Allen, Lauren Brooks
Informal learning is an important venue for educating the general public about complex socio-scientific issues: intersections of scientific understanding and society. My dissertation is a multi-tiered analysis of how informal education, and particularly informal educators, can leverage learning to respond to one particular socio-scientific issue: climate change. Life-long, life-wide, and life-deep learning not only about the science of climate change, but how communities and society as a whole can respond to it in ways that are commensurate with its scale are necessary. In my three-article dissertation, I investigated the changes in practice and learning that informal educators from a natural history museum underwent in the process of implementing a new type of field trip about climate change. This study focused on inquiry-based learning principles taken on by the museum educators, albeit in different ways: learner autonomy, conversation, and deep investigation. My second article, a short literature review, makes the argument that climate change education must have goals beyond simply increasing learners' knowledge of climate science, and proposes three research-based principles for such learning: participation, relevance, and interconnectedness. These principles are argued to promote learning to respond to climate change as well as increased collective efficacy, necessary for responding. Finally, my third article is an in-depth examination of a heterogeneous network of informal educators and environmental professionals who worked together to design and implement a city-wide platform for informal climate change learning. By conceptualizing climate change learning at the level of the learning ecology, educators and learners are able to see how it can be responded to at the community level, and understand how climate change is interconnected with other scientific, natural, and social systems. I briefly discuss a different socio-scientific issue to which these
Smirnov, Eugeny; Bogun, Vitali
New methodologies in science (or mathematics) learning process and scientific thinking in the classroom activity of engineer students with ICT (information and communication technology), including graphic calculator are presented: visual modelling with ICT, action research with graphic calculator, insight in classroom and communications and…
Soyyılmaz, Demet; Griffin, Laura M; Martín, Miguel H; Kucharský, Šimon; Peycheva, Ekaterina D; Vaupotič, Nina; Edelsbrunner, Peter A
Scientific thinking is a predicate for scientific inquiry, and thus important to develop early in psychology students as potential future researchers. The present research is aimed at fathoming the contributions of formal and informal learning experiences to psychology students' development of scientific thinking during their 1st-year of study. We hypothesize that informal experiences are relevant beyond formal experiences. First-year psychology student cohorts from various European countries will be assessed at the beginning and again at the end of the second semester. Assessments of scientific thinking will include scientific reasoning skills, the understanding of basic statistics concepts, and epistemic cognition. Formal learning experiences will include engagement in academic activities which are guided by university authorities. Informal learning experiences will include non-compulsory, self-guided learning experiences. Formal and informal experiences will be assessed with a newly developed survey. As dispositional predictors, students' need for cognition and self-efficacy in psychological science will be assessed. In a structural equation model, students' learning experiences and personal dispositions will be examined as predictors of their development of scientific thinking. Commonalities and differences in predictive weights across universities will be tested. The project is aimed at contributing information for designing university environments to optimize the development of students' scientific thinking.
Soyyılmaz, Demet; Griffin, Laura M.; Martín, Miguel H.; Kucharský, Šimon; Peycheva, Ekaterina D.; Vaupotič, Nina; Edelsbrunner, Peter A.
Scientific thinking is a predicate for scientific inquiry, and thus important to develop early in psychology students as potential future researchers. The present research is aimed at fathoming the contributions of formal and informal learning experiences to psychology students’ development of scientific thinking during their 1st-year of study. We hypothesize that informal experiences are relevant beyond formal experiences. First-year psychology student cohorts from various European countries will be assessed at the beginning and again at the end of the second semester. Assessments of scientific thinking will include scientific reasoning skills, the understanding of basic statistics concepts, and epistemic cognition. Formal learning experiences will include engagement in academic activities which are guided by university authorities. Informal learning experiences will include non-compulsory, self-guided learning experiences. Formal and informal experiences will be assessed with a newly developed survey. As dispositional predictors, students’ need for cognition and self-efficacy in psychological science will be assessed. In a structural equation model, students’ learning experiences and personal dispositions will be examined as predictors of their development of scientific thinking. Commonalities and differences in predictive weights across universities will be tested. The project is aimed at contributing information for designing university environments to optimize the development of students’ scientific thinking. PMID:28239363
Full Text Available The paper systematizes several theoretical view-points on scientific information processing skill. It decomposes the processing skills into sub-skills. Several methods such analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, document analysis were used to build up a theoretical framework. Interviews and survey to professional being trained and a case study was carried out to evaluate the results. All professional in the sample improved their performance in scientific information processing.
Guo, Yufan; Silins, Ilona; Stenius, Ulla; Korhonen, Anna
Techniques that are capable of automatically analyzing the information structure of scientific articles could be highly useful for improving information access to biomedical literature. However, most existing approaches rely on supervised machine learning (ML) and substantial labeled data that are expensive to develop and apply to different sub-fields of biomedicine. Recent research shows that minimal supervision is sufficient for fairly accurate information structure analysis of biomedical abstracts. However, is it realistic for full articles given their high linguistic and informational complexity? We introduce and release a novel corpus of 50 biomedical articles annotated according to the Argumentative Zoning (AZ) scheme, and investigate active learning with one of the most widely used ML models-Support Vector Machines (SVM)-on this corpus. Additionally, we introduce two novel applications that use AZ to support real-life literature review in biomedicine via question answering and summarization. We show that active learning with SVM trained on 500 labeled sentences (6% of the corpus) performs surprisingly well with the accuracy of 82%, just 2% lower than fully supervised learning. In our question answering task, biomedical researchers find relevant information significantly faster from AZ-annotated than unannotated articles. In the summarization task, sentences extracted from particular zones are significantly more similar to gold standard summaries than those extracted from particular sections of full articles. These results demonstrate that active learning of full articles' information structure is indeed realistic and the accuracy is high enough to support real-life literature review in biomedicine. The annotated corpus, our AZ classifier and the two novel applications are available at http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/yg244/12bioinfo.html
Hulshof, Casper D.; de Jong, Ton
Students encounter many obstacles during scientific discovery learning with computer-based simulations. It is hypothesized that an effective type of support, that does not interfere with the scientific discovery learning process, should be delivered on a "just-in-time" base. This study explores the effect of facilitating access to…
Callanan, Maureen; Cervantes, Christi; Loomis, Molly
We consider research and theory relevant to the notion of informal learning. Beginning with historical and definitional issues, we argue that learning happens not just in schools or in school-aged children. Many theorists have contrasted informal learning with formal learning. Moving beyond this dichotomy, and away from a focus on where learning occurs, we discuss five dimensions of informal learning that are drawn from the literature: (1) non-didactive, (2) highly socially collaborative, (3) embedded in meaningful activity, (4) initiated by learner's interest or choice, and (5) removed from external assessment. We consider these dimensions in the context of four sample domains: learning a first language, learning about the mind and emotions within families and communities, learning about science in family conversations and museum settings, and workplace learning. Finally, we conclude by considering convergences and divergences across the different literatures and suggesting areas for future research. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 646-655 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.143 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Dissemination of information is an essential part of CERN's mission. It brings people together from all around the world and trains the scientists of tomorrow. CERN scientific output is documented and made available for the scientific community and the general public through the CERN Document Server, INSPIRE-HEP and Wikipedia. This report presents the work done in the Scientific Information Service during the summer student program.
In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…
Van Horne, Katie
tools and means of contemporary scientific inquiry allows them to gain conceptual development and proficiency with the scientific practices within the contexts of their lives, in ways that provided access to resources that promoted students' stabilization of practice-linked identities. For teachers implementing this instructional model in their classrooms, it brought up dilemmas and opportunities related to their school contexts and their personal history of instructional practices. The work collectively informs how interest-driven project-based science instruction can happen across a range of school contexts and how such models can support meaningful science learning and identification.
Learn to master basic programming tasks from scratch with real-life scientifically relevant examples and solutions drawn from both science and engineering. Students and researchers at all levels are increasingly turning to the powerful Python programming language as an alternative to commercial packages and this fast-paced introduction moves from the basics to advanced concepts in one complete volume, enabling readers to quickly gain proficiency. Beginning with general programming concepts such as loops and functions within the core Python 3 language, and moving onto the NumPy, SciPy and Matplotlib libraries for numerical programming and data visualisation, this textbook also discusses the use of IPython notebooks to build rich-media, shareable documents for scientific analysis. Including a final chapter introducing challenging topics such as floating-point precision and algorithm stability, and with extensive online resources to support advanced study, this textbook represents a targeted package for students...
Krumhansl, R. A.; Foster, J.; Peach, C. L.; Busey, A.; Baker, I.
The practice of science and engineering is being revolutionized by the development of cyberinfrastructure for accessing near real-time and archived observatory data. Large cyberinfrastructure projects have the potential to transform the way science is taught in high school classrooms, making enormous quantities of scientific data available, giving students opportunities to analyze and draw conclusions from many kinds of complex data, and providing students with experiences using state-of-the-art resources and techniques for scientific investigations. However, online interfaces to scientific data are built by scientists for scientists, and their design can significantly impede broad use by novices. Knowledge relevant to the design of student interfaces to complex scientific databases is broadly dispersed among disciplines ranging from cognitive science to computer science and cartography and is not easily accessible to designers of educational interfaces. To inform efforts at bridging scientific cyberinfrastructure to the high school classroom, Education Development Center, Inc. and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography conducted an NSF-funded 2-year interdisciplinary review of literature and expert opinion pertinent to making interfaces to large scientific databases accessible to and usable by precollege learners and their teachers. Project findings are grounded in the fundamentals of Cognitive Load Theory, Visual Perception, Schemata formation and Universal Design for Learning. The Knowledge Status Report (KSR) presents cross-cutting and visualization-specific guidelines that highlight how interface design features can address/ ameliorate challenges novice high school students face as they navigate complex databases to find data, and construct and look for patterns in maps, graphs, animations and other data visualizations. The guidelines present ways to make scientific databases more broadly accessible by: 1) adjusting the cognitive load imposed by the user
Providing the knowledge and practical experience to begin analysing scientific data, this book is ideal for physical sciences students wishing to improve their data handling skills. The book focuses on explaining and developing the practice and understanding of basic statistical analysis, concentrating on a few core ideas, such as the visual display of information, modelling using the likelihood function, and simulating random data. Key concepts are developed through a combination of graphical explanations, worked examples, example computer code and case studies using real data. Students will develop an understanding of the ideas behind statistical methods and gain experience in applying them in practice. Further resources are available at www.cambridge.org/9781107607590, including data files for the case studies so students can practise analysing data, and exercises to test students' understanding.
Gedeon, M.; De Soete, H.
Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of the geological disposal of radioactive waste, the characterization of the Boom Clay and its environment has been going on for more than 30 years. During this time, a great quantity of data was collected to support the research on the reference host rock. A geo-scientific information system was built to store the data acquired in this framework,. The aim was to create a central place where all types of data could be looked up for further analyses and interpretation. All data stored in the system are geographically referenced. The GSIS database was created using PostgreSQL database with PostGIS spatial extension. PostgreSQL is an open-source object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) based on POSTGRES, developed at the University of California at Berkeley Computer Science Department. POSTGRES pioneered many concepts that only became available in some commercial database systems much later. PostgreSQL is an open-source descendant of this original Berkeley code. It supports SQL92 and SQL99 and offers many modern features: complex queries, foreign keys, triggers, views, transactional integrity, multi-version concurrency control. PostGIS is an extension to the PostgreSQL object-relational database system which allows GIS (Geographic Information Systems) objects to be stored in the database. PostGIS includes support for GiST-based R-Tree spatial indexes, and functions for analysis and processing of GIS objects. The GSIS database consists of three principal database domains, the objects database domain (ObjectsDB) and the data domain (DataDB). ObjectsDB includes the definitions (including the geometry/ position) and relative hierarchy of the objects. The objects are defined as structures, enclosed areas or scientific instruments with definable geometry (2D or 3D) including samples used to acquire data (boreholes, piezometers, sampling locations, galleries, sensors, etc.). DataDB includes
Innovative technologies are changing the way research is performed, preserved, and communicated. Managing Scientific Information and Research Data explores how these technologies are used and provides detailed analysis of the approaches and tools developed to manage scientific information and data. Following an introduction, the book is then divided into 15 chapters discussing the changes in scientific communication; new models of publishing and peer review; ethics in scientific communication; preservation of data; discovery tools; discipline-specific practices of researchers for gathering and using scientific information; academic social networks; bibliographic management tools; information literacy and the information needs of students and researchers; the involvement of academic libraries in eScience and the new opportunities it presents to librarians; and interviews with experts in scientific information and publishing.
Rosman, Tom; Peter, Johannes; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter
The present article investigates the effects of epistemic beliefs (i.e. beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing) on the effectiveness of information literacy instruction (i.e. instruction on how to search for scholarly information in academic settings). We expected psychology students with less sophisticated beliefs (especially…
Willingham, Daniel T.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Dobolyi, David G.
Theories of learning styles suggest that individuals think and learn best in different ways. These are not differences of ability but rather preferences for processing certain types of information or for processing information in certain types of way. If accurate, learning styles theories could have important implications for instruction because…
Glahn, Christian; Börner, Dirk
Glahn, C., & Börner, D. (2009). Mobile Informal Learning. Presented at Mobile Learning in Context Symposium at the Open University of the Netherlands. September, 11, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.
Levinsen, Karin Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm
are examined and the relation between network society competences, learners’ informal learning strategies and ICT in formalized school settings over time is studied. The authors find that aspects of ICT like multimodality, intuitive interaction design and instant feedback invites an informal bricoleur approach....... When integrated into certain designs for teaching and learning, this allows for Formalized Informal Learning and support is found for network society competences building....
Gigi Rolandi, sitting in the middle, chairing his last meeting of the Scientific Information Policy Board before his retirement. Rolandi was the chairman of the board from March 2006 until April 2017, a period that has seen lots of dynamics within the field of authoring, publishing and librarianship - both at CERN and beyond. In the first row from left to right: Eckhard Elsen (Director of Research), Jens Vigen (Head Librarian) Gigi Rolandi (SIPB Chair), Anita Hollier (Archivist) and Urs Wiedemann (Theory). In the second row from left to right: Nikos Kasioumis (Invited speaker), Alexander Kohls (Invited speaker), Stella Christodoulaki (Invited speaker), Nick Ellis (Chair CREB), Clara Troncon (ACCU), Annette Holtkamp (Scientific Information Service), Tim Smith (IT) Brigitte Bloch-Devaux (non-LHC experiments), Constantinos Loizides (ALICE), Thierry Stora (Engineering), John Jowett (Beams), Arjan Verweij (Technology), Anne Gentil-Beccot (Scientific Information Service), Fergus Wilson (LHCb), Ludmila Marian (Invit...
Cláudio Márcio Oliveira
Full Text Available The present work aims to inquire the construction of scientific knowledge in the motor learning area. A necessary historical retrospective on this study field considers the epistemology of Francis Bacon, Karl Popper, Paul Feyerabend and Thomas Kuhn. Bacon and Popper’s conceptions show to be inadequate to explain the scientific progress of motor learning. Feyerabend’s ideas are also inadequate as they lack coherency, even though in some aspects they are adequate. The Kuhnian approach, however, seems more satisfactory, particularly with regard to the notion of “crisis of paradigm” between the ecological approach and the information-processing approach. A critique is offered from human and social sciences perspective. This leads us to reflect on the possible growth of a new paradigm and consider scientific practice as a social practice.
Climate science regularly makes headlines in the media, usually after an extreme weather event or a disaster, or in the wake of campaigns by think tanks about the science of climate change. In this presentation, I discuss four specific challenges that are posed to climate scientist when communicating with the public: (i) The widening gap between the scientific literacy of the public and the communication literacy of the scientists; (ii), the multiplicity of scientific information conduits; (iii), information of, and under, uncertainty; and (iv), the requirement to be precise without using technical language. It turns out that these challenges are quite generic to science communication. Climate scientists have learned from the regular international assessments they perform under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and have accumulated a collective experience of more than 20 years. In this presentation I discuss the most important lessons learned from this experience and their relevant...
Börner, Dirk; Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus
Börner, D., Glahn, C., & Specht, M. (2009). Mobile Informal Learning. Presentation for the Education in the Wild: contextual and location-based mobile learning in action workshop at the STELLAR Alpine Rendez-Vous 2009. November, 30-December, 3, 2009, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.
... Information Request on Medication Therapy Management AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Request for scientific information submissions. SUMMARY: The Agency for Healthcare... therapy management Scientific information is being solicited to inform our review of Medication Therapy...
Rogoff, Barbara; Callanan, Maureen; Gutiérrez, Kris D.; Erickson, Frederick
Informal learning is often treated as simply an alternative to formal, didactic instruction. This chapter discusses how the organization of informal learning differs across distinct settings but with important commonalities distinguishing informal learning from formal learning: Informal learning is nondidactic, is embedded in meaningful activity,…
Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Kaczmarczyk, Jacek; Nowakowski, Andrzej
The amount and diversity of scientific publications requires a modern management system. By "management" we mean the process of gathering interesting information for the purpose of reading and archiving for quick access in future clinical practice and research activity. In the past, such system required physical existence of a library, either institutional or private. Nowadays in an era dominated by electronic information, it is natural to migrate entire systems to a digital form. In the following paper we describe the structure and functions of an individual electronic library system (IELiS) for the management of scientific publications based on the Google Drive service. Architecture of the system. Architecture system consists of a central element and peripheral devices. Central element of the system is virtual Google Drive provided by Google Inc. Physical elements of the system include: tablet with Android operating system and a personal computer, both with internet access. Required software includes a program to view and edit files in PDF format for mobile devices and another to synchronize the files. Functioning of the system. The first step in creating a system is collection of scientific papers in PDF format and their analysis. This step is performed most frequently on a tablet. At this stage, after being read, the papers are cataloged in a system of folders and subfolders, according to individual demands. During this stage, but not exclusively, the PDF files are annotated by the reader. This allows the user to quickly track down interesting information in review or research process. Modification of the document title is performed at this stage, as well. Second element of the system is creation of a mirror database in the Google Drive virtual memory. Modified and cataloged papers are synchronized with Google Drive. At this stage, a fully functional scientific information electronic library becomes available online. The third element of the system is a
Bankole A. Falade
Full Text Available The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa (2013–2016 claimed over 10 000 lives in less than 18 months. Low levels of familiarity with the disease, ease of transmission, scale of infection, gruesomeness of symptoms, lack of cure and high fatality rate created a global panic. From the perspective of the social psychology of communication and content analysis, this study examines media coverage of the crisis in Africa with a view to unpacking the scientific and non-scientific information that may have framed public understanding of the disease. Findings show that accepting scientific advice was not unproblematic, because of the similarity of early symptoms with known diseases such as Lassa, dengue and malaria fevers. Cultural and religious actors and beliefs posed a paradox for believers as the public assimilated disease prevention information into existing norms and practices. Rumours and conspiracy theories about Western governments and pharmaceuticals also contributed to the rejection of the scientific explanation of its origin. Fear of the devastating effects of the disease and the lack of a cure led to the stigmatisation of the infected and treatment centres and ultimately to public revolts. Findings show the importance of non-scientific information and actors in matters of health and illness in Africa. Significance: Scientific knowledge is not enough to change health behaviour. Non-scientific knowledge and actors, traditional and religious practices, rumours and conspiracy theories must all be factored into efforts to address behavioural change.
van Joolingen, Wouter; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.
This article describes a theory of scientific discovery learning which is an extension of Klahr and Dunbar''s model of Scientific Discovery as Dual Search (SDDS) model. We present a model capable of describing and understanding scientific discovery learning in complex domains in terms of the SDDS
The objective of this Joint Research Interchange with NASA-Ames was to investigate how the Tsimmis technology could be used to represent and integrate scientific information. The main goal of the Tsimmis project is to allow a decision maker to find information of interest from such sources, fuse it, and process it (e.g., summarize it, visualize it, discover trends). Another important goal is the easy incorporation of new sources, as well the ability to deal with sources whose structure or services evolve. During the Interchange we had research meetings approximately every month or two. The funds provided by NASA supported work that lead to the following two papers: Fusion Queries over Internet Databases; Efficient Query Subscription Processing in a Multicast Environment.
Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm
and other relevant stakeholders, as well as participant observations in the classroom documented by thick descriptions, formal and informal interviews and focus group interviews. The aim of the study was to explore and identify relations between designs for teaching and learning and the students' learning......This paper presents findings from a large-scale longitudinal, qualitative study - Project ICT and Learning (PIL) - that engaged the participation of eight primary schools in Denmark, and was conducted between 2006 and 2008. The research design was based on action research, involving teachers...... of school subjects within defined learning goals and curricula, along with various implementations of ICT in the pedagogical everyday practice (Levinsen & Sørensen 2008). However, another research strand - the topic of this paper - emerged during the project's life cycle as a consequence of ongoing changes...
Shamaev, V. G.; Gorshkov, A. B.
This paper reports on the creation of the open access Akustika portal (AKDATA.RU) designed to provide Russian-language easy-to-read and search information on acoustics and related topics. The absence of a Russian-language publication in foreign databases means that it is effectively lost for much of the scientific community. The portal has three interrelated sections: the Akustika information search system (ISS) (Acoustics), full-text archive of the Akusticheskii Zhurnal (Acoustic Journal), and 'Signal'naya informatsiya' ('Signaling information') on acoustics. The paper presents a description of the Akustika ISS, including its structure, content, interface, and information search capabilities for basic and applied research in diverse areas of science, engineering, biology, medicine, etc. The intended users of the portal are physicists, engineers, and engineering technologists interested in expanding their research activities and seeking to increase their knowledge base. Those studying current trends in the Russian-language contribution to international science may also find the portal useful.
In her book title "Music, Informal Learning and the School," Lucy Green has ineluctably taken teachers to a place where potentially, students can really participate in an interactive pedagogy where student-centeredness is applied in its full sense. For this reason, the author found the potential contribution of the book to music education…
Diehm, Rae-Anne; Lupton, Mandy
Introduction: This paper reports on university students' experiences of learning information literacy. Method: Phenomenography was selected as the research approach as it describes the experience from the perspective of the study participants, which in this case is a mixture of undergraduate and postgraduate students studying education at an…
Full Text Available The Educational Seismological Project (EduSeis is a scientific and educational project, the main aim of which is the development and implementation of new teaching methodologies in Earth Sciences, using seismology as a vehicle for scientific learning and awareness of earthquake risk. Within this framework, we have recently been experimenting with new learning and information approaches that are mainly aimed at a high school audience. In particular, we have designed, implemented and tested a model of an e-learning environment in a high school located in the surroundings of the Mt. Vesuvius volcano. The proposed e-learning model is built on the EduSeis concepts and educational materials (web-oriented, and is based on computer-supported collaborative learning. Ten teachers from different disciplines and fifty students at the I.T.I.S. Majorana technical high school (Naples have been taking part in a cooperative e-learning experiment in which the students have been working in small groups (communities. The learning process is assisted and supervised by the teachers. The evaluation of the results from this cooperative e-learning experiment has provided useful insights into the content and didactic value of the EduSeis modules and activities. The use of network utilities and the Learning Community approach promoted the exchange of ideas and expertises between students and teachers and allowed a new approach to the seismology teaching through a multidisciplinary study.
Leopold, Claudia; Mayer, Richard E.
Asking students to imagine the spatial arrangement of the elements in a scientific text constitutes a learning strategy intended to foster deep processing of the instructional material. Two experiments investigated the effects of mental imagery prompts on learning from scientific text. Students read a computer-based text on the human respiratory…
Rhodes, Rebecca E.; Rodriguez, Fernando; Shah, Priti
Previous studies have investigated the influence of neuroscience information or images on ratings of scientific evidence quality but have yielded mixed results. We examined the influence of neuroscience information on evaluations of flawed scientific studies after taking into account individual differences in scientific reasoning skills, thinking…
Hatem H. Elrefaei
Full Text Available While scientific models are usually communicated in paper format, the need to reprogram every model by every user results in a huge loss of efforts, time and money, hence lengthening the educational and research developing cycle and loosing the learning experience and expertise gained by every user. We demonstrate a new portal www.imodelit.com that hosts a library of scientific models for electrical engineers in the form of java applets. They are all conformal, informative, with strong input and output filing system. The software design allows a fast developing cycle and it represents a strong infrastructure that can be shared by researchers to develop their own applets to be posted on the library. We aim for a community based library of scientific models that enhances the e-learning process for engineering students.
Chang, Shu-Nu; Chiu, Mei-Hung
The purpose of this study is to explore how Lakatos' scientific research programmes might serve as a theoretical framework for representing and evaluating informal argumentation about socio-scientific issues. Seventy undergraduate science and non-science majors were asked to make written arguments about four socio-scientific issues. Our analysis…
Holliday, Gary M.; Lederman, Norman G.
Publications such as "Surrounded by science: Learning science in informal environments" [Fenichel, M., & Schweingruber, H. A. (2010). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press] and "Learning science in informal environments: People, places, and pursuits" [National Research Council. (2009). Washington, DC: National…
Indarti, Dwi; Mardiyana; Pramudya, Ikrar
The aim of this research was to find out the influence of learning model implementation toward student’s achievement in mathematics. This research was using quasi-experimental research. The population of the research was all of 7th grade students in Karanganyar. Sample was taken using stratified cluster random sampling technique. The data collection has been conducted based on students’ mathematics achievement test. The results from the data analysis showed that the learning mathematics by using Numbered Head Together (NHT) learning model with scientific approach improved student’s achievement in mathematics rather than direct learning model particularly in learning object of quadrilateral. Implementation of NHT learning model with scientific approach could be used by the teachers in teaching and learning, particularly in learning object of quadrilateral.
Formal learning is, as the name implies familiar and hence easy to conduct. Informal learning on the other hand begs the question - how will it be managed? Further research is therefore necessary in the field of formulating a consistent theory, understanding what the potential for R&D could be and considering the interplay between formal and informal learning.
King, D. B.; Lewis, J. E.; Anderson, K.; Latch, D.; Sutheimer, S.; Webster, G.; Moog, R.
Active learning has gained increasing support as an effective pedagogical technique to improve student learning. One way to promote active learning in the classroom is the use of in-class activities in place of lecturing. As part of an NSF-funded project, a set of in-class activities have been created that use climate change topics to teach chemistry content. These activities use the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) methodology. In this pedagogical approach a set of models and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to or application of course content. Students complete the activities in their groups, with the faculty member as a facilitator of learning. Through assigned group roles and intentionally designed activity structure, process skills, such as teamwork, communication, and information processing, are developed during completion of the activity. Each of these climate change activities contains a socio-scientific component, e.g., social, ethical and economic data. In one activity, greenhouse gases are used to explain the concept of dipole moment. Data about natural and anthropogenic production rates, global warming potential and atmospheric lifetimes for a list of greenhouse gases are presented. The students are asked to identify which greenhouse gas they would regulate, with a corresponding explanation for their choice. They are also asked to identify the disadvantages of regulating the gas they chose in the previous question. In another activity, where carbon sequestration is used to demonstrate the utility of a phase diagram, students use economic and environmental data to choose the best location for sequestration. Too often discussions about climate change (both in and outside the classroom) consist of purely emotional responses. These activities force students to use data to support their arguments and hypothesize about what other data could be used in the corresponding discussion to
Indarti, D.; Mardiyana; Pramudya, I.
The aim of this research is to find out the effect of learning model toward mathematics achievement. This research is quasi-experimental research. The population of research is all VII grade students of Karanganyar regency in the academic year of 2016/2017. The sample of this research was taken using stratified cluster random sampling technique. Data collection was done based on mathematics achievement test. The data analysis technique used one-way ANOVA following the normality test with liliefors method and homogeneity test with Bartlett method. The results of this research is the mathematics learning using Group Investigation learning model with scientific approach produces the better mathematics learning achievement than learning with conventional model on material of quadrilateral. Group Investigation learning model with scientific approach can be used by the teachers in mathematics learning, especially in the material of quadrilateral, which is can improve the mathematics achievement.
T. O. Kolesnykova
Full Text Available Purpose. Problem of representation lack of scientists’ publications, including transport scientists, in the international scientometric databases is the urgent one for Ukrainian science. To solve the problem one should study the structure and quality of the information flow of scientific periodicals of railway universities in Ukraine and to determine the integration algorithm of scientific publications of Ukrainian scientists into the world scientific information space. Methodology. Applying the methods of scientific analysis, synthesis, analogy, comparison and prediction the author has investigated the problem of scientific knowledge distribution using formal communications. The readiness of Ukrainian railway periodicals to registration procedure in the international scientometric systems was analyzed. The level of representation of articles and authors of Ukrainian railway universities in scientometric database Scopus was studied. Findings. Monitoring of the portals of railway industry universities of Ukraine and the sites of their scientific periodicals and analysis of obtained data prove insufficient readiness of most scientific publications for submission to scientometric database. The ways providing sufficient "visibility" of industry periodicals of Ukrainian universities in the global scientific information space were proposed. Originality. The structure and quality of documentary flow of scientific periodicals in railway transport universities of Ukraine and its reflection in scientometric DB Scopus were first investigated. The basic directions of university activities to integrate the results of transport scientists research into the global scientific digital environment were outlined. It was determined the leading role of university libraries in the integration processes of scientific documentary resources of universities into the global scientific and information communicative space. Practical value. Implementation of the proposed
The document outlines the mission and organization of the Office of Aerospace Research (OAR), then describes how its principal product, scientific...effective technical information program, are documented by examples. The role of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information within OAR as performed
Roosendaal, Hans E.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; Hilf, E.R.; Hauke, P.
In this article we will discuss some broader developments in the field of scientific information with the aim to determine and analyse some of the pertinent strategic issues that the stakeholders will face at present time. The stakeholders in the value chain of scientific information are: the user
Ellizar, E.; Hardeli, H.; Beltris, S.; Suharni, R.
Scientific Approach is a learning process, designed to make the students actively construct their own knowledge through stages of scientific method. The scientific approach in learning process can be done by using learning modules. One of the learning model is discovery based learning. Discovery learning is a learning model for the valuable things in learning through various activities, such as observation, experience, and reasoning. In fact, the students’ activity to construct their own knowledge were not optimal. It’s because the available learning modules were not in line with the scientific approach. The purpose of this study was to develop a scientific approach discovery based learning module on Acid Based, also on electrolyte and non-electrolyte solution. The developing process of this chemistry modules use the Plomp Model with three main stages. The stages are preliminary research, prototyping stage, and the assessment stage. The subject of this research was the 10th and 11th Grade of Senior High School students (SMAN 2 Padang). Validation were tested by the experts of Chemistry lecturers and teachers. Practicality of these modules had been tested through questionnaire. The effectiveness had been tested through experimental procedure by comparing student achievement between experiment and control groups. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the developed scientific approach discovery based learning module significantly improve the students’ learning in Acid-based and Electrolyte solution. The result of the data analysis indicated that the chemistry module was valid in content, construct, and presentation. Chemistry module also has a good practicality level and also accordance with the available time. This chemistry module was also effective, because it can help the students to understand the content of the learning material. That’s proved by the result of learning student. Based on the result can conclude that chemistry module based on
This report aims to stimulate scientists of all disciplines to consider the advantages of using a generalized data management system (GDMS) for storage, manipulation and retrieval of the data they collect and often need to share. It should also be of interest to managers and programmers who need to make decisions on the management of scientific (numeric or non-numeric) data. Another goal of this report is to expose the features that a GDMS should have which are specifically necessary to support scientific data, such as data types and special manipulation functions. A GDMS is a system that provides generalized tools for the purpose of defining a database structure, for loading the data, for modification of the data, and for organizing the database for efficient retrieval and formatted output. A data management system is 'generalized' when it provides a user-oriented language for the different functions, so that it is possible to define any new database, its internal organization, and to retrieve and modify the data without the need to develop special purpose software (program) for each new database
Mayara Cintya do Nascimento Vasconcelos; Gabriela Belmont de Farias
The research analyzes the articles published in national scientific journals of the area of Information Science, classified with Qualis A1, having as parameter the term "scientific and technological information". It presents concepts about scientific and technological information and the processes that involve its uses, as well as scientific communication, information flows and sources of information. The methodology used is a descriptive study with a quantitative-qualitative approach, using ...
During this presentation the topics that will touched upon include various ways in which wikis are being used in scientific research and publishing, currently, as well as some that are more speculative. Many of the examples are drawn from the biological sciences, and the talk is intended to stimulate debate as to how the physics community - and CERN in particular - can enhance its interaction with the Wikimedia community, or via Wikimedia with the public at large. For instance: PLOS Computational Biology Topic Pages Wodak SJ, Mietchen D, Collings AM, Russell RB, Bourne PE (2012) "Topic Pages: PLoS Computational Biology Meets Wikipedia". PLoS Comput Biol 8(3): e1002446 Open Access Media Importer A proposed Wiki Journal, a peer-review journal to encourage academics to contribute Wikipedia articles Encyclopedia of Original Research and JATS-to-MediaWiki The Gene Wiki Wikigenes Wikis in Scholarly Publishing The Journal of the Future His talk is being draft...
Ana M. B. Pavani
Full Text Available This article addresses the access to information from a point of view that relates the evolution of technology to the methods of treating information and to the desire for knowledge. The first part introduces some important events in ancient times, the end of the middle ages/beginning of the modern age and the XIX century. Then, it presents an overview of the current situation of traditional libraries and compares some characteristics with the corresponding ones for digital libraries. It ends by mentioning the international efforts towards open archives and open access to information; it shows examples of positive results.
Chen Yingxi; Huang Daifu; Yang Lifeng
With the development of internet and information technology, the work of scientific and technological information is faced with great challenge. This article expounds the new changes of scientific and technological information in enterprise under network environment by giving a minute description on the situation the work faced and characteristic of the work. Not only does it carry out enthusiastic discussion upon problems which are present in the work of scientific and technological information in the company, but puts forward proposals and specific measures as well. Service theory is also offered by adjusting and reforming the resources construction, service ways and the job of providing contents. We should take vigorous action to the research work of scientific and technological information, changing the information directional service into knowledge providing service. (authors)
Arwa 'Isa al-Yasiry
Full Text Available This research aims at evaluating the quality of scientific information culture that introduce it the Arabic mass media in the internet and how it covering the reality of Arabic scientific information by using analysis content method for these websites then we most be know how these websites treating with information culture considering information systems has input, output and mutual relations between the elements of this system that include the following three components: 1- External relations that connecting between the culture and the reality. 2- Internal elements for this system. 3- Infrastructures for this system that represented in the cultural policy, informational , information resources and human resources
Kobayashi, Sofie; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Rump, Camilla Østerberg
Research into doctoral supervision has increased rapidly over the last decades, yet our understanding of how doctoral students learn scientific thinking from supervision is limited. Most studies are based on interviews with little work being reported that is based on observation of actual...... supervision. While joint supervision has become widely used, its learning dynamics remains under-researched and this paper aims to address these gaps in research by exploring learning opportunities in doctoral supervision with two supervisors. The study explores how the tensions in scientific discussion...... between supervisors can become learning opportunities. We combine two different theoretical perspectives, using participation and positioning theory as a sociocultural perspective and variation theory as an individual constructivist perspective on learning. Based on our analysis of a complex episode we...
Dolin, Jens; Evans, Robert Harry; Quistgaard, Nana
The purpose of this paper is to bring together research on learning and teaching in science – especially for scientific literacy and citizenship – with new insights into museum didactics in order to inform innovative ways of creating museum exhibits and visits and develop new ways of linking formal...... and informal learning environments. Knowledge from different domains that have evolved substantially over the past few decades is brought together with the intention of setting up some relatively concrete guidelines for arranging visits to science museums. First we examine new understandings of science...... learning in relation to the questions of why young people should learn science and what kind of science they should learn. We touch upon issues of scientific literacy and citizenship, dialogical processes, the nature of science, and inquiry-based teaching among others. Secondly, we relate our reflections...
Aisyah, R.; Zakiyah, I. A.; Farida, I.; Ramdhani, M. A.
A research has been conducted to create a crude oil learning media in the form of scientific literacy-oriented comic. The research included some phases, namely: concept analysis, material transformation to concept map, indicator identification and science literacy aspect. The product was made based on flowcharts and storyboards that have been validated by expert validators. The product has characteristics namely; 1) Develops indicators and aspects of science literacy, 2) presents the materials in form of story of science fiction genre, 3) has characters adopting levels of scientific literacy, 4) has optional stories, because it depends on questions asked to develop scientific literacy in terms of content, context, process and attitude. Based on feasibility test, the product is feasible to be used as learning media. It is suggested to do an expanded experiment to examine its affectivity in improving scientific literacy and growing students’ awareness about the issues of energy crisis and the impacts of fossil fuel use on the environment.
Ranney, Michael Andrew; Clark, Dav
Of this article's seven experiments, the first five demonstrate that virtually no Americans know the basic global warming mechanism. Fortunately, Experiments 2-5 found that 2-45 min of physical-chemical climate instruction durably increased such understandings. This mechanistic learning, or merely receiving seven highly germane statistical facts (Experiment 6), also increased climate-change acceptance-across the liberal-conservative spectrum. However, Experiment 7's misleading statistics decreased such acceptance (and dramatically, knowledge-confidence). These readily available attitudinal and conceptual changes through scientific information disconfirm what we term "stasis theory"--which some researchers and many laypeople varyingly maintain. Stasis theory subsumes the claim that informing people (particularly Americans) about climate science may be largely futile or even counterproductive--a view that appears historically naïve, suffers from range restrictions (e.g., near-zero mechanistic knowledge), and/or misinterprets some polarization and (noncausal) correlational data. Our studies evidenced no polarizations. Finally, we introduce HowGlobalWarmingWorks.org--a website designed to directly enhance public "climate-change cognition." Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Roosendaal, Hans E.
The values in scientific information relevant for the individual researcher can be represented in the value chain for this process. IT is a strong engine for change, in particular as IT has the potential not only to innovate the research information system but also the educational information system
Full Text Available This essay is a reflection on the peculiarities of the scientifically based research and on the distinctive elements of the EBL (evidence based learning, methodology used in the study on the “Relationship between Metacognition, Self-efficacy and Self-regulation in Learning”. The EBL method, based on the standardization of data, explains how the students’ learning experience can be considered as a set of “data” and can be used to explain how and when the research results can be considered generalizable and transferable to other learning situations. The reflections present in this study have also allowed us to illustrate the impact that its results have had on the micro and macro level of reality. They helped to fill in the gaps concerning the learning/teaching processes, contributed to the enrichment of the scientific literature on this subject and allowed to establish standards through rigorous techniques such as systematic reviews and meta-analysis.
Thomas Barbosa Fejolo
Full Text Available This paper presents a research on informal Science learning in the context of the Institutional Scholarship Program Initiation to Teaching (PIBID. We take as reference the strands of informal Science learning (FAC, representing six dimensions of learning, they are: 1 Development of interest in Science; 2 Understanding of scientific knowledge; 3 Engaging in scientific reasoning; 4 Reflection on Science; 5 Engagement in scientific practice; 6 Identification with Science. For the lifting data, it was used the filming record of the interactions and dialogues of undergraduate students while performing activities of Optical Spectroscopy in the laboratory. Based on the procedures of content analysis and interpretations through communication, we investigate which of the six strands were present during the action of the students in activities. As a result we have drawn a learning profile for each student by distributing communications in different strands of informal Science learning.
Yustina, Yustina; Suwondo, Suwondo
The purpose of this research was to got the information about student's scientific attitude and creativity of product and correlation both of it in enviromental issues through project based learning. This research was conducted from January to June 2015. Sample in this research were 34 students of 2014 grade in FKIP Biologi UR used parameters were (1) scientific attitude with 4 indicators (curiosity, cooperative, carefulness and discipline); (2) creativity of product. Observation instrument m...
Skonieczny, Lukasz; Rybiński, Henryk; Niezgodka, Marek
This book is a selection of results obtained within one year of research performed under SYNAT - a nation-wide scientific project aiming to create an infrastructure for scientific content storage and sharing for academia, education and open knowledge society in Poland. The selection refers to the research in artificial intelligence, knowledge discovery and data mining, information retrieval and natural language processing, addressing the problems of implementing intelligent tools for building a scientific information platform. The idea of this book is based on the very successful SYNAT Project Conference and the SYNAT Workshop accompanying the 19th International Symposium on Methodologies for Intelligent Systems (ISMIS 2011). The papers included in this book present an overview and insight into such topics as architecture of scientific information platforms, semantic clustering, ontology-based systems, as well as, multimedia data processing.
Roth, Gene L.
Information technologies are important tools for individual, team, and organizational learning. Developments in virtual reality and the Internet, performance support systems that increase the efficiency of individuals and groups, and other innovations have the potential to enhance the relationship between work and learning. (SK)
Hey, Tony [eScience Institute, University of Washington; Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Borgman, Christine [University of California, Los Angeles; Cartaro, Concetta [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Crivelli, Silvia [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Van Dam, Kerstin Kleese [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Luce, Richard [University of Oklahoma; Arjun, Shankar [CADES, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Trefethen, Anne [University of Oxford; Wade, Alex [Microsoft Research, Microsoft Corporation; Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
The Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) was charged to form a standing subcommittee to review the Department of Energy’s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and to begin by assessing the quality and effectiveness of OSTI’s recent and current products and services and to comment on its mission and future directions in the rapidly changing environment for scientific publication and data. The Committee met with OSTI staff and reviewed available products, services and other materials. This report summaries their initial findings and recommendations.
Kobayashi, Sofie; Grout, Brian W.; Rump, Camilla Østerberg
Research into doctoral supervision has increased rapidly over the last decades, yet our understanding of how doctoral students learn scientific thinking from supervision is limited. Most studies are based on interviews with little work being reported that is based on observation of actual supervision. While joint supervision has become widely…
Rop, Charles J.
This is a set of animal behavior investigations in which students will practice scientific inquiry as they observe crayfish, ask questions, and discuss territoriality, social interactions, and other behaviors. In doing this, they hone their skills of observation, learn to record and analyze data, control for variables, write hypotheses, make…
Wolbach, Kevin C.; Purzycki, Catherine B.; Bowman, Leslie A.; Agbada, Eva; Mostrom, Alison M.
The Association of College and Research Libraries recommends incorporating information literacy (IL) skills across university and college curricula, for the goal of developing information literate graduates. Congruent with this goal, the Departments of Biological Sciences and Information Science developed an integrated IL and scientific literacy (SL) exercise for use in a first-year biology course. Students were provided the opportunity to access, retrieve, analyze, and evaluate primary scientific literature. By the completion of this project, student responses improved concerning knowledge and relevance of IL and SL skills. This project exposes students to IL and SL early in their undergraduate experience, preparing them for future academic advancement. PMID:21123700
Barnes, Erica M.; Oliveira, Alandeom W.
Elementary students are expected to use various features of informational texts to build knowledge in the content areas. In science informational texts, scientific metaphors are commonly used to make sense of complex and invisible processes. Although elementary students may be familiar with literary metaphors as used in narratives, they may be…
Full Text Available Students who can meet the demands of academic discourse develop cognitive and metacognitive skills with which to understand the information they get from reading scientific texts, and thus establish their learning. In this work, a group of university students were evaluated concerning their competencies and deficiencies in the reading comprehension of a fragment of a scientific text used in one of their courses. The results allowed us to assess the most frequent difficulties in processing information and in understanding what they read. The group was made up of a few students skilled in reading comprehension skills, plus several inexpert readers with little capacity to monitor and assess their own understanding.
Full Text Available Historical learning has not reached optimal in the learning process. It is caused by the history teachers’ learning model has not used the innovative learning models. Furthermore, it supported by the perception of students to the history subject because it does not become final exam (UN subject so it makes less improvement and builds less critical thinking in students’ daily learning. This is due to the lack of awareness of historical events and the availability of history books for students and teachers in the library are still lacking. Discovery learning with scientific approach encourages students to solve problems actively and able to improve students' critical thinking skills with scientific approach so student can build scientific thinking include observing, asking, reasoning, trying, and networking Keywords: discovery learning, scientific, critical thinking
an analysis of my data I will centre my discussion around the value of this informal approach for learning purposes and discuss what kind of reflective competencies come into play here (Nesta Futurelab 2004a, 2004b). The theoretical framework for this article also draws on social learning theory (Lave......The paper describes the progression of a learning experiment with high school students producing moblogs (mobile weblogs) outside of the school environment and focuses especially on the reflective aspects of the moblogs as an expression of the reflective practicum (Schön 1987, DESECO 2003). Through...
Choi, Woojae; Jacobs, Ronald L.
While workplace learning includes formal and informal learning, the relationship between the two has been overlooked, because they have been viewed as separate entities. This study investigated the effects of formal learning, personal learning orientation, and supportive learning environment on informal learning among 203 middle managers in Korean…
Scientific journals are the most credible and updated information resources for valid information in the various fields of science and technology. The present study investigates the status of Iranian scientific journals in disseminating medical information to the world of science. Total 163 Iranian medical journals accredited by national medical journals commission of Iranian ministry of health and medical education were evaluated through a cross-sectional study. The results were represented in descriptive statistics in the form of table and chart. The study showed that 89.6% of Iranian medical journals were covered by regional information databases. Web of Science database indexed 22 (13.5%) Iranian journals in the field of medical science. Only six (6.7%) journals were indexed by Medline. Fifty-eight (35.6%) journals were in English, 102 (62.6%) in Persian, and three (1.8%) were bilingual which published their articles both in Persian and English languages. The highest Impact factor belonged to Iranian Journal of Allergy Asthma and Immunology. Improving scientific credibility of Iranian scholarly journals and their influence in disseminating medical information calls for a precise scientific and executive administration in publishing standards and also in the quality of content.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A scientific name for an organism can be associated with almost all biological data. Name identification is an important step in many text mining tasks aiming to extract useful information from biological, biomedical and biodiversity text sources. A scientific name acts as an important metadata element to link biological information. Results We present NetiNeti (Name Extraction from Textual Information-Name Extraction for Taxonomic Indexing, a machine learning based approach for recognition of scientific names including the discovery of new species names from text that will also handle misspellings, OCR errors and other variations in names. The system generates candidate names using rules for scientific names and applies probabilistic machine learning methods to classify names based on structural features of candidate names and features derived from their contexts. NetiNeti can also disambiguate scientific names from other names using the contextual information. We evaluated NetiNeti on legacy biodiversity texts and biomedical literature (MEDLINE. NetiNeti performs better (precision = 98.9% and recall = 70.5% compared to a popular dictionary based approach (precision = 97.5% and recall = 54.3% on a 600-page biodiversity book that was manually marked by an annotator. On a small set of PubMed Central’s full text articles annotated with scientific names, the precision and recall values are 98.5% and 96.2% respectively. NetiNeti found more than 190,000 unique binomial and trinomial names in more than 1,880,000 PubMed records when used on the full MEDLINE database. NetiNeti also successfully identifies almost all of the new species names mentioned within web pages. Conclusions We present NetiNeti, a machine learning based approach for identification and discovery of scientific names. The system implementing the approach can be accessed at http://namefinding.ubio.org.
The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the perception of teacher candidates towards scientific research process and their self-efficacy in this process, during Scientific Research Methods course that has been conducted using "Learning Management System" based on out-of-class learning activities. Being designed as a…
Informal Science Learning (ISL) is a policy narrative of interest in the United Kingdom and abroad. This paper explores how a group of English secondary school science teachers, enacted ISL science clubs through employing the Periodic Table of Videos. It examines how these teachers "battled" to enact ISL policy in performative conditions…
Haefner, Leigh Ann; Zembal-Saul, Carla
This study examined prospective elementary teachers' learning about scientific inquiry in the context of an innovative life science course. Research questions included: (1) What do prospective elementary teachers learn about scientific inquiry within the context of the course? and (2) In what ways do their experiences engaging in science investigations and teaching inquiry-oriented science influence prospective elementary teachers' understanding of science and science learning and teaching? Eleven prospective elementary teachers participated in this qualitative, multi-participant case study. Constant comparative analysis strategies attempted to build abstractions and explanations across participants around the constructs of the study. Findings suggest that engaging in scientific inquiry supported the development more appropriate understandings of science and scientific inquiry, and that prospective teachers became more accepting of approaches to teaching science that encourage children's questions about science phenomena. Implications include careful consideration of learning experiences crafted for prospective elementary teachers to support the development of robust subject matter knowledge.
Oleg M. Spirin
Full Text Available The article deals with the foreign and domestic experience of using the Open Journal Systems (OJS software platform for informational support of scientific and educational activities, in particular: a as a means of publicizing and disseminating the results of scientific research; b for creating and maintaining repositories of libraries of higher educational establishments; c for developing the scientific and educational space of an educational establishments; d as a cloud-based service for the preservation and access to scientific resources; e for information support in organization of student training; and f for deployment of student journals. As a result of the analysis of scientific periodicals of Ukraine in the field of psychological and pedagogical sciences, the scientific journals on the basis of Open Journal Systems are identified. The experience of support the electronic scientific journal «Information Technologies and Learning Tools» (http://journal.iitta.gov.ua is presented separately.
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse and systematize scientific approaches to the interpretation of the essence of the information economy. The research object: scientific approaches to the interpretation of the essence of the concept of “information economy”. The theoretical and methodological base of the research consists of works by D. Bell, Z. Brzezinski, J. Baudrillard, M. Castells, Yoneji Masuda, F. Machlup, M. Porat, A. Toffler, which are devoted to issues of development of information society. Analysis of recent research and publications allows noting an increasing scientific interest in issues of formation of the economy of information type. The essence and features of information economy are considered in scientific papers of scholars such as Hrynkevych S., Iliash A., Krystynevych S., Malyk I., Nikolaiev Ye., Bazhal Yu., Tolstiakov R., Shkarlet S., Fedulova L., Chukhno A., and others. Research methods: analysis, content analysis, synthesis, system method. Increasing scientific interest in the formation of the information economy leads to an increase in the number of publications on this topic; pluralism of scientific approaches to the consideration of the essence of the information economy actualizes the need for their systematization. The theory of information economy logically follows and is a component of the theory of the development of information society. Along with it, there is an approach in the scientific literature, according to which scholars identify the concept of information society and information economy. In our opinion, this approach is not well-balanced, since the term “information society” is inherently wider than “information economy”. The latter can be considered as an inherent component of the information society, which development is determined by a number of specific factors. In other words, these terms are closely interrelated and they should be investigated in the context of links between them
Full Text Available Scientific models represent ideas, processes, and phenomena by describing important components, characteristics, and interactions. Models are constructed across various scientific disciplines, such as the food web in biology, the water cycle in Earth science, or the structure of the solar system in astronomy. Models are central for scientists to understand phenomena, construct explanations, and communicate theories. Constructing and using models to explain scientific phenomena is also an essential practice in contemporary science classrooms. Our research explores new techniques for understanding scientific modeling and engagement with modeling practices. We work with students in secondary biology classrooms as they use a web-based software tool—EcoSurvey—to characterize organisms and their interrelationships found in their local ecosystem. We use learning analytics and machine learning techniques to answer the following questions: (1 How can we automatically measure the extent to which students’ scientific models support complete explanations of phenomena? (2 How does the design of student modeling tools influence the complexity and completeness of students’ models? (3 How do clickstreams reflect and differentiate student engagement with modeling practices? We analyzed EcoSurvey usage data collected from two different deployments with over 1,000 secondary students across a large urban school district. We observe large variations in the completeness and complexity of student models, and large variations in their iterative refinement processes. These differences reveal that certain key model features are highly predictive of other aspects of the model. We also observe large differences in student modeling practices across different classrooms and teachers. We can predict a student’s teacher based on the observed modeling practices with a high degree of accuracy without significant tuning of the predictive model. These results highlight
The paper examines the importance of knowledge as a prerequisite for sustainable development which is contingent on information, its value and ability to be produced, used, reused, and shared. The paper explains the opportunities of Open Access Initiatives (OA) as a tool for infusing and diffusing African scientific ...
A. I. Afonin
Full Text Available In accordance with the new version of the “Information Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation (adopted in December 2016, in information security agenda its information-psychological component was selected for further study. Attention is drawn to the need to ensure the information-psychological security of certain categories of citizens, social groups and society in general, taking into account a differentiated approach to assessing threats that arise in the course of their life. The article briefly considers the science rank among the forms of the human activities and notes that when involving in science-based and science-applied activities the near-scientific activity, which is often briefly referred to as pseudoscience, shows up as one of the threats.The article presents main forms to show of the near-scientific (pseudoscientific activity, namely parascience, quasi-science, pseudoscience, and monetary scientism.Drawing on the example of one of the near-scientific activity products, called "psychotronic weapon", the article clearly shows the emergence and evolution of this pseudoscientific product, the attempts of its implementation in practice, and the subsequent negative consequences of these attempts for society.Taking into account the survivability of the near-scientific activity, it is proposed to include lectures in the curricula of technical universities to introduce threats from pseudoscience to graduates of higher educational institutions who may face them both in their employment activity and in everyday life.
Scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center produced during the calendar year 1983 is compiled. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.
Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate two survey instruments to evaluate high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The initial relationships between the sampled students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science were also investigated. A final valid sample of 600 volunteer Taiwanese high school students participated in this survey by responding to the Scientific Epistemic Beliefs Instrument (SEBI) and the Goal Orientations in Learning Science Instrument (GOLSI). Through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the SEBI and GOLSI were proven to be valid and reliable for assessing the participants' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The path analysis results indicated that, by and large, the students with more sophisticated epistemic beliefs in various dimensions such as Development of Knowledge, Justification for Knowing, and Purpose of Knowing tended to adopt both Mastery-approach and Mastery-avoidance goals. Some interesting results were also found. For example, the students tended to set a learning goal to outperform others or merely demonstrate competence (Performance-approach) if they had more informed epistemic beliefs in the dimensions of Multiplicity of Knowledge, Uncertainty of Knowledge, and Purpose of Knowing.
... operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. 19.71 Section 19.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... Experimental or research operations by scientific institutions and colleges of learning. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize any scientific university, college of learning, or institution of...
Setiawan, Wawan; Hafitriani, Sarah; Prabawa, Harsa Wara
The objective of curriculum 2013 is to improve the quality of education in Indonesia, which leads to improving the quality of learning. The scientific approach and supported empowerment media is one approach as massaged of curriculum 2013. This research aims to design a labyrinth game based multimedia and apply in the scientific learning approach. This study was conducted in one of the Vocational School in Subjects of Computer Network on 2 (two) classes of experimental and control. The method used Mix Method Research (MMR) which combines qualitative in multimedia design, and quantitative in the study of learning impact. The results of a survey showed that the general of vocational students like of network topology material (68%), like multimedia (74%), and in particular, like interactive multimedia games and flash (84%). Multimediabased maze game developed good eligibility based on media and material aspects of each value 840% and 82%. Student learning outcomes as a result of using a scientific approach to learning with a multimediabased labyrinth game increase with an average of gain index about (58%) and higher than conventional multimedia with index average gain of 0.41 (41%). Based on these results the scientific approach to learning by using multimediabased labyrinth game can improve the quality of learning and increase understanding of students. Multimedia of learning based labyrinth game, which developed, got a positive response from the students with a good qualification level (75%).
Full Text Available This report aims to present the researcher in Psychology techniques for search and retrieval of information for academic and science research. Is based on my experiences as university librarian and as a doctoral student in Psychology, in a project on scientometry of the Social Skills field. This goal is to obtain information reliable and with quality to develop research, from sources of online information. Are recommended and described steps to the process of searching for scientific information, with examples from the Social Skills field: defining research topic; applying appropriate search tactics; selecting reliable sources of information and experts on the topic; translating research into the language of the information source; developing an effective search strategy; evaluating the quality and reliability of the obtained items. It is expected that by following these steps, the researcher obtain a coherent corpus with the subject, time saving and quality bibliographic.
José Osvaldo De Sordi
Full Text Available This research studies the declaration of input sources for research in scientific communications, more specifically, whether this practice of the academy may be considered a good example to be followed by organizations. Seven hypotheses address two dimensions of input sources: origin (primary or secondary and nature (data or information. It appears that the declaration of research inputs in the academy is problematic, mostly incomplete or inaccurate. This does not reduce the importance of this practice; it simply indicates that the academy should not be considered a privileged space, with wide dominance and practice excellence. Nevertheless, the information environment of organizations can learn and benefit from the experience of the scientific academy. From the analyses of the research sample, a set of procedures has been developed, which allowed organizational analysts and researchers to elaborate a complete and accurate analysis of the input sources to be declared in organizational or scientific communication.
Arattano, Massimo; Gatti, Albertina; Eusebio, Elisa
The commitment to communicate and divulge the knowledge acquired during his/her professional activity is certainly one of the ethical duties of the geologist. However nowadays, in the Internet era, the spreading of knowledge involves potential risks that the geologist should be aware of. These risks require a careful analysis aimed to mitigate their effects. The Internet may in fact contribute to spread (e.g. through websites like Wikipedia) information badly or even incorrectly presented. The final result could be an impediment to the diffusion of knowledge and a reduction of its effectiveness, which is precisely the opposite of the goal that a geologist should pursue. Specific criteria aimed to recognize incorrect or inadequate information would be, therefore, extremely useful. Their development and application might avoid, or at least reduce, the above mentioned risk. Ideally, such criteria could be also used to develop specific algorithms to automatically verify the quality of information available all over the Internet. A possible criterion will be here presented for the quality control of knowledge and scientific information. An example of its application in the field of geology will be provided, to verify and correct a piece of information available on the Internet. The proposed criterion could be also used for the simplification of the scientific information and the increase of its informative efficacy.
Winter Edgar Reyna Cruz
Full Text Available In previous works it has been pointed out that the exercise of Psychology is not limited to a single type of practice; On the contrary, psychologists perform philosophical, theoretical, technological, professional and transdisciplinary practices. Derived from the above in the present work, it is argued that teaching-learning Psychology demands that the aforementioned practices be taught-learn, to a greater or lesser extent. Based on this, (a the specific characteristics of each practice are described roughly; (b there is an aroused presentation of the main interbehavioral theoretical contributions regarding the teaching-learning of Psychology, the didactic interaction and the teacher's performance, which have focused on the learning of the practice of scientific investigation and its teaching; and, derived from the previous points, (c some reflections are presented regarding the teaching practice of psychology, as well as the learning of it, taking into account the different practices that are carried out in this discipline and not only with respect to the research practice. In the final comments, the benefits of the distinction of psychological practices in the training of apprentices of the discipline are indicated
Building of the System of biomedical scientific information of Yugoslavia (SBMSI YU) began, by the end of 1980, and the system became operative officially in 1986. After the political disintegration of former Yugoslavia SBMSI of Serbia was formed. SBMSI is developed according to the policy of developing of the System of scientific technologic information of Serbia (SSTI S), and with technical support of SSTI S. Reconstruction of the System is done by using former SBMSI YU as a model. Unlike the former SBMSI YU, SBMSI S owns besides the database Biomedicina Serbica, three important databases: database of doctoral dissertations promoted at University Medical School in Belgrade in the period from 1955-1993, database of Master's theses promoted at the University School of Medicine in Belgrade from 1965-1993; A database of foreign biomedical periodicals in libraries of Serbia.
Halpern, Diane F.; Millis, Keith; Graesser, Arthur C.; Butler, Heather; Forsyth, Carol; Cai, Zhiqiang
Operation ARA (Acquiring Research Acumen) is a computerized learning game that teaches critical thinking and scientific reasoning. It is a valuable learning tool that utilizes principles from the science of learning and serious computer games. Students learn the skills of scientific reasoning by engaging in interactive dialogs with avatars. They…
Thomas, Valerie L.; Wakim, Nagi T.
The evolution of computer networking technology has lead to the establishment of a massive networking infrastructure which interconnects various types of computing resources at many government, academic, and corporate institutions. A large segment of this infrastructure has been developed to facilitate information exchange and resource sharing within the scientific community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) supports both the development and the application of computer networks which provide its community with access to many valuable multi-disciplinary scientific information systems and on-line databases. Recognizing the need to extend the benefits of this advanced networking technology to the under-represented community, the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) in the Space Data and Computing Division at the Goddard Space Flight Center has developed the Minority University-Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) Program: a major networking and education initiative for Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and Minority Universities (MUs). In this paper, we will briefly explain the various components of the MU-SPIN Program while highlighting how, by providing access to scientific information systems and on-line data, it promotes a higher level of collaboration among faculty and students and NASA scientists.
Czerkawski, Betül C.
With the emergence of social software and the advance of web-based technologies, online learning networks provide invaluable opportunities for learning, whether formal or informal. Unlike top-down, instructor-centered, and carefully planned formal learning settings, informal learning networks offer more bottom-up, student-centered participatory…
Ferri Anglada, S.; Cornejo Alvarez, J. M.
The report presents an exploratory study on the impact of scientific dissemination, particularly a comparative analysis of two discourses on fusion energy as an alternative energy future. The report introduces a comparative analysis of the institutional discourse, as portrayed by the scientific jargon used in a European travelling exhibition on nuclear fusion Fusion Expo, and the social discourse, as illustrated by a citizen deliberation on this very same exhibition. Through textual analysis, the scientific discourse as deployed in the informative panels at the Fusion Expo is compared with the citizen discourse as developed in the discussions within the citizen groups. The ConText software was applied for such analysis. The purpose is to analyze how visitors assimilate, capture and understand highly technical information. Results suggest that, in despite of convergence points, the two discourses present certain differences, showing diverse levels of communication. The scientific discourse shows a great profusion of formalisms and technicalities of scientific jargon. The citizen discourse shows abundance of words associated with daily life and the more practical aspects (economy, efficiency), concerning institutional and evaluative references. In sum, the study shows that although there are a few common communicative spaces, there are still very few turning points. These data indicate that although exhibitions can be a good tool to disseminate advances in fusion energy in informal learning contexts, public feedback is a powerful tool for improving the quality of social dialogue. (Author)
Alexander O. Karpov
Full Text Available Cognitive-active learning research-type environment is the fundamental component of the education system for the knowledge society. The purpose of the research is the development of conceptual bases and a constructional model of a cognitively active learning environment that stimulates the creation of new knowledge and its socio-economic application. Research methods include epistemic-didactic analysis of empirical material collected as a result of the study of research environments at schools and universities; conceptualization and theoretical modeling of the cognitively active surrounding, which provides an infrastructure of the research-type cognitive process. The empirical material summarized in this work was collected in the research-cognitive space of the “Step into the Future” program, which is one of the most powerful systems of research education in present-day Russia. The article presents key points of the author's concept of generative learning environments and a model of learning and scientific innovation environment implemented at Russian schools and universities.
Marius Costel EŞI
Full Text Available Axiological and pragmatic valences of the teaching/pedagogical dimension express the important role that communication strategies have in the educational management. For this purpose, the organization of specific skills into the practical dimension of the educational process utterly indicates the relevance that didactical innovation has within a learning environment. Such an innovation falls within the professionalism, experience and originality of the socio-educational actor. Moreover, the scientific basis of education involves a rational recovery in the teleological dimension of scientific knowledge. It is about assuming, practically and theoretically, the axiological approaches in the simplicity-complexity relation. No doubt, this kind of understanding reflects the fact that, in social terms, the development and the acceptance of educational standards imply discursive forms of pragmatic explanation. Thus, the instrumental value of the social act refers to specific arrangements of particular forms of knowledge, like the knowledge of teaching. Therefore, optimizing a process of socialization involves learning and accepting a well established system of values.
Liao, Ya-Wen; She, Hsiao-Ching
This study reports the impacts of the Scientific Concept Construction and Reconstruction (SCCR) digital learning system on eighth grade students' concept construction, conceptual change, and scientific reasoning involving the topic of "atoms". A two-factorial experimental design was carried out to investigate the effects of the approach…
Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) Service, which is an important component of intelligence, is the intelligence researcher to select key subjects and major issues and key technology or innovation goals under the actual needs of scientific research personnel issues, using network communication technology and database technology and information retrieval technologies, sustained and in a timely manner to track all kinds of literature for the front-line services, until the completion of research topics or key problem-solving. Library of China Institute of Atomic Energy is struggling to meet the diverse needs of customers, targeted to provide a lot of useful information for scientific researchers to use less time as possible to obtain as much intelligence information, and to research workers and leading to the successful completion of research tasks, and various decisions. The implementation of SDI services to identify clients and scope, to format SDI service team, to determine the SDI service principles and service mode. SDI services Selective demand intelligence researchers have been asked to improve their quality, to improve their interpersonal communication skills. (author)
Ivanov, R; Raae, L
The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project - a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will introduce the 'Web 2.0' paradigm of user-enriched content in the domain of sciences, with community-based approaches to scientific publishing. INSPIRE represents a natural evolution of scholarly communication built on successful community-based information systems, and it provides a vision for information management in other fields of science. Inspired by the needs of HEP, we hope that the INSPIRE project will be inspiring for other communities.
Purpose: Knowledge management for space exploration is part of a multi-generational effort. Each mission builds on knowledge from prior missions, and learning is the first step in knowledge production. This paper uses the Mars Exploration Rover mission as a site to explore this process. Approach: Observational study and analysis of the work of the MER science and engineering team during rover operations, to investigate how learning occurs, how it is recorded, and how these representations might be made available for subsequent missions. Findings: Learning occurred in many areas: planning science strategy, using instrumen?s within the constraints of the martian environment, the Deep Space Network, and the mission requirements; using software tools effectively; and running two teams on Mars time for three months. This learning is preserved in many ways. Primarily it resides in individual s memories. It is also encoded in stories, procedures, programming sequences, published reports, and lessons learned databases. Research implications: Shows the earliest stages of knowledge creation in a scientific mission, and demonstrates that knowledge management must begin with an understanding of knowledge creation. Practical implications: Shows that studying learning and knowledge creation suggests proactive ways to capture and use knowledge across multiple missions and generations. Value: This paper provides a unique analysis of the learning process of a scientific space mission, relevant for knowledge management researchers and designers, as well as demonstrating in detail how new learning occurs in a learning organization.
Full Text Available : Concept maps of chemistry can be obtained from thesaurus of chemistry. Analysis of information in the field of chemistry is done at graduate level, based on comparing and analyzing chemistry dissertations by using these maps. Therefore, the use of thesaurus for analyzing scientific information is recommended. Major advantage of using this method, is that it is possible to obtain a detailed map of all academic researches across all branches of science. The researches analysis results in chemical science can play a key role in developing strategic research policies, educational programming, linking universities to industries and postgraduate educational programming. This paper will first introduce the concept maps of chemistry. Then, emerging patterns from the concept maps of chemistry will be used to analyze the trend in the academic dissertations in chemistry, using the data collected and stored in our database at Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IranDoc over the past 10 years (1998-2009.
Techniques de l'Ingénieur has been part of the selection of databases offered by the Scientific Information Service for the last five years. Unfortunately, as a consequence of budget reductions, and after careful consideration of all available options, we have to end this subscription. It will be still possible to purchase access to individual chapters via the Library services. Furthermore, we are considering ending our subscriptions to Web of Science and Springer Materials (the Landolt-Börnstein database) during the course of 2015. We thank you for your understanding and welcome your feedback to firstname.lastname@example.org
Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.
As geoscientists are confronted with increasingly massive datasets from environmental observations to simulations, one of the biggest challenges is having the right tools to gain scientific insight from the data and communicate the understanding to stakeholders. Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage, visualize and share large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to interact with data, and modify the parameters to create custom views of the data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. This requires developing new data models and intelligent knowledge discovery techniques to explore and extract information from complex computational simulations or large data repositories. Scientific visualization will be an increasingly important component to build comprehensive environmental information platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the trends and challenges in the field of scientific visualization, and demonstrates information visualization and communication tools in the Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS), developed within the light of these challenges. The IFIS is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to and visualization of flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, and other flood-related data for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and
Belenki, Liudmila; Sterzik, Vera; Bohnert, Michael; Zimmermann, Klaus; Liehr, Andreas W
Reflectance spectrometry is a fast and reliable method for the characterization of human skin if the spectra are analyzed with respect to a physical model describing the optical properties of human skin. For a field study performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine and the Freiburg Materials Research Center of the University of Freiburg, a scientific information repository has been developed, which is a variant of an electronic laboratory notebook and assists in the acquisition, management, and high-throughput analysis of reflectance spectra in heterogeneous research environments. At the core of the repository is a database management system hosting the master data. It is filled with primary data via a graphical user interface (GUI) programmed in Java, which also enables the user to browse the database and access the results of data analysis. The latter is carried out via Matlab, Python, and C programs, which retrieve the primary data from the scientific information repository, perform the analysis, and store the results in the database for further usage.
Steven, G [Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg (Luxembourg)
Scientific and technical information (STI) is an increasingly important resource for R and D and industrial development. The rapid development of the market for electronic information and the increasing potential offered through new information technologies require new approaches for the collection and dissemination of STI. Activities of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in this area are reviewed. More recent CEC initiatives in the areas of biotechnology information and factual materials data banks have proved the need for international collaboration and for the implementation of infrastructural measures as a basis for such collaboration. The implementation of the EC Demonstrator Programme on materials property data systems has evaluated the potential of eleven European materials data banks against the market requirements and has helped to launch wide international collaboration. The concluding European workshop on materials data systems has developed a set of recommendations for future initiatives. These are shortly reviewed together with initial findings of a study aimed at developing a business plan for the establishment of a biotechnology information infrastructure for the bio-industries and research base in Europe. (author). 3 refs.
Scientific and technical information (STI) is an increasingly important resource for R and D and industrial development. The rapid development of the market for electronic information and the increasing potential offered through new information technologies require new approaches for the collection and dissemination of STI. Activities of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in this area are reviewed. More recent CEC initiatives in the areas of biotechnology information and factual materials data banks have proved the need for international collaboration and for the implementation of infrastructural measures as a basis for such collaboration. The implementation of the EC Demonstrator Programme on materials property data systems has evaluated the potential of eleven European materials data banks against the market requirements and has helped to launch wide international collaboration. The concluding European workshop on materials data systems has developed a set of recommendations for future initiatives. These are shortly reviewed together with initial findings of a study aimed at developing a business plan for the establishment of a biotechnology information infrastructure for the bio-industries and research base in Europe. (author). 3 refs
Chen, Jun; Dowman, Ian; Li, Songnian; Li, Zhilin; Madden, Marguerite; Mills, Jon; Paparoditis, Nicolas; Rottensteiner, Franz; Sester, Monika; Toth, Charles; Trinder, John; Heipke, Christian
With the increased availability of very high-resolution satellite imagery, terrain based imaging and participatory sensing, inexpensive platforms, and advanced information and communication technologies, the application of imagery is now ubiquitous, playing an important role in many aspects of life and work today. As a leading organisation in this field, the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) has been devoted to effectively and efficiently obtaining and utilising information from imagery since its foundation in the year 1910. This paper examines the significant challenges currently facing ISPRS and its communities, such as providing high-quality information, enabling advanced geospatial computing, and supporting collaborative problem solving. The state-of-the-art in ISPRS related research and development is reviewed and the trends and topics for future work are identified. By providing an overarching scientific vision and research agenda, we hope to call on and mobilise all ISPRS scientists, practitioners and other stakeholders to continue improving our understanding and capacity on information from imagery and to deliver advanced geospatial knowledge that enables humankind to better deal with the challenges ahead, posed for example by global change, ubiquitous sensing, and a demand for real-time information generation.
Borrelli, G; Marchetti, A [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Belli, M [WWF, Fondo Mondiale per la Natura, Rome (Italy)
Among ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and the Environment) activities, one deals with analysis and strategies of environmental and scientific information. A questionnaire, created in collaboration with AIGA (Italian Environmental Journalist Association) and UGIS (Italian Scientific Journalist Association) and WWF has been realized. Purpose of the work was to check the level of sensitivity of the Italian journalists on environmental and scientific issues and to investigate the main obstacle facing to their professional activity.Environmental and scientific problems are usually not correctly perceived by the public. These problems, in fact, undergo a `closeness/distance` perception syndrome despite the fact that they are often presented and discussed in the media. The dichotomy may be explained according to the following phenomenology: 1. the existence of the problem is well known but the scientific and technological contest results to be of hard comprehension; 2. better and prolonged debating about the problem increments the attendance echo but simultaneously decrements the real understanding of it. The public opinion response to the diffusion of news related to environmental and scientific themes of no immediate understanding is of great concern; 3. media organizations are not always suited for dealing with the advanced matter of environmental and scientific information.
Vick, Brianna M; Pollak, Adrianna; Welsh, Cynthia; Liang, Jennifer O
Here we describe projects that used GloFish, brightly colored, fluorescent, transgenic zebrafish, in experiments that enabled students to carry out all steps in the scientific method. In the first project, students in an undergraduate genetics laboratory course successfully tested hypotheses about the relationships between GloFish phenotypes and genotypes using PCR, fluorescence microscopy, and test crosses. In the second and third projects, students doing independent research carried out hypothesis-driven experiments that also developed new GloFish projects for future genetics laboratory students. Brianna Vick, an undergraduate student, identified causes of the different shades of color found in orange GloFish. Adrianna Pollak, as part of a high school science fair project, characterized the fluorescence emission patterns of all of the commercially available colors of GloFish (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple). The genetics laboratory students carrying out the first project found that learning new techniques and applying their knowledge of genetics were valuable. However, assessments of their learning suggest that this project was not challenging to many of the students. Thus, the independent projects will be valuable as bases to widen the scope and range of difficulty of experiments available to future genetics laboratory students.
Cavalli-Sforza, Violetta Laura Maria
Students in science classes hardly ever study scientific controversy, especially in terms of the different types of arguments used to support and criticize theories and hypotheses. Yet, learning the reasons for scientific debate and scientific change is an important part of appreciating the nature of the scientific enterprise and communicating it to the non-scientific world. This dissertation explores the usefulness of graphical representations in teaching students about scientific arguments. Subjects participating in an extended experiment studied instructional materials and used the Belvedere graphical interface to analyze texts drawn from an actual scientific debate. In one experimental condition, subjects used a box-and-arrow representation whose primitive graphical elements had preassigned meanings tailored to the domain of instruction. In the other experimental condition, subjects could use the graphical elements as they wished, thereby creating their own representation. The development of a representation, by forcing a deeper analysis, can potentially yield a greater understanding of the domain under study. The results of the research suggest two conclusions. From the perspective of learning target concepts, asking subjects to develop their own representation may not hurt those subjects who gain a sufficient understanding of the possibilities of abstract representation. The risks are much greater for less able subjects because, if they develop a representation that is inadequate for expressing the target concepts, they will use those concepts less or not at all. From the perspective of coaching subjects as they diagram their analysis of texts, a predefined representation has significant advantages. If it is appropriately expressive for the task, it provides a common language and clearer shared meaning between the subject and the coach. It also enables the coach to understand subjects' analysis more easily, and to evaluate it more effectively against the
Matthew David Riddle
Full Text Available This article describes the design of informal learning spaces at an Australian university that support students in the generation of knowledge. Recent learning space design projects at La Trobe have been informed by a number of pre-existing projects, including a small research project on student use of technologies, a national project on learning space design, and a significant curriculum renewal process at the university. It demonstrates the ways in which evidence based on student perspectives and principles developed through applied research in teaching and learning can inform real world learning space design projects in a higher education context.
Walsh, Lori; Straits, William
In this article the authors share advice from the viewpoints of both a formal and informal educator that will help teachers identify the right Informal Science Institutions (ISIs)--institutions that specialize in learning that occurs outside of the school setting--to maximize their students' learning and use informal education to their…
..., colleges of learning, and scientific universities. 22.104 Section 22.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Use of Tax-Free Alcohol § 22.104 Educational organizations, colleges of learning... income tax under 26 U.S.C. 501(a). (b) Colleges of learning. Colleges of learning, for the purposes of...
Li, Chun-Liang; Ferng, Chun-Sung; Lin, Hsuan-Tien
The abundance of real-world data and limited labeling budget calls for active learning, an important learning paradigm for reducing human labeling efforts. Many recently developed active learning algorithms consider both uncertainty and representativeness when making querying decisions. However, exploiting representativeness with uncertainty concurrently usually requires tackling sophisticated and challenging learning tasks, such as clustering. In this letter, we propose a new active learning framework, called hinted sampling, which takes both uncertainty and representativeness into account in a simpler way. We design a novel active learning algorithm within the hinted sampling framework with an extended support vector machine. Experimental results validate that the novel active learning algorithm can result in a better and more stable performance than that achieved by state-of-the-art algorithms. We also show that the hinted sampling framework allows improving another active learning algorithm designed from the transductive support vector machine.
In this study, I provide a microgenetic-historical account of learning in an informal setting: the conceptual change that occurred while a university-based scientific research laboratory investigated the absorption of light in rod-based photoreceptors of coho salmon, which the "dogma" had suggested to be related to the migration between…
The 2008 MS 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake is one of the deadliest in recent human history. This earthquake has not just united the whole world to help local people to lead their life through the difficult time, it has also fostered significant global cooperation to study this event from various aspects: including pre-seismic events (such as the seismicity, gravity, electro-magnetic fields, well water level, radon level in water etc), co-seismic events (fault slipping, landslides, man-made structure damages etc) and post-seismic events (such as aftershocks, well water level changing etc) as well as the disaster relief efforts. In the last four years, more than 300 scientific articles have been published on peer-reviewed journals, among them about 50% are published in Chinese, 30% in English, and about 20% in both languages. These researches have advanced our understanding of earthquake science in general. It has also sparked open debates in many aspects. Notably, the role of the Zipingpu reservoir (built not long ago before the earthquake) in the triggering of this monstrous earthquake is still one of many continuing debates. Given that all these articles are ssporadically spread out on different journals and numerous issues and in different languages, it can be very inefficient, sometimes impossible, to dig out the information that are in need. The Earthquake Research Group in the Chengdu University of Technology (ERGCDUT) has initiated an effort to develop an information platform to collect and analyze scientific research on or related to this earthquake, the hosting faults and the surrounding tectonic regions. A preliminary website has been setup for this purpose: http://www.wenchuaneqresearch.org. Up to this point (July 2012), articles published in 6 Chinese journals and 7 international journals have been collected. Articles are listed journal by journal, and also grouped by contents into four major categories, including pre-seismic events, co-seismic events, post
Ivanov, R; CERN. Geneva. IT Department
The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project – a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will ...
The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project – a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate present acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full-text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will ...
Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip; Nijs, Hanne
Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the presence of learning conditions for non-formal and informal workplace learning in relation to the characteristics of the employee and the organisation he or she works for. Design/methodology/approach: The questionnaire developed by Clauwaert and Van Bree on learning conditions was…
Khan, Badrul, Ed.
Flexible Learning in an Information Society uses a flexible learning framework to explain the best ways of creating a meaningful learning environment. This framework consists of eight factors--institutional, management, technological, pedagogical, ethical, interface design, resource support, and evaluation--and a systematic understanding of these…
Spaan, Nadia Roos; Dekker, Anne R. J.; van der Velden, Alike W.; de Groot, Esther
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of formal learning from a web-based training and informal (workplace) learning afterwards on the behaviour of general practitioners (GPs) with respect to prescription of antibiotics. Design/methodology/approach: To obtain insight in various learning processes, semi-structured…
Models play an important role in helping practitioners implement and promote information literacy. Over time models can lose relevance with the advances in technology, society, and learning theory. Practitioners and scholars often call for adaptations or transformations of these frameworks to articulate the learning needs in information literacy…
В. В. Степко
Full Text Available The article highlights information resources of the scientific library of the Kiev National University of Culture and Arts and characterizes its use in the system of providing librarian and informational services for users. It is proved that the important information resource of the library is website, which provides additional opportunities for users, forming a positive image of the library in the virtual space. The site contains information on various directions of the library’s activities, librarian services, projects and media products. One of the main tasks of the library is formation and presentation on the website of the electronic catalog as a multifunctional bibliographic resource, which is the basis for informational services and the basic information product of the library. The creation of an electronic library continues as the essential element of providing qualitative and effective services to users. The article discusses the functioning of the “Virtual Help” service as an effective form of working with remote users. The authors also consider such an actual direction of the library’s activity as the presentation of the scientific and creative heritage of the university with help of “12 + books of the year” project. The aim of the project is to inform about new editions of university’s teachers published this year and presented in the library fund. The implementation of the patriotic innovation and educational project “Treasures of the Nation”, whose purpose is to study and popularize the elements of the intangible cultural heritage ofUkraine, is analyzed. The booktrails and flash presentations are considered as a means of presenting books prepared by the library staff. The preparation of longreed, a new format for submitting information on the Internet, is also considered. Thanks to the use of Tilda Publishing and ThingLink services, innovative products were created: a complex multimedia story that combined photos
Cseh, Maria; Manikoth, Nisha N.
As the authors of the preceding article (Choi and Jacobs, 2011) have noted, the workplace learning literature shows evidence of the complementary and integrated nature of formal and informal learning in the development of employee competencies. The importance of supportive learning environments in the workplace and of employees' personal learning…
Batt-Rawden, Kari; Denora, Tia
In this paper, the authors focus on informal learning as it is situated in and derived from everyday life experience (Lave, 1988; Lave and Wenger, 1991). Their concern is with informal musical learning and its link to health, well-being and the care of self, an area that has already received some attention from research in music therapy,…
Matthew David Riddle; Kay Souter
This article describes the design of informal learning spaces at an Australian university that support students in the generation of knowledge. Recent learning space design projects at La Trobe have been informed by a number of pre-existing projects, including a small research project on student use of technologies, a national project on learning space design, and a significant curriculum renewal process at the university. It demonstrates the ways in which evidence based on student perspectiv...
Learning techniques can be applied to help information retrieval systems adapt to users' specific needs. They can be used to learn from user searches to improve subsequent searches. This paper describes the approach taken to learn about particular users' contexts in order to improve document ranking produced by a probabilistic information retrieval system. The approach is based on the argument that there is a pattern in user queries in that they tend to remain within a particular context over...
The aim of this paper is to explore the possibilities collaboration offers in the virtual learning environments of the armed forces. I will argue that for reasons of culture and structure in the armed forces, the opportunities created by collaborative learning activities in e-learning and blended...... learning are especially fruitful here. Collaboration is a pervasive, foundational form of activity in our armies, air forces and navies. It expresses itself in cultural traits such as never leaving a soldier behind, taking your share and being someone you can count on, to name a few. Moreover, most armed...... forces activities are structured forms of collaboration; staff work, tactical planning, active duty and so forth are all day-to-day examples. Collaborative activities in virtual learning spaces tap into that culture. However, and perhaps confusingly, a study I conducted last year at the Royal Danish...
Suh, Jang Soo; Kim, Duck Nyoun; Goo, Ja Sung; Jeong, Yeon Oh
Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has developed digital learning content for e-Learning, based on existing offline training materials since 2003. As a result, e-Learning content for basic training subjects have almost been developed, and the company is running e-Learning courses separately from offline training. This has allowed KHNP personnel to do self study to catch up on the fields they are in, without having to leave their work. Accordingly, KHNP is attempting to bring about numerous changes to the existing courses comprised of only offline training. All basic knowledge included in each training course contains e-Learning content. And offline training is focusing more on solving problems, which will eventually help enhance work performance
Tang, Xiaowei; Coffey, Janet E.; Elby, Andy; Levin, Daniel M.
Typically, the scientific method in science classrooms takes the form of discrete, ordered steps meant to guide students' inquiry. In this paper, we examine how focusing on the scientific method as discrete steps affects students' inquiry and teachers' perceptions thereof. To do so, we study a ninth-grade environmental science class in which…
Kusumaningrum, I. A.; Ashadi, A.; Indriyanti, N. Y.
Many concepts in buffer solution cause student’s misconception. Understanding science concepts should apply the scientific approach. One of learning models which is suitable with this approach is inquiry. Content analysis was used to determine textbook compatibility with scientific approach and inquiry learning model in the concept of buffer solution. By using scientific indicator tools (SIT) and Inquiry indicator tools (IIT), we analyzed three chemistry textbooks grade 11 of senior high school labeled as P, Q, and R. We described how textbook compatibility with scientific approach and inquiry learning model in the concept of buffer solution. The results show that textbook P and Q were very poor and book R was sufficient because the textbook still in procedural level. Chemistry textbooks used at school are needed to be improved in term of scientific approach and inquiry learning model. The result of these analyses might be of interest in order to write future potential textbooks.
Beers, Pieter J.; van Asselt, Marjolein B. A.; Vermunt, Jan D.; Kirschner, Paul A.
Interviews explored the information needs of seven Dutch policymakers dealing with global sustainability. They sought information on cultural perspectives and linkages. Information gathering emphasized filtering to find specific information. Most used an application-oriented working style that, combined with policy-driven information seeking, was…
Soni Nugroho Yuliono
Full Text Available Teaching materials that available in the school to learn physics especially scientific-based is limited and become one of the obstacles to achieving the learning objectives on electromagnetic waves maerial. The research aims is to gain scientific Physics-based learning modules for high school grade XII students who have met the eligibility criteria, determine the effectiveness of using scientific-based learning modules Physics to improve motivation and learning outcomes from students of grade XII High School. The development of this research on Physics module using 4D development procedure which consist of the steps of define, design, development, and dissemination. Definition phase consists of the teacher and student’s needs analysis process, material analysis, as well as the formulation of the learning module. The design phase of physics learning modules according to the stage of scientific learning are integrated into the module. The development phase consists of the development process of the modules from the design results, validating the feasibility, module revision, limited testing, and the use of scientifically-based learning modules Physics in grade XII IPA 1 Batik 2 Surakarta senior high school. The deployment phase is the deployment process module to another Senior High School in Surakarta. Data Analysis for the study is quantitative descriptive analysis based on the score criteria and analysis of increasing student motivation through N-gain. Conclusion obtained are ; 1 Physics-based scientific learning modules that developed meet the eligibility criteria on aspects of content and presentation, language, the chart, and aspects of learning. The module is declared worthy of the ideals validation results with the percentage of 85.16%, 83.66% by students and teachers in the response phase of the deployment of 85.93%, which is included in the category of "very good"; 2 Physics-based scietific learning modules with material scientific
veterinary medicine , plant health, national security, biodefense, law enforcement, scientific publishing, and related fields. The NSABB also includes...leading edge of science. The three presidents of the National Academies [of Science, Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine ] opposed such controls...information to clone, counterfeit , or circumvent a process or system.209 CRS-49 210 Section 306(a) of P.L. 107-296 provides that “to the greatest extent
The study of workplace learning and informal learning are not new to adult education and pedagogy. However, the use of mobile devices as learning tools for informal learning in the workplace is an understudied area. Using theories on informal learning and constructivism as a framework, this paper explores informal learning of registered nurses…
Full Text Available The phenomenon of pseudo-scientific information, the reasons of its spread and premises of its vitality are discussed in the paper. Pseudo-scientific information is understandable as an attempt to suit a demand, which exists in society, while providing a simple answer to a question, which an individual or society is concerned about, and that answer is not sustained by scientific research. It is showed that the rise and spread of pseudo-scientific information in society are conditioned by objective reasons. Firstly, the lack of information concerning a subject which is significant for society. Secondly, the lack of information for a particular individual (social group concerning a substantial subject. Thirdly, fast spread of scientific and technical inventions and penetration of technological innovations into various spheres of life the understanding of which demands an appropriate informal “processing”, i e it demands provision in an appropriate form, which is partly provided by pseudo-scientific knowledge.The existence of pseudo-scientific information is determined by the fact that it performs important social functions in society. The existence of pseudo-scientific information by official certified scientific information and the fact, that all social groups are affected to a larger or lesser extent, show its ambivalent power and vitality. On the one part, the roots of its vitality lie in the duality of this phenomenon, where opposite things coexist in a strange way – the truth (scientifically verified propositions and speculations which are based on intuition rather than on scientifically verified facts. On the other part, it is maintained by our permanent wish to get an additional and fresher information, though not totally reliable, while seeking to know universally and better the world around us and its phenomena. While meeting this requirement, a pseudo-scientific information stimulates researchers both to enhance their attempts to
Jelena Anđelković Labrović
Full Text Available Personal learning environments are a widely spared ways of learning, especially for the informal learning process. The aim of this research is to identify the elements of studens’ personal learning environment and to identify the extent to which students use modern technology for learning as part of their non-formal learning. A mapping system was used for gathering data and an analysis of percentages and frequency counts was used for data analysis in the SPSS. The results show that students’ personal learning environment includes the following elements: Wikipedia, Google, YouTube and Facebook in 75% of all cases, and an interesting fact is that all of them belong to a group of Web 2.0 tools and applications.
Discusses the design and organization of the Automated Information Centre, a centralized automated scientific and technical information service established within the main organ of Bulgaria's National System for Scientific and Technical Information, with UNESCO and United Nations Development Program assistance. Problems and perspectives for…
A step-by-step practical tutorial with plenty of examples on research-based problems from various areas of science, that prove how simple, yet effective, it is to provide solutions based on SciPy. This book is targeted at anyone with basic knowledge of Python, a somewhat advanced command of mathematics/physics, and an interest in engineering or scientific applications---this is broadly what we refer to as scientific computing.This book will be of critical importance to programmers and scientists who have basic Python knowledge and would like to be able to do scientific and numerical computatio
Osorio, Nestor L.
The purpose of this paper is to survey the literature about current trends on several issues concerning technical information education including: 1. Information needs, user behaviors, access and availability of engineering information resources. 2. Information competencies as perceived by librarians and teaching faculty. 3. Initiatives encouraging collaborative teaching or learning to enhance the information competency of engineering and technology students. The author examines activities in...
Satrajit S Ghosh
Full Text Available Peer-reviewed publications are the primary mechanism for sharing scientific results. The current peer-review process is, however, fraught with many problems that undermine the pace, validity, and credibility of science. We highlight five salient problems: (1 Reviewers are expected to have comprehensive expertise; (2 Reviewers do not have sufficient access to methods and materials to evaluate a study; (3 Reviewers are not acknowledged; (4 There is no measure of the quality of a review; and (5 Reviews take a lot of time, and once submitted cannot evolve. We propose that these problems can be resolved by making the following changes to the review process. Distributing reviews to many reviewers would allow each reviewer to focus on portions of the article that reflect the reviewer’s specialty or area of interest and place less of a burden on any one reviewer, enabling a more comprehensive and timely review. Providing reviewers materials and methods to perform comprehensive evaluation would facilitate transparency, replication of results and enable greater scrutiny by people from different fields using different nomenclature, leading to greater clarity and cross-fertilization of ideas. Acknowledging reviewers makes it possible to quantitatively assess reviewer contributions, which could be integrated with assessments for promotions and grants. Quantifying review quality could help establish the importance of reviewers and information generated during a review, and assess the importance of a submitted article. Finally, we recommend expediting post-publication reviews and allowing for the dialogue to continue and flourish in a dynamic and interactive manner. We argue that these solutions can be addressed by building upon computer programming code management systems. In this article, we provide examples of current code review systems that offer opportunities for addressing the above problems, and offer suggestions for enhancing code review systems for
Hoekstra, A.; Beijaard, D.; Brekelmans, M.; Korthagen, F.
The purpose of this paper is to explore how experienced teachers learn informally, and more specifically, how they learn through the activities they undertake when teaching classes. Regarding these activities we studied four aspects: behaviour, cognition, motivation and emotion. During one year,
Spaan, Nadia Roos; Dekker, Anne R. J.; van der Velden, Alike W.; de Groot, Esther
Purpose The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of formal learning from a web-based training and informal (workplace) learning afterwards on the behaviour of general practitioners (GPs) with respect to prescription of antibiotics. Design/methodology/approach To obtain insight in
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate women small business owners' informal learning behaviour. There is limited qualitative research that examines women small business owners' learning process and this study aims to address this gap. The study was driven by the following research questions: "Do women small business owners…
Ifenthaler, Dirk; Schumacher, Clara
The purpose of this study was to investigate if students are prepared to release any personal data in order to inform learning analytics systems. Besides the well-documented benefits of learning analytics, serious concerns and challenges are associated with the application of these data driven systems. Most notably, empirical evidence regarding…
Hoekstra, Annemarieke; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Korthagen, Fred
The purpose of this paper is to explore how experienced teachers learn informally, and more specifically, how they learn through the activities they undertake when teaching classes. Regarding these activities we studied four aspects: behaviour, cognition, motivation and emotion. During one year, data were collected through observations of and…
The most common means of remote scientific collaboration today includes the trio of e-mail for electronic communication, FTP for file sharing, and personalized Web sites for dissemination of papers and research results. With the growth of broadband Internet, there has been a desire to share large files (movies, files, scientific data files) over the Internet. Email has limits on the size of files that can be attached and transmitted. FTP is often used to share large files, but this requires the user to set up an FTP site for which it is hard to set group privileges, it is not straightforward for everyone, and the content is not searchable. Peer-to-peer technology (P2P), which has been overwhelmingly successful in popular content distribution, is the basis for development of a scientific collaboratory called Scientific Peer Network (SciPerNet). This technology combines social networking with P2P file sharing. SciPerNet will be a standalone application, written in Java and Swing, thus insuring portability to a number of different platforms. Some of the features include user authentication, search capability, seamless integration with a data center, the ability to create groups and social networks, and on-line chat. In contrast to P2P networks such as Gnutella, Bit Torrent, and others, SciPerNet incorporates three design elements that are critical to application of P2P for scientific purposes: User authentication, Data integrity validation, Reliable searching SciPerNet also provides a complementary solution to virtual observatories by enabling distributed collaboration and sharing of downloaded and/or processed data among scientists. This will, in turn, increase scientific returns from NASA missions. As such, SciPerNet can serve a two-fold purpose for NASA: a cost-savings software as well as a productivity tool for scientists working with data from NASA missions.
Vorauer, A.; Cotesta, L.
Ontario Power Generation's Deep Geologic Repository Technology Program has undertaken applied research into the application of scientific visualization technologies to: i) improve the interpretation and synthesis of complex geoscientific field data; ii) facilitate the development of defensible conceptual site descriptive models; and iii) enhance communication between multi-disciplinary site investigation teams and other stakeholders. Two scientific visualization projects are summarized that benefited from the use of the Gocad earth modelling software and were supported by an immersive virtual reality laboratory: i) the Moderately Fractured Rock experiment at the 125,000 m 3 block scale; and ii) the Sub-regional Flow System Modelling Project at the 100 km 2 scale. (author)
McLernon, Brian; Kushmerick, Nicholas
.... We present TPLEX, a semi-supervised learning algorithm for information extraction that can acquire extraction patterns from a small amount of labelled text in conjunction with a large amount of unlabelled text...
Parsaoran Damanik, Dede; Bukit, Nurdin
This study was aimed to determine the differences: (1) the difference of critical thinking skills of students' that using Inquiry Training and Direct Instruction. (2) The difference of critical thinking skills among students who at high scientific attitude and students who at low scientific attitude. (3) To see if there is interaction between inquiry learning model of the scientific attitude students' to increase the ability to critical thinking. This is a quasi experimental research. Which s...
Prowell, Stacy J [ORNL; Symons, Christopher T [ORNL
Producing trusted results from high-performance codes is essential for policy and has significant economic impact. We propose combining rigorous analytical methods with machine learning techniques to achieve the goal of repeatable, trustworthy scientific computing.
Full Text Available This paper proposes new methodological approaches in the study of development problems of scientific and technical activities in the information society. The essence and economic nature of development scientific and technical activities' from the standpoint of methodological collectivism are disclosed, a new phenomenon intensification of development scientific and technical activities by forming the global networks of scientific and technical knowledge users that provides sharing of the burden of transformation and transaction costs as generation as well as economic implementation of research and technical knowledge across the globe are showed. This study outlines the complementary effects in intensify development of scientific and technological activities components: research and development (RD, training of scientific personnel, provision of scientific and technical services, which generates of world market's complementary goods, being world market of educational services of scientific and technical information, industrial properties, high technology products, venture capital investments and stock market.
Full Text Available Journalism has the potential––and arguably the mandate––to expand public understanding of societally important phenomena. However, some methods for more effectively educating the public have been persistently underutilized: in particular, embedding informative numerical rates and efficient scientific explanations in news reports. In the current era of disrupting and downsizing the news business, the challenges to using such methods have only increased. To address this problem, this article seeks to (a raise awareness about the psychological reasons that help explain why it is crucial to use such elements in news reports, and (b exhibit some methods for doing so that require modest effort. Building on a review of relevant psychological literatures, principles, and existing reporting methods, we describe findings from a series of cognitive-scientific studies that demonstrate how using key––and relatively minimal––scientific and numerical elements can enhance public learning from news reports. We conclude by also describing curricula and resources designed to help journalists and bloggers use these methods.
Prado Cuba, A; Gayoso Caballero, C; Robles Nique, A; Olivera Lescano, P [eds.
This annual scientific-technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2003. This report includes 54 papers divided in 9 subject matters: physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, materials science, radiochemistry, industrial applications, medical applications, environmental applications, protection and radiological safety, and management aspects.
The project will deliver an expanded resource pool of climate scientists, negotiators, and ... dialogues, six national adaptation documents, and two scientific papers. ... Adaptation strategies for two Colombian cities were discussed at ADAPTO's ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...
Prado Cuba, Antonio; Robles Nique, Anita; Solis Veliz, Jose; Rodriguez R, Juan [eds.
This annual scientific and technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2004. This report includes 48 papers divided in 6 subject matters, such as: materials science, nuclear engineering, industrial and environmental applications, medical and biological applications, radiation protection and nuclear safety, and management aspects.
She, Hsiao-Ching; Liao, Ya-Wen
This study reports an adaptive digital learning project, Scientific Concept Construction and Reconstruction (SCCR), and examines its effects on 108 8th grade students' scientific reasoning and conceptual change through mixed methods. A one-group pre-, post-, and retention quasi-experimental design was used in the study. All students received tests…
Hokayem, Hayat; Schwarz, Christina
Reform efforts in science education have aimed at fostering scientific literacy by helping learners meaningfully engage in scientific practices to make sense of the world. In this paper, we report on our second year of unit implementation that has investigated 34 fifth grade students' (10-year-olds) learning about evaporation and condensation…
An unsupervised learning procedure based on maximizing the mutual information between the outputs of two networks receiving different but statistically dependent inputs is analyzed [S. Becker and G. Hinton, Nature (London) 355, 161 (1992)]. For a generic data model, I show that in the large sample limit the structure in the data is recognized by mutual information maximization. For a more restricted model, where the networks are similar to perceptrons, I calculate the learning curves for zero-temperature Gibbs learning. These show that convergence can be rather slow, and a way of regularizing the procedure is considered
Balgopal, Meena; Wallace, Alison
Writing-to-learn (WTL) is an effective instructional and learning strategy that centers on the process of organizing and articulating ideas, as opposed to writing-to-communicate, which centers on the finished written product. We describe a WTL model that we have developed and tested with various student groups over several years. With effective…
Manlove, S.A.; Lazonder, Adrianus W.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.
This research addresses issues in the design of online scaffolds for regulation within inquiry learning environments. The learning environment in this study included a physics simulation, data analysis tools, and a model editor for students to create runnable models. A regulative support tool called
Iding, Marie; Klemm, E. Barbara
The present study addresses the need for teachers to critically evaluate the credibility, validity, and cognitive load associated with scientific information on Web sites, in order to effectively teach students to evaluate scientific information on the World Wide Web. A line of prior research investigating high school and university students'…
Pennington, D. D.; Gandara, A.; Gris, I.
The Virtual Learning Commons (VLC), funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Cyberinfrastructure CI-Team Program, is a combination of Semantic Web, mash up, and social networking tools that supports knowledge sharing and innovation across scientific disciplines in research and education communities and networks. The explosion of scientific resources (data, models, algorithms, tools, and cyberinfrastructure) challenges the ability of researchers to be aware of resources that might benefit them. Even when aware, it can be difficult to understand enough about those resources to become potential adopters or re-users. Often scientific data and emerging technologies have little documentation, especially about the context of their use. The VLC tackles this challenge by providing mechanisms for individuals and groups of researchers to organize Web resources into virtual collections, and engage each other around those collections in order to a) learn about potentially relevant resources that are available; b) design research that leverages those resources; and c) develop initial work plans. The VLC aims to support the "fuzzy front end" of innovation, where novel ideas emerge and there is the greatest potential for impact on research design. It is during the fuzzy front end that conceptual collisions across disciplines and exposure to diverse perspectives provide opportunity for creative thinking that can lead to inventive outcomes. The VLC integrates Semantic Web functionality for structuring distributed information, mash up functionality for retrieving and displaying information, and social media for discussing/rating information. We are working to provide three views of information that support researchers in different ways: 1. Innovation Marketplace: supports users as they try to understand what research is being conducted, who is conducting it, where they are located, and who they collaborate with; 2. Conceptual Mapper: supports users as they organize their
Nuclear geological scientific and technical information has played an important role in the national economic construction and energy development, as well as exploration of uranium geology. With the increasing difficulty of prospecting, both scientific research or geological prospecting work are increasingly dependent on scientific and technical information, so, nuclear geological research and services in the scientific and technical information have become an increasing concern. From effect of the information and information resources in scientific research, the article discusses the synthesis research and services in the nuclear geological scientific and technical information, and play the role of uranium geological prospecting in the period of 'Tenth Five-Year'. In the period of the 'Eleventh Five-Year' and the coming period, the authors proposes a conception that how to strengthen the digital construction of nuclear geology scientific literature, integrative information resources and development and utilization in the network environment; and outlooks a developing prospects, that is, how to more effectively apply modern information technology, so that provides a guarantee of information resources for the scientific research and production in the new round of exploration of uranium resources. (author)
Prado Cuba, Antonio; Robles Nique, Anita; Rodriguez R, Juan; Solis Veliz, Jose [eds.
This annual scientific and technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2005. This report includes 38 papers divided in 7 subject matters, such as: physics and chemistry, materials science, nuclear engineering, industrial and environmental applications, medical and biological applications, radiation protection and nuclear safety, and management aspects.
Gayoso C, C; Cuya G, T; Robles N, A; Prado C, A [eds.
This annual scientific-technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2002. This report includes 58 papers divided in 10 subject matters: physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, materials, industrial applications, biological applications, medical applications, environmental applications, protection and radiological safety, nuclear safety, and management aspects.
Prado Cuba, Antonio; Santiago Contreras, Julio; Lopez Milla, Alcides; Ramos Trujillo, Bertha (ed.), E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)
This annual scientific and technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2009. This report includes 46 papers divided in 7 subject matters, such as: physics and chemistry, materials science, nuclear engineering, mining industrial and environmental applications, medical and biological applications, radiation protection and nuclear safety, and management aspects. It also includes annexes. (APC)
Vlčková Kateřina; Lojdová Kateřina; Mareš Jan
The main goal of this workshop was to provide academics and doctoral students the knowledge and skills necessary to efficiently organize and retrieve information using Mendeley© software. During the research process, the next step after finding information, is organize it. In this digital era, our skills to efficiently find information need to be different from those of the print era (Tuominen, 2007). The same applies to the subsequent process of organization of that information. Furthermore,...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Correction--Scientific Information Request on Medication Therapy Management The original date of publication for this....AHRQ.gov/index.cfm/submit-scientific-information-packets/ Dated: September 27, 2013. Richard Kronick...
Alexander O. Karpov
Cognitive-active learning research-type environment is the fundamental component of the education system for the knowledge society. The purpose of the research is the development of conceptual bases and a constructional model of a cognitively active learning environment that stimulates the creation of new knowledge and its socio-economic application. Research methods include epistemic-didactic analysis of empirical material collected as a result of the study of research environments at school...
Mathematics plays a crucial role in technological development of any country; attainment in the subject determines the rate of adoption of appropriate technology and industrialization. In Kenya mathematics is compulsory in primary and at secondary school level. Use of scientific calculators was introduced in Kenya ...
Sadler, Troy D.; Foulk, Jaimie A.; Friedrichsen, Patricia J.
Socio-scientific teaching and learning (SSI-TL) has been suggested as an effective approach for supporting meaningful learning in school contexts; however, limited tools exist to support the work of designing and implementing this approach. In this paper, we draw from a series of four design based research projects that have produced SSI…
Full Text Available The authors of this article are going to bring into light the significance, the place and the role of information systems in the university education process. At the same time they define the objectives and the target group of the subject named Economic Information Systems and state the competence gained by students by studying this subject. Special attention is given to the curriculum to be taught to students and to a suggestive enumeration of a series of economic applications that can be themes for laboratory practice and for students’ dissertation (graduation thesis.
Chi, ShaoHui; Wang, Zuhao; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhu, Lei
This study investigated the associations among students' attitudes towards science, students' perceived difficulty of learning science, gender, parents' occupations and their scientific competencies. A sample of 1591 (720 males and 871 females) ninth-grade students from 29 junior high schools in Shanghai completed a scientific competency test and a Likert scale questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed that students' general interest of science, their parents' occupations and perceived difficulty of science significantly associated with their scientific competencies. However, there was no gender gap in terms of scientific competencies.
Balsam, Peter D; Gallistel, C Randy
Neurobiological research on learning assumes that temporal contiguity is essential for association formation, but what constitutes temporal contiguity has never been specified. We review evidence that learning depends, instead, on learning a temporal map. Temporal relations between events are encoded even from single experiences. The speed with which an anticipatory response emerges is proportional to the informativeness of the encoded relation between a predictive stimulus or event and the event it predicts. This principle yields a quantitative account of the heretofore undefined, but theoretically crucial, concept of temporal pairing, an account in quantitative accord with surprising experimental findings. The same principle explains the basic results in the cue competition literature, which motivated the Rescorla-Wagner model and most other contemporary models of associative learning. The essential feature of a memory mechanism in this account is its ability to encode quantitative information.
Hernández, Cesar; Pulido, Jose L; Arias, Jorge E
To develop a technological tool that improves the initial learning of sign language in hearing impaired children. The development of this research was conducted in three phases: the lifting of requirements, design and development of the proposed device, and validation and evaluation device. Through the use of information technology and with the advice of special education professionals, we were able to develop an electronic device that facilitates the learning of sign language in deaf children. This is formed mainly by a graphic touch screen, a voice synthesizer, and a voice recognition system. Validation was performed with the deaf children in the Filadelfia School of the city of Bogotá. A learning methodology was established that improves learning times through a small, portable, lightweight, and educational technological prototype. Tests showed the effectiveness of this prototype, achieving a 32 % reduction in the initial learning time for sign language in deaf children.
Oliveras, B.; Márquez, C.; Sanmartí, N.
This research analyses what happens when a critical reading activity based on a press article dealing with an energy-related problem is implemented with two groups of students of 13-14 years old and 16-17 years old in the same school (a total of 117 students). Specifically, the research analyses the students' profiles from the standpoint of their attitudes to the information given in the news story and the use they make of it when writing an argumentative text. It also analyses the difficulties the students have when it comes to applying their knowledge about energy in a real-life context. Lastly, some strategies are suggested for helping students to critically analyse the scientific content of a newspaper article. Three reader profiles were identified (the credulous reader, the ideological reader and the critical reader). No significant differences were found in reading profiles in terms of age or scientific knowledge. The findings show that the activity helped to link science learning in school with facts relating to an actual context, particularly in the case of students with more science knowledge.
Vapnik, Vladimir; Vashist, Akshay
In the Afterword to the second edition of the book "Estimation of Dependences Based on Empirical Data" by V. Vapnik, an advanced learning paradigm called Learning Using Hidden Information (LUHI) was introduced. This Afterword also suggested an extension of the SVM method (the so called SVM(gamma)+ method) to implement algorithms which address the LUHI paradigm (Vapnik, 1982-2006, Sections 2.4.2 and 2.5.3 of the Afterword). See also (Vapnik, Vashist, & Pavlovitch, 2008, 2009) for further development of the algorithms. In contrast to the existing machine learning paradigm where a teacher does not play an important role, the advanced learning paradigm considers some elements of human teaching. In the new paradigm along with examples, a teacher can provide students with hidden information that exists in explanations, comments, comparisons, and so on. This paper discusses details of the new paradigm and corresponding algorithms, introduces some new algorithms, considers several specific forms of privileged information, demonstrates superiority of the new learning paradigm over the classical learning paradigm when solving practical problems, and discusses general questions related to the new ideas.
Bowen, G. Michael; Roth, Wolff-Michael
Recent research in scientific laboratories shows that inscriptions - graphs, diagrams, photographs, tables, mathematical formulae, and so forth - are central to scientific practice. Research also shows that inscriptions are pervasive elements in science textbooks. This study examines inscriptions in texts usually available to students in high school and undergraduate science courses: course textbooks and journal articles. Four complementary analyses of the content of these resources are presented: (i) an enumeration of the types of inscriptions in those resources; (ii) a semiotic analyses of the content of representative inscriptions; (iii) an interpretation by graduates of a science program of an inscription common to all three resources; and (iv) a comparison of an inscription found in textbooks and lectures with its original presentation in a scientific journal. Differences exist in frequency of different types of inscriptions; these frequencies appear unrelated to interpretive competencies of the students for whom they are intended. We suggest alterations made in inscriptions as they are moved from professional journals to textbooks contributed to confounding their interpretation. Implications for both science education and the use of inscriptions in textbooks are discussed.
de Feijter, Jeantine M.; de Grave, Willem S.; Koopmans, Richard P.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.
Learning from error is not just an individual endeavour. Organisations also learn from error. Hospitals provide many learning opportunities, which can be formal or informal. Informal learning from error in hospitals has not been researched in much depth so this narrative review focuses on five learning opportunities: morbidity and mortality…
Flinn, Edward A.
The purpose of this note is to suggest a quantitative approach to deciding how much time to give a speaker at a scientific meeting. The elementary procedure is to use the preacher's rule of thumb that no souls are saved after the first 20 minutes. This is in qualitative agreement with the proverb that one cannot listen to a single voice for more than an hour without going to sleep. A refinement of this crude approach can be made by considering the situation from the point of view of a linear physical system with an input, a transfer function, and an output. We attempt here to derive an optimum speaking time through these considerations.
DebBurman, Shubhik K
Facilitating not only the mastery of sophisticated subject matter, but also the development of process skills is an ongoing challenge in teaching any introductory undergraduate course. To accomplish this goal in a sophomore-level introductory cell biology course, I require students to work in groups and complete several mock experiential research projects that imitate the professional activities of the scientific community. I designed these projects as a way to promote process skill development within content-rich pedagogy and to connect text-based and laboratory-based learning with the world of contemporary research. First, students become familiar with one primary article from a leading peer-reviewed journal, which they discuss by means of PowerPoint-based journal clubs and journalism reports highlighting public relevance. Second, relying mostly on primary articles, they investigate the molecular basis of a disease, compose reviews for an in-house journal, and present seminars in a public symposium. Last, students author primary articles detailing investigative experiments conducted in the lab. This curriculum has been successful in both quarter-based and semester-based institutions. Student attitudes toward their learning were assessed quantitatively with course surveys. Students consistently reported that these projects significantly lowered barriers to primary literature, improved research-associated skills, strengthened traditional pedagogy, and helped accomplish course objectives. Such approaches are widely suited for instructors seeking to integrate process with content in their courses.
Bettencourt, L. M. A. (LANL); Castillo-Chavez, C. (Arizona State University); Kaiser, D. (MIT); Wojick, D. E. (IIA)
The accelerated development of digital libraries and archives, in tandem with efficient search engines and the computational ability to retrieve and parse massive amounts of information, are making it possible to quantify the time evolution of scientific literatures. These data are but one piece of the tangible recorded evidence of the processes whereby scientists create and exchange information in their journeys towards the generation of knowledge. As such, these tools provide a proxy with which to study our ability to innovate. Innovation has often been linked with prosperity and growth and, consequently, trying to understand what drives scientific innovation is of extreme interest. Identifying sets of population characteristics, factors, and mechanisms that enable scientific communities to remain at the cutting edge, accelerate their growth, or increase their ability to re-organize around new themes or research topics is therefore of special significance. Yet generating a quantitative understanding of the factors that make scientific fields arise and/or become more or less productive is still in its infancy. This is precisely the type of knowledge most needed for promoting and sustaining innovation. Ideally, the efficient and strategic allocation of resources on the part of funding agencies and corporations would be driven primarily by knowledge of this type. Early steps have been taken toward such a quantitative understanding of scientific innovation. Some have focused on characterizing the broad properties of relevant time series, such as numbers of publications and authors in a given field. Others have focused on the structure and evolution of networks of coauthorship and citation. Together these types of studies provide much needed statistical analyses of the structure and evolution of scientific communities. Despite these efforts, however, crucial elements of prediction have remained elusive. Building on many of these earlier insights, we provide here a
Full Text Available This research is quasi experiment with control group pretest-postest design. The sampel in this research using the techique of purposive sampling so the samples used were two classes of the 11th grade students of SMAN 14 Bandung in the academic year 2017/2018. The experiment group uses saintific approach using Quantum Learning strategy and control group uses saintific approach. In collecting the data the researcher will use the test of problem solving ability and self regulated learning as the instrument. The aims of this research are to:1find out the improvement of students mathematical problem solving through scientific approach using Quantum Learning study, 2 find out students self regulated learning through scientific approach using Quantum Learning.
Berendsen, R.; Tsagkias, M.; de Rijke, M.; Meij, E.
Pseudo test collections are automatically generated to provide training material for learning to rank methods. We propose a method for generating pseudo test collections in the domain of digital libraries, where data is relatively sparse, but comes with rich annotations. Our intuition is that
Gede Wartawan Putu
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of portfolio assessment in teaching physics and scientific attitude. The research was conducted on students of high school in Singaraja. Research was an quasi- experimental study by using “The Posttest-Only Control Group Design”. The research involved 152 high school students of class X of science as samples, taken with multistage random sampling technique. Portfolio assessment was integrated with physics learning. The implementation of the portfolio assessment included four key elements such as the students' work folders, clear assessment criteria, and self-assessment, and conference between teacher and students. The data needed in this research was the students' scientific attitude which included the aspect of curiosity, respect for evidence, the willingness to change ideas, and critical reflection. Data needed in this research included scientific attitudes students. A Likert scale instrument was used to measure the scientific attitude students. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with SPSS 20.0 at significance level α = 0.05. The results showed there are differences in the scientific attitude students who take physics learning with assessment portfolios and students who take physics learning with assessment of conventional. The findings of this study indicate that portfolio assessment in learning physics significantly affect the scientific attitude students.
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of portfolio assessment in teaching physics and scientific attitude. The research was conducted on students of high school in Singaraja. Research was an quasi- experimental study by using “The Posttest-Only Control Group Design”. The research involved 152 high school students of class X of science as samples, taken with multistage random sampling technique. Portfolio assessment was integrated with physics learning. The implementation of the portfolio assessment included four key elements such as the students' work folders, clear assessment criteria, and self-assessment, and conference between teacher and students. The data needed in this research was the students' scientific attitude which included the aspect of curiosity, respect for evidence, the willingness to change ideas, and critical reflection. Data needed in this research included scientific attitudes students. A Likert scale instrument was used to measure the scientific attitude students. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with SPSS 20.0 at significance level a = 0.05. The results showed there are differences in the scientific attitude students who take physics learning with assessment portfolios and students who take physics learning with assessment of conventional. The findings of this study indicate that portfolio assessment in learning physics significantly affect the scientific attitude students.
Danielly Oliveira Inomata
Full Text Available Objective. This paper presents and discuss the concepts, contexts and applications involving information flows in organizations. Method. Systematic review, followed by a bibliometric analysis and system analysis. The systematic review aimed to search for, evaluate and review evidence about the research topic. The systematic review process comprised the following steps: 1 definition of keywords, 2 systematic review, 3 exploration and analysis of articles and 4 comparison and consolidation of results. Results. A bibliometric analysis aimed to provide a statement of the relevance of articles where the authors, dates of publications, citation index, and periodic keywords with higher occurrence. Conclusions. As survey results confirms the emphasis on information featured in the knowledge management process, and advancing years, it seems that the emphasis is on networks, ie, studies are turning to the operationalization and analysis of flows information networks. The literature produced demonstrates the relationship of information flow with its management, applied to different organizational contexts, including showing new trends in information science as the study and analysis of information flow in networks.
Wang Zhong; Liu Wenbin
In the eleventh five-year, our company scientific research have a long way to go and preparatory work of commercial reprocessing has startup under digital information society. Fundamental change of existing content, model of nuclear science and technology information occurred to fit for new situation and new environment, and in order to service for our company scientific research. In this paper, we discuss the development of new services that fits for our company science and technology information. (authors)
Klimaatportaal is the digital entry of Dutch ‘climate' knowledge centres, which are collaborated in the Platform Communication on Climate Change (PCCC). This collaborative venture was established in 2003 by the Dutch climate research community to improve the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of the communication of Dutch climate research. By now, eight Dutch knowledge centres are participating and still more want to join. The Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) supports the PCCC and the project is implemented in collaboration with the BSIK ‘Climate Changes Spatial Planning' programme. The website provides actual and background climate change information for a wide audience on the national scale from policy makers, media to general public. By supplying integral climate information, such as observations of climate change, causes and consequences of climate system, adaptation, mitigation and energy issues, a wide spectrum of target groups will be served. The information is offered in different forms, because of the needs of different target groups. Klimaatportaal contains therefore news on climate issues, frequently asked questions and popular science reports, like the annually brochure De Staat van het Klimaat (‘The State of the Climate'). Recently, also a portal for students is added, where they can find information for their assignments. Beside the website, PCCC is organising activities as symposia and workshops and is supplying information on international issues, for example the content of the Kyoto protocol and the IPCC fourth assessment report (2007). Finally, informing the public through contacts with the media is also an important part of the PCCC. The presentation will address the strengths and weaknesses of this approach which may serve as an example for combining knowledge in outreach activities in other countries.
Sellnow, D. D.; Sellnow, T. L.
Earthquake scientists are without doubt experts in understanding earthquake probabilities, magnitudes, and intensities, as well as the potential consequences of them to community infrastructures and inhabitants. One critical challenge these scientific experts face, however, rests with communicating what they know to the people they want to help. Helping scientists translate scientific information to non-scientists is something Drs. Tim and Deanna Sellnow have been committed to for decades. As such, they have compiled a host of data-driven best practices for communicating effectively to non-scientific publics about earthquake forecasting, probabilities, and warnings. In this session, they will summarize what they have learned as it may help earthquake scientists, emergency managers, and other key spokespersons share these important messages to disparate publics in ways that result in positive outcomes, the most important of which is saving lives.
Arkhangel'skij, I.A.; Sokolov, D.D.; Kalinin, V.F.; Nikiforov, V.S.
The main tasks are considered in the scope of the Central Scientific-Research Institute for Information and Technological and Economic Studies on Nuclear Science and Technology. (TsNIIAtominform). The institute coordinates scientific research and information activity of information agencies of all the USSR organizations engaged in nuclear science and technology, excercises a centralized completion of their libraries, develops and puts into practice the most progressive methods for the information servicing. The institute is a national INIS center of the USSR. Here a system for the automatic information dissemination has been successfully elaborated and employed. Much of the institute activity is given to the estimation and analysis of information and to the determination of tendencies in the nuclear science and technology development. A conclusion is drawn to the effect that TsNIIAtominform, within 15 years of its existence, has formed as a center ensuring functioning of the system of scientific and technical information on nuclear science and technology
Wolff, Manfred E.
The subject of the content of medicinal chemical journals is briefly discussed as an aid for medicinal chemists who require information from clinical, health science, pharmaceutical science and chemical science areas to carry out their work. Some future changes in the present journal concept are considered. (Author/AB)
... Information Request on Treatment of Tinnitus AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS... Tinnitus, which is currently being conducted by the Evidence-based Practice Centers for the AHRQ Effective... effectiveness review of the evidence for evaluation and treatment of tinnitus. The EHC Program is dedicated to...
..., social, community, essential fish habitat, and ecological information pertinent to the success of..., fishing communities, and the fish processing industries. It summarizes, on a periodic basis, the best... update or expand previous environmental and regulatory impact documents, and ecosystem and habitat...
Patricia Hernández Salazar
Full Text Available Objective. Suggest the use of virtual learning environments as an Information Literacy (IL alternative. Method. Analysis of the main elements of web sites. To achieve this purpose the article includes the relationship between IL and the learning virtual environment (by defining both phrases; phases to create virtual IL programs; processes to elaborate didactic media; the applications that may support this plan; and the description of eleven examples of learning virtual environments IL experiences from four countries (Mexico, United States of America, Spain and United Kingdom these examples fulfill the conditions expressed. Results. We obtained four comparative tables examining five elements of each experience: objectives; target community; institution; country; and platform used. Conclusions. Any IL proposal should have a clear definition; IL experiences have to follow a didactic systematic process; described experiences are based on IL definition; the experiences analyzed are similar; virtual learning environments can be used as alternatives of IL.
...The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is seeking scientific information submissions from manufacturers of local, minimally invasive, medical devices for unresectable primary hepatocellular carcinoma (e.g., ablation, radiotherapy, or embolization devices). Scientific information is being solicited to inform our Comparative Effectiveness Review of Local Therapies for Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma, which is currently being conducted by the Evidence-based Practice Centers for the AHRQ Effective Health Care Program. Access to published and unpublished pertinent scientific information on this device will improve the quality of this comparative effectiveness review. AHRQ is requesting this scientific information and conducting this comparative effectiveness review pursuant to Section 1013 of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, Public Law 108-173.
Perin, Suzanne Marie
By first recognizing the valuable social and scientific practices taking place within families as they learn science together across multiple, everyday settings, this dissertation addresses questions of how to design and scaffold activities that build and expand on those practices to foster a deep understanding of science, and how the aesthetic experience of learning science builds connections across educational settings. Families were invited to visit a natural history museum, an aquarium, and a place or activity of the family's choice that they associated with science learning. Some families were asked to use a set of activities during their study visits based on the practices of science (National Research Council, 2012), which were delivered via smartphone app or on paper cards. I use design-based research, video data analysis and interaction analysis to examine how families build connections between informal science learning settings. Chapter 2 outlines the research-based design process of creating activities for families that fostered connections across multiple learning settings, regardless of the topical content of those settings. Implications of this study point to means for linking everyday family social practices such as questioning, observing, and disagreeing to the practices of science through activities that are not site-specific. The next paper delves into aesthetic experience of science learning, and I use video interaction analysis and linguistic analysis to show how notions of beauty and pleasure (and their opposites) are perfused throughout learning activity. Designing for aesthetic experience overtly -- building on the sensations of enjoyment and pleasure in the learning experience -- can motivate those who might feel alienated by the common conception of science as merely a dispassionate assembly of facts, discrete procedures or inaccessible theory. The third paper, a case study of a family who learns about salmon in each of the sites they visit
McMillan, Barbara Alexander
Inquiry in school science, as conceived by the authors of the Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes K--12, is dependent upon four areas of skills. These are the skills of initiating and planning, performing and recording, analysing and interpreting, and communication and teamwork that map onto what Hodson calls the five phases of scientific inquiry in school science: initiation, design and planning, performance, interpretation, and reporting and communicating. This study looked at initiation in a multiage (Grades 1--3) classroom, and the curriculum, design tools, and inquiry acts believed to be necessary precursors of design and planning phases whether the inquiry in which young children engage is archival or laboratory investigation. The curriculum was designed to build upon children's everyday biological knowledge and through a series of carefully organized lessons to help them to begin to build scientifically valid conceptual models in the area of animal life cycles. The lessons began with what is called benchmark-invention after the historical work of Robert Karplus and the contemporary work of Earl Hunt and Jim Minstrell. The introduction of a biological concept was followed by a series of exploration activities in which children were encouraged to apply the concept invented in the benchmark lesson. Enlargement followed. This was the instructional phase in which children were helped to establish scientifically valid relationships between the invented concept and other biological concepts. The pre-instruction and post-instruction interview data suggest that the enacted curriculum and sequence in which the biological knowledge was presented helped the nineteen children in the study to recognize the connections and regularities within the life cycles of the major groupings of animals, and to begin to build scientific biological conceptual models. It is, however, argued that everyday biology, in the form of the person analogy, acts as an obstacle to
Marques, Maria A.; Viegas, Maria C.; Alves, Gustavo R.; Zangrando, Valentina; Galanis, Nikolas; Janssen, José; Waszkiewicz, Elwira; Conde, Miguel Á.; García-Peñalvo, Francisco J.
Marques, M. A., Viegas, M. C., Alves, G., Zangrando, V., Galanis, N., Janssen, J., Waszkiewicz, E., Conde González, M. Á., & García-Peñalvo, F. J. (2013). Managing Informal Learning in professional contexts: the learner's perspective. In F. J. García-Peñalvo, M. Á. Conde, & D. Griffiths (Eds.).
Ghosh, Satrajit S; Klein, Arno; Avants, Brian; Millman, K Jarrod
Peer-reviewed publications are the primary mechanism for sharing scientific results. The current peer-review process is, however, fraught with many problems that undermine the pace, validity, and credibility of science. We highlight five salient problems: (1) reviewers are expected to have comprehensive expertise; (2) reviewers do not have sufficient access to methods and materials to evaluate a study; (3) reviewers are neither identified nor acknowledged; (4) there is no measure of the quality of a review; and (5) reviews take a lot of time, and once submitted cannot evolve. We propose that these problems can be resolved by making the following changes to the review process. Distributing reviews to many reviewers would allow each reviewer to focus on portions of the article that reflect the reviewer's specialty or area of interest and place less of a burden on any one reviewer. Providing reviewers materials and methods to perform comprehensive evaluation would facilitate transparency, greater scrutiny, and replication of results. Acknowledging reviewers makes it possible to quantitatively assess reviewer contributions, which could be used to establish the impact of the reviewer in the scientific community. Quantifying review quality could help establish the importance of individual reviews and reviewers as well as the submitted article. Finally, we recommend expediting post-publication reviews and allowing for the dialog to continue and flourish in a dynamic and interactive manner. We argue that these solutions can be implemented by adapting existing features from open-source software management and social networking technologies. We propose a model of an open, interactive review system that quantifies the significance of articles, the quality of reviews, and the reputation of reviewers.
This study investigated the effects of multimedia presentations on the efficiency of learning scientific information (i.e. information on basic anatomy of human brains and their functions, the definition of cognitive psychology, and the structure of human memory). Experiment 1 investigated whether the modality effect could be observed when the…
Birmingham, Daniel J.
School science continues to fail to engage youth from non-dominant communities (Carlone, Huan-Frank & Webb, 2011). However, recent research demonstrates that informal science learning settings support both knowledge gains and increased participation in science among youth from non-dominant communities (Dierking, 2007; Falk et al., 2007; HFRP,…
dr.ir. Quinta Kools
professional development through informal learning In planning professional development for teachers or teacher educators, very often a formal course or training is offered. There is a lack of attention for the fact that a lot of professional development takes place at work through so-called
Santana, Eder; Emigh, Matthew; Principe, Jose C
We propose Information Theoretic-Learning (ITL) divergence measures for variational regularization of neural networks. We also explore ITL-regularized autoencoders as an alternative to variational autoencoding bayes, adversarial autoencoders and generative adversarial networks for randomly generating sample data without explicitly defining a partition function. This paper also formalizes, generative moment matching networks under the ITL framework.
Full text: The paper describes research done in the scope of doctoral project. The aim of the study is to discover how to improve the process of collaborative learning in the community of scientists by the development of a community of practice. A mixed methods approach was used combining data from content analysis, interviews and questionnaires. Results show that such community helps to build relationships and network with others, it motivates to share work-related knowledge, represents an area of common interest for organization, but also that it is mainly driven by the willingness of members and is lacking instruments to share ideas. (author
Cahyani, R.; Mardiana, D.; Noviantoro, N.
Scientific inquiry is highly recommended to teach science. The reality in the schools and colleges is that many educators still have not implemented inquiry learning because of their lack of understanding. The study aims to1) analyze students’ difficulties in learning General Biology, 2) design General Biology learning program based on multimedia-assisted scientific inquiry learning, and 3) validate the proposed design. The method used was Research and Development. The subjects of the study were 27 pre-service students of general elementary school/Islamic elementary schools. The workflow of program design includes identifying learning difficulties of General Biology, designing course programs, and designing instruments and assessment rubrics. The program design is made for four lecture sessions. Validation of all learning tools were performed by expert judge. The results showed that: 1) there are some problems identified in General Biology lectures; 2) the designed products include learning programs, multimedia characteristics, worksheet characteristics, and, scientific attitudes; and 3) expert validation shows that all program designs are valid and can be used with minor revisions. The first section in your paper.
Sri Mulyani Endang Susilowati
Full Text Available Biology learning in MA (Madrasah Aliyah Khas Kempek was still dominated by teacher with low students’ involvement. This study would analyze the effectiveness of the 5E (Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Elaboration, Evaluation learning model in improving scientific knowledge and problems solving. It also explained the relationship between students’ scientific reasoning with their problem-solving abilities. This was a pre-experimental research with one group pre-test post-test. Sixty students of MA Khas Kempek from XI MIA 3 and XI MIA 4 involved in this study. The learning outcome of the students was collected by the test of reasoning and problem-solving. The results showed that the rises of students’ scientific reasoning ability were 69.77% for XI MIA 3 and 66.27% for XI MIA 4, in the medium category. The problem-solving skills were 63.40% for XI MIA 3, 61.67% for XI MIA 4, and classified in the moderate category. The simple regression test found a linear correlation between students’ scientific reasoning and problem-solving ability. This study affirms that reasoning ability is needed in problem-solving. It is found that application of 5E learning model was effective to improve scientific reasoning and problem-solving ability of students.
Sarwi, S.; Fauziah, N.; Astuti, B.
This research is setting by the condition of students who have difficulty in ideas delivery, written scientific communication, and still need the development of student character. The objectives of the research are to determine the improvement of concept understanding, to analyze scientific communication skills and to develop the character of the students through guided inquiry learning. The design in this research is quasi experimental control group preposttest, with research subject of two group of grade X Senior High School in Semarang. One group of controller uses non tutorial and treatment group using tutorial in guided inquiry. Based on result of gain test analysis, obtained = 0.71 for treatment and control group = 0.60. The t-test result of mean mastery of concept of quantity and unit using t-test of right side is t count = 2.37 (p=0.003) while t table = 1.67 (α = 5%), which means that the results of the study differed significantly. The results of the students' scientific communication skills analysis showed that the experimental group was higher than the control, with an average of 69% and 63% scientific communication skills. The character values are effective developed through guided inquiry learning. The conclusion of the study is guided inquiry learning tutorial better than guided inquiry non tutorial learning in aspect understanding concept, scientific communication skills; but the character development result is almost the same.
Kreutz, K. J.; Koffman, B. G.; Trenbath, K. L.
What makes a good scientific argument? We began ERS201: Global Environmental Change by asking students to reflect on the mechanics of a strong scientific argument. At the same time, we asked them to evaluate global CO2 and sea level data from different time periods in Earth's history to answer the question, 'Is there a relationship between atmospheric CO2 and sea level, and if so, why?' This question formed the theme for the course, a mid-level, inquiry-based class of about 20 students. Each week, students target specific aspects of the climate system through problem sets, which include experimental and laboratory work, basic statistical analyses of paleoclimate datasets, and the development of simple systems models using STELLA software. Every 2-4 weeks, we challenge students to write short (1500 word) data-driven scientific arguments, which require a synthesis of information from their problem sets and from the scientific literature. Students have to develop a clear, testable hypothesis related to each writing prompt, and then make their case using figures they have generated during the weekly problem sets. We evaluate student writing using a rubric that focuses on the structure and clarity of the argument, relevance of the data included, and integration and quality of the graphics, with a lesser emphasis placed on voice and style. In 2013, student scores improved from a median value of 86 × 9% to 94 × 8% over the course of the semester. More importantly, we found that incorporation of scientific argumentation served to increase student understanding of important and sometimes abstract scientific concepts. For example, on pre- and post-course assessments we asked the question, 'What would happen if a significant portion of the sea ice floating in the Arctic Ocean were to melt?' On the pre-assessment, 80% of students said that it would lead to more coastal flooding, while only 20% correctly stated that a decrease in the reflection of solar energy would lead to
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research and Enhancement Permits Under the Endangered Species Act AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...
Skonieczny, Lukasz; Rybinski, Henryk; Kryszkiewicz, Marzena; Niezgodka, Marek
This book is a selection of results obtained within two years of research per- formed under SYNAT - a nation-wide scientific project aiming at creating an infrastructure for scientific content storage and sharing for academia, education and open knowledge society in Poland. The selection refers to the research in artificial intelligence, knowledge discovery and data mining, information retrieval and natural language processing, addressing the problems of implementing intelligent tools for building a scientific information platform.This book is a continuation and extension of the ideas presented in “Intelligent Tools for Building a Scientific Information Platform” published as volume 390 in the same series in 2012. It is based on the SYNAT 2012 Workshop held in Warsaw. The papers included in this volume present an overview and insight into information retrieval, repository systems, text processing, ontology-based systems, text mining, multimedia data processing and advanced software engineering.
Tetyana V. Kuznetsova
Full Text Available Relevance of the material stated in article is caused by urgent needs of society in creation of administrative information systems, in particular Information system of planning of scientific researches in National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine on Internet basis (ІС "Planning". Information and technological support of processes of planning of scientific researches which are carried out in scientific institutions of NAPS of Ukraine is the purpose of creation of this system. The parameters of the functional maintenance of the informative system are pointed in the article, technology of treatment of documents on planning of scientific researches, scheme of routes of working of separate documents, and proper diagrams of their business-processes, on the basis of which using programmatic facilities of Microsoft Sharepoint the functions of programming are automatized, is examined.
VanBuskirk, Shireen Adele
The purpose of this research project is to describe how existing communication technologies are used to foster scientific literacy for secondary students. This study develops a new framework as an analytic tool to categorize the activities of teachers and students involved in scientific literacy to describe what elements of scientific literacy are facilitated by such technologies. Four case studies are analyzed using the framework to describe the scientific literacy initiatives. Data collection at each site included interviews with the teacher, student focus groups, student surveys, and classroom observations. Qualitative analysis of the data provided insight into the learning activities and student experiences in the four cases. This study intentionally provides a platform for student voice. Very few previous empirical studies in the area of scientific literacy include the student experience. This represents a significant gap in the current literature on scientific literacy. An interpretation of scientific literacy that promotes student engagement, interaction, and initiative corresponds to a need to listen to students' perspectives on these experiences. Findings of the study indicated that the classroom activities depended on the teacher's philosophy regarding scientific literacy. Communication technology was ubiquitous; where the teacher did not initiate the use of social media in the classroom, the students did. The goal of supporting scientific literacy in students is an objective that extends beyond the boundaries of classroom walls, and it can be facilitated by technologies that seem both abundant and underutilized. Technology-enhanced pedagogy altered the classroom practices and resulted in more student participation and engagement.
This book introduces the reader to the visible memorabilia of science and scientists in all the five boroughs of New York City—statues, busts, plaques, buildings, and other artifacts. In addition, it extends to some scientists and institutions currently operating in the city. New York is a world center of commerce, finance, communications, transportation, and culture, and it is also a world center in science. It is home to worldrenowned universities and research laboratories, a museum of natural history and other museums related to science, a science academy, historical societies, botanical gardens and zoos, libraries, and a hall of science as well as a large number of world-renowned scientists. The eight chapters of the book cover the following areas. 1 Explorers and Naturalists; 2 Scientists and Innovators; 3 Learning: A sampler of high schools and some of their famous graduates; 4 Aiming Higher in Education: Colleges of City University and New York University; 5 City of Medicine: Biomedical research, tea...
Sasaki, Akira; Ueshima, Yutaka; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Murata, Masaki; Kanamaru, Toshiyuki; Shirado, Tamotsu; Isahara, Hitoshi
We propose a new application of information technology to recognize and extract expressions of atomic and molecular states from electrical forms of scientific abstracts. Present results will help scientists to understand atomic states as well as the physics discussed in the articles. Combining with the internet search engines, it will make one possible to collect not only atomic and molecular data but broader scientific information over a wide range of research fields. (author)
Cook, N.G.W.; Tsang, C.F.
This paper discusses the development and safety evaluation of a nuclear waste geologic repository. Scientific understanding dependent upon information from a number of geoscience disciplines is described. A discussion is given on the dynamic use of the information through the different stages. The authors point out the need for abstracting, deriving and updating a quantitative spatial and process model (QSPM) to develop a scientific understanding of site responses as a crucial element in the dynamic procedure
Cofer, David A.
Research on informal learning in the workplace suggests several definitions, including that informal learning is a process of learning that takes place in everyday experience, often at subconscious levels, and that it is unique to, and rests in the hands of, the learner. Research supports introducing informal learning not as a replacement for…
Corns, Kevin M.
A pragmatic sequential mixed methods research methodology was used to examine commercial airline pilots' (N =156) types and frequencies of informal learning activities, perceptions of workplace informal learning, and opinions on how organizations should support workplace informal learning outside of the formal learning environment. This study…
Du, Bo; Wang, Zengmao; Zhang, Lefei; Zhang, Liangpei; Liu, Wei; Shen, Jialie; Tao, Dacheng
How can we find a general way to choose the most suitable samples for training a classifier? Even with very limited prior information? Active learning, which can be regarded as an iterative optimization procedure, plays a key role to construct a refined training set to improve the classification performance in a variety of applications, such as text analysis, image recognition, social network modeling, etc. Although combining representativeness and informativeness of samples has been proven promising for active sampling, state-of-the-art methods perform well under certain data structures. Then can we find a way to fuse the two active sampling criteria without any assumption on data? This paper proposes a general active learning framework that effectively fuses the two criteria. Inspired by a two-sample discrepancy problem, triple measures are elaborately designed to guarantee that the query samples not only possess the representativeness of the unlabeled data but also reveal the diversity of the labeled data. Any appropriate similarity measure can be employed to construct the triple measures. Meanwhile, an uncertain measure is leveraged to generate the informativeness criterion, which can be carried out in different ways. Rooted in this framework, a practical active learning algorithm is proposed, which exploits a radial basis function together with the estimated probabilities to construct the triple measures and a modified best-versus-second-best strategy to construct the uncertain measure, respectively. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our algorithm consistently achieves superior performance over the state-of-the-art active learning algorithms.
include Security Classification) Instrumentation for scientific computing in neural networks, information science, artificial intelligence, and...instrumentation grant to purchase equipment for support of research in neural networks, information science, artificail intellignece , and applied mathematics...in Neural Networks, Information Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Applied Mathematics Contract AFOSR 86-0282 Principal Investigator: Stephen
Ráisa Mendes Fernandes de Souza
Full Text Available The obstacles faced by the scientific community in the dissemination and access to their own productions, contextualized in need of open access to scientific information, boosted the creation of Institutional Repositories. These are technologies adopted by educational institutions and research that aim to manage and provide scientific production site. Objective: to characterize Federal University of Minas Gerais’ information systems, analyzing the perception of the actors responsible for their existence / maintenance within the context of open access to scientific information. Methodology: This is a descriptive and qualitative research, which is engaged in the information systems developed within the university to support the teaching, research and extension, which contain the records of productions or productions, scientific or not, the local academic community. Results: we found some awareness of the actors interviewed in relation to the existence of other systems, although such awareness is not ideal. Generally, UFMG has Managers and depositors competent enough to manage a repository greater, as is the case of an RI. Conclusion: It is necessary an information policy that is born of consolidated scientific sectors hierarchically superior and inferior sectors to be transferred to, well, be possible to articulate the entire university community in support of a common cause. The study emphasizes the community of UFMG and optimization of open access to publications of the University as the scope for possible future studies.
Kyndt, Eva; Vermeire, Eva; Cabus, Shana
Purpose: This paper aims to examine which organisational learning conditions and individual characteristics predict the learning outcomes nurses achieve through informal learning activities. There is specific relevance for the nursing profession because of the rapidly changing healthcare systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 203 nurses…
Full Text Available Young children, in general, appear to have a strong drive to explore the environment in ways that reveal its underlying causal structure. But are they really attuned specifically to casual information in this quest for understanding, or do they show equal interest in other types of non-obvious information about the world? To answer this question, we introduced 20 three-year-old children to two puppets who were anxious to tell the child about a set of novel artifacts and animals. One puppet consistently described causal properties of the items while the other puppet consistently described carefully matched non-causal properties of the same items. After a familiarization period in which children learned which type of information to expect from each informant, children were given the opportunity to choose which they wanted to hear describe each of eight pictured test items. On average, children chose to hear from the informant that provided causal descriptions on 72% of the trials. This preference for causal information has important implications for explaining the role of conceptual information in supporting early learning and may suggest means for maximizing interest and motivation in young children.
Hayati, R. S.
This research aim is develop the potential of Taka Bonerate National Park as learning resources through edutourism with scientific approach to improve student learning outcomes. Focus of student learning outcomes are students psychomotor abilities and comprehension on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. The edutourism development products are teacher manual, edutourism worksheet, material booklet, guide’s manual, and Taka Bonerate National Park governor manual. The method to develop edutourism products is ADDIE research and development model that consist of analysis, design, development and production, implementation, and evaluation step. The subjects in the implementation step were given a pretest and posttest and observation sheet to see the effect of edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park through scientific approach to student learning outcomes on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. The data were analyzed qualitative descriptively. The research result is edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park through scientific approach can improve students learning outcomes on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics. Edutourism Taka Bonerate National Park can be an alternative of learning method on Biodiversity of Marine Biota, Corals Ecosystem, and Conservation topics.
Shapiro, C. D.
Data democracy is a concept that has great relevance to the use and value of geospatial data and scientific information. Data democracy describes a world in which data and information are widely and broadly accessible, understandable, and useable. The concept operationalizes the public good nature of scientific information and provides a framework for increasing benefits from its use. Data democracy encompasses efforts to increase accessibility to geospatial data and to expand participation in its collection, analysis, and application. These two pillars are analogous to demand and supply relationships. Improved accessibility, or demand, includes increased knowledge about geospatial data and low barriers to retrieval and use. Expanded participation, or supply, encompasses a broader community involved in developing geospatial data and scientific information. This pillar of data democracy is characterized by methods such as citizen science or crowd sourcing.A framework is developed for advancing the use of data democracy. This includes efforts to assess the societal benefits (economic and social) of scientific information. This knowledge is critical to continued monitoring of the effectiveness of data democracy implementation and of potential impact on the use and value of scientific information. The framework also includes an assessment of opportunities for advancing data democracy both on the supply and demand sides. These opportunities include relatively inexpensive efforts to reduce barriers to use as well as the identification of situations in which participation can be expanded in scientific efforts to enhance the breadth of involvement as well as expanding participation to non-traditional communities. This framework provides an initial perspective on ways to expand the "scientific community" of data users and providers. It also describes a way forward for enhancing the societal benefits from geospatial data and scientific information. As a result, data
Loper, Suzanna Jane
Two important goals in science education are teaching students about the nature of science and teaching students to do scientific inquiry. Learning about scientific models is central to both of these endeavors, but studies have shown that students have very flawed and limited understandings of the nature and purposes of scientific models (Carey & Smith, 1993; Grosslight, Unger, & Jay, 1991; Lederman, 1992). In this dissertation I investigate the processes of teaching and learning about scientific models in an 8th grade classroom in an urban middle school. In order to do so, I examine recordings of student and teacher talk about models across a period of two months in which students completed two independent inquiry projects, using the Inquiry Island software and curriculum (Eslinger, 2004; Shimoda, White, & Frederiksen, 2002; White, Shimoda, & Frederiksen, 2000). My analysis draws on video records of small-group work and whole-class interactions, as well as on students' written work. I find that in this classroom, students struggled to understand the nature and purpose of scientific models. I analyze episodes in the classroom talk in which models appeared to be a source of trouble or confusion, and describe the ways in which the teacher attempted to respond to these troubles. I find that in many cases students appeared to be able to produce scientific models of the proper form, yet still struggled with displaying an understanding of what a model was, or of the functions of models in scientific research. I propose directions for further research and curriculum development in order to build on these findings. In particular, I argue, we need to design ways to help students engage in scientific modeling as a social and communicative practice, and to find ways to build from their everyday reasoning and argumentation practices. My research also reinforces the importance of looking at classroom talk, not just pre- and post-assessments, in order to understand teaching and
Cheng, Ping-Han; Yang, Ya-Ting Carolyn; Chang, Shih-Hui Gilbert; Kuo, Fan-Ray Revon
In recent years, many universities have opened courses to increase students' knowledge in the field of nanotechnology. These have been shown to increase students' knowledge of nanotechnology, but beyond this, advanced and applied nanotechnology courses should also focus on learning motivation and scientific enquiry abilities to equip students to…
This paper presents findings related to a research study which aims to describe and understand some of the essential learning processes involved in changing a first-year physics student into a research scientist. One part of this study explores a common feature of most undergraduate studies in sc....... The settings for students' learning bear much resemblance to informal learning settings reported in earlier studies related to e.g. science center visits....... in science - the pronounced border between the domains of production and acquisition of knowledge. Based on ongoing ethnographic fieldwork, certain aspects of this division between the two domains are investigated. A case study representing students' border-crossing activities is described and discussed...
Cain, Jeff; Policastri, Anne
To create, implement, and assess the effectiveness of an optional Facebook activity intended to expose students to contemporary business issues not covered in the core content of a pharmacy management and leadership course and to perspectives of experts and thought leaders external to their university. An informal learning strategy was used to create a Facebook group page and guest experts were identified and invited to submit posts pertaining to business-related topics. Students were given instructions for joining the Facebook group but informed that participation was optional. A mixed-methods approach using a student questionnaire, results on examination questions, and a student focus group was used to assess this activity. The informal design with no posting guidelines and no participation requirement was well received by students, who appreciated the unique learning environment and exposure to external experts. Facebook provides an informal learning environment for presenting contemporary topics and the thoughts of guest experts not affiliated with a college or school, thereby exposing students to relevant "real world" issues.
Full Text Available The article deals with information – based marketing of scientific research institutes, which has been named SAVE (Solution – Access – Value – Education. A proper use of marketing instruments requires information assets which are defined in terms of the essence, the scope and the form of the defined information needs. The essence, the form and the pattern of information needs in reference to SAVE has been defined and described in the case of scientific research institute. The specification of needs for each instrument and for various market participants has been included into the description.
Skonieczny, Łukasz; Rybiński, Henryk; Kryszkiewicz, Marzena; Niezgódka, Marek
This book is a selection of results obtained within three years of research performed under SYNAT—a nation-wide scientific project aiming at creating an infrastructure for scientific content storage and sharing for academia, education and open knowledge society in Poland. The book is intended to be the last of the series related to the SYNAT project. The previous books, titled “Intelligent Tools for Building a Scientific Information Platform” and “Intelligent Tools for Building a Scientific Information Platform: Advanced Architectures and Solutions”, were published as volumes 390 and 467 in Springer's Studies in Computational Intelligence. Its contents is based on the SYNAT 2013 Workshop held in Warsaw. The papers included in this volume present an overview and insight into information retrieval, repository systems, text processing, ontology-based systems, text mining, multimedia data processing and advanced software engineering, addressing the problems of implementing intelligent tools for building...
A NEW METHOD FOR LEARNING TO READ TECHNICAL LITERATURE IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IS BEING DEVELOPED AND TESTED AT THE LANGUAGE CENTRE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ESSEX, COLCHESTER, ENGLAND. THE METHOD IS CALLED "THREE QUESTION EXPERIMENTAL METHOD (3QX)," AND IT HAS BEEN USED IN THREE COURSES FOR TEACHING SCIENTIFIC RUSSIAN TO PHYSICISTS. THE THREE…
Tomas, Louisa; Ritchie, Stephen M.
This paper reports on the challenge of evaluating students' scientific literacy in a writing-to-learn context, as illustrated by our experience with an online science-writing project. In this mixed methods study, year 9 students in a case study class (13-14 year olds, n?=?26) authored a series of two "hybridised" short stories that…
Knoll, Abby R; Otani, Hajime; Skeel, Reid L; Van Horn, K Roger
The concept of learning style is immensely popular despite the lack of evidence showing that learning style influences performance. This study tested the hypothesis that the popularity of learning style is maintained because it is associated with subjective aspects of learning, such as judgements of learning (JOLs). Preference for verbal and visual information was assessed using the revised Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ). Then, participants studied a list of word pairs and a list of picture pairs, making JOLs (immediate, delayed, and global) while studying each list. Learning was tested by cued recall. The results showed that higher VVQ verbalizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for words, and higher VVQ visualizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for pictures. There was no association between VVQ scores and recall or JOL accuracy. As predicted, learning style was associated with subjective aspects of learning but not objective aspects of learning. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
H.L. Alvarez (Heidi Lee)
textabstractHow and why can Information Communication Technology (ICT) contribute to enhancing learning in distributed Collaborative Learning Communities (CLCs)? Drawing from relevant theories concerned with phenomenon of ICT enabled distributed collaborative learning, this book identifies gaps in
Tolzman, Jean M.
The potential for expanded communication among researchers, scholars, and students is supported by growth in the capabilities for electronic communication as well as expanding access to various forms of electronic interchange and computing capabilities. Increased possibilities for information exchange, collegial dialogue, collaboration, and access to remote resources exist as high-speed networks, increasingly powerful workstations, and large, multi-user computational facilities are more frequently linked and more commonly available. Numerous writers speak of the telecommunications revolution and its impact on the development and dissemination of knowledge and learning. One author offers the phrase 'Scholarly skywriting' to represent a new form of scientific communication that he envisions using electronic networks. In the United States (U.S.), researchers associated with the National Science Foundation (NSF) are exploring 'nationwide collaboratories' and 'digital collaboration.' Research supported by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) points to a future where workstations with built-in audio, video monitors, and screen sharing protocols are used to support collaborations with colleagues located throughout the world. Instruments and sensors located worldwide will produce data streams that will be brought together, analyzed, and distributed as new findings. Researchers will have access to machines that can supply domain-specific information in addition to locator and directory assistance. New forms of electronic journals will emerge and provide opportunities for researchers and scientists to exchange information electronically and interactively in a range of structures and formats. Ultimately, the wide-scale use of these technologies in the dissemination of research results and the stimulation of collegial dialogue will change the way we represent and express our knowledge of the world. A new paradigm will evolve--perhaps a truly worldwide
Viacheslav M. Oleksenko
Full Text Available The article deals with the results of the research concerning the relevant information resources elaborated and introduced into the pedagogical process by the author. The peculiarities of the first in Ukraine dictionary on theory and practice of distance learning, distance course “Linear Algebra” and the course-book “Linear Algebra and Analytical Geometry”, which promote the raising in quality of education and training of specialists, are revealed.
predecessor, Gale and Kariv (2003) who generalize the payoff equalization result of Bala and Goyal (1998) in connected social networks (discussed below...requires more notation. Using Bayes’ Rule and the assumption of equal priors on the state θ, we have that the social belief given by observing... Social Networks: Rational Learning and Information Aggregation by Ilan Lobel B.Sc., Pontif́ıcia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (2004
Henkel, Heather S.
In March 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) held the first Scientific Information Management (SIM) Workshop in Reston, Virginia. The workshop brought together more than 150 SIM professionals from across the organization to discuss the range and importance of SIM problems, identify common challenges and solutions, and investigate the use and value of “communities of practice” (CoP) as mechanisms to address these issues. The 3-day workshop began with presentations of SIM challenges faced by the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) network and two USGS programs from geology and hydrology. These presentations were followed by a keynote address and discussion of CoP by Dr. Etienne Wenger, a pioneer and leading expert in CoP, who defined them as "groups of people who share a passion for something that they know how to do and who interact regularly to learn how to do it better." Wenger addressed the roles and characteristics of CoP, how they complement formal organizational structures, and how they can be fostered. Following this motivating overview, five panelists (including Dr. Wenger) with CoP experience in different institutional settings provided their perspectives and lessons learned. The first day closed with an open discussion on the potential intersection of SIM at the USGS with SIM challenges and the potential for CoP. The second session began the process of developing a common vocabulary for both scientific data management and CoP, and a list of eight guiding principles for information management were proposed for discussion and constructive criticism. Following this discussion, 20 live demonstrations and posters of SIM tools developed by various USGS programs and projects were presented. Two community-building sessions were held to explore the next steps in 12 specific areas: Archiving of Scientific Data and Information; Database Networks; Digital Libraries; Emerging Workforce; Field Data for Small Research Projects; Knowledge Capture; Knowledge
Price, C. Aaron; Lee, H.-S.; Malatesta, K.
Stereoscopic technology (3D) is rapidly becoming ubiquitous across research, entertainment and informal educational settings. Children of today may grow up never knowing a time when movies, television and video games were not available stereoscopically. Despite this rapid expansion, the field's understanding of the impact of stereoscopic visualizations on learning is rather limited. Much of the excitement of stereoscopic technology could be due to a novelty effect, which will wear off over time. This study controlled for the novelty factor using a variety of techniques. On the floor of an urban science center, 261 children were shown 12 photographs and visualizations of highly spatial scientific objects and scenes. The images were randomly shown in either traditional (2D) format or in stereoscopic format. The children were asked two questions of each image—one about a spatial property of the image and one about a real-world application of that property. At the end of the test, the child was asked to draw from memory the last image they saw. Results showed no overall significant difference in response to the questions associated with 2D or 3D images. However, children who saw the final slide only in 3D drew more complex representations of the slide than those who did not. Results are discussed through the lenses of cognitive load theory and the effect of novelty on engagement.
Full Text Available This research aims to determine the improvement of students’ scientific literacy after STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics learning using 6E Learning by DesignTM Model on temperature and its changes material. The research was conducted in SMP Negeri (State Junior High School 1 Bumiayu in the academic year 2015/2016. The method used was quasi-experimental design with The Matching Only - pretest posttest control group design. This study used two group of experiment group of students who learned the material with STEM learning using 6E Learning by DesignTM, while the control group students learned with non-STEM learning. The analysis showed that the students' scientific literacy in experiment group is better than control group. The conclusion that can be drawn is STEM learning using 6E Learning by DesignTM on temperature and its changes material can improve students’ scientific literacy.
Dede Parsaoran Damanik
Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the differences: (1 the difference of critical thinking skills of students' that using Inquiry Training and Direct Instruction. (2 The difference of critical thinking skills among students who at high scientific attitude and students who at low scientific attitude. (3 To see if there is interaction between inquiry learning model of the scientific attitude students' to increase the ability to critical thinking. This is a quasi experimental research. Which students of private junior high school Two Raya Kahean District Simalungun. Population choose random sample of each class. Instrument used consisted of: (1 test the scientific attitude of students through a questionnaire with 25 statements questionnaire number (2 test the critical thinking skills in the form of descriptions by 9 questions. The data were analyzed according to ANAVA. It showed that: (1 There are differences in students' critical thinking of skills achievement Inquiry Training model and Direct Instruction model, (2 there was a difference of students' critical thinking in scientific attitude at high is better than who thought there is a difference of students' critical thinking in scientific attitude at low. (3 There was no interaction between Inquiry Training model and Direct Instruction with the scientific attitude students' to increase student’s critical thinking of skills.
Derrick L Anderson
The case study research methodology has been selected to conduct the inquiry into this phenomenon. This empirical inquiry facilitates exploration of a contemporary phenomenon in depth within its real-life context using a variety of data sources. The subject of analysis will be two Information Technology classes composed of a combination of second year and third year students; both classes have six students, the same six students. Contribution It is the purpose of this research to show that the use of improved approaches to learning will produce more desirable learning outcomes. Findings The results of this inquiry clearly show that the use of the traditional behaviorist based pedagogic model to achieve college and university IT program learning outcomes is not as effective as a more constructivist based andragogic model. Recommendations Instruction based purely on either of these does a disservice to the typical college and university level learner. The correct approach lies somewhere in between them; the most successful outcome attainment would be the product of incorporating the best of both. Impact on Society Instructional strategies produce learning outcomes; learning outcomes demonstrate what knowledge has been acquired. Acquired knowledge is used by students as they pursue professional careers and other ventures in life. Future Research Learning and teaching approaches are not “one-size-fits-all” propositions; different strategies are appropriate for different circumstances and situations. Additional research should seek to introduce vehicles that will move learners away from one the traditional methodology that has been used throughout much of their educational careers to an approach that is better suited to equip them with the skills necessary to meet the challenges awaiting them in the professional world.
... Information Request on Phototherapy for Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare... manufacturers of Phototherapy medical devices for treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. Scientific information... Systemic Agents and Phototherapy for Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis, which is currently being...
Poelmans, J.; Ignatov, D.I.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Kuznetsov, S.O.
Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is an unsupervised clustering technique and many scientific papers are devoted to applying FCA in Information Retrieval (IR) research. We collected 103 papers published between 2003-2009 which mention FCA and information retrieval in the abstract, title or keywords.
Roosendaal, Hans E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Vet, P.E.
The economic impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on the academic library and on the academic institution are discussed in terms of changes in the value chain of scientific information induced by the use of ICT. Argues that ICT is a very strong engine for change as it has the
Sukkari, Sana R; Al Humaidan, Abdullah S; Sasich, Larry D
Inadequate access to useful scientifically accurate patient information is a major cause of the inappropriate use of drugs resulting in serious personal injury and related costs to the health care system. The definition of useful scientifically accurate patient information for prescription drugs was accepted by the US Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services in 1996 as that derived from or consistent with the US FDA approved professional product label for a drug. Previous quality content studies found that English language patient drug information leaflets distributed by US pharmacies failed to meet minimum criteria defining useful and scientifically accurate information. Evaluation forms containing the explicit elements that define useful scientifically accurate information for three drugs with known serious adverse drug reactions were created based on the current US FDA approved professional product labels. The Arabic language patient drug information leaflets for celecoxib, paroxetine, and lamotrigine were obtained locally and evaluated using a methodology similar to that used in previous quality content patient drug information studies in the US. The Arabic leaflets failed to meet the definition of useful scientifically accurate information. The celecoxib leaflet contained 30% of the required information and the paroxetine and lamotrigine leaflets contained 24% and 20%, respectively. There are several limitations to this study. The Arabic leaflets from only one commercial North American vendor were evaluated and the evaluation included a limited number of drugs. A larger study is necessary to be able to generalize these results. The study results are consistent with those of previous quality content studies of commercially available English patient drug information leaflets. The results have important implications for patients as access to a reliable source of drug information may prevent harm or limit the suffering from serious adverse drug
Analysis methods of scientific and technical information are presented to determine regularities in scientific and technical development. As a rule, the studies are carried out using data base of patent literature. Three methods of are considered. The first one - analysis of data flow, when trends in technique, degree of the technique monopolyzation and its urgency are evaluated. The second one - lexical analysis, consisting in recording new terms and deviations in the number of terms with time. The third one - analysis of quatation networks, which leads to the establisment of author and subject groups, characterizing scientific and technical activity of the object observed, of a firm or subject area for instance
Wardani, K. U.; Mulyani, S.; Wiji
The aim of this study was to develop intertextual learning strategy with guided inquiry on solubility equilibrium concept to enhance student’s scientific processing skills. This study was conducted with consideration of some various studies which found that lack of student’s process skills in learning chemistry was caused by learning chemistry is just a concept. The method used in this study is a Research and Development to generate the intertextual learning strategy with guided inquiry. The instruments used in the form of sheets validation are used to determine the congruence of learning activities by step guided inquiry learning and scientific processing skills with aspects of learning activities. Validation results obtained that the learning activities conducted in line with aspects of indicators of the scientific processing skills.
Full Text Available We consider conceptual approaches to creation of information systems, learning management school, which uses modern methods of decision-making and simulational modeling, web-technologies. The main criteria for the selection of development tools of the system are: openness, free of charge, easy to use and independence from system software and hardware. The chosen technology and the system itself satisfies such requirements as: focus on national and international standards in the field of higher education, adherence to service-oriented architecture, ensuring stable operation with a large number of users, support for a clear division of user rights to obtain and change information resources, software modularity the final product and its ability to integrate into the corporate information system of the university
Widowati, A.; Widodo, E.; Anjarsari, P.; Setuju
Understanding of science instructional leading to the formation of student scientific literacy, seems not yet fully understood well by science teachers. Because of this, certainly needs to be reformed because science literacy is a major goal in science education for science education reform. Efforts of development science literacy can be done by help students develop an information conception of the Nature of Science (NoS) and apply inquiry approach. It is expected that students’ science literacy can develop more optimal by combining NoS within inquiry approach. The purpose of this research is to produce scientific literacy development model of NoS within inquiry-based learning. The preparation of learning tools will be maked through Research and Development (R & D) following the 4-D model (Define, Design, Develop, and Disseminate) and Borg & Gall. This study is a follow-up of preliminary research results about the inquiry profile of junior high school students indicating that most categories are quite good. The design of the model NoS within inquiry approach for developing scientific literacy is using MER Model in development educational reconstruction. This research will still proceed to the next stage that is Develop.
Calha, António Geraldo Manso
In this article we try to analyze the learning processes of health literacy skills in informal contexts. We intend to broaden the understanding of the learning process beyond the formal contexts, thus contributing to the elucidation of health professionals on how individuals acquire and manage their knowledge in health matters. Given our goal, we use an analytic corpus constituted by one hundred autobiographical narratives written between 2006 and 2011, in educational contexts but with recognized potential for use in different scientific fields, including health. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i) learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii) learning processes that result from problem solving; iii) learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality.
António Geraldo Manso Calha
Full Text Available In this article we try to analyze the learning processes of health literacy skills in informal contexts. We intend to broaden the understanding of the learning process beyond the formal contexts, thus contributing to the elucidation of health professionals on how individuals acquire and manage their knowledge in health matters. Given our goal, we use an analytic corpus constituted by one hundred autobiographical narratives written between 2006 and 2011, in educational contexts but with recognized potential for use in different scientific fields, including health. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii learning processes that result from problem solving; iii learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality.
Song, Donggil; Bonk, Curtis J.
Learning is becoming more self-directed and informal with the support of emerging technologies. A variety of online resources have promoted informal learning by allowing people to learn on demand and just when needed. It is significant to understand self-directed informal learners' motivational aspects, their learning goals, obstacles, and…
Olague de Ros, G; Menendez Navarro, A; Medina Domenech, R M; Astrain Gallart, M
As part of a continuing line of research on scientific documentation we propose in this article a novel approach to the study of the European information science movement at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. We suggest that this movement took place within the context of increasing internationalism of scientific endeavours, a process which was paralleled by the standardization of units, weight and measures for the different sciences. We investigate problems arising from scientific communication in connection with other aspects apparently unrelated to Information Science. Specifically, we refer to conflicts between nationalism and colonialism; concordance and discord between science policy and the corporate interests of nonscientific associations; higher educational policy; the professionalization of sciences; and the economic interests at stake as a consequence of the use of different information models.
A scientific information system for MIPAS satellite experiment will be presented according to its main hardware and software configuration. It will be considered as a MIPAS data processing and archiving node of the ground segment of the planned satellite mission for the remote sensing of atmospheric parameters, as well as an information system supporting the researchers in their scientific environment. In this preliminary study, the methodology of a more detailed system design has also been specified. The system consists of two logical components, an operational database for the generation, storage and management of vast amounts of MIPAS data received from the satellite, and the research and development database, which must be interfaced to the operational one, providing a more abstract and user-friendly interface for the scientific community enabling experimentation and the extraction of the information needed. (orig.) [de
Cook, N.G.W.; Tsang, C.F.
The development and safety evaluation of a nuclear waste geologic repository require a proper scientific understanding of the site response. Such scientific understanding depends on information from a number of geoscience disciplines, including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, geomechanics and hydrogeology. The information comes in four stages: (1) general regional survey data base, (2) surface-based testing, (3) exploratory shaft testing, and (4) repository construction and evaluation. A discussion is given on the dynamic use of the information through the different stages. We point out the need for abstracting, deriving and updating a quantitative spatial and process model (QSPM) to develop a scientific understanding of site responses as a crucial element in the dynamic procedure. 2 figs
Francisco das Chagas de Souza
This article results of bibliographical, exploratory and qualitative research. Its argues that three approaches are gifts in the educational process of discipline of the Scientific Research Methodology in Information Science. They are the social facts of the Information Science, the types of the research and the social theory. It sees that the pedagogical possibilities of the education of Scientific Methodology in Information Science are related with the practical one of the writing which dep...
Full Text Available This paper presents an assembling unsupervised learning framework that adopts the information coming from the supervised learning process and gives the corresponding implementation algorithm. The algorithm consists of two phases: extracting and clustering data representatives (DRs firstly to obtain labeled training data and then classifying non-DRs based on labeled DRs. The implementation algorithm is called SDSN since it employs the tuning-scaled Support vector domain description to collect DRs, uses spectrum-based method to cluster DRs, and adopts the nearest neighbor classifier to label non-DRs. The validation of the clustering procedure of the first-phase is analyzed theoretically. A new metric is defined data dependently in the second phase to allow the nearest neighbor classifier to work with the informed information. A fast training approach for DRs’ extraction is provided to bring more efficiency. Experimental results on synthetic and real datasets verify that the proposed idea is of correctness and performance and SDSN exhibits higher popularity in practice over the traditional pure clustering procedure.
Nisbet, Gillian; Lincoln, Michelle; Dunn, Stewart
In this paper, we explore the educational and workplace learning literature to identify the potential and significance for informal interprofessional learning within the workplace. We also examine theoretical perspectives informing informal workplace interprofessional learning. Despite numerous studies focusing on formal interprofessional education programs, we suggest that informal interprofessional learning opportunities are currently unrealized. We highlight reasons for a focus on learning within the workplace and the potential benefits within an interprofessional context.
Budiharti, Rini; Waras, N. S.
This article aims to describe the student’s scientific attitude behaviour change as treatment effect of Blended Learning supported by I-Spring Suite 8 application on the material balance and the rotational dynamics. Blended Learning models is learning strategy that integrate between face-to-face learning and online learning by combination of various media. Blended Learning model supported I-Spring Suite 8 media setting can direct learning becomes interactive. Students are guided to actively interact with the media as well as with other students to discuss getting the concept by the phenomena or facts presented. The scientific attitude is a natural attitude of students in the learning process. In interactive learning, scientific attitude is so needed. The research was conducted using a model Lesson Study which consists of the stages Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) and applied to the subject of learning is students at class XI MIPA 2 of Senior High School 6 Surakarta. The validity of the data used triangulation techniques of observation, interviews and document review. Based on the discussion, it can be concluded that the use of Blended Learning supported media I-Spring Suite 8 is able to give the effect of changes in student behaviour on all dimensions of scientific attitude that is inquisitive, respect the data or fact, critical thinking, discovery and creativity, open minded and cooperation, and perseverance. Display e-learning media supported student worksheet makes the students enthusiastically started earlier, the core until the end of learning
Saavedra-Duarte, L. A.; Angarita-Jerardino, A.; Ruiz, P. A.; Dulce-Moreno, H. J.; Vera-Rivera, F. H.; V-Niño, E. D.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are essential in the transfer of knowledge, and the Web tools, as part of ICT, are important for institutions seeking greater visibility of the products developed by their researchers. For this reason, we implemented an application that allows the information management of the FORISTOM Foundation (Foundation of Researchers in Science and Technology of Materials). The application shows a detailed description, not only of all its members also of all the scientific production that they carry out, such as technological developments, research projects, articles, presentations, among others. This application can be implemented by other entities committed to the scientific dissemination and transfer of technology and knowledge.
Blados, Walter R.
In the last 50 years, technological advances have accelerated at a rate unprecedented in history. We are experiencing a tremendous expansion of scientific and technological effort in many directions, and the result is a fantastic increase in the accumulation of scientific and technical information (STI) and knowledge. An integral part of the research and development (R&D) process is the STI associated with it. STI is both a raw material (input) and a product (output) of this process. The topics addressed include the following: the value of STI, management of an STI program, program policy and guidance, organizational structure, data sources, training/orientation, and the current information environment.
Maman, Shimrit; Isaacson, Sivan; Blumberg, Dan G.
In recent years, a decline in the rates of examinees in the academic track that were entitled to an enhanced matriculation certificate in scientific-technological education was reported in Israel. To confront this problem the Earth and Planetary Image Facility (EPIF) at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev fosters interdisciplinary exploration through educational programs that make use of the facility and its equipment and enable the empowerment of the community by understanding and appreciating science and technology. This is achieved by using Geographic Information Technologies (GIT) such as remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for geo-physical sciences in activities that combine theoretical background with hands-on activities. Monitoring Earth from space by satellites, digital atlases and virtual-based positioning applications are examples for fusion of spatial information (geographic) and technology that the activity is based on. GIT opens a new chapter and a recent history of Cartography starting from the collection of spatial data to its presentation and analysis. GIS have replaced the use of classical atlas books and offer a variety of Web-based applications that provide maps and display up-to-date imagery. The purpose of this workshop is to expose teachers and students to GITs which are applicable in every classroom. The activity imparts free geographic information systems that exist in cyberspace and accessible to single users as the Israeli national GIS and Google earth, which are based on a spatial data and long term local and global satellite imagery coverage. In this paper, our "Think global-Map Local" activity is presented. The activity uses GIS and change detection technologies as means to encourage students to explore environmental issues both around the globe and close to their surroundings. The students detect changes by comparing multi temporal images of a chosen site and learn how to map the alterations and produce change
The present study examines instructional approaches and cognitive factors involved in elementary school children's thinking and learning the Control of Variables Strategy (CVS), a critical aspect of scientific reasoning. Previous research has identified several features related to effective instruction of CVS, including using a guided learning approach, the use of self-reflective questions, and learning in individual and group contexts. The current study examined the roles of procedural and conceptual instruction in learning CVS and investigated the role of executive function in the learning process. Additionally, this study examined how learning to identify variables is a part of the CVS process. In two studies (individual and classroom experiments), 139 third, fourth, and fifth grade students participated in hands-on and paper and pencil CVS learning activities and, in each study, were assigned to either a procedural instruction, conceptual instruction, or control (no instruction) group. Participants also completed a series of executive function tasks. The study was carried out with two parts--Study 1 used an individual context and Study 2 was carried out in a group setting. Results indicated that procedural and conceptual instruction were more effective than no instruction, and the ability to identify variables was identified as a key piece to the CVS process. Executive function predicted ability to identify variables and predicted success on CVS tasks. Developmental differences were present, in that older children outperformed younger children on CVS tasks, and that conceptual instruction was slightly more effective for older children. Some differences between individual and group instruction were found, with those in the individual context showing some advantage over the those in the group setting in learning CVS concepts. Conceptual implications about scientific thinking and practical implications in science education are discussed.
Skorikova, Tatyana Petrovna; Khromova, Sergey Sergeevich; Dneprovskaya, Natalia Vitalievna
Modern level of informational technologies development allows the authors of educational courses to decrease their dependence from technical specialists and to independently develop distance-learning courses and their separate online components, which require special methodical learning. The aim of present study is to develop a distance-learning…
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
This document reports on two projects jointly sponsored by the National Academy of Science (NAS) (USA) and the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (ARGENTINA). The first is the creation of a telex network for scientific libraries and documentation centers in Argentina, designed to improve access to, and delivery…
Full Text Available We examined in two empirical studies how situational and personal aspects of uncertainty influence laypeople’s understanding of the uncertainty of scientific information, with focus on the detection of tentativeness and perception of scientific credibility. In the first study (N = 48, we investigated the impact of a perceived conflict due to contradicting information as a situational, text-inherent aspect of uncertainty. The aim of the second study (N = 61 was to explore the role of general self-efficacy as an intra-personal uncertainty factor. In Study 1, participants read one of two versions of an introductory text in a between-group design. This text provided them with an overview about the neurosurgical procedure of deep brain stimulation (DBS. The text expressed a positive attitude toward DBS in one experimental condition or focused on the negative aspects of this method in the other condition. Then participants in both conditions read the same text that dealt with a study about DBS as experimental treatment in a small sample of patients with major depression. Perceived conflict between the two texts was found to increase the perception of tentativeness and to decrease the perception of scientific credibility, implicating that text-inherent aspects have significant effects on critical appraisal. The results of Study 2 demonstrated that participants with higher general self-efficacy detected the tentativeness to a lesser degree and assumed a higher level of scientific credibility, indicating a more naïve understanding of scientific information. This appears to be contradictory to large parts of previous findings that showed positive effects of high self-efficacy on learning. Both studies showed that perceived tentativeness and perceived scientific credibility of medical information contradicted each other. We conclude that there is a need for supporting laypeople in understanding the uncertainty of scientific information and that
Parent involvement in early childhood education is highly valued by staff and families alike. However, limited research is available to guide professionals in how best to involve families in the early childhood programs developed for their children. This article reports on a study which investigated the impact of a science teaching and learning program on families of children attending an Australian Child Care Centre. Particular reference is made to the level of scientific support families gave to their children.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the influence of cooperative learning method (Jigsaw and TPS and personality type (extrovert and introvert toward students’ ability in scientific writing at the SMA Negeri 2 Ciamis class XII. The research used experimental method with 2 x 2 factorial design. The population was the students of class XII which consisted of 150. The sample was 57 students. The results showed that: (1 The ability to write scientific articles of students learning by cooperative learning method jigsaw model (= 65,88 is higher than students who learn by cooperative technique method of TPS (= 59,88, (2 Ability writing scientific articles of students whose extroverted personality (= 65.69 is higher than introverted students (= 60.06; (3 there is interaction between cooperative learning method and personality type to score of writing ability of scientific article (4 ability to write scientific article of extrovert student and studying with technique of Jigsaw (= 77,75 higher than extrovert student learning with cooperative learning method model of TPS (= 53,63 to score of writing ability of scientific article, (5 ability to write introverted student's scientific article and get treatment of cooperative learning method of jigsaw model (= 54,00 lower than introverted student learning TPS technique = 66,13, (6 the ability to write extroverted students' scientific articles studied with jigsaw techniques, and introverted students who studied Jigsaw techniques (= 77.75 were higher than those with introverted personality types studied by the Jigsaw technique (= 54.00 , (7 Ability to write scientific articles of students learning by cooperative techniques of TPS technique and have extrovert personality type ( = 53.63 lower than introverted students learning TPS techniques (= 66.13.
Koponen, Ismo T.; Kokkonen, Tommi
In learning conceptual knowledge in physics, a common problem is the incompleteness of a learning process, where students' personal, often undifferentiated concepts take on more scientific and differentiated form. With regard to such concept learning and differentiation, this study proposes a systemic view in which concepts are considered as…
Börner, D. (2010, 19-21 March). Ambient Learning Displays Distributed Mixed Reality Information Mash-ups to support Ubiquitous Learning. Presented at the IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning 2010, Porto, Portugal.
Pilegaard, Kirsten; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Sørensen, Marten
Information Resource (EuroFIR)-NETTOX Plant List (2007) presents scientific and vernacular names in 15 European languages for around 325 major European plant/mushroom foods and also for different parts of these foods. This list and its predecessor, the NETTOX List of Food Plants, have been used by national...... food authorities and within the European Union for consideration of plants and mushrooms that have been used to a significant degree up to 1997 and are therefore not covered by the novel food regulation (European Parliament and Council of the European Union, 1997). The species and the plant part...... studied are insufficiently characterised in many scientific papers. This paper informs about the naming of plants and mushrooms as an aid for scientists who are not botanists or mycologists themselves. Knowledge on scientific names used, including synonyms, may also be important for finding all relevant...
Hofmann, K.; Whiteson, S.; Schuth, A.; de Rijke, M.
In this article we give an overview of our recent work on online learning to rank for information retrieval (IR). This work addresses IR from a reinforcement learning (RL) point of view, with the aim to enable systems that can learn directly from interactions with their users. Learning directly from
This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1980. Approximately 1400 citations are given. Formal reports, quick-release technical memorandums, contractor reports, journal articles, meeting/conference papers, computer programs, tech briefs, patents, and unpublished research are included.
... Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research and Enhancement Permits Under... allows permits authorizing the taking of endangered species for research/enhancement purposes. The... sets of information collections: (1) Applications for research/enhancement permits, and (2) reporting...
The scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center produced during the calendar year 1984 is compiled. Approximately 1650 citations are included comprising formal reports, quick-release technical memorandums, contractor reports, journal articles and other publications, meeting presentations, technical talks, computer programs, tech briefs, and patents.
A compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1985 is presented. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.
This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1986. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Techncial Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.
Freeman, James E.; Rubenstein, Albert H.
At a 1973 workshop held in Denver, Colorado, 21 participants familiar with the uses of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) services gathered to identify the system's major research needs. Initially, 50 research projects were suggested in the areas of design, management, operations, marketing, and global considerations. Using a priority…
Full Text Available Essential typological features of scientific schools are investigated, paying special attention to informational and communicational aspects of the problem. Peculiarities of scientific research organization in printing and publishing branches are revealed. A specific character of branch science consisting in the fact of close connection between scientific school formation and the activities of specialized higher education institutions is noted. The process of the establishment and development of the Lviv-Kyiv school of printing industry technologies, particularly regarding activities on development and application of photopolymer printing forms in printing production is analysed. On the example of the formation and the activity of the Lviv-Kyiv school of printing and publishing technologies the features of scientific school are listed. It is shown that scientific schools are formed under the influence of society demands, by the logic of science and practice development providing long-term fundamental and applied research and having essential achievements of public recognition in the homeland and abroad. Given this the functions of scientific schools are defined.
Full Text Available The Internet transforms the scholarly communication world-wide. Electronic preprint archives, electronic journals, discussion groups are some of the new ways to get acccss to information. This paper discusses some of these new developments from the perspective of scholarly communication. Among the topics covered are quality control of scientif ic publications in the electronic world, information overload, the impact of electronic publishing on librai'ies and publishers, and the economics of electronic publishing.
Lai, K.-W.; Khaddage, F.; Knezek, Gerald
In this article, we discuss the importance of recognizing students' technology-enhanced informal learning experiences and develop pedagogies to connect students' formal and informal learning experiences, in order to meet the demands of the knowledge society. The Mobile-Blended Collaborative Learning model is proposed as a framework to…
Morrison, James L.; Stein, Linda L.
Describes a cyber-learning project for the World Wide Web developed by faculty and librarians at the University of Delaware that combined discovery learning with problem-based learning to develop critical thinking and quality management for information. Undergraduates were to find, evaluate, and use information to generate an Internet marketing…
Horban', A Ie; Zakrut'ko, L I; Uvarenko, S V; Prysiazhniuk, L V
The article made a retrospective analysis of the scientific medical forums (congresses, symposia and scientific conferences) in the healthcare sector of Ukraine in 2008-2012, planned by higher medical schools and post-graduate medical education schools, scientific institutions of Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine, National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine, medical associations and scientific and medical societies. Quantitative and qualitative assessment was carried out of the effectiveness of their implementation, provided suggestions for improving the planning and conducting of medical research forums.
Nathan P. Kettle
Full Text Available Risk-based management approaches to climate adaptation depend on the assessment of potential threats, and their causes, vulnerabilities, and impacts. The refinement of these approaches relies heavily on detailed local knowledge of places and priorities, such as infrastructure, governance structures, and socio-economic conditions, as well as scientific understanding of climate projections and trends. Developing processes that integrate local and scientific knowledge will enhance the value of risk-based management approaches, facilitate group learning and planning processes, and support the capacity of communities to prepare for change. This study uses the Vulnerability, Consequences, and Adaptation Planning Scenarios (VCAPS process, a form of analytic-deliberative dialogue, and the conceptual frameworks of hazard management and climate vulnerability, to integrate scientific and local knowledge. We worked with local government staff in an urbanized barrier island community (Sullivan’s Island, South Carolina to consider climate risks, impacts, and adaptation challenges associated with sea level rise and wastewater and stormwater management. The findings discuss how the process increases understanding of town officials’ views of risks and climate change impacts to barrier islands, the management actions being considered to address of the multiple impacts of concern, and the local tradeoffs and challenges in adaptation planning. We also comment on group learning and specific adaptation tasks, strategies, and needs identified.
Saunders, Danny; Wyn-Lewis, Eleri; Andrews, Jocelyn
Informal learning involves a wide variety of activities and pursuits which extend beyond conventional classrooms or lifelong learning courses. In this article one application of informal learning is explored in detail: the use of a sports theme, which deploys various multimedia applications in order to encourage adult learning. The article builds…
Integrating mathematics into science classrooms has been part of the conversation in science education for a long time. However, studies on student learning after incorporating mathematics in to the science classroom have shown mixed results. Understanding the mixed effects of including mathematics in science has been hindered by a historical focus on characteristics of integration tangential to student learning (e.g., shared elements, extent of integration). A new framework is presented emphasizing the epistemic role of mathematics in science. An epistemic role of mathematics missing from the current literature is identified: use of mathematics to represent scientific mechanisms, Mechanism Connected Mathematics (MCM). Building on prior theoretical work, it is proposed that having students develop mathematical equations that represent scientific mechanisms could elevate their conceptual understanding and quantitative problem solving. Following design and implementation of an MCM unit in inheritance, a large-scale quantitative analysis of pre and post implementation test results showed MCM students, compared to traditionally instructed students) had significantly greater gains in conceptual understanding of mathematically modeled scientific mechanisms, and their ability to solve complex quantitative problems. To gain insight into the mechanism behind the gain in quantitative problem solving, a small-scale qualitative study was conducted of two contrasting groups: 1) within-MCM instruction: competent versus struggling problem solvers, and 2) within-competent problem solvers: MCM instructed versus traditionally instructed. Competent MCM students tended to connect their mathematical inscriptions to the scientific phenomenon and to switch between mathematical and scientifically productive approaches during problem solving in potentially productive ways. The other two groups did not. To address concerns about teacher capacity presenting barriers to scalability of MCM
Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.
This article examines how members of the lay public factor risk perceptions, trust and technical information from differing scientific sources into policy judgements about potentially hazardous facilities. Focusing on radwaste storage repositories, we examine how members of the public filter new information about potential hazards through risk perceptions, and adjust their own beliefs about risks in light of that information. Scientists play a large (and increasing) role in public policy debates concerning nuclear waste issues, in which public perceptions of human health and environmental risks often differ substantially from scientific consensus about those risks. Public concerns and uncertainties are compounded when scientists from competing groups (government agencies, scientific institutions, industries, and interest groups) make different claims about the likely health and environmental consequences of different policy options. We show the processes by which the public receive and process scientific information about nuclear waste management risks using data taken from interviews with 1800 randomly selected individuals (1200 in New Mexico, and 600 nationwide). Among the more important findings are: (1) members of the public are able to make quite reasonable estimates about what kinds of positions on the risks of nuclear waste disposal will be taken by scientists from differing organizations (e.g. scientists from environmental groups, government agencies, or the nuclear industry); (2) in assessing the credibility of scientific claims, members of the public place great emphasis on the independence of the scientists from those who fund the research; and (3) prior expectations about the positions (or expected biases) of scientists from different organizations substantially affects the ways in which members of the public weigh (and utilize) information that comes from these scientists
conference design and an appropriate learning environment are available. The overall conference design, however, is a crucial aspect in the learning of the participants and deserves special attention from conference organizers. Method: I have organized around 15 carefully designed conferences (and attended...... architecture, arts and design) and on the way knowledge sharing and knowledge development was stimulated at these events. These conferences included less traditional conference designs, collective learning and explicit sharing of understanding between participants. Results: Collaboration in small groups...... for discussing and learning makes a huge difference in sharing and developing new knowledge. This paper aims to highlight the importance and raise awareness of different methods of stimulating the construction of knowledge by conference participants. I hope it will inspire future conference organizers and help...
Song, D.; Lee, J.
Learning is becoming increasingly self-directed and often occurs away from schools and other formal educational settings. The development of a myriad of new technologies for learning has enabled people to learn anywhere and anytime. Web 2.0 technology allows researchers to shed a new light on the importance and prevalence of informal learning.…
González-Howard, María; McNeill, Katherine L.
Recent education reform efforts have included an increasing push for school science to better mirror authentic scientific endeavor, including a focus on science practices. However, despite expectations that all students engage in these language-rich practices, little prior research has focused on how such opportunities will be created for…
Modjaev, A. D.; Leonova, N. M.
Recent years, a new scientific branch connected with the activities in social sphere management developing intensively and it is called "Social Cybernetics". In the framework of this scientific branch, theory and methods of management of social sphere are formed. Considerable attention is paid to the management, directly in real time. However, the decision of such management tasks is largely constrained by the lack of or insufficiently deep study of the relevant sections of the theory and methods of management. The article discusses the use of cybernetic principles in solving problems of control in social systems. Applying to educational activities a model of composite interrelated objects representing the behaviour of students at various stages of educational process is introduced. Statistical processing of experimental data obtained during the actual learning process is being done. If you increase the number of features used, additionally taking into account the degree and nature of variability of levels of current progress of students during various types of studies, new properties of students' grouping are discovered. L-clusters were identified, reflecting the behaviour of learners with similar characteristics during lectures. It was established that the characteristics of the clusters contain information about the dynamics of learners' behaviour, allowing them to be used in additional lessons. The ways of solving the problem of adaptive control based on the identified dynamic characteristics of the learners are planned.
Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L
Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers' time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment.
Bischoff, Kerstin; Herder, Eelco; Nejdl, Wolfgang
At the workplace, learning is often a by-product of working on complex projects, requiring self-steered, need-driven and goal-oriented retrieval of information just in time from documents or peers. The personal desktop provides one rich source for learning material and for adaptation of learning resources. Data within that personal information space enables learning from previous experience, sharing tacit and explicit knowledge, and allows for establishing context and context-aware delivery o...
Debaes, Nathalie; Cords, Nina; Prasad, Amrita; Fischer, Robert; Euler, Manfred; Thienpont, Hugo
Society becomes increasingly dependent on photonics technologies; however there is an alarming lack of technological awareness among secondary school students. They associate photonics with experiments and components in the class room that seem to bear little relevance to their daily life. The Rocard Report  highlights the need for fostering students' scientific skills and technological awareness and identifies inquiry based learning (IBL) as a means to achieve this. Students need to actively do science rather than be silent spectators. The `Photonics Explorer' kit was developed as an EU funded project to equip teachers, free-of-charge, with educational material designed to excite, engage and educate European secondary school students using guided inquiry based learning techniques. Students put together their own experiments using up-to-date versatile components, critically interpret results and relate the conclusions to relevant applications in their daily life. They work hands-on with the material, thus developing and honing their scientific and analytical skills that are otherwise latent in a typical class room situation. A qualitative and quantitative study of the impact of the kit in the classroom was undertaken with 50 kits tested in 7 EU countries with over 1500 students in the local language. This paper reports on the results of the EU wide field tests that show the positive impact of the kit in raising the self-efficacy, scientific skills and interest in science among students and the effectiveness of the kit in implementing IBL strategies in classrooms across EU.
Koffman, Bess G. [School of Earth and Climate Sciences, 5790 Bryand Global Sciences Center, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, USA; Department of Earth Sciences, 6105 Sherman Fairchild Hall, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA; Kreutz, Karl J. [School of Earth and Climate Sciences, 5790 Bryand Global Sciences Center, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, USA; Climate Change Institute, 300 Bryand Global Sciences Center, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, USA; Trenbath, Kim [Maine Center for Research in STEM Education, 5727 Estabrooke Hall, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, 04469, USA; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA
We present a strategy for using scientific argumentation in an early undergraduate laboratory course to teach disciplinary writing practices and to promote critical thinking, knowledge transformation, and understanding of the scientific method. The approach combines targeted writing instruction; data analysis and interpretation; formulation of a hypothesis; and construction of an argument. Students submit and receive feedback on two drafts of two different argumentation essays, providing the opportunity for guided practice. Each written argument is intended to draw on several weeks' course material, including short lectures, discussions, readings, and problem sets. Thus our aim with these writing assignments is to help students synthesize content and concepts, deepening their learning. We have found that this inquiry-based approach to writing engages students in course material, and significantly improves both writing and learning. We observed the greatest improvement among students with the lowest initial scores, suggesting that lower-achieving students benefitted disproportionately from this approach. Students have responded positively to the use of writing in the course, many stating on course evaluations that this is the first time they have received instruction in scientific writing. They have also pointed to a greater 'big-picture' understanding of the course gained through writing. We describe the course and our curriculum, and provide suggestions for implementation as well as rubrics used to evaluate problem sets and student argumentation essays.
Roza Marsaulina Sibarani
Full Text Available The urgency of this research arises from the convergence of two dynamics that are transforming the workplace and impacting organization performance. The first is multigenerational workforce work side by side in the same organization even in the same team. The second is informal learning, a major mode of learning in an organization. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the influence of generational background of Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y in relation to informal team learning in the Indonesian business environment. Both, qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted with 21 interviewees and 184 survey respondents representing a total of 191 multigenerational teams participating in this research. The findings suggest that generational background influence informal learner and effective informal team learning, but have no direct impact on team climate. Understanding generational differences will enable individuals to learn informally and create a conducive team climate that will lead to effective informal team learning.
Bush, Drew; Sieber, Renee; Seiler, Gale; Chandler, Mark
This study with 79 students in Montreal, Quebec, compared the educational use of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) global climate model (GCM) to climate education technologies developed for classroom use that included simpler interfaces and processes. The goal was to show how differing climate education technologies succeed and fail at getting students to evolve in their understanding of anthropogenic global climate change (AGCC). Many available climate education technologies aim to convey key AGCC concepts or Earth systems processes; the educational GCM used here aims to teach students the methods and processes of global climate modeling. We hypothesized that challenges to learning about AGCC make authentic technology-enabled inquiry important in developing accurate understandings of not just the issue but how scientists research it. The goal was to determine if student learning trajectories differed between the comparison and treatment groups based on whether each climate education technology allowed authentic scientific research. We trace learning trajectories using pre/post exams, practice quizzes, and written student reflections. To examine the reasons for differing learning trajectories, we discuss student pre/post questionnaires, student exit interviews, and 535 min of recorded classroom video. Students who worked with a GCM demonstrated learning trajectories with larger gains, higher levels of engagement, and a better idea of how climate scientists conduct research. Students who worked with simpler climate education technologies scored lower in the course because of lower levels of engagement with inquiry processes that were perceived to not actually resemble the work of climate scientists.
Full Text Available In addition to universal social changes, the information revolution also brought a lot of innovation to the workings of intelligence services, which are traditionally the part of the national security system that is conducting data analyses and for which information is the primary product. If in the past the main problem and challenge has been the timely acquisition of data, today most agencies are faced with an entirely different problem - information overload. This problem is being tackled by technical as well as systemic measures that combine various types of intelligence work. However, there are still unanswered questions regarding the applicability of intelligence products for decision makers. Here we have to point out information visualization as the subject of an interdisciplinary scientific research that definitely shows a lot of potential in the context of the defense science as well. This article points out three key requirements that allow the application of information visualization to defense research: (1 the concept of the intelligence cycle can be used as a good basis for the information that is subject to visualization; (2 the quality of decision-making support information depends on proper visualization; (3 the first two requirements offer a stable theoretical and empirical basis for the introduction of innovative scientific methods in the field of defense science, such as experiments.
Chi, ShaoHui; Wang, Zuhao; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhu, Lei
This study investigated the associations among students' attitudes towards science, students' perceived difficulty of learning science, gender, parents' occupations and their scientific competencies. A sample of 1591 (720 males and 871 females) ninth-grade students from 29 junior high schools in Shanghai completed a scientific competency test and…
Falk, Hedda; Yarden, Anat
Different genres of scientific articles have begun to diffuse into science curricula. Among them, adapted primary literature (APL) retains the characteristics of scientific research articles, while adapting their contents to the knowledge level of students in the 11th to 12th grades. We present three models for the teaching and learning of the…
Traditional - ISR WebTAS – eLearning ................................................................. 6 MTIX e- Learning Technical Requirements...than on a specific schedule, so learners can take the curriculum when needed and at their own pace . E- Learning is a form of instructional authoring...can save training expenses, because it can be used over and over again. E- Learning also allows the user to study at his or her own convenience
a minimum value criticalthinking abilities equal by 75 by 75%; b the existence of a positive influence of dispositionmathematics and skill softhe critical thinking ability as large as 95,5%; c class that learn use5E Learning Cycle Model with a Scientific Approach better than expository; and d an increasinginthedisposition mathematics as 0,47,theskills of the critical thinking as 0,35 and theKBK formation proccess of experimental class as 0,604. The results have a valid and provenpractical and effective.
Simms, E.; Rohrlick, D.; Layman, C.; Peach, C. L.; Orcutt, J. A.
The research and development of educational games, and the study of the educational value of interactive games in general, have lagged far behind efforts for games created for the purpose of entertainment. But evidence suggests that digital simulations and games have the "potential to advance multiple science learning goals, including motivation to learn science, conceptual understanding, science process skills, understanding of the nature of science, scientific discourse and argumentation, and identification with science and science learning." (NRC, 2011). It is also generally recognized that interactive digital games have the potential to promote the development of valuable learning and life skills, including data processing, decision-making, critical thinking, planning, communication and collaboration (Kirriemuir and MacFarlane, 2006). Video games are now played in 67% of American households (ESA, 2010), and across a broad range of ages, making them a potentially valuable tool for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) learning among the diverse audiences associated with informal science education institutions (ISEIs; e.g., aquariums, museums, science centers). We are attempting to capitalize on this potential by developing games based on the popular Microsoft Xbox360 gaming platform and the free Microsoft XNA game development kit. The games, collectively known as Deep-sea Extreme Environment Pilot (D.E.E.P.), engage ISEI visitors in the exploration and understanding of the otherwise remote deep-sea environment. Players assume the role of piloting a remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) to explore ocean observing systems and hydrothermal vent environments, and are challenged to complete science-based objectives in order to earn points under timed conditions. The current games are intended to be relatively brief visitor experiences (on the order of several minutes) that support complementary exhibits and programming, and promote interactive visitor
Information communication technology has increased globalisation in higher learning institution all over the world. This has been achieved through introduction of systems that ease operations related to information handling in the institutions. The paper assessed and analysed the information systems security performance status in higher learning institutions of Uganda. The existing policies that govern the information security have also been analysed together with the current status of inform...
Using a socio-psycholinguistic perspective of literacy and a social-semiotic analysis of texts, this study investigates how six students made meaning of informational texts. The students came to school from a variety of English and Spanish language backgrounds. The research question being asked was 'How do Latino(a) fourth and fifth grade students make meaning of English informational texts?' Miscue analysis was used as a tool to investigate how students who have been labeled non-struggling readers by their classroom teacher and are from various language backgrounds approached five informational texts. In order to investigate students' responses to the nature of informational texts, this dissertation draws on commonly occurring structures within texts. Primary data collected included read alouds and retellings of five texts, retrospective miscue analysis, and interviews with six participant students. Two of these participants are discussed within this dissertation. Secondary data included classroom observations and teacher interviews. This study proposes that non-native speakers may use scientific concept placeholders as they transact with informational texts. The use of scientific concept placeholders by a reader indicates that the reader is engaged in the meaning making process and possesses evolving scientific knowledge about a phenomenon. The findings suggest that Latino(a) students' understandings of English informational texts is influenced not only by a student's language development but also (1) the nature of the text; (2) the reading strategies that a student uses, such as the use of placeholders; (3) the influence of the researcher during the aided retelling. This study contributes methodological tools to assess English language learners' reading. The conclusions presented within this study also support the idea that students from a variety of language backgrounds slightly altered their reliance on certain cuing systems as they encountered various sub
Lowner, R.; Conze, R. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany)
The Mallik Data and Information System (Mallik DIS) includes 3 main components which make it possible to acquire, integrate and disseminate interdisciplinary data from the Mallik 2002 Gas Hydrate Production Research Well Program. The system provides a secure and accessible archive of quality controlled scientific results of the project. The 3 main components are: (1) a digital scanner which produces a catalogue of digital core images, (2) the data warehouse which is a vital database and archive that provides members of the Mallik team with access to project data sets via Internet, and (3) the web portal of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program information network which allows the separate data sets to be retrieved, viewed and integrated with other project data sets.
María Soledad Bravo-Marchant
Full Text Available The design and implementation of public policies to grant access to scientific information is now a marked trend among numerous countries of Latin America. The creation of specific instruments, the allocation of an ongoing budget and the accumulation of experience in negotiation and contracting of national licences have all been clear signs of the achievements resulting from recent initiatives in these countries. This article reviews the experience of the Consorcio para el Acceso a la Información Cientifíca Electrónica (CINCEL Corporation, a Chilean consortium created in 2002, the public policy that made it possible and the evaluation experience of its main programme, the Electronic Library of Scientific Information (BEIC.
Barletta, M.; Feldman, Y.; Ferguson, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
The IAEA Department of Safeguards is continually working to refine its methodologies and procedures for the analysis of information relevant to the evaluation of the nuclear fuel cycle in States that have safeguards agreements with the IAEA. This analysis is required to achieve an understanding of States' nuclear-related activities against which a State's declarations are evaluated for correctness as well as completeness, and to provide credible assurances on the peaceful uses of nuclear material in the State. To achieve this end, diversification of sources and comparison for consistency among available information is essential to ensure an accurate assessment of a State's nuclear activities. Open sources of information on scientific and technical (S&T) developments and research provide the Department of Safeguards with an enhanced basis to evaluate the technical capabilities of States. These information sources are regularly and systematically assessed to provide information about industrial capabilities, patenting activities and research and development activities in States as reflected through published scientific and technical literature. Using such sources, in addition to other, long-established safeguards information sources, helps the IAEA to draw soundly-based safeguards conclusions. The utility of this category of information in terms of the State evaluation process lies primarily in the comparison with other sources of information, especially State-declared information, and in the assessment of consistency of all safeguards-relevant information regarding nuclear fuel cycle technologies and activities in a State. The current paper aims to describe the use of S&T literature, how information from different sources is consolidated, how it is analysed and how it contributes in the overall process of State evaluation in the IAEA Department of Safeguards. (author)
Organizations need to put in practice the most favourable conditions to facilitate learning capability. The different ways of thinking about learning in organizations distinguish two kinds of learning facilitators: formal and informal facilitators. In this paper, we suggest that organizations undertake both types of learning facilitators, but considering that informal facilitators may act as potential moderators of the effects of formal ones. We have focused on one comprehensive informal faci...
Wardono; Waluya, B.; Kartono; Mulyono; Mariani, S.
This research is very urgent in relation to the national issue of human development and the nation's competitiveness because of the ability of Indonesian Junior High School students' mathematics literacy results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) by OECD field of Mathematics is still very low compared to other countries. Curriculum 2013 launched one of them reflect the results of PISA which is still far from the expectations of the Indonesian nation and to produce a better quality of education, PISA ratings that reflect the nation's better competitiveness need to be developed innovative, interactive learning models such as innovative interactive learning Problem Based Learning (PBL) based on the approach of Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education (PMRI) and the Scientific approach using Information and Communication Technology (ICT).The research was designed using Research and Development (R&D), research that followed up the development and dissemination of a product/model. The result of the research shows the innovative interactive learning PBL model based on PMRI-Scientific using ICT that developed valid, practical and effective and can improve the ability of mathematics literacy and independence-character of junior high school students. While the quality of innovative interactive learning PBL model based on PMRI-Scientific using ICT meet the good category.
Full Text Available It has been proved that the use of qualitative approach is one of the ways to further development of the accounting. The features of the concept of «quality of accounting information» in the Ukrainian legislation have been analyzed in the article. The author grounds the necessity of development of the normative document where the further ways of accounting on the basis of qualitative approach should be formulated. The article singles out two main groups of scientists who raised the issue of the need to improve the quality of accounting information. Points of view of each group of scientists have been grounded. The relationship between the quality of accounting information and the efficiency of management decisions have been analyzed. The article proves that the generation of quality information by accounting system creates the necessary preconditions for effective management decisions. General scientific and methodological reasons for research aimed at improving the quality of accounting information have been showen.
DeWitt, Jennifer; Archer, Louise
Informal science learning (ISL) experiences have been found to provide valuable opportunities to engage with and learn about science and, as such, form a key part of the STEM learning ecosystem. However, concerns remain around issues of equity and access. The Enterprising Science study builds upon previous research in this area and uses the…
Bischoff, Kerstin; Herder, Eelco; Nejdl, Wolfgang
At the workplace, learning is often a by-product of working on complex projects, requiring self-steered, need-driven and goal-oriented retrieval of information just in time from documents or peers. The personal desktop provides one rich source for learning material and for adaptation of learning
Hoekstra, A.; Korthagen, F.; Brekelmans, M.; Beijaard, D.; Imants, J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore in detail how teachers' perceptions of workplace conditions for learning are related to their informal workplace learning activities and learning outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: From a sample of 32 teachers, a purposeful sampling technique of
... Collection; Comment Request; Scientific Research, Exempted Fishing, and Exempted Activity Submissions AGENCY... collection. Fishery regulations do not generally affect scientific research activities conducted by a scientific research vessel. Persons planning to conduct such research are encouraged to submit a scientific...
Mundel, Karsten; Schugurensky, Daniel
Many iterations of community based learning employ models, such as consciousness raising groups, cultural circles, and participatory action research. In all of them, learning is a deliberate part of an explicit educational activity. This article explores another realm of community learning: the informal learning that results from volunteering in…
For the purpose of clarity and consistency, the term e-learning is used throughout the paper to refer to technology-enhanced learning and information technology (IT) in teaching and learning. IT depicts computing and other IT resources. Research into e-learning has changed in focus and breadth over the last four decades as a consequence of…
Za, Stefano; Spagnoletti, Paolo; North-Samardzic, Andrea
Increasing attention is paid to organisational learning, with the success of contemporary organisations strongly contingent on their ability to learn and grow. Importantly, informal learning is argued to be even more significant than formal learning initiatives. Given the widespread use of digital technologies in the workplace, what requires…
Full Text Available Pengaruh Pendekatan Genius Learning Berbasis Kerja Ilmiah terhadap Prestasi Belajar Fisika Ditinjau dari Pengetahuan Awal Siswa SMPN 13 Balikpapan Tahun 2012 Abstract: student mastery of the concepts of physics would be better if teachers implement instructional strategies that can make students more active and motivated, but still maintain a constructivist. Work-Based Learning Approach Scientific Genius (GLBKI is believed to be able to answer the demands of the development of education and facilitate students in learning physics concepts. The purpose of this study was to examine student achievement studying the Work-Based Learning Approach Genius Scientific and conventional learning. GLBKI approach to the treatment of experimental classes randomly selected and control classes conducted conventional learning. Learning achievement data collected by physics learning achievement tests. Results of the study are: (1 there is a significant difference between student achievement through conventional learning and work-based learning approach scientific genius, (2 students who studied with GLBKI approach has physics learning achievement higher than the students who studied with conventional learning, ( 3 learning by using the Work-Based Learning Approach Scientific Genius can deliver improved student achievement is higher than the students who studied with conventional learning. Key words: work-based learning strategies genius of scientific, academic achievement, prior knowledge Abstrak: Penguasaan siswa terhadap konsep-konsep fisika akan lebih baik apabila pendidik menerap-kan strategi pembelajaran yang dapat membuat siswa lebih aktif dan termotivasi, namun tetap memper-tahankan konstruktivis. Pendekatan Genius Learning Berbasis Kerja Ilmiah (GLBKI diyakini mampu menjawab tuntutan perkembangan pendidikan dan mempermudah siswa dalam mempelajari konsep-konsep fisika. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji prestasi belajar siswa yang belajar
Chang, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wu, Hsin-Kai
We investigated the impact of an augmented reality (AR) versus interactive simulation (IS) activity incorporated in a computer learning environment to facilitate students' learning of a socio-scientific issue (SSI) on nuclear power plants and radiation pollution. We employed a quasi-experimental research design. Two classes (a total of 45…
Kunsting, Josef; Wirth, Joachim; Paas, Fred
Using a computer-based scientific discovery learning environment on buoyancy in fluids we investigated the "effects of goal specificity" (nonspecific goals vs. specific goals) for two goal types (problem solving goals vs. learning goals) on "strategy use" and "instructional efficiency". Our empirical findings close an important research gap,…
McLachlan, J. S.
The distribution of tree species is largely determined by climate, with important consequences for ecosystem function, biodiversity, and the human economy. In the past, conflicts about priority among these various goods have produced persistent debate about forest policy and management. Despite this history of conflict, there has been general agreement on the framework for the debate: Our benchmark for assessing human impact is generally some historical condition (in the New World, this is often pre-European settlement). Wilderness is to be managed with minimal human intervention. Native species are preferred over non-natives. And regional landscapes can be effectively partitioned into independent jurisdictions with different management priorities. Each of these principles was always somewhat mythical, but the dynamics of broad scale species range shifts under climate change make all of them untenable in the future. Managed relocation (MR, or assisted migration) is a controversial proposal partly because it demands scientific answers that we do not have: Are trees naturally capable of shifting their ranges as fast as climate will force them? Will deliberate introductions of species beyond their native ranges have adverse impacts on the receiving ecosystem? What are appropriate targets for hydrologic or fire management under novel no-analog climates? However, these demands on science mask a more fundamental concern: the ethical framework underlying existing forest policy is unsupported in the context of long-term non-stationary environmental trends. Whether or not we conclude that MR is a useful policy option, debate about MR is useful because it forces us to place the global change ecology agenda in a larger ethical debate about our goals when managing novel ecosystems.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Scientific Information Request on the Use of Natriuretic Peptide Measurement in the Management of Heart Failure AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Request for scientific information...
Gray, Geraldine; McGuinness, Colm; Owende, Philip
Learning analytics is an evolving discipline with capability for educational data analysis to enable better understanding of learning processes. This paper reports on learning analytics research at Institute of Technology Blanchardstown, Ireland, that indicated measureable factors can identify first year students at risk of failing based on data available prior to commencement of first year of study. The study was conducted over three years, 2010 to 2012, on a student population from a range ...
Mutholib, Ahmad Abdul; Sujadi, Imam; Subanti, Sri
SA is the approach used for the exploration of research and answer questions. Teachers' beliefs have a greater influence than the teacher's knowledge of designing lesson plans in the classroom. The objectives of this study are to explore the teachers' beliefs in SA, to reveal how the beliefs are reflected in classroom practices; and to figure out the factors affecting their beliefs and practices of SA to the teaching of mathematics. This qualitative research applied case study. The data was gained from classroom observation, face-to-face interview, and documentation. Interactive models from Miles and Huberman were used to examine the data. Results of the study: 1) The teachers believe about the conception of SA. They also believe that the SA is important and gives impact to students' progress. They believe that by applying SA, the target of mathematics learning is acquired. As to learning procedure, they believe that SA steps are conducted in sequence by combining some steps for each. 2) Teachers formulate their beliefs of applying the five scientific step of integrating all steps by keeping the sequence. Teachers argue that target of mathematics learning can be attained by some ways, namely presence of theoretical and practical support, teachers' guidance, providing variety of media and motivation to students. 3) There are five factors which influence teachers' beliefs and practices of SA, namely learning and teaching experience, teachers' motivation, sharing with colleagues and facility. This study concludes that teachers believe in the importance of SA, therefore they implement it in the classroom.
Klucevsek, Kristin M.; Brungard, Allison B.
For undergraduate students to achieve science literacy, they must first develop information literacy skils. These skills align with Information Literacy Standards and include determining appropriate databases, distinguishing among resource types, and citing resources ethically. To effectively improve information literacy and science literacy, we must identify how students interact with authentic scientific texts. In this case study, we addressed this aim by embedding a science librarian into a science writing course, where students wrote a literature review on a research topic of their choice. Library instruction was further integrated through the use of an online guide and outside assistance. To evaluate the evolution of information literacy in our students and provide evidence of student practices, we used task-scaffolded writing assessments, a reflection, and surveys. We found that students improved their ability and confidence in finding research articles using discipline-specific databases as well as their ability to distinguish primary from secondary research articles. We also identified ways students improperly used and cited resources in their writing assignments. While our results reveal a better understanding of how students find and approach scientific research articles, additional research is needed to develop effective strategies to improve long-term information literacy in the sciences.
Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael
Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.
Kim, Sunghwan; Thiessen, Paul A; Cheng, Tiejun; Yu, Bo; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Wang, Jiyao; Bolton, Evan E; Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H
PubChem is an open archive consisting of a set of three primary public databases (BioAssay, Compound, and Substance). It contains information on a broad range of chemical entities, including small molecules, lipids, carbohydrates, and (chemically modified) amino acid and nucleic acid sequences (including siRNA and miRNA). Currently (as of Nov. 2015), PubChem contains more than 150 million depositor-provided chemical substance descriptions, 60 million unique chemical structures, and 225 million biological activity test results provided from over 1 million biological assay records. Many PubChem records (substances, compounds, and assays) include depositor-provided cross-references to scientific articles in PubMed. Some PubChem contributors provide bioactivity data extracted from scientific articles. Literature-derived bioactivity data complement high-throughput screening (HTS) data from the concluded NIH Molecular Libraries Program and other HTS projects. Some journals provide PubChem with information on chemicals that appear in their newly published articles, enabling concurrent publication of scientific articles in journals and associated data in public databases. In addition, PubChem links records to PubMed articles indexed with the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) controlled vocabulary thesaurus. Literature information, both provided by depositors and derived from MeSH annotations, can be accessed using PubChem's web interfaces, enabling users to explore information available in literature related to PubChem records beyond typical web search results. Graphical abstractLiterature information for PubChem records is derived from various sources.
Full Text Available The following communication starts with a reflection about the present society, linking it with the potential of using technology to support the training activity. Then, a brief reference about andragogy and the main characteristics of an adult learner is done. Follows some electronic learning possibilities and a report on the practical application of the “Student Response System” (SRS tool, illustrating the m-learning possibilities at the level of adult learning
Full Text Available Co-word analysis is based on a sociological theory developed by the CSI and the SERPIA (Callon, Courtial, Turner, 1991 in the mid eighties. This method, originally dedicated to scientific fields, measures the association strength between terms in documents to reveal and visualise the evolution of scientific fields through the construction of clusters and strategic diagram. This method has since been successfully applied to investigate the structure of many scientific areas. Nowadays it occurs in many software systems which are used by companies to improve their business, and define their strategy but its relevance to this kind of application has not been proved yet. Using the example of economic and marketing information on DSL technologies from Reuters Business Briefing, this presentation gives an interpretation of co-word analysis for this kind of information. After an overview of the software we used (Sampler and after an outline of the experimental protocol, we investigate and explain each step of the co-word analysis process: terminological extraction, computation of clusters and the strategic diagram. In particular, we explain the meaning of each parameter of the method: the choice of variables and similarity measures is discussed. Finally we try to give a global interpretation of the method in an economic context. Further studies will be added to this work in order to allow a generalisation of these results.
This paper is a review of extant literature on information literacy. The study reports literature on IL learning experiences in institutions across the globe. It also discusses the spectrum of literacy to give information literacy a context. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of IL learning initiatives in academic ...
Russo, Angelina; Watkins, Jerry; Groundwater-Smith, Susan
This paper posits that social networking can take a central role in learning in informal environments such as museums, libraries and galleries. It argues that social media offers young people agency previously unavailable in informal learning environments in order to explore complex responses to and participation with cultural content. The paper…
Aronson, Ian David; Marsch, Lisa A; Acosta, Michelle C
Clinicians and researchers are increasingly using technology-based behavioral health interventions to improve intervention effectiveness and to reach underserved populations. However, these interventions are rarely informed by evidence-based findings of how technology can be optimized to promote acquisition of key skills and information. At the same time, experts in multimedia learning generally do not apply their findings to health education or conduct research in clinical contexts. This paper presents an overview of some key aspects of multimedia learning research that may allow those developing health interventions to apply informational technology with the same rigor as behavioral science content. We synthesized empirical multimedia learning literature from 1992 to 2011. We identified key findings and suggested a framework for integrating technology with educational and behavioral science theory. A scientific, evidence-driven approach to developing technology-based interventions can yield greater effectiveness, improved fidelity, increased outcomes, and better client service.
Javanbakht, Arash; Duval, Elizabeth R; Cisneros, Maria E; Taylor, Stephan F; Kessler, Daniel; Liberzon, Israel
The effects of instruction on learning of fear and safety are rarely studied. We aimed to examine the effects of cognitive information and experience on fear learning. Fourty healthy participants, randomly assigned to three groups, went through fear conditioning, extinction learning, and extinction recall with two conditioned stimuli (CS+). Information was presented about the presence or absence of conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) contingency at different stages of the experiment. Information about the CS-US contingency prior to fear conditioning enhanced fear response and reduced extinction recall. Information about the absence of CS-US contingency promoted extinction learning and recall, while omission of this information prior to recall resulted in fear renewal. These findings indicate that contingency information can facilitate fear expression during fear learning, and can facilitate extinction learning and recall. Information seems to function as an element of the larger context in which conditioning occurs.
Ho, Hsin-Ning Jessie; Liang, Jyh-Chong
This study explores the relationships among Taiwanese high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs (SEBs), conceptions of learning science (COLS), and motivation of learning science. The questionnaire responses from 470 high school students in Taiwan were gathered for analysis to explain these relationships. The structural equation modeling…
Tosun, Cemal; Taskesenligil, Yavuz
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) on undergraduate students' learning about solutions and their physical properties, and on their scientific processing skills. The quasi experimental study was carried out through non-equivalent control and comparison groups pre-post test design. The data were…
Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie
The Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organisation aiming at furthering all branches of soil science in Austria. The ASSS provides information on the current state of soil research in Austria and abroad. It organizes annual conferences for scientists from soil and related sciences to exchange their recent studies and offers a journal for scientific publications. Annually, ASSS awards the Kubiena Research Prize for excellent scientific studies provided by young scientists. In order to conserve and improve soil science in the field, excursions are organized, also in cooperation with other scientific organisations. Due to well-established contacts with soil scientists and soil science societies in many countries, the ASSS is able to provide its members with information about the most recent developments in the field of soil science. This contributes to a broadening of the current scientific knowledge on soils. The ASSS also co-operates in the organisation of excursions and meetings with neighbouring countries. Several members of the ASSS teach soil science at various Austrian universities. More detail on said conferences, excursions, publications and awards will be given in the presentation. Beside its own scientific journal, published once or twice a year, and special editions such as guidebooks for soil classification, the ASSS runs a website providing information on the Society, its activities, meetings, publications, awards and projects. Together with the Environment Agency Austria the ASSS runs a soil platform on the internet. It is accessible for the public and thus informs society about soil issues. This platform offers a calendar with national and international soil events, contacts of soil related organisations and networks, information on national projects and publications. The society has access to products, information material and information on educational courses. Last but not least information on specific soil
Full Text Available This article reports a case study on a popular informal science learning community via social media in China, named GuoKr (meaning “nutshell” in English. Data were collected through a variety of Chinese social media and social networking sites, web-based community portals, and discussion boards. Content analyses and data mining were conducted to investigate how GuoKr successfully attracted and engaged public in informal learning on scientific topics in particular. The study found three key characteristics that contributed to the success of such learning communities: (a utilizing a variety of social media to empower participants with just-in-time, accidental learning opportunities; (b daily tweets related to emerging or ongoing social events or hot topics to provide brief but intriguing knowledge “bites”, which often leads to extended readings and related resources; and (c the integration of social media and traditional face-to-face local events to engage the public in science-related learning and knowledge sharing. Practical and research implications are discussed with suggestions for future research as related to ubiquitous learning communities for informal science learning.
Or, Charles C-F; Wilson, Hugh R
There is evidence that humans implicitly learn an average or prototype of previously studied faces, as the unseen face prototype is falsely recognized as having been learned (Solso & McCarthy, 1981). Here we investigated the extent and nature of face prototype formation where observers' memory was tested after they studied synthetic faces defined purely in geometric terms in a multidimensional face space. We found a strong prototype effect: The basic results showed that the unseen prototype averaged from the studied faces was falsely identified as learned at a rate of 86.3%, whereas individual studied faces were identified correctly 66.3% of the time and the distractors were incorrectly identified as having been learned only 32.4% of the time. This prototype learning lasted at least 1 week. Face prototype learning occurred even when the studied faces were further from the unseen prototype than the median variation in the population. Prototype memory formation was evident in addition to memory formation of studied face exemplars as demonstrated in our models. Additional studies showed that the prototype effect can be generalized across viewpoints, and head shape and internal features separately contribute to prototype formation. Thus, implicit face prototype extraction in a multidimensional space is a very general aspect of geometric face learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Siswanto; Yusiran; Asriyadin; Gumilar, S.; Subali, B.
The purpose of this research describes the effect of scientific methods designed by argumentation in maintaining retention of pre-service physics teachers (students) in mechanical concept. This learning consists of five stages including the first two stages namely observing and questioning. While the next three stages of reasoning, trying, and communicating are made of argumentation design. To know the effectiveness of treatment, students are given pre-test and post-test in one time. On the other hand, students were given advanced post-test to know the durability of retention as many as four times in four months. The results show that there was mean difference between pre-test and post-test based on the Wilcoxon test (z = -3.4, p=0.001). While the effectiveness of treatment is in the high category based on normalized gain values ( = 0.86). Meanwhile, mean difference of all post-test is significantly different based on Analysis of Varian (F = 365.63, p = 0.00). However, in the fourth month, students retention rates began to stabilize based on Tuckey’s HSD (p=0.074) for comparison of mean difference between fourth and fifth post-test. Overall, learning designed can maintain students retention within 4 months after the learning finish.
Hardyanti, R. C.; Hartono; Fianti
Physics Learning in Curriculum of 2013 is closely related to the implementation of scientific approach and authentic assessment in learning. This study aims to analyze the implementation of scientific approaches and authentic assessment in physics learning, as well as to analyze the constraints of scientific approach and authentic assessment in physics learning. The data collection techniques used in this study are questionnaires, observations, interviews, and documentation. The calculation results used are percentage techniques and analyzed by using qualitative descriptive approach. Based on the results of research and discussion, the implementation of physics learning based on the scientific approach goes well with the percentage of 84.60%. Physical learning activity based on authentic assessment also goes well with the percentage of 88%. The results of the percentage of scientific approaches and authentic assessment approaches are less than 100%. It shows that there are obstacles to the implementation of the scientific approach and the constraints of authentic assessment. The obstacles to the implementation of scientific approach include time, heavy load of material, input or ability of learners, the willingness of learners in asking questions, laboratory support, and the ability of students to process data. While the obstacles to the implementation of authentic assessment include the limited time for carrying out of authentic assessment, the components of the criteria in carrying out the authentic assessment, the lack of discipline in administering the administration, the difficulty of changing habits in carrying out the assessment from traditional assessment to the authentic assessment, the obstacle to process the score in accordance with the format Curriculum of 2013.
Nguyen, Quang; Valizadegan, Hamed; Hauskrecht, Milos
Learning of classification models in medicine often relies on data labeled by a human expert. Since labeling of clinical data may be time-consuming, finding ways of alleviating the labeling costs is critical for our ability to automatically learn such models. In this paper we propose a new machine learning approach that is able to learn improved binary classification models more efficiently by refining the binary class information in the training phase with soft labels that reflect how strongly the human expert feels about the original class labels. Two types of methods that can learn improved binary classification models from soft labels are proposed. The first relies on probabilistic/numeric labels, the other on ordinal categorical labels. We study and demonstrate the benefits of these methods for learning an alerting model for heparin induced thrombocytopenia. The experiments are conducted on the data of 377 patient instances labeled by three different human experts. The methods are compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) score. Our AUC results show that the new approach is capable of learning classification models more efficiently compared to traditional learning methods. The improvement in AUC is most remarkable when the number of examples we learn from is small. A new classification learning framework that lets us learn from auxiliary soft-label information provided by a human expert is a promising new direction for learning classification models from expert labels, reducing the time and cost needed to label data.
Li, Xin; Gray, Kathleen; Verspoor, Karin; Barnett, Stephen
Online social networks (OSN) enable health professionals to learn informally, for example by sharing medical knowledge, or discussing practice management challenges and clinical issues. Understanding the learning context in OSN is necessary to get a complete picture of the learning process, in order to better support this type of learning. This study proposes critical contextual factors for understanding the learning context in OSN for health professionals, and demonstrates how these contextual factors can be used to analyse the learning context in a designated online learning environment for health professionals.
The current external environment of information work has undergone profound changes. The world competition in Military fields, the development of national economy and the applications of high-technologies put forward higher requirements to intelligence work. Under the environment of global information integration, 'eyes and ears' roles of nuclear scientific and technical information will be more highlighted. In this context, we believe that the way of nuclear sci-tech information development should be focused on comprehensive research and be based on the building of information resources and advanced information technology methods, forming an integrated service system with capabilities of rapid resources, decision support, information assurance and sustainable development. The goal of nuclear sci-tech information development should be to serve the development of nuclear power and the popularization and application of nuclear technology in the fields of national economy, to implement the strategy of 'integrated intelligence support', to ensure the formation of rapid response capability, to enhance capabilities of decision support and science and technology development guidance, to build digital information resources and to constantly promote the research on network collaboration. This paper analyzes the characteristics of nuclear sci-tech information under new competitive environment, describes the ideas and goals of its development and proposes the way to achieve these goals. In order to provide the information support and service with the characteristics of rapid response, high quality and high efficiency, the paper also puts forward that under the new environment, we should optimize the service system, extend service functions, transform service mode, speed up the transformation on intelligence work, adjust and optimize business content and structure, promote business process re-engineering, and pay equal attention to 'ensuring demands' and 'guiding the future
Shieh, Chich-Jen; Yu, Lean
In the information explosion era with constant changes of information, educators have promoted various effective learning strategies for students adapting to the complex modern society. The impact and influence of traditional teaching method have information technology integrated modern instruction and science concept learning play an important…
Nisbet, Gillian; Dunn, Stewart; Lincoln, Michelle
This study explores the potential for workplace interprofessional learning, specifically the learning that occurs between health professionals as part of their attendance at their regular interprofessional team meetings. While most interprofessional learning research to date has focused on formal structured education programs, this study adds to our understanding of the complexities of the learning processes occurring between health professionals as part of everyday practice. Through observations of team meetings and semi-structured interviews, we found that the interprofessional team meeting provided a practical, time-efficient, and relevant means for interprofessional learning, resulting in perceived benefits to individuals, teams, and patients. The learning process, however, was influenced by members' conceptions of learning, participation within the meeting, and medical presence. This study provides a basis for further research to assist health professionals capitalize on informal learning opportunities within the interprofessional meeting.
Gomes, Judith; Fleer, Marilyn
There are a growing number of studies that have examined science learning for preschool children. Some research has looked into children's home experiences and some has focused on transition, practices, routines, and traditions in preschool contexts. However, little attention has been directed to the relationship between children's learning experiences at preschool and at home, and how this relationship can assist in the development of science concepts relevant to everyday life. In drawing upon Hedegaard's (Learning and child development, 2002) cultural-historical conception of motives and Vygotsky's (The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky: problems of general psychology, 1987) theory of everyday and scientific concept formation, the study reported in this paper examines one child, Jimmy (4.2 years), and his learning experiences at home and at preschool. Data gathering featured the video recording of 4 weeks of Jimmy's learning in play at home and at preschool (38.5 h), parent questionnaire and interviews, and researcher and family gathered video observations of home play with his parents (3.5 h). Findings show how a scientific motive develops through playful everyday learning moments at home and at preschool when scientific play narratives and resources are aligned. The study contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the science learning of young children and a conception of pedagogy that takes into account the reciprocity of home and school contexts for learning science.
Karim, S.; Prima, E. C.; Utari, S.; Saepuzaman, D.; Nugaha, M. G.
Scientific literacy is currently considered as an important aspect supporting an useful citizenship ability for civilians inhabiting highly developed countries as well as developing countries. Consequently, certain countries recommended this scientific literacy to be applied at a national curricula. The PISA study showed the Indonesian scientific literacy level of 1, which means as just simple science phenomenon that could be exactly descibed by a student. This condition indicates that common science teachings do not optimally facillitate students to guide the scientific literacy. By proposing this research, the science didactic reconstruction will be offered in order to gain the students’ scientific literacy evaluated from the qualitative analysis of the action research and the students’ respons during learning science. The qualitative evaluation was developed based on the Marzano’s learning dimension about the scientific literacy. This research, involving 29 students as participants, analyzed the improved physics teaching didactic as described in the following sentences. The teaching reconstruction concerned a high attention to the development of the structural knowledge. The knowledge was acquired from a real phenomenon followed by giving the instructed questions as the second learning dimension. The third dimension of learning reconstruction aimed to provide the knowledge repetition on an appropriate science context. At the fourth dimension, the reconstruction should be improved in order to find the best treatment for the students. Hopefully, they can control the physical parameter and evaluate the result of their investigation related to the given science problems. It can be concluded that most of the students were interested in learning science. However, the productive learning didn’t accompany students to the Marzano’s second, third, and fourth learning dimensions.
O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran
The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project---to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of assuming that "experience is the best teacher"(e.g. Aristotle, 360 BC; Dewey, 1934; Kolb, 1997; Pliny, AD 77). As a practical geographer I endorsed that assumption throughout my teaching career, paying attention to local topography, physical features, and natural resources in the geographic hinterland. I was particularly interested in understanding the impact of the physical landscape on humankind, and reciprocally, noting humankind's widespread impressions on the natural world. Until I began this research project, I assumed that everyone else paid a similar attention to immediate surroundings. The work that I describe in this dissertation emerges out of a conviction that there are many degrees of truth to the idea that experience is a great teacher. Its effectiveness seems to depend on how one's "experience" is mediated, and how "learning from it" is defined. This motivated me to think about design principles for linking people's experiences to learning. I began to explore, experimentally, how I might enhance people's abilities to notice, represent, and discuss their experiences in order to better learn from them. This study investigated how different ways of connecting outdoor learning experiences to formal schooling impacts students' performance. I studied high-school students in outdoor settings as they engaged in evocative issues of learning pertaining to consequential everyday life encounters. Different kinds of "expert mediation" were introduced and tested as the students engaged in investigative activities around the science of dam removal and habitat restoration. I measured outcomes with the aid of pre- and
Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.
Moghissi, A Alan; Gerraa, Vikrham Kumar; McBride, Dennis K; Swetnam, Michael
This paper starts by describing the historical evolution of assessment of biologic effects of ionizing radiation leading to the linear non-threshold (LNT) system currently used to regulate exposure to ionizing radiation. The paper describes briefly the concept of Best Available Science (BAS) and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived for BAS. It identifies three phases of regulatory science consisting of the initial phase, when the regulators had to develop regulations without having the needed scientific information; the exploratory phase, when relevant tools were developed; and the standard operating phase, when the tools were applied to regulations. Subsequently, an attempt is made to apply the BAS/MESC system to various stages of LNT. This paper then compares the exposure limits imposed by regulatory agencies and also compares them with naturally occurring radiation at several cities. Controversies about LNT are addressed, including judgments of the U.S. National Academies and their French counterpart. The paper concludes that, based on the BAS/MESC system, there is no disagreement between the two academies on the scientific foundation of LNT; instead, the disagreement is based on their judgment or speculation.
Beggrow, Elizabeth P.; Ha, Minsu; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis; Boone, William J.
The landscape of science education is being transformed by the new Framework for Science Education (National Research Council, A framework for K-12 science education: practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2012), which emphasizes the centrality of scientific practices—such as explanation, argumentation, and communication—in science teaching, learning, and assessment. A major challenge facing the field of science education is developing assessment tools that are capable of validly and efficiently evaluating these practices. Our study examined the efficacy of a free, open-source machine-learning tool for evaluating the quality of students' written explanations of the causes of evolutionary change relative to three other approaches: (1) human-scored written explanations, (2) a multiple-choice test, and (3) clinical oral interviews. A large sample of undergraduates (n = 104) exposed to varying amounts of evolution content completed all three assessments: a clinical oral interview, a written open-response assessment, and a multiple-choice test. Rasch analysis was used to compute linear person measures and linear item measures on a single logit scale. We found that the multiple-choice test displayed poor person and item fit (mean square outfit >1.3), while both oral interview measures and computer-generated written response measures exhibited acceptable fit (average mean square outfit for interview: person 0.97, item 0.97; computer: person 1.03, item 1.06). Multiple-choice test measures were more weakly associated with interview measures (r = 0.35) than the computer-scored explanation measures (r = 0.63). Overall, Rasch analysis indicated that computer-scored written explanation measures (1) have the strongest correspondence to oral interview measures; (2) are capable of capturing students' normative scientific and naive ideas as accurately as human-scored explanations, and (3) more validly detect understanding
Mohd Alwi, Najwa Hayaati
The motivation to conduct this research has come from awareness that the Internet exposes the e-learning environment to information security threats and vulnerabilities. Information security management as practised as a top down approach in many organisations tend to detach of people’s responsibility in ensuring the security of e-learning. Literature has pointed out that people’s behaviour required to be addressed to control the information security threats. This research proposes an ISM huma...
Principe, Jose C
This book presents the first cohesive treatment of Information Theoretic Learning (ITL) algorithms to adapt linear or nonlinear learning machines both in supervised or unsupervised paradigms. ITL is a framework where the conventional concepts of second order statistics (covariance, L2 distances, correlation functions) are substituted by scalars and functions with information theoretic underpinnings, respectively entropy, mutual information and correntropy. ITL quantifies the stochastic structure of the data beyond second order statistics for improved performance without using full-blown Bayesi
Mary M. Somerville
Full Text Available Objective – In response to unrelenting disruptions in academic publishing and higher education ecosystems, the Informed Systems approach supports evidence based professional activities to make decisions and take actions. This conceptual paper presents two core models, Informed Systems Leadership Model and Collaborative Evidence-Based Information Process Model, whereby co-workers learn to make informed decisions by identifying the decisions to be made and the information required for those decisions. This is accomplished through collaborative design and iterative evaluation of workplace systems, relationships, and practices. Over time, increasingly effective and efficient structures and processes for using information to learn further organizational renewal and advance nimble responsiveness amidst dynamically changing circumstances. Methods – The integrated Informed Systems approach to fostering persistent workplace inquiry has its genesis in three theories that together activate and enable robust information usage and organizational learning. The information- and learning-intensive theories of Peter Checkland in England, which advance systems design, stimulate participants’ appreciation during the design process of the potential for using information to learn. Within a co-designed environment, intentional social practices continue workplace learning, described by Christine Bruce in Australia as informed learning enacted through information experiences. In addition, in Japan, Ikujiro Nonaka’s theories foster information exchange processes and knowledge creation activities within and across organizational units. In combination, these theories promote the kind of learning made possible through evolving and transferable capacity to use information to learn through design and usage of collaborative communication systems with associated professional practices. Informed Systems therein draws from three antecedent theories to create an original
Buslov, A. S.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Yurov, V. N.; Bessonov, M. V.; Kalmykov, P. A.; Oreshnikov, E. M.; Alimov, A. M.; Tumanov, A. V.; Zhuchkova, E. A.
This paper deals with the organizational structure of ground-based receiving, processing, and dissemination of scientific information created by the Astrophysics Institute of the Scientific Research Nuclear University, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. Hardware structure and software features are described. The principles are given for forming sets of control commands for scientific equipment (SE) devices, and statistics data are presented on the operation of facility during flight tests of the spacecraft (SC) in the course of one year.
The present paper thoroughly examines how one can effectively bridge in-school and out-of-school learning. The first part discusses the difficulty in defining out-of-school learning. It proposes to distinguish three types of learning: formal, informal, and non-formal. The second part raises the question of whether out-of-school learning should be dealt with in the in-school system, in view of the fact that we experience informal learning anyway as well as considering the disadvantages and difficulties teachers are confronted with when planning and carrying out scientific fieldtrips. The voices of the teachers, the students, and the non-formal institution staff are heard to provide insights into the problem. The third part discusses the cognitive and affective aspects of non-formal learning. The fourth part presents some models explaining scientific fieldtrip learning and based on those models, suggests a novel explanation. The fifth part offers some recommendations of how to bridge in and out-of-school learning. The paper closes with some practical ideas as to how one can bring the theory described in the paper into practice. It is hoped that this paper will provide educators with an insight so that they will be able to fully exploit the great potential that scientific field trips may offer.
Marina Alves de Mendonça
Full Text Available Accents the national electronic journals of library and information science with purpose of identifying the questions most debated in information science through the analysis of articles published from 2003 to 2013, in addition to detecting the subjects of the articles analyzed in order to detect thematic similarities and differences in the scope of interdisciplinarity, including the identification of "empty", i.e. important issues not contemplated. Include the library science journals for the reason of the relevant titles currently be originated of publications before dedicated to the library science and then concentrated on studies in information science. To achieve this quali-quantitative research, nature descriptive and case study, resort to documentary analysis and thematic content analysis as collection techniques and data analysis, respectively. Verifies that the increase in research in this field follows with the expansion of the Graduate Program in Information Science and expands as found in electronic journals, the means to intensify scientific communication and ratify interdisciplinary relations. Registers 48 themes, among which Management has the highest incidence (191 articles as opposed to the classes; Administration and Environment and Sustainability, both with only seven studies each. Library Science has the highest number of interdisciplinary relations. It is recommended that researchers in the field turn their attention to topics on the rise not yet explored in the context of information science, like Cognitive and Behavioral Studies; and Information Architecture, in view of the prospects for growth and contribution to the field.
In the dynamic and interactive academic learning environment, students are required to have qualified information literacy competencies while critically reviewing print and electronic information. However, many undergraduates encounter difficulties in searching peer-reviewed information resources. Scholarly Information Discovery in the Networked Academic Learning Environment is a practical guide for students determined to improve their academic performance and career development in the digital age. Also written with academic instructors and librarians in mind who need to show their students how to access and search academic information resources and services, the book serves as a reference to promote information literacy instructions. This title consists of four parts, with chapters on the search for online and printed information via current academic information resources and services: part one examines understanding information and information literacy; part two looks at academic information delivery in the...
Chitnork, Amporn; Yuenyong, Chokchai
The research aimed to enhance Grade 10 Thai students' scientific argumentation in learning about electric field through science, technology, and society (STS) approach. The participants included 45 Grade 10 students who were studying in a school in Nongsonghong, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. The intervention was the force unit which was provided based on Yuenyong (2006) STS approach. Students learned about the STS electric field unit for 4 weeks. The students' scientific argumentation was interpreted based on Toulmin's argument pattern or TAP. The TAP provided six components of argumentation including data, claim, warrants, qualifiers, rebuttals and backing. Tools of interpretation included students' activity sheets, conversation, journal writing, classroom observation and interview. The findings revealed that students held the different pattern of argumentation. Then, they change pattern of argumentation close to the TAP. It indicates that the intervention of STS electric field unit enhance students to develop scientific argumentation. This finding may has implication of further enhancing scientific argumentation in Thailand.
Translated By Joho Kanri Editorial Committee
This is a translation of Chapter 4 : Information Systems of Volume 5 : Environment and Resources in the first number of White Paper on Science and Technology edited in May 1986 by State Scientific and Technological Commission (SSTC). Scientific and technological information activity in China has progressed by keeping close cooperation among the Institute for Scientific and Technological Information in China (ISTIC) as a core organization, 33 information institutes under the control of each ministrial commission of The State Council and 35 information institutes of the local governments and cities. As a result of having promoted the information activities along with the guiding principle decided by the 5th National Conference on Scientific and Technological Information in July 1980, information business could be made a great contribution to political decision, national projects and economy stressing plan, technology introduction, etc. The Scientific and Technological Information Bureau of SSTC as a coordinating body proposed the following subjects as an important item for promoting future information business in China: standardization of abstract journals, bringing up of investigators and researchers, production of data bases and consolidation of international online retrieval services, step by step introduction of a charging system for information service, etc.
Del Puerto, C.
A scientist must not only do science, but must also know how to communicate it. It is possible that he or she even ends up becoming devoted professionally either to outreach or to teaching. Therefore, the Master's Degree Course in Astrophysics, created by the University of La Laguna (ULL) with the collaboration of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), includes in its programme the four-month core course unit Communicating Astronomy: Professional Results and Educational Practice (in Spanish, Comunicación de Resultados Cientificos y Didactica de la Astronomia), that is worth three ECTs. In this poster, I present the results of our experience from the academic year 2006-2007, in which seventeen Master's students, in addition to learning the skills necessary to communicating their results within the scientific community, have also studied the language of popularisation in a practical and fun way through role-playing as science writers and schoolteachers in the classroom.
The performance optimization of scientific applications usually requires an in-depth knowledge of the hardware and software. A performance tuning mechanism is suggested to automatically tune OpenACC parameters to adapt to the execution environment on a given system. A historic learning based methodology is suggested to prune the parameter search space for a more efficient auto-tuning process. This approach is applied to tune the OpenACC gang and vector clauses for a better mapping of the compute kernels onto the underlying architecture. Our experiments show a significant performance improvement against the default compiler parameters and drastic reduction in tuning time compared to a brute force search-based approach.
Segev, Elad; Sharon, Aviv J
In response to the news coverage of scientific events and to science education, people increasingly go online to get more information. This study investigates how patterns of science and technology information-seeking on Google and Wikipedia change over time, in ways that differ between "ad hoc" terms that correspond to news coverage and "cyclic" terms that correspond to the academic period. Findings show that the science and technology activity in Google and Wikipedia was significantly associated with ad hoc and cyclic patterns. While the peak activity in Google and Wikipedia largely overlapped for ad hoc terms, it mismatched for cyclic terms. The findings indicate the importance of external cues such as news media and education, and also of the online engagement process, and particularly the crucial but different role played by Google and Wikipedia in gaining science and technology knowledge. Educators and policy makers could benefit from taking into account those different patterns.
Full Text Available The arguments for and against genetically modified (GM food focus on the characteristics of the scientific uncertainty and asymmetric information for the GM food. How do these two factors affect the competition and pricing strategy of food firms that separate GM food and conventional food conforming to consumer’s right to know? We explore the issue of pricing strategies between two firms producing horizontally and vertically differentiated foods in the context of asymmetric information and scientific uncertainty. The theoretical results show that there are two separating perfect Bayesian equilibria in which the prices of the conventional food and GM food are strategic complements and the profits of two types of firms are both increasing in the price of GM food. The numerical example shows that a decrease of the expected potential net damage as the most sensitive parameter leads to an increase of the profits of the two firms. Additionally, an increase in product differentiation helps to increase the two firms’ profits. Finally, the decrease in risk aversion as the second sensitive parameter helps to increase both products’ prices and quantities and both firms’ profits. This paper contributes by combining food safety regulation with market mechanisms and competition.
Full Text Available This research was describing the designing of instrument for affective assessment in English language teaching. The focus of the designing was only for observation sheet that will be used by English teachers during the teaching and learning process. The instrument was designed based on scientific approach that has five stages namely observing, questioning, experimenting, associating, and communicating. In the designing process, ADDIE Model was used as the method of research. The designing of instrument was considering the gap between the reality and the teachers’ need. The result showed that the designing was also notice to the affective taxonomy such as receiving, responding, valuing, organization, and characterization. Then, three key words were used as the indicator to show the five levels of affective taxonomy such as seriously, volunteer, and without asked by teacher. Furthermore, eighteen types of affective such as religious, honesty, responsible, discipline, hard work, self confidence, logical thinking, critical thinking, creative, innovative, independent, curiosity, love knowledge, respect, polite, democracy, emotional intelligence, and pluralist were put on each stage of scientific approach. So, it is hoped that can be implemented in all of context of English language teaching at schools and can assess the students’ affective comprehensively.
Ruppert, S D; Dodge, D A; Ganzberger, M D; Harris, D B; Hauk, T F
The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development (GNEMRD) Program at LLNL continues to make significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration, analysis, and information management with software automation tools. Our tool efforts address the problematic issues of very large datasets and varied formats encountered during seismic calibration research. New information management and analysis tools have resulted in demonstrated gains in efficiency of producing scientific data products and improved accuracy of derived seismic calibrations. In contrast to previous years, software development work this past year has emphasized development of automation at the data ingestion level. This change reflects a gradually-changing emphasis in our program from processing a few large data sets that result in a single integrated delivery, to processing many different data sets from a variety of sources. The increase in the number of sources had resulted in a large increase in the amount of metadata relative to the final volume of research products. Software developed this year addresses the problems of: (1) Efficient metadata ingestion and conflict resolution; (2) Automated ingestion of bulletin information; (3) Automated ingestion of waveform information from global data centers; and (4) Site Metadata and Response transformation required for certain products. This year, we also made a significant step forward in meeting a long-standing goal of developing and using a waveform correlation framework. Our objective for such a framework is to extract additional calibration data (e.g. mining blasts) and to study the extent to which correlated seismicity can be found in global and regional scale environments.
Shimic, Goran; Jevremovic, Aleksandar
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered instructional strategy in which students solve problems and reflect on their experiences. Different domains need different approaches in the design of PBL systems. Therefore, we present one case study in this article: A Java Programming PBL. The application is developed as an additional module for…
Jones, Nancy L; Peiffer, Ann M; Lambros, Ann; Guthold, Martin; Johnson, A Daniel; Tytell, Michael; Ronca, April E; Eldridge, J Charles
A multidisciplinary faculty committee designed a curriculum to shape biomedical graduate students into researchers with a high commitment to professionalism and social responsibility and to provide students with tools to navigate complex, rapidly evolving academic and societal environments with a strong ethical commitment. The curriculum used problem-based learning (PBL), because it is active and learner-centred and focuses on skill and process development. Two courses were developed: Scientific Professionalism: Scientific Integrity addressed discipline-specific and broad professional norms and obligations for the ethical practice of science and responsible conduct of research (RCR). Scientific Professionalism: Bioethics and Social Responsibility focused on current ethical and bioethical issues within the scientific profession, and implications of research for society. Each small-group session examined case scenarios that included: (1) learning objectives for professional norms and obligations; (2) key ethical issues and philosophies within each topic area; (3) one or more of the RCR instructional areas; and (4) at least one type of moral reflection. Cases emphasised professional standards, obligations and underlying philosophies for the ethical practice of science, competing interests of stakeholders and oversight of science (internal and external). To our knowledge, this is the first use of a longitudinal, multi-semester PBL course to teach scientific integrity and professionalism. Both faculty and students endorsed the active learning approach for these topics, in contrast to a compliance-based approach that emphasises learning rules and regulations.
Francisco J. García-Peñalvo
Full Text Available The technological support for learning and teaching processes is constantly changing. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT applied to education, cause changes that affect the way in which people learn. This application introduces new software systems and solutions to carry out teaching and learning activities. Connected to ICT application, the emergence of Web 2.0 and its use in learning contexts enables an online implementation of the student-centred learning paradigm. In addition, 2.0 trends provide “new” ways to exchange, making easier for informal learning to become patent. Given this context, open and user-centered learning environments are needed to integrate such kinds of tools and trends and are commonly described as Personal Learning Environments. Such environments coexist with the institutional learning management systems and they should interact and exchange information between them. This interaction would allow the assessment of what happens in the personal environment from the institutional side. This article describes a solution to make the interoperability possible between these systems. It is based on a set of interoperability scenarios and some components and communication channels. In order to test the solution it is implemented as a proof of concept and the scenarios are validated through several pilot experiences. In this article one of such scenarios and its evaluation experiment is described to conclude that functionalities from the institutional environments and the personal ones can be combined and it is possible to assess what happens in the activities based on them.
Kapelner, Adam; Soterwood, Jeanine; Nessaiver, Shalev; Adlof, Suzanne
Vocabulary knowledge is essential to educational progress. High quality vocabulary instruction requires supportive contextual examples to teach word meaning and proper usage. Identifying such contexts by hand for a large number of words can be difficult. In this work, we take a statistical learning approach to engineer a system that predicts…
Bell, Philip, Ed.; Lewenstein, Bruce, Ed.; Shouse, Andrew W., Ed.; Feder, Michael A., Ed.
Informal science is a burgeoning field that operates across a broad range of venues and envisages learning outcomes for individuals, schools, families, and society. The evidence base that describes informal science, its promise, and effects is informed by a range of disciplines and perspectives, including field-based research, visitor studies, and…
M. Akhyar Lubis
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze whether the results of science process skills of students. Who are taught by the teaching model scientific inquiry better than conventional learning, to analyze whether the results of science process skills of students? Who can think logically high is better than the students who have the potential to think logically low, analyze whether there is an interaction between scientific inquiry learning model with logical thinking skills to students' science process skills. This research is a quasi-experimental design with the two-group pretest-posttest design. The study population is all students of class X SMA Negeri 4 Padangsidimpuan semester II academic year 2016/2017. The The research instrument consists of two types: science process skills instrument consists of 10 questions in essay form which has been declared valid and reliable, and the instrument ability to think logically in the form of multiple choice is entirely groundless and complements (combination. The resulting data, analyzed by using two path Anava. The results showed that science process skills of students who are taught by the teaching model scientific inquiry better than conventional learning. Science process skills of students who can think logically high are better than the students who can think logically low, and there is an interaction between learning model scientific inquiry and conventional learning with the ability to think logically to improve students' science process skills.
Breivik, Patricia Senn; Ford, Barbara J.
Discusses information literacy and describes activities under the sponsorship of the National Forum on Information Literacy (NFIL) that promotes information literacy in schools and libraries. Activities of member organizations of the NFIL are described, including policy formation, publications, and programs; and the role of the American Library…
This article describes a recently introduced module at University College Dublin School of Information and Library Studies (SILS), entitled "Information Architecture: Designing the Web." The module provides students with a realistic experience of how information architects apply their skills to produce usable web sites, via a project to…
Community garden activities can play a significant role in bridging formal and informal learning, particularly in urban children's science and environmental education. It promotes relational methods of learning, discussing, and practicing that will integrate food security, social interactions, community development, environmental activism, and…
Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu
Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…
ter Schure, S.M.M.
Newborn infants are sensitive to combinations of visual and auditory speech. Does this ability to match sounds and sights affect how infants learn the sounds of their native language? And are visual articulations the only type of visual information that can influence sound learning? This
Caniëls, Marjolein; Kirschner, Paul A.
Caniëls, M. C. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012). Determinants, benefits and barriers of informal learning in the Netherlands. In P. van den Bossche, W. H. Gijselaers, & R. G. Milter (Eds.), Learning at the crossroads of theory and practice (pp. 93-110). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Business &
The social-institutional endorsement towards the perspective of recognising and enhancing learning acquired outside the formal education and training contexts (non-formal and informal learning), has been gaining strength and has entered policy agendas throughout Europe, but also in other major non-European countries. Nevertheless there are still…
Ainsworth, Heather L.; Eaton, Sarah Elaine
This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to the field of sciences and engineering in Canada and the United States, including professional development of adults working in these fields. It offers…
The following article examines the issues of open, distance and technology-based informal learning and non-formal education for individual and community development. It argues that these two modes of education, which are estimated to constitute 70-90% of lifelong learning, are insufficiently represented in the literature of open and distance…
A model derived from information processing theory is described, which helps to explain the complex verbal learning of students and suggests implications for lecturing techniques. Other factors affecting learning, which are not covered by the model, are discussed in relationship to it: student's intellectual development and effects of individual…
The authors' main idea is to organize a distributed learning environment (DLE) based on information and communication resources of global network in combination with the technologies for virtual reality and 3D simulation. In this reason a conceptual model of the DLE architecture and learning processes is defined, and ...
Saadati, Farzaneh; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd
Attention to integrate technology in teaching and learning has provided a major transformation in the landscape of education. Therefore, many innovations in teaching and learning have been technology-driven. The study attempted to examine what is engineering students' perception regarding the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)…
This case study describes several courses that resulted from a teaching partnership between an instructional technologist/professor and a librarian that evolved over several semesters, and the information literacy implications of the course formats. In order to increase student engagement, active learning and inquiry-based learning techniques were…
Mok, Annie O.
This study investigates how a class of university music students who engaged in a "lived" experience of informal learning adopted methods and strategies to complete a self-learning "aural copying" performance assignment in a musicianship class in Hong Kong. Data were collected from observations of the performances and the…
Marques, Maria A.; Viegas, Maria C.; Alves, Gustavo R.; Zangrando, Valentina; Galanis, Nikolas; Brouns, Francis; Waszkiewicz, Elwira; García-Peñalvo, Francisco J.
Marques, M. A., Viegas, M. C., Alves, G., Zangrando, V., Galanis, N., Brouns, F., Waszkiewicz, E., & Garcia-Peñalvo, F. (2013). Managing Informal Learning in Higher Education Contexts: the learners’ perspective. ICBL2013 International Conference on Interactive Computer-Aided Blended Learning.
Zhuang, Liansheng; Zhou, Zihan; Gao, Shenghua; Yin, Jingwen; Lin, Zhouchen; Ma, Yi
In the literature, most existing graph-based semi-supervised learning methods only use the label information of observed samples in the label propagation stage, while ignoring such valuable information when learning the graph. In this paper, we argue that it is beneficial to consider the label information in the graph learning stage. Specifically, by enforcing the weight of edges between labeled samples of different classes to be zero, we explicitly incorporate the label information into the state-of-the-art graph learning methods, such as the low-rank representation (LRR), and propose a novel semi-supervised graph learning method called semi-supervised low-rank representation. This results in a convex optimization problem with linear constraints, which can be solved by the linearized alternating direction method. Though we take LRR as an example, our proposed method is in fact very general and can be applied to any self-representation graph learning methods. Experiment results on both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate that the proposed graph learning method can better capture the global geometric structure of the data, and therefore is more effective for semi-supervised learning tasks.
Nesan, L. Jawahar
This paper, while emphasizing the linkage between the concepts of "empowerment" and "learning", argues that empowerment provides the most appropriate base to effectively implement learning in construction organizations. It is argued that "efficacy-information", being a derivative of empowerment, helps influence…
Little, Jeri L; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon
Although the testing effect has received a substantial amount of empirical attention, such research has largely focused on the effects of tests given after study. The present research examines the effect of using tests prior to study (i.e., as pretests), focusing particularly on how pretesting influences the subsequent learning of information that is not itself pretested but that is related to the pretested information. In Experiment 1, we found that multiple-choice pretesting was better for the learning of such related information than was cued-recall pretesting or a pre-fact-study control condition. In Experiment 2, we found that the increased learning of non-pretested related information following multiple-choice testing could not be attributed to increased time allocated to that information during subsequent study. Last, in Experiment 3, we showed that the benefits of multiple-choice pretesting over cued-recall pretesting for the learning of related information persist over 48 hours, thus demonstrating the promise of multiple-choice pretesting to potentiate learning in educational contexts. A possible explanation for the observed benefits of multiple-choice pretesting for enhancing the effectiveness with which related nontested information is learned during subsequent study is discussed.
Full Text Available The article presents a historical reconstruction of Ukrainian-Polish scientific relations in the field of humanities in 1955-1960, conducted on the basis of archival sources study. Scientific information exchange of humanitarian institutions of the AS of the Ukrainian SSR with Polish research institutions was quite diversified. It included mutual visits of the scientists from research institutes as delegations members, individual scientific missions to research institutions in order to acquaint with scientific developments, participation in international workshops, congresses and conferences, international book exchange, joint publishing, mutual reviewing of scientific publications. From the second half of the 50s of the 20th century there was an intensification of joint research projects conducted for the development of certain scientific issues, which were of interest for both Ukrainian and Polish scientists, who endeavored to solve them
The author looks at learning (formal, non-formal and informal) and examines the hidden world of informal (unconscious, unplanned) learning. He points out the importance of informal learning for creating tacit attitudes and values, knowledge and skills which influence (conscious, planned) learning - formal and non-formal. Moreover, he explores the implications of informal learning for educational planners and teachers in the context of lifelong learning. While mainly aimed at adult educators, ...
Despite a growing consensus regarding the value of inquiry-based learning (IBL) for students' learning and engagement in the science classroom, the implementation of such practices continues to be a challenge. If science teachers are to use IBL to develop students' inquiry practices and encourage them to think and act as scientists, a better understanding of factors that influence their attitudes towards scientific research and scientists' practices is very much needed. Within this context there is a need to re-examine the science teachers' views of scientists and the cultural factors that might have an impact on teachers' views and pedagogical practices. A diverse group of Egyptian science teachers took part in a quantitative-qualitative study using a questionnaire and in-depth interviews to explore their views of scientists and scientific research, and to understand how they negotiated their views of scientists and scientific research in the classroom, and how these views informed their practices of using inquiry in the classroom. The findings highlighted how the teachers' cultural beliefs and views of scientists and scientific research had constructed idiosyncratic pedagogical views and practices. The study suggested implications for further research and argued for teacher professional development based on partnerships with scientists.
Hansman, Catherine A.
This chapter examines the role of mentoring in continuing professional education from a critical perspective, addressing informal and formal mentoring relationships while highlighting their potential to encourage critical reflection, learning, and coconstruction of knowledge.
N. Khaeroningtyas; A. Permanasari; I. Hamidah
This research aims to determine the improvement of students’ scientific literacy after STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) learning using 6E Learning by DesignTM Model on temperature and its changes material. The research was conducted in SMP Negeri (State Junior High School) 1 Bumiayu in the academic year 2015/2016. The method used was quasi-experimental design with The Matching Only - pretest posttest control group design. This study used two group of experiment group o...
Erik André de Nazaré Pires
Full Text Available The present study seeks to investigate the use of the Digital Object Identifier (DOI in the scientific journals of Communication and Information and, providing new integration utilities with the Lattes Platform. In this sense, it aims to inform the existing titles in Communication Information in electronic format, demonstrate the importance of DOI in the integration with the Lattes Platform in order to guarantee author credibility and analyze the characteristics of publications that have DOI. The methodology used for the development of this study is bibliographic, research with descriptive-descriptive characteristics. From the development of the research, it is inferred that of all the analyzed journals (33 journals, 10 titles in the evaluation of 2013 and 06 titles of the evaluation of 2014 present DOI in their publications, all have WebQualis classification, Qualis A1 in the area Communication and Information. Most publications are international and only 3 titles are national. It is necessary that journals, principally national ones, accompany new technologies such as DOI for objects and ORCID for the identification of people, bringing more mechanisms that guarantee authors 'credibility and to bring the researchers' connection, and both can already be adopted in the Platform Lattes.
Cegielski, Casey G.; Hazen, Benjamin T.; Rainer, R. Kelly
The rich, interdisciplinary tradition of learning styles is markedly absent in information systems-related research. The current study applies the framework of learning styles to a common educational component of many of today's information systems curricula--object-oriented systems development--in an effort to answer the question as to whether…
This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal sci...
Rapchak, Marcia E.; Brungard, Allison B.; Bergfelt, Theodore W.
Using the Information Literacy VALUE Rubric provided by the AAC&U, this study compares thirty final capstone assignments in a research course in a learning community with thirty final assignments in from students not in learning communities. Results indicated higher performance of the non-learning community students; however, transfer skills…
Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia
A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection…
Full Text Available As corporate learning moves out of the classroom into the hands of learners, the responsibilities of those who provide guidance in this process are changing. The overall prevalence of learning tools creates a need for competent learning leaders who make decisions about the development of the workforce. With special focus on the least used gamified learning tool, the aim of the study was to investigate the enablement of gamified learning tools determined by certain attributes of this research. A questionnaire survey had been conducted on a selected sample of 100 high-level learning leaders from 28 countries to examine if there are significant correlations between the usage of gamified learning tools and corporate learning leaders’ minds, their competences and the organizational culture profiles of companies. Results had been analysed with the SPSS statistical software package and indicated that relationships between these variables cannot be categorically proven, so no predictions can be made about the future of gamified learning based on these attributes. It is the highest time to conduct an extensive research to examine relationships between the quality of informal learning and learning tools in the ICT domain.
The library and information branch is an important constituent part of a scientific and technic research institute, and is a technically assistant department which is set for scientific and technic research and production. The investigations show that the achievements by the library and information departments are marked in scientific and technic research institutes, and the library and information works play important roles for the existence, development and innovation of the institute in past years. But, the present conditions and statuses are dropped behind, and more problems existed in the library and information departments as a whole. The development ideas are proposed for the library and information work by analyzing the characteristics of nowadays knowledge service, knowledge economy and network information time. (authors)
Alwi, Najwa Hayaati Mohd; Fan, Ip-Shing
ELearning systems are increasingly used by educational institutions to support their academic activities. A simple use of an eLearning system is to make materials and notes available to students at anytime and anywhere; more sophisticated uses of eLearning support the interaction and assessment processes. Depending on how eLearning systems are used, information security issues such as intellectual property protection, personal data protection and continuity of service can become significant f...
Kusmaryono, Imam; Suyitno, Hardi
This study used a model of Concurrent Embedded with the aim of: (1) determine the difference between the conceptual understanding and mathematical power of students grade fourth who take the constructivist learning using scientific approach and direct learning, (2) determine the interaction between learning approaches and initial competence on the mathematical power and conceptual of understanding, and (3) describe the mathematical power of students grade fourth. This research was conducted in the fourth grade elementary school early 2015. Data initial competence and mathematical power obtained through tests, and analyzed using statistical tests multivariate and univariate. Statistical analysis of the results showed that: (1) There are differences in the concept of understanding and mathematical power among the students who follow the scientifically-based constructivist learning than students who take the Direct Learning in terms of students initial competency (F = 5.550; p = 0.007 problem solving and contributes tremendous increase students' math skills. Researcher suggested that the learning of mathematics in schools using scientifically- based constructivist approach to improve the mathematical power of students and conceptual understanding.
Full Text Available Despite vigorous research on risk communication, little is known about the social forces that drive these choices. Erev, Wallsten, and Neal (1991 showed that forecasters learn to select verbal or numerical probability estimates as a function of which mode yields on average the larger group payoffs. We extend the result by investigating the effect of group size on the speed with which forecasters converge on the better communication mode. On the basis of social facilitation theory we hypothesized that small groups induce less arousal and anxiety among their members than do large groups when performing new tasks, and therefore that forecasters in small groups will learn the better communication mode more quickly. This result obtained in Experiment 1, which compared groups of size 3 to groups of size 5 or 6. To test whether social loafing rather than social facilitation was mediating the effects, Experiment 2 compared social to personal feedback holding group size constant at 3 members. Learning was faster in the personal feedback condition, suggesting that social facilitation rather than loafing underlay the results.
Sudarmin, S.; Mursiti, S.; Asih, A. G.
In this disruption era, students are encouraged to develop critical thinking skills and important cultural conservation characters. Student's thinking skill in chemistry learning has not been developed because learning chemistry in schools still uses teacher-centered, lecture method, is less interesting and does not utilize local culture as a learning resource. The purpose of this research is to know the influence of the application of direct Instruction (DI) model with video learning of ethnoscience on the improvement of students’ critical thinking skills. This study was experimental research. The population was the students from class XI MIPA MA Negeri Gombong with the sample chosen by purposive random sampling. The material of local wisdom as the study of ethnosciences which was the focus of the research was the production of genting, dawet, lanting, and sempor reservoirs which is integrated with colloidal chemical contents. The learning video of ethnoscience before being applied was validated by experts. Students’ critical thinking skills were revealed through the concept of conceptualizing test instruments. The data analysis technique used was the test of proportion and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The results of this study suggested that the experimental class that was treated by scientific direct instruction model with the learning video of ethnoscience shows cognitive learning and critical thinking which were better than the control class. Besides, the students indicated their interest in the application of scientific direct instruction model with ethnoscience learning video.
He, Ran; Yuan, Xiaotong; Wang, Liang
This Springer Brief represents a comprehensive review of information theoretic methods for robust recognition. A variety of information theoretic methods have been proffered in the past decade, in a large variety of computer vision applications; this work brings them together, attempts to impart the theory, optimization and usage of information entropy.The?authors?resort to a new information theoretic concept, correntropy, as a robust measure and apply it to solve robust face recognition and object recognition problems. For computational efficiency,?the brief?introduces the additive and multip
Learning to rank refers to machine learning techniques for training a model in a ranking task. Learning to rank is useful for many applications in information retrieval, natural language processing, and data mining. Intensive studies have been conducted on its problems recently, and significant progress has been made. This lecture gives an introduction to the area including the fundamental problems, major approaches, theories, applications, and future work.The author begins by showing that various ranking problems in information retrieval and natural language processing can be formalized as tw
Alla V. Kilchenko
Full Text Available A construction and introduction of the information systems in a management education is the actual task of forming of modern information society. In the article the results of research of automation of treatment of financial documents, which was conducted within the project «Scientific-methodical providing of the informative system of programming of scientific researches in Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine based on the Internet» № 0109U002139 are represented. The article contains methodical principles of automation of treatment programming and financial documents as well as requirements to the information system, which will be the base to next project stages.
Full Text Available Attention to integrate technology in teaching and learning has provided a major transformation in the landscape of education. Therefore, many innovations in teaching and learning have been technology-driven. The study attempted to examine what is engineering students’ perception regarding the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in mathematics learning as well as investigate their opinion about how ICT can be integrated to improve teaching and learning processes. The subjects were Iranian engineering students from two universities. The finding showed they are fully aware of importance of ICT in teaching and learning mathematics. Whilst, they were feeling comfortable and confident with technology, they do not have more experience of using technology in mathematics classes before. The findings supported the other studies, which indicated the potentials of ICT to facilitate students’ learning, improve teaching, and enhance institutional administration as established in the literature.
Ruppert, S; Dodge, D A; Ganzberger, M D; Hauk, T F; Matzel, E M
The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development (GNEMRD) Program at LLNL continues to make significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration, analysis, and information management with software automation tools. Our tool efforts address the problematic issues of very large datasets and varied formats encountered during seismic calibration research. New information management and analysis tools have resulted in demonstrated gains in efficiency of producing scientific data products and improved accuracy of derived seismic calibrations. The foundation of a robust, efficient data development and processing environment is comprised of many components built upon engineered versatile libraries. We incorporate proven industry 'best practices' throughout our code and apply source code and bug tracking management as well as automatic generation and execution of unit tests for our experimental, development and production lines. Significant software engineering and development efforts have produced an object-oriented framework that provides database centric coordination between scientific tools, users, and data. Over a half billion parameters, signals, measurements, and metadata entries are all stored in a relational database accessed by an extensive object-oriented multi-technology software framework that includes stored procedures, real-time transactional database triggers and constraints, as well as coupled Java and C++ software libraries to handle the information interchange and validation requirements. Significant resources were applied to schema design to enable management of processing methods and station parameters, responses and metadata. This allowed for the development of merged ground-truth (GT) data sets compiled by the NNSA labs and AFTAC that include hundreds of thousands of events and tens of millions of arrivals. The
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
In fiscal year 1994, the United States government spent about $68 billion for science and technology. Although there is general agreement among policy makers that the results of this expenditure can be used to enhance technological innovation and improve economic competitiveness, there is no coherent scientific and technical information (STI) policy. The absence of a cohesive policy and STI policy framework means that the transfer and utilization of STI goes uncoordinated. This chapter examines the U.S. government's role in funding science and technology, reviews Federal STI activities and involvement in the transfer and use of STI resulting from federally-funded science and technology, presents issues surrounding the use of federally-funded STI, and offers recommendations for improving the transfer and use of STI.
Abed, Osama H.
This study investigated the effect of drama-based science teaching on students' understanding of scientific concepts and their attitudes towards science learning. The study also aimed to examine if there is an interaction between students' achievement level in science and drama-based instruction. The sample consisted of (87) of 7th grade students…
Wagner, T.; Langley-Turnbaugh, S. J.; Sanford, R.
The Department of Environmental Science at the University of Southern Maine implemented a problem-based, cohort-learning curriculum for undergraduate environmental science majors. The curriculum was based on a five-course sequence patterned after the outline of a scientific paper. Under faculty guidance, students select local environmental…
Sadler, Troy D.; Romine, William L.; Topçu, Mustafa Sami
Science educators have presented numerous conceptual and theoretical arguments in favor of teaching science through the exploration of socio-scientific issues (SSI). However, the empirical knowledge base regarding the extent to which SSI-based instruction supports student learning of science content is limited both in terms of the number of…
Lin, Tzung-Jin; Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung
This study explored the differences in high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs (SEBs), motivation in learning science (MLS), and the different relationships between them in Taiwan and China. 310 Taiwanese and 302 Chinese high school students' SEBs and MLS were assessed quantitatively. Taiwanese students generally were more prone…
Full Text Available The' author speaks about the role of informal learning for young people and their family, differences about spending free-time and possibilities of using free-time for informal learning. The presupposition is that while learning scope is constantly expanding, also learning tasks of the family are increasing. Because of different social environments of young people, there is a question, what are actual possibilities for informal learning in their domestic environment and how this affects their development. The most important question, which must be asked according to the author is, whether parents are ware of their influence, of the influence of their actions on development and learning of their children.
Due to the fast growth of the Web and the difficulties in finding desired information, efficient and effective information retrieval systems have become more important than ever, and the search engine has become an essential tool for many people. The ranker, a central component in every search engine, is responsible for the matching between processed queries and indexed documents. Because of its central role, great attention has been paid to the research and development of ranking technologies. In addition, ranking is also pivotal for many other information retrieval applications, such as coll
Arumugam, Kamesh [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
Efficient parallel implementations of scientific applications on multi-core CPUs with accelerators such as GPUs and Xeon Phis is challenging. This requires - exploiting the data parallel architecture of the accelerator along with the vector pipelines of modern x86 CPU architectures, load balancing, and efficient memory transfer between different devices. It is relatively easy to meet these requirements for highly structured scientific applications. In contrast, a number of scientific and engineering applications are unstructured. Getting performance on accelerators for these applications is extremely challenging because many of these applications employ irregular algorithms which exhibit data-dependent control-ow and irregular memory accesses. Furthermore, these applications are often iterative with dependency between steps, and thus making it hard to parallelize across steps. As a result, parallelism in these applications is often limited to a single step. Numerical simulation of charged particles beam dynamics is one such application where the distribution of work and memory access pattern at each time step is irregular. Applications with these properties tend to present significant branch and memory divergence, load imbalance between different processor cores, and poor compute and memory utilization. Prior research on parallelizing such irregular applications have been focused around optimizing the irregular, data-dependent memory accesses and control-ow during a single step of the application independent of the other steps, with the assumption that these patterns are completely unpredictable. We observed that the structure of computation leading to control-ow divergence and irregular memory accesses in one step is similar to that in the next step. It is possible to predict this structure in the current step by observing the computation structure of previous steps. In this dissertation, we present novel machine learning based optimization techniques to address
Finn, Bridgid; Roediger, Henry L
In 7 experiments, we explored the role of retrieval in associative updating, that is, in incorporating new information into an associative memory. We tested the hypothesis that retrieval would facilitate incorporating a new contextual detail into a learned association. Participants learned 3 pieces of information-a person's face, name, and profession (in Experiments 1-5). In the 1st phase, participants in all conditions learned faces and names. In the 2nd phase, participants either restudied the face-name pair (the restudy condition) or were given the face and asked to retrieve the name (the test condition). In the 3rd phase, professions were presented for study just after restudy or testing. Our prediction was that the new information (the profession) would be more readily learned following retrieval of the face-name association compared to restudy of the face-name association. However, we found that the act of retrieval generally undermined acquisition of new associations rather than facilitating them. This detrimental effect emerged on both immediate and delayed tests. Further, the effect was not due to selective attention to feedback because we found impairment whether or not feedback was provided after the Phase 2 test. The data are novel in showing that the act of retrieving information can inhibit the ability to learn new information shortly thereafter. The results are difficult to accommodate within current theories that mostly emphasize benefits of retrieval for learning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is, through theory, research and practical experiences, to discuss how informal teaching and learning situations exemplified by activities including music plays a part in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC. The theoretical frame in this article is based on perspectives on informal teaching and learning in music and in general (Green 2002, 2008; Henze, 2009; Folkestad, 2006; Mak, 2007. The tradition in Norwegian ECEC centers has been based on informal learning processes mainly through social interaction, play, dialogs, aesthetical and outdoor activities in everyday life. ECEC teachers challenged to articulate Informal teaching and learning as professional educators. In light of that statement it is introduced, theoretical perspectives and studies of professions (Abbott, 1988; Grimen, 2008; Heggen, 2008; Polanyi, 2002. The author describes and discusses opportunities of music in ECEC centers and how music can contribute learning in informal learning situations. The discussion refers narrative episodes from observations of ECEC practice. Methodology is based on thematic analysis inspired of Riessman (2008 and Polkinghorne (1995.
Reynolds, Gemma; Wasely, David; Dunne, Guler; Askew, Chris
Research with children has demonstrated that both positive vicarious learning (modelling) and positive verbal information can reduce children’s acquired fear responses for a particular stimulus. However, this fear reduction appears to be more effective when the intervention pathway matches the initial fear learning pathway. That is, positive verbal information is a more effective intervention than positive modelling when fear is originally acquired via negative verbal information. Research ha...
Huang, Sheng-Jun; Jin, Rong; Zhou, Zhi-Hua
Active learning reduces the labeling cost by iteratively selecting the most valuable data to query their labels. It has attracted a lot of interests given the abundance of unlabeled data and the high cost of labeling. Most active learning approaches select either informative or representative unlabeled instances to query their labels, which could significantly limit their performance. Although several active learning algorithms were proposed to combine the two query selection criteria, they are usually ad hoc in finding unlabeled instances that are both informative and representative. We address this limitation by developing a principled approach, termed QUIRE, based on the min-max view of active learning. The proposed approach provides a systematic way for measuring and combining the informativeness and representativeness of an unlabeled instance. Further, by incorporating the correlation among labels, we extend the QUIRE approach to multi-label learning by actively querying instance-label pairs. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed QUIRE approach outperforms several state-of-the-art active learning approaches in both single-label and multi-label learning.
Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien; Hiemstra, Djoerd
Merging search results from different servers is a major problem in Distributed Information Retrieval. We used Regression-SVM and Ranking-SVM which would learn a function that merges results based on information that is readily available: i.e. the ranks, titles, summaries and URLs contained in the
Adeoye, Blessing F., Ed.; Tomei, Lawrence, Ed.
As computers and Internet connections become widely available in schools and classrooms, it is critical to examine cross-cultural issues in the utilization of information and communication technologies. "Effects of Information Capitalism and Globalization on Teaching and Learning" examines issues concerning emerging multimedia…
Yusliana Ekawati, Elvin
This study aimed to produce a model of scientific attitude assessment in terms of the observations for physics learning based scientific approach (case study of dynamic fluid topic in high school). Development of instruments in this study adaptation of the Plomp model, the procedure includes the initial investigation, design, construction, testing, evaluation and revision. The test is done in Surakarta, so that the data obtained are analyzed using Aiken formula to determine the validity of the content of the instrument, Cronbach’s alpha to determine the reliability of the instrument, and construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis with LISREL 8.50 program. The results of this research were conceptual models, instruments and guidelines on scientific attitudes assessment by observation. The construct assessment instruments include components of curiosity, objectivity, suspended judgment, open-mindedness, honesty and perseverance. The construct validity of instruments has been qualified (rated load factor > 0.3). The reliability of the model is quite good with the Alpha value 0.899 (> 0.7). The test showed that the model fits the theoretical models are supported by empirical data, namely p-value 0.315 (≥ 0.05), RMSEA 0.027 (≤ 0.08)
Verdu, Fernando; Frances, Francesc; Castello, Ana
The teaching of bioethics and its importance in clinical relationships is to a certain extent complicated when we address students of medicine, young people who are more used to dealing with and solving strictly clinical problems. Informed Consent is one of the aspects of professional practice that is generally and widely accepted in Western…
Breivik, Patricia Senn
The faces of immigrant children who had come through Ellis Island with their parents in search of better futures stare out at me from a set of black and white photographs near my desk. The children, frozen in time, are lined up for blocks, waiting for the doors of a public library to open. Access to information was their pathway to a future of…
Wright, Ruth; Kanellopoulos, Panagiotis
This paper explores firstly the sense in which improvisation might be conceived of as an informal music education process and, secondly, the effects of a course in free improvisation on student teachers' perceptions in relation to themselves as musicians, music as a school subject and children as musicians. The results of a study conducted in two…
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G
It is a requirement that health claims be scientifically founded. However, their phrasing is criticised for being unappealing and cumbersome to communicate to consumers. Instead, it has been found that consumers respond favourably to non-scientifically phrased ‘soft’ health information. We aimed...... were presented in a between subjects experimental design conducted in the US and Denmark. Furthermore, respondents were shown mock-up media reports contradicting the earlier information and asked to repeat their assessment of health inferences and their attitude. This was done to assess how robust...... consumers’ health inferences and attitudes are in an environment of contradictory information. Results show that the soft information positively influences health inferences and attitudes in Denmark, while in the US, scientific information positively influences health inferences but not attitudes. Faced...
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Human health is determined by the interplay of genetic factors and the environment. In this context the recent advances in human genomics are expected to play a central role in medicine and public health by providing genetic information for disease prediction and prevention.
After the completion of the human genome sequencing, a fundamental step will be represented by the translation of these discoveries into meaningful actions to improve health and prevent diseases, and the field of epidemiology plays a central role in this effort. These are some of the issues addressed by Human Genome Epidemiology –A scientific foundation for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease, a volume edited by Prof. M. Khoury, Prof. J. Little, Prof.W. Burke and published by Oxford university Press 2004.
This book describes the important role that epidemiological methods play in the continuum from gene discovery to the development and application of genetic tests. The Authors calls this continuum human genome epidemiology (HuGE to denote an evolving field of inquiry that uses systematic applications of epidemiological methods to assess the impact of human genetic variation on health and disease.
The book is divided into four sections and it is structured to allow readers to proceed systematically from the fundamentals of genome technology and discovery, to the epidemiological approaches, to gene characterisation, to the evaluation of genetic tests and their use in health services and public health.
Pulew, W.M.; Chlebarow, J.A.; Boitschew, B.B.; Kurtew, I.D.
STAIRS/VS has been installed on an IBM System/370-B5 in the computer centre of the central institute for scientific and technical information (ZINTI) in Sofia since 1975. Besides literature documentation, STAIRS/VS is also used for project documentation in order to supervise projects and their progress. Two types of data banks result from this problem in two parts differing in structure. Internal data as well as external data from magnetic tape service enter the STAIRS/VS data bank. The processing of texts in Cyrillic applied here for the first time is completely new for STAIRS/VS operation. Hence certain modifications for STAIRS/VS were made: STAIRS/VS was supplemented by a series of programmes for project supervision. The data acquisition as well as the change or supplementation of the documents already stored in STAIRS/VS mainly run via VIDEO/370. Besides the STAIRS/VS standard information on high-speed printers or on magnetic tape, special printing forms were developed. Parties interested in STAIRS/VS are supplied with a SDI service produced in batch process based on magnetic tape service; it is made in special size. The appropriate data banks are accordingly available for on-line research. (orig.) [de
Zheng, Wu; Blake, Catherine
Databases of curated biomedical knowledge, such as the protein-locations reflected in the UniProtKB database, provide an accurate and useful resource to researchers and decision makers. Our goal is to augment the manual efforts currently used to curate knowledge bases with automated approaches that leverage the increased availability of full-text scientific articles. This paper describes experiments that use distant supervised learning to identify protein subcellular localizations, which are important to understand protein function and to identify candidate drug targets. Experiments consider Swiss-Prot, the manually annotated subset of the UniProtKB protein knowledge base, and 43,000 full-text articles from the Journal of Biological Chemistry that contain just under 11.5 million sentences. The system achieves 0.81 precision and 0.49 recall at sentence level and an accuracy of 57% on held-out instances in a test set. Moreover, the approach identifies 8210 instances that are not in the UniProtKB knowledge base. Manual inspection of the 50 most likely relations showed that 41 (82%) were valid. These results have immediate benefit to researchers interested in protein function, and suggest that distant supervision should be explored to complement other manual data curation efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Letchford, Julie; Corradi, Hazel; Day, Trevor
An important aim of undergraduate science education is to develop student skills in reading and evaluating research papers. We have designed, developed, and implemented an on-line interactive resource entitled "Evaluating Scientific Research literature" (ESRL) aimed at students from the first 2 years of the undergraduate program. In this article, we describe the resource, then use student data collected from questionnaire surveys to evaluate the resource within 2 years of its launch. Our results add to those reported previously and indicate that ESRL can enable students to start evaluating research articles when used during their undergraduate program. We conclude maximal learning is likely to occur when the resource can be embedded in the curriculum such that students have a clearly articulated context for the resource's activities, can see their relevance in relation to assessed assignments and can be encouraged to think deeply about the activities in conversation with one another and/or with staff. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(6):483-490, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
This research aims to produce the scientific approach for science learning using a problem solving model on the topic of heat and temperatureon the junior high school learning outcome. The curriculum used during the study was curriculum 2013 (valid, practical and effective). The development of the learning setfollowed the four-D model which was reduced to three-D model (without dissemination). The study was tested in Class VIIA, VIIB, and VIIC in SMP Negeri 5 Academic Year 2015/2016. The data...
Breivik, Patricia; Byrne, Alex; Forest Horton, Woody; Ferreiro, Soledad; Boekhorst, Albert; Hassan, Helena; Ponjuan, Gloria; Lau, Jesús; Candy, Phil
Report of a Meeting Sponsored by the United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), National Forum on Information Literacy (NFIL) and the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). The report is organized according to four primary areas related to Information Literacy: Education and Learning, Health and Human Services, Business and Economic Development, and Governance and Citizenship. It highlights recommendations for empowering cit...
Jo Ann Murphy
Full Text Available A focus group study of fourteen University of Saskatchewan second to fourth year humanities and social science undergraduate students was conducted in the fall of 2011. The purpose of the research was to determine how students learn about library resources and services. Findings indicate that the participants often use a variety of informal, self-directed and information sharing strategies. Seeking help from professors, peers, friends, and family members is a common practice. Convenience, familiarity, and perceived knowledge are key factors that determine who and how these students learn about the library. Formal instruction and seeking assistance from librarians did not resonate for participants as a typical approach for learning about the library. The author suggests that undergraduate students engage in informal learning and information sharing as many ‘adult learners’ do, similar to an employment setting. The library, within the formal educational structure, lends itself to a more informal learning context. The study concludes that libraries must continue to develop resources, services, and innovative programs that support students’ informal learning styles, while also providing formal instruction as part of the undergraduate curriculum ensuring students are exposed early on to core foundational skills that contribute to their success as informal and self-directed learners.
problem, while balancing uncertainty, sensor information, and information about other agents. We used three variants of a warehouse task to show that a...Communication- Efficient Sparse Learning”, ICML 2014 workshop on New Learning Frameworks and Models for Big Data , December 2014. (to appear) 44. A. Bellet... data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this
To promote public understanding of science, new forms of education are actively being sought. A huge amount of information, especially about modern phenomena, is obtained in a personal way from family, friends and peer groups. Furthermore, the roles of television, libraries, magazines and newspapers, and of course by ICT and web-based reality are essential. Informal learning has often been regarded as the opposite and criticism of formal education. However, since 2000s, informal education has...
Arias, Jose Manuel; Solana, Julian Miguel
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the characteristics that make information systems useful in gathering and processing information with the aim of organizational learning and subsequent structural adaptation for better fitting to market requirements. Design/methodology/approach: Adaptation is a must when turning to foster the competitiveness and sustainability of the organization. Findings and Originality/value: It is clear that information systems can really create a differenc...
Vaičiūnienė, Vilhelmina; Gedvilienė, Genutė
Education in Lithuania is undergoing great transformations that are affecting higher education. Today's education at large experiences challenges caused by new technologies, abundance of information resources, thus being forced to search for new and effective methods of teaching / learning. The issue of information literacy at university level in Lithuania has not been researched in more depth so far. Integration of information literacy into the curriculum of higher education is a key questio...
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: This paper provides a review of previously published work related to active learning in information systems (IS courses. Background: There are a rising number of strategies in higher education that offer promise in regards to getting students’ attention and helping them learn, such as flipped classrooms and offering courses online. These learning strategies are part of the pedagogical technique known as active learning. Active learning is a strategy that became popular in the early 1990s and has proven itself as a valid tool for helping students to be engaged with learning. Methodology: This work follows a systematic method for identifying and coding previous research based on an aspect of interest. The authors identified and assessed research through a search of ABI/Inform scholarly journal abstracts and keywords, as well as additional research databases, using the search terms “active learning” and “information systems” from 2000 through June 2016. Contribution: This synthesis of active learning exercises provides guidance for information technology faculty looking to implement active learning strategies in their classroom by demonstrating how IS faculty might begin to introduce more active learning techniques in their teaching as well as by presenting a sample teaching agenda for a class that uses a mix of active and passive learning techniques to engage student learning. Findings: Twenty successful types of active learning exercises in IS courses are presented. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: This paper offers a “how to” resource of successful active learning strategies for IS faculty interested in implementing active learning in the classroom. Recommendation for Researchers: This work provides an example of a systematic literature review as a means to assess successful implementations of active learning in IS. Impact on Society: An updated definition of active learning is presented as well as a meaningful
Maura A Smale
Games-based learning is an innovative pedagogical strategy employed at all levels of education, and much research in education, psychology, and other disciplines supports its effectiveness in engaging and motivating students, as well as increasing student learning. Many libraries have incorporated games into their collections and programming. College and university libraries have begun to use games for information literacy and library instruction. Academic librarians use commercially-produ...
Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.
Post-normal science requires public engagement and adaptive corrections in addressing issues with high complexity and uncertainty. An adaptive management framework is presented for the improved management of natural resources and environments through a public participation process. The framework solicits the gathering and transformation and/or modeling of scientific information but also explicitly solicits the expression of participant beliefs. Beliefs and information are compared, explicitly discussed for alignments or misalignments, and ultimately melded back together as a "knowledge" basis for making decisions. An effort is made to recognize the human or participant biases that may affect the information base and the potential decisions. In a separate step, an attempt is made to recognize and predict the potential "winners" and "losers" (perceived or real) of any decision or action. These "winners" and "losers" include present human communities with different spatial, demographic or socio-economic characteristics as well as more dispersed or more diffusely characterized regional or global communities. "Winners" and "losers" may also include future human communities as well as communities of other biotic species. As in any adaptive management framework, assessment of predictions, iterative follow-through and adaptation of policies or actions is essential, and commonly very difficult or impossible to achieve. Recognizing beforehand the limits of adaptive management is essential. More generally, knowledge of the behavioral and economic sciences and of ethics and sociology will be key to a successful implementation of this adaptive management framework. Knowledge of biogeophysical processes will also be essential, but by definition of the issues being addressed, will always be incomplete and highly uncertain. The human dimensions of the issues addressed and the participatory processes used carry their own complexities and uncertainties. Some ideas and principles are
Lewandowsky, S.; Brown, G. D.; Cook, J.
Improved communication of scientific findings requires knowledge not only of how people process information, but also how such information spreads through society and how people's opinions are shaped by those of others. Recent advances in cognitive science have yielded mathematical modeling techniques that permit the detailed analysis of individuals' cognition as well as the behavior of communities in the aggregate. We present two case studies that highlight the insights that can be derived from mathematical models of cognition: We show how rational processing of information (i.e., Bayesian hypothesis revision) can nonetheless give rise to seemingly 'irrational' belief updating, as for example when acceptance of human-caused global warming decreases among conservatives in response to evidence for human-caused global warming. We also show in an agent-based simulation how social norms can lead to polarization of societies. The model assumes that agents located within a social network observe the behavior of neighbours and infer from their behavior the social distribution of particular attitudes (e.g. towards climate change). Agents are assumed to dislike behaviours that are extreme within their neighbourhood (social extremeness aversion), and hence have a tendency to conform. However, agents are also assumed to prefer choices that are consistent with their own true beliefs (authenticity preference). Expression of attitudes reflects a compromise between these opposing principles. The model sheds light on the role of perceived rather than actual social consensus on attitudes to climate change. This is particularly relevant given the widespread perception among those who reject climate science that the percentage of the public that is sharing their beliefs is much higher than it actually is.
Chen, Gongxiang; Fu, Xiaolan
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of multimodal information on learning performance and judgment of learning (JOL). Experiment 1 examined the effects of representation type (word-only versus word-plus-picture) and presentation channel (visual-only versus visual-plus-auditory) on recall and immediate-JOL in fixed-rate…
The focus of this paper is a project conducted in 2011, exploring the use of "YouTube" in the classroom. The project conducted a number of focus groups for which highlighted a number of issues surrounding independent informal learning environments. The questions posed by this research are concerned with what constitutes learning in these…
Mitchell, Alanah; Petter, Stacie; Harris, Albert L.
Aim/Purpose: This paper provides a review of previously published work related to active learning in information systems (IS) courses. Background: There are a rising number of strategies in higher education that offer promise in regards to getting students' attention and helping them learn, such as flipped classrooms and offering courses online.…
Börner, D. (2012). Ambient Learning Displays - Distributed Mixed Reality Information Mash-ups to support Ubiquitous Learning. 2012 IEEE Seventh International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technology in Education (pp. 337-338). March, 27-30, 2012, Takamatsu, Japan: IEEE Computer
Veermans, Koen; van Joolingen, Wouter; de Jong, Ton
This article describes a study into the role of heuristic support in facilitating discovery learning through simulation-based learning. The study compares the use of two such learning environments in the physics domain of collisions. In one learning environment (implicit heuristics) heuristics are only used to provide the learner with guidance…
Xu, Bo; Lin, Hongfei; Lin, Yuan; Ma, Yunlong; Yang, Liang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Zhihao
In these years, the number of biomedical articles has increased exponentially, which becomes a problem for biologists to capture all the needed information manually. Information retrieval technologies, as the core of search engines, can deal with the problem automatically, providing users with the needed information. However, it is a great challenge to apply these technologies directly for biomedical retrieval, because of the abundance of domain specific terminologies. To enhance biomedical retrieval, we propose a novel framework based on learning to rank. Learning to rank is a series of state-of-the-art information retrieval techniques, and has been proved effective in many information retrieval tasks. In the proposed framework, we attempt to tackle the problem of the abundance of terminologies by constructing ranking models, which focus on not only retrieving the most relevant documents, but also diversifying the searching results to increase the completeness of the resulting list for a given query. In the model training, we propose two novel document labeling strategies, and combine several traditional retrieval models as learning features. Besides, we also investigate the usefulness of different learning to rank approaches in our framework. Experimental results on TREC Genomics datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework for biomedical information retrieval.
Full Text Available Nowadays, eLearning standards' support within eLearning systems is much discussed problem. In this problem domain especially the reference model SCORM must be considered. This de-facto standard is a package of common standards and specifications used for the standardization of eLearning activities as eLearning content preparation, using e-course, communication etc. Implementation of standards itself is a process with great difficulty and time requests. Interesting and considerable approach to this problem is dividing all the process into several standalone and isolated steps focused on the individual segments of standards. This concept, in the paper described as 4-tier model of eLearning standards’ implementation, principally based upon the SCORM model enables sequential implementation of support for standards of eLearning metadata, eLearning content and also communication and navigation in e-courses. This possibility leads to portability and independence of result e-content. Discuss concept is a framework for standardization within eLearning subsystem of University Information System at Mendel University in Brno.
...). The purpose of this thesis is to examine the various factors that influence organizational learning such as structure, environment, and culture and to examine how Information Technology can be used...
Desjardins, Elia Nelson
This dissertation examines the ways children use language to construct scientific knowledge in designed informal learning environments such as museums, aquariums, and zoos, with particular attention to autobiographical storytelling. This study takes as its foundation cultural-historical activity theory, defining learning as increased participation in meaningful, knowledge-based activity. It aims to improve experience design in informal learning environments by facilitating and building upon language interactions that are already in use by learners in these contexts. Fieldwork consists of audio recordings of individual children aged 4--12 as they explored a museum of science and technology with their families. Recordings were transcribed and coded according to the activity (task) and context (artifact/exhibit) in which the child was participating during each sequence of utterances. Additional evidence is provided by supplemental interviews with museum educators. Analysis suggests that short autobiographical stories can provide opportunities for learners to access metacognitive knowledge, for educators to assess learners' prior experience and knowledge, and for designers to engage affective pathways in order to increase participation that is both active and contemplative. Design implications are discussed and a design proposal for a distributed informal learning environment is presented.
Informal learning and information exchange form an important part of interactions between professionals in social media spaces but these spaces also trigger complex performances of self (Goffman 1959, Barbour and Marshall 2012). This paper, drawing upon research investigating the nature and efficacy of collaborative learning between professional participants within social media spaces, expands upon key findings on the roles of self-presentation, and emerging etiquette practices around peer co...
Pfajfar, Damjan; Santoro, Emiliano
In this paper we propose novel techniques for the empirical analysis of adaptive learning and sticky information in inflation expectations. These methodologies are applied to the distribution of households’ inflation expectations collected by the University of Michigan Survey Research Center....... To account for the evolution of the cross-section of inflation forecasts over time and measure the degree of heterogeneity in private agents’ forecasts, we explore time series of percentiles from the empirical distribution. Our results show that heterogeneity is pervasive in the process of inflation...... hand side of the median formed in accordance with adaptive learning and sticky information....
Fernando César Lima Leite
Full Text Available This paper presents results of study on the characteristics of search activities, access to and use of information, and dissemination habits of researchers from scientific research institutes. From the methodological point of view, it is a mixed methods study which adopted the concurrent triangulation strategy. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews and checklist, and then submitted to statistical and text analysis. The research sphere was consisted of researchers linked to the research units of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, and the sample basis were the researchers of the Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (CBPF and Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences (MAST. Among other aspects, the findings shows that the safeguarded their disciplinary differences, search, access and communication activities, regardless of the knowledge area, occurring mainly in the digital environment; communication habits are stimulated by motives common to scientists and social scientists and humanists, share knowledge and visibility are the main reasons for the dissemination of research results, physicists are naturally within the open access context.
Rohra, Dileep K.; Rohra, Vikram K.; Cahusac, Peter
Objectives: To compare the journal impact factor (JIF) and Eigenfactor score (ES) of Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)-indexed biomedical journals published from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 8 years. Methods: This is a retrospective study, conducted at Alfaisal University, Riyadh, KSA from January to March 2016. The Journal Citation Reports of ISI Web of Knowledge were accessed, and 6 Saudi biomedical journals were included for analysis. Results: All Saudi journals have improved their IF compared with their baseline. However, the performance of the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Neurosciences has been exceptionally good. The biggest improvement in percent growth in JIF was seen in the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal (approximately 887%) followed by Neurosciences (approximately 462%). Interestingly, the ES of all biomedical journals, except Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology and Saudi Medical Journal, increased over the years. The greatest growth in ES (more than 5 fold) was noted for Neurosciences and Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. Conclusion: This study shows that the overall quality of all Saudi biomedical journals has improved in the last 8 years. PMID:27761565
... Collection: Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Resources of... Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Resources of the United States.'' The draft report reviews key issues related to freshwater resource data and climate change and identifies next...
Arreskov, Anne Beiter; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke
the paper using the method of critical appraisal. Session content The didactic method used in the workshop is mostly small group activities with eight participants and two tutors in each group. The participants will receive two scientific papers: the BMJ-version of the Cochrane review about general health......Abstract title: Benefits and harms of general health checks - lifelong learning in general practice: how to read and use scientific literature Objectives After this workshop the participants will know the basics of how to read a systematic literature review and interpret a meta-analysis and be able......, assesses, and implements methods of diagnosis and treatment on the basis of the best available current research, clinical expertise, and combines this with the needs and preferences of the patient, is termed evidence-based medicine. By learning and practising the principles of evidence-based medicine, GPs...
Full Text Available Environmental scanning is the acquisition and use of information about events, trends, and relationships in an organization's external environment, the knowledge of which would assist management in planning the organization's future course of action. Depending on the organization's beliefs about environmental analyzability and the extent that it intrudes into the environment to understand it, four modes of scanning may be differentiated: undirected viewing, conditioned viewing, enacting, and searching. We analyze each mode of scanning by examining its characteristic information needs, information seeking, and information use behaviours. In addition, we analyze organizational learning processes by considering the sensemaking, knowledge creating and decision making processes at work in each mode.
Cohen, Yamit; Daikhin, Luba; Ahissar, Merav
What do we learn when we practice a simple perceptual task? Many studies have suggested that we learn to refine or better select the sensory representations of the task-relevant dimension. Here we show that learning is specific to the trained structural regularities. Specifically, when this structure is modified after training with a fixed temporal structure, performance regresses to pretraining levels, even when the trained stimuli and task are retained. This specificity raises key questions as to the importance of low-level sensory modifications in the learning process. We trained two groups of participants on a two-tone frequency discrimination task for several days. In one group, a fixed reference tone was consistently presented in the first interval (the second tone was higher or lower), and in the other group the same reference tone was consistently presented in the second interval. When following training, these temporal protocols were switched between groups, performance of both groups regressed to pretraining levels, and further training was needed to attain postlearning performance. ERP measures, taken before and after training, indicated that participants implicitly learned the temporal regularity of the protocol and formed an attentional template that matched the trained structure of information. These results are consistent with Reverse Hierarchy Theory, which posits that even the learning of simple perceptual tasks progresses in a top-down manner, hence can benefit from temporal regularities at the trial level, albeit at the potential cost that learning may be specific to these regularities.
Full Text Available Attention to integrate technology in teaching and learning has provided a major transformation in the landscape of education. Therefore, many innovations in teaching and learning have been technology-driven. The study attempted to examine what is engineering students’ perception regarding the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in mathematics learning as well as investigate their opinion about how ICT can be integrated to improve teaching and learning processes. The subjects were Iranian engineering students from two universities. The finding showed they are fully aware of importance of ICT in teaching and learning mathematics. Whilst, they were feeling comfortable and confident with technology, they do not have more experience of using technology in mathematics classes before. The findings supported the other studies, which indicated the potentials of ICT to facilitate students’ learning, improve teaching, and enhance institutional administration as established in the literature.Keywords: Technology, Mathematics Learning, Facebook, Attitude Toward ICT DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.5.2.1498.138-147
Full Text Available Community garden activities can play a significant role in bridging formal and informal learning, particularly in urban children’s science and environmental education. It promotes relational methods of learning, discussing, and practicing that will integrate food security, social interactions, community development, environmental activism, and cultural integration. Throughout the last five years of my community garden activities, I have learned that community garden-based practices adhere to particular forms of agency: embracing diversity, sharing power, and trust building as a part of everyday learning. My auto-ethnographic study provides valuable insights for environmental educators whose goals include, incorporating ethnic diversity as well as engaging children in research, ultimately leading to community action.
Robert, Nancy J.
This study investigated resident scientific evidence epistemology beliefs, evidence based medicine (EBM) self-efficacy beliefs, and EBM skills. A convenience sample of fifty-one residents located in six U.S. based residency programs completed an online instrument. Hofer's epistemology survey questionnaire was modified to test responses based on four types of scientific evidence encountered in medical practice (Clinical Trial Phase 1, Clinical Trial Phase 3, Meta-analysis and Qualitative). It was hypothesized that epistemology beliefs would differ based on the type of scientific evidence considered. A principal components analysis produced a two factor solution that was significant across type of scientific evidence suggesting that when evaluating epistemology beliefs context does matter. Factor 1 is related to the certainty of research methods and the certainty of medical conclusions and factor 2 denotes medical justification. For each type of scientific evidence, both factors differed on questions comprising the factor structure with significant differences found for the factor 1 and 2 questions. A justification belief case problem using checklist format was triangulated with the survey results, and as predicted the survey and checklist justification z scores indicated no significant differences, and two new justification themes emerged. Modified versions of Finney and Schraw's statistical self-efficacy and skill instruments produced expected significant EBM score correlations with unexpected results indicating that the number of EBM and statistics courses are not significant for EBM self-efficacy and skill scores. The study results were applied to the construction of a learning profile that provided residents belief and skill feedback specific to individual learning needs. The learning profile design incorporated core values related to 'Believer' populations that focus on art, harmony, tact and diplomacy. Future research recommendations include testing context
Montague, Ronald A.; Gregg, Lawrence A.; Martin, Shirley A.; Underwood, Leroy H.; Mcgee, John M.
The sharing of 'corporate knowledge' and lessons learned in the NASA aerospace community has been identified by Johnson Space Center survey participants as a desirable tool. The concept of the program is based on creating a user friendly information system that will allow engineers, scientists, and managers at all working levels to share their information and experiences with other users irrespective of location or organization. The survey addresses potential end uses for such a system and offers some guidance on the development of subsequent processes to ensure the integrity of the information shared. This system concept will promote sharing of information between NASA centers, between NASA and its contractors, between NASA and other government agencies, and perhaps between NASA and institutions of higher learning.
Schwab, Cheryl Jean
This dissertation is an investigation of the relationship between the multidimensional conception of scientific literacy and its assessment. The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), developed under the auspices of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the assessment of scientific literacy. PISA developed a continuum of performance for scientific literacy across three competencies (i.e., process, content, and situation). Foundational to the interpretation of PISA science assessment is PISA's definition of scientific literacy, which I argue incorporates three themes drawn from history: (a) scientific way of thinking, (b) everyday relevance of science, and (c) scientific literacy for all students. Three coordinated studies were conducted to investigate the validity of PISA science assessment and offer insight into the development of items to assess scientific 2 literacy. Multidimensional models of the internal structure of the PISA 2003 science items were found not to reflect the complex character of PISA's definition of scientific literacy. Although the multidimensional models across the three competencies significantly decreased the G2 statistic from the unidimensional model, high correlations between the dimensions suggest that the dimensions are similar. A cognitive analysis of student verbal responses to PISA science items revealed that students were using competencies of scientific literacy, but the competencies were not elicited by the PISA science items at the depth required by PISA's definition of scientific literacy. Although student responses contained only knowledge of scientific facts and simple scientific concepts, students were using more complex skills to interpret and communicate their responses. Finally the investigation of different scoring approaches and item response models illustrated different ways to interpret student responses to assessment items. These
Wang, Huiwei; Huang, Tingwen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Chen, Guo
This paper considers the problem of designing adaptive learning algorithms to seek the Nash equilibrium (NE) of the constrained energy trading game among individually strategic players with incomplete information. In this game, each player uses the learning automaton scheme to generate the action probability distribution based on his/her private information for maximizing his own averaged utility. It is shown that if one of admissible mixed-strategies converges to the NE with probability one, then the averaged utility and trading quantity almost surely converge to their expected ones, respectively. For the given discontinuous pricing function, the utility function has already been proved to be upper semicontinuous and payoff secure which guarantee the existence of the mixed-strategy NE. By the strict diagonal concavity of the regularized Lagrange function, the uniqueness of NE is also guaranteed. Finally, an adaptive learning algorithm is provided to generate the strategy probability distribution for seeking the mixed-strategy NE.
Full Text Available In conditions of differentiation the learning materials selection will optimize the training English for Specific Purposes of the future professionals in the field of information technology at university level. The purpose of the article is to define the basic unit of learning material, the factors of influence on the learning material selection, principles, criteria and the procedure of learning material selection in this paper. Reviewing the scientific achievements in the learning material selection in teaching English has become a basis for defining the factors of influence, principles and criteria in the research. The basic unit of learning material (learning English text for professional purposes is outlined. The factors of influence and principles (correspondence of learning materials to professional interests and needs of information technology students; necessary ability and accessibility; regarding the linguistic and stylistic necessity and sufficiency; availability of Internet sources information of the learning material selection are defined. Also, the qualitative criteria (authenticity; professional significance, relevance and informativeness; conformity of foreign language level and intellectual development of students; variety of genres and forms of speech, their sufficient filling by linguistic material; coherence, integrity, consistency, semantic completeness; topic conformity; situation conformity; unlimited access, reliability and exemplarity of Internet sources and the quantitative criteria (the amount of material of the learning material selection are highlighted. The process of English for Specific Purposes material selection (defining the disciplines of different cycles; defining spheres and related topics; outlining situations, communicative roles and intentions of professional communication; specifying the sources of selection; evaluating the texts; analysis of the knowledge, skills and sub-skills required for the
Zaidah, A.; Sukarmin; Sunarno, W.
This study aimed to determine the influence of a physics-based scientific learning to increase student’s critical thinking skill. This type of this research was quantitative research with taking the conclusion through statistical analysis. This research was carried out in MA (Senior High School) Mu'allimat NW Pancor in the second semester in the academic year of 2016/2017 with all students of XI class. The sampling is done by using technique purposive sampling where the class was taken from XI 6 class. Based on the result of descriptive analysis, it was obtained an average pre-test score of 49.17 and an average post-test score of 82.43. Also, the results showed that the average score was gained of 0.67 with a medium category. Based on the inferential analysis showed the value of t = 22.559 while the ttable in significance level of 5% was 2.04. Thus, t > the ttable from Ha is accepted. Therefore, the pre-test and posttest were different significantly when the students used scientific-based learning. The result showed that a physics-based scientific learning has influenced to increase the student’s critical thinking skill.
Priyanto, A.; Linuwih, S.; Aji, M. P.; Bich, D. D.
Scientific learning material is still needed by students at Nguyen Tat Thanh High School (NTT), Hanoi Vietnam in order to enhance the students’ cognitive skill. Cognitive skill represents the level of students’ understanding to the particular material. Students’ cognitive skill can be improved by applying the learning material based on scientific approach as a treatment. The enhancement of students’ cognitive skill can be measured by analyzing the students’ test result collected before and after treatment. The analysis is focused to measure the enhancement or the sifted of cognitive aspects including remembering aspect (C1), understanding aspect (C2), applying aspect (C3), analyzing aspect (C4), and evaluating aspect (C5). According to the analysis the enhancement of cognitive aspects are 8.26% of remembering, 3.26% of understanding, 32.94% of applying, 21.74% of analyzing, and 21.74% of evaluating. The major enhancements are occured at applying, analyzing, and evaluating aspects. Therefore it can be concluded that students’ cognitive skill is enhanced by applying scientific learning material of static electricity.
Demasson, Andrew; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine
Introduction: This study reports an investigation into the ways in which people engaged in a serious leisure activity can experience using information to learn (also known as information literacy). Method: Data were collected through twenty-two semi-structured, one-on-one, phenomenographic interviews conducted with identified serious leisure…
The present article highlights the importance of the motivational construct for the foreign language learning (FLL) process. More specifically, in the present article it is argued that motivation is likely to play a significant role at all three stages of the FLL process as they are discussed within the information processing model of FLL, namely,…
This paper provides an overview of MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) and contextualizes them within the broader trends of open, informal and mobile learning. It then discuss Phonar Nation, a free, open, non-credit five-week photography course that was offered twice in 2014 using mobile media to reach youth from 12-18 years of age. The author…
Fenichel, Marilyn; Schweingruber, Heidi A.
Practitioners in informal science settings--museums, after-school programs, science and technology centers, media enterprises, libraries, aquariums, zoos, and botanical gardens--are interested in finding out what learning looks like, how to measure it, and what they can do to ensure that people of all ages, from different backgrounds and cultures,…
Chu, Samuel K. W.; Kwan, Alvin C. M.; Warning, Peter
The functions and possibilities afforded by blogging have been suggested to be relevant to learning and information management. Its increasing use in the business and education sectors is documented, but currently its use in professional education or internship is limited. The social nature of blogging appears to support the applicability of blogs…
Earl, Grace L
To implement a cooperative learning activity to engage students in analyzing tertiary drug information resources in a literature evaluation course. The class was divided into 4 sections to form expert groups and each group researched a different set of references using the jigsaw technique. Each member of each expert group was reassigned to a jigsaw group so that each new group was composed of 4 students from 4 different expert groups. The jigsaw groups met to discuss search strategies and rate the usefulness of the references. In addition to group-based learning, teaching methods included students' writing an independent research paper to enhance their abilities to search and analyze drug information resources. The assignment and final course grades improved after implementation of the activity. Students agreed that class discussions were a useful learning experience and 75% (77/102) said they would use the drug information references for other courses. The jigsaw technique was successful in engaging students in cooperative learning to improve critical thinking skills regarding drug information.
In her new book "Music, Informal Learning and the School" (2008), Lucy Green consolidates many ideas presented in her previous writings. There is little doubt of the significance of her approach, but it raises epistemological and pedagogical issues that must be addressed to better understand where music teachers go next with informal…
In her book "Informal Learning and the School: A new classroom pedagogy" Lucy Green notes: "The issues ... centre around the importance of listening to young people's voices and taking their values and their culture seriously" (Green, 2008, p. 185). It can be argued that for young people, "their culture" is frequently…
Becker, Karen; Bish, Adelle
Purpose: Many organisations are reconsidering their investment in formal education and training, in favour of more informal approaches to learning such as mentoring, temporary assignments, stretch assignments, and job rotation. The purpose of this paper is to explore the ways in which managers have developed capabilities for their roles thus far…
This paper is based on the author's empirical experience in assisting cultural immersion programs through developing multicultural collections, promoting diversity resources, and creating a supportive information environment for faculty and students. After summarizing the significance, goals, learning objectives, and program models of cultural…
Delgado-Almonte, Milagros; Andreu, Hernando Bustos; Pedraja-Rejas, Liliana
This article describes a teaching experience in which information and communication technologies were applied in five industrial engineering courses at the Universidad de Tarapaca in Chile. The paper compares the performance and course pass rates of the e-learning platform and portable pocket PC platform with those of the same courses teaching in…
Full Text Available Online social spaces, where users can exchange information, opinions and resources, have achieved wide popularity and are gaining attention in many research fields, including education. Their actual potential support to learning, however, still requires investigation, especially because portals can widely differ as concerns purpose and internal structure. This paper aims to contribute in this respect, by concentrating on question answering, a kind of social space not yet widely discussed in education. We analyzed a small corpus of posts from the Languages section of Yahoo! Answers Italy, checking if the questions reveal some inclination to learning or just the desire to obtain a service and if the answers provided by the community members can be considered as reliable sources of knowledge. Our analysis highlights the presence of a variety of question/answer types, from mere information exchange or help for task completion, up to language-related questions prompting valuable short lessons. The quality of answers may widely vary as concerns pertinence, correctness and richness of supporting elements. We found a high number of purely task-oriented questions and answers, but also a higher number of learning-oriented questions and correct, informative answers. This suggests that this kind of social space actually has valuable potential for informal learning.
Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed
Mooij, T., & Smeets, E. (2011, 13-16 September). Information Literacy and technology to improve learning and education. Presentation and discussion in a cross-network symposium of networks 16 and 12 at the ‘European Conference on Educational Research’ of the “European Educational Research Association” (EERA), Berlin, Germany.
Diehm, Rae-Anne; Lupton, Mandy
This paper reports on an empirical study that explores the ways students approach learning to find and use information. Based on interviews with 15 education students in an Australian university, this study uses phenomenography as its methodological and theoretical basis. The study reveals that students use three main strategies for learning…
Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed
Mooij, T., & Smeets, E. (2011, 13-16 September). Information Literacy and technology to improve learning and education. Presentation and discussion in a cross-network symposium of networks 16 and 12 at the ‘European Conference on Educational Research’ of the “European Educational Research
Lowe, M. Sara; Booth, Char; Tagge, Natalie; Stone, Sean
The Claremont Colleges Library Instruction Services Department developed a quiz that could be integrated into the consortial learning management software to accompany a local online, open-source information literacy tutorial. The quiz is integrated into individual course pages, allowing students to receive a grade for completion and improving…
knowing how, how to learn, how to secure information, use it, and how to relate to a ..... 7. 2.3. Government politics and programmes. 20. 6.7. Entertainment. 9. 3.0 ..... Trends in digital library service in academic libraries in South Africa:.
Jose Manuel Arias
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the characteristics that make information systems useful in gathering and processing information with the aim of organizational learning and subsequent structural adaptation for better fitting to market requirements. Design/methodology/approach: Adaptation is a must when turning to foster the competitiveness and sustainability of the organization. Findings and Originality/value: It is clear that information systems can really create a difference in the way an organization acquires information from its environment and from itself in order to achieve a high-quality decision taking process. Research limitations/implications: Organizations have to look inside themselves in order to ensure the comprehension of their core competencies and the way they carry them out. Practical implications: Organizational learning is one of the means employed by organizations to get adapted to their surrounding environment. Social implications: Systems engineering techniques can be applied in order to leverage these core competencies and make organizations adaptable to the organizational environment requirements through the use of information systems. Originality/value: To obtain competitive advantages in the market. Keywords: competitive advantage, information systems, knowledge management, & the learning organization.
Sales, Luana Farias; Sayao, Luis Fernando
In the context of the data-oriented science (eScience), a considerable part of the results of research activities has been created in digital formats. This means that the memory of the scientific institutions involved in this new scientific paradigm may be at risk of being lost by rapid technological obsolescence, the known fragility of digital media and also by the fragmentation of information and knowledge scattered across multiples repositories. Thus, management of research data in a digital networked and distributed environment becomes an increasing challenge for the research world and the whole area of information: information science, librarianship, knowledge management, archival science and information technology; moreover, in the dynamic environment featuring eScience, there is a need for novel concepts of documents establishing a linkage between traditional documents - printed or digital - stored in repositories, with the data sets stored in data repositories. In this new research environment, an important issue is how to preserve these new complex documents so that they maintain their structure, meaning and authenticity and also its ability to be retrieved, accessed and reused through time and space. In this sense, this paper proposes an information model focused on the curation of scientific memory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN/IEN). The model considers the traditional scientific documents (theses, articles, books, etc.) in digital formats and all other relevant data and information related to them, such as: scientific data, software, simulations, photos, videos, historical facts, news, etc., compounding an enhanced publication type oriented to the nuclear area. (author)
Sales, Luana Farias, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sayao, Luis Fernando, E-mail: email@example.com [Centro de Informacoes Nucleares (CIN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
In the context of the data-oriented science (eScience), a considerable part of the results of research activities has been created in digital formats. This means that the memory of the scientific institutions involved in this new scientific paradigm may be at risk of being lost by rapid technological obsolescence, the known fragility of digital media and also by the fragmentation of information and knowledge scattered across multiples repositories. Thus, management of research data in a digital networked and distributed environment becomes an increasing challenge for the research world and the whole area of information: information science, librarianship, knowledge management, archival science and information technology; moreover, in the dynamic environment featuring eScience, there is a need for novel concepts of documents establishing a linkage between traditional documents - printed or digital - stored in repositories, with the data sets stored in data repositories. In this new research environment, an important issue is how to preserve these new complex documents so that they maintain their structure, meaning and authenticity and also its ability to be retrieved, accessed and reused through time and space. In this sense, this paper proposes an information model focused on the curation of scientific memory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN/IEN). The model considers the traditional scientific documents (theses, articles, books, etc.) in digital formats and all other relevant data and information related to them, such as: scientific data, software, simulations, photos, videos, historical facts, news, etc., compounding an enhanced publication type oriented to the nuclear area. (author)
Weiskel, Peter K.
Human activity has profoundly altered the Charles River and its watershed over the past 375 years. Restoration of environmental quality in the watershed has become a high priority for private- and public-sector organizations across the region. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs worked together to coordinate the efforts of the various organizations. One result of this initiative has been a series of scientific studies that provide critical information concerning some of the major hydrologic and ecological concerns in the watershed. These studies have focused upon: * Streamflows - Limited aquifer storage, growing water demands, and the spread of impervious surfaces are some of the factors exacerbating low summer streamflows in headwater areas of the watershed. Coordinated management of withdrawals, wastewater returns, and stormwater runoff could substantially increase low streamflows in the summer. Innovative approaches to flood control, including preservation of upstream wetland storage capacity and construction of a specially designed dam at the river mouth, have greatly reduced flooding in the lower part of the watershed in recent decades. * Water quality - Since the mid-1990s, the bacterial quality of the Charles River has improved markedly, because discharges from combined sewer overflows and the number of illicit sewer connections to municipal storm drains have been reduced. Improved management of stormwater runoff will likely be required, however, for full attainment of State and Federal water-quality standards. Phosphorus inputs from a variety of sources remain an important water-quality problem. * Fish communities and habitat quality - The Charles River watershed supports a varied fish community of about 20 resident and migratory species. Habitat conditions for fish and other aquatic species have improved in many parts of the river system in recent years. However, serious challenges remain
Full Text Available The ability to choose freely is captured under the umbrella concept of “free will,” which designates an ability that plays a crucial role in most understandings of autonomy and responsibility and, thus, bears significance for moral practice and moral theory. Some claim that neuroscience research challenges the existence of free will/voluntary action while some who adopt stronger eliminativist stances have gone as far as describing free will as an illusion. Contrary to that, those relying on realist stances have restated the foundational value and role of folk psychological concepts of voluntary action and free will in, for example, the domains of ethics and law. An emerging body of research in cognitive science and social psychology has generated results suggesting that the phenomena captured by the concepts describing free will and voluntary action are dynamic and responsive to priming and framing effects. We propose that this body of research suggests the existence of dynamic and consequential properties of free will better captured following pragmatist theory and instrumentalist epistemology. This contrasts the simpler static concept of free will and the related metaphysics that was at the basis of earlier debates and structured around the poles of realism and eliminativism. This paper contextualizes ontological and epistemological debates about free will, describes a scientifically-informed and instrumentalist account of the concept of free will and voluntary action consistent with recent research in cognitive science, and discusses its implications for research (e.g., theoretical assumptions of research paradigms, interdisciplinary research and practice (e.g., impact on self-image and social behavior.
Reynolds, Gemma; Wasely, David; Dunne, Güler; Askew, Chris
Research with children has demonstrated that both positive vicarious learning (modelling) and positive verbal information can reduce children's acquired fear responses for a particular stimulus. However, this fear reduction appears to be more effective when the intervention pathway matches the initial fear learning pathway. That is, positive verbal information is a more effective intervention than positive modelling when fear is originally acquired via negative verbal information. Research has yet to explore whether fear reduction pathways are also important for fears acquired via vicarious learning. To test this, an experiment compared the effectiveness of positive verbal information and positive vicarious learning interventions for reducing vicariously acquired fears in children (7-9 years). Both vicarious and informational fear reduction interventions were found to be equally effective at reducing vicariously acquired fears, suggesting that acquisition and intervention pathways do not need to match for successful fear reduction. This has significant implications for parents and those working with children because it suggests that providing children with positive information or positive vicarious learning immediately after a negative modelling event may prevent more serious fears developing.