These findings have been validated through two studies and have shown similar results confirming that student learning is improved by the implementation of multi-pedagogical strategies in-formed by the use of an instructional design in a traditional classroom setting.

  3. Unconscious learning processes: mental integration of verbal and pictorial instructional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Bakar, Zainudin Abu

    2013-12-01

    This review aims to provide an insight into human learning processes by examining the role of cognitive and emotional unconscious processing in mentally integrating visual and verbal instructional materials. Reviewed literature shows that conscious mental integration does not happen all the time, nor does it necessarily result in optimal learning. Students of all ages and levels of experience cannot always have conscious awareness, control, and the intention to learn or promptly and continually organize perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processes of learning. This review suggests considering the role of unconscious learning processes to enhance the understanding of how students form or activate mental associations between verbal and pictorial information. The understanding would assist in presenting students with spatially-integrated verbal and pictorial instructional materials as a way of facilitating mental integration and improving teaching and learning performance.

  4. Problems and Prospects of the Whole Language Approach to Literacy Education in the Depressed Economies of the Third World: The Nigerian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onukaogu, C. E.

    Whole language has the potential to boost literacy in Third World countries like Nigeria, where the language curriculum has not been given the political and economic support it deserves. The economic depression in the Third World may not allow for a robust development of whole language. One effect of the decay of education in the Third World is…

  5. Career-related instruction promoting students’ career awareness and interest towards science learning

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Anssi; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Keinonen, Tuula

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the career-related instruction implemented in secondary school chemistry education concerning water issues influence students’ career awareness and interest towards science learning. This case study is part of a larger design-based research of the EU-MultiCO project that focuses on promoting students’ scientific career awareness and attractiveness by introducing them career-based scenarios at the beginning of the instruction unit. The participants ...

  6. Computer assisted instruction on "learning nutrition flags for deaf 5th grade and 6th grad students": effectiveness of instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisorachatr, Suwat; Huadong, Yotsinee; Hudthagosol, Chatrapa; Danthanavanich, Suksiri

    2013-12-01

    Deaf students are of a number of under privilege group for whom there are limited resources for their use, related to health including nutrition. The purpose of this research was to create computer-assisted instruction for "nutrition flags" for 5 and 6th grade students. The content of nutrition included the concept of a healthy balance diets and portion sizes of each food group. The content and pictures for computer-assisted instruction came from existing curriculum, and focused on nutritional content. The contents in this instruction were divided into three units according to students' learning capacity. The story boards were developed by staff including nutritionists, Thai sign language interpreters, and deaf students. Then, the contents and nutrition vocabulary were translated into Thai sign language. After recording the sign language on video, this material was merged with the contents and converted into a computer program. The computer assisted instruction was tested with students from Nakon Pathom School for the Deaf The first trial was conducted with three students, the second with five students, and the third with 15 students during the academic year 2009. The computer- assisted instruction was revised until it met the standard criteria of 80/80. Effectiveness testing was carried out with 36 students for five consecutive days. On the first day, the pre-test was completed, and on days 2-4, the students performed self-study and completed the exercises for units 1-3, with 50 minutes spent on each unit. The post-test was completed on the last day. The study was conducted during the 2010 academic year Data analysis was performed using the t-test. The results showed an effectiveness of 81.85/82.22, which was higher than the standard criteria of 80/80. The post-test average score was higher than the pre-test average score with a statistical significance level at p < 0.0001. Suggestions for instruction for the deaf are that the length of the instruction in each

  7. Better learning through instructional science: a health literacy case study in "how to teach so learners can learn".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Ariela M; Echt, Katharina V; Cooper, Hannah L F; Miner, Kathleen R; Parker, Ruth

    2012-09-01

    Health education and behavior change interventions typically pay little attention to the intervention's instructional foundation. Combining the fields of health literacy, cognitive psychology, and adult learning theory, this article provides an integrative scientific approach, called the BEAN (Better Education and iNnovation) model, to creating an instructional foundation based on how individuals acquire knowledge and skills. The article uses a case study example from an adult literacy center's health literacy class to explore how environmental factors and instructional strategies can be applied to health education and behavior change interventions. Data for this case study were derived through 20 hours of classroom observation and qualitative interviews with 21 adult education students and 3 instructors. Results provide practical examples of environmental factors and instructional strategies designed to facilitate learning, such as fostering autonomy, activating prior knowledge, and fostering perspective change. Results also describe the resulting health behavior changes of students attending the health literacy class, such as increased medication adherence and physical activity, improved nutritional habits, and increased question asking of health practitioners. This article serves as a first step to encouraging researchers and educators to consider the importance of drawing on cognitive psychology and theories of adult learning to create a scientifically based instructional foundation for health behavior change programs. Additionally, by drawing on the expertise of adult educators well versed in the science of instructional design, this article also demonstrates that the adult education classroom is an excellent setting for conducting health education and behavior change interventions.

  8. Studying Visual Displays: How to Instructionally Support Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkl, Alexander; Scheiter, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Visual displays are very frequently used in learning materials. Although visual displays have great potential to foster learning, they also pose substantial demands on learners so that the actual learning outcomes are often disappointing. In this article, we pursue three main goals. First, we identify the main difficulties that learners have when…

  9. Effect of Teaching Using Whole Brain Instruction on Accounting Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Tze; Hung, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    McCarthy (1985) constructed the 4MAT teaching model, an eight step instrument developed in 1980, by synthesizing Dewey's experiential learning, Kolb's four learning styles, Jung's personality types, as well as Bogen's left mode and right mode of brain processing preferences. An important implication of this model is that learning retention is…

  10. LEARNING AND THOUGHT PROCESSES IN REALISTIC MATHEMATICS INSTRUCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, J.; Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the various different approaches to mathematics and the influence that these approaches have had on the teaching of this subject. In addition to the three generally known schools of mathematics instruction - the mechanistic, the structuralistic and the empirical - the article

  11. A Comprehensive Rubric for Instructional Design in E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debattista, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The recognition of practice in online instruction is still subject to interpretation and different approaches as a result of the rapid changes in technology and its effect on society. The purpose of this paper is to address these differences through a synthesis that can be easily accessed and consulted by educators in the field of…

  12. Impacts of Vocabulary Acquisition Techniques Instruction on Students' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine how the selected vocabulary acquisition techniques affected the vocabulary ability of 35 students who took EN 111 and investigate their attitudes towards the techniques instruction. The research study was one-group pretest and post-test design. The instruments employed were in-class exercises…

  13. Assessing Instructional Modalities: Individualized Treatment Effects for Personalized Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemer, Joshua; Spoon, Kelly; Fan, Juanjuan; Stronach, Jeanne; Frazee, James P.; Bohonak, Andrew J.; Levine, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    Estimating the efficacy of different instructional modalities, techniques, and interventions is challenging because teaching style covaries with instructor, and the typical student only takes a course once. We introduce the individualized treatment effect (ITE) from analyses of personalized medicine as a means to quantify individual student…

  14. Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning Instructional Tools With Predict-Observe-Explain Strategy on the Topic of Cuboid and Cube Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhuda; Lukito, A.; Masriyah

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to develop instructional tools and implement it to see the effectiveness. The method used in this research referred to Designing Effective Instruction. Experimental research with two-group pretest-posttest design method was conducted. The instructional tools have been developed is cooperative learning model with predict-observe-explain strategy on the topic of cuboid and cube volume which consist of lesson plans, POE tasks, and Tests. Instructional tools were of good quality by criteria of validity, practicality, and effectiveness. These instructional tools was very effective for teaching the volume of cuboid and cube. Cooperative instructional tool with predict-observe-explain (POE) strategy was good of quality because the teacher was easy to implement the steps of learning, students easy to understand the material and students’ learning outcomes completed classically. Learning by using this instructional tool was effective because learning activities were appropriate and students were very active. Students’ learning outcomes were completed classically and better than conventional learning. This study produced a good instructional tool and effectively used in learning. Therefore, these instructional tools can be used as an alternative to teach volume of cuboid and cube topics.

  15. Effects of different forms of physiology instruction on the development of students' conceptions of and approaches to science learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hui; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students' conceptions of and approaches to learning science in two different forms: internet-assisted instruction and traditional (face-to-face only) instruction. The participants who took part in the study were 79 college students enrolled in a physiology class in north Taiwan. In all, 46 of the participants were from one class and 33 were from another class. Using a quasi-experimental research approach, the class of 46 students was assigned to be the "internet-assisted instruction group," whereas the class of 33 students was assigned to be the "traditional instruction group." The treatment consisted of a series of online inquiry activities. To explore the effects of different forms of instruction on students' conceptions of and approaches to learning science, two questionnaires were administered before and after the instruction: the Conceptions of Learning Science Questionnaire and the Approaches to Learning Science Questionnaire. Analysis of covariance results revealed that the students in the internet-assisted instruction group showed less agreement than the traditional instruction group in the less advanced conceptions of learning science (such as learning as memorizing and testing). In addition, the internet-assisted instruction group displayed significantly more agreement than the traditional instruction group in more sophisticated conceptions (such as learning as seeing in a new way). Moreover, the internet-assisted instruction group expressed more orientation toward the approaches of deep motive and deep strategy than the traditional instruction group. However, the students in the internet-assisted instruction group also showed more surface motive than the traditional instruction group did.

  16. Promoting Prospective Elementary Teachers' Learning to Use Formative Assessment for Life Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Jaime L.; Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura

    2015-06-01

    To support elementary students' learning of core, standards-based life science concepts highlighted in the Next Generation Science Standards, prospective elementary teachers should develop an understanding of life science concepts and learn to apply their content knowledge in instructional practice to craft elementary science learning environments grounded in students' thinking. To do so, teachers must learn to use high-leverage instructional practices, such as formative assessment, to engage students in scientific practices and connect instruction to students' ideas. However, teachers may not understand formative assessment or possess sufficient science content knowledge to effectively engage in related instructional practices. To address these needs, we developed and conducted research within an innovative course for preservice elementary teachers built upon two pillars—life science concepts and formative assessment. An embedded mixed methods study was used to evaluate the effect of the intervention on preservice teachers' (n = 49) content knowledge and ability to engage in formative assessment practices for science. Findings showed that increased life content knowledge over the semester helped preservice teachers engage more productively in anticipating and evaluating students' ideas, but not in identifying effective instructional strategies to respond to those ideas.

  17. Technology-enhanced instruction in learning world languages: The Middlebury interactive learning program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Lake

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Middlebury Interactive Language (MIL programs are designed to teach world language courses using blended and online learning for students in kindergarten through grade 12. Middlebury Interactive courses start with fundamental building blocks in four key areas of world-language study: listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. As students progress through the course levels, they deepen their understanding of the target language, continuing to focus on the three modes of communication: interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational. The extensive use of authentic materials (video, audio, images, or texts is intended to provide a contextualized and interactive presentation of the vocabulary and the linguistic structures. In the present paper, we describe the MIL program and the results of a mixed-methods survey and case-study evaluation of its implementation in a broad sample of schools. Technology application is examined with regard to MIL instructional strategies and the present evaluation approach relative to those employed in the literature.

  18. Rethinking biology instruction: The application of DNR-based instruction to the learning and teaching of biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskiewicz, April Lee

    Educational studies report that secondary and college level students have developed only limited understandings of the most basic biological processes and their interrelationships from typical classroom experiences. Furthermore, students have developed undesirable reasoning schemes and beliefs that directly affect how they make sense of and account for biological phenomena. For these reasons, there exists a need to rethink instructional practices in biology. This dissertation discusses how the principles of Harel's (1998, 2001) DNR-based instruction in mathematics could be applied to the teaching and learning of biology. DNR is an acronym for the three foundational principles of the system: Duality, Necessity, and Repeated-reasoning. This study examines the application of these three principles to ecology instruction. Through clinical and teaching interviews, I developed models of students' existing ways of understanding in ecology and inferred their ways of thinking. From these models a hypothetical learning trajectory was developed for 16 college level freshmen enrolled in a 10-week ecology teaching experiment. Through cyclical, interpretive analysis I documented and analyzed the evolution of the participants' progress. The results provide empirical evidence to support the claim that the DNR principles are applicable to ecology instruction. With respect to the Duality Principle, helping students develop specific ways of understanding led to the development of model-based reasoning---a way of thinking and the cognitive objective guiding instruction. Through carefully structured problem solving tasks, the students developed a biological understanding of the relationship between matter cycling, energy flow, and cellular processes such as photosynthesis and respiration, and used this understanding to account for observable phenomena in nature. In the case of intellectual necessity, the results illuminate how problem situations can be developed for biology learners

  19. Active-learning versus teacher-centered instruction for learning acids and bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar Sesen, Burcin; Tarhan, Leman

    2011-07-01

    Background and purpose: Active-learning as a student-centered learning process has begun to take more interest in constructing scientific knowledge. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of active-learning implementation on high-school students' understanding of 'acids and bases'. Sample The sample of this study was 45 high-school students (average age 17 years) from two different classes, which were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 21) and control groups (n = 25), in a high school in Turkey. Design and methods A pre-test consisting of 25 items was applied to both experimental and control groups before the treatment in order to identify student prerequisite knowledge about their proficiency for learning 'acids and bases'. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the pre-test scores for groups and no significant difference was found between experimental (ME = 40.14) and control groups (MC = 41.92) in terms of mean scores (F 1,43 = 2.66, p > 0.05). The experimental group was taught using an active-learning curriculum developed by the authors and the control group was taught using traditional course content based on teacher-centered instruction. After the implementation, 'Acids and Bases Achievement Test' scores were collected for both groups. Results ANOVA results showed that students' 'Acids and Bases Achievement Test' post-test scores differed significantly in terms of groups (F 1,43 = 102.53; p acid and base theories'; 'metal and non-metal oxides'; 'acid and base strengths'; 'neutralization'; 'pH and pOH'; 'hydrolysis'; 'acid-base equilibrium'; 'buffers'; 'indicators'; and 'titration'. Based on the achievement test and individual interview results, it was found that high-school students in the experimental group had fewer misconceptions and understood the concepts more meaningfully than students in control group. Conclusion The study revealed that active-learning implementation is more effective at

  20. Using Technology-Nested Instructional Strategies to Enhance Student Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Lumpkin, PhD; Rebecca M. Achen, PhD; Regan K. Dodd, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Students today expect the use of technology in their classes, rather than have to listen to less-than-engaging lectures. College students are connected electronically and incessant technology consumers. As a result, they may prefer the infusion of technologies to help them learn and enjoy the process of learning, rather than having to listen exclusively to lectures. To investigate this, the authors solicited student perceptions to assess the importance of learning through technology-nested...

  1. The effects of divided attention on encoding processes under incidental and intentional learning instructions: underlying mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Guez, Jonathan; Hara, Yoko; Brubaker, Matthew S; Lowenschuss-Erlich, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Divided attention (DA) at encoding has been shown to significantly disrupt later memory for the studied information. However, what type of processing gets disrupted during DA remains unresolved. In this study, we assessed the degree to which strategic effortful processes are affected under DA by comparing the effects of DA at encoding under intentional and pure incidental learning instructions. In three experiments, participants studied list of words or word pairs under either full or divided attention. Results of three experiments, which used different methodologies, converged to show that the effects of DA at encoding reduce memory performance to the same degree under incidental and intentional learning. Secondary task performance indicated that encoding under intentional learning instructions was more effortful than under incidental learning instructions. In addition, the results indicated enhanced attention to the initial appearance of the words under both types of learning instructions. Results are interpreted to imply that other processes, rather than only strategic effortful ones, might be affected by DA at encoding.

  2. Safe from harm: learned, instructed, and symbolic generalization pathways of human threat-avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dymond

    Full Text Available Avoidance of threatening or unpleasant events is usually an adaptive behavioural strategy. Sometimes, however, avoidance can become chronic and lead to impaired daily functioning. Excessive threat-avoidance is a central diagnostic feature of anxiety disorders, yet little is known about whether avoidance acquired in the absence of a direct history of conditioning with a fearful event differs from directly learned avoidance. In the present study, we tested whether avoidance acquired indirectly via verbal instructions and symbolic generalization result in similar levels of avoidance behaviour and threat-beliefs to avoidance acquired after direct learning. Following fear conditioning in which one conditioned stimulus was paired with shock (CS+ and another was not (CS-, participants either learned or were instructed to make a response that cancelled impending shock. Three groups were then tested with a learned CS+ and CS- (learned group, instructed CS+ (instructed group, and generalized CS+ (derived group presentations. Results showed similar levels of avoidance behaviour and threat-belief ratings about the likelihood of shock across each of the three pathways despite the different mechanisms by which they were acquired. Findings have implications for understanding the aetiology of clinical avoidance in anxiety.

  3. An instructional intervention to encourage effective deep collaborative learning in undergraduate veterinary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosa, Deep K; Volet, Simone E; Bolton, John R

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, veterinary education has received an increased amount of attention directed at the value and application of collaborative case-based learning. The benefit of instilling deep learning practices in undergraduate veterinary students has also emerged as a powerful tool in encouraging continued professional education. However, research into the design and application of instructional strategies to encourage deep, collaborative case-based learning in veterinary undergraduates has been limited. This study focused on delivering an instructional intervention (via a 20-minute presentation and student handout) to foster productive, collaborative case-based learning in veterinary education. The aim was to instigate and encourage deep learning practices in a collaborative case-based assignment and to assess the impact of the intervention on students' group learning. Two cohorts of veterinary students were involved in the study. One cohort was exposed to an instructional intervention, and the other provided the control for the study. The instructional strategy was grounded in the collaborative learning literature and prior empirical studies with veterinary students. Results showed that the intervention cohort spent proportionally more time on understanding case content material than did the control cohort and rated their face-to-face discussions as more useful in achieving their learning outcomes than did their control counterparts. In addition, the perceived difficulty of the assignment evolved differently for the control and intervention students from start to end of the assignment. This study provides encouraging evidence that veterinary students can change and enhance the way they interact in a group setting to effectively engage in collaborative learning practices.

  4. The Role of Work-Integrated Learning in Student Preferences of Instructional Methods in an Accounting Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Indra

    2015-01-01

    The role of work-integrated learning in student preferences of instructional methods is largely unexplored across the accounting curriculum. This study conducted six experiments to explore student preferences of instructional methods for learning, in six courses of the accounting curriculum that differed in algorithmic rigor, in the context of a…

  5. Using Technology-Nested Instructional Strategies to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Angela; Achen, Rebecca M.; Dodd, Regan K.

    2015-01-01

    Students today expect the use of technology in their classes, rather than have to listen to less-than-engaging lectures. College students are connected electronically and incessant technology consumers. As a result, they may prefer the infusion of technologies to help them learn and enjoy the process of learning, rather than having to listen…

  6. Universal Design for Learning: Guidelines for Accessible Online Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers-Shaw, Carol; Carr-Chellman, Davin J.; Choi, Jinhee

    2018-01-01

    Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework for the teaching-learning transaction that conceptualizes knowledge through learner-centered foci emphasizing accessibility, collaboration, and community. Given the importance of access to achieving social justice, UDL is a promising approach to meeting all learners' needs more effectively. In…

  7. Factors moderating blocking in human place learning: the role of task instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Oliver; Hupbach, Almut; Nadel, Lynn

    2009-02-01

    Cognitive map theory assumes that novel environmental information is automatically incorporated into existing cognitive maps as a function of exploration. Reports of blocking in place learning cast doubt on this claim. In these studies, subjects were first trained to find a place, using a set of landmarks (Set A). Then novel landmarks (Set B) were added for additional trials. Subsequent removal of the Set A landmarks showed that the novel landmarks alone were insufficient for successful navigation. We investigated whether instructing human subjects to explore the environment can moderate blocking. First, we demonstrated that blocking is absent in a computer implementation of the Morris water maze (MWM) in which subjects are instructed to explore. We then studied why others found blocking in a different MWM implementation, in which the task instructions did not suggest exploration. In experiments that faithfully replicated this MWM variant, we found that subjects did not acquire cognitive maps and that blocking was attenuated when instructions were provided that encouraged exploration. Together, these findings indicate that blocking in human place learning may reflect a performance deficit, not a learning deficit, and that instructions can moderate blocking. Our results thus support the automatic update assumption of cognitive map theory.

  8. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROCESS OF DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ajmal CHAUDRY

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Instructional design refers to planning, development, delivery and evaluation of instructional system. It is an applied field of study aiming at the application of descriptive research outcomes in regular instructional settings. The present study was designed to critically review the process of instructional design at Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU. It was survey study. Population of the study consisted of 120 academicians of different academic department of AIOU. Survey was conducted through questionnaire for academic staff. It was revealed that need assessment is not done before conceiving the outlines of a course. Also the course did not contain sufficient activities, picture and illustrations. It was also found that did not confirm the course objectives. The study recommended that proper of the course writers for distance learning may be arranged.

  9. Making learning whole: an instructional approach for mediating the practices of authentic science inquiries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeström, Anu; Enkenberg, Jorma; Pöllänen, Sinikka

    2013-03-01

    This design experiment aimed to answer the question of how to mediate the practices of authentic science inquiries in primary education. An instructional approach based on activity theory was designed and carried out with multi-age students in a small village school. An open-ended learning task was offered to the older students. Their task was to design and implement instruction about the Ice Age to their younger fellows. The objective was collaborative learning among students, the teacher, and outside domain experts. Mobile phones and GPS technologies were applied as the main technological mediators in the learning process. Technology provided an opportunity to expand the learning environment outside the classroom, including the natural environment. Empirically, the goal was to answer the following questions: What kind of learning project emerged? How did the students' knowledge develop? What kinds of science learning processes, activities, and practices were represented? Multiple and parallel data were collected to achieve this aim. The data analysis revealed that the learning project both challenged the students to develop explanations for the phenomena and generated high quality conceptual and physical models in question. During the learning project, the roles of the community members were shaped, mixed, and integrated. The teacher also repeatedly evaluated and adjusted her behavior. The confidence of the learners in their abilities raised the quality of their learning outcomes. The findings showed that this instructional approach can not only mediate the kind of authentic practices that scientists apply but also make learning more holistic than it has been. Thus, it can be concluded that nature of the task, the tool-integrated collaborative inquiries in the natural environment, and the multiage setting can make learning whole.

  10. Validity of "Hi_Science" as instructional media based-android refer to experiential learning model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamariah, Jumadi, Senam, Wilujeng, Insih

    2017-08-01

    Hi_Science is instructional media based-android in learning science on material environmental pollution and global warming. This study is aimed: (a) to show the display of Hi_Science that will be applied in Junior High School, and (b) to describe the validity of Hi_Science. Hi_Science as instructional media created with colaboration of innovative learning model and development of technology at the current time. Learning media selected is based-android and collaborated with experiential learning model as an innovative learning model. Hi_Science had adapted student worksheet by Taufiq (2015). Student worksheet had very good category by two expert lecturers and two science teachers (Taufik, 2015). This student worksheet is refined and redeveloped in android as an instructional media which can be used by students for learning science not only in the classroom, but also at home. Therefore, student worksheet which has become instructional media based-android must be validated again. Hi_Science has been validated by two experts. The validation is based on assessment of meterials aspects and media aspects. The data collection was done by media assessment instrument. The result showed the assessment of material aspects has obtained the average value 4,72 with percentage of agreement 96,47%, that means Hi_Science on the material aspects is in excellent category or very valid category. The assessment of media aspects has obtained the average value 4,53 with percentage of agreement 98,70%, that means Hi_Science on the media aspects is in excellent category or very valid category. It was concluded that Hi_Science as instructional media can be applied in the junior high school.

  11. Computer-aided auscultation learning system for nursing technique instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chun-Ju; Chen, Yen-Ting; Hu, Ling-Chen; Chuang, Chih-Chieh; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Shih

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary auscultation is a physical assessment skill learned by nursing students for examining the respiratory system. Generally, a sound simulator equipped mannequin is used to group teach auscultation techniques via classroom demonstration. However, nursing students cannot readily duplicate this learning environment for self-study. The advancement of electronic and digital signal processing technologies facilitates simulating this learning environment. This study aims to develop a computer-aided auscultation learning system for assisting teachers and nursing students in auscultation teaching and learning. This system provides teachers with signal recording and processing of lung sounds and immediate playback of lung sounds for students. A graphical user interface allows teachers to control the measuring device, draw lung sound waveforms, highlight lung sound segments of interest, and include descriptive text. Effects on learning lung sound auscultation were evaluated for verifying the feasibility of the system. Fifteen nursing students voluntarily participated in the repeated experiment. The results of a paired t test showed that auscultative abilities of the students were significantly improved by using the computer-aided auscultation learning system.

  12. Laparoscopy Instructional Videos: The Effect of Preoperative Compared With Intraoperative Use on Learning Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekema, Theo H; Talsma, Aaldert K; Wevers, Kevin P; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N

    Previous studies have shown that the use of intraoperative instructional videos has a positive effect on learning laparoscopic procedures. This study investigated the effect of the timing of the instructional videos on learning curves in laparoscopic skills training. After completing a basic skills course on a virtual reality simulator, medical students and residents with less than 1 hour experience using laparoscopic instruments were randomized into 2 groups. Using an instructional video either preoperatively or intraoperatively, both groups then performed 4 repetitions of a standardized task on the TrEndo augmented reality. With the TrEndo, 9 motion analysis parameters (MAPs) were recorded for each session (4 MAPs for each hand and time). These were the primary outcome measurements for performance. The time spent watching the instructional video was also recorded. Improvement in performance was studied within and between groups. Medical Center Leeuwarden, a secondary care hospital located in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands. Right-hand dominant medical student and residents with more than 1 hour experience operating any kind of laparoscopic instruments were participated. A total of 23 persons entered the study, of which 21 completed the study course. In both groups, at least 5 of 9 MAPs showed significant improvements between repetition 1 and 4. When both groups were compared after completion of repetition 4, no significant differences in improvement were detected. The intraoperative group showed significant improvement in 3 MAPs of the left-nondominant-hand, compared with one MAP for the preoperative group. No significant differences in learning curves could be detected between the subjects who used intraoperative instructional videos and those who used preoperative instructional videos. Intraoperative video instruction may result in improved dexterity of the nondominant hand. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc

  13. Effectiveness of creative and productive instructional method towards students' learning achievement in steel structure course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyanto, Pribadi, Supriyanto, Bambang

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Creative & Productive instructional method compared with conventional method. This research was a quasi-experimental study involving all Civil Engineering students at Universitas Negeri Malang who were taking a course of Steel Structure. The students were randomly assigned to two different treatment groups, 30 students in experimental group and 37 students in the control group. It was assumed that these groups were equal in all relevant aspects; they differed only in the treatment administered. We used the t-test to test the hypothesis. The results of this research suggest that: (l) the use of Creative & Productive instructional method can significantly improve students' learning achievement, (2) the use of Creative & Productive instructional method can significantly improve students' retention, (3) students' motivation has a significant effect on their learning achievement, and (4) students' motivation has a significant effect on their retention.

  14. Constructivism: the view of knowledge that ended philosophy or a theory of learning and instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Jerry A

    2002-01-01

    Constructivism is referred to in two very different ways in education including medical education: to refer to a view of knowledge and to refer to a theory of learning and hence instruction. This proposal (a) distinguishes between these two usages of constructivism and (b) concludes that constructivism is not a theory of learning and thus as such has little to offer that might be of value to medical education.

  15. Effect of Personalisation of Instruction on Students’ Motivation to learn Mathematics Word Problems in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adeneye Olarewaju Awofala

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of personalisation of instruction on the motivation to learn mathematics word problems of 450 senior secondary students in Nigeria within the blueprint of quasi-experimental research of Solomon Four non-equivalent control group design. It also examined the influence of gender on motivation to learn mathematics word problems and personalisation was accomplished by incorporating selected information with students’ personal preferences into their mathematics wo...

  16. Independent Interactive Inquiry-Based Learning Modules Using Audio-Visual Instruction In Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Scott N.; Green, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Simulations can make complex ideas easier for students to visualize and understand. It has been shown that guidance in the use of these simulations enhances students’ learning. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of the Independent Interactive Inquiry-based (I3) Learning Modules, which use existing open-source Java applets, combined with audio-visual instruction. Students are guided to discover and visualize important concepts in post-calculus and algebra-based courses in p...

  17. How Note-Taking Instruction Changes Student's Reflections upon Their Learning Activity during a Blended Learning Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Minoru; Mutsuura, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Hiroh

    2017-01-01

    The metrics of self-efficacy and self-assessment were surveyed and analysed in order to examine the effectiveness of note taking instruction on emotional aspects of participants during a blended learning course. The changes of emotional aspects due to student's individual characteristics were also analysed. Participants were surveyed twice during…

  18. Beyond Measurement-Driven Instruction: Achieving Deep Learning Based on Constructivist Learning Theory, Integrated Assessment, and a Flipped Classroom Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, James A.; Fuller, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    The authors focus on the critical role of assessment within a flipped classroom environment where instruction is based on constructivist learning theory and where desired student outcomes are at the higher levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. While assessment is typically thought of in terms of providing summative measures of performance or achievement, it…

  19. The Influence of Principal Leadership on Classroom Instruction and Student Learning: A Study of Mediated Pathways to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, James; Allensworth, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of principal leadership in high schools on classroom instruction and student achievement through key organizational factors, including professional capacity, parent-community ties, and the school's learning climate. It identifies paths through which leadership explains differences in achievement and…

  20. Computer-Assisted Mathematics Instruction for Students with Specific Learning Disability: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stultz, Sherry L.

    2017-01-01

    This review was conducted to evaluate the current body of scholarly research regarding the use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to teach mathematics to students with specific learning disability (SLD). For many years, computers are utilized for educational purposes. However, the effectiveness of CAI for teaching mathematics to this specific…

  1. The Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Teaching Mathematics to Students with Specific Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stultz, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Using computers to teach students is not a new idea. Computers have been utilized for educational purposes for over 80 years. However, the effectiveness of these programs for teaching mathematics to students with specific learning disability is unclear. This study was undertaken to determine if computer-assisted instruction was as effective as…

  2. Instructional Context and Student Motivation, Learning, and Development: Commentary and Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Kaplan, Avi

    2015-01-01

    From an ecological perspective, learning and development in childhood and throughout the lifespan occur in the context of interactions within complex social networks. Collectively, the articles in this special issue illuminate three important themes related to teacher-student interactions within instructional contexts: relationships, competence,…

  3. Instructional and Learning Modes in Math. Module CMM:006:02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexroat, Melvin E.

    This is the second module in a series on mathematics methods and materials for preservice elementary teachers. This module focuses on three instructional and learning modes: expository, guided discovery, and inquiry (pure discovery). Objectives for the module are listed, the prerequisites are stated, pre- and post-assessment standards are…

  4. Knowledge Based Artificial Augmentation Intelligence Technology: Next Step in Academic Instructional Tools for Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Dale; LaPierre, Martin; Kebritchi, Mansureh

    2017-01-01

    With augmented intelligence/knowledge based system (KBS) it is now possible to develop distance learning applications to support both curriculum and administrative tasks. Instructional designers and information technology (IT) professionals are now moving from the programmable systems era that started in the 1950s to the cognitive computing era.…

  5. Effect of Instructional vs. Authentic Video Materials on Introvert and Extrovert Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isazadeh, Parya; Makui, Selma Mohammad Zadeh; Ansarian, Loghman

    2016-01-01

    The study delved into the effect of instructional video materials vs. authentic video materials on vocabulary learning of extrovert and introvert Iranian EFL learners. To this end, Nelson proficiency test was administered to one hundred eighty (n = 180) language learners. Considering 1 standard deviation above and below the mean score, one hundred…

  6. The Deputy Principal Instructional Leadership Role and Professional Learning: Perceptions of Secondary Principals, Deputies and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Ann; Odhiambo, George

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study examining the perceptions of secondary principals, deputies and teachers, of deputy principal (DP) instructional leadership (IL), as well as deputies' professional learning (PL) needs. Framed within an interpretivist approach, the specific objectives of this study were: to explore the…

  7. The Effects of Single and Dual Coded Multimedia Instructional Methods on Chinese Character Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Learning Chinese characters is a difficult task for adult English native speakers due to the significant differences between the Chinese and English writing system. The visuospatial properties of Chinese characters have inspired the development of instructional methods using both verbal and visual information based on the Dual Coding Theory. This…

  8. Districtwide Instructional Reform: Using Sociocultural Theory to Link Professional Learning to Organizational Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Chrysan

    2008-01-01

    No Child Left Behind Act accountability pressures and calls to close achievement gaps between groups of students have challenged school districts to achieve systemwide instructional improvement. These policies create learning challenges for classroom teachers and for school and district leaders. This article engages questions about organizational…

  9. The Use of Instructional Materials in the Teaching and Learning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to examine the extent to which instructional material have been used in the teaching and learning of Environmental Studies in the Primary Schools in Winneba. Purposive sampling was used to select 80 respondents comprising 60 Environmental Studies teachers and 20 pupils drawn from six public ...

  10. "Mind-Blowing:" Fostering Self-Regulated Learning in Information Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Eveline

    2015-01-01

    The new ACRL "Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education" brings a new emphasis into our instruction on student metacognition and dispositions. In this article I introduce self-regulated learning, a related concept from the field of education; it encompasses metacognition, emotions, motivations and behaviors. I discuss how…

  11. Inference Instruction to Support Reading Comprehension for Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Colby; Barnes, Marcia A.

    2017-01-01

    Making inferences during reading is a critical standards-based skill and is important for reading comprehension. This article supports the improvement of reading comprehension for students with learning disabilities (LD) in upper elementary grades by reviewing what is currently known about inference instruction for students with LD and providing…

  12. Rochester Castle MMORPG: Instructional Gaming and Collaborative Learning at a Western Australian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark J. W.; Eustace, Ken; Fellows, Geoff; Bytheway, Allan; Irving, Leah

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the first stage of a project to develop and test the use of massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs) for promoting computer supported collaborative learning through instructional gaming in the high school classroom. Teachers and students of English and Science at Swan View Senior High School, Western…

  13. Effects of Advance Organizer Instruction on Preschool Children's Learning of Musical Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Joseph T.; Johnson, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a study of the effects of advance organizer instruction on preschool children's learning of the musical concepts of dynamics, pitch, tempo, and rhythm. Reports that three modes and three methods of presentation were evaluated. Concludes that, although results did vary with mode, the method of presentation had no significant…

  14. Impact of Video Self-Monitoring with Graduated Training on Implementation of Embedded Instructional Learning Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Crystal D.; Snyder, Patricia A.; Crow, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    We used a multi-component single-subject experimental design across three preschool teachers to examine the effects of video self-monitoring with graduated training and feedback on the accuracy with which teachers monitored their implementation of embedded instructional learning trials. We also examined changes in teachers' implementation of…

  15. Co-operative learning and adaptive instruction in a mathematics curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwel, J.; Herfs, P.G.P.; Mertens, E.H.M.; Perrenet, J.Chr.

    1994-01-01

    The AGO 12 to 16 Project (the acronym AGO stands for the Dutch equivalent of 'Adaptive Instruction and Co-operative Learning') seeks to develop and evaluate a mathematics curriculum which is suitable for mixed-ability groups in secondary education. The research questions we will address here are,

  16. Learning Financial Accounting in a Tertiary Institution of a Developing Country. An Investigation into Instructional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Indra

    2011-01-01

    This study examines three instructional methods (traditional, interactive, and group case-based study), and student opinions on their preference for learning financial accounting in large classes at a metropolitan university in Sri Lanka. It analyses the results of a survey questionnaire of students, using quantitative techniques to determine the…

  17. Teachers' Use of Learning Progression-Based Formative Assessment in Water Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covitt, Beth A.; Gunckel, Kristin L.; Caplan, Bess; Syswerda, Sara

    2018-01-01

    While learning progressions (LPs) hold promise as instructional tools, researchers are still in the early stages of understanding how teachers use LPs in formative assessment practices. We report on a study that assessed teachers' proficiency in using a LP for student ideas about hydrologic systems. Research questions were: (a) what were teachers'…

  18. Learning Efficiency of Two ICT-Based Instructional Strategies in Greek Sheep Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellos, Georgios; Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Deligeorgis, Stylianos; Kominakis, Antonis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the present study was to compare the learning efficiency of two information and communications technology (ICT)-based instructional strategies (multimedia presentation (MP) and concept mapping) in a sample (n = 187) of Greek sheep farmers operating mainly in Western Greece. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 15…

  19. Needs of the Learning Effect on Instructional Website for Vocational High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hung-Jen; Fu, Gwo-Liang; Chuang, Kuei-Chih

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of study was to understand the correlation between the needs of the learning effect on instructional website for the vocational high school students. Our research applied the statistic methods of product-moment correlation, stepwise regression, and structural equation method to analyze the questionnaire with the sample size of 377…

  20. Using Inquiry-Based Instruction for Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Cihak, David F.; Graham, Shannon C.; Retinger, Larryn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of inquiry-based science instruction for five elementary students with learning disabilities (LD). Students participated in a series of inquiry-based activities targeting conceptual and application-based understanding of simple electric circuits, conductors and insulators, parallel circuits, and…

  1. Advances in the Use of Neuroscience Methods in Research on Learning and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience offers a series of tools and methodologies that allow researchers in the field of learning and instruction to complement and extend the knowledge they have accumulated through decades of behavioral research. The appropriateness of these methods depends on the research question at hand. Cognitive neuroscience methods allow…

  2. Learning Auditory Discrimination with Computer-Assisted Instruction: A Comparison of Two Different Performance Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Kurt A.

    A 12-week study of two groups of 14 college freshmen music majors was conducted to determine which group demonstrated greater achievement in learning auditory discrimination using computer-assisted instruction (CAI). The method employed was a pre-/post-test experimental design using subjects randomly assigned to a control group or an experimental…

  3. Instructional Control of Cognitive Load in the Design of Complex Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Liesbeth; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Kester, L., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). Instructional control of cognitive load in the design of complex learning environments. In J. L. Plass, R. Moreno, & Roland Brünken (Eds.), Cognitive Load Theory (pp. 109-130). New York: Cambridge University Press.

  4. Faculty Integration of Technology into Instruction and Students' Perceptions of Computer Technology to Improve Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared

    2007-01-01

    There has been a remarkable improvement in access and rate of adoption of technology in higher education. Even so, reports indicate that faculty members are not integrating technology into instruction in ways that make a difference in student learning (Cuban, 2001; McCannon & Crews, 2000). To help faculty make informed decisions on student…

  5. Analysing the Suitability of Virtual Worlds for Direct Instruction and Individual Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarraonandia, Telmo; Francese, Rita; Passero, Ignazio; Diaz, Paloma; Tortora, Genoveffa

    2014-01-01

    Despite several researchers reporting evidence that 3D Virtual Worlds can be used to effectively support educational processes in recent years, the integration of this technology in real learning processes is not as commonplace as in other educational technologies. Instructional designers have to balance the cost associated with the development of…

  6. Personalized Learning Instructional Staff Survey Results (Spring 2014). Working Paper WR-1062-BMGF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler-Evans, Kyle; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Pane, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to descriptively summarize instructional staff responses to a survey administered by RAND in 23 personalized learning (PL) schools in Spring 2014. This work was performed at the request of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), as part of a multi-year evaluation contract. The 23 schools were selected from a…

  7. Distance Education in a Cost Accounting Course: Instruction, Interaction, and Multiple Measures of Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Clement C.; Jones, Keith T.; Moreland, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Students in online and traditional classroom sections of an intermediate-level cost accounting course responded to a survey about their experiences in the course. Specifically, several items related to the instruction and learning outcomes were addressed. Additionally, student examination performance in the two types of sections was compared. The…

  8. Exploring the Potential for Language Supportive Learning in English Medium Instruction: A Rwandan Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Lizzi O.; Clegg, John; Tikly, Leon

    2016-01-01

    This article puts forward the argument for language supportive learning for learners in English medium instruction (EMI) classrooms based on the findings from a mixed methods study in Rwanda. The article first reviews the relevant literature and research which looks at the concept of language support, focusing on textbooks and pedagogy in…

  9. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Instructed L2 Learning: The English Modals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Andrea; Mueller, Charles M.; Ho, Vu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a quasi-experimental effects-of-instruction study examining the efficacy of applying a Cognitive Linguistic (CL) approach to L2 learning of the semantics of English modals. In spite of their frequency in typical input, modal verbs present L2 learners with difficulties, party due to their inherent…

  10. An Instructional Design Framework to Improve Student Learning in a First-Year Engineering Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelamarthi, Kumar; Drake, Eron; Prewett, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, numerous universities have identified benefits of flipped learning environments and have been encouraging instructors to adapt such methodologies in their respective classrooms, at a time when departments are facing significant budget constraints. This article proposes an instructional design framework utilized to strategically…

  11. Competencies for Teachers Who Instruct Children with Learning Disabilities. Project I.O.U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, William

    The report lists competencies for teachers in every day interactions with learning disabled students. Developed by a task force, the competencies are intended to serve as general guidelines. Information is presented on the goal, assessment competencies, and instructional competencies for the following areas: classroom management, spoken language,…

  12. Prioritizing Elementary School Writing Instruction: Cultivating Middle School Readiness for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullo, Stephen; Mason, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Helping elementary students with learning disabilities (LD) prepare for the rigor of middle school writing is an instructional priority. Fortunately, several standards-based skills in upper elementary school and middle school overlap. Teachers in upper elementary grades, specifically fourth and fifth grades, have the opportunity to provide…

  13. Thai EFL Learners' Attitudes and Motivation towards Learning English through Content-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai Yuanxing; Aksornjarung, Prachamon

    2018-01-01

    This study examined EFL learners' attitudes and motivation towards learning English through content-based instruction (CBI) at a university in Thailand. Seventy-one (71) university students, the majority sophomores, answered a 6-point Likert scale questionnaire on attitudes and motivation together with six open-ended questions regarding learning…

  14. Applying Constructivist Instructional Strategies to E-Learning: A Case Study of a Web Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye Diana

    2014-01-01

    As the practice of e-learning continues to proliferate, online educators, especially in the computing disciplines, are facing special challenges, due to the lack of relevant literature, the technical nature of the courses, and the perceived need for direct student support mechanisms. This paper presents a constructivist instructional approach to…

  15. Career-Related Instruction Promoting Students' Career Awareness and Interest towards Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Anssi; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Keinonen, Tuula

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how career-related instruction implemented in secondary school chemistry education concerning water issues influences students' career awareness and their interest towards science learning. This case study is part of a larger design-based research study for the EU-MultiCO project, which focuses on promoting…

  16. The Role of Teacher Leadership in How Principals Influence Classroom Instruction and Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, James; Allensworth, Elaine; Huang, Haigen

    2016-01-01

    School principals can play an important role in promoting teacher leadership by delegating authority and empowering teachers in ways that allow them influence in key organizational decisions and processes. However, it is unclear whether instruction and student learning are enhanced by promoting teacher influence in all aspects of school…

  17. A Moderate Constructivist E-Learning Instructional Model Evaluated on Computer Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Fernando; Manrique, Daniel; Vines, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel instructional model for e-learning and an evaluation study to determine the effectiveness of this model for teaching Java language programming to information technology specialists working for the Spanish Public Administration. This is a general-purpose model that combines objectivist and constructivist learning…

  18. Enhancing Academic Instruction for Adolescent English Language Learners with or at Risk for Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haager, Diane; Osipova, Anna V.

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of children worldwide attend schools where the language of instruction does not match their native language, presenting significant challenges with learning the content and vocabulary of academic content areas (e.g., social studies, science). In the U.S., these students are designated as English language learners…

  19. A Performance Enhanced Interactive Learning Workshop Model as a Supplement for Organic Chemistry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Karen E. S.; Grose-Fifer, Jilliam

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe a Performance Enhanced Interactive Learning (PEIL) workshop model as a supplement for organic chemistry instruction. This workshop model differs from many others in that it includes public presentations by students and other whole-class-discussion components that have not been thoroughly investigated in the…

  20. Instructional design in mathematics for undergraduate students based on learning by mistakes approach utilizing scilab assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartika, H.

    2018-03-01

    The issue related to making mistake while learning such as negative emotion is found while students learn mathematics with the aid of a computer. When the computer output showed a mistake message, the students considered it as a computer software malfunction. Based on this issue, the writer designs an instructional model based on learning by mistake approach and which is Scilab assisted. The method used in this research is research design involving undergraduate students in matrix algebra courses. The data collected throught survey with questionnaire to gain feedback about the approach implemented. The data analyzed using quantitative descriptive. The instructional design proposed is the student act as a mistake corrector while the teacher acts as a mistake maker. Teacher deliberately makes mistakes with the help of Scilab software. On the other hand, students correct, analyze and explain errors resulting from Scilab software. The result of this research is an ICT based instructional design which is expected to be applicable as an alternative learning in directing students to think positively about mistakes in learning. Furthermore, students are also expected to improve their ability in understanding and thinking critically while solving problems and improving themselves in learning mathematics.

  1. The Greatest Learning Return on Your Pedagogical Investment: Alignment, Assessment or In-Class Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Emily A; Young, Craig; Keetch, Jared; Larsen, Skylar; Mollner, Brayden

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking is often considered an essential learning outcome of institutions in higher education. Previous work has proposed three pedagogical strategies to address this goal: more active, student-centered in-class instruction, assessments which contain higher-order cognitive questions, and greater alignment within a classroom (i.e., high agreement of the cognitive level of learning objectives, assessments, and in-class instruction). Our goals were to determine which of these factors, individually or the interactions therein, contributed most to improvements in university students' critical thinking. We assessed students' higher-order cognitive skills in introductory non-majors biology courses the first and last week of instruction. For each of the fifteen sections observed, we also measured the cognitive level of assessments and learning objectives, evaluated the learner-centeredness of each classroom, and calculated an alignment score for each class. The best model to explain improvements in students' high-order cognitive skills contained the measure of learner-centeredness of the class and pre-quiz scores as a covariate. The cognitive level of assessments, learning objectives, nor alignment explained improvements in students' critical thinking. In accordance with much of the current literature, our findings support that more student-centered classes had greater improvements in student learning. However, more research is needed to clarify the role of assessment and alignment in student learning.

  2. The Greatest Learning Return on Your Pedagogical Investment: Alignment, Assessment or In-Class Instruction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Holt

    Full Text Available Critical thinking is often considered an essential learning outcome of institutions in higher education. Previous work has proposed three pedagogical strategies to address this goal: more active, student-centered in-class instruction, assessments which contain higher-order cognitive questions, and greater alignment within a classroom (i.e., high agreement of the cognitive level of learning objectives, assessments, and in-class instruction. Our goals were to determine which of these factors, individually or the interactions therein, contributed most to improvements in university students' critical thinking. We assessed students' higher-order cognitive skills in introductory non-majors biology courses the first and last week of instruction. For each of the fifteen sections observed, we also measured the cognitive level of assessments and learning objectives, evaluated the learner-centeredness of each classroom, and calculated an alignment score for each class. The best model to explain improvements in students' high-order cognitive skills contained the measure of learner-centeredness of the class and pre-quiz scores as a covariate. The cognitive level of assessments, learning objectives, nor alignment explained improvements in students' critical thinking. In accordance with much of the current literature, our findings support that more student-centered classes had greater improvements in student learning. However, more research is needed to clarify the role of assessment and alignment in student learning.

  3. Critical thinking instruction and technology enhanced learning from the student perspective: A mixed methods research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Ruth

    2017-03-01

    Critical thinking is acclaimed as a valuable asset for graduates from higher education programs. Technology has advanced in quantity and quality; recognized as a requirement of 21st century learners. A mixed methods research study was undertaken, examining undergraduate nursing student engagement with critical thinking instruction, platformed on two technology-enhanced learning environments: a classroom response system face-to-face in-class and an online discussion forum out-of-class. The Community of Inquiry framed the study capturing constructivist collaborative inquiry to support learning, and facilitate critical thinking capability. Inclusion of quantitative and qualitative data sources aimed to gather a comprehensive understanding of students' development of critical thinking and engagement with technology-enhanced learning. The findings from the students' perspectives were positive toward the inclusion of technology-enhanced learning, and use in supporting their development of critical thinking. Students considered the use of two forms of technology beneficial in meeting different needs and preferences, offering varied means to actively participate in learning. They valued critical thinking instruction being intentionally aligned with subject-specific content facilitating understanding, application, and relevance of course material. While the findings are limited to student participants, the instructional strategies and technology-enhanced learning identified as beneficial can inform course design for the development of critical thinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interactive Multimedia Instruction for Training Self-Directed Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    feedback and input on the content, format, and pedagogical approach of the lesson. This survey could be e-mailed to the principal ARI researcher for...peers in self-directed learning. Some examples of the metaphorical relationships and common examples woven into this IMI are identified in Table 1...20 Table 1 Metaphorical Relationships and Illustrations Used in Self-Directed Learning Training Military or Common Example Self-Directed

  5. Children Can Learn New Facts Equally Well From Interactive Media Versus Face to Face Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Kristine; Ghrear, Siba; Li, Vivian; Haddock, Taeh; Coleman, Patrick; Birch, Susan A J

    2016-01-01

    Today's children have more opportunities than ever before to learn from interactive technology, yet experimental research assessing the efficacy of children's learning from interactive media in comparison to traditional learning approaches is still quite scarce. Moreover, little work has examined the efficacy of using touch-screen devices for research purposes. The current study compared children's rate of learning factual information about animals during a face-to-face instruction from an adult female researcher versus an analogous instruction from an interactive device. Eighty-six children ages 4 through 8 years (64% male) completed the learning task in either the Face-to-Face condition ( n = 43) or the Interactive Media condition ( n = 43). In the Learning Phase of the experiment, which was presented as a game, children were taught novel facts about animals without being told that their memory of the facts would be tested. The facts were taught to the children either by an adult female researcher (Face-to-Face condition) or from a pre-recorded female voice represented by a cartoon Llama (Interactive Media condition). In the Testing Phase of the experiment that immediately followed, children's memory for the taught facts was tested using a 4-option forced-choice paradigm. Children's rate of learning was significantly above chance in both conditions and a comparison of the rates of learning across the two conditions revealed no significant differences. Learning significantly improved from age 4 to age 8, however, even the preschool-aged children performed significantly above chance, and their performance did not differ between conditions. These results suggest that, interactive media can be equally as effective as one-on-one instruction, at least under certain conditions. Moreover, these results offer support for the validity of using interactive technology to collect data for research purposes. We discuss the implications of these results for children's learning

  6. Learning How to Write an Academic Text: The Effect of Instructional Method and Reflection on Text Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Loo, Janneke; Krahmer, Emiel; van Amelsvoort, Marije

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present preliminary results on a study on the effect of instructional method (observational learning and learning by doing) and reflection (yes or no) on academic text quality and self-efficacy beliefs. 56 undergraduate students were assigned to either an observational learning or learning-by-doing condition, with or without…

  7. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, Instructional Design Principles, and Students with Learning Disabilities in Computer-Based and Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Diana L.; Crutchfield, Stephen A.; Woods, Kari L.

    2013-01-01

    Struggling learners and students with Learning Disabilities often exhibit unique cognitive processing and working memory characteristics that may not align with instructional design principles developed with typically developing learners. This paper explains the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning and underlying Cognitive Load Theory, and…

  8. Learning from instructional explanations: effects of prompts based on the active-constructive-interactive framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, Julian; Müller, Claudia; Roelle, Detlev; Berthold, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Although instructional explanations are commonly provided when learners are introduced to new content, they often fail because they are not integrated into effective learning activities. The recently introduced active-constructive-interactive framework posits an effectiveness hierarchy in which interactive learning activities are at the top; these are then followed by constructive and active learning activities, respectively. Against this background, we combined instructional explanations with different types of prompts that were designed to elicit these learning activities and tested the central predictions of the active-constructive-interactive framework. In Experiment 1, N = 83 students were randomly assigned to one of four combinations of instructional explanations and prompts. To test the active learning hypothesis, the learners received either (1) complete explanations and engaging prompts designed to elicit active activities or (2) explanations that were reduced by inferences and inference prompts designed to engage learners in constructing the withheld information. Furthermore, in order to explore how interactive learning activities can be elicited, we gave the learners who had difficulties in constructing the prompted inferences adapted remedial explanations with either (3) unspecific engaging prompts or (4) revision prompts. In support of the active learning hypothesis, we found that the learners who received reduced explanations and inference prompts outperformed the learners who received complete explanations and engaging prompts. Moreover, revision prompts were more effective in eliciting interactive learning activities than engaging prompts. In Experiment 2, N = 40 students were randomly assigned to either (1) a reduced explanations and inference prompts or (2) a reduced explanations and inference prompts plus adapted remedial explanations and revision prompts condition. In support of the constructive learning hypothesis, the learners who received

  9. Interacting Effects of Instructions and Presentation Rate on Visual Statistical Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eBertels

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The statistical regularities of a sequence of visual shapes can be learned incidentally. Arciuli et al. (2014 recently argued that intentional instructions only improve learning at slow presentation rates as they favor the use of explicit strategies. The aim of the present study was (1 to test this assumption directly by investigating how instructions (incidental vs. intentional and presentation rate (fast vs. slow affect the acquisition of knowledge and (2 to examine how these factors influence the conscious vs. unconscious nature of the knowledge acquired. To this aim, we exposed participants to four triplets of shapes, presented sequentially in a pseudo-random order, and assessed their degree of learning in a subsequent completion task that integrated confidence judgments. Supporting Arciuli et al.’s claim, participant performance only benefited from intentional instructions at slow presentation rates. Moreover, informing participants beforehand about the existence of statistical regularities increased their explicit knowledge of the sequences, an effect that was not modulated by presentation speed. These results support that, although visual statistical learning can take place incidentally and, to some extent, outside conscious awareness, factors such as presentation rate and prior knowledge can boost learning of these regularities, presumably by favoring the acquisition of explicit knowledge.

  10. Effects of Form-Focused Instruction on the Learning of Relative Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jalal Abdolmanafi (Rokni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Relativization is an important grammatical sub-system for second language learners. This study intended to explore the effects of different types of L2 instruction on the learning of English relative clauses by Persian learners.Purpose: The differential effects of the three types of treatment (i.e., Focus on FormS, Focus on Meaning, Focus on Form on the learning of English relativization was investigated.Methods: Intact university classes of English learners were divided into three groups receiving different forms of instruction. Accuracy of the target form was measured by two distinct tasks of sentence combining test and grammaticality judgment test.Findings and Results: The results of the two tests show improvement of all three groups, the focus on form treatment group outperformed the other two on both tests, however. This study also suggests that learners’ attention to detailed analysis of form facilitates the learning of relative clauses in this context.

  11. The efficacy of student-centered instruction in supporting science learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, E M; Bevis, T H; Saka, Y; Southerland, S A; Sampson, V; Tate, R L

    2012-10-05

    Transforming science learning through student-centered instruction that engages students in a variety of scientific practices is central to national science-teaching reform efforts. Our study employed a large-scale, randomized-cluster experimental design to compare the effects of student-centered and teacher-centered approaches on elementary school students' understanding of space-science concepts. Data included measures of student characteristics and learning and teacher characteristics and fidelity to the instructional approach. Results reveal that learning outcomes were higher for students enrolled in classrooms engaging in scientific practices through a student-centered approach; two moderators were identified. A statistical search for potential causal mechanisms for the observed outcomes uncovered two potential mediators: students' understanding of models and evidence and the self-efficacy of teachers.

  12. LANGUAGE LEARNING UNDER CLASSROOM CONDITIONS DURING THE TRANSITION TO HYBRID INSTRUCTION: A CASE-STUDY OF STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Lisbeth O. Swain; Timothy D. Swain

    2017-01-01

    We examined the unmanipulated performance of students under real classroom conditions in order to assess the effect of a technology-enhanced hybrid learning approach to second language, (L2) instruction on beginning and advanced Spanish language learners. This research focused on the transition period of technology implementation when the entire section of Spanish of a modern language department of a liberal arts university transitioned from traditional face-to-face instruction, to a technolo...

  13. Imagining and Feeling: Experiential Learning in Mass Communication Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcells, Frank E.

    Defining the media experience as the media and social interaction involved in any person's viewing of television and the consequences of that viewing for oneself and others, this paper examines how phenomenology and psychodrama--methods of experiential learning focusing on the feeling and imagining functions of communication--can be used to teach…

  14. Instructional design principles for cooperative learning in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Phuong-Mai; Terlouw, C.; Pilot, A.

    2006-01-01

    Social sciences possess a plethora of studies about cooperative learning. However, most of these researches have been conducted mainly by and on Westerners with fundamental assumptions based on Western values. Many recent intercultural studies proved that people cooperate with each other differently

  15. Video Game-Based Learning: An Emerging Paradigm for Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Kurt D.

    2013-01-01

    Interactive digital media, or video games, are a powerful new medium. They offer immersive experiences in which players solve problems. Players learn more than just facts--ways of seeing and understanding problems so that they "become" different kinds of people. "Serious games" coming from business strategy, advergaming, and entertainment gaming…

  16. Developing Learning Style Inventory for Effective Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Bulent; Ozbek, Ozge

    2007-01-01

    In the process of education, instead of classifying students according to their insufficiency, teachers should try to get to know them and determine their cognitive, sensorial, and kinetic characteristics. This study on improving learning style inventory, which aims to help classroom teachers determine students' attributes in individualized…

  17. Learning from Mistakes in History--A Thematic Instructional Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richburg, Robert W.; Harward, Kathleen; Steinkamp, Kathy

    2000-01-01

    Describes a thematic unit for secondary education students that focuses on eight themes, with accompanying activities, on learning from mistakes, such as "mistakes are inevitable, and everyone makes them" and "making mistakes does not make you a faulty person." Provides a concluding activity on the Titanic. (CMK)

  18. Research on Language Learning Strategies: Methods, Findings, and Instructional Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca; Crookall, David

    1989-01-01

    Surveys research on formal and informal second-language learning strategies, covering the effectiveness of research methods involving making lists, interviews and thinking aloud, note-taking, diaries, surveys, and training. Suggestions for future and improved research are presented. (131 references) (CB)

  19. Effects of Self-Instructional Learning Strategy on Secondary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... on the learning achievement of senior secondary school students. Three research ... On the other hand, the control group was taught the same ... scientific, industrial, technological and social progress of a society. It is a ... also designed to assist middle and secondary school students who have difficulty ...

  20. Identifying Keys to Success in Innovative Teaching: Student Engagement and Instructional Practices as Predictors of Student Learning in a Course Using a Team-Based Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Alvarez-Bell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When implementing innovative teaching techniques, instructors often seek to gauge the success of their methods. Proposing one approach to assessing classroom innovation, this study examines the ability of students’ ratings of engagement and instructional practices to predict their learning in a cooperative (team-based framework. After identifying the factor structures underlying measures of student engagement and instructional practices, these factors were used as predictors of self-reported student learning in a general chemistry course delivered using a team-based learning approach. Exploratory factor analyses showed a four-factor structure of engagement: teamwork involvement, investment in the learning process, feelings about team-based learning, level of academic challenge; and a three-factor structure of instructional practices: instructional guidance, fostering self-directed learning skills, and cognitive level. Multiple linear regression revealed that feelings about team-based learning and perceptions of instructional guidance had significant effects on learning, beyond other predictors, while controlling gender, GPA, class level, number of credit hours, whether students began college at their current institution, expected highest level of education, racial or ethnic identification, and parental level of education. These results yield insight into student perceptions about team-based learning, and how to measure learning in a team-based learning framework, with implications for how to evaluate innovative instructional methods.

  1. STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THE CONSTRUCTIVIST INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS IN A TEACHING AND LEARNING COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meri Fuji Siahaan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Constructivism is defined as building one’s own understanding. Constructivist instructional method requires that teacher should not be the one who informs but who facilitates the students learning. The purpose of this study is to obtain the students’ perceptions on the implementation of constructivist instructional methods in Teaching and Learning course. A survey research methodology was used with first semester students who were taking teaching and learning course as the subjects of this study. Methods of collecting data were questionnaires with open ended questions, deep interview and documentation. A qualitative analysis technique was performed on data from the survey instrument and the interview to answer 4 research questions. A descriptive analysis technique was performed on data to answer 1 research question from the survey instrument and documents. The data analysis revealed that constructivism instructional methods were clearly experienced when they were required to answer a lot of probing questions, had discussion in the classroom, had Facebook online discussions with clear guidance to do so, created ted talks and debating.The study implies that the constructivist instructional methods experienced by the students in the class help them to better understand the constructivism theory and its implications.

  2. Elementary Students' Learning of Materials Science Practices Through Instruction Based on Engineering Design Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Kristen Bethke; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-12-01

    Materials science, which entails the practices of selecting, testing, and characterizing materials, is an important discipline within the study of matter. This paper examines how third grade students' materials science performance changes over the course of instruction based on an engineering design challenge. We conducted a case study of nine students who participated in engineering design-based science instruction with the goal of constructing a stable, quiet, thermally comfortable model house. The learning outcome of materials science practices was assessed by clinical interviews conducted before and after the instruction, and the learning process was assessed by students' workbooks completed during the instruction. The interviews included two materials selection tasks for designing a sturdy stepstool and an insulated pet habitat. Results indicate that: (1) students significantly improved on both materials selection tasks, (2) their gains were significantly positively associated with the degree of completion of their workbooks, and (3) students who were highly engaged with the workbook's reflective record-keeping tasks showed the greatest improvement on the interviews. These findings suggest the important role workbooks can play in facilitating elementary students' learning of science through authentic activity such as engineering design.

  3. The transfer of learning process: From an elementary science methods course to classroom instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nina Leann

    The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore the transfer of learning process in student teachers. This was carried out by focusing on information learned from an elementary science methods and how it was transferred into classroom instruction during student teaching. Participants were a purposeful sampling of twelve elementary education student teachers attending a public university in north Mississippi. Factors that impacted the transfer of learning during lesson planning and implementation were sought. The process of planning and implementing a ten-day science instructional unit during student teaching was examined through lesson plan documentation, in-depth individual interviews, and two focus group interviews. Narratives were created to describe the participants' experiences as well as how they plan for instruction and consider science pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Categories and themes were then used to build explanations applying to the research questions. The themes identified were Understanding of Science PCK, Minimalism, Consistency in the Teacher Education Program, and Emphasis on Science Content. The data suggested that the participants lack in their understanding of science PCK, took a minimalistic approach to incorporating science into their ten-day instructional units, experienced inconsistencies in the teacher education program, and encountered a lack of emphasis on science content in their field experience placements. The themes assisted in recognizing areas in the elementary science methods courses, student teaching field placements, and university supervision in need of modification.

  4. A case study of secondary teachers facilitating a historical problem-based learning instructional unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecore, John L.

    Current curriculum trends promote inquiry-based student-centered strategies as a way to foster critical thinking and learning. Problem-based learning (PBL), a type of inquiry focusing on an issue or "problem," is an instructional approach taught on the basis that science reform efforts increase scientific literacy. PBL is a constructivist approach to learning real life problems where understanding is a function of content, context, experiences, and learner goals; historical PBL situates the lesson in a historical context and provides opportunities for teaching NOS concepts. While much research exists on the benefits of historical PBL to student learning in general, more research is warranted on how teachers implement PBL in the secondary science curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom-learning environment of four science teachers implementing a historical PBL instructional unit to identify the teachers' understandings, successes and obstacles. By identifying teachers' possible achievements and barriers with implementing a constructivist philosophy when executing historical PBL, educators and curriculum designers may improve alignment of the learning environment to constructivist principles. A qualitative interpretive case study guided this research study. The four participants of this study were purposefully and conveniently selected from biology teachers with at least three years of teaching experience, degrees in education, State Licensure, and completion of a PBL workshop. Data collection consisted of pre and post questionnaires, structured interviews, a card sort activity in which participants categorized instructional outcomes, and participant observations. Results indicated that the four teachers assimilated reform-based constructivist practices to fit within their preexisting routines and highlighted the importance of incorporating teachers' current systems into reform-based teacher instruction. While participating teachers

  5. [From brain imaging to good teaching? implicating from neuroscience for research on learning and instruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Christa; Krinzinger, Helga; Konrad, Kerstin

    2014-07-01

    Psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence, in particular attention deficit disorder or specific learning disorders like developmental dyslexia and developmental dyscalculia, affect academic performance and learning at school. Recent advances in neuroscientific research have incited an intensive debate both in the general public and in the field of educational and instructional science as well as to whether and to what extent these new findings in the field of neuroscience might be of importance for school-related learning and instruction. In this review, we first summarize neuroscientific findings related to the development of attention, working memory and executive functions in typically developing children and then evaluate their relevance for school-related learning. We present an overview of neuroimaging studies of specific learning disabilities such as developmental dyslexia and developmental dyscalculia, and critically discuss their practical implications for educational and teaching practice, teacher training, early diagnosis as well as prevention and disorder-specific therapy. We conclude that the new interdisciplinary field of neuroeducation cannot be expected to provide direct innovative educational applications (e.g., teaching methods). Rather, the future potential of neuroscience lies in creating a deeper understanding of the underlying cognitive mechanisms and pathomechanisms of learning processes and learning disorders.

  6. Employing Augmented-Reality-Embedded Instruction to Disperse the Imparities of Individual Differences in Earth Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-ping; Wang, Chang-Hwa

    2015-12-01

    Studies have proven that merging hands-on and online learning can result in an enhanced experience in learning science. In contrast to traditional online learning, multiple in-classroom activities may be involved in an augmented-reality (AR)-embedded e-learning process and thus could reduce the effects of individual differences. Using a three-stage AR-embedded instructional process, we conducted an experiment to investigate the influences of individual differences on learning earth science phenomena of "day, night, and seasons" for junior highs. The mixed-methods sequential explanatory design was employed. In the quantitative phase, factors of learning styles and ICT competences were examined alongside with the overall learning achievement. Independent t tests and ANCOVAs were employed to achieve inferential statistics. The results showed that overall learning achievement was significant for the AR-embedded instruction. Nevertheless, neither of the two learner factors exhibited significant effect on learning achievement. In the qualitative phase, we analyzed student interview records, and a wide variation on student's preferred instructional stages were revealed. These findings could provide an alternative rationale for developing ICT-supported instruction, as our three-stage AR-embedded comprehensive e-learning scheme could enhance instruction adaptiveness to disperse the imparities of individual differences between learners.

  7. Can learning style predict student satisfaction with different instruction methods and academic achievement in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpinar, Erol; Alimoglu, Mustafa Kemal; Mamakli, Sumer; Aktekin, Mehmet

    2010-12-01

    The curriculum of our medical school has a hybrid structure including both traditional training (lectures) and problem-based learning (PBL) applications. The purpose of this study was to determine the learning styles of our medical students and investigate the relation of learning styles with each of satisfaction with different instruction methods and academic achievement in them. This study was carried out with the participation of 170 first-year medical students (the participation rate was 91.4%). The researchers prepared sociodemographic and satisfaction questionnaires to determine the characteristics of the participants and their satisfaction levels with traditional training and PBL. The Kolb learning styles inventory was used to explore the learning styles of the study group. The participants completed all forms at the end of the first year of medical education. Indicators of academic achievement were scores of five theoretical block exams and five PBL exams performed throughout the academic year of 2008-2009. The majority of the participants took part in the "diverging" (n = 84, 47.7%) and "assimilating" (n = 73, 41.5%) groups. Numbers of students in the "converging" and "accommodating" groups were 11 (6.3%) and 8 (4.5%), respectively. In all learning style groups, PBL satisfaction scores were significantly higher than those of traditional training. Exam scores for "PBL and traditional training" did not differ among the four learning styles. In logistic regression analysis, learning style (assimilating) predicted student satisfaction with traditional training and success in theoretical block exams. Nothing predicted PBL satisfaction and success. This is the first study conducted among medical students evaluating the relation of learning style with student satisfaction and academic achievement. More research with larger groups is needed to generalize our results. Some learning styles may relate to satisfaction with and achievement in some instruction methods.

  8. [A qualitative analysis of spelling mistakes and a systematic supportive learning instruction of spelling disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvacho Del Toro, Irene M

    2016-09-01

    This paper explains how a qualitative analysis of spelling mistakes (Oldenburger Fehleranalyse, Thomé & Thomé, 2014) may be used to select learning materials according to individual needs. The pre-post design with control group serves to evaluate the effects of an intervention that is systematic and learning supportive for pupils with a diagnosed spelling disorder (ages 12 to 14; 6th-8th grade). Therapists of the experimental group were instructed to apply a series of linguistic and psycholinguistic criteria when creating the material for instruction and when carrying out the therapy. Therapists of the control group carried out the intervention without attending to these criteria, although they did have knowledge about the pupil’s profile in spelling mistakes. The intervention included 20 sessions. The ANOVA shows improvement for both groups (HSP, May 2012): (F(1, 14) = 15,05, p = .002, η2 = .518). For the experimental group it is stronger, and the difference in achievement gain is significant (F(1, 14) = 4,70, p = .048; η2 = .25). These results support a combination of qualitative analysis and a high qualification for therapists that relates specifically to orthography and its instruction. For some pupils the changes in the qualitative profiles reveal persistent support requirements in phonology or grammar instruction.

  9. Impacts of autonomy-supportive versus controlling instructional language on motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooyman, Andrew; Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca

    2014-08-01

    The authors examined the influence of autonomy-supportive (ASL), controlling (CL), and neutral instructional language (NL) on motor skill learning (cricket bowling action). Prior to and several times during the practice phase, participants watched the same video demonstration of the bowling action but with different voice-over instructions. The instructions were designed to provide the same technical information but to vary in terms of the degree of choice performers would perceive when executing the task. In addition to measurements of throwing accuracy (i.e., deviation from the target), perceived choice, self-efficacy, and positive and negative affect were assessed at the end of the practice phase and after a retention test without demonstrations and instructions on Day 2. ASL resulted in perceptions of greater choice, higher self-efficacy, and more positive affect during practice than CL, and enhanced learning as demonstrated by retention test performance. Thus, granting learners autonomy appeared to endow them with confidence in their ability, diminished needs for control of negative emotional responses, and created more positive affect, which may help consolidate motor memories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Instructional Interventions and Affective Beliefs as Predictors of Achievement and Retention of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrose Hans G. Aggabao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Path and factor analyses were used in this study to investigate direct and indirect influences of instructional interventions on achievement and retention of learning among freshmen students in Mathematics as mediated by affective beliefs. The varying classroom contexts were hypothesized to influence affective beliefs through the application of varying instructional interventions – traditional teaching, radical constructivist, and social constructivist. The randomized equivalent groups pre-posttest experimental design was used to generate the needed data for analysis. Results showed that constructivist instructional approaches directly and indirectly influenced achievement measures with the indirect effects mediated by control orientation belief of students which was found to be the only one among four affective beliefs considered in this study to influence achievement measures. Social constructivist interventions did not show direct influence on retention of conceptual understanding and procedural fluency while traditional instructional intervention was not found to be a significant predictor of both affective beliefs and achievement measures.These results confirm for the most part the hypothesized relations among instructional interventions, affective beliefs, and achievement measures.

  11. How and with What Accuracy Do Children Report Self-Regulated Learning in Contemporary EFL Instructional Settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, P. Costa; Simão, A. M. Veiga; da Silva, A. Lopes

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how children reflect about learning, report their regulation of learning activity, and develop their performance in contemporary English as a Foreign Language instructional settings. A quasi-experimental design was used with one experimental group working in a self-regulated learning computer-supported instructional…

  12. Empirical Study on the Effect of Digital Game-Based Instruction on Students' Learning Motivation and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chun

    2017-01-01

    As pupils are largely increased the opportunities to contact digital games, the effect of digital games has been broadly discussed and studied. Digital games no longer play the function of entertainment, but could assist students in more active learning and deeper and broader learning, when being applied to instruction. It is limited to learn in…

  13. Active-learning instruction on emergency contraception counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shardae; Griffin, Brooke; Vest, Kathleen

    2013-06-12

    To increase pharmacy students' knowledge of and confidence in counseling patients regarding emergency contraception and to identify any barriers to counseling patients about emergency contraception. Approximately 200 third-year pharmacy students participated in the Women's Health Therapeutics workshop at Midwestern University Chicago College of Pharmacy. Students observed a 5-minute skit of a counseling session on emergency contraception and then were asked to pair up with a classmate and practice counseling each other regarding the use of emergency contraception following a checklist of key points. One hundred eighty-nine students completed pre- and post-workshop survey instruments. Students' knowledge scores increased from 86% to 93% (pemergency contraception before completing the active-learning exercise compared to 58.5% after (pemergency contraception and significantly reduced several barriers to counseling identified prior to participation.

  14. “Mind-Blowing”: Fostering Self-Regulated Learning in Information Literacy Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Houtman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The new ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education brings a new emphasis into our instruction on student metacognition and dispositions. In this article I introduce self-regulated learning, a related concept from the field of education; it encompasses metacognition, emotions, motivations and behaviors. I discuss how this concept could be important and helpful in implementing the related elements in the ACRL Framework and draw on the concept to devise strategies and activities that promote students’ self-awareness and learning skills. This focus promotes a more learner-centered approach to teaching. The article also adds to the conversation on developing a self-reflective pedagogical praxis in information literacy instruction.

  15. Analyze Critical Thinking Skills and Scientific Attitude in Physics Learning Used Inquiry Training and Direct Instruction Learning Model

    OpenAIRE

    Parsaoran Damanik, Dede; Bukit, Nurdin

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the differences: (1) the difference of critical thinking skills of students' that using Inquiry Training and Direct Instruction. (2) The difference of critical thinking skills among students who at high scientific attitude and students who at low scientific attitude. (3) To see if there is interaction between inquiry learning model of the scientific attitude students' to increase the ability to critical thinking. This is a quasi experimental research. Which s...

  16. A Closer Look at Split Visual Attention in System- and Self-Paced Instruction in Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Weigand, Florian; Kohnert, Alfred; Glowalla, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined visual attention distribution in learning from text and pictures. Participants watched a 16-step multimedia instruction on the formation of lightning. In Experiment 1 (N=90) the instruction was system-paced (fast, medium, slow pace), while it was self-paced in Experiment 2 (N=31). In both experiments the text modality was…

  17. A Classification Model and an Open E-Learning System Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets for Instructional Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güyer, Tolga; Aydogdu, Seyhmus

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests a classification model and an e-learning system based on this model for all instructional theories, approaches, models, strategies, methods, and technics being used in the process of instructional design that constitutes a direct or indirect resource for educational technology based on the theory of intuitionistic fuzzy sets…

  18. Effects of an Instructional Gaming Characteristic on Learning Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Engagement: Using a Storyline for Teaching Basic Statistical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Elena; Johnson, Tristan E.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Shute, Valerie J.

    2016-01-01

    The study explored instructional benefits of a storyline gaming characteristic (GC) on learning effectiveness, efficiency, and engagement with the use of an online instructional simulation for graduate students in an introductory statistics course. A storyline is a game-design element that connects scenes with the educational content. In order to…

  19. A Pilot Study of Students' Learning Outcomes Using Didactic and Socratic Instructional Methods: An Assessment Based on Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinde, Oluwatoyin Adenike

    2015-01-01

    This work is a pilot study on the learning outcomes of students, who were taught a research course for seven weeks, using didactic and Socratic instruction methods. The course was taught in two sessions concurrently. The students were divided into two groups (A and B) and both groups were taught either with Socratic instruction method or didactic…

  20. A Comparison of Interactive Multimedia Instruction Designs Addressing Soldiers Learning Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    animations, and if learners need such cues to support their learning (de Koning et al., 2009). If cues are overused, learners’ attention can be divided...J. P., Paas, F. (2009). Towards a framework for attention cueing in instructional animations: Guidelines for research and design. Educational...information (i.e., contextual content) than familiarization. This design strategy was selected on the basis of discussion with MCoE DOTD, who expressed a

  1. A concept model for learning: An attempt to define a proper relations scheme between instruction, learning and to establish the dynamics of learning in relation to modern political concepts as study-fairness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Min, F.B.M.; Vos, Henk; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; van Dijkum, C.; van Dijkum, C.

    2000-01-01

    For years, it has been attempted within educational science to establish the process of learning. A lot is known about instruction, but as to learning and acquiring knowledge and insight, we still know very little. A lot of research is conducted on methods of instruction, but very little on learning

  2. Engaging in vocabulary learning in science: the promise of multimodal instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Dianna; Brock, Cynthia; Morrison, Jennifer D.

    2018-02-01

    To a science 'outsider', science language often appears unnecessarily technical and dense. However, scientific language is typically used with the goal of being concise and precise, which allows those who regularly participate in scientific discourse communities to learn from each other and build upon existing scientific knowledge. One essential component of science language is the academic vocabulary that characterises it. This mixed-methods study investigates middle school students' (N = 59) growth in academic vocabulary as it relates to their teacher's instructional practices that supported academic language development. Students made significant gains in their production of general academic words, t(57) = 2.32, p = .024 and of discipline-specific science words, t(57) = 3.01, p = .004 in science writing. Results from the qualitative strand of this inquiry contextualised the students' learning of academic vocabulary as it relates to their teacher's instructional practices and intentions as well as the students' perceptions of their learning environment. These qualitative findings reveal that both the students and their teacher articulated that the teacher's intentional use of resources supported students' academic vocabulary growth. Implications for research and instruction with science language are shared.

  3. Effect of Instructional vs. Authentic Video Materials on Introvert and Extrovert Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parya Isazadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study delved into the effect of instructional video materials vs. authentic video materials on vocabulary learning of extrovert and introvert Iranian EFL learners. To this end, Nelson proficiency test was administered to one hundred eighty (n=180 language learners. Considering 1 standard deviation above and below the mean score, one hundred twenty three (n=123 language learners were selected for the study. These participants were distributed into 4 experimental groups (with 25 learners and a control group (with 23 learners. Researcher-made vocabulary pretest and posttest which were designed using the vocabularies from the movies were also administered to the participants. The findings of the study after three weeks of treatment revealed that both authentic video materials and instructional video materials can have positive effect on vocabulary learning of Iranian EFL leaners. This effect, however, is not different among extrovert learners. It was also revealed that introvert EFL learners benefit more from authentic video materials. The findings of the study could be used by material developers or language teachers who may wish to use video materials in their classes. Keywords: Authentic video materials, Instructional video materials, Vocabulary learning, Introversion, Extroversion

  4. Learning for Self-regulation: Improving Instructional Benefits for Pupils, Teachers, Parents, Schools, and Society At Large

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2008-01-01

    Mooij, T. (2007). Learning for Self-regulation: Improving Instructional Benefits for Pupils, Teachers, Parents, Schools, and Society At Large. Inaugural address, Open University of the Netherlands, The Netherlands.

  5. The College Science Learning Cycle: An Instructional Model for Reformed Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Finding the time for developing or locating new class materials is one of the biggest barriers for instructors reforming their teaching approaches. Even instructors who have taken part in training workshops may feel overwhelmed by the task of transforming passive lecture content to engaging learning activities. Learning cycles have been instrumental in helping K-12 science teachers design effective instruction for decades. This paper introduces the College Science Learning Cycle adapted from the popular Biological Sciences Curriculum Study 5E to help science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty develop course materials to support active, student-centered teaching approaches in their classrooms. The learning cycle is embedded in backward design, a learning outcomes-oriented instructional design approach, and is accompanied by resources and examples to help faculty transform their teaching in a time-efficient manner. © 2016 M. Withers. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. Improving Science Process Skills for Primary School Students Through 5E Instructional Model-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choirunnisa, N. L.; Prabowo, P.; Suryanti, S.

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to describe the effectiveness of 5E instructional model-based learning to improve primary school students’ science process skills. The science process skills is important for students as it is the foundation for enhancing the mastery of concepts and thinking skills needed in the 21st century. The design of this study was experimental involving one group pre-test and post-test design. The result of this study shows that (1) the implementation of learning in both of classes, IVA and IVB, show that the percentage of learning implementation increased which indicates a better quality of learning and (2) the percentage of students’ science process skills test results on the aspects of observing, formulating hypotheses, determining variable, interpreting data and communicating increased as well.

  7. Flipped Library Instruction Does Not Lead to Learning Gains for First-Year English Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Miller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Rivera, E. (2017. Flipping the classroom in freshman English library instruction: A comparison study of a flipped class versus a traditional lecture method. New Review of Academic Librarianship, 23(1, 18-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13614533.2016.1244770 Abstract Objective – To determine whether a flipped classroom approach to freshman English information literacy instruction improves student learning outcomes. Design – Quasi-experimental. Setting – Private suburban university with 7,000 graduate and undergraduate students. Subjects – First-year English students. Methods – Students in six sections of first-year “English 2” received library instruction; three sections received flipped library instruction and three sections received traditional library instruction. Students in the flipped classroom sections were assigned two videos to watch before class, as an introduction to searching the Library’s catalog and key academic databases. These students were also expected to complete pre-class exercises that allowed them to practice what they learned through the videos. The face-to-face classes involved a review of the flipped materials alongside additional activities. Works cited pages from the students’ final papers were collected from all six sections, 31 from the flipped sections and 34 from the non-flipped sections. A rubric was used to rate the works cited pages. The rubric was based on the Association of College and Research Libraries’ Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (ACRL, 2000, Standard Two, Outcome 3a, and included three criteria: “authority,” “timeliness,” and “variety.” Each criterion was rated at one of three levels: “exemplary,” “competent,” or “developing.” Main Results – Works cited pages from the students who received non-flipped instruction were more likely to score “exemplary” for at least one of the three criteria when compared to works

  8. The Computer Integration into the EFL Instruction in Indonesia: An Analysis of Two University Instructors in Integrating Computer Technology into EFL Instruction to Encourage Students' Language Learning Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihatin, Pius N.

    2012-01-01

    Computer technology has been popular for teaching English as a foreign language in non-English speaking countries. This case study explored the way language instructors designed and implemented computer-based instruction so that students are engaged in English language learning. This study explored the beliefs, practices and perceptions of…

  9. Effect of Instruction Using Students' Prior Knowledge and Conceptual Change Strategies on Science Learning. Part I: Development, Application and Evaluation of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Mariana G.

    Reported is the development, use, and evaluation of an instructional technique based upon: (1) the assessment of students' prior knowledge; and (2) a theoretical perspective advocated by Ausubel and others which emphasizes the importance of existing knowledge in influencing subsequent concept learning. The experimental group of 46 South African…

  10. Children can learn new facts equally well from interactive media versus face to face instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Kwok

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today’s children have more opportunities than ever before to learn from interactive technology, yet experimental research assessing the efficacy of children’s learning from interactive media in comparison to traditional learning approaches is still quite scarce. Moreover, little work has examined the efficacy of using touch-screen devices for research purposes. The current study compared children’s rate of learning factual information about animals during a face-to-face instruction from an adult female researcher versus an analogous instruction from an interactive device. Eighty-six children ages 4 through 8 years (64% male completed the learning task in either the Face-to-Face condition (n = 43 or the Interactive Media condition (n = 43. In the Learning Phase of the experiment, which was presented as a game, children were taught novel facts about animals without being told that their memory of the facts would be tested. The facts were taught to the children either by an adult female researcher (Face-to-Face condition or from a pre-recorded female voice represented by a cartoon Llama (Interactive Media condition. In the Testing Phase of the experiment that immediately followed, children’s memory for the taught facts was tested using a 4-option forced-choice paradigm. Children’s rate of learning was significantly above chance in both conditions and a comparison of the rates of learning across the two conditions revealed no significant differences. Learning significantly improved from age 4 to age 8, however, even the preschool-aged children performed significantly above chance, and their performance did not differ between conditions. These results suggest that, interactive media can be equally as effective as one-on-one instruction, at least under certain conditions. Moreover, these results offer support for the validity of using interactive technology to collect data for research purposes. We discuss the implications of these results

  11. THE EFFECT OF 5E LEARNING CYCLE INSTRUCTIONAL MODEL USING SOCIOSCIENTIFIC ISSUES (SSI LEARNING CONTEXT ON STUDENTS’ CRITICAL THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cahyarini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 5E learning cycle instructional model using socioscientific issues (SSI learning context on students’ critical thinking skills of acid-base. This study used quasi-experimental posttest only control group design. The sample consisted of three classes, which were XI MIA-4class (n = 32 that learned using 5E LC model, XI MIA-5 class (n = 33 that learned using 5E LC+SSI, and XI MIA-6 class (n = 32 that learned using conventional method. The samples were choosen by convenience sampling technique. The test instrument consisted of 15 multiple choice items which were valid and reliable (r = 0.806. The data were analyzed using one way ANOVA test and LSD posthoc test. The results of this study indicated that the students who learned using 5E LC+SSI model showed greater levels of critical thinking skills (  = 74,95 than both the student who learned using 5E LC model (  = 74,17 and  the student who learned using conventional method (  = 68,96. Based on statistics analysis, there was significant differences on students’ critical thinkings between students taught using conventional method and students taught either using 5E LC+SSI model and 5E LC model. However,  there was no significant differences on students’ critical thinking skills between students taught using 5E LC+SSI model and the students taught using 5E LC model.

  12. K--12 science educator perception of instructing students with learning disabilities in the regular classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday-Cashwell, Janet Rose

    2000-10-01

    Selected K--12 public school science educators in 14 eastern North Carolina counties were surveyed to examine their perceptions of their undergraduate preparation programs with regard to instructing students with learning disabilities in the regular classroom. A quantitative study, this research examined science educator preparedness in instructing students with learning disabilities by evaluating educator perception in regard to mainstrearned and inclusive educational settings. Specifically, two null hypotheses were tested. Null hypothesis I stated a significant difference does not exist between selected North Carolina K--12 science educators' perceptions of their undergraduate teacher education preparation programs and their perceptions of their abilities to instruct students needing accommodations on behalf of their learning disabilities in mainstrearned or inclusive settings. Participants' responses to perception as well as value statements regarding opinions, adaptations, and undergraduate training with respect to mainstreaming and inclusion were evaluated through t-test analyses of 22 Likert-scale items. Null hypothesis 1 was not accepted because a statistically significant difference did exist between the educators' perceptions of their undergraduate training and their perceived abilities to instruct students with learning disabilities in mainstreamed or inclusive settings. Null hypothesis 2 stated a significant difference does not exist between selected North Carolina K--12 science educators' attained educational level; grade level currently taught, supervised or chaired; and years of experience in teaching science, supervising science education, and/or chairing science departments in selected North Carolina public schools and their opinions of their undergraduate teacher education program with regard to instructing students with learning disabilities in mainstreamed or inclusive educational settings. Null hypothesis 2 was evaluated through an analysis of

  13. The Impact of Explicit Instruction about the Nature of Personal Learning Style on First-Year Students' Perceptions of Successful Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, David A.

    2003-01-01

    This research examines how first-year students' conceptualizations of personal learning theories changed as a result of instruction on learning styles. Students drew concept maps to organize their perceptions related to being successful learners. After completing learning inventories, students completed another concept map using the original…

  14. Teacher Learning and Instructional Change: How Formal and On-the-Job Learning Opportunities Predict Change in Elementary School Teachers' Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Leigh Mesler; Spillane, James P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent education reform has emphasized the importance of teacher learning in improving classroom instruction and raising student achievement. This article focuses on teachers' learning opportunities, including formal professional development and on-the-job learning that occurs through interactions with colleagues. Using data from 30 elementary…

  15. STEPP: A Grounded Model to Assure the Quality of Instructional Activities in e-Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy AHMED ABDELAZIZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present theoretical paper aims to develop a grounded model for designing instructional activities appropriate to e-learning and online learning environments. The suggested model is guided by learning principles of cognitivism, constructivism, and connectivism learning principles to help online learners constructing meaningful experiences and moving from knowledge acquisition to knowledge creation process. The proposed model consists of five dynamic and grounded domains that assure the quality of designing and using e-learning activities: Ø Social Domain; Ø Technological Domain; Ø Epistemological Domain; Ø Psychological domain; and Ø Pedagogical Domain. Each of these domains needs four types of presences to reflect the design and the application process of e-learning activities. These four presences are: Ø cognitive presence, Ø human presence, Ø psychological presence and Ø mental presence. Applying the proposed model (STEPP throughout all online and adaptive e-learning environments may improve the process of designing and developing e-learning activities to be used as mindtools for current and future learners.

  16. Effects of notetaking instruction on 3rd grade student's science learning and notetaking behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pai-Lin

    The research examined effects of notetaking instruction on elementary-aged students' ability to recall science information and notetaking behavior. Classes of 3rd grade students were randomly assigned to three treatment conditions, strategic notetaking, partial strategic notetaking, and control, for 4 training sessions. The effects of the notetaking instruction were measured by their performances on a test on science information taught during the training, a long-term free recall of the information, and number of information units recalled with or without cues. Students' prior science achievement was used to group students into two levels (high vs. low) and functioned as another independent variable in analysis. Results indicated significant treatment effect on cued and non-cued recall of the information units in favor of the strategy instruction groups. Students with higher prior achievement in science performed better on cued recall and long-term free recall of information. The results suggest that students as young as at the third grade can be instructed to develop the ability of notetaking that promotes their learning.

  17. You Are Not Logged In: Context and Interpersonal Meaning of Instructions and Links in a typical Learning Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakeem Olafemi Ogunmuyiwa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that the incorporation of Learning Management Systems (LMS in ESL/EFL instruction has enhanced learners understanding of the language just as it has helped teachers in monitoring students’ progress. However, the use of these eLearning platforms can be quite challenging for EFL learners who are yet to be proficient in the English language. This is because all course information and instructions are offered in the language. Following the notion of context and language metafunctions by Halliday (1985 and his followers, analysis of some linguistic expressions in typical learning management systems is conducted. I show how context and interpersonal meanings are established, and how they can enhance learners’ comprehension of information and instructions. The linguistic expressions used as data are sourced from student-specific pages of the web-based Learning Management System (Blackboard and the Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (Moodle as adapted in colleges and institutes in Saudi Arabia.

  18. Promoting middle school students’ abstract-thinking ability through cognitive apprenticeship instruction in mathematics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusepa, B. G. P.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Kartasasmita, B. G.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to get an in-depth understanding of students’ abstract-thinking ability in mathematics learning. This study was an experimental research with pre-test and post-test control group design. The subject of this study was eighth-grade students from two junior high schools in Bandung. In each schools, two parallel groups were selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was exposed to Cognitive Apprenticeship Instruction (CAI) treatment, whereas the control group was exposed to conventional learning. The results showed that abstract-thinking ability of students in experimental group was better than that of those in control group in which it could be observed from the overall and school level. It could be concluded that CAI could be a good alternative learning model to enhance students’ abstract-thinking ability.

  19. The use of computer-aided learning in chemistry laboratory instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Brian Robert Tracy

    This research involves developing and implementing computer software for chemistry laboratory instruction. The specific goal is to design the software and investigate whether it can be used to introduce concepts and laboratory procedures without a lecture format. This would allow students to conduct an experiment even though they may not have been introduced to the chemical concept in their lecture course. This would also allow for another type of interaction for those students who respond more positively to a visual approach to instruction. The first module developed was devoted to using computer software to help introduce students to the concepts related to thin-layer chromatography and setting up and running an experiment. This was achieved through the use of digitized pictures and digitized video clips along with written information. A review quiz was used to help reinforce the learned information. The second module was devoted to the concept of the "dry lab". This module presented students with relevant information regarding the chemical concepts and then showed them the outcome of mixing solutions. By these observations, they were to determine the composition of unknown solutions based on provided descriptions and comparison with their written observations. The third piece of the software designed was a computer game. This program followed the first two modules in providing information the students were to learn. The difference here, though, was incorporating a game scenario for students to use to help reinforce the learning. Students were then assessed to see how much information they retained after playing the game. In each of the three cases, a control group exposed to the traditional lecture format was used. Their results were compared to the experimental group using the computer modules. Based upon the findings, it can be concluded that using technology to aid in the instructional process is definitely of benefit and students were more successful in

  20. Effects of Online Synchronous Instruction with an Attention Monitoring and Alarm Mechanism on Sustained Attention and Learning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have shown that learners' sustained attention strongly affects e-learning performance, particularly during online synchronous instruction. This work thus develops a novel attention monitoring and alarm mechanism (AMAM) based on brainwave signals to improve learning performance via monitoring the attention state of individual learners…

  1. Effectiveness of Blended Learning and Elearning Modes of Instruction on the Performance of Undergraduates in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Ogunlade, O. Olufunmilola; Osunlade, Olourotimi Rufus

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of blended learning and E-learning modes of instruction on the performance of undergraduates in Kwara State, Nigeria. It also determined if the student performance would vary with gender. Quasi experimental that employs pretest, posttest, control group design was adopted for this study. This involves three…

  2. A Quasi-Experimental Examination: Cognitive Sequencing of Instruction Using Experiential Learning Theory for STEM Concepts in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kasee L.; Rayfield, John

    2017-01-01

    Understanding methods for effectively instructing STEM education concepts is essential in the current climate of education (Freeman, Marginson, & Tyler 2014). Kolb's experiential learning theory (ELT) outlines four specific modes of learning, based on preferences for grasping and transforming information. This quasi-experimental study was…

  3. Optimising ICT effectiveness in instruction and learning: Multilevel transformation theory and a pilot project in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    Specific combinations of educational and ICT conditions including computer use may optimise learning processes, particularly for learners at risk. This position paper asks which curricular, instructional, and ICT characteristics can be expected to optimise learning processes and outcomes,and how to

  4. The Goal Specificity Effect on Strategy Use and Instructional Efficiency during Computer-Based Scientific Discovery Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunsting, Josef; Wirth, Joachim; Paas, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Using a computer-based scientific discovery learning environment on buoyancy in fluids we investigated the "effects of goal specificity" (nonspecific goals vs. specific goals) for two goal types (problem solving goals vs. learning goals) on "strategy use" and "instructional efficiency". Our empirical findings close an important research gap,…

  5. Reform-Based-Instructional Method and Learning Styles on Students' Achievement and Retention in Mathematics: Administrative Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modebelu, M. N.; Ogbonna, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the effect of reform-based-instructional method learning styles on students' achievement and retention in mathematics. A sample size of 119 students was randomly selected. The quasiexperimental design comprising pre-test, post-test, and randomized control group were employed. The Collin Rose learning styles…

  6. Leading Online: An Autoethnography Focused on Leading an Instructional Focus on Student Learning in an Online School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Sally Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose in writing this autoethnography was to describe, analyze and interpret one leader's experience in leading a group of online teachers. I specifically wanted to identify the characteristics of an online learning environment that triggered teachers to focus on management issues rather than instructional learning issues; that is what…

  7. Does Staff Development in Cognitively Guided Instructional Theory Change Middle School Teachers' Mental Models about Teaching and Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Judith R.

    This practicum was designed to increase middle-level teaching teams' understanding of cognitively guided instructional strategies or brain-based learning theories and to promote the incorporation of these strategies into the teaching of cross-curriculum thematic units. Twelve staff development modules based on a new perspective of learning which…

  8. The Intersection of Preservice Teachers' Confidence, Perceptions, and Ideas for Using Instructional Technology for Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelson, Louis S.; Bennett, Darcie; Gwilliam, Ezra; Howlett, Catherine; Oswalt, Steve; Sand, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    The evolving landscape of instructional technology is influenced by access to a wide range of technology tools that can be accessed to enhance teaching and learning. Technological tools such as smart phones, apps, tablets, social media, and YouTube exemplify the kinds of resources that are readily available for teaching and learning. Further, the…

  9. Bridging Faith, Languages and Learning in London: A Faith Teacher Reflects upon Pedagogy in Religious Instruction Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytra, Vally; Gregory, Eve; Ilankuberan, Arani

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine a faith teacher's reflections on faith literacy teaching and learning and how they shaped his pedagogy in the context of Hindu/Saiva religious instruction classes for students of Sri Lankan Tamil heritage. The data are part of a larger multi-site three-year team ethnography of children's faith literacy learning in…

  10. Instructional Suggestions Supporting Science Learning in Digital Environments Based on a Review of Eye-Tracking Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Chiou, Guo-Li; Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Li-Ling

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to provide instructional suggestions for supporting science learning in digital environments based on a review of eye tracking studies in e-learning related areas. Thirty-three eye-tracking studies from 2005 to 2014 were selected from the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) database for review. Through a…

  11. Active-Learning versus Teacher-Centered Instruction for Learning Acids and Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Active-learning as a student-centered learning process has begun to take more interest in constructing scientific knowledge. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of active-learning implementation on high-school students' understanding of "acids and bases". Sample: The sample of this…

  12. Effects of Didactic Instruction and Test-Enhanced Learning in a Nursing Review Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yu-Ching; Lin, Yi-Jung; Lee, Jonathan W; Fan, Lir-Wan

    2017-11-01

    Determining the most effective approach for students' successful academic performance and achievement on the national licensure examination for RNs is important to nursing education and practice. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare didactic instruction and test-enhanced learning among nursing students divided into two fundamental nursing review courses in their final semester. Students in each course were subdivided into low-, intermediate-, and high-score groups based on their first examination scores. Mixed model of repeated measure and two-way analysis of variance were applied to evaluate students' academic results and both teaching approaches. Intermediate-scoring students' performances improved more through didactic instruction, whereas low-scoring students' performances improved more through test-enhanced learning. Each method had differing effects on individual subgroups within the different performance level groups of their classes, which points to the importance of considering both the didactic and test-enhanced learning approaches. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(11):683-687.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Instructional methods and cognitive and learning styles in web-based learning: report of two randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Gelula, Mark H; Dupras, Denise M; Schwartz, Alan

    2007-09-01

    Adapting web-based (WB) instruction to learners' individual differences may enhance learning. Objectives This study aimed to investigate aptitude-treatment interactions between learning and cognitive styles and WB instructional methods. We carried out a factorial, randomised, controlled, crossover, post-test-only trial involving 89 internal medicine residents, family practice residents and medical students at 2 US medical schools. Parallel versions of a WB course in complementary medicine used either active or reflective questions and different end-of-module review activities ('create and study a summary table' or 'study an instructor-created table'). Participants were matched or mismatched to question type based on active or reflective learning style. Participants used each review activity for 1 course module (crossover design). Outcome measurements included the Index of Learning Styles, the Cognitive Styles Analysis test, knowledge post-test, course rating and preference. Post-test scores were similar for matched (mean +/- standard error of the mean 77.4 +/- 1.7) and mismatched (76.9 +/- 1.7) learners (95% confidence interval [CI] for difference - 4.3 to 5.2l, P = 0.84), as were course ratings (P = 0.16). Post-test scores did not differ between active-type questions (77.1 +/- 2.1) and reflective-type questions (77.2 +/- 1.4; P = 0.97). Post-test scores correlated with course ratings (r = 0.45). There was no difference in post-test subscores for modules completed using the 'construct table' format (78.1 +/- 1.4) or the 'table provided' format (76.1 +/- 1.4; CI - 1.1 to 5.0, P = 0.21), and wholist and analytic styles had no interaction (P = 0.75) or main effect (P = 0.18). There was no association between activity preference and wholist or analytic scores (P = 0.37). Cognitive and learning styles had no apparent influence on learning outcomes. There were no differences in outcome between these instructional methods.

  14. The Development of Teaching and Learning Innovation by Using Instructional Media for Enhancement of Learning Achievement towards Tourism Product Knowledge in Tourism Marketing Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnuek Pariwat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate (1 analyzed perspectives of the traditional teaching and the instructional media teaching to improve the tourism product knowledge in the tourism marketing class, (2 satisfaction levels, among second-year students majoring in tourism program, towards the instructional media teaching, and (3 comparative learning achievement of the students in the class. Survey questionnaires, pretest and post-test, and instructional media were applied for data collection. Furthermore, descriptive analysis and statistics such as Average, Standard Deviation, and Paired T-Test were employed of data analysis. The findings revealed that the traditional teaching employed lesser time and it was uncomplicated when applying for a class with a large number of students and several knowledge sources. However, the students played unimportant role and felt uninterested towards the lesson if the teachers were unskillful. The traditional teaching could not meet the needs and individual differences of the students while the instructional media could better develop their learning quality and their participation in learning and cognitive processes. The students’ satisfaction towards the instructional media teaching was presented in the high level. Additionally, the students learning with instructional media performed the higher average test points than those learning with the traditional teaching.

  15. Personalized System of Instruction and Mobile-Learning Models 2014 and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Thompson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the delivery method used in Personalize System of Instruction (PSI. Asynchronous in nature, the PSI model may provide viable alternatives m-learning platforms, while at the same time fulfilling some of the theories of social science research. Learning style types are also presented in this study. A strategic alignment model is measured against the learning style types in efforts to map the feasibility of m-learning in social sciences versus other educational research. In the case of m-learning, stakeholders include but are not limited to curriculum creators, ISPs and those who host mobile sites, streaming content providers, mobile phone users, instructors, educational institutions and mobile phone carriers. Verifying the mobile authenticity of students receiving instruction, and the burden of proof is also presented in this study as it relates to models used in the banking industry. Adobe, ComF5 and AXMEDIS [2] are a few companies that provide full multi-platform support for multiple mobile based distribution channels. Mobile protocol and the development of mobile applications must minimize frustrations experienced by users. Issues and concerns in this area range from screen size and resolution of content, and the balance of reading text versus seeing live streaming video, all the way to screen scrolling and mobile keyboard functionality. The conceptual framework for Platform as a Service and Infrastructure as a Service are presented to access, capture and share pedagogies toward distribution. [2] AXMEDIS (2006, December. Automating production of cross media content for multi-channel distribution. Axmedis 2nd Annual Conference on Content Distribution.

  16. ANALYZE CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS AND SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE IN PHYSICS LEARNING USED INQUIRY TRAINING AND DIRECT INSTRUCTION LEARNING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Parsaoran Damanik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the differences: (1 the difference of critical thinking skills of students' that using Inquiry Training and Direct Instruction. (2 The difference of critical thinking skills among students who at high scientific attitude and students who at low scientific attitude. (3 To see if there is interaction between inquiry learning model of the scientific attitude students' to increase the ability to critical thinking. This is a quasi experimental research. Which students of private junior high school Two Raya Kahean District Simalungun. Population choose random sample of each class. Instrument used consisted of: (1 test the scientific attitude of students through a questionnaire with 25 statements questionnaire number (2 test the critical thinking skills in the form of descriptions by 9 questions. The data were analyzed according to ANAVA. It showed that: (1 There are differences in students' critical thinking of skills achievement Inquiry Training model and Direct Instruction model, (2 there was a difference of students' critical thinking in scientific attitude at high is better than who thought there is a difference of students' critical thinking in scientific attitude at low. (3 There was no interaction between Inquiry Training model and Direct Instruction with the scientific attitude students' to increase student’s critical thinking of skills.

  17. Exploring Instructional Strategies and Learning Theoretical Foundations of eHealth and mHealth Education Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamim, Suha R; Grant, Michael M

    2016-05-19

    This qualitative study aimed at exploring how health professionals use theories and models from the field of education to create ehealth and mhealth education interventions in an effort to provide insights for future research and practice on the development and implementation of health promotion initiatives. A purposeful sample of 12 participants was selected, using criterion and snowballing sampling strategies. Data were collected and analyzed from semistructured interviews, planning materials, and artifacts. The findings revealed that none of the participants used a specific learning theory or an instructional model in their interventions. However, based on participants' description, three themes emerged: (1) connections to behaviorist approaches to learning, (2) connections to cognitivist approaches to learning, and (3) connections to constructivist approaches to learning. Suggested implications for practice are (1) the design of a guidebook on the interplay of learning theories, instructional models, and health education and (2) the establishment of communities of practice. Further research can (1) investigate how learning theories and models intertwine with health behavior theories and models, (2) evaluate how the different instructional strategies presented in this study affect learning outcomes and health behavior change processes, and (3) investigate factors behind the instructional strategies choices made by health professionals. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  18. Factors influencing effective learning in instructional skill training for vocational instructors : learning for change : a case of Training Institute for Technical Instruction (TITI), Bhaktapur, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neupane, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    This study was based on Instructional Skills (IS) training module which was imparted by Training Institute for Technical Instruction (TITI) Nepal to improve the performance of vocational instructors. Instructional skill training is a three months training course split in to three modules; each

  19. Development of innovative classroom instruction material for enhancing creative teaching and learning nuclear topics: A proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puse, Judeza S.; Awata, Takaaki; Atobe, Kozo

    2005-01-01

    The role of education all over the world is becoming more and more significant and requires an in depth study since the life of the people is advanced, expanded and complicated. Educators are once again asked to address problems which have arisen within their own society. Thus, the search for ways to improve quality of education is global especially in line with nuclear science and technology. One area of focus is that managing and promoting learning inside the classroom, how teacher's utilized instructional materials were such an issue. Indeed, qualifications and resources are not the only factors that influence teachers' effectiveness, equally important are teachers' motivation, commitment, resourcefulness, innovativeness and creativeness in dealing with instructional materials. Lack of these things will produce poor attendance and unprofessional attitudes towards students. This paper aims to present a proposal on the use of innovative teaching device from the sample photographs as a result of the experiment taken at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) where samples were treated with gamma rays from a radioactive source 60 Co and lately exposed to photographic giving rise to understanding of photons emitted by radioactive material in a form of electromagnetic waves and later converted into visible light in a more authentic and simplified manners. As a consequent, this proposal was made to enhance teaching and encourage science teachers to exert great effort to develop instructional materials specifically in this area that requires the concretization of concepts which could not be detected by human senses. (author)

  20. The importance of the instructional guide in the design of virtual learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Mercedes Gomez-Suarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The appropriation of information and communication technologies (ICTs in the processes of teaching and learning is one of the main challenges of educational institutions and teachers in the current society of knowledge, as responsible for a use Rational and meaningful use of its digital educational resources (RED. This involves developing competencies in the implementation of ICT in the classroom to enrich the learning environments. This article presents a reflection on the instructional guide as a didactic tool in the elaboration of RED that facilitates the design of these resources to support the activities of the classroom in these processes. This reflection is the result of a research on the subject carried out in a context of university teaching

  1. Optimizing physicians' instruction of PACS through e-learning: cognitive load theory applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devolder, P; Pynoo, B; Voet, T; Adang, L; Vercruysse, J; Duyck, P

    2009-03-01

    This article outlines the strategy used by our hospital to maximize the knowledge transfer to referring physicians on using a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). We developed an e-learning platform underpinned by the cognitive load theory (CLT) so that in depth knowledge of PACS' abilities becomes attainable regardless of the user's prior experience with computers. The application of the techniques proposed by CLT optimizes the learning of the new actions necessary to obtain and manipulate radiological images. The application of cognitive load reducing techniques is explained with several examples. We discuss the need to safeguard the physicians' main mental processes to keep the patient's interests in focus. A holistic adoption of CLT techniques both in teaching and in configuration of information systems could be adopted to attain this goal. An overview of the advantages of this instruction method is given both on the individual and organizational level.

  2. Making Cooperative Learning Work in the College Classroom: An Application of the "Five Pillars" of Cooperative Learning to Post-Secondary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karrie A.; Jones, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative learning is viable yet generally underutilized method of instruction at the college level (Paulsen and Faust, 2008). This paper highlights the work of teacher educator Dr. Paul J. Vermette in his implementation of cooperative learning based practices in a graduate level Multicultural education course. In analyzing the "Five…

  3. Using the Instructional Core to Implement a Professional Learning Programme for Primary Science Teachers in Australia: Teacher Learning and Student Skill Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughland, Tony; Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2016-01-01

    There has been a call for effective professional learning to improve the quality of the science teaching of primary teachers in Australia. It seems from the literature that teaching science effectively is a challenging endeavour for primary teachers. Professional learning based on the instructional core framework is an emerging approach that has…

  4. Developing a Learning Progression for Curriculum, Instruction, and Student Learning: An Example from Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonger, Nicole L.; Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Isler, Isil; Knuth, Eric; Gardiner, Angela Murphy

    2018-01-01

    Learning progressions have been demarcated by some for science education, or only concerned with levels of sophistication in student thinking as determined by logical analyses of the discipline. We take the stance that learning progressions can be leveraged in mathematics education as a form of curriculum research that advances a linked…

  5. Collaborative Learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches. Advances in Learning and Instruction Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenbourg, Pierre, Ed.

    Intended to illustrate the benefits of collaboration between scientists from psychology and computer science, namely machine learning, this book contains the following chapters, most of which are co-authored by scholars from both sides: (1) "Introduction: What Do You Mean by 'Collaborative Learning'?" (Pierre Dillenbourg); (2)…

  6. Computer Simulations to Support Science Instruction and Learning: A critical review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Lara Kathleen; Bell, Randy L.

    2012-06-01

    Researchers have explored the effectiveness of computer simulations for supporting science teaching and learning during the past four decades. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, critical review of the literature on the impact of computer simulations on science teaching and learning, with the goal of summarizing what is currently known and providing guidance for future research. We report on the outcomes of 61 empirical studies dealing with the efficacy of, and implications for, computer simulations in science instruction. The overall findings suggest that simulations can be as effective, and in many ways more effective, than traditional (i.e. lecture-based, textbook-based and/or physical hands-on) instructional practices in promoting science content knowledge, developing process skills, and facilitating conceptual change. As with any other educational tool, the effectiveness of computer simulations is dependent upon the ways in which they are used. Thus, we outline specific research-based guidelines for best practice. Computer simulations are most effective when they (a) are used as supplements; (b) incorporate high-quality support structures; (c) encourage student reflection; and (d) promote cognitive dissonance. Used appropriately, computer simulations involve students in inquiry-based, authentic science explorations. Additionally, as educational technologies continue to evolve, advantages such as flexibility, safety, and efficiency deserve attention.

  7. Designing flexible instructional space for teaching introductory physics with emphasis on inquiry and collaborative active learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Tikhon

    2010-03-01

    In recent years McMurry University's introductory physics curriculum has gone through a series of significant changes to achieve better integration of traditional course components (lecture/lab/discussion) by means of instructional design and technology. A system of flexible curriculum modules with emphasis on inquiry-based teaching and collaborative active learning has been introduced. To unify module elements, a technology suite has been used that consists of Tablet PC's and software applications including Physlets, tablet-adapted personal response system, PASCO data acquisition systems, and MS One-note collaborative writing software. Adoption of the new teaching model resulted in reevaluation of existing instructional spaces. The new teaching space will be created during the renovation of the McMurry Science Building. This space will allow for easy transitions between lecture and laboratory modes. Movable partitions will be used to accommodate student groups of different sizes. The space will be supportive of small peer-group activities with easy-to-reconfigure furniture, multiple white and black board surfaces and multiple projection screens. The new space will be highly flexible to account for different teaching functions, different teaching modes and learning styles.

  8. Strategy Instruction in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Susan R.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments in strategy instruction for mathematics have been conducted using three models (direct instruction, self-instruction, and guided learning) applied to the tasks of computation and word problem solving. Results have implications for effective strategy instruction for learning disabled students. It is recommended that strategy instruction…

  9. The design of instructional tools affects secondary school students' learning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in reciprocal peer learning: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Byra, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Research investigating design effects of instructional tools for learning Basic Life Support (BLS) is almost non-existent. To demonstrate the design of instructional tools matter. The effect of spatial contiguity, a design principle stating that people learn more deeply when words and corresponding pictures are placed close (i.e., integrated) rather than far from each other on a page was investigated on task cards for learning Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) during reciprocal peer learning. A randomized controlled trial. A total of 111 students (mean age: 13 years) constituting six intact classes learned BLS through reciprocal learning with task cards. Task cards combine a picture of the skill with written instructions about how to perform it. In each class, students were randomly assigned to the experimental group or the control. In the control, written instructions were placed under the picture on the task cards. In the experimental group, written instructions were placed close to the corresponding part of the picture on the task cards reflecting application of the spatial contiguity principle. One-way analysis of variance found significantly better performances in the experimental group for ventilation volumes (P=.03, ηp2=.10) and flow rates (P=.02, ηp2=.10). For chest compression depth, compression frequency, compressions with correct hand placement, and duty cycles no significant differences were found. This study shows that the design of instructional tools (i.e., task cards) affects student learning. Research-based design of learning tools can enhance BLS and CPR education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of the Instructional Media Based on Lecture Video and Slide Synchronization System on Statistics Learning Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Sindu I Gede

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the use of the instructional media based on lecture video and slide synchronization system on Statistics learning achievement of the students of PTI department . The benefit of this research is to help lecturers in the instructional process i to improve student's learning achievements that lead to better students’ learning outcomes. Students can use instructional media which is created from the lecture video and slide synchronization system to support more interactive self-learning activities. Students can conduct learning activities more efficiently and conductively because synchronized lecture video and slide can assist students in the learning process. The population of this research was all students of semester VI (six majoring in Informatics Engineering Education. The sample of the research was the students of class VI B and VI D of the academic year 2016/2017. The type of research used in this study was quasi-experiment. The research design used was post test only with non equivalent control group design. The result of this research concluded that there was a significant influence in the application of learning media based on lectures video and slide synchronization system on statistics learning result on PTI department.

  11. The use of scientific direct instruction model with video learning of ethnoscience to improve students’ critical thinking skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarmin, S.; Mursiti, S.; Asih, A. G.

    2018-04-01

    In this disruption era, students are encouraged to develop critical thinking skills and important cultural conservation characters. Student's thinking skill in chemistry learning has not been developed because learning chemistry in schools still uses teacher-centered, lecture method, is less interesting and does not utilize local culture as a learning resource. The purpose of this research is to know the influence of the application of direct Instruction (DI) model with video learning of ethnoscience on the improvement of students’ critical thinking skills. This study was experimental research. The population was the students from class XI MIPA MA Negeri Gombong with the sample chosen by purposive random sampling. The material of local wisdom as the study of ethnosciences which was the focus of the research was the production of genting, dawet, lanting, and sempor reservoirs which is integrated with colloidal chemical contents. The learning video of ethnoscience before being applied was validated by experts. Students’ critical thinking skills were revealed through the concept of conceptualizing test instruments. The data analysis technique used was the test of proportion and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The results of this study suggested that the experimental class that was treated by scientific direct instruction model with the learning video of ethnoscience shows cognitive learning and critical thinking which were better than the control class. Besides, the students indicated their interest in the application of scientific direct instruction model with ethnoscience learning video.

  12. Toward a Neurobiological Basis for Understanding Learning in University Modeling Instruction Physics Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Brewe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Modeling Instruction (MI for University Physics is a curricular and pedagogical approach to active learning in introductory physics. A basic tenet of science is that it is a model-driven endeavor that involves building models, then validating, deploying, and ultimately revising them in an iterative fashion. MI was developed to provide students a facsimile in the university classroom of this foundational scientific practice. As a curriculum, MI employs conceptual scientific models as the basis for the course content, and thus learning in a MI classroom involves students appropriating scientific models for their own use. Over the last 10 years, substantial evidence has accumulated supporting MI's efficacy, including gains in conceptual understanding, odds of success, attitudes toward learning, self-efficacy, and social networks centered around physics learning. However, we still do not fully understand the mechanisms of how students learn physics and develop mental models of physical phenomena. Herein, we explore the hypothesis that the MI curriculum and pedagogy promotes student engagement via conceptual model building. This emphasis on conceptual model building, in turn, leads to improved knowledge organization and problem solving abilities that manifest as quantifiable functional brain changes that can be assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We conducted a neuroeducation study wherein students completed a physics reasoning task while undergoing fMRI scanning before (pre and after (post completing a MI introductory physics course. Preliminary results indicated that performance of the physics reasoning task was linked with increased brain activity notably in lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices that previously have been associated with attention, working memory, and problem solving, and are collectively referred to as the central executive network. Critically, assessment of changes in brain activity during the physics

  13. Scaffolded instruction: promoting biliteracy for second language learners with language/learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorri M. Johnson-Perrodin

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available For culturally and linguistically diverse learners, scaffolded instruction is important for not only content learning but for second language learning. In this case study of two bilingual education teachers and their third grade students, we expand the traditional concept of scaffolded instruction (e.g., experts, tools, routines to include Krashen's notion of comprehensible input (1982 as a scaffold for acquiring a second language yielding an effective transfer of first language (L1 academic language development to second language (L2 academic language development. A variety of scaffolds were used as multiple support systems that facilitated the biliteracy learning process for the students. Peer interactions, expert/ novice groupings, and literacy tools and routines were some of the scaffolds used to facilitate biliteracy instruction. Key to transfer from L1 to L2 was the teaching the tools and routines in the students' L1 prior to biliteracy instruction. Considerations for students with language/learning disabilities (LLD were included in this case study. Results suggest that by scaffolding for L2 development using previously acquired knowledge from first language (L1 instruction, students including those with LLD efficiently transferred cognitive academic skills from L1 to L2. Educational implications are discussed. Para alumnos cultural y linguisticamente diversos, la instrucción basada en el andamiaje es importante no unicamente para el contenido del aprendizaje sino para el aprendizaje de un segundo idioma. En este estudio de caso de dos profesores bilingües y sus alumnos de tercer curso, ampliamos el tradicional concepto de instrucción mediante andamiaje (e.g.,expertos, herramientas, rutinas incluyendo la noción de Krashen de entrada comprensiba (1982 como un apoyo para adquirir un segundo lenguaje produciendo un transfer efectivo del primer idioma desarrollado academicamente (L1 al segundo (L2. Una gran variedad de andamiajes fueron

  14. The impact of complete denture making instructional videos on self-directed learning of clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Haruka; Botelho, Michael George; Bridges, Susan; Leung, Katherine Chiu Man

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a clinical instructional video with a structured worksheet for independent self-study in a complete denture program. 47 multilingual dental students completed a task by watching an instructional video with subtitles regarding clinical complete denture procedures. After completion, students evaluated their learning experience, and 11 students participated in focus group interviews to gain further insight. A mixed-methods approach to data collection and analysis provided descriptive statistical results and a grounded theory approach to coding identified key concepts and categories from the qualitative data. Over 70% of students had favorable opinions of the learning experience and indicated that the speed and length of the video were appropriate. Highly positive and conflicting negative comments regarding the use of subtitles showed both preferences for subtitles over audio and vice versa. The use of a video resource was considered valuable as the replay and review functions allowed better visualization of the procedures, which was considered a good recap tool for the clinical demonstration. It was also a better revision aid than textbooks. So, if the students were able to view these videos at will, they believed that videos supplemented their self-study. Despite the positive response, videos were not considered to replace live clinical demonstrations. While students preferred live demonstrations over the clinical videos they did express a realization of these as a supplemental learning material for self-study based on their ease of access, use for revision, and prior to clinical preparation. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional integration processes underlying the instruction-based learning of novel goal-directed behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruge, Hannes; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2013-03-01

    How does the human brain translate symbolic instructions into overt behavior? Previous studies suggested that this process relies on a rapid control transition from the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) to the anterior striatum (aSTR) and premotor cortex (PMC). The present fMRI study investigated whether the transfer from symbolic to pragmatic stimulus-response (S-R) rules relies on changes in the functional coupling among these and other areas and to which extent action goal representations might get integrated within this symbolic-pragmatic transfer. Goal integration processes were examined by manipulating the contingency between actions and differential outcomes (i.e. action goals). We observed a rapid strengthening of the functional coupling between the LPFC and the basal ganglia (aSTR and putamen) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as between the LPFC and the anterior dorsal PMC (pre-PMd), the anterior inferior parietal lobule (aIPL), and the posterior superior parietal lobule (pSPL). Importantly, only some of these functional integration processes were sensitive to the outcome contingency manipulation, including LPFC couplings with aSTR, OFC, aIPL, and pre-PMd. This suggests that the symbolic-pragmatic rule transfer is governed by principles of both, instrumental learning (increasingly tighter coupling between LPFC and aSTR/OFC) and ideomotor learning (increasingly tighter coupling between LPFC and aIPL/pre-PMd). By contrast, increased functional coupling between LPFC and putamen was insensitive to outcome contingency possibly indicating an early stage of habit formation under instructed learning conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A dissociation between engagement and learning: Enthusiastic instructions fail to reliably improve performance on a memory task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Motz

    Full Text Available Despite widespread assertions that enthusiasm is an important quality of effective teaching, empirical research on the effect of enthusiasm on learning and memory is mixed and largely inconclusive. To help resolve these inconsistencies, we conducted a carefully-controlled laboratory experiment, investigating whether enthusiastic instructions for a memory task would improve recall accuracy. Scripted videos, either enthusiastic or neutral, were used to manipulate the delivery of task instructions. We also manipulated the sequence of learning items, replicating the spacing effect, a known cognitive technique for memory improvement. Although spaced study reliably improved test performance, we found no reliable effect of enthusiasm on memory performance across two experiments. We did, however, find that enthusiastic instructions caused participants to respond to more item prompts, leaving fewer test questions blank, an outcome typically associated with increased task motivation. We find no support for the popular claim that enthusiastic instruction will improve learning, although it may still improve engagement. This dissociation between motivation and learning is discussed, as well as its implications for education and future research on student learning.

  17. A dissociation between engagement and learning: Enthusiastic instructions fail to reliably improve performance on a memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, Benjamin A; de Leeuw, Joshua R; Carvalho, Paulo F; Liang, Kaley L; Goldstone, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Despite widespread assertions that enthusiasm is an important quality of effective teaching, empirical research on the effect of enthusiasm on learning and memory is mixed and largely inconclusive. To help resolve these inconsistencies, we conducted a carefully-controlled laboratory experiment, investigating whether enthusiastic instructions for a memory task would improve recall accuracy. Scripted videos, either enthusiastic or neutral, were used to manipulate the delivery of task instructions. We also manipulated the sequence of learning items, replicating the spacing effect, a known cognitive technique for memory improvement. Although spaced study reliably improved test performance, we found no reliable effect of enthusiasm on memory performance across two experiments. We did, however, find that enthusiastic instructions caused participants to respond to more item prompts, leaving fewer test questions blank, an outcome typically associated with increased task motivation. We find no support for the popular claim that enthusiastic instruction will improve learning, although it may still improve engagement. This dissociation between motivation and learning is discussed, as well as its implications for education and future research on student learning.

  18. The Strategic Instruction Model: The Less Addressed Aspects of Effective Instruction for High School Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Michael F.; Bulgren, Janis A.; Brasseur-Hock, Irma F.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we discuss research supporting the Strategic Instruction Model's™ (SIM) effort to address higher order reasoning and thinking skills in two lines of programmatic research. We review the extant body of evidence supporting the two lines of the SIM library, the Content Enhancement Routines and a comprehensive reading program, and the…

  19. Using a motivation-based instructional model for teacher development and students' learning of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Min-Jung

    2009-10-01

    Science teachers often have difficulty helping students participate in scientific practices and understand scientific ideas. In addition, they do not frequently help students value their science learning. As one way to address these problems, I designed and examined the effects of professional development using a motivation-based instructional model with teachers and students. This motivation-based inquiry and application instructional model (MIAIM) consists of four steps of activities and identifies instructional and motivational functions that teachers can use to engage their students in scientific inquiry and application and to help them value their science learning. In order to conduct this study, I worked with three teachers (4 th, 8th, and 8th) in both suburban and urban environments. This study consisted of three parts-an initial observation of teachers' classrooms, professional development with MIAIM, and an observation of teachers' classrooms after the professional development. Data analysis of class observations, interviews, and class artifacts shows that there was a moderate change in teachers' teaching approach after the intervention. The three teachers designed and enacted some inquiry and application lessons that fit the intent of MIAIM. They also used some instructional and motivational practices more frequently after the intervention than they did before the intervention. In particular, they more frequently established central questions for investigations, helped students find patterns in data by themselves, provided opportunities for application, related science to students' everyday lives, and created students' interests in scientific investigation by using interesting stories. However, there was no substantial change in teachers' use of some practices such as providing explanations, supporting students' autonomy, and using knowledge about students in designing and enacting science lessons. In addition, data analysis of students' surveys, class

  20. Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidsten, Connie J.

    Connie J. Hvidsten September 2016 Education Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice This dissertation consists of three papers analyzing writings and interviews of experienced secondary science teachers during and after a two-year professional development (PD) program focused on model-based reasoning (MBR). MBR is an approach to science instruction that provides opportunities for students to use conceptual models to make sense of natural phenomena in ways that are similar to the use of models within the scientific community. The aim of this research is to better understand the learning and learning pathways teachers identified as valuable in supporting changes in their teaching practice. To accomplish this aim, the papers analyze the ways teachers 1) ascribe their learning to various aspects of the program, 2) describe what they learned, and 3) reflect on the impact the PD had on their teaching practice. Twenty-one secondary science teachers completed the Innovations in Science Instruction through Modeling (ISIM) program from 2007 through 2009. Commonalities in the written reflections and interview responses led to a set of generalizable findings related to the impacts and outcomes of the PD. The first of the three papers describes elements of the ISIM program that teachers associated with their own learning. One of the most frequently mentioned PD feature was being in the position of an adult learner. Embedding learning in instructional practice by collaboratively developing and revising lessons, and observing the lessons in one-another's classrooms provided a sense of professional community, accountability, and support teachers reported were necessary to overcome the challenges of implementing new pedagogical practices. Additionally, teachers described that opportunities to reflect on their learning and connect their

  1. Shifting the paradigm of music instruction: Implications of embodiment stemming from an augmented reality guitar learning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Roland Keebler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Musical instruction often includes materials that can act as a barrier to learning. New technologies using augmented reality may aid in reducing the initial difficulties involved in learning music by lowering these barriers characteristic of traditional instructional materials. Therefore, this set of studies examined a novel augmented reality guitar learning system (i.e., the Fretlight® guitar in regards to current theories of embodied music cognition. Specifically, we examined the effects of using this system in comparison to a standard instructional material (i.e. diagrams. First, we review major theories related to musical embodiment and specify a niche within this research space we call embodied music technology for learning. Following, we explicate two parallel experiments that were conducted to address the learning effects of this system. Experiment 1 examined short-term learning effects within one experimental session, while Experiment 2 examined both short-term and long-term effects across two sessions spaced at a two-week interval. Analyses demonstrated that, for many of our dependent variables, all participants increased in performance across time. Further, the Fretlight® condition consistently led to significantly better outcomes via interactive effects, including significantly better long term retention for the learned information across a two week time interval. These results are discussed in the context of embodied cognition theory as it relates to music. Potential limitations and avenues for future research are described.

  2. Should Rehabilitation Specialists Use External Focus Instructions When Motor Learning Is Fostered? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja H. Kakebeeke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Constrained Action Hypothesis, motor learning is believed to be more efficient when an external focus (EF of motor control is given to the performer instead of an internal focus (IF of motor control. This systematic review investigated whether findings of studies focusing on the Constrained Action Hypothesis may be transferred to rehabilitation settings by assessing the methodological quality and risk of bias (ROB of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Of the 18 selected reports representing 20 RCTs, the methodological quality was rather low, and the majority of the reports appeared to have a high ROB. The 18 reports included 68 patients tested in a rehabilitation setting and 725 healthy participants. The time scale of the motor learning processes presented in the selected articles was heterogenic. The results of this systematic review indicate that the assumption that an external focus of control is to be preferred during motor learning processes is not sufficiently substantiated. The level of available evidence is not large enough to warrant transfer to patient populations (including children and the elderly and raises doubts about research with healthy individuals. This implies that based on the methodology used so far, there seems to be insufficient evidence for the superiority of an external focus of control, neither in healthy individuals nor in clinical populations. The relationship between EF instructions and motor learning research and its effect in both patient rehabilitation settings and healthy populations requires further exploration. Future adequately powered studies with low ROB and with rehabilitation populations that are followed over extended time periods should, therefore, be performed to substantiate or refute the assumption of the superiority of an EF in motor learning.

  3. Validity and Reliability Testing of an e-learning Questionnaire for Chemistry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guspatni, G.; Kurniawati, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine validity and reliability of a questionnaire used to evaluate e-learning implementation in chemistry instruction. 48 questionnaires were filled in by students who had studied chemistry through e-learning system. The questionnaire consisted of 20 indicators evaluating students’ perception on using e-learning. Parametric testing was done as data were assumed to follow normal distribution. Item validity of the questionnaire was examined through item-total correlation using Pearson’s formula while its reliability was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha formula. Moreover, convergent validity was assessed to see whether indicators building a factor had theoretically the same underlying construct. The result of validity testing revealed 19 valid indicators while the result of reliability testing revealed Cronbach’s alpha value of .886. The result of factor analysis showed that questionnaire consisted of five factors, and each of them had indicators building the same construct. This article shows the importance of factor analysis to get a construct valid questionnaire before it is used as research instrument.

  4. LEARNING-RELATED SOCIAL SKILLS AS A MEDIATOR BETWEEN TEACHER INSTRUCTION AND CHILD ACHIEVEMENT IN HEAD START

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Using a subsample of the Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) 2006, this study examined the associations between the amount of teacher instruction in 292 Head Start classrooms with changes in young children’s (n = 936) early academic achievement and learning-related social skills from ages 3 to 5. In general, during the early years, children exhibited relatively stable academic and learning-related social skills. Although the amount of teacher instruction did not predict children’s short-term academic growth directly, it did predict it indirectly through improvements in learning-related social skills, with benefits lasting through the end of kindergarten. These findings demonstrate that gains in children’s learning-related social skills may be necessary before academic gains can be realized. PMID:26692657

  5. Evolution of Various Library Instruction Strategies: Using Student Feedback to Create and Enhance Online Active Learning Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcie Lynne Jacklin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This case study traces the evolution of library assignments for biological science students from paper-based workbooks in a blended (hands-on workshop to blended learning workshops using online assignments to online active learning modules which are stand-alone without any face-to-face instruction. As the assignments evolved to adapt to online learning supporting materials in the form of PDFs (portable document format, screen captures and screencasting were embedded into the questions as teaching moments to replace face-to-face instruction. Many aspects of the evolution of the assignment were based on student feedback from evaluations, input from senior lab demonstrators and teaching assistants, and statistical analysis of the students’ performance on the assignment. Advantages and disadvantages of paper-based and online assignments are discussed. An important factor for successful online learning may be the ability to get assistance.

  6. A Critical Review of Instructional Design Process of Distance Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Muhammad Ajmal; ur-Rahman, Fazal

    2010-01-01

    Instructional design refers to planning, development, delivery and evaluation of instructional system. It is an applied field of study aiming at the application of descriptive research outcomes in regular instructional settings. The present study was designed to critically review the process of instructional design at Allama Iqbal Open University…

  7. Using tablet technology and instructional videos to enhance preclinical dental laboratory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Purk, John H; Williams, Brian Joseph; Van Ness, Christopher J

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine if tablet technology with accompanying instructional videos enhanced the teaching and learning outcomes in a preclinical dental laboratory setting. Two procedures deemed most challenging in Operative Dentistry II were chosen for the development of instructional videos. A random sample of thirty students was chosen to participate in the pilot. Comparison of faculty evaluations of the procedures between the experimental (tablet) and control (no tablet) groups resulted in no significant differences; however, there was a trend toward fewer failures in the experimental group. Examination of the ability to accurately self-assess was compared by exploring correlations between faculty and student evaluations. While correlations were stronger in the experimental group, the control group had significant correlations for all three procedures, while the experimental group had significant correlations on only two of the procedures. Students strongly perceived that the tablets and videos helped them perform better and more accurately self-assess their work products. Students did not support requiring that they purchase/obtain a specific brand of technology. As a result of this pilot study, further development of ideal and non-ideal videos are in progress, and the school will be implementing a "Bring Your Own Device" policy with incoming students.

  8. A National Study Assessing the Teaching and Learning of Introductory Astronomy; Part I: The Effect of Interactive Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, E. E.; Rudolph, A. L.; Brissenden, G.; Schlingman, W. M.

    2011-09-01

    We present the results of a national study on the teaching and learning of astronomy taught in general education, non-science major, introductory astronomy courses (Astro 101). Nearly 4000 students enrolled in 69 sections of Astro 101 taught at 31 institutions completed (pre- and post- instruction) the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI) from Fall 2006 to Fall 2007. The classes varied in size from very small (N 4-year colleges and universities. To study how the instruction in different classrooms affected student learning, we developed and administered an Interactivity Assessment Instrument (IAI). This short survey, completed by instructors, allowed us to estimate the fraction of classroom time spent on learner- centered, active-engagement instruction such as Peer Instruction and collaborative tutorials. Pre-instruction LSCI scores were clustered around ˜25% (24 ± 2%), independent of class size and institution type; however, the gains measured varied from about (-)0.07-0.50. The distribution of gain scores indicates that differences were due to instruction in the classroom, not the type of class or institution. Interactivity Assessment Scores (IAS's) ranged from 0%-50%, showing that our IAI was able to distinguish between classes with higher and lower levels of interactivity. A comparison of class-averaged gain score to IAS showed that higher interactivity classes (IAS > 25%) were the only instructional environments capable of reaching the highest gains ( > 0.30). However, the range of gains seen for both groups of classes was quite wide, suggesting that the use of interactive learning strategies is not sufficient by itself to achieve high student gain.

  9. Learning Designs using Flipped Classroom Instruction | Conception d’apprentissage à l’aide de l’instruction en classe inversée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Danielle Mazur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The flipped classroom is an instructional model that leverages technology-enhanced instruction outside of class time in order to maximize student engagement and learning during class time. As part of an action research study, the authors synthesize reflections about three learning designs and how the flipped classroom model can support teaching, learning and assessment through: (1 guided collaborative discussion, (2 tabletop white boarding and (3 the development of augmented reality auras. Principles for teaching effectiveness are used as a lens to guide the reflection on the benefits and challenges with each of the learning designs. Findings suggest that flipped classroom models that emphasize collaborative learning, group work and accessibility can enable and support inquiry-based learning. Recommendations are provided for educators interested in designing learning using a flipped classroom instructional model, as well as suggestions for future action research agendas. La classe inversée est un modèle pédagogique qui met à profit l’apprentissage hors des heures en classe et qui est rehaussé par la technologie pour maximiser l’engagement et l’apprentissage des apprenants en classe. Dans le cadre de cette étude de recherche-action, les auteurs résument les réflexions sur la façon dont le modèle de la classe inversée peut appuyer l’enseignement, l’apprentissage et l’évaluation par la mise en œuvre de trois conceptions d’apprentissage par investigation : 1 discussion collaborative guidée, 2 tableau blanc de table et 3 développement d’auras en réalité augmentée. Les principes d’enseignement de l’efficacité sont utilisés comme optique guidant la réflexion sur les avantages et les défis de chacune des conceptions d’apprentissage. Les conclusions suggèrent que les modèles de classes inversées qui mettent l’accent sur l’apprentissage collaboratif, le travail en groupe et l’accessibilité peuvent

  10. Working towards a scalable model of problem-based learning instruction in undergraduate engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantri, Archana

    2014-05-01

    The intent of the study presented in this paper is to show that the model of problem-based learning (PBL) can be made scalable by designing curriculum around a set of open-ended problems (OEPs). The detailed statistical analysis of the data collected to measure the effects of traditional and PBL instructions for three courses in Electronics and Communication Engineering, namely Analog Electronics, Digital Electronics and Pulse, Digital & Switching Circuits is presented here. It measures the effects of pedagogy, gender and cognitive styles on the knowledge, skill and attitude of the students. The study was conducted two times with content designed around same set of OEPs but with two different trained facilitators for all the three courses. The repeatability of results for effects of the independent parameters on dependent parameters is studied and inferences are drawn.

  11. Teacher interaction in psychosocial learning environments: cultural differences and their implications in science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khine, Myint Swe; Fisher, Darrell L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine interpersonal behaviour in psychosocial learning environments and to determine the associations between science students' perceptions of their interactions with their teachers, the cultural background of teachers and their attitudinal outcomes. A sample of 1188 students completed the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction instrument. The responses to two subscales of Test of Science-related Attitudes were used as attitudinal measures. Significant associations between students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behaviour and the cultural background of teachers were detected. The results showed that students perceived a more favourable interpersonal relationship with Western teachers in the secondary science classrooms. The students in the classes of Western teachers indicated that they enjoyed science lessons more than those in the classes of Asian teachers. Some implications for science instruction in this context are discussed.

  12. A Methodological Alternative to Media Comparison Studies: Linking Information Utilization Strategies and Instructional Approach in Hypermedia Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Catrambone, Richard; Gerjets, Peter; Scheiter, Katharina; Vollmann, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    Literature reviews on hypermedia learning have yet failed to show consistent positive effects of learner-controlled nonlinear information access. We argue that a possible reason for this lack of evidence in favor of hypermedia learning results from the fact that not sufficient attention is paid to the strategies of information utilization learners deploy. The few studies that do analyze these strategies fail to link them to an instructional approach, which hampers a deeper interpretation of s...

  13. Developing Early Literacy Skills: A Meta-Analysis of Alphabet Learning and Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Alphabet knowledge is a hallmark of early literacy and facilitating its development has become a primary objective of pre-school instruction and intervention. However, little agreement exists about how to promote the development of alphabet knowledge effectively. A meta-analysis of the effects of instruction on alphabet outcomes demonstrated that instructional impacts differed by type of alphabet outcome examined and content of instruction provided. School-based instruction yielded larger eff...

  14. Integrating a WebQuest in the Primary School Curriculum Using Anchored Instruction: Effect on Learning Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P.C.J.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Based on a literature review, a means for integrating WebQuests in day-to-day school activities is introduced using principles of Anchored Instruction. Following these ideas in an effect study, including 109 children in 4th, 5th and 6th grade, significant learning gains were found, with a large

  15. Influence of Instructional Resources in Learning Agriculture in Secondary School on Employment Creation in Vihiga County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aholi, Seraphine Sherry; Konyango, Jacob J. J. Ochieng'; Kibett, Joash K.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of instructional resources in learning agriculture in secondary school on employment creation in Vihiga County, Kenya. The study was conducted in Emuhaya Constituency, and it adopted qualitative research design using descriptive survey method. The target population was the youth who learnt…

  16. Influences of Inadequate Instructional Materials and Facilities in Teaching and Learning of Electrical/Electronics Technology Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbu, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the influences of inadequate instructional materials and facilities in the teaching and learning of electrical/electronics (E/E) technology education courses. The study was guided by two research questions and two null hypotheses which were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design employed was descriptive survey…

  17. The Relationship between Strategic Reading Instruction, Student Learning of L2-Based Reading Strategies and L2 Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkakoson, Songyut

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between strategic reading instruction, the process of learning second language-based reading strategies and English reading achievement for Thai university students of science and technology. In a course in reading general English texts for 16?weeks, 82 students were taught using a strategies-based approach…

  18. Developing a Local Instruction Theory for Learning the Concept of Angle through Visual Field Activities and Spatial Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustang, B.; Zulkardi, Z.; Darmawijoyo, D.; Dolk, M.L.A.M.; van Eerde, H.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a study on designing and testing an instructional sequence for the teaching and learning of the concept of angle in Indonesian primary schools. The study’s context is employing the current reform movement adopting Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (an Indonesian version of

  19. Effectiveness of Facebook Based Learning to Enhance Creativity among Islamic Studies Students by Employing Isman Instructional Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Norlidah; Siraj, Saedah; Daud, Mohd Khairul Azman Md; Hussin, Zaharah

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of Facebook based learning to enhance creativity among Islamic Studies students in the secondary educational setting in Malaysia. It describes the design process by employing the Isman Instructional Design Model. A quantitative study was carried out using experimental method and background survey. The…

  20. Learning Science Content through Socio-Scientific Issues-Based Instruction: A Multi-Level Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Romine, William L.; Topçu, Mustafa Sami

    2016-01-01

    Science educators have presented numerous conceptual and theoretical arguments in favor of teaching science through the exploration of socio-scientific issues (SSI). However, the empirical knowledge base regarding the extent to which SSI-based instruction supports student learning of science content is limited both in terms of the number of…

  1. Effect of Instructional Media in the Learning of English Grammar on the Achievement of Teacher Training Students at Namakkal District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulselvi, Evangelin

    2011-01-01

    The present study is aimed at finding the effect of Instructional software program in the learning of grammar on the achievement of teacher training students of Namakkal District. Parallel group experimental method was adopted in this study. A sample of 80 students studying in the teacher training college were selected on the basis of their…

  2. Computer Instruction in Handwriting, Spelling, and Composing for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities in Grades 4 to 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Nagy, William; Tanimoto, Steve; Thompson, Rob; Abbott, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Effectiveness of iPad computerized writing instruction was evaluated for 4 th to 9 th graders ( n =35) with diagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLDs) affecting writing: dysgraphia (impaired handwriting), dyslexia (impaired spelling), and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD) (impaired syntax composing). Each of the 18 two-hour lessons had multiple learning activities aimed at improving subword - (handwriting), word - (spelling), and syntax - (sentence composing) level language skills by engaging all four language systems (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) to create a functional writing system. To evaluate treatment effectiveness, normed measures of handwriting, spelling, and composing were used with the exception of one non-normed alphabet writing task. Results showed that the sample as a whole improved significantly from pretest to posttest in three handwriting measures, four spelling measures, and both written and oral syntax construction measures. All but oral syntax was evaluated with pen and paper tasks, showing that the computer writing instruction transferred to better writing with pen and paper. Performance on learning activities during instruction correlated with writing outcomes; and individual students tended to improve in the impaired skill associated with their diagnosis. Thus, although computers are often used in upper elementary school and middle school in the United States (US) for accommodations (alternatives to pen and paper) for students with persisting SLDs affecting writing, this study shows computers can also be used for Tier 3 instruction to improve the writing skills of students in grades 4 to 9 with history of persisting writing disabilities.

  3. Project-Based Learning with an Online Peer Assessment System in a Photonics Instruction for Enhancing LED Design Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Hsuan; Wu, Tsung-Chih; Kuo, Yen-Kuang; You, Li-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This study proposed a novel instructional approach, a two-stage LED simulation of Project-based learning (PBL) course with online peer assessment (OPA), and explored how to apply OPA to the different structured problems in a PBL course to enhance students' professional skills in LED design as well as meta-cognitive thinking. The participants of…

  4. Knowledge Management as an Approach to Learning and Instructing Sector University Students in Post-Soviet Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volegzhanina, Irina S.; Chusovlyanova, Svetlana V.; Adolf, Vladimir A.; Bykadorova, Ekaterina S.; Belova, Elena N.

    2017-01-01

    The relevance of the study depends on addressing to the issue of knowledge management in learning and instructing students of post-Soviet sector universities. In this regard, the article is intended to reveal the nature of knowledge management approach compared to the knowledge-based one predominated in Soviet education. The flagship approach of…

  5. A Case Study on the Effects of an L2 Writing Instructional Model for Blended Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Lee; Lee, Chung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    This case study explores EFL (English as a foreign language) students' perceptions toward a prototype of an instructional model for second language (L2) writing in blended learning and the effects of the model on the development of L2 writing skills in higher education. This model is primarily founded on the process-oriented writing approach…

  6. Comparison of the Effects of SMART Board Technology and Flash Card Instruction on Sight Word Recognition and Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Gast, David L.; Thompson, Kimberly L.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of SMART Board, interactive whiteboard technology and traditional flash cards in teaching reading in a small-group instructional arrangement. Three students with moderate intellectual disabilities were taught to read grocery store aisle marker words under each condition. Observational learning (students…

  7. The Impact of Computer Assisted Instruction As It Relates to Learning Disabled Adults in California Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Mary Jo

    A study was conducted to determine the advantages and disadvantages of using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with learning disabled (LD) adults attending California community colleges. A questionnaire survey of the directors of the LD programs solicited information on the availability of CAI for LD adults, methods of course advertisement,…

  8. Learning How the Electron Transport Chain Works: Independent and Interactive Effects of Instructional Strategies and Learners' Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Arrastia-Lloyd, Meagan C.; Nelson, David W.; Liang, Xinya; Farrell, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop an expert-like mental model of complex systems, causal reasoning is essential. This study examines the differences between forward and backward instructional strategies in terms of efficiency, students' learning and progression of their mental models of the electronic transport chain in an undergraduate metabolism course…

  9. Computer Instruction in Handwriting, Spelling, and Composing for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities in Grades 4 to 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Nagy, William; Tanimoto, Steve; Thompson, Rob; Abbott, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Effectiveness of iPad computerized writing instruction was evaluated for 4th to 9th graders (n=35) with diagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLDs) affecting writing: dysgraphia (impaired handwriting), dyslexia (impaired spelling), and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD) (impaired syntax composing). Each of the 18 two-hour lessons had multiple learning activities aimed at improving subword- (handwriting), word- (spelling), and syntax- (sentence composing) level language skills by engaging all four language systems (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) to create a functional writing system. To evaluate treatment effectiveness, normed measures of handwriting, spelling, and composing were used with the exception of one non-normed alphabet writing task. Results showed that the sample as a whole improved significantly from pretest to posttest in three handwriting measures, four spelling measures, and both written and oral syntax construction measures. All but oral syntax was evaluated with pen and paper tasks, showing that the computer writing instruction transferred to better writing with pen and paper. Performance on learning activities during instruction correlated with writing outcomes; and individual students tended to improve in the impaired skill associated with their diagnosis. Thus, although computers are often used in upper elementary school and middle school in the United States (US) for accommodations (alternatives to pen and paper) for students with persisting SLDs affecting writing, this study shows computers can also be used for Tier 3 instruction to improve the writing skills of students in grades 4 to 9 with history of persisting writing disabilities. PMID:25378768

  10. The Effect of Instructional Methods (Lecture-Discussion versus Group Discussion) and Teaching Talent on Teacher Trainees Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutrofin; Degeng, Nyoman Sudana; Ardhana, Wayan; Setyosari, Punaji

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine difference in the effect of instructional methods (lecture-discussion versus group discussion) and teaching talent on teacher trainees student learning outcomes. It was conducted by a quasi-experimental design using the factorialized (2 x 2) version of the nonequivalent control group design. The subjects were…

  11. The Effects of CBI Lesson Sequence Type and Field Dependence on Learning from Computer-Based Cooperative Instruction in Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, Ismail

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CBI lesson sequence type and cognitive style of field dependence on learning from Computer-Based Cooperative Instruction (CBCI) in WEB on the dependent measures, achievement, reading comprehension and reading rate. Eighty-seven college undergraduate students were randomly assigned to…

  12. The Effects of the Medium of Instruction in Certificate-Level Physics on Achievement and Motivation to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis; Yip, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year study was launched in a Hong Kong secondary school to investigate the effects of the medium of instruction (MOI), specifically English and Chinese, on the learning of certificate-level physics. A total of 199 Secondary Four (S4 or tenth-grade) students, divided into three major ability groups, participated in a teaching intervention…

  13. Ontwerpen van onderwijs om ‘self-directed learning’ te stimuleren [Desiging instruction to foster self-directed learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2010-01-01

    Brand-Gruwel, S. (2010, March). Ontwerpen van onderwijs om ‘self-directed learning’ te stimuleren [Desiging instruction to foster self-directed learning]. Key-note presented at the 3th 4C/ID-conference, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  14. MO-DE-BRA-01: Enhancing Radiation Physics Instruction Through Gamification and E-Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driewer, J; Lei, Y; Morgan, B; Zheng, D; Zhou, S; Burchell, M; Fowler, Z

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This project sought to “gamify” the instruction of radiation interaction physics concepts for technology students. Gamification applies game mechanics and user interactions in active learning contexts. In one part of this project, a self-guided eModule was developed for conceptual radiation interaction instruction. In a second part, a web-based game, Particle Launch (http://particle-launcher.ist.unomaha.edu), was created to challenge students to quickly apply radiation interaction concepts in a way that is stimulating and motivating. Methods: The eModule, focused on conceptual interaction physics, was designed in Adobe Captivate and incorporates animation, web videos, and assessment questions in order to generate student interest. Navigating the whole module takes 40 minutes for beginners. Assessments after three main sections are comprised of 3–4 questions randomly selected from a question pool. In collaboration with the University of Nebraska at Omaha’s College of Information Science and Technology, the Particle Launch game was created with the Unity gaming engine and designed with a game-play look and feel. The object of the game is to utilize different particles, energies, and directions to destroy a target given a limited number of resources and time to complete the task. A rewards system encourages accurate shots. Results: The eModule part of the project encourages a flipped classroom model in which class time is devoted to application of concepts rather than information-based lectures. Currently, eModule assessments are not tracked but this feature could be incorporated to encourage participation. Furthermore, in a class of five technology students, the game was found to be fun and engaging and had the effect of reinforcing basic concepts from the eModule. Conclusion: Gamification has significant potential to alter medical physics instruction. Game-play feedback is an important part of the learning process. Students found Particle Launch

  15. MO-DE-BRA-01: Enhancing Radiation Physics Instruction Through Gamification and E-Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driewer, J; Lei, Y; Morgan, B; Zheng, D; Zhou, S [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Burchell, M; Fowler, Z [University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This project sought to “gamify” the instruction of radiation interaction physics concepts for technology students. Gamification applies game mechanics and user interactions in active learning contexts. In one part of this project, a self-guided eModule was developed for conceptual radiation interaction instruction. In a second part, a web-based game, Particle Launch (http://particle-launcher.ist.unomaha.edu), was created to challenge students to quickly apply radiation interaction concepts in a way that is stimulating and motivating. Methods: The eModule, focused on conceptual interaction physics, was designed in Adobe Captivate and incorporates animation, web videos, and assessment questions in order to generate student interest. Navigating the whole module takes 40 minutes for beginners. Assessments after three main sections are comprised of 3–4 questions randomly selected from a question pool. In collaboration with the University of Nebraska at Omaha’s College of Information Science and Technology, the Particle Launch game was created with the Unity gaming engine and designed with a game-play look and feel. The object of the game is to utilize different particles, energies, and directions to destroy a target given a limited number of resources and time to complete the task. A rewards system encourages accurate shots. Results: The eModule part of the project encourages a flipped classroom model in which class time is devoted to application of concepts rather than information-based lectures. Currently, eModule assessments are not tracked but this feature could be incorporated to encourage participation. Furthermore, in a class of five technology students, the game was found to be fun and engaging and had the effect of reinforcing basic concepts from the eModule. Conclusion: Gamification has significant potential to alter medical physics instruction. Game-play feedback is an important part of the learning process. Students found Particle Launch

  16. The effect of guided inquiry-based instruction in secondary science for students with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Michael H.

    Students with learning disabilities (SWLDs) need to attain academic rigor to graduate from high school and college, as well as achieve success in life. Constructivist theories suggest that guided inquiry may provide the impetus for their success, yet little research has been done to support this premise. This study was designed to fill that gap. This quasi-experimental study compared didactic and guided inquiry-based teaching of science concepts to secondary SWLDs in SDC science classes. The study examined 38 students in four classes at two diverse, urban high schools. Participants were taught two science concepts using both teaching methods and posttested after each using paper-and-pencil tests and performance tasks. Data were compared to determine increases in conceptual understanding by teaching method, order of teaching method, and exposure one or both teaching methods. A survey examined participants' perceived self-efficacy under each method. Also, qualitative comparison of the two test formats examined appropriate use with SWLDs. Results showed significantly higher scores after the guided inquiry method on concept of volume, suggesting that guided inquiry does improve conceptual understanding over didactic instruction in some cases. Didactic teaching followed by guided inquiry resulted in higher scores than the reverse order, indicating that SWLDs may require direct instruction in basic facts and procedures related to a topic prior to engaging in guided inquiry. Also application of both teaching methods resulted in significantly higher scores than a single method on the concept of density, suggesting that SWLDs may require more in depth instruction found using both methods. No differences in perceived self-efficacy were shown. Qualitative analysis both assessments and participants' behaviors during testing support the use of performance tasks over paper-and-pencil tests with SWLDs. Implications for education include the use of guided inquiry to increase SWLDs

  17. Self-directed learning can outperform direct instruction in the course of a modern German medical curriculum - results of a mixed methods trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peine, Arne; Kabino, Klaus; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2016-06-03

    Modernised medical curricula in Germany (so called "reformed study programs") rely increasingly on alternative self-instructed learning forms such as e-learning and curriculum-guided self-study. However, there is a lack of evidence that these methods can outperform conventional teaching methods such as lectures and seminars. This study was conducted in order to compare extant traditional teaching methods with new instruction forms in terms of learning effect and student satisfaction. In a randomised trial, 244 students of medicine in their third academic year were assigned to one of four study branches representing self-instructed learning forms (e-learning and curriculum-based self-study) and instructed learning forms (lectures and seminars). All groups participated in their respective learning module with standardised materials and instructions. Learning effect was measured with pre-test and post-test multiple-choice questionnaires. Student satisfaction and learning style were examined via self-assessment. Of 244 initial participants, 223 completed the respective module and were included in the study. In the pre-test, the groups showed relatively homogenous scores. All students showed notable improvements compared with the pre-test results. Participants in the non-self-instructed learning groups reached scores of 14.71 (seminar) and 14.37 (lecture), while the groups of self-instructed learners reached higher scores with 17.23 (e-learning) and 15.81 (self-study). All groups improved significantly (p learning group, whose self-assessment improved by 2.36. The study shows that students in modern study curricula learn better through modern self-instructed methods than through conventional methods. These methods should be used more, as they also show good levels of student acceptance and higher scores in personal self-assessment of knowledge.

  18. Changing learning with new interactive and media-rich instruction environments: virtual labs case study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Camillan

    2003-01-01

    Technology has created a new dimension for visual teaching and learning with web-delivered interactive media. The Virtual Labs Project has embraced this technology with instructional design and evaluation methodologies behind the simPHYSIO suite of simulation-based, online interactive teaching modules in physiology for the Stanford students. In addition, simPHYSIO provides the convenience of anytime web-access and a modular structure that allows for personalization and customization of the learning material. This innovative tool provides a solid delivery and pedagogical backbone that can be applied to developing an interactive simulation-based training tool for the use and management of the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) image information system. The disparity in the knowledge between health and IT professionals can be bridged by providing convenient modular teaching tools to fill the gaps in knowledge. An innovative teaching method in the whole PACS is deemed necessary for its successful implementation and operation since it has become widely distributed with many interfaces, components, and customizations. This paper will discuss the techniques for developing an interactive-based teaching tool, a case study of its implementation, and a perspective for applying this approach to an online PACS training tool. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. The Effects of Multimedia Computer- Assisted Instruction on Learning Basic Ballet Skills with Physical Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Moneim Doaa Abd

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer technology has become an integral part of physical education, yet there have been few studies exploring the use of multimedia technology in the instruction of Physical Education. The purpose of this study was to investigate if multimedia technology affected the learning of basic ballet skills. A total of 32 female students, mean age 18.1 years, studying at the Faculty of Physical Education Zagazig university were divided into two groups. The experimental group comprised 16 students. Participants in this group participated in a ballet class with multimedia technology for six weeks. Group two participated in the ballet class with the traditional method as the control group. Parameters assessed height, weight, age, and academic level. All participants were free of any disorders known to affect performance, such as bone fractures, osteoporosis, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. Participants reported no use of anti-seizure drugs or alcohol. In addition, all participants were fully informed of the aims of the study, and gave their voluntary consent prior to participation. The measurement procedures were in accordance with ethical human experimentation. All statistical analyses were calculated with the SPSS statistical package. Results indicated significant differences between the two groups in learning the basic skills and levels of knowledge of ballet. Applying the proposed educational program meant using multimedia to teach basic ballet skills to second-year female students enrolled in the Faculty of Physical Education

  20. Learning Electrical Circuits: The Effects of the 4C-ID Instructional Approach in the Acquisition and Transfer of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Melo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of two instructional approaches (4C-ID versus conventional on learners’ knowledge-acquisition and learning transfer of the electrical circuits content in Physics. Participants were 129 9th graders from a secondary school in Lisbon, M = 14.3 years, SD = 0.54. The participants were divided in two groups: an experimental group constituted three intact classes (n = 78; and a control group constituted two intact classes (n = 51. The experimental group was taught using a digital learning environment designed with the 4C-ID model principles while the control group learned the same contents through a conventional method. We assessed the students’ performance (knowledge-acquisition and transfer, the perceived cognitive load, and the instructional efficiency. Results indicated that the experimental group performed significantly better than the control group on a knowledge-acquisition test and in a learning transfer test. They also perceived a less cognitive load in the transfer test and the learning environment developed with the 4C-ID model proved to be more instructional efficient than the conventional method.

  1. Authentic Learning Experiences for Educators through Summer Internships: Revising the DIG Texas Instructional Blueprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A. O.; Bohls-Graham, E.; Jacobs, B. E.; Ellins, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Texas teachers have expressed a need for engaging activities for use in high school Earth science courses. With funding from the NSF, geoscience and education faculty from different institutions around the state collaborated with ten Earth science teachers to create five online Earth science instructional blueprints. The work is part of the DIG (Diversity and Innovation for Geosciences) Texas Instructional Blueprint project. A blueprint stitches together nine units for a yearlong Earth science course (scope and sequence). Each unit covers three weeks of teaching and contains lectures, readings, visualizations, lab investigations, learning activities, and other educational materials from credible sources, which are aligned with Texas state science standards for Earth and Space Science and the Earth Science Literacy Principles. Taken together, the collection of activities address the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). During summer 2014, three minority-serving secondary teachers completed a six-week internship at The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG). As DIG Texas Education Interns, we organized and revised the content of the units, created scaffolding notes, and built blueprints by selecting groups of nine units from the project's current collection of twenty-one units. Because fieldwork is an important element of geoscience learning, we integrated virtual field trips into each unit. We (1) gained expertise in selecting high quality activities that directly correlate with state standards and address the Earth Science Literacy Principles; (2) developed a keen awareness of the value of the NGSS; (3) learned how to navigate through the NGSS website to track the relationships between the Science and Engineering Practices, Disciplinary Core Ideas, and Crosscutting Concepts for Earth science, as well as connections to other disciplines in the same grade level. Collaborating with other secondary Earth science teachers introduced each of us to new

  2. Technologically Enhanced Language Learning and Instruction: Подорожі.UA: Beginners’ Ukrainian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Sivachenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the development of a new blended-learning model for beginners’ Ukrainian language learning and instruction, an innovative approach in foreign language education. This model is a combination of face-to-face and online learning and is a response to new realities in education, and language learning in particular, in our fast-paced, technologically enhanced everyday life. The authors focuses on the design of their new blended-learning textbook Подорожі.UA (Travels.UA, which contains a considerable online component, closely interconnected with in-class, or face-to-face, learning and teaching materials. They discuss their approach to the pedagogical design of this new model, used in the textbook, and also address piloting challenges. The study concludes with a report on the overall success of this project and invites others who teach Ukrainian at postsecondary levels to pilot the project in their institutions.

  3. The Effect of Semantic Mapping as a Vocabulary Instruction Technique on EFL Learners with Different Perceptual Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeel Abdollahzadeh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional and modern vocabulary instruction techniques have been introduced in the past few decades to improve the learners’ performance in reading comprehension. Semantic mapping, which entails drawing learners’ attention to the interrelationships among lexical items through graphic organizers, is claimed to enhance vocabulary learning significantly. However, whether this technique suits all types of learners has not been adequately investigated. This study examines the effectiveness of employing semantic mapping versus traditional approaches in vocabulary instruction to EFL learners with different perceptual modalities. A modified version of Reid’s (1987 perceptual learning style questionnaire was used to determine the learners’ modality types. The results indicate that semantic mapping in comparison to the traditional approaches significantly enhances vocabulary learning of EFL learners. However, although visual learners slightly outperformed other types of learners on the post-test, no significant differences were observed among intermediate learners with different perceptual modalities employing semantic mapping for vocabulary practice.

  4. ASIE Model: An Innovative Instructional Design Model for Teachers in Enhancing and Sustaining the Quality of the 21st Century Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Md Zain

    2017-01-01

    An effective and systematic design of instruction will determine the quality of learning and teaching practices. Hence, instructional design models are required, to move from just adopting a standard approach to developing models that have an impact on learners' profiles, creating a much better learning experience, skills, and knowledge both in the classroom and online. The 21st Century Learning Framework requires learners to develop their thinking skills, communication skills, collaborating ...

  5. Learning how the electron transport chain works: independent and interactive effects of instructional strategies and learners' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Arrastia-Lloyd, Meagan C; Nelson, David W; Liang, Xinya; Farrell, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop an expert-like mental model of complex systems, causal reasoning is essential. This study examines the differences between forward and backward instructional strategies' in terms of efficiency, students' learning and progression of their mental models of the electronic transport chain in an undergraduate metabolism course (n = 151). Additionally, the participants' cognitive flexibility, prior knowledge, and mental effort in the learning process are also investigated. The data were analyzed using a series of general linear models to compare the strategies. Although the two strategies did not differ significantly in terms of mental model progression and learning outcomes, both groups' mental models progressed significantly. Mental effort and prior knowledge were identified as significant predictors of mental model progression. An interaction between instructional strategy and cognitive flexibility revealed that the backward instruction was more efficient than the conventional (forward) strategy for students with lower cognitive flexibility, whereas the conventional instruction was more efficient for students with higher cognitive flexibility. The results are discussed and suggestions for future research on the possible moderating role of cognitive flexibility in the area of health education are presented.

  6. Academic Vocabulary Learning in First Through Third Grade in Low-Income Schools: Effects of Automated Supplemental Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Howard; Ziolkowski, Robyn A; Bojczyk, Kathryn E; Marty, Ana; Schneider, Naomi; Harpring, Jayme; Haring, Christa D

    2017-11-09

    This study investigated cumulative effects of language learning, specifically whether prior vocabulary knowledge or special education status moderated the effects of academic vocabulary instruction in high-poverty schools. Effects of a supplemental intervention targeting academic vocabulary in first through third grades were evaluated with 241 students (6-9 years old) from low-income families, 48% of whom were retained for the 3-year study duration. Students were randomly assigned to vocabulary instruction or comparison groups. Curriculum-based measures of word recognition, receptive identification, expressive labeling, and decontextualized definitions showed large effects for multiple levels of word learning. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that students with higher initial Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition scores (Dunn & Dunn, 2007) demonstrated greater word learning, whereas students with special needs demonstrated less growth in vocabulary. This model of vocabulary instruction can be applied efficiently in high-poverty schools through an automated, easily implemented adjunct to reading instruction in the early grades and holds promise for reducing gaps in vocabulary development.

  7. Direct Problem-Based Learning (DPBL): A Framework for Integrating Direct Instruction and Problem-Based Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarno, Sri; Muthu, Kalaiarasi Sonai; Ling, Lew Sook

    2018-01-01

    Direct instruction approach has been widely used in higher education. Many studies revealed that direct instruction improved students' knowledge. The characteristics of direct instruction include the subject delivered through face-to-face interaction with the lecturers and materials that sequenced deliberately and taught explicitly. However,…

  8. The Effects of Segmentation and Personalization on Superficial and Comprehensive Strategy Instruction in Multimedia Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Short, cause-and-effect instructional multimedia tutorials that provide learner control of instructional pace (segmentation) and verbal representations of content in a conversational tone (personalization) have been demonstrated to benefit problem solving transfer. How might a more comprehensive multimedia instructional environment focused on…

  9. Algorithmic analysis of relational learning processes in instructional technology: Some implications for basic, translational, and applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvane, William J; Kledaras, Joanne B; Gerard, Christophe J; Wilde, Lorin; Smelson, David

    2018-07-01

    A few noteworthy exceptions notwithstanding, quantitative analyses of relational learning are most often simple descriptive measures of study outcomes. For example, studies of stimulus equivalence have made much progress using measures such as percentage consistent with equivalence relations, discrimination ratio, and response latency. Although procedures may have ad hoc variations, they remain fairly similar across studies. Comparison studies of training variables that lead to different outcomes are few. Yet to be developed are tools designed specifically for dynamic and/or parametric analyses of relational learning processes. This paper will focus on recent studies to develop (1) quality computer-based programmed instruction for supporting relational learning in children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disabilities and (2) formal algorithms that permit ongoing, dynamic assessment of learner performance and procedure changes to optimize instructional efficacy and efficiency. Because these algorithms have a strong basis in evidence and in theories of stimulus control, they may have utility also for basic and translational research. We present an overview of the research program, details of algorithm features, and summary results that illustrate their possible benefits. It also presents arguments that such algorithm development may encourage parametric research, help in integrating new research findings, and support in-depth quantitative analyses of stimulus control processes in relational learning. Such algorithms may also serve to model control of basic behavioral processes that is important to the design of effective programmed instruction for human learners with and without functional disabilities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of 3D interactive animated graphics on student learning and attitudes in computer-based instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hye Sun

    Visuals are most extensively used as instructional tools in education to present spatially-based information. Recent computer technology allows the generation of 3D animated visuals to extend the presentation in computer-based instruction. Animated visuals in 3D representation not only possess motivational value that promotes positive attitudes toward instruction but also facilitate learning when the subject matter requires dynamic motion and 3D visual cue. In this study, three questions are explored: (1) how 3D graphics affects student learning and attitude, in comparison with 2D graphics; (2) how animated graphics affects student learning and attitude, in comparison with static graphics; and (3) whether the use of 3D graphics, when they are supported by interactive animation, is the most effective visual cues to improve learning and to develop positive attitudes. A total of 145 eighth-grade students participated in a 2 x 2 factorial design study. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of four computer-based instructions: 2D static; 2D animated; 3D static; and 3D animated. The results indicated that: (1) Students in the 3D graphic condition exhibited more positive attitudes toward instruction than those in the 2D graphic condition. No group differences were found between the posttest score of 3D graphic condition and that of 2D graphic condition. However, students in the 3D graphic condition took less time for information retrieval on posttest than those in the 2D graphic condition. (2) Students in the animated graphic condition exhibited slightly more positive attitudes toward instruction than those in the static graphic condition. No group differences were found between the posttest score of animated graphic condition and that of static graphic condition. However, students in the animated graphic condition took less time for information retrieval on posttest than those in the static graphic condition. (3) Students in the 3D animated graphic condition

  11. Collaboration of chemistry instructional games and group investigation (Gi) model to improve learning outcome in high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspita, Ita; Sugiyarto, Kristian H.; Ikhsan, Jaslin

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this research are to: (1) develop chemistry instructional games on reaction rate matter; and (2) reveal the collaboration of chemistry instructional games and group investigation model to improvement learning outcome in high school student. This study is research and development (R&D). The procedure of developing product was adapted from Borg & Gall that modified into three principal steps: product planning, product developing, and product evaluating. The product planning step consist of field study, literature study, and manufacturing product. Product developing was developed product using Adobe Flash Professional CS 6 program. The last, product evaluating was performed by year XI of high school students, uses experimental methods nonequivalent control-group design by control class and experiment class. The results of this research show that: (1) a software of chemistry instructional games successfully developed using Adobe Flash Professional CS 6 and can be run on Android device; and (2) the test results of students showed that the collaboration of instructional games and group investigation model able to improvement learning outcome of hight school student.

  12. The Effect of the Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction through Cooperative Learning on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Earth and Sky Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…

  13. The Identification, Implementation, and Evaluation of Critical User Interface Design Features of Computer-Assisted Instruction Programs in Mathematics for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, You-Jin; Woo, Honguk

    2010-01-01

    Critical user interface design features of computer-assisted instruction programs in mathematics for students with learning disabilities and corresponding implementation guidelines were identified in this study. Based on the identified features and guidelines, a multimedia computer-assisted instruction program, "Math Explorer", which delivers…

  14. The Effectiveness of Using an Explicit Language Learning Strategy-Based Instruction in Developing Secondary School Students' EFL Listening Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Iman Abdul-Reheem; Amin, Magdy Mohammad; Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring the effectiveness of using explicit language learning strategy-based instruction in developing secondary school students' EFL listening comprehension skills. It was hypothesized that using explicit strategy-based instruction would develop students' EFL listening comprehension skill and its sub-skills. The…

  15. The Effect of an Instructional Model Utilizing Hands-on Learning and Manipulatives on Math Achievement of Middle School Students in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kara Morgan

    2012-01-01

    The concepts and ideas of mathematics is a major element of educational curriculum. Many different instructional strategies are implemented in mathematics classrooms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an instructional model utilizing hands-on learning and use of manipulatives on mathematics achievement of middle school…

  16. Effects of an Instructional Gaming Characteristic on Learning Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Engagement: Using a Storyline to Teach Basic Statistical Analytical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The study explored instructional benefits of a storyline gaming characteristic (GC) on learning effectiveness, efficiency, and engagement with the use of an online instructional simulation for graduate students in an introductory statistics course. In addition, the study focused on examining the effects of a storyline GC on specific learning…

  17. Computerized Writing and Reading Instruction for Students in Grades 4 to 9 With Specific Learning Disabilities Affecting Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Steven; Thompson, Rob; Berninger, Virginia W.; Nagy, William; Abbott, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Computer scientists and educational researchers evaluated effectiveness of computerized instruction tailored to evidence-based impairments in specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in students in grades 4 to 9 with persisting SLDs despite prior extra help. Following comprehensive, evidence-based differential diagnosis for dysgraphia (impaired handwriting), dyslexia (impaired word reading and spelling), and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD), students completed 18 sessions of computerized instruction over about 3 months. The 11 students taught letter formation with sequential, numbered, colored arrow cues with full contours who wrote letters on lines added to iPAD screen showed more and stronger treatment effects than the 21 students taught using only visual motion cues for letter formation who wrote on an unlined computer monitor. Teaching to all levels of language in multiple functional language systems (by ear, eye, mouth, and hand) close in time resulted in significant gains in reading and writing skills for the group and in diagnosed SLD hallmark impairments for individuals; also, performance on computerized learning activities correlated with treatment gains. Results are discussed in reference to need for both accommodations and explicit instruction for persisting SLDs and the potential for computers to teach handwriting, morphophonemic orthographies, comprehension, and composition. PMID:26858470

  18. Online Learning Journals as an Instructional and Self-Assessment Tool for Epistemological Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Brett

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study looked at the instructional and assessment effects of using learning journals in three distance asynchronous computer conferencing courses (n=18, n=16, n=17. The instructor used a design-research methodology: each iteration of the course involved modifications to how learning journals were used based on analyses of the responses and results from the preceding course. Modifications included: a use of orienting questions; b question content, c journal assessment and d amount of scaffolding. Protocols were analyzed with a view to characterizing students’ epistemic cognition from two perspectives: belief mode (rationalist epistemology, self analysis, norms of inquiry to defend competing beliefs and design mode (knowledge building epistemology, collective responsibility, norms of inquiry to support idea improvement and explanatory coherence. Changes in metacognitive reflection and learning journal activity were related to measures of learning. As a pedagogical tool, learning journals with directed questions (scaffolding encouraged self-awareness of learning and epistemological reflection. Résumé : La présente étude a examiné les effets de l’utilisation de journaux d’apprentissage sur l’enseignement et l’évaluation dans trois cours à distance asynchrones en téléconférence assistée par ordinateur (n = 18, n = 16, n = 17. L’instructeur a utilisé une méthodologie de recherche-conception : à chaque prestation du cours, des modifications étaient apportées à la manière dont les journaux d’apprentissage étaient utilisés en se basant sur l’analyse des réponses et les résultats obtenus lors de la prestation précédente. Les modifications concernaient : a l’utilisation de questions d’orientation; b le contenu des questions; c l’évaluation du journal; d la quantité d’échafaudage. Les protocoles ont été analysés de manière à caractériser la cognition épistémique des étudiants à partir de deux

  19. Impact of Single-sex Instruction on Student Motivation to Learn Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Kissau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTo increase male motivation to learn additional languages studies have suggested teaching males in single-sex second and foreign language classes (Carr & Pauwels, 2006; Chambers, 2005. Despite the reported benefits of this unique arrangement, a review of literature found no related research conducted in Canada or the United States. To address this lack of research, a study was conducted in the spring of 2008 to investigate the impact of single-sex instruction on student motivation to learn Spanish. Using Gardner's model of second language motivation (1985, 57 high-school students studying Spanish in either single-sex or coeducational classes completed a pre and post questionnaire to gauge their motivation to learn the language. Follow-up interviews were also conducted with both students and teachers. Results indicated that while both sexes enjoyed some educational advantages from the single-sex environment, the benefits appeared to be greater for the males than the females.RésuméAfin d'accroître la motivation des garçons pour l'apprentissage des langues, certaines études ont suggéré d'enseigner les langues secondes ou étrangères à des classes de garçons exclusivement (Carr & Pauwels, 2006; Chambers, 2005. Malgré le bénéfice confirmé d'un tel contexte, il n'existe aucune recherche similaire connue sur ce sujet au Canada ou aux États Unis. Pour remédier à cette lacune, on a conduit au printemps 2008 une étude portant sur l'impact de l'enseignement non mixte sur la motivation des élèves à apprendre l'espagnol. Selon le modèle de Gardner quant à la motivation dans l'apprentissage d'une langue seconde (1985, 57 élèves au niveau secondaire apprenant l'espagnol dans des classes mixtes et non mixtes ont rempli avant et après le cours, des questionnaires destinés à mesurer leur motivation. Le suivi a été assuré par le biais d' entrevues avec élèves et professeurs. Les résultats montrent que si les élèves des

  20. Dynamic assessment and instructional strategies for learners who struggle to learn a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E; Ganschow, L

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the authors discuss how the concept of dynamic (cognitive) assessment and instruction might relate to the assessment and instruction of at-risk foreign/second language learners. They describe its relevance to a diagnostic/prescriptive approach to instruction for teaching a foreign language to students with identified dyslexia and other at-risk students. They explain how to assess learners' knowledge of the native/foreign/second language through questions and guided discovery. Examples in German and English illustrate its application to foreign/second language instruction.

  1. Optimizing students' motivation in inquiry-based learning environments: The role of instructional practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Toni M.

    The influence of inquiry science instruction on the motivation of 1360 minority inner-city seventh graders was examined. The project-based curriculum incorporates motivating features like real world questions, collaboration, technology, and lesson variety. Students design investigations, collect and analyze data, and create artifacts; challenging tasks require extensive use of learning and metacognitive strategies. Study 1 used Structural Equation Modeling to investigate student perceptions of the prevalence of project-based features, including real world connections, collaboration, academic press, and work norms, and their relation to interest, efficacy, cognitive engagement, and achievement. Perceptions of features related to different motivational outcomes, indicating the importance of using differentiated rather than single measures to study motivation in context. Cognitive engagement was enhanced by interest and efficacy but did not influence achievement, perhaps because students were not proficient strategy users and were new to inquiry. Study 2 examined the relationship between instructional practices and motivation. The 23 teachers in study 1 were observed six times during one unit. Observations focused on curriculum congruence, content accuracy, contextualization, sense making, and management and climate. A majority of teacher enactment was congruent with the curriculum, indicating that students experienced motivating features of project-based science. Hierarchical Linear Modeling showed that contextualization accounted for between-teacher variance in student interest, efficacy, and cognitive engagement; Teachers encouraged motivation through extended real world examples that related material to students' experiences. Cluster analysis was used to determine how patterns of practice affected motivation. Unexpectedly these patterns did not differentially relate to cognitive engagement. Findings showed that interest and efficacy were enhanced when teachers

  2. The Ripple Effect: Exploring How a Joint Science Specialist/TOSA Can Change Classroom Teachers' Instructional Practices through Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradias, Jean

    In 2013, California became one of the first states to adopt the rigorous Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). However, the current state of science instruction does not support the conceptual shifts of the NGSS, which call for consistent science instruction K-12, increased inquiry, subject integration, as well as science instruction that connects students to their communities and their world. Therefore, teachers are in need of instructional support for science teaching that can enable them to achieve these higher expectations. This dissertation explored whether implementing a Project-Based Learning (PBL)-centered science specialist changed classroom teachers' frequency of science instruction and use of instructional strategies that support NGSS science delivery. In addition, this study examined how providing a PBL science specialist supported teachers in their comfort with using these more rigorous instructional strategies. Five elementary teachers participated in an action research project conducted over the course of a school year. The frequency with which teachers used the following instructional strategies was analyzed: connecting science to real world phenomena, accessing community resources, integrating science into other subject areas, and using inquiry in science instruction. Quantitative and qualitative data revealed that a PBL science specialist does support classroom teachers in implementing teaching practices aligned to the conceptual shifts implicated by the NGSS; however, individual growth rates varied by instructional strategy. The results of this study provide a foundation for the legitimacy of utilizing a PBL-focused science specialist to support teachers in shifting their instructional practices in order to achieve the Next Generation Science Standards.

  3. Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders' vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J

    2014-08-01

    We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students' literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students' comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement.

  4. Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders’ vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L.; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students’ literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students’ comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement. PMID:25400293

  5. Flaws in current human training protocols for spontaneous Brain-Computer Interfaces: lessons learned from instructional design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien eLotte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While recent research on Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI has highlighted their potential for many applications, they remain barely used outside laboratories. The main reason is their lack of robustness. Indeed, with current BCI, mental state recognition is usually slow and often incorrect. Spontaneous BCI (i.e., mental imagery-based BCI often rely on mutual learning efforts by the user and the machine, with BCI users learning to produce stable EEG patterns (spontaneous BCI control being widely acknowledged as a skill while the computer learns to automatically recognize these EEG patterns, using signal processing. Most research so far was focused on signal processing, mostly neglecting the human in the loop. However, how well the user masters the BCI skill is also a key element explaining BCI robustness. Indeed, if the user is not able to produce stable and distinct EEG patterns, then no signal processing algorithm would be able to recognize them. Unfortunately, despite the importance of BCI training protocols, they have been scarcely studied so far, and used mostly unchanged for years.In this paper, we advocate that current human training approaches for spontaneous BCI are most likely inappropriate. We notably study instructional design literature in order to identify the key requirements and guidelines for a successful training procedure that promotes a good and efficient skill learning. This literature study highlights that current spontaneous BCI user training procedures satisfy very few of these requirements and hence are likely to be suboptimal. We therefore identify the flaws in BCI training protocols according to instructional design principles, at several levels: in the instructions provided to the user, in the tasks he/she has to perform, and in the feedback provided. For each level, we propose new research directions that are theoretically expected to address some of these flaws and to help users learn the BCI skill more efficiently.

  6. Comparisons between students' learning achievements of their conventional instruction and the science, technology and social conceptual instructional design on digestion system issue of secondary students at the 10th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichalek, Supattra; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn; Santiboon, Toansakul

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this action research study were 1) to develop learning activities according to the instructional designing model of science, technology, and social (STS) on Digestion Issue, 2) to compare students' learning achievements between their learning activities with the conventional instructional (CIM) and conceptual instructional designing methods of science, technology, and social (STS) on digestion system of secondary students at the 10th grade level with a sample size of 35 experimental student group of their STS learning method, and 91 controlling group in two classes in the first semester in academic year 2016. Using the 4-Instructional Innovative Lesson Plans, the Students' Learning Behaviour Observing Form, the Questionnaire on Teacher Behaviour Interaction (QTBI), the Researcher's Recording Form, the Learning Activity Form, and the Parallel Learning Achievement Test (LAT) were assessed. The results of this research have found that; the Index of Item Objective Congruence (IOC) value ranged from 0.67 to 1.00; the difficulty values were 0.47 and 0.79 for the CIM and STS methods, respectively, the discriminative validity for the LAT was ranged from 0.20 to 0.75. The reliability of the QTBI was 0.79. Students' responses of their learning achievements with the average means scores indicted of the normalized gain values of 0.79 for the STS group, and 0.50 and 0.36 for the CIM groups, respectively. Students' learning achievements of their post-test indicated that of a higher than pre-test, the pre-test and post-test assessments were also differentiated evidence at the 0.05 levels for the STS and CIM groups, significantly. The 22-students' learning outcomes from the STS group evidences at a high level, only of the 9-students' responses in a moderate level were developed of their learning achievements, responsibility.

  7. Authentic Instruction for 21st Century Learning: Higher Order Thinking in an Inclusive School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preus, Betty

    2012-01-01

    The author studied a public junior high school identified as successfully implementing authentic instruction. Such instruction emphasizes higher order thinking, deep knowledge, substantive conversation, and value beyond school. To determine in what ways higher order thinking was fostered both for students with and without disabilities, the author…

  8. Leading Learning: First-Year Principals' Reflections on Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Ann; Ovando, Martha N.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the instructional leadership perceptions of four first-year principals. Findings illuminate five themes drawn from the data: definitions of instructional leadership, challenges that first-year principals faced, how these principals addressed these challenges, how the novice principals plan to enact their…

  9. What We Learned from a Tomato: Partnering with a Content Expert Plants New Ideas for Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermeling, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    The interactions described in this article represent an example of teachers expanding horizons of instructional plans as a direct result of outside expert contributions. After alerting teachers to oversimplified claims about the benefits of lycopene, the research fellow presented the team with a wider range of instructional options to consider…

  10. Voices from the Field: What Have We Learned about Instructional Leadership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Tony; Acker-Hocevar, Michele; Ballenger, Julia; Place, A. William

    2013-01-01

    This article documents perceptions of superintendents and principals when working under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) in 2004-06. It uses data collected through the Voices 3 Project to consider three factors associated with instructional leadership as applied under NCLB, defining the school's mission, managing the instructional program, and…

  11. Learning in Earth and Space Science: A Review of Conceptual Change Instructional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Reece; Tomas, Louisa; Lewthwaite, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In response to calls for research into effective instruction in the Earth and space sciences, and to identify directions for future research, this systematic review of the literature explores research into instructional approaches designed to facilitate conceptual change. In total, 52 studies were identified and analyzed. Analysis focused on the…

  12. Learning to Express Gratitude in Mandarin Chinese through Web-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of a self-access website as a tool to teach expressions of gratitude to learners of Mandarin Chinese. The web-based instruction included explicit instruction on how to express gratitude appropriately in Mandarin and various consciousness-raising exercises/activities. Two groups of learners who differed in…

  13. Formative use of select-and-fill-in concept maps in online instruction: Implications for students of different learning styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Charles William

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the formative use of Select and Fill-In (SAFI) maps in online instruction and the cognitive, metacognitive, and affective responses of students to their use. In particular, the implications of their use with students of different learning styles was considered. The research question investigated in this qualitative study was: How do students of different learning styles respond to online instruction in which SAFI maps are utilized? This question was explored by using an emergent, collective case study. Each case consisted of community college students who shared a dominant learning style and were enrolled in an online course in environmental studies. Cases in the study were determined using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI). Seven forms of data were collected during the study. During the first phase of data collection, dominant learning style and background information on student experience with concept mapping and online instruction was determined. In the second phase of data collection, participants completed SAFI maps and quiz items that corresponded to the content of the maps. Achievement data on the map activities and quiz and student responses to a post-SAFI survey and questionnaire were recorded to identify learner cognitive, metacognitive, and affective responses to the tasks. Upon completion of data collection, cases were constructed and compared across learning styles. Cases are presented using the trends, across participants sharing the same dominant learning style, in achievement, behaviors and attitudes as seen in the evidence present in the data. Triangulation of multiple data sources increased reliability and validity, through cross-case analyses, and produced a thick description of the relationship between the cases for each learning style. Evidence suggesting a cognitive response to the SAFI tasks was inconsistent across cases. However, learners with an affinity towards reflective learning

  14. Use of Second Life for interactive instruction and distance learning in nuclear physics and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amme, Robert C.

    2009-05-01

    The developing nuclear power renaissance, coupled with related environmental consequences, is forcing a re-examination of the manner in which nuclear science and technology is (or is not) being taught in the United States. The 20-year hiatus of the nuclear power industry has been a decided factor in the relatively stagnant growth of nuclear physics and nuclear technology instruction, from middle school to graduate education. Furthermore, the general public remains fairly ignorant of the various features of nuclear power, at best having been briefly exposed to the subject only in a middle-school course in Physical Science. Essential to this renaissance is the capacity to deal with the regulatory environment and safety standards that must be addressed prior to new plant certification. Regrettably, too few individuals who are trained in environmental science are adequately prepared in the basic concepts of nuclear physics to deal with such issues as radioactive waste storage and transportation, biological effects of ionizing radiation, geological repositories, nuclear fuel reprocessing, etc. which are of great concern to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We are developing a master's degree, to be taught online, in the area of environmental impact assessment as it relates to these and other issues. To accommodate the need for laboratory exercises, we have adopted the virtual world developed by Linden Laboratory entitled Second Life; it is here that the student, as an avatar, will gain knowledge of the nature of ionizing radiation, radioactive half-lives, gamma and beta ray spectroscopy, neutron activation, and radiation shielding, using virtual apparatus and virtual radiation sources. Additionally, a virtual Generation III+ power reactor has been constructed on an adjoining Second Life island (entitled Science School II) which provides the visitor with a realistic impression of its inner workings. This presentation will provide the details of this construct and how it

  15. The Relationship Between the Learning Style Perceptual Preferences of Urban Fourth Grade Children and the Acquisition of Selected Physical Science Concepts Through Learning Cycle Instructional Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kenneth Mark

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade urban students and the attainment of selected physical science concepts for three simple machines as taught using learning cycle methodology. The sample included all fourth grade children from one urban elementary school (N = 91). The research design followed a quasi-experimental format with a single group, equivalent teacher demonstration and student investigation materials, and identical learning cycle instructional treatment. All subjects completed the Understanding Simple Machines Test (USMT) prior to instructional treatment, and at the conclusion of treatment to measure student concept attainment related to the pendulum, the lever and fulcrum, and the inclined plane. USMT pre and post-test scores, California Achievement Test (CAT-5) percentile scores, and Learning Style Inventory (LSI) standard scores for four perceptual elements for each subject were held in a double blind until completion of the USMT post-test. The hypothesis tested in this study was: Learning style perceptual preferences of fourth grade students as measured by the Dunn, Dunn, and Price Learning Style Inventory (LSI) are significant predictors of success in the acquisition of physical science concepts taught through use of the learning cycle. Analysis of pre and post USMT scores, 18.18 and 30.20 respectively, yielded a significant mean gain of +12.02. A controlled stepwise regression was employed to identify significant predictors of success on the USMT post-test from among USMT pre-test, four CAT-5 percentile scores, and four LSI perceptual standard scores. The CAT -5 Total Math and Total Reading accounted for 64.06% of the variance in the USMT post-test score. The only perceptual element to act as a significant predictor was the Kinesthetic standard score, accounting for 1.72% of the variance. The study revealed that learning cycle instruction does not appear

  16. Development of instructional manual encouraging student active learning for high school teaching on fluid mechanics through Torricelli's tank experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiwan, Suttinee; Puttharugsa, Chokchai; Khemmani, Supitch

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to help students to perform Physics laboratory by themselves and to provide guidelines for high school teacher to develop active learning on fluid mechanics by using Torricelli's tank experiment. The research was conducted as follows: 1) constructed an appropriate Torricelli's tank experiment for high school teaching and investigated the condition for maximum water falling distance. As a consequence, it was found that the distance of the falling water measured from the experiment was shorter than that obtained from the theory of ideal fluid because of the energy loss during a flow, 2) developed instructional manual for high school teaching that encourages active learning by using problem based learning (PBL) approach, which is consistent with the trend of teaching and learning in 21st century. The content validity of our instructional manual using Index of Item-objective Congruence (IOC) as evaluated by three experts was over 0.67. The manual developed was therefore qualified for classroom practice.

  17. Development of the Curriculum and Instructional Model for Learning the Tactical Awareness by the Each Role in the Baseball Game in the Elementary School

    OpenAIRE

    中井, 隆司; 宗野, 伸哉; 川島, 弘美

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the curriculum and instructional model for learning the tactical awareness by the each role in the baseball game in the elemetary school. This baseball game' s practice composed three task games, the drill game and the teaching process for learning "tactical awareness". For analyzing the learning process and the products, four students were selected by the throwing ability. In this teaching unit, the learning process and the products were measured in t...

  18. LEARNING MATERIALS SELECTION FOR DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION OF ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES OF FUTURE PROFESSIONALS IN THE FIELD OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Synekop

    2017-09-01

    formation of competencies in listening, speaking, reading and writing of English for Specific Purposes is determined. So, the defined learning material selection will serve as a basis for consideration of stages in the differentiated instruction of English for Specific Purposes of future professionals in the field of information technology at university level.

  19. Why Inquiry? Primary Teachers' Objectives in Choosing Inquiry- and Context-Based Instructional Strategies to Stimulate Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walan, Susanne; Nilsson, Pernilla; Ewen, Birgitta Mc

    2017-10-01

    Studies have shown that there is a need for pedagogical content knowledge among science teachers. This study investigates two primary teachers and their objectives in choosing inquiry- and context-based instructional strategies as well as the relation between the choice of instructional strategies and the teachers' knowledge about of students' understanding and intended learning outcomes. Content representations created by the teachers and students' experiences of the enacted teaching served as foundations for the teachers' reflections during interviews. Data from the interviews were analyzed in terms of the intended, enacted, and experienced purposes of the teaching and, finally, as the relation between intended, enacted, and experienced purposes. Students' experiences of the teaching were captured through a questionnaire, which was analyzed inductively, using content analysis. The results show that the teachers' intended teaching objectives were that students would learn about water. During the enacted teaching, it seemed as if the inquiry process was in focus and this was also how many of the students experienced the objectives of the activities. There was a gap between the intended and experienced objectives. Hardly any relation was found between the teachers' choice of instructional strategies and their knowledge about students' understanding, with the exception that the teacher who also added drama wanted to support her students' understanding of the states of water.

  20. Active Learning: Qualitative Inquiries into Vocabulary Instruction in Chinese L2 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Helen H.; Xu, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Active learning emerged as a new approach to learning in the 1980s. The core concept of active learning involves engaging students not only in actively exploring knowledge but also in reflecting on their own learning process in order to become more effective learners. Because the nonalphabetic nature of the Chinese writing system makes learning to…

  1. Learning Activities That Combine Science Magic Activities with the 5E Instructional Model to Influence Secondary-School Students' Attitudes to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jang-Long; Cheng, Meng-Fei; Chang, Ying-Chi; Li, Hsiao-Wen; Chang, Jih-Yuan; Lin, Deng-Min

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how learning materials based on Science Magic activities affect student attitudes to science. A quasi-experimental design was conducted to explore the combination of Science Magic with the 5E Instructional Model to develop learning materials for teaching a science unit about friction. The participants…

  2. Individualising Media Practice Education Using a Feedback Loop and Instructional Videos Within an eLearning Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Harris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the development and impact of the author’s TELE (Technology Enhanced Learning Environment action research project for individualising media practice education. The latest iteration of different classroom methodologies being employed to develop high-level skills in media production, the author has combined an interactive eLearning approach with instructional videos and, crucially, an individual feedback loop in order to widen access to the curriculum and create a more efficient teaching and learning environment. The focus therefore is on student engagement and organisational efficiencies as a result of the research. It should be noted that there has been no funding attached to this work, nor are there any institutional imperatives or other stakeholder involvement in this research. This project has been undertaken by the author as an evolutionary development of the various methodologies developed, cognisant of the increased technology literacy of the student cohort. The educational benefit of bringing video instruction into the curriculum as part of the project is examined as a creative pedagogy of direct benefit to students rather than as a subliminal marketing tool that other systems are often used for. Over 16K words of written data was collected during the project, and this is analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively with reference to the initial objectives of the research

  3. Improving Middle School Students’ Critical Thinking Skills Through Reading Infusion-Loaded Discovery Learning Model in the Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryakin; Riandi

    2017-02-01

    A study has been conducted to obtain a depiction of middle school students’ critical thinking skills improvement through the implementation of reading infusion-loaded discovery learning model in science instruction. A quasi-experimental study with the pretest-posttest control group design was used to engage 55 eighth-year middle school students in Tasikmalaya, which was divided into the experimental and control group respectively were 28 and 27 students. Critical thinking skills were measured using a critical thinking skills test in multiple-choice with reason format questions that administered before and after a given instruction. The test was 28 items encompassing three essential concepts, vibration, waves and auditory senses. The critical thinking skills improvement was determined by using the normalized gain score and statistically analyzed by using Mann-Whitney U test.. The findings showed that the average of students’ critical thinking skills normalized gain score of both groups were 59 and 43, respectively for experimental and control group in the medium category. There were significant differences between both group’s improvement. Thus, the implementation of reading infusion-loaded discovery learning model could further improve middle school students’ critical thinking skills than conventional learning.

  4. Personal Competencies/Personalized Learning: Reflection on Instruction. A Peer-to-Peer Learning and Observation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Janet; Redding, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This publication and its companion, "Personal Competencies/Personalized Learning: Lesson Plan Reflection Guide," were created in response to a request for further development of the practical application of personalized learning concepts by teachers. Personalized learning varies the time, place, and pace of learning for each student, and…

  5. Long term stability of learning outcomes in undergraduates after an open-inquiry instruction on thermal science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persano Adorno, Dominique; Pizzolato, Nicola; Fazio, Claudio

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates the efficacy of an open-inquiry approach to achieve a long term stability of physics instruction. This study represents the natural continuation of a research project started four years ago when a sample of thirty engineering undergraduates, having already attended traditional university physics instruction, were involved in a six-week long learning experience of open-inquiry research activities within the highly motivating context of developing a thermodynamically efficient space base on Mars. Four years later, we explore the effectiveness of that learning experience by analyzing the outcomes that the students achieved by answering again the same questionnaire that was administered them both prior to and immediately after those activities. As we did in the first work, students' answers were classified within three epistemological profiles. Now, a comparison among students' outcomes during the three phases, namely, preinstruction, postinstruction, and after four years has been carried out. Immediately after the open-inquiry experience, the students obtained significant benefits in terms of the strengthening of their practical and reasoning abilities, by proficiently applying the learned concepts to face and solve real-world problem situations. In this study, the students' answers do not highlight any significant regress towards their preinstruction profiles. The global robustness of the teaching strategy adopted four years ago is confirmed by a statistically significant comparison with a control group of students who experienced the same curricular instruction except for the open inquiry-based workshop. Nevertheless, some changes have been observed and discussed in the light of the answers the students provided to a short interview regarding their studying or working experiences across the four-year temporal window.

  6. Training for Content Teachers of English Language Learners: Using Experiential Learning to Improve Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Leslie L.; McKelvey, Susan; Rhodes, Joan A.; Robnolt, Valerie J.

    2017-01-01

    Experiential learning theory places experience at the center of learning. Kolb's four-stage cycle of experiential learning suggests that effective learners must engage fully in each stage of the cycle--feeling, reflection, thinking, and action. This research assesses the alignment of Kolb's experiential learning cycle with the week-long Summer…

  7. E-Learning in Universities: Supporting Help-Seeking Processes by Instructional Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schworm, Silke; Gruber, Hans

    2012-01-01

    University students are more responsible than school students for their own learning. The role of self-regulated learning increases in virtual e-learning course environments. Academic help-seeking is an important strategy of self-regulated learning, but many students fail to use this strategy appropriately. A lack of information and a perceived…

  8. Can Executive Functions Help to Understand Children with Mathematical Learning Disorders and to Improve Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoete, Annemie; De Weerdt, Frauke

    2013-01-01

    Working memory, inhibition and naming speed was assessed in 22 children with mathematical learning disorders (MD), 17 children with a reading learning disorder (RD), and 45 children without any learning problems between 8 and 12 years old. All subjects with learning disorders performed poorly on working memory tasks, providing evidence that they…

  9. Relationships among Learning Styles and Motivation with Computer-Aided Instruction in an Agronomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrews, Gina M.; Mullen, Russell E.; Chadwick, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    Multi-media learning tools were developed to enhance student learning for an introductory agronomy course at Iowa State University. During fall 2002, the new interactive computer program, called Computer Interactive Multimedia Program for Learning Enhancement (CIMPLE) was incorporated into the teaching, learning, and assessment processes of the…

  10. A Review of the Instructional Practices for Promoting Online Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Woei; Flom, Elicia; Manu, Jacob; Mahmoud, Enaz

    2015-01-01

    An effective learning community helps foster positive student learning experiences and outcomes. However, in distance learning environments, the communication barriers inevitably hinder the interaction among the students because of the lower levels of social presence. These barriers present challenges in building learning communities in an online…

  11. Increasing self-efficacy in learning to program: exploring the benefits of explicit instruction for problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Govender

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty of learning to program has long been identified amongst novices. This study explored the benefits of teaching a problem solving strategy by comparing students’ perceptions and attitudes towards problem solving before and after the strategy was implemented in secondary schools. Based on self-efficacy theory, students’ problem solving self-efficacy as well as teachers’ self-efficacy were investigated, showing that both students’ and teachers’ self-efficacy may have benefited from the explicit instruction. This would imply that teaching problem solving explicitly should be encouraged to increase self-efficacy to program.

  12. The effects of contextual learning instruction on science achievement of male and female tenth-grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Samantha Jones

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the contextual learning method on science performance, attitudes toward science, and motivational factors that influence high school students to learn science. Gender differences in science performance and attitudes toward science were also investigated. The sample included four tenth-grade classes of African-American students enrolled in Chemistry I. All students were required to review for the Alabama High School Graduation Exam in Science. Students were administered a science pretest and posttest to measure science performance. A two-way analysis of covariance was performed on the test data. The results showed a main effect of contextual learning instruction on science achievement and no significant differences between females' and males' performance in science. The Science Attitude and the Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE) Review Class Surveys were administered to assess students' beliefs and attitudes toward science. The Science Attitude Survey results indicated a control effect in three subscales: perception of guardian's attitude, attitude toward success in science, and perception of teacher's attitude. No significant differences resulted between males and females in their beliefs about science from the attitude survey. However, students' attitudes toward science were more favorable in the contextual learning classes based on the results of the Review Class Survey. The survey data revealed that both males and females in the contextual classes had positive attitudes toward science and toward being active participants in the learning process. Qualitative data on student motivation were collected to examine the meaningfulness of the contextual learning content and materials. The majority of the students in the treatment (96%) and the control groups (86%) reported high interest in the lesson on Newton's three laws of motion. Both the treatment and the control groups indicated their interest

  13. Teacher Effectiveness in Adapting Instruction to the Needs of Pupils With Learning Difficulties in Regular Primary Schools in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Razak Kuyini Alhassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghana education system has failed to effectively address the needs of pupils with learning difficulties (LDs in regular classrooms. Underachievement, school dropout, streetism, and antisocial behaviors are the consequences. Teachers’ lack of adequate competence in adaptive instruction is one of the fundamental reasons responsible for this anomaly. This study aims to examine teachers’ competence in adapting instructions to teach pupils with LDs in the regular classroom in Ghana. The data were gathered from 387 sampled teachers in a cross-sectional survey using questionnaires and structured observation methods. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistic, chi-square test, correlation, t test, and ANOVA. The results show that (a teachers have limited to moderate competence in adaptive instruction, (b adaptive teaching is strongly associated with teachers’ competence in teaching pupils with LDs in the regular classroom, and (c apart from gender and class size, teachers’ background variables such as school location and teaching experience differ significantly. The study has serious implications for Ghana’s inclusive education policy and teaching practice.

  14. The effects of field dependent/independent style awareness on learning strategies and outcomes in an instructional hypermedia module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyle, Clifford Omodele

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-dependent/independent style awareness affects learning outcomes and learning strategies used in a hypermedia instructional module. Field-dependent/independent style was measured using the Global Embedded Figures Test. Style awareness meant that students were provided with information and explanations about their individual cognitive styles and the learning strategies that accommodate those styles. The study entailed examining students' achievement in a multiple-choice test and performance in a design task, and also their navigation patterns as they studied a science-oriented Webquest. The sample consisted of 149 eighth-grade students in 10 sections of a science class taught by two teachers in a public middle school. A two-group posttest-only design on one factor (style awareness) was used. Sixty-eight students in five sections of the class were assigned to the treatment group (field dependent/independent style awareness) while the other 81 students in five sections were assigned to the control group (no field dependent/independent style awareness). The study took place over a period of 6 days. On the first day, students in the treatment group were first tested and debriefed on their individual styles. Next, all students in both the treatment and control groups studied the hypermedia instructional module (Webquest) over a period of two days. On the fourth and fifth days students worked on the performance tasks, and on the sixth day students took the multiple-choice test and students in the control group were tested and debriefed on their individual styles. The findings indicate that style awareness significantly influenced the learning strategies of field-dependent students as they studied and carried out learning tasks in the Webquest. Field-dependent students with style awareness used hypertext links and navigated the menu sequentially a greater number of times than their counterparts with no style awareness

  15. An Investigation of Incorporating Dialogical Argumentation into Peer Instruction (PI for Pre-Service Teacher Learning of Current Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Jacob Kola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is a quasi-experimental research employing the pretest-posttest design. 52 pre-service teachers from a college of education were sampled with 26 pre-service teachers in both the control group (CG and experimental group (EG. The instruments used to collect data were Physics Achievement Test (PAT, Peer Instruction Dialogical Argumentation Questionnaire (PIDAQ, and Adopted Physics ConcepTest (APC for teaching the experimental group. The instruments were validated by experts in science education and physics. The reliability of the PAT, based on a pilot test conducted, shows that the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is 0.876. The data obtained were analyzed using t-test, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA, and descriptive statistics. Findings revealed that the incorporation of DA into PI has an impact on the students’ learning of current electricity. The study considered some implications of the findings on the teaching and learning of physics.

  16. An instructional model for the teaching of physics, based on a meaningful learning theory and class experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chrobak

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Practically all research studies concerning the teaching of Physics point out the fact that conventional instructional models fail to achieve their objectives. Many attempts have been done to change this situation, frequently with disappointing results. This work, which is the experimental stage in a research project of a greater scope, represents an effort to change to a model based on a cognitive learning theory, known as the Ausubel-Novak-Gowin theory, making use of the metacognitive tools that emerge from this theory. The results of this work indicate that the students react positively to the goals of meaningful learning, showing substantial understanding of Newtonian Mechanics. An important reduction in the study time required to pass the course has also been reported.

  17. Student evaluation of the flipped classroom instruction method: is it aligned with Problem-Based Learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Timcenko, Olga; Kofoed, Lise

    2017-01-01

    The flipped classroom approach is an instructional method that has gained momentum in the last years. In a flipped classroom the traditional lecture and homework sessions are inverted. We believe that the flipped classroom, which employs computer-based individual instruction outside the classroom...... presents data from the second year, where we conducted a survey study among students participating in the flipped statistics course. This study consisted of two surveys designed to gather student perceptions on the out-of-classroom preparation material (videos and quizzes) and the flipped classroom...

  18. The separate and collective effects of personalization, personification, and gender on learning with multimedia chemistry instructional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkyard, Shannon

    Chemistry is a difficult subject to learn and teach for students in general. Additionally, female students are under-represented in chemistry and the physical sciences. Within chemistry, atomic and electronic structure is a key concept and several recommendations in the literature describe how this topic can be taught better. These recommendations can be employed in multimedia instructional materials designed following principles understood through the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. Additionally, these materials can expand the known use of principles like personalization (addressing the learner as "you") and test prospective design principles like personification (referring to abstract objects like atoms as "she" or "he"). The purpose of this study was to use the recommendations on teaching atomic and electronic structure along with known multimedia design principles to create multimedia chemistry learning materials that can be used to test the use of personalization and personification both separately and together. The study also investigated how learning with these materials might be different for male and female students. A sample of 329 students from private northern California high schools were given an atomic structure pre-test, watched a multimedia chemistry instructional video, and took a post-test on atomic structure. Students were randomly assigned to watch one of six versions of the instructional video. Students in the six groups were compared using ANOVA procedures and no significant differences were found. Males were compared to females for the six different treatment conditions and the most significant difference was for the treatment that combined personalization (you) and female personification (she), with a medium effect size (Cohen's d=0.65). Males and females were then compared separately across the six groups using ANOVA procedures and t-tests. A significant difference was found for female students using the treatment that combined

  19. Shifting the Balance in First-Year Learning Support: From Staff Instruction to Peer-Learning Primacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Jacques; Scott, Carole

    2008-01-01

    Effective response to the learning needs of first-year students is a contested issue. In many learning support centres the dominant approach to developing student learning skills is through generic or tailored workshops and/or individual consultations. Although there is a place for these activities, we argue that the balance should be shifted…

  20. The Role of Unconscious Information Processing in the Acquisition and Learning of Instructional Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Bakar, Zainudin Abu; Ismail, Hairul Nizam

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates how the unconscious information processing can create satisfactory learning outcomes, and can be used to ameliorate the challenges of teaching students to regulate their learning processes. The search for the ideal model of human information processing as regards achievement of teaching and learning objectives is a…

  1. Aligning the Quantum Perspective of Learning to Instructional Design: Exploring the Seven Definitive Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Katherine J.; Perry, Beth; Edwards, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper builds upon a foundational paper (under review) which explores the rudiments of the quantum perspective of learning. The quantum perspective of learning uses the principles of exchange theory or borrowed theory from the field of quantum holism pioneered by quantum physicist David Bohm (1971, 1973) to understand learning in a new way.…

  2. The Application of Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Learning Theory to Web-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher T.

    This paper provides a review of literature that relates research on Carl Rogers' person-centered learning theory to Web-based learning. Based on the review of the literature, a set of criteria is described that can be used to determine how closely a Web-based course matches the different components of Rogers' person-centered learning theory. Using…

  3. One Happy Union: Infusing Community-Based Learning Projects through Online Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason W.; Kane, Jennifer; Cavanaugh, Terence

    2015-01-01

    Both community-based learning (CBL) and online learning are popular pedagogical practices, with distinct benefits and issues for teaching and learning. The integration of these practices may seem challenging, but they can be compatible. This article seeks to provide effective examples and support for conducting CBL projects in online courses while…

  4. Authoring Robot-Assisted Instructional Materials for Improving Learning Performance and Motivation in EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zeng-Wei; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hsu, Marie; Shen, Wei-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Anthropomorphized robots are regarded as beneficial tools in education due to their capabilities of improving teaching effectiveness and learning motivation. Therefore, one major trend of research, known as Robot- Assisted Language Learning (RALL), is trying to develop robots to support teaching and learning English as a foreign language (EFL). As…

  5. Dewey, Dale, and Bruner: Educational Philosophy, Experiential Learning, and Library School Cataloging Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, LeAnn

    1997-01-01

    Discusses educational philosophies of John Dewey, Edgar Dale, and Jerome Bruner dealing with experience and learning and describes experiential learning activities within the curriculum of the School of Library and Information Studies at the University of Hawaii. Results of a study examining student attitudes toward experiential learning are…

  6. Teacher Knowledge for Active-Learning Instruction: Expert-Novice Comparison Reveals Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, A. J.; Higgins, M.; Brickman, P.; Andrews, T. C.

    2018-01-01

    Active-learning strategies "can" improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) undergraduates' abilities to learn fundamental concepts and skills. However, the results instructors achieve vary substantially. One explanation for this is that instructors commonly implement active learning differently than intended. An…

  7. Teachers and Parents Play to Learn: Play-Based Instruction in Computer Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Play is so important that it is declared as one of the human rights by the United Nations. Although it is focused on children, play does "not" stop there. In the 1990s the author designed and facilitated a blended curriculum for a Head Start Program. The instructional goal was to introduce and get the children to effectively and…

  8. Instructional Uses of Podcasting in Online Learning Environments: A Cooperative Inquiry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abbie; Brown, Carol; Fine, Bethann; Luterbach, Kenneth; Sugar, William; Vinciguerra, David C.

    2009-01-01

    A report on the results of a year-long cooperative inquiry study in which 11 faculty members at a southeastern university examined their various uses of podcasting for instruction. Through participation in the study, members developed insights into what technologies are most commonly applied to the task of podcast production and dissemination as…

  9. Does the Visual Appeal of Instructional Media Affect Learners' Motivation toward Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Kei

    2018-01-01

    While authors like Mayer (2009) suggest that designers should avoid using visuals for the purpose of attracting learners' interests, some scholars suggest that visuals could influence learners' emotions. In this study the author investigated whether the perception of the visual appeal of instructional handouts affects learners' self-reported…

  10. Effects of Environmental and Instructional Factors on Student Motivation and Self-Directed Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Anne D.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of parent involvement and integration of multiple intelligences strategies in classroom instruction on student motivation and academic achievement. The population for this study comprised of 13 elementary students receiving special education services. Parent involvement was developed and supported through weekly home…

  11. Applications of Augmented Reality-Based Natural Interactive Learning in Magnetic Field Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Su; Chiang, Feng-Kuang; Sun, Yuchen; Lin, Chenglong; Lee, Joey J.

    2017-01-01

    Educators must address several challenges inherent to the instruction of scientific disciplines such as physics -- expensive or insufficient laboratory equipment, equipment error, difficulty in simulating certain experimental conditions. Augmented reality (AR) can be a promising approach to address these challenges. In this paper, we discuss the…

  12. Connecting Children Internationally for Science Instruction: Using the Internet to Support Learning about Lunar Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Walter S.; Cheon, Jongpil; Jabri, Faiza; Reynolds, Stephen; Zebedi, Amira

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect on children's science understanding of Internet-based instruction in which children from around the world in grades 4 to 8 observed the Moon for several weeks and then shared their lunar data internationally to find global patterns in the Moon's behavior. Students in two American and one Australian class took the…

  13. THE WORLD OF TEACHING MACHINES, PROGRAMED LEARNING AND SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOLTZ, CHARLES I.

    TEACHING MACHINES HAVE SEVERAL ADVANTAGES--TIME IS SAVED, CORRECT RESPONSE IS REINFORCED IMMEDIATELY, AND STUDENTS ARE NOT PUBLICLY CONFRONTED WITH FAILURE. THERE ARE TWO APPROACHES TO THE PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION INTRINSIC TO THEIR USE--ONE (THE SKINNER METHOD) IS BASED ON FILLING IN BLANK SPACES, THE OTHER (THE CROWDER METHOD) EMPLOYS…

  14. Brain-Based Learning and Classroom Practice: A Study Investigating Instructional Methodologies of Urban School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lajuana Trezette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of brain-based instructional strategies by teachers serving at Title I elementary, middle, and high schools within the Memphis City School District. This study was designed to determine: (a) the extent to which Title I teachers applied brain-based strategies, (b) the differences in…

  15. Mental Model Progression in Learning the Electron Transport Chain: Effects of Instructional Strategies and Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Hemphill, Jennifer; Nelson, David W.; Boulware, Wilma; Liang, Xinya

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of two instructional strategies, segmented and holistic, on the progression over time of learners' mental models toward that of an expert with the moderator of cognitive flexibility. Sixty-four juniors and seniors in a college metabolism course were randomly assigned to one of the two strategies for instruction…

  16. Making It Happen: Using Differentiated Instruction, Retrofit Framework, and Universal Design for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Barbara; Reeves, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    When children of diverse disabilities and students with ELL rulings are included in traditional classrooms, regular education teachers face a dilemma: How to teach the standard curriculum and teach the new inclusion students? How do they teach students with different heritages and linguistic backgrounds? Differentiated Instruction (DI) is content,…

  17. The Effects of Music Instruction on Learning in the Montessori Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    The value of music in educating the young child is not being recognized, particularly in the area of mathematics. Despite the amount of literature available regarding the effects of music instruction on academic achievement, little has been written on different Montessori music pedagogies and their effects on students' math scores. This article…

  18. Knowledge-Based Instruction: Teaching Problem Solving in a Logo Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Karen; Black, John B.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of computer programming and knowledge-based instruction focuses on three studies of elementary and secondary school students which show that five particular problem-solving strategies can be developed in students explicitly taught the strategies and given practice applying them to solve LOGO programming problems. (Contains 53…

  19. Shared Vulnerability in Professional Learning: Growing Instructional Coaches in a Culture of PDS Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkery, Jill; Hall, Kris; Jeffries, Jess; Laskowski, Kristen; Romig, Gail; Tranell, Jennifer; Peters, Brian; Whitney, Anne Elrod

    2015-01-01

    In a school district context where a well-developed district-wide PDS partnership had been in operation for more than 15 years, a team of instructional coaches was formed of district teachers who left their classrooms for two to four years under the leadership of a curriculum coordinator. In this article, members of the coaching team offer…

  20. An Explanation of the Relationship between Instructor Humor and Student Learning: Instructional Humor Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…