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Sample records for learning predominantly relied

  1. Towards Concept Understanding relying on Conceptualisation in Constructivist Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    and understandings over their mental structures in the framework of constructivism, and I will clarify my logical [and semantic] conceptions of humans’ concept understandings. This research focuses on philosophy of education and on logics of human learning. It connects with the topics ‘Cognition in Education......, through this constructivism to a pedagogical theory of learning. I will mainly focus on conceptual and epistemological analysis of humans’ conceptualisations based on their own mental objects (schemata). Subsequently, I will propose an analytical specification of humans’ conceptualisations...

  2. Learning Similar Actions by Reinforcement or Sensory-Prediction Errors Rely on Distinct Physiological Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Shintaro; Mawase, Firas; Celnik, Pablo

    2017-09-14

    Humans can acquire knowledge of new motor behavior via different forms of learning. The two forms most commonly studied have been the development of internal models based on sensory-prediction errors (error-based learning) and success-based feedback (reinforcement learning). Human behavioral studies suggest these are distinct learning processes, though the neurophysiological mechanisms that are involved have not been characterized. Here, we evaluated physiological markers from the cerebellum and the primary motor cortex (M1) using noninvasive brain stimulations while healthy participants trained finger-reaching tasks. We manipulated the extent to which subjects rely on error-based or reinforcement by providing either vector or binary feedback about task performance. Our results demonstrated a double dissociation where learning the task mainly via error-based mechanisms leads to cerebellar plasticity modifications but not long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity changes in M1; while learning a similar action via reinforcement mechanisms elicited M1 LTP-like plasticity but not cerebellar plasticity changes. Our findings indicate that learning complex motor behavior is mediated by the interplay of different forms of learning, weighing distinct neural mechanisms in M1 and the cerebellum. Our study provides insights for designing effective interventions to enhance human motor learning. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Toward a Better Nutritional Aiding in Disasters: Relying on Lessons Learned during the Bam Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouie Moghadam, Mahmoud; Amiresmaieli, Mohammadreza; Hassibi, Mohammad; Doostan, Farideh; Khosravi, Sajad

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Examining various problems in the aftermath of disasters is very important to the disaster victims. Managing and coordinating food supply and its distribution among the victims is one of the most important problems after an earthquake. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to recognize problems and experiences in the field of nutritional aiding during an earthquake. This qualitative study was of phenomenological type. Using the purposive sampling method, 10 people who had experienced nutritional aiding during the Bam Earthquake (Iran; 2003) were interviewed. Colaizzi's method of analysis was used to analyze interview data. The findings of this study identified four main categories and 19 sub-categories concerning challenges in the nutritional aiding during the Bam Earthquake. The main topics included managerial, aiding, infrastructural, and administrative problems. The major problems in nutritional aiding include lack of prediction and development of a specific program of suitable nutritional pattern and nutritional assessment of the victims in critical conditions. Forming specialized teams, educating team members about nutrition, and making use of experts' knowledge are the most important steps to resolve these problems in the critical conditions; these measures are the duties of the relevant authorities. Nekouie Moghadam M , Amiresmaieli M , Hassibi M , Doostan F , Khosravi S . Toward a better nutritional aiding in disasters: relying on lessons learned during the Bam Earthquake. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):382-386.

  4. Place preference and vocal learning rely on distinct reinforcers in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Don; Chen, Ruidong; Goldberg, Jesse H

    2018-04-30

    In reinforcement learning (RL) agents are typically tasked with maximizing a single objective function such as reward. But it remains poorly understood how agents might pursue distinct objectives at once. In machines, multiobjective RL can be achieved by dividing a single agent into multiple sub-agents, each of which is shaped by agent-specific reinforcement, but it remains unknown if animals adopt this strategy. Here we use songbirds to test if navigation and singing, two behaviors with distinct objectives, can be differentially reinforced. We demonstrate that strobe flashes aversively condition place preference but not song syllables. Brief noise bursts aversively condition song syllables but positively reinforce place preference. Thus distinct behavior-generating systems, or agencies, within a single animal can be shaped by correspondingly distinct reinforcement signals. Our findings suggest that spatially segregated vocal circuits can solve a credit assignment problem associated with multiobjective learning.

  5. Wild hummingbirds rely on landmarks not geometry when learning an array of flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurly, T Andrew; Fox, Thomas A O; Zwueste, Danielle M; Healy, Susan D

    2014-09-01

    Rats, birds or fish trained to find a reward in one corner of a small enclosure tend to learn the location of the reward using both nearby visual features and the geometric relationships of corners and walls. Because these studies are conducted under laboratory and thereby unnatural conditions, we sought to determine whether wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) learning a single reward location within a rectangular array of flowers would similarly employ both nearby visual landmarks and the geometric relationships of the array. Once subjects had learned the location of the reward, we used test probes in which one or two experimental landmarks were moved or removed in order to reveal how the birds remembered the reward location. The hummingbirds showed no evidence that they used the geometry of the rectangular array of flowers to remember the reward. Rather, they used our experimental landmarks, and possibly nearby, natural landmarks, to orient and navigate to the reward. We believe this to be the first test of the use of rectangular geometry by wild animals, and we recommend further studies be conducted in ecologically relevant conditions in order to help determine how and when animals form complex geometric representations of their local environments.

  6. Being White in Black Spaces: Teaching and Learning at a Predominately Black Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Timothy E.; Thomas, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This paper serves as a beginning conversation of how two White males perspectives' were shaped and how those perspectives evolved while attending and teaching at a Predominately Black Institution (PBI). Their initial understandings of Whiteness are introduced. This is an ethnographic study that utilized personal narratives from a college professor…

  7. Science Teacher Educators’ Engagement with Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry in Predominantly Paper-Based Distance Learning Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. FRASER

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the dilemmas science educators face when having to introduce Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK to science student teachers in a predominantly paper-based distance learning environment. It draws on the premise that science education is bound by the Nature of Science (NOS, and by the Nature of Scientific Inquiry (NOSI. Furthermore, science educators’ own PCK, and the limitations of a predominantly paper-based distance education (DE model of delivery are challenges that they have to face when introducing PCK and authentic inquiry-based learning experiences. It deprives them and their students from optimal engagement in a science-oriented community of practice, and leaves little opportunity to establish flourishing communities of inquiry. This study carried out a contextual analysis of the tutorial material to assess the PCK that the student teachers had been exposed to. This comprised the ideas of a community of inquiry, a community of science, the conceptualization of PCK, scientific inquiry, and the 5E Instructional Model of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. The analysis confirmed that the lecturers had a good understanding of NOS, NOSI and science process skills, but found it difficult to design interventions to optimize the PCK development of students through communities of inquiry. Paper-based tutorials are ideal to share theory, policies and practices, but fail to monitor the engagement of learners in communities of inquiry. The article concludes with a number of suggestions to address the apparent lack of impact power of the paper-based mode of delivery, specifically in relation to inquiry-based teaching and learning (IBTL.

  8. Relying on the Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TK YAYIN KURULU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The editorial discusses internet filtering in the light of the optional internet packages for users, namely Family, Standard, Kids and Domestic, to be offered by the Information Technologies Board with the "Secure Internet Law" to take effect on August 22, 2011. Also sharing the hesitations about the objectivity of the application with the reader, editorial emphasizes an education system focused on breeding citizens who are not scared of relying on the information and who can, by themselves, decide whether information is harmful or not. References are made to the results of similar applications abroad while the press statement made by Turkish NGOs on the issue are included.

  9. USMLE performances in a predominantly Asian and Pacific Islander population of medical students in a problem-based learning curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Richard T; Naguwa, Gwen S; Guerrero, Anthony P S; Hishinuma, Earl S; Lindberg, Marlene A; Judd, Nanette K

    2003-05-01

    To compare the USMLE performances of students of various ethnicities, predominantly Pacific Islander and Asian, at one medical school and to examine the predictive validity of MCAT scores for USMLE performance. A total of 258 students in the graduating classes of 1996-2000 at the University of Hawai'i School of Medicine were classified by ethnicity. Demographic and performance characteristics of the groups were examined, and MCAT scores with and without undergraduate science GPA were used to predict USMLE performance. Under- and over-prediction rates were computed for each ethnic group. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly by gender or undergraduate GPA. Chinese, Caucasian, and Other Asian students tended to have higher MCAT scores than Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander, and Filipino students. Ethnic groups did not differ significantly in prediction of USMLE Step 1 performance. For Step 2, MCAT scores significantly over-predicted performance of Filipino students and tended to under-predict performance of Caucasian students. Although MCAT scores and science GPA were good predictors of USMLE performance, ethnic differences were found in the degrees of their predictive validity. These findings both replicate and extend results of earlier studies, and again point to the importance of exploring additional predictor variables. The authors encourage future research on the effects of the following factors on success in medical school: reading and test-taking skills, socio-cultural and environmental influences on learning, communication styles, primary language use, family support, and family responsibilities.

  10. Science Teacher Educators' Engagement with Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry in Predominantly Paper-Based Distance Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, William J.

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the dilemmas science educators face when having to introduce Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) to science student teachers in a predominantly paper-based distance learning environment. It draws on the premise that science education is bound by the Nature of Science (NOS), and by the Nature of Scientific Inquiry (NOSI).…

  11. How Does the Use of Role-Play Affect the Learning of Year 4 Children in a Predominately EAL Class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Katrina; Mistry, Malini Tina

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates role-play activities and how they can be used within learning for English as an Additional Language (EAL) pupils in a Key Stage 2 setting in England. Through observations, results showed effective role-play activities can be beneficial to EAL pupils, allowing them to practice words and phrases in a relaxed atmosphere…

  12. Acquiring experience in pathology predominantly from what you see, not from what you read: the HIPON e-learning platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Olga; Vrasidas, Charalambos; Brcic, Luka; Armenski, Goce; Seiwerth, Sven; Smeets, Annemieke; van Krieken, J Han Jm; Lazaris, Andreas C

    2015-01-01

    It is indisputable that nowadays one of the hardest and most important tasks in medicine and especially in medical education, is the conversion of the extensive amount of available data, into medical experience, after a proper analysis. A project under the title "ICT (Information and Communication Technology) eModules on HistoPathology: a useful online tool for students, researchers and professionals - HIPON", co-financed by the Lifelong Learning Program of the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA), The Commission of the European Union, has been launched at the beginning of 2013. HIPON's purpose is not to provide just another pathology website atlas, but to convey professional experience and thinking in pathology. HIPON has resulted in a well-structured and user-friendly, open resource, multi-language, e-learning platform which, taking advantage of modern image technology, offers medical students, researchers, and professionals a valuable teaching instrument so that they can acquire professional experience in pathology. The mid-term report of HIPON has been favorably evaluated by the EACEA experts who appreciated the potential of our teaching tool in providing the opportunity and the means to acquire medical experience. Through the use of virtual slides, educative videos and microscopic, high resolution, marked images accompanied by relevant questions and answers, HIPON project aims to make end-users able to think as experienced pathologists and become highly efficient in correlating pathologic data with other clinical-laboratory information.

  13. Strength That Silences: Learning from the Experiences of Black Female College Students with Mental Health Concerns at a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesar-Richardson, Nadia Monique

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines first person accounts of college experiences provided by Black female college students with mental health concerns at a predominantly White institution. Utilizing the theoretical frameworks of disability studies and critical race feminism to develop the study and analyze the collected data, this study considers the…

  14. Juxtaposed Color Halftoning Relying on Discrete Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Babaei, Vahid; Hersch, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Most halftoning techniques allow screen dots to overlap. They rely on the assumption that the inks are transparent, i.e. the inks do not scatter a significant portion of the light back to the air. However, many special effect inks such as metallic inks, iridescent inks or pigmented inks are not transparent. In order to create halftone images, halftone dots formed by such inks should be juxtaposed, i.e. printed side by side. We propose an efficient juxtaposed color halftoning technique for pla...

  15. An atom trap relying on optical pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouyer, P.; Lemonde, P.; Ben Dahan, M.; Michaud, A.; Salomon, C.; Dalibard, J.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated a new radiation pressure trap which relies on optical pumping and does not require any magnetic field. It employs six circularly polarized divergent beams and works on the red of a J g →J e = J g + 1 atomic transition with J g ≥1/2. We have demonstrated this trap with cesium atoms from a vapour cell using the 852 nm J g = 4→J e = 5 resonance transition. The trap contained up to 3.10 7 atoms in a cloud of 1/√e radius of 330 μm. (orig.)

  16. Juxtaposed color halftoning relying on discrete lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Vahid; Hersch, Roger D

    2013-02-01

    Most halftoning techniques allow screen dots to overlap. They rely on the assumption that the inks are transparent, i.e., the inks do not scatter a significant portion of the light back to the air. However, many special effect inks, such as metallic inks, iridescent inks, or pigmented inks, are not transparent. In order to create halftone images, halftone dots formed by such inks should be juxtaposed, i.e., printed side by side. We propose an efficient juxtaposed color halftoning technique for placing any desired number of colorant layers side by side without overlapping. The method uses a monochrome library of screen elements made of discrete lines with rational thicknesses. Discrete line juxtaposed color halftoning is performed efficiently by multiple accesses to the screen element library.

  17. Intuitive Face Judgments Rely on Holistic Eye Movement Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura F. Mega

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-verbal signals such as facial expressions are of paramount importance for social encounters. Their perception predominantly occurs without conscious awareness and is effortlessly integrated into social interactions. In other words, face perception is intuitive. Contrary to classical intuition tasks, this work investigates intuitive processes in the realm of every-day type social judgments. Two differently instructed groups of participants judged the authenticity of emotional facial expressions, while their eye movements were recorded: an ‘intuitive group,’ instructed to rely on their “gut feeling” for the authenticity judgments, and a ‘deliberative group,’ instructed to make their judgments after careful analysis of the face. Pixel-wise statistical maps of the resulting eye movements revealed a differential viewing pattern, wherein the intuitive judgments relied on fewer, longer and more centrally located fixations. These markers have been associated with a global/holistic viewing strategy. The holistic pattern of intuitive face judgments is in line with evidence showing that intuition is related to processing the “gestalt” of an object, rather than focusing on details. Our work thereby provides further evidence that intuitive processes are characterized by holistic perception, in an understudied and real world domain of intuition research.

  18. Intuitive Face Judgments Rely on Holistic Eye Movement Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, Laura F; Volz, Kirsten G

    2017-01-01

    Non-verbal signals such as facial expressions are of paramount importance for social encounters. Their perception predominantly occurs without conscious awareness and is effortlessly integrated into social interactions. In other words, face perception is intuitive. Contrary to classical intuition tasks, this work investigates intuitive processes in the realm of every-day type social judgments. Two differently instructed groups of participants judged the authenticity of emotional facial expressions, while their eye movements were recorded: an 'intuitive group,' instructed to rely on their "gut feeling" for the authenticity judgments, and a 'deliberative group,' instructed to make their judgments after careful analysis of the face. Pixel-wise statistical maps of the resulting eye movements revealed a differential viewing pattern, wherein the intuitive judgments relied on fewer, longer and more centrally located fixations. These markers have been associated with a global/holistic viewing strategy. The holistic pattern of intuitive face judgments is in line with evidence showing that intuition is related to processing the "gestalt" of an object, rather than focusing on details. Our work thereby provides further evidence that intuitive processes are characterized by holistic perception, in an understudied and real world domain of intuition research.

  19. Older women play predominant role in building social ties and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... Older women play predominant role in building social ties and preventing ... brief demonstrates their contribution to building social cohesion and driving ... From learning to policy-oriented research: Lessons from South Africa's ...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueling Stations Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on

  1. Reliģijas makdonaldizācija

    OpenAIRE

    Siliņš, Toms

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā apskatītas makdonaldizācijas procesa izpausmes Latvijas reliģisko organizāciju darbībā. Pētījuma mērķis ir noskaidrot makdonaldizācijas izpausmes Latvijas reliģiskajās organizācijās, tādēļ izvirzīti pētījuma jautājumi – kādas ir liecības par makdonaldizācijas procesa ietekmi uz reliģiskajām organizācijām Latvijā un kā vērtējama makdonaldizācijas procesa ietekme uz reliģiskajām organizācijām Latvijā. Pētījuma ietvaros veiktas divas ekspertu intervijas, kuru analīzes rezultātā i...

  2. Logical Characterisation of Concept Transformations from Human into Machine relying on Predicate Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Providing more human-like concept learning in machines has always been one of the most significant goals of machine learning paradigms and of human-machine interaction techniques. This article attempts to provide a logical specification of conceptual mappings from humans’ minds into machines......’ knowledge bases. I will focus on the representation of the mappings (transformations) relying on First-Order Predicate Logic. Additionally, the structure of concepts in the common ground between humans and machines will be analysed. It seems quite necessary to pay attention to the philosophy...

  3. Rapid Fear Detection Relies on High Spatial Frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, T.; Seymour, K.; Hebart, M.N.; Sterzer, P.

    Signals of threat—such as fearful faces—are processed with priority and have privileged access to awareness. This fear advantage is commonly believed to engage a specialized subcortical pathway to the amygdala that bypasses visual cortex and processes predominantly low-spatial-frequency information

  4. Maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les facteurs de risque, la prise en charge et la prévention des maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques en pratique familiale. Sources des données Des articles originaux et de synthèse entre janvier 1998 et février 2012 ont été identifiés à l’aide de PubMed et des expressions de recherche en anglais water-related illness, recreational water illness et swimmer illness. Message principal Il y a un risque de 3 % à 8 % de maladies gastrointestinales (MGI) après la baignade. Les groupes à risque élevé de MGI sont les enfants de moins de 5 ans, surtout s’ils n’ont pas été vaccinés contre le rotavirus, les personnes âgées et les patients immunodéficients. Les enfants sont à plus grand risque parce qu’ils avalent plus d’eau quand ils nagent, restent dans l’eau plus longtemps et jouent dans l’eau peu profonde et le sable qui sont plus contaminés. Les adeptes des sports dans lesquels le contact avec l’eau est abondant comme le triathlon et le surf cerf-volant sont aussi à risque élevé et même ceux qui s’adonnent à des activités impliquant un contact partiel avec l’eau comme la navigation de plaisance et la pêche ont un risque de 40 % à 50 % fois plus grand de MGI par rapport à ceux qui ne pratiquent pas de sports aquatiques. Il y a lieu de faire une culture des selles quand on soupçonne une maladie reliée aux loisirs aquatiques et l’échelle clinique de la déshydratation est utile pour l’évaluation des besoins de traitement chez les enfants affectés. Conclusion Les maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques est la principale cause de MGI durant la saison des baignades. La reconnaissance que la baignade est une source importante de maladies peut aider à prévenir les cas récurrents et secondaires. On recommande fortement le vaccin contre le rotavirus chez les enfants qui se baignent souvent.

  5. Robust Sensing of Approaching Vehicles Relying on Acoustic Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsunori Mizumachi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The latest developments in automobile design have allowed them to be equipped with various sensing devices. Multiple sensors such as cameras and radar systems can be simultaneously used for active safety systems in order to overcome blind spots of individual sensors. This paper proposes a novel sensing technique for catching up and tracking an approaching vehicle relying on an acoustic cue. First, it is necessary to extract a robust spatial feature from noisy acoustical observations. In this paper, the spatio-temporal gradient method is employed for the feature extraction. Then, the spatial feature is filtered out through sequential state estimation. A particle filter is employed to cope with a highly non-linear problem. Feasibility of the proposed method has been confirmed with real acoustical observations, which are obtained by microphones outside a cruising vehicle.

  6. A Formal Semantics for Concept Understanding relying on Description Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    logical assumptions whose discovery may lead us to a better understanding of ‘concept understanding’. The Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) model as an appropriate model of increasing complexity of humans’ understanding has supported the formal analysis.......In this research, Description Logics (DLs) will be employed for logical description, logical characterisation, logical modelling and ontological description of concept understanding in terminological systems. It’s strongly believed that using a formal descriptive logic could support us in revealing...

  7. A Formal Semantics for Concept Understanding relying on Description Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    In this research, Description Logics (DLs) will be employed for logical description, logical characterisation, logical modelling and ontological description of concept understanding in terminological systems. It’s strongly believed that using a formal descriptive logic could support us in reveali...... logical assumptions whose discovery may lead us to a better understanding of ‘concept understanding’. The Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) model as an appropriate model of increasing complexity of humans’ understanding has supported the formal analysis....

  8. da Vinci decoded: does da Vinci stereopsis rely on disparity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S

    2012-11-01

    In conventional stereopsis, the depth between two objects is computed based on the retinal disparity in the position of matching points in the two eyes. When an object is occluded by another object in the scene, so that it is visible only in one eye, its retinal disparity cannot be computed. Nakayama and Shimojo (1990) found that a precept of quantitative depth between the two objects could still be established for such stimuli and proposed that this precept is based on the constraints imposed by occlusion geometry. They named this and other occlusion-based depth phenomena "da Vinci stereopsis." Subsequent research found quantitative depth based on occlusion geometry in several other classes of stimuli grouped under the term da Vinci stereopsis. However, Nakayama and Shimojo's findings were later brought into question by Gillam, Cook, and Blackburn (2003), who suggested that quantitative depth in their stimuli was perceived based on conventional disparity. In order to understand whether da Vinci stereopsis relies on one type of mechanism or whether its function is stimulus dependent we examine the nature and source of depth in the class of stimuli used by Nakayama and Shimojo (1990). We use three different psychophysical and computational methods to show that the most likely source for depth in these stimuli is occlusion geometry. Based on these experiments and previous data we discuss the potential mechanisms responsible for processing depth from monocular features in da Vinci stereopsis.

  9. Human children rely more on social information than chimpanzees do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Call, Josep; Haun, Daniel B M

    2014-11-01

    Human societies are characterized by more cultural diversity than chimpanzee communities. However, it is currently unclear what mechanism might be driving this difference. Because reliance on social information is a pivotal characteristic of culture, we investigated individual and social information reliance in children and chimpanzees. We repeatedly presented subjects with a reward-retrieval task on which they had collected conflicting individual and social information of equal accuracy in counterbalanced order. While both species relied mostly on their individual information, children but not chimpanzees searched for the reward at the socially demonstrated location more than at a random location. Moreover, only children used social information adaptively when individual knowledge on the location of the reward had not yet been obtained. Social information usage determines information transmission and in conjunction with mechanisms that create cultural variants, such as innovation, it facilitates diversity. Our results may help explain why humans are more culturally diversified than chimpanzees. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. [Scope of the latest RE-LY substudies: clinical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Giménez Arrieta, N

    2012-03-01

    The approval of the use of dabiatran in stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrilation (NVAF) is based on the results of the RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy) trial, one of the largest studies to date in this entity. In this trial, dabigatran showed similar safety and efficacy to warfarin in primary and secondary prevention of stroke in patients with AF. At a dose of 150 mg twice daily, dabigatran was superior to warfarin in the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism and the 110 mg dose twice daily showed similar efficacy and greater safety, given the lower incidence of hemorrhage. These results were consistently found in the various subanalyses, with some slight differences of interest for clinical practice. The ideal candidates for dabiatran are patients with NVAF suitable for cardioversion, who require short periods of anticoagulation, patients in remote geographical areas with difficulty in achieving good anticoagulation control or good control with anti-vitamin K treatment due to IRN fluctuations, and patients with a low risk of hemorrhage and a CHADS score ≥ 3 and/or with prior stroke, whenever there are no contraindications. The choice of dabigatran dose should be evaluated according to the patient's individual characteristics (caution must be exercised when prescribing this drug in the elderly and in renal insufficiency) and embolic and/or hemorrhagic risk. Studies of the long-term safety of this drug, pharmacoeconomic analyses in Spain and post-commercialization pharmacovigilance data are required before the definitive uses of this drug can be established. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Vertigo as a Predominant Manifestation of Neurosarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnim F. Imran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that affects multiple organ systems. Neurological manifestations of sarcoidosis are less common and can include cranial neuropathies and intracranial lesions. We report the case of a 21-year-old man who presented with vertigo and uveitis. Extensive workup including brain imaging revealed enhancing focal lesions. A lacrimal gland biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. The patient was initially treated with prednisone, which did not adequately control his symptoms, and then was switched to methotrexate with moderate symptomatic improvement. Our patient had an atypical presentation with vertigo as the predominant manifestation of sarcoidosis. Patients with neurosarcoidosis typically present with systemic involvement of sarcoidosis followed by neurologic involvement. Vertigo is rarely reported as an initial manifestation. This case highlights the importance of consideration of neurosarcoidosis as an entity even in patients that may not have a typical presentation or systemic involvement of disease.

  12. Ants learn to rely on more informative attributes during decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takao; Pratt, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that animals act to maximize their fitness when choosing among a set of options, such as what to eat or where to live. Making the best choice is challenging when options vary in multiple attributes, and animals have evolved a variety of heuristics to simplify the task. Many of these involve ranking or weighting attributes according to their importance. Because the importance of attributes can vary across time and place, animals might benefit by adjusting weights accordingly. Here, we show that colonies of the ant Temnothorax rugatulus use their experience during nest site selection to increase weights on more informative nest attributes. These ants choose their rock crevice nests on the basis of multiple features. After exposure to an environment where only one attribute differentiated options, colonies increased their reliance on this attribute relative to a second attribute. Although many species show experience-based changes in selectivity based on a single feature, this is the first evidence in animals for adaptive changes in the weighting of multiple attributes. These results show that animal collectives, like individuals, change decision-making strategies according to experience. We discuss how these colony-level changes might emerge from individual behaviour.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: St. Louis Airport Relies on Biodiesel and

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Vehicles St. Louis Airport Relies on Biodiesel and Natural Gas Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: St. Louis Airport Relies on Biodiesel and Natural Gas Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: St. Louis Airport Relies on Biodiesel and

  14. The Integration of Realistic Episodic Memories Relies on Different Working Memory Processes: Evidence from Virtual Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaën Plancher

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory is one of the most important cognitive functions in a person’s life as it is essential for recalling personal memories and performing many everyday tasks. Although a huge number of studies have been conducted in the field, only a few of them investigated memory in realistic situations, due to methodological issues. The various tools that have been developed using virtual environments (VEs have gained popularity in cognitive psychology and neuropsychology because they enable to create naturalistic and controlled situations, and are thus particularly adapted to the study of episodic memory (EM, for which an ecological evaluation is of prime importance. EM is the conscious recollection of personal events combined with their phenomenological and spatiotemporal encoding contexts. Using an original paradigm in a VE, the objective of the present study was to characterize the construction of episodic memories. While the concept of working memory has become central in the understanding of a wide range of cognitive functions, its role in the integration of episodic memories has seldom been assessed in an ecological context. This experiment aimed at filling this gap by studying how EM is affected by concurrent tasks requiring working memory resources in a realistic situation. Participants navigated in a virtual town and had to memorize as many elements in their spatiotemporal context as they could. During learning, participants had either to perform a concurrent task meant to prevent maintenance through the phonological loop, or a task aimed at preventing maintenance through the visuospatial sketchpad, or no concurrent task. EM was assessed in a recall test performed after learning through various scores measuring the what, where and when of the memories. Results showed that, compared to the control condition with no concurrent task, the prevention of maintenance through the phonological loop had a deleterious impact only on the encoding of

  15. The Integration of Realistic Episodic Memories Relies on Different Working Memory Processes: Evidence from Virtual Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, Gaën; Gyselinck, Valérie; Piolino, Pascale

    2018-01-01

    Memory is one of the most important cognitive functions in a person's life as it is essential for recalling personal memories and performing many everyday tasks. Although a huge number of studies have been conducted in the field, only a few of them investigated memory in realistic situations, due to methodological issues. The various tools that have been developed using virtual environments (VEs) have gained popularity in cognitive psychology and neuropsychology because they enable to create naturalistic and controlled situations, and are thus particularly adapted to the study of episodic memory (EM), for which an ecological evaluation is of prime importance. EM is the conscious recollection of personal events combined with their phenomenological and spatiotemporal encoding contexts. Using an original paradigm in a VE, the objective of the present study was to characterize the construction of episodic memories. While the concept of working memory has become central in the understanding of a wide range of cognitive functions, its role in the integration of episodic memories has seldom been assessed in an ecological context. This experiment aimed at filling this gap by studying how EM is affected by concurrent tasks requiring working memory resources in a realistic situation. Participants navigated in a virtual town and had to memorize as many elements in their spatiotemporal context as they could. During learning, participants had either to perform a concurrent task meant to prevent maintenance through the phonological loop, or a task aimed at preventing maintenance through the visuospatial sketchpad, or no concurrent task. EM was assessed in a recall test performed after learning through various scores measuring the what, where and when of the memories. Results showed that, compared to the control condition with no concurrent task, the prevention of maintenance through the phonological loop had a deleterious impact only on the encoding of central elements. By

  16. Phonological memory in sign language relies on the visuomotor neural system outside the left hemisphere language network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Yuji; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Ishii, Toru; Aso, Toshihiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Omori, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Sign language is an essential medium for everyday social interaction for deaf people and plays a critical role in verbal learning. In particular, language development in those people should heavily rely on the verbal short-term memory (STM) via sign language. Most previous studies compared neural activations during signed language processing in deaf signers and those during spoken language processing in hearing speakers. For sign language users, it thus remains unclear how visuospatial inputs are converted into the verbal STM operating in the left-hemisphere language network. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated neural activation while bilinguals of spoken and signed language were engaged in a sequence memory span task. On each trial, participants viewed a nonsense syllable sequence presented either as written letters or as fingerspelling (4-7 syllables in length) and then held the syllable sequence for 12 s. Behavioral analysis revealed that participants relied on phonological memory while holding verbal information regardless of the type of input modality. At the neural level, this maintenance stage broadly activated the left-hemisphere language network, including the inferior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, superior temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, for both letter and fingerspelling conditions. Interestingly, while most participants reported that they relied on phonological memory during maintenance, direct comparisons between letters and fingers revealed strikingly different patterns of neural activation during the same period. Namely, the effortful maintenance of fingerspelling inputs relative to letter inputs activated the left superior parietal lobule and dorsal premotor area, i.e., brain regions known to play a role in visuomotor analysis of hand/arm movements. These findings suggest that the dorsal visuomotor neural system subserves verbal learning via sign language by relaying gestural inputs to

  17. 47 CFR 15.717 - TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Television Band Devices § 15.717 TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing. (a) Parties may submit applications for... that are identical in electrical characteristics and antenna systems may be certified under the...

  18. Increasing Uncertainty: The Dangers of Relying on Conventional Forces for Nuclear Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    72 | Air & Space Power Journal Increasing Uncertainty The Dangers of Relying on Conventional Forces for Nuclear Deterrence Jennifer Bradley To put...relationships and should serve as the cornerstone of US nuclear deterrence policy. Although Russia and China are not identified as adversaries of...exactly what has happened over the past year. The US decision to meet the needs of deterrence by relying less on nuclear weapons and instead devel- oping

  19. 76 FR 69545 - Conditions and Requirements for Relying on Component Part Testing or Certification, or Another...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... the final rule to incorporate the concept that a finished product certifier may rely upon finished... revised, on our own initiative, the final rule to incorporate the concept that a finished product... Vol. 76 Tuesday, No. 216 November 8, 2011 Part IV Consumer Product Safety Commission 16 CFR Parts...

  20. Cortical control of object-specific grasp relies on adjustments of both activity and effective connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tia, Banty; Takemi, Mitsuaki; Kosugi, Akito

    2017-01-01

    The cortical mechanisms of grasping have been extensively studied in macaques and humans. Here, we investigated whether common marmosets could rely on similar mechanisms despite striking differences in manual dexterity. Two common marmosets were trained to grasp-and-pull three objects eliciting d...

  1. 77 FR 70117 - Purchase of Certain Debt Securities by Business and Industrial Development Companies Relying on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... 3235-AL02 Purchase of Certain Debt Securities by Business and Industrial Development Companies Relying... securities; (B) is engaged or proposes to engage in the business of issuing face-amount certificates of the... business of issuing redeemable securities, the operations of which are subject to regulation by the State...

  2. Long Term Neuropsychological Follow-Up in Patients With Herpes Simplex Encephalitis and Predominantly Left-Sided Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Laurent

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Five patients with predominantly dominant cerebral hemisphere lesions due to herpes simplex encephalitis are described. Verbal amnesia was the main deficit but amnesic aphasia sometimes associated with impairment of remote memory also occurred. Semantic and episodic memory deficits were also explored in one case and the role of the right cerebral hemisphere in facilitating recovery of learning is discussed.

  3. Un premier service mobile en Égypte qui relie les petits exploitants ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Un premier service mobile en Égypte qui relie les petits exploitants aux acheteurs. Un homme qui parle sur un téléphone mobile. Les petits exploitants agricoles dominent l'agriculture égyptienne, mais leur manque de connaissances en matière de commercialisation et de compétences techniques, ainsi qu'une mauvaise ...

  4. Communication Apprehension among Black Students on Predominantly White Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Marquita L.; Sims, Anntarie L.

    1987-01-01

    A study of 114 Black undergraduates in two predominantly White midwestern universities demonstrates that communication apprehension (CA) among Blacks appears to be an audience-based phenomenon. Black females scored lower than Black males on the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24 (PRCA-24). The higher the CA score, the higher the…

  5. Regulated Medicare Advantage And Marketplace Individual Health Insurance Markets Rely On Insurer Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Richard G; McGuire, Thomas G

    2017-09-01

    Two important individual health insurance markets-Medicare Advantage and the Marketplaces-are tightly regulated but rely on competition among insurers to supply and price health insurance products. Many local health insurance markets have little competition, which increases prices to consumers. Furthermore, both markets are highly subsidized in ways that can exacerbate the impact of market power-that is, the ability to set price above cost-on health insurance prices. Policy makers need to foster robust competition in both sectors and avoid designing subsidies that make the market-power problem worse. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. Does brain creatine content rely on exogenous creatine in healthy youth? A proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merege-Filho, Carlos Alberto Abujabra; Otaduy, Maria Concepción Garcia; de Sá-Pinto, Ana Lúcia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; de Souza Gonçalves, Lívia; Hayashi, Ana Paula Tanaka; Roschel, Hamilton; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi; da Costa Leite, Claudia; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that dietary creatine could influence cognitive performance by increasing brain creatine in developing individuals. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, proof-of-principle study aimed to investigate the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function and brain creatine content in healthy youth. The sample comprised 67 healthy participants aged 10 to 12 years. The participants were given creatine or placebo supplementation for 7 days. At baseline and after the intervention, participants undertook a battery of cognitive tests. In a random subsample of participants, brain creatine content was also assessed in the regions of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left hippocampus, and occipital lobe by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) technique. The scores obtained from verbal learning and executive functions tests did not significantly differ between groups at baseline or after the intervention (all p > 0.05). Creatine content was not significantly different between groups in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left hippocampus, and occipital lobe (all p > 0.05). In conclusion, a 7-day creatine supplementation protocol did not elicit improvements in brain creatine content or cognitive performance in healthy youth, suggesting that this population mainly relies on brain creatine synthesis rather than exogenous creatine intake to maintain brain creatine homeostasis.

  7. Anemonefishes rely on visual and chemical cues to correctly identify conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Nicole K.; Dixson, Danielle L.

    2017-09-01

    Organisms rely on sensory cues to interpret their environment and make important life-history decisions. Accurate recognition is of particular importance in diverse reef environments. Most evidence on the use of sensory cues focuses on those used in predator avoidance or habitat recognition, with little information on their role in conspecific recognition. Yet conspecific recognition is essential for life-history decisions including settlement, mate choice, and dominance interactions. Using a sensory manipulated tank and a two-chamber choice flume, anemonefish conspecific response was measured in the presence and absence of chemical and/or visual cues. Experiments were then repeated in the presence or absence of two heterospecific species to evaluate whether a heterospecific fish altered the conspecific response. Anemonefishes responded to both the visual and chemical cues of conspecifics, but relied on the combination of the two cues to recognize conspecifics inside the sensory manipulated tank. These results contrast previous studies focusing on predator detection where anemonefishes were found to compensate for the loss of one sensory cue (chemical) by utilizing a second cue (visual). This lack of sensory compensation may impact the ability of anemonefishes to acclimate to changing reef environments in the future.

  8. We could learn much more from 1918 pandemic-the (mis)fortune of research relying on original death certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Wladimir J; Nascimento, Francielle C; Chowell, Gerardo; Schuck-Paim, Cynthia

    2018-05-01

    The analysis of historical death certificates has enormous potential for understanding how the health of populations was shaped by diseases and epidemics and by the implementation of specific interventions. In Brazil, the systematic archiving of mortality records was initiated only in 1944-hence the analysis of death registers before this time requires searching for these documents in public archives, notaries, parishes, and especially ancient cemeteries, which are often the only remaining source of information about these deaths. This article describes an effort to locate original death certificates in Brazil and document their organization, accessibility, and preservation. To this end, we conducted an exploratory study in 19 of the 27 Brazilian states, focusing on the period surrounding the 1918 influenza pandemic (1913-1921). We included 55 cemeteries, 22 civil archives, and one military archive. Apart from few exceptions, the results show the absence of a curatorial policy for the organization, access or even physical preservation of this material, frequently leading to unavailability, deterioration, and ultimately its complete loss. This study indicates the need to promote the preservation of a historical heritage that is a key to understanding historical epidemiological patterns and human responses to global health threats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hummingbirds rely on both paracellular and carrier-mediated intestinal glucose absorption to fuel high metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, Todd J; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Karasov, William H; del Rio, Carlos Martínez

    2005-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the highest active glucose transport rate and lowest passive glucose permeability in vertebrates were reported in Rufous and Anna's hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus, Calypte anna). These first measurements of intestinal nutrient absorption in nectarivores provided an unprecedented physiological foundation for understanding their foraging ecology. They showed that physiological processes are determinants of feeding behaviour. The conclusion that active, mediated transport accounts for essentially all glucose absorption in hummingbirds influenced two decades of subsequent research on the digestive physiology and nutritional ecology of nectarivores. Here, we report new findings demonstrating that the passive permeability of hummingbird intestines to glucose is much higher than previously reported, suggesting that not all sugar uptake is mediated. Even while possessing the highest active glucose transport rates measured in vertebrates, hummingbirds must rely partially on passive non-mediated intestinal nutrient absorption to meet their high mass-specific metabolic demands. PMID:17148346

  10. Social plasticity relies on different neuroplasticity mechanisms across the brain social decision-making network in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda C Teles

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social living animals need to adjust the expression of their behavior to their status within the group and to changes in social context and this ability (social plasticity has an impact on their Darwinian fitness. At the proximate level social plasticity must rely on neuroplasticity in the brain social decision-making network (SDMN that underlies the expression of social behavior, such that the same neural circuit may underlie the expression of different behaviors depending on social context. Here we tested this hypothesis in zebrafish by characterizing the gene expression response in the SDMN to changes in social status of a set of genes involved in different types of neural plasticity: bdnf, involved in changes in synaptic strength; npas4, involved in contextual learning and dependent establishment of GABAergic synapses; neuroligins (nlgn1 and nlgn2 as synaptogenesis markers; and genes involved in adult neurogenesis (wnt3 and neurod. Four social phenotypes were experimentally induced: Winners and Losers of a real-opponent interaction; Mirror-fighters, that fight their own image in a mirror and thus do not experience a change in social status despite the expression of aggressive behavior; and non-interacting fish, which were used as a reference group. Our results show that each social phenotype (i.e. Winners, Losers and Mirror-fighters present specific patterns of gene expression across the SDMN, and that different neuroplasticity genes are differentially expressed in different nodes of the network (e.g. BDNF in the dorsolateral telencephalon, which is a putative teleost homologue of the mammalian hippocampus. Winners expressed unique patterns of gene co-expression across the SDMN, whereas in Losers and Mirror-fighters the co-expression patterns were similar in the dorsal regions of the telencephalon and in the supracommissural nucleus of the ventral telencephalic area, but differents in the remaining regions of the ventral telencephalon. These

  11. Social Plasticity Relies on Different Neuroplasticity Mechanisms across the Brain Social Decision-Making Network in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Magda C; Cardoso, Sara D; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Social living animals need to adjust the expression of their behavior to their status within the group and to changes in social context and this ability (social plasticity) has an impact on their Darwinian fitness. At the proximate level social plasticity must rely on neuroplasticity in the brain social decision-making network (SDMN) that underlies the expression of social behavior, such that the same neural circuit may underlie the expression of different behaviors depending on social context. Here we tested this hypothesis in zebrafish by characterizing the gene expression response in the SDMN to changes in social status of a set of genes involved in different types of neural plasticity: bdnf, involved in changes in synaptic strength; npas4, involved in contextual learning and dependent establishment of GABAergic synapses; neuroligins (nlgn1 and nlgn2) as synaptogenesis markers; and genes involved in adult neurogenesis (wnt3 and neurod). Four social phenotypes were experimentally induced: Winners and Losers of a real-opponent interaction; Mirror-fighters, that fight their own image in a mirror and thus do not experience a change in social status despite the expression of aggressive behavior; and non-interacting fish, which were used as a reference group. Our results show that each social phenotype (i.e., Winners, Losers, and Mirror-fighters) present specific patterns of gene expression across the SDMN, and that different neuroplasticity genes are differentially expressed in different nodes of the network (e.g., BDNF in the dorsolateral telencephalon, which is a putative teleost homolog of the mammalian hippocampus). Winners expressed unique patterns of gene co-expression across the SDMN, whereas in Losers and Mirror-fighters the co-expression patterns were similar in the dorsal regions of the telencephalon and in the supracommissural nucleus of the ventral telencephalic area, but differents in the remaining regions of the ventral telencephalon. These results

  12. Social Plasticity Relies on Different Neuroplasticity Mechanisms across the Brain Social Decision-Making Network in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Magda C.; Cardoso, Sara D.; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2016-01-01

    Social living animals need to adjust the expression of their behavior to their status within the group and to changes in social context and this ability (social plasticity) has an impact on their Darwinian fitness. At the proximate level social plasticity must rely on neuroplasticity in the brain social decision-making network (SDMN) that underlies the expression of social behavior, such that the same neural circuit may underlie the expression of different behaviors depending on social context. Here we tested this hypothesis in zebrafish by characterizing the gene expression response in the SDMN to changes in social status of a set of genes involved in different types of neural plasticity: bdnf, involved in changes in synaptic strength; npas4, involved in contextual learning and dependent establishment of GABAergic synapses; neuroligins (nlgn1 and nlgn2) as synaptogenesis markers; and genes involved in adult neurogenesis (wnt3 and neurod). Four social phenotypes were experimentally induced: Winners and Losers of a real-opponent interaction; Mirror-fighters, that fight their own image in a mirror and thus do not experience a change in social status despite the expression of aggressive behavior; and non-interacting fish, which were used as a reference group. Our results show that each social phenotype (i.e., Winners, Losers, and Mirror-fighters) present specific patterns of gene expression across the SDMN, and that different neuroplasticity genes are differentially expressed in different nodes of the network (e.g., BDNF in the dorsolateral telencephalon, which is a putative teleost homolog of the mammalian hippocampus). Winners expressed unique patterns of gene co-expression across the SDMN, whereas in Losers and Mirror-fighters the co-expression patterns were similar in the dorsal regions of the telencephalon and in the supracommissural nucleus of the ventral telencephalic area, but differents in the remaining regions of the ventral telencephalon. These results

  13. Episodic Memory Retrieval Functionally Relies on Very Rapid Reactivation of Sensory Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldhauser, Gerd T; Braun, Verena; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2016-01-06

    Episodic memory retrieval is assumed to rely on the rapid reactivation of sensory information that was present during encoding, a process termed "ecphory." We investigated the functional relevance of this scarcely understood process in two experiments in human participants. We presented stimuli to the left or right of fixation at encoding, followed by an episodic memory test with centrally presented retrieval cues. This allowed us to track the reactivation of lateralized sensory memory traces during retrieval. Successful episodic retrieval led to a very early (∼100-200 ms) reactivation of lateralized alpha/beta (10-25 Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) power decreases in the visual cortex contralateral to the visual field at encoding. Applying rhythmic transcranial magnetic stimulation to interfere with early retrieval processing in the visual cortex led to decreased episodic memory performance specifically for items encoded in the visual field contralateral to the site of stimulation. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that episodic memory functionally relies on very rapid reactivation of sensory information. Remembering personal experiences requires a "mental time travel" to revisit sensory information perceived in the past. This process is typically described as a controlled, relatively slow process. However, by using electroencephalography to measure neural activity with a high time resolution, we show that such episodic retrieval entails a very rapid reactivation of sensory brain areas. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation to alter brain function during retrieval revealed that this early sensory reactivation is causally relevant for conscious remembering. These results give first neural evidence for a functional, preconscious component of episodic remembering. This provides new insight into the nature of human memory and may help in the understanding of psychiatric conditions that involve the automatic intrusion of unwanted memories. Copyright

  14. Cochlear implant users rely on tempo rather than on pitch information during perception of musical emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Meredith; Rankin, Summer K; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Carver, Courtney; Limb, Charles J

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which cochlear implant (CI) users rely on tempo and mode in perception of musical emotion when compared with normal hearing (NH) individuals. A test battery of novel four-bar melodies was created and adapted to four permutations with alterations of tonality (major vs. minor) and tempo (presto vs. largo), resulting in non-ambiguous (major key/fast tempo and minor key/slow tempo) and ambiguous (major key/slow tempo, and minor key/fast tempo) musical stimuli. Both CI and NH participants listened to each clip and provided emotional ratings on a Likert scale of +5 (happy) to -5 (sad). A three-way ANOVA demonstrated an overall effect for tempo in both groups, and an overall effect for mode in the NH group. The CI group rated stimuli of the same tempo similarly, regardless of changes in mode, whereas the NH group did not. A subgroup analysis indicated the same effects in both musician and non-musician CI users and NH listeners. The results suggest that the CI group relied more heavily on tempo than mode in making musical emotion decisions. The subgroup analysis further suggests that level of musical training did not significantly impact this finding. CI users weigh temporal cues more heavily than pitch cues in inferring musical emotion. These findings highlight the significant disadvantage of CI users in comparison with NH listeners for music perception, particularly during recognition of musical emotion, a critically important feature of music.

  15. Targeted therapies for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olden KW

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Kevin W OldenDepartment of Medicine, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients' daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was to capture clinical trial reports of agents receiving the highest recommendation (Grade 1 for treatment of IBS from the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force, with an emphasis on diarrhea-predominant IBS. Literature searches in PubMed captured articles detailing randomized placebo-controlled trials in IBS/diarrhea-predominant IBS for agents receiving Grade I (strong 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force recommendations: tricyclic antidepressants, nonabsorbable antibiotics, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron. Studies specific for constipation-predominant IBS were excluded. Tricyclic antidepressants appear to improve global IBS symptoms but have variable effects on abdominal pain and uncertain tolerability; effects on stool consistency, frequency, and urgency were not adequately assessed. Nonabsorbable antibiotics show positive effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, and stool consistency but may be most efficacious in patients with altered intestinal microbiota. Alosetron improves global symptoms and abdominal pain and normalizes bowel irregularities, including stool frequency, consistency, and fecal urgency. Both the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron improve quality of life. Targeted therapies provide more complete relief of IBS symptoms than conventional agents. Familiarization with the quantity and quality of evidence of effectiveness can facilitate more individualized

  16. Targeted therapies for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kevin W

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients’ daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was to capture clinical trial reports of agents receiving the highest recommendation (Grade 1) for treatment of IBS from the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force, with an emphasis on diarrhea-predominant IBS. Literature searches in PubMed captured articles detailing randomized placebo-controlled trials in IBS/diarrhea-predominant IBS for agents receiving Grade I (strong) 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force recommendations: tricyclic antidepressants, nonabsorbable antibiotics, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron. Studies specific for constipation-predominant IBS were excluded. Tricyclic antidepressants appear to improve global IBS symptoms but have variable effects on abdominal pain and uncertain tolerability; effects on stool consistency, frequency, and urgency were not adequately assessed. Nonabsorbable antibiotics show positive effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, and stool consistency but may be most efficacious in patients with altered intestinal microbiota. Alosetron improves global symptoms and abdominal pain and normalizes bowel irregularities, including stool frequency, consistency, and fecal urgency. Both the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron improve quality of life. Targeted therapies provide more complete relief of IBS symptoms than conventional agents. Familiarization with the quantity and quality of evidence of effectiveness can facilitate more individualized treatment plans for patients with this heterogeneous disorder. PMID:22754282

  17. Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease: a comprehensive overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sumit; Ganesan, Chitra; Pant, Manish; Lai, Catherine; Tabbara, Imad A

    2013-02-01

    Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease is a rare form of Hodgkin lymphoma that is recognized as a separate histopathological entity. This disease tends to have multiple relapses, but has an overall good prognosis. Owing to its rarity, and the prolonged time period between recurrence and transformation events, there is no consensus regarding optimal management. However, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines indicate that for early stages, appropriate treatment is radiotherapy. Several management options have been reported including observation, radiation, chemotherapy, combined chemoradiotherapy, and anti-CD20 antibody therapy. Salvage therapy remains effective in inducing prolonged remission in patients with relapsed/refractory disease.

  18. SEE ME ROAR: Self-determination Enhanced Engagement for Math Education Relying On Augmented Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; van der Spek, E.D.; Hu, J.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary primary school students generally spend a lot of time playing digital games, but may be less interested in their schoolwork, such as learning mathematics. Mathematics includes many abstract concepts that can be difficult to grasp for some students. Augmented reality as a technology

  19. Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Laabidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.

  20. Defining the buffering process by a triprotic acid without relying on Stewart-electroneutrality considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minhtri K; Kao, Liyo; Kurtz, Ira

    2011-08-17

    Upon the addition of protons to an aqueous solution, a component of the H+ load will be bound i.e. buffered. In an aqueous solution containing a triprotic acid, H+ can be bound to three different states of the acid as well as to OH- ions that are derived from the auto-ionization of H2O. In quantifying the buffering process of a triprotic acid, one must define the partitioning of H+ among the three states of the acid and also the OH- ions in solution in order to predict the equilibrium pH value. However, previous quantitative approaches that model triprotic acid titration behaviour and used to predict the equilibrium pH rely on the mathematical convenience of electroneutrality/charge balance considerations. This fact has caused confusion in the literature, and has led to the assumption that charge balance/electroneutrality is a causal factor in modulating proton buffering (Stewart formulation). However, as we have previously shown, although charge balance can be used mathematically as a convenient tool in deriving various formulae, electroneutrality per se is not a fundamental physicochemical parameter that is mechanistically involved in the underlying buffering and proton transfer reactions. The lack of distinction between a mathematical tool, and a fundamental physicochemical parameter is in part a reason for the current debate regarding the Stewart formulation of acid-base analysis. We therefore posed the following question: Is it possible to generate an equation that defines and predicts the buffering of a triprotic acid that is based only on H+ partitioning without incorporating electroneutrality in the derivation? Towards this goal, we derived our new equation utilizing: 1) partitioning of H+ buffering; 2) conservation of mass; and 3) acid-base equilibria. In validating this model, we compared the predicted equilibrium pH with the measured pH of an aqueous solution consisting of Na2HPO4 to which HCl was added. The measured pH values were in excellent agreement

  1. Defining the buffering process by a triprotic acid without relying on stewart-electroneutrality considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Liyo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Upon the addition of protons to an aqueous solution, a component of the H+ load will be bound i.e. buffered. In an aqueous solution containing a triprotic acid, H+ can be bound to three different states of the acid as well as to OH- ions that are derived from the auto-ionization of H2O. In quantifying the buffering process of a triprotic acid, one must define the partitioning of H+ among the three states of the acid and also the OH- ions in solution in order to predict the equilibrium pH value. However, previous quantitative approaches that model triprotic acid titration behaviour and used to predict the equilibrium pH rely on the mathematical convenience of electroneutrality/charge balance considerations. This fact has caused confusion in the literature, and has led to the assumption that charge balance/electroneutrality is a causal factor in modulating proton buffering (Stewart formulation. However, as we have previously shown, although charge balance can be used mathematically as a convenient tool in deriving various formulae, electroneutrality per se is not a fundamental physicochemical parameter that is mechanistically involved in the underlying buffering and proton transfer reactions. The lack of distinction between a mathematical tool, and a fundamental physicochemical parameter is in part a reason for the current debate regarding the Stewart formulation of acid-base analysis. We therefore posed the following question: Is it possible to generate an equation that defines and predicts the buffering of a triprotic acid that is based only on H+ partitioning without incorporating electroneutrality in the derivation? Towards this goal, we derived our new equation utilizing: 1 partitioning of H+ buffering; 2 conservation of mass; and 3 acid-base equilibria. In validating this model, we compared the predicted equilibrium pH with the measured pH of an aqueous solution consisting of Na2HPO4 to which HCl was added. The measured pH values

  2. Defining the buffering process by a triprotic acid without relying on stewart-electroneutrality considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Upon the addition of protons to an aqueous solution, a component of the H+ load will be bound i.e. buffered. In an aqueous solution containing a triprotic acid, H+ can be bound to three different states of the acid as well as to OH- ions that are derived from the auto-ionization of H2O. In quantifying the buffering process of a triprotic acid, one must define the partitioning of H+ among the three states of the acid and also the OH- ions in solution in order to predict the equilibrium pH value. However, previous quantitative approaches that model triprotic acid titration behaviour and used to predict the equilibrium pH rely on the mathematical convenience of electroneutrality/charge balance considerations. This fact has caused confusion in the literature, and has led to the assumption that charge balance/electroneutrality is a causal factor in modulating proton buffering (Stewart formulation). However, as we have previously shown, although charge balance can be used mathematically as a convenient tool in deriving various formulae, electroneutrality per se is not a fundamental physicochemical parameter that is mechanistically involved in the underlying buffering and proton transfer reactions. The lack of distinction between a mathematical tool, and a fundamental physicochemical parameter is in part a reason for the current debate regarding the Stewart formulation of acid-base analysis. We therefore posed the following question: Is it possible to generate an equation that defines and predicts the buffering of a triprotic acid that is based only on H+ partitioning without incorporating electroneutrality in the derivation? Towards this goal, we derived our new equation utilizing: 1) partitioning of H+ buffering; 2) conservation of mass; and 3) acid-base equilibria. In validating this model, we compared the predicted equilibrium pH with the measured pH of an aqueous solution consisting of Na2HPO4 to which HCl was added. The measured pH values were in excellent agreement

  3. 12 CFR 221.117 - When bank in “good faith” has not relied on stock as collateral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bank in “good faith” has not relied on stock as collateral. (a) The Board has received questions... “indirectly secured” by stock as indicated by the phrase, “if the lender, in good faith, has not relied upon...

  4. The Long-Term Multicenter Observational Study of Dabigatran Treatment in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (RELY-ABLE) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, S. J.; Wallentin, L.; Ezekowitz, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    . There is a need for longer-term follow-up of patients on dabigatran and for further data comparing the 2 dabigatran doses. Methods and Results Patients randomly assigned to dabigatran in RE-LY were eligible for the Long-term Multicenter Extension of Dabigatran Treatment in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (RELY...

  5. Early Career Researchers Demand Full-text and Rely on Google to Find Scholarly Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Hayman

    2017-01-01

    A Review of: Nicholas, D., Boukacem-Zeghmouri, C., Rodríguez-Bravo, B., Xu, J., Watkinson, A., Abrizah, A., Herman, E., & Świgoń, M. (2017). Where and how early career researchers find scholarly information. Learned Publishing, 30(1), 19-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/leap.1087 Abstract Objective – To examine the attitudes and information behaviours of early career researchers (ECRs) when locating scholarly information. Design – Qualitative longitudinal study. Setting – R...

  6. Distance Learning: A Way of Life-Long Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belanich, James; Moses, Franklin L; Orvis, Kara L

    2005-01-01

    ... the predominant form of distance learning today, and will likely continue to be in the future. The instructional approach of distance learning - or DL - has many benefits but has yet to reach its full potential...

  7. Frugivorous bats maintain functional habitat connectivity in agricultural landscapes but rely strongly on natural forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripperger, Simon P; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Mayer, Frieder; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae), a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats.

  8. Efficient secretion of small proteins in mammalian cells relies on Sec62-dependent posttranslational translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkaraju, Asvin K. K.; Thankappan, Ratheeshkumar; Mary, Camille; Garrison, Jennifer L.; Taunton, Jack; Strub, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian cells secrete a large number of small proteins, but their mode of translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum is not fully understood. Cotranslational translocation was expected to be inefficient due to the small time window for signal sequence recognition by the signal recognition particle (SRP). Impairing the SRP pathway and reducing cellular levels of the translocon component Sec62 by RNA interference, we found an alternate, Sec62-dependent translocation path in mammalian cells required for the efficient translocation of small proteins with N-terminal signal sequences. The Sec62-dependent translocation occurs posttranslationally via the Sec61 translocon and requires ATP. We classified preproteins into three groups: 1) those that comprise ≤100 amino acids are strongly dependent on Sec62 for efficient translocation; 2) those in the size range of 120–160 amino acids use the SRP pathway, albeit inefficiently, and therefore rely on Sec62 for efficient translocation; and 3) those larger than 160 amino acids depend on the SRP pathway to preserve a transient translocation competence independent of Sec62. Thus, unlike in yeast, the Sec62-dependent translocation pathway in mammalian cells serves mainly as a fail-safe mechanism to ensure efficient secretion of small proteins and provides cells with an opportunity to regulate secretion of small proteins independent of the SRP pathway. PMID:22648169

  9. Regulatory theory: commercially sustainable markets rely upon satisfying the public interest in obtaining credible goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Jones, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Regulatory theory is premised on the failure of markets, prompting a focus on regulators and industry from economic perspectives. This article argues that overlooking the public interest in the sustainability of commercial markets risks markets failing completely. This point is exemplified through health care markets - meeting an essential need - and focuses upon innovative medicines as the most desired products in that market. If this seemingly invulnerable market risks failure, there is a pressing need to consider the public interest in sustainable markets within regulatory literature and practice. Innovative medicines are credence goods, meaning that the sustainability of the market fundamentally relies upon the public trusting regulators to vouch for product quality. Yet, quality is being eroded by patent bodies focused on economic benefits from market growth, rather than ensuring innovatory value. Remunerative bodies are not funding medicines relative to market value, and market authorisation bodies are not vouching for robust safety standards or confining market entry to products for 'unmet medical need'. Arguably, this failure to assure quality heightens the risk of the market failing where it cannot be substituted by the reputation or credibility of providers of goods and/or information such as health care professionals/institutions, patient groups or industry.

  10. Quality of record linkage in a highly automated cancer registry that relies on encrypted identity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidtmann, Irene

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the absence of unique ID numbers, cancer and other registries in Germany and elsewhere rely on identity data to link records pertaining to the same patient. These data are often encrypted to ensure privacy. Some record linkage errors unavoidably occur. These errors were quantified for the cancer registry of North Rhine Westphalia which uses encrypted identity data. Methods: A sample of records was drawn from the registry, record linkage information was included. In parallel, plain text data for these records were retrieved to generate a gold standard. Record linkage error frequencies in the cancer registry were determined by comparison of the results of the routine linkage with the gold standard. Error rates were projected to larger registries.Results: In the sample studied, the homonym error rate was 0.015%; the synonym error rate was 0.2%. The F-measure was 0.9921. Projection to larger databases indicated that for a realistic development the homonym error rate will be around 1%, the synonym error rate around 2%.Conclusion: Observed error rates are low. This shows that effective methods to standardize and improve the quality of the input data have been implemented. This is crucial to keep error rates low when the registry’s database grows. The planned inclusion of unique health insurance numbers is likely to further improve record linkage quality. Cancer registration entirely based on electronic notification of records can process large amounts of data with high quality of record linkage.

  11. Pneumococcal Competence Coordination Relies on a Cell-Contact Sensing Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Prudhomme

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved various inducible genetic programs to face many types of stress that challenge their growth and survival. Competence is one such program. It enables genetic transformation, a major horizontal gene transfer process. Competence development in liquid cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae is synchronized within the whole cell population. This collective behavior is known to depend on an exported signaling Competence Stimulating Peptide (CSP, whose action generates a positive feedback loop. However, it is unclear how this CSP-dependent population switch is coordinated. By monitoring spontaneous competence development in real time during growth of four distinct pneumococcal lineages, we have found that competence shift in the population relies on a self-activated cell fraction that arises via a growth time-dependent mechanism. We demonstrate that CSP remains bound to cells during this event, and conclude that the rate of competence development corresponds to the propagation of competence by contact between activated and quiescent cells. We validated this two-step cell-contact sensing mechanism by measuring competence development during co-cultivation of strains with altered capacity to produce or respond to CSP. Finally, we found that the membrane protein ComD retains the CSP, limiting its free diffusion in the medium. We propose that competence initiator cells originate stochastically in response to stress, to form a distinct subpopulation that then transmits the CSP by cell-cell contact.

  12. Frugivorous bats maintain functional habitat connectivity in agricultural landscapes but rely strongly on natural forest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ripperger

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae, a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats.

  13. The Low Pitch of High-Frequency Complex Tones Relies on Temporal Fine Structure Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    High-frequency complex tones containing only unresolved harmonic components with a frequency spacing Δf usually evoke a low pitch equal to Δf. However, for inharmonic components, the low pitch is often found to deviate slightly from Δf. Whether this pitch shift relies exclusively on temporal fine...... structure (TFS) cues has been a matter of debate. It is also controversial up to which frequency TFS information remains available, and to what extent envelope cues become dominant as frequency increases. Using a pitch-matching paradigm, this study investigated whether the pitch of transposed tones.......5]. All stimuli were presented at 50 dB SPL in broadband pink-noise (13.5 dB/Hz at 1 kHz), and 40 matches per condition were obtained. For fenv = fc/11.5, the results favored hypothesis A for all values of fc, indicating that TFS cues are available and used for pitch extraction, up to at least 7 k...

  14. Mouse V1 population correlates of visual detection rely on heterogeneity within neuronal response patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montijn, Jorrit S; Goltstein, Pieter M; Pennartz, Cyriel MA

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of the primary sensory cortex for the detection, discrimination, and awareness of visual stimuli, but it is unknown how neuronal populations in this area process detected and undetected stimuli differently. Critical differences may reside in the mean strength of responses to visual stimuli, as reflected in bulk signals detectable in functional magnetic resonance imaging, electro-encephalogram, or magnetoencephalography studies, or may be more subtly composed of differentiated activity of individual sensory neurons. Quantifying single-cell Ca2+ responses to visual stimuli recorded with in vivo two-photon imaging, we found that visual detection correlates more strongly with population response heterogeneity rather than overall response strength. Moreover, neuronal populations showed consistencies in activation patterns across temporally spaced trials in association with hit responses, but not during nondetections. Contrary to models relying on temporally stable networks or bulk signaling, these results suggest that detection depends on transient differentiation in neuronal activity within cortical populations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10163.001 PMID:26646184

  15. Unparalleled sample treatment throughput for proteomics workflows relying on ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Susana; Araújo, J E; Pimentel-Santos, F M; Branco, Jaime C; Santos, Hugo M; Lodeiro, Carlos; Capelo, J L

    2018-02-01

    We report on the new microplate horn ultrasonic device as a powerful tool to speed proteomics workflows with unparalleled throughput. 96 complex proteomes were digested at the same time in 4min. Variables such as ultrasonication time, ultrasonication amplitude, and protein to enzyme ratio were optimized. The "classic" method relying on overnight protein digestion (12h) and the sonoreactor-based method were also employed for comparative purposes. We found the protein digestion efficiency homogeneously distributed in the entire microplate horn surface using the following conditions: 4min sonication time and 25% amplitude. Using this approach, patients with lymphoma and myeloma were classified using principal component analysis and a 2D gel-mass spectrometry based approach. Furthermore, we demonstrate the excellent performance by using MALDI-mass spectrometry based profiling as a fast way to classify patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis. Finally, the speed and simplicity of this method were demonstrated by clustering 90 patients with knee osteoarthritis disease (30), with a prosthesis (30, control group) and healthy individuals (30) with no history of joint disease. Overall, the new approach allows profiling a disease in just one week while allows to match the minimalism rules as outlined by Halls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics for classification of toys relying on toxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoi, Quienly; Leme, Flavio O.; Trevizan, Lilian C.; Pereira Filho, Edenir R.; Rufini, Iolanda A.; Santos, Dario; Krug, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    Quality control of toys for avoiding children exposure to potentially toxic elements is of utmost relevance and it is a common requirement in national and/or international norms for health and safety reasons. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was recently evaluated at authors' laboratory for direct analysis of plastic toys and one of the main difficulties for the determination of Cd, Cr and Pb was the variety of mixtures and types of polymers. As most norms rely on migration (lixiviation) protocols, chemometric classification models from LIBS spectra were tested for sampling toys that present potential risk of Cd, Cr and Pb contamination. The classification models were generated from the emission spectra of 51 polymeric toys and by using Partial Least Squares - Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The classification models and validations were carried out with 40 and 11 test samples, respectively. Best results were obtained when KNN was used, with corrected predictions varying from 95% for Cd to 100% for Cr and Pb.

  17. Acute Infantile Encephalopathy Predominantly Affecting The Frontal Lobes (AIEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raha, Sarbani; Udani, Vrajesh

    2012-12-01

    Acute Infantile Encephalopathy Predominantly Affecting the Frontal Lobes (AIEF) is a relatively recent described entity. This article includes case reports of two patients who had bifrontal involvement during acute febrile encephalopathy. Case 1 describes a 1-y-old boy who presented with hyperpyrexia and dialeptic seizures. Imaging revealed significant bilateral frontal lobe involvement while serology proved presence of Influenza B infection. Over a period of one wk, he recovered with significant cognitive decline and perseveratory behavior. Another 6-y-old boy presented with language and behavioral problems suggestive of frontal dysfunction after recovering from prolonged impairment of consciousness following a convulsive status epilepticus. Bilateral superior frontal lesions with gyral swelling was evident on neuroimaging. These cases are among the very few cases of AIEF described in recent literature and the article also reviews this unique subtype of acute encephalopathy.

  18. Predominant Nearshore Sediment Dispersal Patterns in Manila Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Siringan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Net nearshore sediment drift patterns in Manila Bay were determined by combining the coastal geomorphology depicted in 1 : 50,000scale topographic maps and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images, with changes in shoreline position and predominant longshore current directions derived from the interaction of locally generated waves and bay morphology.Manila Bay is fringed by a variety of coastal subenvironments that reflect changing balances of fluvial, wave, and tidal processes. Along the northern coast, a broad tidal-river delta plain stretching from Bataan to Bulacan indicates the importance of tides, where the lateral extent of tidal influences is amplified by the very gentle coastal gradients. In contrast, along the Cavite coast sandy strandplains, spits, and wave-dominated deltas attest to the geomorphic importance of waves that enter the bay from the South China Sea.The estimates of net sediment drift derived from geomorphological, shoreline-change, and meteorological information are generally in good agreement. Sediment drift directions are predominantly to the northeast along Cavite, to the northwest along Manila and Bulacan, and to the north along Bataan. Wave refraction and eddy formation at the tip of the Cavite Spit cause southwestward sediment drift along the coast from Zapote to Kawit. Geomorphology indicates that onshore-offshore sediment transport is probably more important than alongshore transport along the coast fronting the tidal delta plain of northern Manila Bay. Disagreements between the geomorphic-derived and predicted net sediment drift directions may be due to interactions of wave-generated longshore currents with wind- and tide-generated currents.

  19. Nonalbumin proteinuria predominates in biopsy-proven tenofovir nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sise, Meghan E; Hirsch, Jamie S; Canetta, Pietro A; Herlitz, Leal; Mohan, Sumit

    2015-05-15

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) nephrotoxicity is characterized by proximal renal tubular injury and dysmorphic mitochondria resulting in proteinuria, orthoglycemic glycosuria, and other markers of proximal tubular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of proteinuria in patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity. Retrospective chart review. Patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity were identified and their medical charts and biopsy reports were reviewed. Comparison was made with HIV-infected patients not on TDF who underwent kidney biopsy. We identified 43 biopsy-proven cases of TDF nephrotoxicity; mean age 54.7 ± 0.4 years, 53% men, 42% whites. Thirty-seven cases reported proteinuria by dipstick of which only 60% had at least 2+ proteinuria. Twenty-seven patients had urine protein quantified by either 24-h collection or spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio; median proteinuria was 1742 mg/day [interquartile range (IQR) 1200-2000 mg] and 1667 mg/g creatinine (IQR 851-1967 mg/g), respectively. Ten patients had concurrent urinary albumin measured, with a median 236 mg/g creatinine (IQR 137-343 mg/g). The mean urine albumin-to-urine protein ratio (uAPR) was 0.17 (IQR 0.14-0.19), confirming that TDF nephrotoxicity is primarily associated with nonalbumin proteinuria. Control cases had a uAPR of 0.65 (IQR 0.55-0.79) P < 0.001. Histopathology showed the predominance of proximal tubular injury with characteristic mitochondrial abnormalities. In the largest published cohort of patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity, we show that low uAPR is a reliable feature of this disease. Because of the predominance of nonalbumin proteinuria, dipstick urinalysis may be unreliable in TDF nephrotoxicity.

  20. Fruit production in three masting tree species does not rely on stored carbon reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Günter; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Keel, Sonja G; Körner, Christian; Han, Qingmin

    2013-03-01

    Fruiting is typically considered to massively burden the seasonal carbon budget of trees. The cost of reproduction has therefore been suggested as a proximate factor explaining observed mast-fruiting patterns. Here, we used a large-scale, continuous (13)C labeling of mature, deciduous trees in a temperate Swiss forest to investigate to what extent fruit formation in three species with masting reproduction behavior (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea) relies on the import of stored carbon reserves. Using a free-air CO2 enrichment system, we exposed trees to (13)C-depleted CO2 during 8 consecutive years. By the end of this experiment, carbon reserve pools had significantly lower δ(13)C values compared to control trees. δ(13)C analysis of new biomass during the first season after termination of the CO2 enrichment allowed us to distinguish the sources of built-in carbon (old carbon reserves vs. current assimilates). Flowers and expanding leaves carried a significant (13)C label from old carbon stores. In contrast, fruits and vegetative infructescence tissues were exclusively produced from current, unlabeled photoassimilates in all three species, including F. sylvatica, which had a strong masting season. Analyses of δ(13)C in purified starch from xylem of fruit-bearing shoots revealed a complete turn-over of starch during the season, likely due to its usage for bud break. This study is the first to directly demonstrate that fruiting is independent from old carbon reserves in masting trees, with significant implications for mechanistic models that explain mast seeding.

  1. High sugar-induced insulin resistance in Drosophila relies on the lipocalin Neural Lazarillo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Y Pasco

    Full Text Available In multicellular organisms, insulin/IGF signaling (IIS plays a central role in matching energy needs with uptake and storage, participating in functions as diverse as metabolic homeostasis, growth, reproduction and ageing. In mammals, this pleiotropy of action relies in part on a dichotomy of action of insulin, IGF-I and their respective membrane-bound receptors. In organisms with simpler IIS, this functional separation is questionable. In Drosophila IIS consists of several insulin-like peptides called Dilps, activating a unique membrane receptor and its downstream signaling cascade. During larval development, IIS is involved in metabolic homeostasis and growth. We have used feeding conditions (high sugar diet, HSD that induce an important change in metabolic homeostasis to monitor possible effects on growth. Unexpectedly we observed that HSD-fed animals exhibited severe growth inhibition as a consequence of peripheral Dilp resistance. Dilp-resistant animals present several metabolic disorders similar to those observed in type II diabetes (T2D patients. By exploring the molecular mechanisms involved in Drosophila Dilp resistance, we found a major role for the lipocalin Neural Lazarillo (NLaz, a target of JNK signaling. NLaz expression is strongly increased upon HSD and animals heterozygous for an NLaz null mutation are fully protected from HSD-induced Dilp resistance. NLaz is a secreted protein homologous to the Retinol-Binding Protein 4 involved in the onset of T2D in human and mice. These results indicate that insulin resistance shares common molecular mechanisms in flies and human and that Drosophila could emerge as a powerful genetic system to study some aspects of this complex syndrome.

  2. Short-term Internet search using makes people rely on search engines when facing unknown issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Wu, Lingdan; Luo, Liang; Zhang, Yifen; Dong, Guangheng

    2017-01-01

    The Internet search engines, which have powerful search/sort functions and ease of use features, have become an indispensable tool for many individuals. The current study is to test whether the short-term Internet search training can make people more dependent on it. Thirty-one subjects out of forty subjects completed the search training study which included a pre-test, a six-day's training of Internet search, and a post-test. During the pre- and post- tests, subjects were asked to search online the answers to 40 unusual questions, remember the answers and recall them in the scanner. Un-learned questions were randomly presented at the recalling stage in order to elicited search impulse. Comparing to the pre-test, subjects in the post-test reported higher impulse to use search engines to answer un-learned questions. Consistently, subjects showed higher brain activations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in the post-test than in the pre-test. In addition, there were significant positive correlations self-reported search impulse and brain responses in the frontal areas. The results suggest that a simple six-day's Internet search training can make people dependent on the search tools when facing unknown issues. People are easily dependent on the Internet search engines.

  3. Short-term Internet search using makes people rely on search engines when facing unknown issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Wang

    Full Text Available The Internet search engines, which have powerful search/sort functions and ease of use features, have become an indispensable tool for many individuals. The current study is to test whether the short-term Internet search training can make people more dependent on it. Thirty-one subjects out of forty subjects completed the search training study which included a pre-test, a six-day's training of Internet search, and a post-test. During the pre- and post- tests, subjects were asked to search online the answers to 40 unusual questions, remember the answers and recall them in the scanner. Un-learned questions were randomly presented at the recalling stage in order to elicited search impulse. Comparing to the pre-test, subjects in the post-test reported higher impulse to use search engines to answer un-learned questions. Consistently, subjects showed higher brain activations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in the post-test than in the pre-test. In addition, there were significant positive correlations self-reported search impulse and brain responses in the frontal areas. The results suggest that a simple six-day's Internet search training can make people dependent on the search tools when facing unknown issues. People are easily dependent on the Internet search engines.

  4. Object Categorization in Finer Levels Relies More on Higher Spatial Frequencies and Takes Longer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Matin N; Kheradpisheh, Saeed R; Masquelier, Timothée; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The human visual system contains a hierarchical sequence of modules that take part in visual perception at different levels of abstraction, i.e., superordinate, basic, and subordinate levels. One important question is to identify the "entry" level at which the visual representation is commenced in the process of object recognition. For a long time, it was believed that the basic level had a temporal advantage over two others. This claim has been challenged recently. Here we used a series of psychophysics experiments, based on a rapid presentation paradigm, as well as two computational models, with bandpass filtered images of five object classes to study the processing order of the categorization levels. In these experiments, we investigated the type of visual information required for categorizing objects in each level by varying the spatial frequency bands of the input image. The results of our psychophysics experiments and computational models are consistent. They indicate that the different spatial frequency information had different effects on object categorization in each level. In the absence of high frequency information, subordinate and basic level categorization are performed less accurately, while the superordinate level is performed well. This means that low frequency information is sufficient for superordinate level, but not for the basic and subordinate levels. These finer levels rely more on high frequency information, which appears to take longer to be processed, leading to longer reaction times. Finally, to avoid the ceiling effect, we evaluated the robustness of the results by adding different amounts of noise to the input images and repeating the experiments. As expected, the categorization accuracy decreased and the reaction time increased significantly, but the trends were the same. This shows that our results are not due to a ceiling effect. The compatibility between our psychophysical and computational results suggests that the temporal

  5. Energetic solutions of Rock Sandpipers to harsh winter conditions rely on prey quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; Piersma, Theunis

    2018-01-01

    Rock Sandpipers Calidris ptilocnemis have the most northerly non-breeding distribution of any shorebird in the Pacific Basin (upper Cook Inlet, Alaska; 61°N, 151°W). In terms of freezing temperatures, persistent winds and pervasive ice, this site is the harshest used by shorebirds during winter. We integrated physiological, metabolic, behavioural and environmental aspects of the non-breeding ecology of Rock Sandpipers at the northern extent of their range to determine the relative importance of these factors in facilitating their unique non-breeding ecology. Not surprisingly, estimated daily energetic demands were greatest during January, the coldest period of winter. These estimates were greatest for foraging birds, and exceeded basal metabolic rates by a factor of 6.5, a scope of increase that approaches the maximum sustained rate of energetic output by shorebirds during periods of migration, but far exceeds these periods in duration. We assessed the quality of their primary prey, the bivalve Macoma balthica, to determine the daily foraging duration required by Rock Sandpipers to satisfy such energetic demands. Based on size-specific estimates of M. balthica quality, Rock Sandpipers require over 13 h/day of foraging time in upper Cook Inlet in January, even when feeding on the highest quality prey. This range approaches the average daily duration of mudflat availability in this region (c. 18 h), a maximum value that annually decreases due to the accumulation of shore-fast ice. Rock Sandpipers are likely to maximize access to foraging sites by following the exposure of ice-free mudflats across the upper Cook Inlet region and by selecting smaller, higher quality M. balthica to minimize foraging times. Ultimately, this unusual non-breeding ecology relies on the high quality of their prey resources. Compared with other sites across their range, M. balthica from upper Cook Inlet have relatively light shells, potentially the result of the region

  6. You can't rely on color, yet we all do 2.0 (Manuscript Only)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2014-01-01

    Everybody views and uses color from early childhood onwards. But this magnificent property of all objects around us turns out to be elusive if you try to specify it and communicate it to another person. Also, people often don't know what effects color may have under different conditions. However, color is so important and omnipresent, that people can hardly avoid to 'rely on it' - so they do, in particular on its predictability. Thus, there is a discrepancy between the seeming self-evidence of color and the difficulty in specifying it accurately, for the prevailing circumstances. In order to analyze this situation, and possibly remedy it, a short historic perspective of the utilization and specification of color is given. The 'utilization' includes the emotional effects of color, which are important in, for instance, interior decorating but also play a role in literature and religion. 'Specification' begins with the early efforts by scientists, philosophers and artists to bring some order and understanding in what was observed with and while using color. Color has a number of basic functions: embellishment; attracting attention; coding; and bringing order in text by causing text parts presented in the same color to be judged as belonging together. People with a profession that involves color choices for many others, such as designers and manufacturers of products, including electronic visual displays, should have a fairly thorough knowledge of colorimetry and color perception. Unfortunately, they often don't, simply because for 'practitioners' whose work involves different aspects, applying color being only one of those, the available tools for specifying and applying color turn out to be too difficult to use. Two consequences of an insufficient knowledge of the effects color may have are given here. The first of these consequences, on color blindness, relates to 8% of the population, but the second one, on reading colored text, bears on everyone. Practical

  7. Identification of the predominant volatile compounds produced by Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, E; Libbey, L M; Stawicki, S; Wasowicz, E

    1972-11-01

    A culture of Aspergillus flavus grown on moistened wheat meal was homogenized with a blendor, and the resulting slurry was vacuum-distilled at 5 mm of Hg and 35 C. The aqueous distillate was collected in traps cooled to -10 to -80 C. The culture volatiles were extracted from the distillate with CH(2)Cl(2), and, after removal of the bulk of the solvent, the concentrated volatiles were examined by packed-column gas chromatography. Nineteen peaks were observed, and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to identify the larger components. The compounds identified were: 3-methyl-butanol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, and cis-2-octen-1-ol. The two octenols were the predominant compounds, and sufficient sample was trapped from the gas chromatograph for infrared analyses; this confirmed the mass spectral identifications and permitted the assignment of the cis designation to 2-octen-1-ol. Both oct-1-en-3-ol and cis-2-octen-1-ol are thought to be responsible for the characteristic musty-fungal odor of certain fungi; the latter compound may be a useful chemical index of fungal growth.

  8. Predominantly elastic crack growth under combined creep-fatigue cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    A rationalization of the various observed effects of combined creep-fatigue cycling upon predominantly elastic fatigue-crack propagation in austenitic steel is presented. Existing and new evidence is used to show two main groups of behaviour: (i) material and cycling conditions which lead to modest increases (6-8 times) in the rate of crack growth are associated with relaxation-induced changes in the material deformation characteristics, and (ii) material and cycling conditions severe enough to generate internal fracture damage lead to significant (up to a factor of 30) increases in crack growth rate when compared with fast-cycling crack propagation rates at the same temperature. A working hypothesis is presented to show that the boundary between the two groups occurs when the scale of the nucleated creep damage is of the same magnitude as the crack tip opening displacement. This leads to the possibility of unstable crack advance. Creep crack growth rates are shown to provide an upper bound to creep-fatigue crack growth rates when crack advance is unstable. If the deformation properties only are affected by the creep-fatigue cycling then creep crack growth rates provide a lower bound. The role of intergranular oxygen corrosion in very low frequency crack growth tests is also briefly discussed. (author)

  9. Ureter smooth muscle cell orientation in rat is predominantly longitudinal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronck, Bart; Merken, Jort J; Reesink, Koen D; Kroon, Wilco; Delhaas, Tammo

    2014-01-01

    In ureter peristalsis, the orientation of the contracting smooth muscle cells is essential, yet current descriptions of orientation and composition of the smooth muscle layer in human as well as in rat ureter are inconsistent. The present study aims to improve quantification of smooth muscle orientation in rat ureters as a basis for mechanistic understanding of peristalsis. A crucial step in our approach is to use two-photon laser scanning microscopy and image analysis providing objective, quantitative data on smooth muscle cell orientation in intact ureters, avoiding the usual sectioning artifacts. In 36 rat ureter segments, originating from a proximal, middle or distal site and from a left or right ureter, we found close to the adventitia a well-defined longitudinal smooth muscle orientation. Towards the lamina propria, the orientation gradually became slightly more disperse, yet the main orientation remained longitudinal. We conclude that smooth muscle cell orientation in rat ureter is predominantly longitudinal, though the orientation gradually becomes more disperse towards the proprial side. These findings do not support identification of separate layers. The observed longitudinal orientation suggests that smooth muscle contraction would rather cause local shortening of the ureter, than cause luminal constriction. However, the net-like connective tissue of the ureter wall may translate local longitudinal shortening into co-local luminal constriction, facilitating peristalsis. Our quantitative, minimally invasive approach is a crucial step towards more mechanistic insight into ureter peristalsis, and may also be used to study smooth muscle cell orientation in other tube-like structures like gut and blood vessels.

  10. Abdominal Pain-predominant Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adolescent Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Ekong; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Meremikwu, Martin; Benninga, Marc Alexander

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence, pattern, and predisposing factors of abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs) in adolescent Nigerians. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 states in the southern part of Nigeria in June 2014. Adolescents of age 10 to 18 years were recruited from 11 secondary schools using a stratified random sampling technique. A validated self-administered questionnaire on Rome III criteria for diagnosing AP-FGIDs and its determinants were filled by the participants in a classroom setting. A total of 874 participants filled the questionnaire. Of this, 818 (93.4%) filled it properly and were included in the final analysis. The mean age of the participants was 14.6 ± 2.0 years with 409 (50.0%) being boys. AP-FGIDs were present in 81 (9.9%) participants. Forty six (5.6%) of the study participants had irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 21 (2.6%) functional abdominal pain, 15 (1.8%) abdominal migraine while 3 (0.4%) had functional dyspepsia. The difference in AP-FGIDs between adolescents residing in rural and urban areas was not statistically significant (P = 0.22). Intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms occurred more frequently in those with AP-FGIDs. Nausea was the only symptom independently associated with AP-FGIDs (p = 0.015). Multiple regression analysis showed no significant association between stressful life events and AP-FGIDs. AP-FGIDs are a significant health problem in Nigerian adolescents. In addition to the intestinal symptoms, most of the affected children and others also had extraintestinal symptoms. None of the stressful life events evaluated was significantly associated with FGIDs.

  11. Ureter smooth muscle cell orientation in rat is predominantly longitudinal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Spronck

    Full Text Available In ureter peristalsis, the orientation of the contracting smooth muscle cells is essential, yet current descriptions of orientation and composition of the smooth muscle layer in human as well as in rat ureter are inconsistent. The present study aims to improve quantification of smooth muscle orientation in rat ureters as a basis for mechanistic understanding of peristalsis. A crucial step in our approach is to use two-photon laser scanning microscopy and image analysis providing objective, quantitative data on smooth muscle cell orientation in intact ureters, avoiding the usual sectioning artifacts. In 36 rat ureter segments, originating from a proximal, middle or distal site and from a left or right ureter, we found close to the adventitia a well-defined longitudinal smooth muscle orientation. Towards the lamina propria, the orientation gradually became slightly more disperse, yet the main orientation remained longitudinal. We conclude that smooth muscle cell orientation in rat ureter is predominantly longitudinal, though the orientation gradually becomes more disperse towards the proprial side. These findings do not support identification of separate layers. The observed longitudinal orientation suggests that smooth muscle contraction would rather cause local shortening of the ureter, than cause luminal constriction. However, the net-like connective tissue of the ureter wall may translate local longitudinal shortening into co-local luminal constriction, facilitating peristalsis. Our quantitative, minimally invasive approach is a crucial step towards more mechanistic insight into ureter peristalsis, and may also be used to study smooth muscle cell orientation in other tube-like structures like gut and blood vessels.

  12. Assessing roles of vocabulary knowledge predominating in contextual clues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharawadee Promduang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the use of contextual clues and whether EFL learners who are well-equipped with reading skills are able to comprehend the text despite a low level of vocabulary knowledge. Therefore, the study focused on which vocabulary dimensions help students guess unfamiliar words. The study was carried out at Hatyai University in Thailand. The population of this study consisted of 34 undergraduates who were studying International Business English and had taken a course in reading techniques. The present study was conducted to conceptually validate the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge to improve skills by contextual clue. Vocabulary Depth was specially employed to evaluate two dimensions namely Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic. The Schmitt and Clapham Vocabulary Level Test was used to test vocabulary breadth, while the vocabulary depth was implemented by Read’s Vocabulary Depth Test. Reading parts of the TOEFL were adopted for contextual clue items. There were two statistical analysis tools also implemented in this study: paired-sample t-test and bivariate correlation. First, in an attempt to find which vocabulary dimension predominates in guessing word meaning from the text, a paired-sample t-test was utilized to compare the difference of two vocabulary dimensions in reading part: vocabulary depth and contextual clues, and vocabulary breadth and contextual clues. Second, a bivariate correlation was used to find the degree of relationship between vocabulary knowledge and contextual clues. The consequences of this study identified empirical results that 1 there was a positive relationship between contextual clues and vocabulary depth, the reverse is true in vocabulary breadth. Moreover, vocabulary depth is more significantly crucial than breadth to enhance student’s ability to guess words’ meaning from the context.

  13. Konfuciānisma, daoisma un budisma mantojums Ķīnas tautas reliģijā

    OpenAIRE

    Dudaļeva, Jūlija

    2014-01-01

    Šī bakalaura darba nosaukums ir „Konfuciānisma, daoisma un budisma mantojums Ķīnas tautas reliģijā”. Nosaukums ķīniešu tautas reliģijas ir pētnieku izveidots, un tas neatbilst nevienam tradicionālam ķīniešu nosaukumam. Tautas reliģija ir brīvi strukturēts ticību, prakses, dievību, mītu un vērtību savienojums, kas ietver sevī elementus no senču dievkalpojumiem, mirušo kulta, dabas pielūgsmes, animisma, vietējām tradīcijām, daoisma, konfuciānisma un budisma. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt konfuciān...

  14. The Soul of Leadership: African American Students' Experiences in Historically Black and Predominantly White Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…

  15. Early Career Researchers Demand Full-text and Rely on Google to Find Scholarly Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hayman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Nicholas, D., Boukacem-Zeghmouri, C., Rodríguez-Bravo, B., Xu, J., Watkinson, A., Abrizah, A., Herman, E., & Świgoń, M. (2017. Where and how early career researchers find scholarly information. Learned Publishing, 30(1, 19-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/leap.1087 Abstract Objective – To examine the attitudes and information behaviours of early career researchers (ECRs when locating scholarly information. Design – Qualitative longitudinal study. Setting – Research participants from the United Kingdom, United States of America, China, France, Malaysia, Poland, and Spain. Subjects – A total 116 participants from various disciplines, aged 35 and younger, who were holding or had previously held a research position, but not in a tenured position. All participants held a doctorate or were in the process of earning one. Methods – Using structured interviews of 60-90 minutes, researchers asked 60 questions of each participant via face-to-face, Skype, or telephone interviews. The interview format and questions were formed via focus groups. Main Results – As part of a longitudinal project, results reported are limited to the first year of the study, and focused on three primary questions identified by the authors: where do ECRs find scholarly information, whether they use their smartphones to locate and read scholarly information, and what social media do they use to find scholarly information. Researchers describe how ECRs themselves interpreted the phrase scholarly information to primarily mean journal articles, while the researchers themselves had a much expanded definition to include professional and “scholarly contacts, ideas, and data” (p. 22. This research shows that Google and Google Scholar are widely used by ECRs for locating scholarly information regardless of discipline, language, or geography. Their analysis by country points to currency and the combined breadth-and-depth search experience that Google provides as

  16. Objective assessment of mastication predominance in healthy dentate subjects and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Y; Kuwatsuru, R; Tsukiyama, Y; Oki, K; Koyano, K

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate mastication predominance in healthy dentate individuals and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth using objective and subjective methods. The sample comprised 50 healthy dentate individuals (healthy dentate group) and 30 patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth (partially edentulous group). Subjects were asked to freely chew three kinds of test foods (peanuts, beef jerky and chewing gum). Electromyographic activity of the bilateral masseter muscles was recorded. The chewing side (right side or left side) was judged by the level of root mean square electromyographic amplitude. Mastication predominance was then objectively assessed using the mastication predominant score and the mastication predominant index. Self-awareness of mastication predominance was evaluated using a modified visual analogue scale. Mastication predominance scores of the healthy dentate and partially edentulous groups for each test food were analysed. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the mastication predominant index between the two groups (P mastication predominant score was weakly correlated with self-awareness of mastication predominance in the healthy dentate group, whereas strong correlation was observed in the partially edentulous group (P mastication predominance and were more aware of mastication predominance than healthy dentate individuals. Our findings suggest that an objective evaluation of mastication predominance is more precise than a subjective method. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. 16 CFR 1115.5 - Reporting of failures to comply with a voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by the Commission under section 9 of the CPSA. 1115.5 Section 1115.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.5 Reporting of failures to comply...

  18. Caution required when relying on a colleague's advice; a comparison between professional advice and evidence from the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Frederieke; Verbeek, Jos; Hulshof, Carel; van Dijk, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Background: Occupational Physicians rely especially on advice from colleagues when answering their information demands. On the other hand, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) promotes the use of up-to-date research literature instead of experts. To find out if there was a difference between expert-based

  19. 78 FR 29392 - Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0098] Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied on for Safety AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... (NRC) is issuing for public comment Draft Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) 2013-XX, ``Embedded Digital...

  20. Anemia predicts thromboembolic events, bleeding complications and mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation : insights from the RE-LY trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, B. D.; Alings, M.; Connolly, S. J.; Eikelboom, J.; Ezekowitz, M. D.; Oldgren, J.; Yang, S.; Pongue, J.; Yusuf, S.; Wallentin, L.; van Gilst, W. H.

    BackgroundAnemia may predispose to thromboembolic events or bleeding in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). ObjectivesTo investigate whether anemia is associated with thromboembolic events and bleeding in patients with AF. Patients and methodsWe retrospectively analyzed the RE-LY

  1. Immobilization of α-Amylase from Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 on ReliZyme and Immobead Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummirul Mukminin Kahar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available α-Amylase from Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 (ASKA is a thermostable enzyme that produces a high level of maltose from starches. A truncated ASKA (TASKA variant with improved expression and purification efficiency was characterized in an earlier study. In this work, TASKA was purified and immobilized through covalent attachment on three epoxide (ReliZyme EP403/M, Immobead IB-150P, and Immobead IB-150A and an amino-epoxide (ReliZyme HFA403/M activated supports. Several parameters affecting immobilization were analyzed, including the pH, temperature, and quantity (mg of enzyme added per gram of support. The influence of the carrier surface properties, pore sizes, and lengths of spacer arms (functional groups on biocatalyst performances were studied. Free and immobilized TASKAs were stable at pH 6.0–9.0 and active at pH 8.0. The enzyme showed optimal activity and considerable stability at 60 °C. Immobilized TASKA retained 50% of its initial activity after 5–12 cycles of reuse. Upon degradation of starches and amylose, only immobilized TASKA on ReliZyme HFA403/M has comparable hydrolytic ability with the free enzyme. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an immobilization study of an α-amylase from Anoxybacillus spp. and the first report of α-amylase immobilization using ReliZyme and Immobeads as supports.

  2. Invitro genotoxicity, assessment of cytotoxicity and of Rely X luting cement on human lymphocyte cells before and after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, Shilpa S.; Hegde, Mithra N.; Shabin; Hegde, Nidarsh D.; Suchetha Kumari; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    In dentistry, a luting agent is a viscous material placed between tooth structure and a prosthesis that by polymerization firmly attach the prosthesis to the tooth structure. Luting agents contact a large area of dentin when used for crown cementation. There is little information on biocompatibility tests, especially on the effect of electron beam irradiation on cytotoxicity for luting resin cements. To determine the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Rely X luting cement on human lymphocyte cells before and after irradiation. Rely X luting cement was obtained commercially. Samples were prepared as per the ISO standard size of 25x2x2 mm using polytetrafluoroethylene teflon mould and divided into two groups - non irradiated and irradiated groups. The samples in irradiated category were exposed to 200 Gy of electron beam irradiation at Microtron Centre, Mangalore University, Mangalore, India. For hemolysis the samples were immersed in phosphate buffer saline and incubated at 370℃ for 24 hrs, 7 days and 14 days. 200 μl of 24 hr material extract was mixed with human peripheral blood lymphocyte tested for comet assay by single cell DNA comet assay. Hemolytic activity of non irradiated Rely X luting cement after 24 hrs, 7 days and 14 days was 54.78±1.48, 69.91±2.41 and 43.21±0.92 respectively whereas hemolytic activity of irradiated Rely X luting cement after 24 hrs, 7 days and 14 days was 91.8±8.29, 56.95±19.7 and 41.34±12.30. The irradiation of Rely X luting cement with 200 Gy dose of electron beam irradiation caused an increase in the frequency of DNA damage when compared to that of the non-irradiated group. Based on the experimental condition, it is concluded that incomplete polymerization of the dental luting cements has resulted in the elution of the resin components which are responsible for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Rely X luting cement on human lymphocyte cells. (author)

  3. Neuromorphic Deep Learning Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Neftci, E; Augustine, C; Paul, S; Detorakis, G

    2017-01-01

    An ongoing challenge in neuromorphic computing is to devise general and computationally efficient models of inference and learning which are compatible with the spatial and temporal constraints of the brain. One increasingly popular and successful approach is to take inspiration from inference and learning algorithms used in deep neural networks. However, the workhorse of deep learning, the gradient descent Back Propagation (BP) rule, often relies on the immediate availability of network-wide...

  4. Rely-Guarantee Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 1School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. 2Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia ...additional examples that are not in the ECOOP paper. This work was partially supported by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation

  5. Einfluss von Flüssigkeitskontamination auf die Verbundfestigkeit von Wurzelkanalsealern (Adseal und RelyX Unicem)

    OpenAIRE

    Höfer, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, eine Aussage über die Verbundfestigkeit des epoxidharz-basierten Wurzelkanalsealers Adseal und des selbstadhäsiven methacrylatbasierten Befestigungszements RelyX Unicem zum Wurzelkanaldentin in Abhängigkeit vom Verbleib der Spülflüssigkeit im Wurzelkanal zu treffen. Die Kontamination des Wurzelkanals wurde mittels dreier verschiedener Spüllösungen durchgeführt. Zu diesem Zweck wurden Scherfestigkeitsmessungen sowie lichtmikroskopische Untersuchungen der Sealer-Sprea...

  6. Learning Potential and Cognitive Modifiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozulin, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between thinking and learning constitutes one of the fundamental problems of cognitive psychology. Though there is an obvious overlap between the domains of thinking and learning, it seems more productive to consider learning as being predominantly acquisition while considering thinking as the application of the existent concepts…

  7. Nextgen Navy eLearning Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    ELEARNING TRACKING by William E. Miller December 2014 Thesis Advisor: Man-Tak Shing Co-Advisor: Arijit Das THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT......Navy’s eLearning (NeL) computer-based learning system relies on a Learning Management System (LMS) for content delivery and tracking learning

  8. Learning by Starch Potato Growers: Learning in Small Businesses with No Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Niels R.; Maruster, Laura; Jorna, Rene J.; van Haren, Rob J. F.

    2012-01-01

    In small businesses with no employees, learning environments have a low learning readiness. Consequently, learners need to rely on their own agency to shape their learning experiences. Results from a study of agricultural entrepreneurs indicated that the components of motivation and self-regulated learning strategies shape learner's agency and…

  9. Fast distributed strategic learning for global optima in queueing access games

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine combined fully distributed payoff and strategy learning (CODIPAS) in a queue-aware access game over a graph. The classical strategic learning analysis relies on vanishing or small learning rate and uses stochastic

  10. Influence of Computerized Sounding Out on Spelling Performance for Children who do and not rely on AAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Beukelman, David R.; Schwarz, Ilsa E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Spelling is an important skill for individuals who rely on augmentative alternative communication (AAC). The purpose of this study was to investigate how computerized sounding out influenced spelling accuracy of pseudo-words. Computerized sounding out was defined as a word elongated, thus providing an opportunity for a child to hear all the sounds in the word at a slower rate. Methods Seven children with cerebral palsy, four who use AAC and three who do not, participated in a single subject AB design. Results The results of the study indicated that the use of computerized sounding out increased the phonologic accuracy of the pseudo-words produced by participants. Conclusion The study provides preliminary evidence for the use of computerized sounding out during spelling tasks for children with cerebral palsy who do and do not use AAC. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24512195

  11. Humans rely on the same rules to assess emotional valence and intensity in conspecific and dog vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragó, Tamás; Andics, Attila; Devecseri, Viktor; Kis, Anna; Gácsi, Márta; Miklósi, Adám

    2014-01-01

    Humans excel at assessing conspecific emotional valence and intensity, based solely on non-verbal vocal bursts that are also common in other mammals. It is not known, however, whether human listeners rely on similar acoustic cues to assess emotional content in conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations, and which acoustical parameters affect their performance. Here, for the first time, we directly compared the emotional valence and intensity perception of dog and human non-verbal vocalizations. We revealed similar relationships between acoustic features and emotional valence and intensity ratings of human and dog vocalizations: those with shorter call lengths were rated as more positive, whereas those with a higher pitch were rated as more intense. Our findings demonstrate that humans rate conspecific emotional vocalizations along basic acoustic rules, and that they apply similar rules when processing dog vocal expressions. This suggests that humans may utilize similar mental mechanisms for recognizing human and heterospecific vocal emotions.

  12. Can we rely on the antiretroviral treatment as the only means for human immunodeficiency virusprevention? A Public Health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozalevskis, Antons; Manzanares-Laya, Sandra; García de Olalla, Patricia; Moreno, Antonio; Jacques-Aviñó, Constanza; Caylà, Joan A

    2015-11-01

    The evidence that supports the preventive effect of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) in HIV sexual transmission suggested the so-called 'treatment as prevention' (TAP) strategy as a promising tool for slowing down HIV transmission. As the messages and attitudes towards condom use in the context of TAP appear to be somehow confusing, the aim here is to assess whether relying on cART alone to prevent HIV transmission can currently be recommended from the Public Health perspective. A review is made of the literature on the effects of TAP strategy on HIV transmission and the epidemiology of other sexual transmitted infections (STIs) in the cART era, and recommendations from Public Health institutions on the TAP as of February 2014. The evolution of HIV and other STIs in Barcelona from 2007 to 2012 has also been analysed. Given that the widespread use of cART has coincided with an increasing incidence of HIV and other STIs, mainly amongst men who have sex with men, a combination and diversified prevention methods should always be considered and recommended in counselling. An informed decision on whether to stop using condoms should only be made by partners within stable couples, and after receiving all the up-to-date information regarding TAP. From the public health perspective, primary prevention should be a priority; therefore relying on cART alone is not a sufficient strategy to prevent new HIV and other STIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Learning Styles of Law Enforcement Officers: Does Police Work Affect How Officers Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study utilized the VARK learning style preference assessment instrument to examine how full-time sworn law enforcement officers learn and attempted to identify a predominant learning style preference among the participants. The primary question was: Which is the dominant learning style preference of full-time sworn law…

  14. Adaptive representations for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.

    2010-01-01

    This book presents new algorithms for reinforcement learning, a form of machine learning in which an autonomous agent seeks a control policy for a sequential decision task. Since current methods typically rely on manually designed solution representations, agents that automatically adapt their own

  15. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of cryptococcosis in Singapore: predominance of Cryptococcus neoformans compared with Cryptococcus gattii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Chan

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: C. neoformans var. grubii, subtype VN I, was the predominant subtype in Singapore, infecting younger, mainly immunocompromised hosts with HIV. C. gattii was uncommon, causing pulmonary manifestations in older, immunocompetent patients and were RFLP type VG II.

  16. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, ...

  17. Open questions in the management of nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyran, Marguerite; Gonzague, Laurence; Bouabdallah, Reda; Resbeut, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Localized Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma is a rare disease with an overall good prognosis but frequent late relapses. Due to it's rarity there is no standard therapeutic approach and pathological diagnosis may be hard. In this paper we discuss the technical aspects of the radiation therapy and histological issues. The new fields reductions proposed for classical Hodgkin lymphoma cannot be applied to early stages Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin lymphomas which are usually treated with radiation therapy without systemic chemotherapy.

  18. Abdominal Pain-Predominant Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Jordanian School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Eyad M; Al-Safadi, Mohammad H

    2014-12-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common complaint in children. Significant portion of them are of functional origin. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) and its types in Jordanian school children. This is a school-based survey at south Jordan. Information using the self-reporting form of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII) - the official Arabic translation - was collected. Classes from academic years (grades) 6 - 8 were selected. SPSS Statistical Package Version 17 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) was used. Categorical data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test, and continuous data were analyzed using t -test. P abdominal pain-predominant FGID. Seventy-nine (68%) of them were females. Forty-seven (10.6%) had irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Thirty-six (8%), 17 (3.8%), 11 (2.4%) and five (1.1%) had abdominal migraine, functional abdominal pain, functional abdominal pain syndrome and functional dyspepsia, respectively. Abdominal pain-predominant FGID has become a major health issue in Jordanian children. One of four children between the ages of 11 and 15 years exhibits at least one abdominal pain-predominant FGID. The most common form of abdominal pain-predominant FGID in our children was IBS. Females are affected more often than males. Intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms are seen regularly with abdominal pain-predominant FGIDs.

  19. Learning with Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Paivi; Karlsudd, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The current higher education, both distance education and traditional campus courses, relies more and more on modern information and communication technologies (ICT). The use of computer systems and networks results in a wide range of security issues that must be dealt with in order to create a safe learning environment. In this work, we study the…

  20. Influence of computerized sounding out on spelling performance for children who do and do not rely on AAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H; Hogan, Tiffany P; Beukelman, David R; Schwarz, Ilsa E

    2015-05-01

    Spelling is an important skill for individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The purpose of this study was to investigate how computerized sounding out influenced spelling accuracy of pseudo-words. Computerized sounding out was defined as a word elongated, thus providing an opportunity for a child to hear all the sounds in the word at a slower rate. Seven children with cerebral palsy, four who use AAC and three who do not, participated in a single subject AB design. The results of the study indicated that the use of computerized sounding out increased the phonologic accuracy of the pseudo-words produced by participants. The study provides preliminary evidence for the use of computerized sounding out during spelling tasks for children with cerebral palsy who do and do not use AAC. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. We investigated how computerized sounding out influenced spelling accuracy of pseudowords for children with complex communication needs who did and did not use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Results indicated that the use of computerized sounding out increased the phonologic accuracy of the pseudo-words by participants, suggesting that computerized sounding out might assist in more accurate spelling for children who use AAC. Future research is needed to determine how language and reading abilities influence the use of computerized sounding out with children who have a range of speech intelligibility abilities and do and do not use AAC.

  1. Catalytic ozonation not relying on hydroxyl radical oxidation: A selective and competitive reaction process related to metal-carboxylate complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic ozonation following non-hydroxyl radical pathway is an important technique not only to degrade refractory carboxylic-containing organic compounds/matter but also to avoid catalyst deactivation caused by metal-carboxylate complexation. It is unknown whether this process is effective for all carboxylates or selective to special molecule structures. In this work, the selectivity was confirmed using O3/(CuO/CeO2) and six distinct ozone-resistant probe carboxylates (i.e., acetate, citrate, malonate, oxalate, pyruvate and succinate). Among these probe compounds, pyruvate, oxalate, and citrate were readily degraded following the rate order of oxalate>citrate>pyruvate, while the degradation of acetate, malonate, and succinate was not promoted. The selectivity was independent on carboxylate group number of the probe compounds and solution pH. Competitive degradation was observed for carboxylate mixtures following the preference order of citrate, oxalate, and finally pyruvate. The competitive degradation was ascribed to competitive adsorption on the catalyst surface. It was revealed that the catalytically degradable compounds formed bidentate chelating or bridging complexes with surface copper sites of the catalyst, i.e., the active sites. The catalytically undegradable carboxylates formed monodentate complexes with surface copper sites or just electrostatically adsorbed on the catalyst surface. The selectivity, relying on the structure of surface metal-carboxylate complex, should be considered in the design of catalytic ozonation process. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Spatial Reorganization of the Endoplasmic Reticulum during Mitosis Relies on Mitotic Kinase Cyclin A in the Early Drosophila Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Zane J.; Mclaurin, Justin D.; Eritano, Anthony S.; Johnson, Brittany M.; Sims, Amanda Q.; Riggs, Blake

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase with their cyclin partners (cyclin:Cdks) are the master regulators of cell cycle progression responsible for regulating a host of activities during mitosis. Nuclear mitotic events, including chromosome condensation and segregation have been directly linked to Cdk activity. However, the regulation and timing of cytoplasmic mitotic events by cyclin:Cdks is poorly understood. In order to examine these mitotic cytoplasmic events, we looked at the dramatic changes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during mitosis in the early Drosophila embryo. The dynamic changes of the ER can be arrested in an interphase state by inhibition of either DNA or protein synthesis. Here we show that this block can be alleviated by micro-injection of Cyclin A (CycA) in which defined mitotic ER clusters gathered at the spindle poles. Conversely, micro-injection of Cyclin B (CycB) did not affect spatial reorganization of the ER, suggesting CycA possesses the ability to initiate mitotic ER events in the cytoplasm. Additionally, RNAi-mediated simultaneous inhibition of all 3 mitotic cyclins (A, B and B3) blocked spatial reorganization of the ER. Our results suggest that mitotic ER reorganization events rely on CycA and that control and timing of nuclear and cytoplasmic events during mitosis may be defined by release of CycA from the nucleus as a consequence of breakdown of the nuclear envelope. PMID:25689737

  3. Sociological investigation Students of Universities' Social-Political Trust in Iran: relying on secondary analysis of some national surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mahdi Etemadifard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Social system based on mutual trust among members continues to exist. Social trust in modem era is more important than earlier periods. Subject of current report is focused on the trust of Iranian students in different aspects. Main question in this investigation is about social-political trust of these students (based on trust in Islamic Republic of Iran at the past and present. This matter explored by secondary analysis of data, Relying on secondary analysis of some national surveys. Based on data and consequences of other researches we are going to illustrate the objective aspects of student's trust in current decades. The main sources for data collection at this stage include: All the public surveys conducted in the past four decades, the general data about students and their related assays. Trust students were evaluated on the following dimensions: trust in trade unions and various groups, trust in the clergy, directors of public trust and confidence in judges. Furthermore, the level of political engagement and participation in elections, satisfaction with economic situation, political situation and level of satisfaction with confidence in radio and television news. Reduction of public trust leads to reduced maximum student trust especially in the social and political dimensions.

  4. The perception of (naked only) bodies and faceless heads relies on holistic processing: Evidence from the inversion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonemei, Rob; Costantino, Andrea I; Battistel, Ilenia; Rivolta, Davide

    2018-05-01

    Faces and bodies are more difficult to perceive when presented inverted than when presented upright (i.e., stimulus inversion effect), an effect that has been attributed to the disruption of holistic processing. The features that can trigger holistic processing in faces and bodies, however, still remain elusive. In this study, using a sequential matching task, we tested whether stimulus inversion affects various categories of visual stimuli: faces, faceless heads, faceless heads in body context, headless bodies naked, whole bodies naked, headless bodies clothed, and whole bodies clothed. Both accuracy and inversion efficiency score results show inversion effects for all categories but for clothed bodies (with and without heads). In addition, the magnitude of the inversion effect for face, naked body, and faceless heads was similar. Our findings demonstrate that the perception of faces, faceless heads, and naked bodies relies on holistic processing. Clothed bodies (with and without heads), on the other side, may trigger clothes-sensitive rather than body-sensitive perceptual mechanisms. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Symmetric Encryption Relying on Chaotic Henon System for Secure Hardware-Friendly Wireless Communication of Implantable Medical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Belkhouja

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare remote devices are recognized as a promising technology for treating health related issues. Among them are the wireless Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs: These electronic devices are manufactured to treat, monitor, support or replace defected vital organs while being implanted in the human body. Thus, they play a critical role in healing and even saving lives. Current IMDs research trends concentrate on their medical reliability. However, deploying wireless technology in such applications without considering security measures may offer adversaries an easy way to compromise them. With the aim to secure these devices, we explore a new scheme that creates symmetric encryption keys to encrypt the wireless communication portion. We will rely on chaotic systems to obtain a synchronized Pseudo-Random key. The latter will be generated separately in the system in such a way that avoids a wireless key exchange, thus protecting patients from the key theft. Once the key is defined, a simple encryption system that we propose in this paper will be used. We analyze the performance of this system from a cryptographic point of view to ensure that it offers a better safety and protection for patients.

  6. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  7. Relationship between soft stratum thickness and predominant frequency of ground based on microtremor observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Kenny; Lau, Tze Liang

    2017-07-01

    Despite categorized as low seismicity group, until being affected by distant earthquake ground motion from Sumatra and the recent 2015 Sabah Earthquake, Malaysia has come to realize that seismic hazard in the country is real and has the potential to threaten the public safety and welfare. The major concern in this paper is to study the effect of local site condition, where it could amplify the magnitude of ground vibration at sites. The aim for this study is to correlate the thickness of soft stratum with the predominant frequency of soil. Single point microtremor measurements were carried out at 24 selected points where the site investigation reports are available. Predominant period and frequency at each site are determined by Nakamura's method. The predominant period varies from 0.22 s to 0.98 s. Generally, the predominant period increases when getting closer to the shoreline which has thicker sediments. As far as the thickness of the soft stratum could influence the amplification of seismic wave, the advancement of micotremor observation to predict the thickness of soft stratum (h) from predominant frequency (fr) is of the concern. Thus an empirical relationship h =54.917 fr-1.314 is developed based on the microtremor observation data. The empirical relationship will be benefited in the prediction of thickness of soft stratum based on microtremor observation for seismic design with minimal cost compared to conventional boring method.

  8. Caution required when relying on a colleague's advice; a comparison between professional advice and evidence from the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulshof Carel

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational Physicians rely especially on advice from colleagues when answering their information demands. On the other hand, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM promotes the use of up-to-date research literature instead of experts. To find out if there was a difference between expert-based practice and EBM we compared professional advice on occupational health topics with best evidence from the literature. Methods We asked 14 occupational physicians to consult their usual information sources on 12 pre-conceived occupational health problems. The problems were presented in the form of case vignettes which contained sufficient clinical information to be used by the occupational physicians for the consultation of their experts. We had searched the literature for the best available evidence on the 12 problems, which made it possible to answer the clinical questions with a clear yes or no. Results The cases could be used by the occupational physicians as arising from their own practice. All together the occupational physicians consulted 75 different experts. Almost half of the consulted experts were near colleagues, 10% were industrial hygienists, 8% medical specialists and the rest had a varied background. Fifty three percent (95% confidence interval 42% to 65% of all professional advice was not in line with the research literature. In 18 cases (24% professional advice explicitly referred to up-to-date research literature as their used source. These cases were substantially less incorrect (17% than advice that had not mentioned the literature as a source (65% (difference 48%, 95% Confidence Interval from 27% to 69%. Conclusion Advice that occupational physicians routinely get in their daily practice differs substantially from best evidence from the literature. Occupational physicians who ask professional advice should always ask about the evidence of this advice.

  9. Caution required when relying on a colleague's advice; a comparison between professional advice and evidence from the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Frederieke; Verbeek, Jos; Hulshof, Carel; van Dijk, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Background Occupational Physicians rely especially on advice from colleagues when answering their information demands. On the other hand, Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) promotes the use of up-to-date research literature instead of experts. To find out if there was a difference between expert-based practice and EBM we compared professional advice on occupational health topics with best evidence from the literature. Methods We asked 14 occupational physicians to consult their usual information sources on 12 pre-conceived occupational health problems. The problems were presented in the form of case vignettes which contained sufficient clinical information to be used by the occupational physicians for the consultation of their experts. We had searched the literature for the best available evidence on the 12 problems, which made it possible to answer the clinical questions with a clear yes or no. Results The cases could be used by the occupational physicians as arising from their own practice. All together the occupational physicians consulted 75 different experts. Almost half of the consulted experts were near colleagues, 10% were industrial hygienists, 8% medical specialists and the rest had a varied background. Fifty three percent (95% confidence interval 42% to 65%) of all professional advice was not in line with the research literature. In 18 cases (24%) professional advice explicitly referred to up-to-date research literature as their used source. These cases were substantially less incorrect (17%) than advice that had not mentioned the literature as a source (65%) (difference 48%, 95% Confidence Interval from 27% to 69%). Conclusion Advice that occupational physicians routinely get in their daily practice differs substantially from best evidence from the literature. Occupational physicians who ask professional advice should always ask about the evidence of this advice. PMID:16131405

  10. Access to Grafts in a Liver Transplant Center: Does It Rely on the Severity of the Waiting List Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daciuk, N I; Quiñonez, E G; Poupard, M; Vergara Sandoval, R M; Mattera, F J

    2018-03-01

    The number of transplants performed relies, partially, on recipients' variables on the waiting list. The goal of this study was to compare recipients from a high-volume liver center in Argentina with the rest of the country. This study was a retrospective analysis of liver transplant recipients nationally between January 2013 and April 2017. It involved extracting data from the open database CRESI-SINTRA (the Argentinian database of the National Procurement Organization, an equivalent to the United Network for Organ Sharing); expressing results by percentages, medians, and interquartile ranges (IQRs); and comparing the national population with the population transplanted at Hospital El Cruce (HEC). The Mann-Whitney U test was used for analysis. Nationally, 1434 liver transplants were performed. A total of 177 (12.34%) were emergency status; 811 (56.6%) were by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) (n = 759)/PELD (Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease) (n = 52), with a median graft assignment position of 5 (IQR, 3-10) in 57.2 days (IQR, 11-217). Median MELD access was 29 points (IQR, 24-33). A total of 446 (31.1%) had MELD exceptions; 249 (55.8%) of these were due to Milan hepatocellular carcinoma. At the HEC, 167 liver transplantations were performed; 26 (15.6%) were emergency status and 97 (58.1%) by MELD (none PELD). Their median graft assignment position was 4 (IQR, 4-16) in 19.1 days (IQR, 4-90); median MELD access was 28 points (IQR, 24-31). Forty-five patients (26.9%) had MELD exceptions; 31 (68.9%) were due to hepatocellular carcinoma. Our center has a larger proportion of recipients transplanted by emergency status and MELD, similar MELD access, and less waiting list time, reflecting our wide policy of liver graft acceptance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An Overview of the Characteristics and Function of Vitamin C in Various Tissues: Relying on its Antioxidant Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Akbari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid or ascorbate is a biomolecule that participates in many biochemical processes. It is an essential nutrient for humans, however, in some species such as rodents and guinea pigs is synthesized. It has a variety of functions in the body that we might venture to say make it a very important antioxidant nature and pro-oxidant. L-ascorbic acidic a reduced form of vitamin C and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA is the oxidized form of ascorbate, both L-ascorbic acid and dihydroascorbic acid retain the vitamin C activity. Dehydro-ascorbate is reconverted to ascorbate in the cytosol by cytochrome b reductase and thioredoxin reductase in reactions involving NADH and NADPH, respectively. Ascorbate is transported into the cell via the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters (SVCTs, which causes accumulation of ascorbate within cells against a concentration gradient. Dehydroascorbic acid, the oxidized form of ascorbate, is transported via glucose transporters family (GLUTs. The highest concentrations of ascorbate in the body are found in brain and adrenal gland. Vitamin C also acts as a co-factor in several enzyme reactions. This vitamin is an essential biochemical factor in the reproductive process. The pharmacophore of vitamin C is the ascorbate, ascorbate is an antioxidant.Ascorbate is a neuromodulator of glutamatergic and dopaminergic system and related behaviors. It also improves components of the immune system. Given the wide role of ascorbate, further investigation is necessary to evaluate the exact mechanism(s underlying these effects. In this review we will consider a short overview of the characteristics and function of vitamin C (relying on antioxidant function in various tissues.

  12. Long-Range Correlation in alpha-Wave Predominant EEG in Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Asif; Chyan Lin, Der; Kwan, Hon; Borette, D. S.

    2004-03-01

    The background noise in the alpha-predominant EEG taken from eyes-open and eyes-closed neurophysiological states is studied. Scale-free characteristic is found in both cases using the wavelet approach developed by Simonsen and Nes [1]. The numerical results further show the scaling exponent during eyes-closed is consistently lower than eyes-open. We conjecture the origin of this difference is related to the temporal reconfiguration of the neural network in the brain. To further investigate the scaling structure of the EEG background noise, we extended the second order statistics to higher order moments using the EEG increment process. We found that the background fluctuation in the alpha-predominant EEG is predominantly monofractal. Preliminary results are given to support this finding and its implication in brain functioning is discussed. [1] A.H. Simonsen and O.M. Nes, Physical Review E, 58, 2779¡V2748 (1998).

  13. Neuromuscular-skeletal origins of predominant patterns of coordination in rhythmic two-joint arm movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rugy, Aymar; Riek, Stephan; Carson, Richard G

    2006-01-01

    The authors tested for predominant patterns of coordination in the combination of rhythmic flexion-extension (FE) and supination- (SP) at the elbow-joint complex. Participants (N=10) spontaneously established in-phase (supination synchronized with flexion) and antiphase (pronation synchronized with flexion) patterns. In addition, the authors used a motorized robot arm to generate involuntary SP movements with different phase relations with respect to voluntary FE. The involuntarily induced in-phase pattern was accentuated and was more consistent than other patterns. The result provides evidence that the predominance of the in-phase pattern originates in the influence of neuromuscular-skeletal constraints rather than in a preference dictated by perceptual-cognitive factors implicated in voluntary control. Neuromuscular-skeletal constraints involved in the predominance of the in-phase and the antiphase patterns are discussed.

  14. Enhanced thyroid iodine metabolism in patients with triiodothyronine-predominant Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, J.; Hosoya, T.; Naito, N.

    1988-01-01

    Some patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease have increased serum T3 and normal or even low serum T4 levels during treatment with antithyroid drugs. These patients with elevated serum T3 to T4 ratios rarely have a remission of their hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid iodine metabolism in such patients, whom we termed T3-predominant Graves' disease. Mean thyroid radioactive iodine uptake was 51.0 +/- 18.1% ( +/- SD) at 3 h, and it decreased to 38.9 +/- 20.1% at 24 h in 31 patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease during treatment. It was 20.0 +/- 11.4% at 3 h and increased to 31.9 +/- 16.0% at 24 h in 17 other patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease who had normal serum T3 and T4 levels and a normal serum T3 to T4 ratio during treatment (control Graves' disease). The activity of serum TSH receptor antibodies was significantly higher in the patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in control Graves' disease patients. From in vitro studies of thyroid tissue obtained at surgery, both thyroglobulin content and iodine content in thyroglobulin were significantly lower in patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in the control Graves' disease patients. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity determined by a guaiacol assay was 0.411 +/- 0.212 g.u./mg protein in the T3-predominant Graves' disease patients, significantly higher than that in the control Graves' disease patients. Serum TPO autoantibody levels determined by immunoprecipitation also were greater in T3-predominant Graves' disease patients than in control Graves' disease patients. Binding of this antibody to TPO slightly inhibited the enzyme activity of TPO, but this effect of the antibody was similar in the two groups of patients

  15. Predominant CD4 T-lymphocyte tropism of human herpesvirus 6-related virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, K; Sonoda, S; Higashi, K; Kondo, T; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, M; Yamanishi, K

    1989-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)-related virus was isolated from CD4+ CD8- and CD3+ CD4+ mature T lymphocytes but could not be isolated from CD4- CD8+, CD4- CD8-, and CD3- T cells in the peripheral blood of exanthem subitum patients. HHV-6-related virus predominantly infected CD4+ CD8+, CD4+ CD8-, and CD3+ CD4+ cells with mature phenotypes and rarely infected CD4- CD8+ cells from cord blood mononuclear cells, which suggested predominant CD4 mature T-lymphocyte tropism of HHV-6-related virus.

  16. Latina "Testimonios": A Reflexive, Critical Analysis of a "Latina Space" at a Predominantly White Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Judith; Garcia, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Judith Flores and Silvia Garcia (University of Utah) draw from the work of their mentor, Rina Benmayor and "Telling to live: Latina feminist testimonios" to establish an organization for Latinas who are staff, faculty, students, alumni, and community members at a predominantly White institution (PWI). Critical race feminism (CRF),…

  17. Coloring the Academic Landscape: Faculty of Color Breaking the Silence in Predominantly White Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Christine A.

    2006-01-01

    This article, based on a larger, autoethnographic qualitative research project, focuses on the first-hand experiences of 27 faculty of color teaching in predominantly White colleges and universities. The 27 faculty represented a variety of institutions, disciplines, academic titles, and ranks. They identified themselves as African American,…

  18. Black Female Voices: Self-Presentation Strategies in Doctoral Programs at Predominately White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, Marjorie C.; Moore, James L., III

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a larger study, this qualitative investigation uses Black feminist thought as the interpretive lens to investigate perceptions and experiences of African American female doctoral students at predominately White institutions (PWIs). Semistructured interviews were used to gain an understanding of their experiences and how these…

  19. Black Male College Achievers and Resistant Responses to Racist Stereotypes at Predominantly White Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Shaun R. Harper investigates how Black undergraduate men respond to and resist the internalization of racist stereotypes at predominantly White colleges and universities. Prior studies consistently show that racial stereotypes are commonplace on many campuses, that their effects are usually psychologically and academically…

  20. Social Functioning in Predominantly Inattentive and Combined Subtypes of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanto, Mary V.; Pope-Boyd, Sabrina A.; Tryon, Warren W.; Stepak, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the social functioning of children with the Combined (CB) and Predominantly Inattentive (PI) subtypes of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), controlling for comorbidity and medication-status, which may have confounded the results of previous research. Method: Parents and teachers…

  1. Perceptions of Stereotype Vulnerability, Belonging and Campus Climate by African Americans Attending a Predominately White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Loren Wright

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine of stereotype vulnerability, sense of belonging and campus climate for African American college students at a Predominately White Institution (PWI) in the Southeast. This research used a sociocultural model to explore African American student perceptions at a PWI in the southeast of the United States. This…

  2. Is the Feeling Mutual? Examining Parent-Teacher Relationships in Low-Income, Predominantly Latino Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hannah; Robinson, Michelle; Valentine, Jessa Lewis; Fish, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Strong parent-teacher relationships are critical to students' academic success. Mismatches in parents' and teachers' perceptions of each other may negatively affect children's outcomes. Using survey data collected from parents and teachers in 52 low-income, predominantly Latino schools, we explore subgroup variation in parents' and teachers'…

  3. Black African Immigrant College Students' Perceptions of Belonging at a Predominately White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Aleixo, Marina B.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of college-age Blacks in the United States are Black African immigrants. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the researchers interviewed 12 undergraduate Black African immigrant college students attending a predominately White institution (PWI) about their experiences and perceptions of belonging. Findings suggest…

  4. Black Undergraduate Women and Their Sense of Belonging in STEM at Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortch, Deniece; Patel, Chirag

    2017-01-01

    Because little work exists on the sense of belonging focusing on just Black undergraduate women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), especially at highly selective predominantly white institutions (PWIs), this study takes a phenomenological approach to understand the lived experiences of Black undergraduate women in STEM by…

  5. Identification of predominant aroma components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Edibe S; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-02-15

    Volatile components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds were isolated by solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and predominant aroma compounds identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) and aroma extract dilutions analysis (AEDA). Selected odorants were quantitated by GC-mass spectrometry and odor-activity values (OAVs) determined. Results of AEDA indicated that 1-octen-3-one and acetic acid were important aroma compounds in raw almonds. Those predominant in dry roasted almonds were methional, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2,3-pentanedione; whereas, in oil roasted almonds 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2,3-pentanedione, methional and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline were the predominant aroma compounds. Overall, oil roasted almonds contained a greater number and higher abundance of aroma compounds than either raw or dry roasted almonds. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of lipid-derived volatile compounds in raw almond aroma. Meanwhile, in dry and oil roasted almonds, the predominant aroma compounds were derived via the Maillard reaction, lipid degradation/oxidation and sugar degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pre- and perinatal risk factors for pyloric stenosis and their influence on the male predominance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Camilla; Gørtz, Sanne; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2012-01-01

    whether these factors modified the male predominance. Information on pre- and perinatal factors and pyloric stenosis was obtained from national registers. Poisson regression models were used to estimate rate ratios. Among 1,925,313 children, 3,174 had surgery for pyloric stenosis. The authors found...

  7. A Predominately Female Accounting Profession: Lessons from the Past and Other Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the accounting profession is in the process of transitioning from a male dominated profession to a predominantly female one. Other professions that have undergone this switch experienced declines in the status of the profession and the salaries. So, although women have not yet gained equal access to all levels of the accounting…

  8. African American Faculty Expressing Concerns: Breaking the Silence at Predominantly White Research Oriented Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Henry H.; Edwards, Willie J.

    2016-01-01

    A Delphi method was used with a panel of 24 African American faculty employed at 43 predominantly white doctoral extensive universities to arrive at a group consensus on a list of concerns that African American faculty in general experienced or held. Using the Delphi method a panel of African American faculty initially worked from a list of eight…

  9. Breast milk and energy intake in exclusively, predominantly, and partially breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Coward, WA; Albernaz, E; Visser, GH; Wells, JCK; Wright, A; Victoria, CG; Victora, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the extent to which breast milk is replaced by intake of other liquids or foods, and to estimate energy intake of infants defined as exclusively (EBF), predominantly (PBF) and partially breast-fed (PartBF). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Community-based study in urban

  10. Perceptions of Financial Aid: Black Students at a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichavakunda, Antar A.

    2017-01-01

    This study provides qualitative context for statistics concerning Black college students and financial aid. Using the financial nexus model as a framework, this research draws upon interviews with 29 Black juniors and seniors at a selective, -private, and predominantly White university. The data suggest that students -generally exhibited high…

  11. Fighting through Resistance: Challenges Faced by African American Women Principals in Predominately White School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alicia D.

    2013-01-01

    African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…

  12. Prevalence of comorbidities according to predominant phenotype and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiciottoli G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gianna Camiciottoli,1,2 Francesca Bigazzi,1 Chiara Magni,1 Viola Bonti,1 Stefano Diciotti,3 Maurizio Bartolucci,4 Mario Mascalchi,5 Massimo Pistolesi1 1Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, 3Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi,” University of Bologna, Cesena, 4Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Careggi University Hospital, 5Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Background: In addition to lung involvement, several other diseases and syndromes coexist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of idiopathic arterial hypertension (IAH, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (PVD, diabetes, osteoporosis, and anxious depressive syndrome in a clinical setting of COPD outpatients whose phenotypes (predominant airway disease and predominant emphysema and severity (mild and severe diseases were determined by clinical and functional parameters. Methods: A total of 412 outpatients with COPD were assigned either a predominant airway disease or a predominant emphysema phenotype of mild or severe degree according to predictive models based on pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity; total lung capacity %; functional residual capacity %; and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide % and sputum characteristics. Comorbidities were assessed by objective medical records. Results: Eighty-four percent of patients suffered from at least one comorbidity and 75% from at least one cardiovascular comorbidity, with IAH and PVD being the most prevalent ones (62% and 28%, respectively. IAH prevailed significantly in predominant airway disease, osteoporosis prevailed

  13. Predominant Bacteria Detected from the Middle Ear Fluid of Children Experiencing Otitis Media: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chinh C; Massa, Helen M; Thornton, Ruth B; Cripps, Allan W

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is amongst the most common childhood diseases and is associated with multiple microbial pathogens within the middle ear. Global and temporal monitoring of predominant bacterial pathogens is important to inform new treatment strategies, vaccine development and to monitor the impact of vaccine implementation to improve progress toward global OM prevention. A systematic review of published reports of microbiology of acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) from January, 1970 to August 2014, was performed using PubMed databases. This review confirmed that Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, remain the predominant bacterial pathogens, with S. pneumoniae the predominant bacterium in the majority reports from AOM patients. In contrast, H. influenzae was the predominant bacterium for patients experiencing chronic OME, recurrent AOM and AOM with treatment failure. This result was consistent, even where improved detection sensitivity from the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) rather than bacterial culture was conducted. On average, PCR analyses increased the frequency of detection of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae 3.2 fold compared to culture, whilst Moraxella catarrhalis was 4.5 times more frequently identified by PCR. Molecular methods can also improve monitoring of regional changes in the serotypes and identification frequency of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae over time or after vaccine implementation, such as after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Globally, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae remain the predominant otopathogens associated with OM as identified through bacterial culture; however, molecular methods continue to improve the frequency and accuracy of detection of individual serotypes. Ongoing monitoring with appropriate detection methods for OM pathogens can support development of improved vaccines to provide protection from the complex combination of otopathogens within

  14. Predominant Bacteria Detected from the Middle Ear Fluid of Children Experiencing Otitis Media: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chinh C.; Massa, Helen M.; Thornton, Ruth B.; Cripps, Allan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is amongst the most common childhood diseases and is associated with multiple microbial pathogens within the middle ear. Global and temporal monitoring of predominant bacterial pathogens is important to inform new treatment strategies, vaccine development and to monitor the impact of vaccine implementation to improve progress toward global OM prevention. Methods A systematic review of published reports of microbiology of acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) from January, 1970 to August 2014, was performed using PubMed databases. Results This review confirmed that Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, remain the predominant bacterial pathogens, with S. pneumoniae the predominant bacterium in the majority reports from AOM patients. In contrast, H. influenzae was the predominant bacterium for patients experiencing chronic OME, recurrent AOM and AOM with treatment failure. This result was consistent, even where improved detection sensitivity from the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) rather than bacterial culture was conducted. On average, PCR analyses increased the frequency of detection of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae 3.2 fold compared to culture, whilst Moraxella catarrhalis was 4.5 times more frequently identified by PCR. Molecular methods can also improve monitoring of regional changes in the serotypes and identification frequency of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae over time or after vaccine implementation, such as after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Conclusions Globally, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae remain the predominant otopathogens associated with OM as identified through bacterial culture; however, molecular methods continue to improve the frequency and accuracy of detection of individual serotypes. Ongoing monitoring with appropriate detection methods for OM pathogens can support development of improved vaccines to provide protection from the

  15. Enhanced thyroid iodine metabolism in patients with triiodothyronine-predominant Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, J.; Hosoya, T.; Naito, N.; Yoshimura, H.; Kohno, Y.; Tarutani, O.; Kuma, K.; Sakane, S.; Takeda, K.; Mozai, T.

    1988-01-01

    Some patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease have increased serum T3 and normal or even low serum T4 levels during treatment with antithyroid drugs. These patients with elevated serum T3 to T4 ratios rarely have a remission of their hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid iodine metabolism in such patients, whom we termed T3-predominant Graves' disease. Mean thyroid radioactive iodine uptake was 51.0 +/- 18.1% ( +/- SD) at 3 h, and it decreased to 38.9 +/- 20.1% at 24 h in 31 patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease during treatment. It was 20.0 +/- 11.4% at 3 h and increased to 31.9 +/- 16.0% at 24 h in 17 other patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease who had normal serum T3 and T4 levels and a normal serum T3 to T4 ratio during treatment (control Graves' disease). The activity of serum TSH receptor antibodies was significantly higher in the patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in control Graves' disease patients. From in vitro studies of thyroid tissue obtained at surgery, both thyroglobulin content and iodine content in thyroglobulin were significantly lower in patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in the control Graves' disease patients. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity determined by a guaiacol assay was 0.411 +/- 0.212 g.u./mg protein in the T3-predominant Graves' disease patients, significantly higher than that in the control Graves' disease patients. Serum TPO autoantibody levels determined by immunoprecipitation also were greater in T3-predominant Graves' disease patients than in control Graves' disease patients. Binding of this antibody to TPO slightly inhibited the enzyme activity of TPO, but this effect of the antibody was similar in the two groups of patients.

  16. Reliģijas, apmierinātības ar dzīvi un pašvērtējuma saistība.

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņa, Annija

    2015-01-01

    Šī darba mērķis ir noskaidrot saistību starp reliģiju, apmierinātību ar dzīvi un pašvērtējumu. Apmierinātība ar dzīvi sevī ietver laimi, subjektīvo labklājību un pozitīvas emocijas. Šī darba ietvaros vairāk tiks apskatīta subjektīvā labklājība. Reliģija ir ticība kam mistiskam , kas sevī ietver reliģisku normu ievērošanu, rituālus, ticību un būšanu reliģiskā kopienā. Starp subjektīvo labklājību un reliģiju pastāv pozitīva korelācija. Pašvērtējums ir cilvēka subjektīvs viedoklis par...

  17. [Relearning vocabulary. A comparative analysis between a case of dementia and Alzheimer's disease with predominant compromise of language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagut, Núria; Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Castellví, Magdalena; Rami, Lorena; Molinuevo, José Luis

    Semantic dementia is characterised by a progressive loss of semantic content that initially affects the capacity to name things, and is associated with asymmetric atrophy of the anterior temporal lobes. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) with predominant compromise of language, anomia is also the main symptom. The study examined the capacity to relearn vocabulary of two patients, each exhibiting one of these two forms of degenerative anomia. The two cases presented similar ages, gender, levels of schooling and degree of compromise. Their capacity to name a list of 40 pictures was evaluated at baseline, following 20 sessions of relearning, at one month and at six months. The patient with semantic dementia named 25/40 objects at baseline, 40/40 after relearning, 35/40 at one month and 27/40 at six months. The patient with AD named 29/40 at baseline, 30/40 after relearning, 29/40 at one month and 32/40 at six months. No intrusions were observed following relearning. The patient with semantic dementia was able to relearn all the vocabulary she was shown, even though she lost everything she had acquired after treatment was interrupted. The AD patient did not improve her naming capacity with therapy. These differences suggest that the learning and consolidation circuits are affected in different ways. Subjects with semantic dementia, but not those with AD, could benefit from word relearning strategies with this method.

  18. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal predominance (HMSN-P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campellone, Joseph V

    2013-06-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal predominance (HMSN-P) is a rare disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Patients present with slowly progressive proximal-predominant weakness, painful muscle cramps, fasciculations, large-fiber sensory loss, and areflexia. Electrodiagnostic (EDX) studies typically reveal abnormalities consistent with a sensorimotor neuronopathy. A patient with HMSN-P underwent EDX studies, revealing ongoing and chronic neurogenic denervation, motor unit instability, and neuromyotonic discharges, further defining the spectrum of EDX findings in HMSN-P. The clinical, pathological, and genetic features are also reviewed. The appearance of HMSN-P in the United States and elsewhere calls for clinicians in nonendemic regions to be familiar with this rare disorder, which has typically been geographically confined.

  19. Health and Well-being of Women Migrating from Predominantly Muslim Countries to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Pye, Mu; Sin, Kai; Nourian, Maziar M; Assasnik, Nushean; Stoddard, Mary; Frost, Caren J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the health and well-being of women migrating from predominantly Muslim countries to the U.S. Women from predominantly Muslim countries completed a paper survey on the following topics from June to December in 2016 (N=102): depression; physical functioning; self-reported general health; experiences with health care; and demographic characteristics. There were several women's health-related issues: low rates for mammography and Pap smear screening, and preference for female physicians and/or physicians from the same culture. Only one-third of the participants had received a physical exam in the past year, and having done so was related to higher levels of depression and worse physical functioning. The participants who were not in a refugee camp reported higher levels of depression than those who were.

  20. Low-Dose Involved-Field Radiotherapy as Alternative Treatment of Nodular Lymphocyte Predominance Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Rick L.M.; Girinsky, Theo; Aleman, Berthe; Henry-Amar, Michel; Boer, Jan-Paul de; Jong, Daphne de

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's lymphoma is a very rare disease, characterized by an indolent clinical course, with sometimes very late relapses occurring in a minority of all patients. Considerable discussion is ongoing on the treatment of primary and relapsed disease. Patients and Methods: A group of 9 patients were irradiated to a dose of 4 Gy on involved areas only. Results: After a median follow-up of 37 months (range, 6-66), the overall response rate was 89%. Six patients had complete remission (67%), two had partial remission (22%), and one had stable disease (11%). Of 8 patients, 5 developed local relapse 9-57 months after radiotherapy. No toxicity was noted. Conclusion: In nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's lymphoma, low-dose radiotherapy provided excellent response rates and lasting remissions without significant toxicity.

  1. The Lived Experience of Black Nurse Faculty in Predominantly White Schools of Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Harris, Lisa; Lockhart, Joan Such; Zoucha, Richard; Alexander, Rumay

    2017-03-01

    This study explored the experiences of Black nurse faculty employed in predominantly White schools of nursing. High attrition rates of this group were noted in previous literature. Understanding their experiences is important to increase nurse diversity. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to explore the experiences of 15 Black nurse faculty using interviews. Four themes were extracted as the following: cultural norms of the workplace, coping with improper assets, life as a "Lone Ranger," and surviving the workplace environment. The study provided insight to understand the meaning that Black faculty members give to their experiences working in predominantly White schools of nursing. Findings exemplify the need to improve culturally competent work environments and mentoring programs. Results suggest that better communication and proper respect from students, colleagues, and administrators are necessary. The limited research on this topic illustrates that Black nurse faculty remain under investigated; research is necessary to determine effective change strategies.

  2. The Workplace Environment for African-American Faculty Employed in Predominately White Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Harris, Lisa; Lockhart, Joan Such

    2016-01-01

    Diversity in academia requires attention, especially with the expected increase in minority populations in the United States (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, (AACN) 2014). Despite theoretical papers that suggest that several challenges are encountered by minority faculty employed in predominately White institutions, a dearth of research on this topic has been published. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze the published research that addressed the workplace environment of African-American faculty employed in predominately White institutions. In utilizing the keywords in various combinations, 236 articles were retrieved through multiple databases. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 studies were reviewed with only three related to nursing. Two themes were extracted from the review: 1) the cultural climate of the workplace environment and, 2) underrepresentation of African-American faculty. It is apparent from this review that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of this group of faculty to target effective recruitment and retention strategies.

  3. Abdominal Pain-Predominant Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Jordanian School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Altamimi, Eyad M.; Al-Safadi, Mohammad H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common complaint in children. Significant portion of them are of functional origin. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) and its types in Jordanian school children. Methods This is a school-based survey at south Jordan. Information using the self-reporting form of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII) - the official Arabi...

  4. Pulmonary microRNA profiling: implications in upper lobe predominant lung disease

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, David A.; Nymon, Amanda B.; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Lesseur, Corina; Hazlett, Haley F.; Howard, Louisa; Marsit, Carmen J.; Ashare, Alix

    2017-01-01

    Background Numerous pulmonary diseases manifest with upper lobe predominance including cystic fibrosis, smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and tuberculosis. Zonal hypoxia, characteristic of these pulmonary maladies, and oxygen stress in general is known to exert profound effects on various important aspects of cell biology. Lung macrophages are major participants in the pulmonary innate immune response and regional differences in macrophage responsiveness to hypoxia may co...

  5. Predominantly Electronic or Personal Service Delivery? A Case in the Wealth Management Context

    OpenAIRE

    Sunikka, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Financial services have been a recurrent subject of a multichannel inquiry but investigation into the wealth management area is scarce. This paper intends to fill the gap and presents the results of a questionnaire directed at customers of a financial conglomerate. The objective of this research is to examine which variables influence consumers’ channel preferences in the wealth management context,and to find out possible differences between the customers who prefer predominantly electronic s...

  6. Nonrapid Eye Movement-Predominant Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Detection and Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Motoo; Fujita, Yukio; Kumamoto, Makiko; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Ohnishi, Yoshinobu; Nakano, Hiroshi; Strohl, Kingman P; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2015-09-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be severe and present in higher numbers during rapid eye movement (REM) than nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep; however, OSA occurs in NREM sleep and can be predominant. In general, ventilation decreases an average 10% to 15% during transition from wakefulness to sleep, and there is variability in just how much ventilation decreases. As dynamic changes in ventilation contribute to irregular breathing and breathing during NREM sleep is mainly under chemical control, our hypothesis is that patients with a more pronounced reduction in ventilation during the transition from wakefulness to NREM sleep will have NREM- predominant rather than REM-predominant OSA. A retrospective analysis of 451 consecutive patients (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 5) undergoing diagnostic polysomnography was performed, and breath-to-breath analysis of the respiratory cycle duration, tidal volume, and estimated minute ventilation before and after sleep onset were examined. Values were calculated using respiratory inductance plethysmography. The correlation between the percent change in estimated minute ventilation during wake-sleep transitions and the percentage of apnea-hypopneas in NREM sleep (%AHI in NREM; defined as (AHI-NREM) / [(AHI-NREM) + (AHI-REM)] × 100) was the primary outcome. The decrease in estimated minute ventilation during wake-sleep transitions was 15.0 ± 16.6% (mean ± standard deviation), due to a decrease in relative tidal volume. This decrease in estimated minute ventilation was significantly correlated with %AHI in NREM (r = -0.222, p sleep contributes to the NREM predominant OSA phenotype via induced ventilatory instability. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  7. Tuberculosis transmission of predominant genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in northern suburbs of Buenos Aires city region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo, N; Zumarraga, M; Imperiale, B; Di Giulio, B; Chirico, C; Kuriger, A; Alito, A; Kremer, K; Cataldi, A

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the incidence of tuberculosis in Argentina showed an increase compared to 2002. The severe national crisis at the end of the 90s has probably strongly contributed to this situation. The goal of this work was to estimate the extent of the spread of the most predominant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and to assess the spread of predominant M. tuberculosis clusters as determined by spoligotyping and IS6110 RFLP. The study involved 590 pulmonary, smear-positive TB cases receiving medical attention at health centers and hospitals in Northern Buenos Aires (NBA) suburbs, from October 2001 to December 2002. From a total of 208 clinical isolates belonging to 6 major clusters, 63 (30.2%) isolates had identical spoligotyping and IS6110 RFLP pattern. Only 22.2% were shown to have epidemiological connections with another member of their respective cluster. In these major clusters, 30.2% of the 208 TB cases studied by both molecular techniques and contact tracing could be convincingly attributable to a recently acquired infection. This knowledge may be useful to assess the clonal distribution of predominant M. tuberculosis clusters in Argentina, which may make an impact on TB control strategies.

  8. Is microscopic colitis a missed diagnosis in diarrhea-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tavakoli

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: There are controversies about the importance of biopsies of normal colon mucosa in the investigation of patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. On the other hand, microscopic colitis may bemissed based on normal colonoscopy and laboratory examination in this group of patients
    • METHODS: The study took place in Alzahra and Noor hospitals and Poursina Hakim Research Institute, from 2002 to 2004. Eligible patients were those suffering from diarrhea for at least 4 weeks. A total of 138 patients were included in the study after meeting Rome criteria (II with normal CBC, ESR, stool examination and no endoscopic abnormality.
    • RESULTS: The histologic findings in 138 patients with diarrhea predominant IBS with mean age of 34.7 years (female 55.1% and male 44.9% were as follows: 10 patients (7.2% had collagenous colitis and 3 patients (2.2% were compatible with lymphocytic colitis. No significant diagnostic histologic findings were seen in the rest of patients. Collagenouscolitis was detected in 13% of right colon biopsies and in 10% of sigmoid and transverse colon biopsies. Nocturnal diarrhea was found in 30% of collagenous colitis patients.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Total colonoscopy and multiple biopsies in diarrhea predominant IBS patients are necessary for earlydiagnosis of microscopic colitis.
    • KEY WORDS: Irritable bowel syndrome, microscopic colitis, colonoscopy, biopsy, diarrhea.

  9. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods to Investigate the Predominant Microorganisms Associated with Wet Processed Coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaomin; Dong, Honghong; Yang, Pan; Yang, Ruijuan; Lu, Jun; Lv, Jie; Sheng, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The fermentation process of Yunnan arabica coffee is a typical wet fermentation. Its excellent quality is closely related to microbes in the process of fermentation. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify the microorganisms in the wet method of coffee processing in Yunnan Province, China. Microbial community structure and dominant bacterial species were evaluated by traditional cultivated separation method and PCR-DGGE technology, and were further analyzed in combination with the changes of organic acid content, activity of pectinase, and physical parameters (pH and temperature). A large number of microorganisms which can produce pectinase were found. Among them, Enterobacter cowanii, Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacteriaceae bacterium, and Rahnella aquatilis were the predominant gram-negative bacteria, Bacillus cereus was the predominant gram-positive bacterium, Pichia kluyveri, Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Pichia fermentans were the predominant yeasts, and all those are pectinase-producing microorganisms. As for the contents of organic acids, oxalic was the highest, followed by acetic and lactic acids. Butyrate and propionate, which were unfavorable during the fermentation period, were barely discovered.

  10. Counselling by primary care physicians may help patients with heartburn-predominant uninvestigated dyspepsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Pierre; Math, Joanna Lee M; Hawes, Ian A

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether strategies to counsel and empower patients with heartburn-predominant dyspepsia could improve health-related quality of life. METHODS: Using a cluster randomized, parallel group, multicentre design, nine centres were assigned to provide either basic or comprehensive counselling to patients (age range 18 to 50 years) presenting with heartburn-predominant upper gastrointestinal symptoms, who would be considered for drug therapy without further investigation. Patients were treated for four weeks with esomeprazole 40 mg once daily, followed by six months of treatment that was at the physician’s discretion. The primary end point was the baseline change in Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire score. RESULTS: A total of 135 patients from nine centres were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. There was a statistically significant baseline improvement in all domains of the QOLRAD questionnaire in both study arms at four and seven months (Pheartburn-predominant uninvestigated dyspepsia. Further investigation is needed to confirm the potential benefits of providing patients with comprehensive counselling regarding disease management. PMID:20352148

  11. Morphine Reward Promotes Cue-Sensitive Learning: Implication of Dorsal Striatal CREB Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Baudonnat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Different parallel neural circuits interact and may even compete to process and store information: whereas stimulus–response (S–R learning critically depends on the dorsal striatum (DS, spatial memory relies on the hippocampus (HPC. Strikingly, despite its potential importance for our understanding of addictive behaviors, the impact of drug rewards on memory systems dynamics has not been extensively studied. Here, we assessed long-term effects of drug- vs food reinforcement on the subsequent use of S–R vs spatial learning strategies and their neural substrates. Mice were trained in a Y-maze cue-guided task, during which either food or morphine injections into the ventral tegmental area (VTA were used as rewards. Although drug- and food-reinforced mice learned the Y-maze task equally well, drug-reinforced mice exhibited a preferential use of an S–R learning strategy when tested in a water-maze competition task designed to dissociate cue-based and spatial learning. This cognitive bias was associated with a persistent increase in the phosphorylated form of cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation (pCREB within the DS, and a decrease of pCREB expression in the HPC. Pharmacological inhibition of striatal PKA pathway in drug-rewarded mice limited the morphine-induced increase in levels of pCREB in DS and restored a balanced use of spatial vs cue-based learning. Our findings suggest that drug (opiate reward biases the engagement of separate memory systems toward a predominant use of the cue-dependent system via an increase in learning-related striatal pCREB activity. Persistent functional imbalance between striatal and hippocampal activity could contribute to the persistence of addictive behaviors, or counteract the efficiency of pharmacological or psychotherapeutic treatments.

  12. Can E-Learning Change Work Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    Stand-alone e-learning is unlikely to change work practices. This claim contrasts with a comprehensive body of research arguing that e-learning is at least as effective as face-to-face instruction in improving work performance. Such a comparison is, however, problematic. On the one hand, it relies on the premise that face-to-face instruction is…

  13. Learning-by-doing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno; Hauschild, Michael Z.; Molin, Christine

    2018-01-01

    -long duration of the course, students from different engineering backgrounds perform full-fledged LCA studies in groups, passing through two iterations—a screening LCA supporting a more targeted LCA. Results and discussion: The course design, which relies on a learning-by-doing principle, is transparently...... in recommending industries and LCA teachers to engage into such collaborations even in the fundamental teaching of LCA techniques....

  14. 12 CFR 714.5 - What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost of the leased property? 714.5 Section 714.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LEASING § 714.5 What is...

  15. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  16. [Zeme, vara un reliģija viduslaikos un jaunajas laikos Baltijas jūras reģionā] / Marija Golubeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Golubeva, Marija, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Zeme, vara un reliģija viduslaikos un jaunajas laikos Baltijas jūras reģionā / Hrsg. von Andris Šnē. Acta Universitatis Latviensis ; 725. (Riga: Verlag Latvijas Universitātes Akadēmiskais apgāds, 2009)

  17. Biological adhesion of the flatworm Macrostomum lignano relies on a duo-gland system and is mediated by a cell type-specific intermediate filament protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengerer, Birgit; Pjeta, Robert; Wunderer, Julia; Rodrigues, Marcelo; Arbore, Roberto; Schaerer, Lukas; Berezikov, Eugene; Hess, Michael W.; Pfaller, Kristian; Egger, Bernhard; Obwegeser, Sabrina; Salvenmoser, Willi; Ladurner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Free-living flatworms, in both marine and freshwater environments, are able to adhere to and release from a substrate several times within a second. This reversible adhesion relies on adhesive organs comprised of three cell types: an adhesive gland cell, a releasing gland cell, and an

  18. High cancer-related mortality in an urban, predominantly African-American, HIV-infected population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, David J; Mwangi, Evelyn Ivy W; Fantry, Lori E; Alexander, Carla; Hossain, Mian B; Pauza, C David; Redfield, Robert R; Gilliam, Bruce L

    2013-04-24

    To determine mortality associated with a new cancer diagnosis in an urban, predominantly African-American, HIV-infected population. Retrospective cohort study. All HIV-infected patients diagnosed with cancer between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2010 were reviewed. Mortality was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models. There were 470 cases of cancer among 447 patients. Patients were predominantly African-American (85%) and male (79%). Non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs, 69%) were more common than AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs, 31%). Cumulative cancer incidence increased significantly over the study period. The majority (55.9%) was taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) at cancer diagnosis or started afterward (26.9%); 17.2% never received ART. Stage 3 or 4 cancer was diagnosed in 67%. There were 226 deaths during 1096 person years of follow-up, yielding an overall mortality rate of 206 per 1000 person years. The cumulative mortality rate at 30 days, 1 year, and 2 years was 6.5, 32.2, and 41.4%, respectively. Mortality was similar between patients on ART whether they started before or after the cancer diagnosis but was higher in patients who never received ART. In patients with a known cause of death, 68% were related to progression of the underlying cancer. In a large cohort of urban, predominantly African-American patients with HIV and cancer, many patients presented with late-stage cancer. There was substantial 30-day and 2-year mortality, although ART had a significant mortality benefit. Deaths were most often caused by progression of cancer and not from another HIV-related or AIDS-related event.

  19. Cortical restricted diffusion as the predominant MRI finding in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbott, Sabrina D.; Sattenberg, Ronald J.; Heidenreich, Jens O. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)), e-mail: sdtalb02@gwise.louisville.edu; Plato, Brian M (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)); Parker, John (Dept. of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States))

    2011-04-15

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder with MR findings predominantly limited to the grey matter of the cortex and the basal ganglia. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can produce a spectrum of MR imaging findings of the brain, most notably on DWI and FLAIR sequences. Involvement of the basal ganglia and neocortex is the most common finding, but isolated involvement of the cortex can also be seen. We describe the clinical history and MRI findings of three patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease confirmed by brain biopsy or autopsy and review the literature of imaging manifestations of this disease

  20. Fault current limiter-predominantly resistive behavior of a BSCCO shielded-core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennis, M. G.; Tobin, T. J.; Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the electrical and magnetic characteristics of a superconductor shielded core reactor (SSCR). The results show that a closed-core SSCR is predominantly a resistive device and an open-core SSCR is a hybrid resistive/inductive device. The open-core SSCR appears to dissipate less than the closed-core SSCR. However, the impedance of the open-core SSCR is less than that of the closed-core SSCR. Magnetic and thermal diffusion are believed to be the mechanism that facilitates the penetration of the superconductor tube under fault conditions

  1. Cortical restricted diffusion as the predominant MRI finding in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbott, Sabrina D.; Sattenberg, Ronald J.; Heidenreich, Jens O.; Plato, Brian M; Parker, John

    2011-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder with MR findings predominantly limited to the grey matter of the cortex and the basal ganglia. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can produce a spectrum of MR imaging findings of the brain, most notably on DWI and FLAIR sequences. Involvement of the basal ganglia and neocortex is the most common finding, but isolated involvement of the cortex can also be seen. We describe the clinical history and MRI findings of three patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease confirmed by brain biopsy or autopsy and review the literature of imaging manifestations of this disease

  2. Design of an Authentic E-Learning Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaens, Theo

    2018-01-01

    The increasing necessity of a lifelong learning attitude has its influence on the ageing population in Western societies. Employees nowadays cannot rely on their skills once learned in school. Most, also older, employees have to keep up by learning new insights, new skills, and new knowledge. A lot

  3. Preparing Students for Flipped or Team-Based Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Peter; Clark, Michele; Restall, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Teaching methods such as Flipped Learning and Team-Based Learning require students to pre-learn course materials before a teaching session, because classroom exercises rely on students using self-gained knowledge. This is the reverse to "traditional" teaching when course materials are presented during a lecture, and students are…

  4. Cooperative Learning, Responsibility, Ambiguity, Controversy and Support in Motivating Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecke, Ronald; Jensen, Jacy

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that student motivation is nurtured more by intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards. Rather than relying on grades alone to stimulate students, this paper explores how engendering a natural critical learning environment can give students a sense of ownership in their own learning and lead to their commitment to that learning. We…

  5. Learning Grasp Affordance Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Kroemer, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    and relies on kernel density estimation to provide a continuous model. Grasp densities are learned and refined from exploration, by letting a robot “play” with an object in a sequence of graspand-drop actions: The robot uses visual cues to generate a set of grasp hypotheses; it then executes......We address the issue of learning and representing object grasp affordance models. We model grasp affordances with continuous probability density functions (grasp densities) which link object-relative grasp poses to their success probability. The underlying function representation is nonparametric...... these and records their outcomes. When a satisfactory number of grasp data is available, an importance-sampling algorithm turns these into a grasp density. We evaluate our method in a largely autonomous learning experiment run on three objects of distinct shapes. The experiment shows how learning increases success...

  6. Comparative cross-sectional study of masticatory performance and mastication predominance for patients with missing posterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Hayato; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Kori, Hidehiro; Kuwatsuru, Rika; Yamasaki, Yo; Koyano, Kiyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Missing posterior teeth can decrease masticatory function and cause horizontal mastication deviation, i.e., mastication predominance. Mastication predominance may lead to abnormal tooth attrition and temporomandibular disorders. This study evaluated masticatory performance and mastication predominance in patients with missing posterior teeth to investigate effects of missing posterior teeth on masticatory performance and mastication predominance. Thirty volunteers with normal dentition (control group), 30 patients with unilateral missing posterior teeth (unilateral group), and 23 patients with bilateral missing posterior teeth (bilateral group) participated. Gummy jellies were used to evaluate participants' masticatory performance, and electromyography was used to assess the degree of mastication predominance. Chewing gums, gummy jellies, and peanuts were used as foods of various hardnesses for evaluating mastication predominance. Compared with the control group, masticatory performance did not differ in the unilateral group but was significantly decreased in the bilateral group. With chewing gum and gummy jellies, the degree of mastication predominance was significantly increased in both unilateral and bilateral groups than the control group. With peanuts, the degree of mastication predominance was significantly increased in the unilateral group than the control group. Although masticatory performance was not decreased in the unilateral group, the degree of mastication predominance was increased. Decreased masticatory performance was observed in the bilateral group, and for foods with normal hardness and soft foods, the degree of mastication predominance was increased. These results suggested that mastication predominance should be considered in the recovery of masticatory performance in patients with missing posterior teeth. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding the Construction of Personal Learning Networks to Support Non-Formal Workplace Learning of Training Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Christin

    2013-01-01

    Workers in the 21st century workplace are faced with rapid and constant developments that place a heavy demand on them to continually learn beyond what the Human Resources and Training groups can meet. As a consequence, professionals must rely on non-formal learning approaches through the development of a personal learning network to keep…

  8. Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome Showing Vascular Skin Lesions Predominantly on the Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Korekawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An 81-year-old Japanese man presented with dark blue papules and nodules on his face. There were multiple soft papules and nodules, dark blue in color, compressive, and ranging in size from 2 to 10 mm. A few similar lesions were seen on the patient's right dorsal second toe and right buccal mucosa. There were no skin lesions on his trunk and upper limbs. The patient's past history did not include gastrointestinal bleeding or anemia. Histopathological examination showed dilated vascular spaces lined by the normal epithelium extending beneath the dermis and into the subcutaneous fat. Endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract to check for colon involvement was not performed. X-ray images of the limbs revealed no abnormalities in the bones or joints. Laboratory investigations did not show anemia. Although we failed to confirm a diagnosis by endoscopy, the skin lesions, histopathological findings, lack of abnormal X-ray findings, and the presence of oral lesions as a part of gastrointestinal tract guided the diagnosis of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS. Skin lesions of BRBNS occur predominantly on the trunk and upper limbs. However, the present case showed multiple skin lesions predominantly on the face. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to know about a possible atypical distribution of skin lesions in BRBNS.

  9. Acculturation and Intention to Breastfeed among a Population of Predominantly Puerto Rican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Latinas have high overall breastfeeding initiation rates, yet Puerto Ricans have among the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rates. This study sought to determine if acculturation was associated with intent to breastfeed in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. A cohort of Latina women were enrolled in Proyecto Buena Salud, and provided information on infant feeding intent (n = 1,323). Acculturation was assessed via the Psychological Acculturation Scale (PAS), language preference, and generation in the United States. Increasing acculturation as measured by English language preference (aOR 0.61 [95% CI 0.42-0.88]) and second or third generation in the United States (aOR 0.70 [95% CI 0.52-0.95)] was inversely associated with odds of intending to exclusively breastfeed. Similarly, women with higher levels of acculturation as measured by the PAS (aOR 0.67 [95% CI 0.45-0.99]), English language preference (aOR 0.48 [95% CI 0.33-0.70]) and second or third generation in the United States (aOR 0.42 [95% CI 0.31-0.58]) were less likely to report intent to combination feed as compared with women with lower acculturation. Acculturation was inversely associated with intent to exclusively breastfeed and intent to combination feed in this predominantly Puerto Rican sample. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Eluxadoline in the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: The SEPD perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Vera

    Full Text Available Functional gut disorders, including diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, are highly prevalent conditions worldwide that significantly impact health economy and patient quality of life, yet lacking fully satisfactory therapeutic options. These circumstances fostered research on various molecules with more specific therapeutic targets, including opioid receptors. Eluxadoline (Allergan's Vibercy® in the USA, Truberzi® in Europe is a locally-acting mixed µ- and κ-opioid receptor agonist, and δ-opioid receptor antagonist, that was licensed in 2015 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and in 2016 by the European Medicines Agency (EMA for use in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Eluxadoline provides, with advantage over the current standard of care, control of both stool consistency and abdominal pain, good tolerability in most cases, and improved quality of life, hence it deserves consideration when approaching a patient with this disorder. As with any recently approved therapy, adequate pharmacovigilance is to be expected, as well as studies to inform on different scenarios such as on-demand therapy, loss of response assessment, use as rescue therapy for other molecules, and cost-effectiveness, to further characterize and more accurately position eluxadoline within the therapeutic spectrum.

  11. Maple sap predominant microbial contaminants are correlated with the physicochemical and sensorial properties of maple syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; Lapointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2012-03-01

    Maple sap processing and microbial contamination are significant aspects that affect maple syrup quality. In this study, two sample sets from 2005 and 2008 were used to assess the maple syrup quality variation and its relationship to microbial populations, with respect to processing, production site and harvesting period. The abundance of maple sap predominant bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens group and two subgroups, Rahnella spp., Janthinobacterium spp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides) and yeast (Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp.,Guehomyces pullulans) was assessed by quantitative PCR. Maple syrup properties were analyzed by physicochemical and sensorial methods. Results indicate that P. fluorescens, Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp. G. pullulans and Rahnella spp. are stable contaminants of maple sap, as they were found for every production site throughout the flow period. Multiple factor analysis reports a link between the relative abundance of P. fluorescens group and Mrakia spp. in maple sap with maple and vanilla odor as well as flavor of maple syrup. This evidence supports the contribution of these microorganisms or a consortium of predominant microbial contaminants to the characteristic properties of maple syrup. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors That Influence Park Use and Physical Activity in Predominantly Hispanic and Low-Income Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolash, Karry; He, Meizi; Yin, Zenong; Sosa, Erica T

    2015-04-01

    Park features' association with physical activity among predominantly Hispanic communities is not extensively researched. The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with park use and physical activity among park users in predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods. Data were collected across 6 parks and included park environmental assessments to evaluate park features, physical activity observations to estimate physical activity energy expenditure as kcal/kg/ minute per person, and park user interviews to assess motivators for park use. Quantitative data analysis included independent t tests and ANOVA. Thematic analysis of park user interviews was conducted collectively and by parks. Parks that were renovated had higher physical activity energy expenditure scores (mean = .086 ± .027) than nonrenovated parks (mean = .077 ± .028; t = -3.804; P motivation to be physically active, using the play spaces in the park, parks as the main place for physical activity, and social support for using parks. Renovations to park amenities, such as increasing basketball courts and trail availability, could potentially increase physical activity among low-socioeconomic-status populations.

  13. The predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in French organic sourdoughs and its impact on related bread characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Emilie; Orain, Servane; Courcoux, Philippe; Onno, Bernard; Dousset, Xavier

    2015-11-20

    Fourteen bakeries located in different regions of France were selected. These bakers use natural sourdough and organic ingredients. Consequently, different organic sourdoughs used for the manufacture of French bread were studied by the enumeration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 16S rRNA sequencing of the isolates. In addition, after DNA extraction the bacterial diversity was assessed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 region. Although LAB counts showed significant variations (7.6-9.5log10CFU/g) depending on the sourdough studied, their identification through a polyphasic approach revealed a large predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in all samples. In ten sourdoughs, both culture and independent methods identified L. sanfranciscensis as the dominant LAB species identified. In the remaining sourdoughs, culture methods identified 30-80% of the LAB as L. sanfranciscensis whereas more than 95% of the reads obtained by pyrosequencing belonged to L. sanfranciscensis. Other sub-dominant species, such as Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus sakei, were also identified. Quantification of L. sanfranciscensis by real-time PCR confirmed the predominance of this species ranging from 8.24 to 10.38log10CFU/g. Regarding the acidification characteristics, sourdough and related bread physico-chemical characteristics varied, questioning the involvement of sub-dominant species or L. sanfranciscensis intra-species diversity and/or the role of the baker's practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Systematic identification and integrative analysis of novel genes expressed specifically or predominantly in mouse epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hoyong

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maturation of spermatozoa, including development of motility and the ability to fertilize the oocyte, occurs during transit through the microenvironment of the epididymis. Comprehensive understanding of sperm maturation requires identification and characterization of unique genes expressed in the epididymis. Results We systematically identified 32 novel genes with epididymis-specific or -predominant expression in the mouse epididymis UniGene library, containing 1505 gene-oriented transcript clusters, by in silico and in vitro analyses. The Northern blot analysis revealed various characteristics of the genes at the transcript level, such as expression level, size and the presence of isoform. We found that expression of the half of the genes is regulated by androgens. Further expression analyses demonstrated that the novel genes are region-specific and developmentally regulated. Computational analysis showed that 15 of the genes lack human orthologues, suggesting their implication in male reproduction unique to the mouse. A number of the novel genes are putative epididymal protease inhibitors or β-defensins. We also found that six of the genes have secretory activity, indicating that they may interact with sperm and have functional roles in sperm maturation. Conclusion We identified and characterized 32 novel epididymis-specific or -predominant genes by an integrative approach. Our study is unique in the aspect of systematic identification of novel epididymal genes and should be a firm basis for future investigation into molecular mechanisms underlying sperm maturation in the epididymis.

  15. Mineral Depositions of Calcifying Skin Disorders are Predominantly Composed of Carbonate Apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Franzen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous calcifications can lead to complications, including pain, inflammation, ulceration and immobilization. Studies on the pathophysiology of mineral compositions and effective treatment modalities are limited. We therefore studied 14 patients with subcutaneous calcifications. Mineral material was collected and analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Blood analyses were run to evaluate systemic alterations of mineral metabolism. Carbonate apatite (CAP was found to be the single constituent in the majority of patients (n = 9, 64.3%, 3 cases (21.4% had a composition of CAP and calcium oxalate dihydrate and one case had a combination of CAP and magnesium ammonium phosphate, whereas CAP was the major component in all 4 cases. Only one case showed predominantly calcium oxalate. Thus, CAP was found to be the only or predominant component in most cases of subcutaneous calcifications. Chemical analyses of the mineral compositions may aid in the development of new treatment regimes to improve the solubility of mineral components and to decrease extraosseous calcifications.

  16. The Influence of Cognitive Learning Style and Learning Independence on the Students' Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayekti

    2018-01-01

    Students of Open University are strongly required to be able to study independently. They rely heavily on the cognitive learning styles that they have in attempt to get maximum scores in every final exam. The participants of this research were students in the Physics Education program taking Thermodynamic subject course. The research analysis…

  17. Challenges Encountered in Creating Personalised Learning Activities to Suit Students Learning Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Eileen; Wade, Vincent; Sharp, Mary; O'Donnell, Liam

    2013-01-01

    This book chapter reviews some of the challenges encountered by educators in creating personalised e-learning activities to suit students learning preferences. Technology-enhanced learning (TEL) alternatively known as e-learning has not yet reached its full potential in higher education. There are still many potential uses as yet undiscovered and other discovered uses which are not yet realisable by many educators. TEL is still predominantly used for e-dissemination and e-administration. This...

  18. African fermented dairy products - Overview of predominant technologically important microorganisms focusing on African Streptococcus infantarius variants and potential future applications for enhanced food safety and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Meile, Leo; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Kogi-Makau, Wambui; Lamuka, Peter; Renault, Pierre; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Lacroix, Christophe; Hattendorf, Jan; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Fokou, Gilbert; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2017-06-05

    Milk is a major source of nutrients, but can also be a vehicle for zoonotic foodborne diseases, especially when raw milk is consumed. In Africa, poor processing and storage conditions contribute to contamination, outgrowth and transmission of pathogens, which lead to spoilage, reduced food safety and security. Fermentation helps mitigate the impact of poor handling and storage conditions by enhancing shelf life and food safety. Traditionally-fermented sour milk products are culturally accepted and widely distributed in Africa, and rely on product-specific microbiota responsible for aroma, flavor and texture. Knowledge of microbiota and predominant, technologically important microorganisms is critical in developing products with enhanced quality and safety, as well as sustainable interventions for these products, including Africa-specific starter culture development. This narrative review summarizes current knowledge of technologically-important microorganisms of African fermented dairy products (FDP) and raw milk, taking into consideration novel findings and taxonomy when re-analyzing data of 29 publications covering 25 products from 17 African countries. Technologically-important lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii), Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts predominated in raw milk and FDP across Africa. Re-analysis of data also suggests a much wider distribution of Sii and thus a potentially longer history of use than previously expected. Therefore, evaluating the role and safety of African Sii lineages is important when developing interventions and starter cultures for FDP in Africa to enhance food safety and food security. In-depth functional genomics, epidemiologic investigations and latest identification approaches coupled with stakeholder involvement will be required to evaluate the possibility of African Sii lineages as novel food-grade Streptococcus lineage. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  19. Peer Learning in Specialist Higher Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, Ingrid Maria

    2016-01-01

    Research on peer learning in higher education indicates that learning from and together with peers can benefit students in a number of ways. Within higher music education in Western, classical music, however, the master-apprentice tradition with its dominant one-to-one mode of tuition focuses predominantly on knowledge transmission from teacher to…

  20. Learning How to Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Lauridsen, Ole

    Ole Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Karen M. Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Learning Styles in Higher Education – Learning How to Learn Applying learning styles (LS) in higher education...... by Constructivist learning theory and current basic knowledge of how the brain learns. The LS concept will thus be placed in a broader learning theoretical context as a strong learning and teaching tool. Participants will be offered the opportunity to have their own LS preferences established before...... teaching leads to positive results and enhanced student learning. However, learning styles should not only be considered a didactic matter for the teacher, but also a tool for the individual students to improve their learning capabilities – not least in contexts where information is not necessarily...

  1. Lying relies on the truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debey, E.; De Houwer, J.; Verschuere, B.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the truth activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the truth can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a

  2. Neuro-symbolic representation learning on biological knowledge graphs

    KAUST Repository

    AlShahrani, Mona; Khan, Mohammed Asif; Maddouri, Omar; Kinjo, Akira R; Queralt-Rosinach, Nú ria; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Biological data and knowledge bases increasingly rely on Semantic Web technologies and the use of knowledge graphs for data integration, retrieval and federated queries. In the past years, feature learning methods that are applicable to graph

  3. Predominant typologies of psychopathology in the United States: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gabalawy, Renée; Tsai, Jack; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Hoff, Rani; Sareen, Jitender; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) offers a parsimonious way of classifying common typologies of psychiatric comorbidity. We used LCA to identify the nature and correlates of predominant typologies of Axis I and II disorders in a large and comprehensive population-based sample of U.S. adults. We analyzed data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005; n = 34,653), a population-based sample of U.S. adults. We derived latent classes based on all assessed Axis I and II disorders and examined the relationship between the identified Axis I classes and lifetime psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts, and physical and mental health-related quality of life. A four-class solution was optimal in characterizing predominant typologies of both Axis I and II disorders. For Axis I disorders, these included low psychopathology (n = 28,935, 84.0%), internalizing (n = 3693, 9.9%), externalizing (n = 1426, 4.5%), and high psychopathology (n = 599, 1.6%) classes. For Axis II disorders, these included no/low personality disorders (n = 31,265, 90.9%), obsessive/paranoid (n = 1635, 4.6%), borderline/dysregulated (n = 1319, 3.4%), and highly comorbid (n = 434, 1.1%) classes. Compared to the low psychopathology class, all other Axis I classes had significantly increased odds of mental disorders, elevated Axis II classes, suicide attempts and poorer quality of life, with the high psychopathology class having the overall highest rates of these correlates, with the exception of substance use disorders. Compared to the low psychopathology class, the internalizing and externalizing classes had increased rates of mood and anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders, respectively. Axis I and II psychopathology among U.S. adults may be best represented by four predominant typologies. Characterizing co-occurring patterns of psychopathology using person-based typologies represents a higher-order classification system that may be useful in clinical

  4. Learning to Learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Helen; Weiss, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The article reviews theories of learning (e.g., stimulus-response, trial and error, operant conditioning, cognitive), considers the role of motivation, and summarizes nine research-supported rules of effective learning. Suggestions are applied to teaching learning strategies to learning-disabled students. (DB)

  5. Eluxadoline in the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özdener AE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ayşe Elif Özdener, Anastasia Rivkin School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Florham Park, NJ, USA Abstract: Eluxadoline is a novel drug approved for the management of diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D. It has unique pharmacology and works on three different opioid receptors. Several Phase II and III clinical trials have demonstrated eluxadoline’s efficacy in reducing symptoms related to IBS-D. Clinical trial results and postmarketing reports show a risk of pancreatitis in patients without a gallbladder or those abusing alcohol. This review article will include information on clinical trial results related to IBS-D management as well as eluxadoline’s limitations. Keywords: IBS-D, eluxadoline, diarrhea, gastrointestinal, Viberzi

  6. Observable lepton number violation with predominantly Dirac nature of active neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borah, Debasish [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,Assam-781039 (India); Dasgupta, Arnab [Institute of Physics, HBNI,Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneshwar-751005 (India)

    2017-01-17

    We study a specific version of SU(2){sub R}×SU(2){sub L}×U(1){sub B−L} models extended by discrete symmetries where the new physics sector responsible for tiny neutrino masses at leading order remains decoupled from the new physics sector that can give rise to observable signatures of lepton number violation such as neutrinoless double beta decay. More specifically, the dominant contribution to light neutrino masses comes from a one-loop Dirac mass. At higher loop level, a tiny Majorana mass also appears which remains suppressed by many order of magnitudes in comparison to the Dirac mass. Such a model where the active neutrinos are predominantly of Dirac type, also predicts observable charged lepton flavour violation like μ→3e,μ→eγ and multi-component dark matter.

  7. Social Determinants of Overweight and Obesity Rates by Elementary School in a Predominantly Hispanic School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Richard; Huerta, Gabriel; Karki, Menuka; Cantarero, Andrea

    This study analyzes the social determinants associated with the overweight or obesity prevalence of 85 elementary schools during the 2010-11 academic year in a predominantly Hispanic school district. A binomial logistic regression is used to analyze the aggregate overweight or obesity rate of a school by the percent of Hispanic students in each school, selected school and neighborhood characteristics, and its geographical location. The proportion of Hispanic enrollment more readily explains a school's aggregate overweight or obesity rate than social determinants or spatial location. Number of fast food establishments and the academic ranking of a school appear to slightly impact the aggregate prevalence rate. Spatial location of school is not a significant factor, controlling for other determinants. An elementary school's overall overweight or obesity rate provides a valuable health indicator to study the social determinants of obesity among Hispanics and other students within a local neighborhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Upper motor neuron predominant degeneration with frontal and temporal lobe atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagaya, M; Sakai, M; Matsuoka, Y; Konagaya, Y; Hashizume, Y

    1998-11-01

    The autopsy findings of a 78-year-old man mimicking primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) are reported. He showed slowly progressive spasticity, pseudobulbar palsy and character change, and died 32 months after the onset of symptoms. Autopsy revealed severe atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes, remarkable neuronal loss and gliosis in the precentral gyrus, left temporal lobe pole and amygdala, mild degeneration of the Ammon's horn, degeneration of the corticospinal tract, and very mild involvement of the lower motor neurons. The anterior horn cells only occasionally demonstrated Bunina body by cystatin-C staining, and skein-like inclusions by ubiquitin staining. This is a peculiar case with concomitant involvement in the motor cortex and temporal lobe in motor neuron disease predominantly affecting the upper motor neuron.

  9. An outcome of nuclear safety research in JAERI. Predominance of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Kawashima, Kei; Ito, Keishiro; Katsuki, Chisato

    2010-02-01

    Bibliometric study by means of research papers revealed the followings; (1) Nuclear Safety Research (NSR) performed in Japan is the 2nd highest in the world followed by USA. The share of JAERI for safety paper publication is about 25% in Japan (2) During past 25 years, JAERI is predominant at 39 safety fields out of 97, that is, 40% to the total. This is the fact revealed from comparison of published number of research papers with those of other organizations. (3) JAERI is recently changing its stress point from reactor-oriented accidents to the down stream of nuclear fuel cycling. There existed impact of TMI-2 accident on NSR-JAERI, especially in the field of thermal hydraulics, LOCA, severe accident and risk analysis. (author)

  10. Bose-Einstein atoms in atomic traps with predominantly attractive two-body interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Vorov, O.K.

    2002-01-01

    Using the Perron-Frobenius theorem, we prove that the results by Wilkin, Gunn, and Smith [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2265 (1998)] for the ground states at angular momentum L of N harmonically trapped Bose atoms, interacting via weak attractive δ 2 (r) forces, are valid for a broad class of predominantly attractive interactions V(r), not necessarily attractive for any r. This class is described by sufficient conditions on the two-body matrix elements of the potential V(r). It includes, in particular, the Gaussian attraction of arbitrary radius, -1/r-Coulomb and log(r)-Coulomb forces, as well as all the short-range interactions satisfying inequality ∫d 2 r-vectorV(r)<0. In the precollapse regime, the angular momentum L is concentrated in the collective 'center-of-mass' mode, and there is no condensation at high L

  11. The unique entity of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: current approaches to diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Eliza A; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Cunningham, David

    2012-03-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare disease constituting only 3-8% of all Hodgkin lymphoma. It has a distinct histological and clinical presentation as well as significantly different natural history compared to the classical form of Hodgkin lymphoma. Presenting most often as early-stage disease, NLPHL is characterized by frequent relapses, but paradoxically an overall good prognosis. The approach to management should therefore reflect this pattern and focus on attaining prolonged remissions, with long-term follow-up paramount. Due to the rarity of the disease, few prospective data exist. Options for treatment include radiotherapy, chemotherapy or combined chemotherapy plus radiotherapy and targeted anti-CD20 antibody therapy, as well as observation in selected patients.

  12. Anti-racist pedagogy: challenges faced by faculty of color in predominantly white schools of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Dena

    2006-07-01

    Despite the significant effects of systems of oppression on health, nursing education tends not to include anti-racist pedagogy in its curricula, preferring instead to focus more narrowly on culture. This narrow focus allows nurses to depoliticize discussions of race and other social differences, largely ignoring the influence that systems of oppression, imperialism, and historical trauma have had on health in marginalized populations. In contrast, anti-racist pedagogy educates students in ways that make racialized power relations explicit, deconstruct the social construction of race, and analyze interlocking systems of oppression that serve to marginalize and exclude some groups while privileging others. This article describes anti-racist pedagogy from the perspective of a faculty member of color, drawing on personal experience and a review of the anti-racist pedagogical literature. Specifically, this article highlights some of the personal and professional challenges faced by faculty of color when engaged in anti-racist pedagogy in predominantly white schools of nursing.

  13. Acculturation and Adverse Birth Outcomes in a Predominantly Puerto Rican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Latinas in the United States on average have poorer birth outcomes than Whites, yet considerable heterogeneity exists within Latinas. Puerto Ricans have some of the highest rates of adverse outcomes and are understudied. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with adverse birth outcomes in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted from 2006 to 2011. A convenience sample of pregnant Latina women were recruited from a tertiary care hospital in Massachusetts. Acculturation was measured in early pregnancy; directly via the Psychological Acculturation Scale, and via proxies of language preference and generation in the United States. Birth outcomes (gestational age and birthweight) were abstracted from medical records (n = 1362). Results After adjustment, psychological acculturation, language preference, and generation was not associated with odds of preterm birth. However, every unit increase in psychological acculturation score was associated with an increase in gestational age of 0.22 weeks (SE = 0.1, p = 0.04) among all births. Women who preferred to speak Spanish (β = -0.39, SE = 0.2, p = 0.02) and who were first generation in the US (β = -0.33, SE = 0.1, p = 0.02) had significantly lower gestational ages than women who preferred English or who were later generation, respectively. Similarly, women who were first generation had babies who weighed 76.11 g less (SE = 35.2, p = 0.03) than women who were later generation. Discussion We observed a small, but statistically significant adverse impact of low acculturation on gestational age and birthweight in this predominantly Puerto Rican population.

  14. Ice-associated norovirus outbreak predominantly caused by GII.17 in Taiwan, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Hung, Min-Nan; Chen, Wan-Chin; Lo, Yi-Chun; Su, Ying-Shih; Wei, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Meng-Yu; Tuan, Yen-Chang; Lin, Hui-Chen; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Liu, Tsung-Yen; Wang, Yu-Ying; Wu, Fang-Tzy

    2017-11-07

    On 5 March 2015, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control was notified of more than 200 students with gastroenteritis at a senior high school during excursion to Kenting. We conducted an outbreak investigation to identify the causative agent and possible vehicle of the pathogen. We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using a structured questionnaire to interview all students for consumed food items during their stay at the resort. Students were defined as a gastroenteritis case while having vomiting or diarrhea after the breakfast on 4 March. We inspected the environment to identify possible contamination route. We collected stool or vomitus samples from ill students, food handlers and environmental specimens for bacterial culture for common enteropathogens, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for norovirus and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rotavirus. Norovirus PCR-positive products were then sequenced and genotyped. Of 267 students enrolled, 144 (54%) met our case definition. Regression analysis revealed elevated risk associated with iced tea, which was made from tea powder mixed with hot water and self-made ice (risk ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.98). Ice used for beverages, water before and after water filter of the ice machine and 16 stool and vomitus samples from ill students were tested positive for norovirus; Multiple genotypes were identified including GI.2, GI.4 and GII.17. GII.17 was the predominant genotype and phylogenetic analyses showed that noroviruses identified in ice, water and human samples were clustered into the same genotypes. Environmental investigation revealed the ice was made by inadequate-filtered and un-boiled water. We identified the ice made by norovirus-contaminated un-boiled water caused the outbreak and the predominant genotype was GII.17. Adequately filtered or boiled water should be strongly recommended for making ice to avoid possible contamination.

  15. Attentional profiles and white matter correlates in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suzart Ungaretti Rossi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I and 29 matched controls, aged 7 to 15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0 Tesla MRI system. Fractional anisotropy values were obtained for 20 fibre tracts, and brain-behaviour correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability, vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE, processing speed (Hit RT, selective attention (Omissions, sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change, error profile (Response Style and inhibitory control (Perseverations. Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the typically developing participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fibre tracts analysed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average fractional anisotropy values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white-matter structure of the long associative fibres that connect anterior-posterior brain areas.

  16. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, aged 7-15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners' continuous performance test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0-T MRI system. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained for 20 fiber tracts, and brain-behavior correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing (TD) children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability), vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE), processing speed (Hit RT), selective attention (Omissions), sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change), error profile (Response Style), and inhibitory control (Perseverations). Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the TD participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fiber tracts analyzed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average FA values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white matter structure of the long associative fibers that connect anterior-posterior brain areas.

  17. Predominance of Central Asian and European families among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Kashmir Valley, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Gulnaz; Wani, Tehmeena; Sharma, Pragya; Katoch, V M; Lone, Rubina; Shah, Azra; Katoch, Kiran; Kakru, D K; Chauhan, Devendra Singh

    2017-10-01

    As there are no data available regarding the strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in Kashmir Valley, India, the current study aimed at describing the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains in this region, by spoligotyping and 12-locus-based MIRU-VNTR typing (Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number Tandem Repeat). Sputa from 207 smear positive cases with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis were subjected to culture for M. tuberculosis. Eighty-five isolates confirmed as M. tuberculosis were subjected to drug susceptibility testing and molecular typing by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs. Drug susceptibility results of 72 isolates revealed 76.3% as fully sensitive while 5.5% as multidrug resistant (MDR). Spoligotyping of 85 isolates detected 42 spoligotypes with 50 isolates (58.8%) clustered into seven spoligotypes. SIT26/CAS1_Del was the major spoligotype (23, 27%) followed by SIT127/H4 (12, 14.1%); CAS lineage (37.6%) was predominant, followed by Haarlem (25.8%) and ill-defined T clade (23.5%). MIRU-VNTR analysis displayed 82 MIRU patterns from 85 strains, including 3 small clusters and 79 unique. MIRU 26 was found to be the most discriminatory locus. Kashmir Valley has CAS as the predominant lineage of M. tuberculosis similar to the rest of the Indian sub-continent, while it is peculiar in having Euro American lineages such as Haarlem and ill-defined T clade. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Predominance of Blastocystis sp. Infection among School Children in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithyamathi, Kalimuthu; Chandramathi, Samudi; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest cross-sectional study in recent years was carried out to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among urban and rural school children from five states namely Selangor, Perak, Pahang, Kedah and Johor in Peninsula Malaysia. This information would be vital for school authorities to influence strategies for providing better health especially in terms of reducing intestinal parasitism. A total of 3776 stool cups was distributed to 26 schools throughout the country. 1760 (46.61%) responded. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in both rural and urban areas was 13.3%, with Blastocystis sp (10.6%) being the most predominant, followed by Trichuris trichiura (3.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.5%) and hook worm infection (0.9%). Only rural school children had helminthic infection. In general Perak had the highest infection (37.2%, total, n = 317), followed by Selangor (10.4%, total, n = 729), Pahang (8.6%, total, n = 221), Kedah (6.2%, total, n = 195) and Johor (3.4%, total, n = 298). School children from rural schools had higher infection (13.7%, total, n = 922) than urban school children (7.2%, total, n = 838). Subtype (ST) 3 (54.3%) is the most predominant ST with persons infected with only ST1 and ST3 showing symptoms. Blastocystis sp infection significantly associated with low household income, low parent's education and presence of symptoms (p<0.05). It is critical that we institute deworming and treatment to eradicate the parasite especially in rural school children.

  19. Clinical, physiological and pathological characterisation of the sensory predominant peripheral neuropathy in copper deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sean W; Laughlin, Ruple S; Kumar, Neeraj; Goodman, Brent; Klein, Christopher J; Dyck, Peter J; Dyck, P James B

    2017-10-01

    Myelopathy is considered the most common neurological complication of copper deficiency. Concurrent peripheral neuropathy has been recognised in association with copper deficiency but has not been well characterised. To characterise the clinical, physiological and pathological features of copper-deficient peripheral neuropathy. Patients with simultaneous copper deficiency (peripheral neuropathy seen at the Mayo Clinic from 1985 to 2005 were identified. 34 patients were identified (median age 55 years, range 36-78) including 24 women and 10 men. Myelopathy was found in 21 patients. Median serum copper level was 0.11 μg/mL (range 0-0.58). The most frequent clinical and electrophysiological pattern of neuropathy was a sensory predominant length-dependent peripheral neuropathy (71%). Somatosensory evoked potentials demonstrated central slowing supporting myelopathy (96%). Quantitative sensory testing demonstrated both small and large fibre involvement (100%). Autonomic reflex screens (77%) and thermoregulatory sweat test (67%) confirmed sudomotor dysfunction. 14 cutaneous nerve biopsies revealed loss of myelinated nerve fibres (86%), increased regenerative clusters (50%), increased rates of axonal degeneration (91%) and increased numbers of empty nerve strands (73%). 71% of biopsies demonstrated epineurial perivascular inflammation. An axonal, length-dependent sensory predominant peripheral neuropathy causing sensory ataxia is characteristic of copper deficiency usually co-occurring with myelopathy. Neurophysiological testing confirms involvement of large, greater than small fibres. The pathological findings suggest axonal degeneration and repair. Inflammatory infiltrates are common but are small and of doubtful pathological significance. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Identifying clinically meaningful symptom response cut-off values on the SANS in predominant negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Leucht, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The treatment and measurement of negative symptoms are currently at issue in schizophrenia, but the clinical meaning of symptom severity and change is unclear. To offer a clinically meaningful interpretation of severity and change scores on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Patients were intention-to-treat participants (n=383) in two double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials that compared amisulpride with placebo for the treatment of predominant negative symptoms. Equipercentile linking was used to examine extrapolation from (a) CGI-S to SANS severity ratings, and (b) CGI-I to SANS percentage change (n=383). Linking was conducted at baseline, 8-14 days, 28-30 days, and 56-60 days of the trials. Across visits, CGI-S ratings of 'not ill' linked to SANS scores of 0-13, and ranged to 'extreme' ratings that linked to SANS scores of 102-105. The relationship between the CGI-S and the SANS severity scores assumed a linear trend (1=0-13, 2=15-56, 3=37-61, 4=49-66, 5=63-75, 6=79-89, 7=102-105). Similarly the relationship between CGI-I ratings and SANS percentage change followed a linear trend. For instance, CGI-I ratings of 'very much improved' were linked to SANS percent changes of -90 to -67, 'much improved' to -50 to -42, and 'minimally improved' to -21 to -13. The current results uniquely contribute to the debate surrounding negative symptoms by providing clinical meaning to SANS severity and change scores and so offer direction regarding clinically meaningful response cut-off scores to guide treatment targets of predominant negative symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Organic Matter Remineralization Predominates Phosphorus Cycling in the Mid-Bay Sediments in the Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunendra, Joshi R.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Burdige, David J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Sparks, Donald L.; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-05-19

    The Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the US, suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and non–point source nutrient sources. Restoration of the bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs and hydrological conditions, and complex interacting factors including climate forcing. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics enables one to identify the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment- water interface and aid to better constrain mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between the sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ18Op) in concert with sediment chemistry, XRD, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on the sediment retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the meso-haline portion of the mid-bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedback effect on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Isotope data indicate that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-bay sediments. We interpret that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any bottom-water and/or pore-water P derived from other sources or biogeochemical processes and exceeded saturation with respect to authigenic P precipitation. It is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway against remobilization (coupled Fe-P cycling) pathway in the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results are expected to have significant implications for the current understanding of P cycling and benthic-pelagic coupling in the bay, particularly on the

  2. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of cryptococcosis in Singapore: predominance of Cryptococcus neoformans compared with Cryptococcus gattii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Monica; Lye, David; Win, Mar Kyaw; Chow, Angela; Barkham, Tim

    2014-09-01

    To describe the clinical features, treatments, outcomes, and subtype prevalence of cryptococcosis in Singapore. All patients with laboratory confirmed cryptococcal infections admitted from 1999 to 2007 to a teaching hospital in Singapore were reviewed retrospectively. Identification and molecular types of Cryptococcus neoformans variants and Cryptococcus gattii were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Serotypes were inferred with a multiplex PCR method. Of 62 patients with cryptococcosis, C. neoformans var. grubii was the predominant subtype (in 95%), affecting mainly immunocompromised hosts (91%) with HIV infection (80%). Patients with HIV were younger (median age 36.5 vs. 49.5 years, p=0.006) and less likely to present with an altered mental status (14% vs. 50%, p=0.013). In contrast, delayed treatment (median 7 days vs. 2 days, p=0.03), pulmonary involvement (58% vs. 14%, p=0.03), and initial treatment with fluconazole (25% vs. 2%, p=0.02) were more common in HIV-negative patients. C. gattii was uncommon, affecting only three patients, all of whom were immunocompetent and had disseminated disease with pulmonary and neurological involvement. All C. gattii were RFLP type VG II, serotype B and all C. neoformans var. grubii were RFLP type VN I, serotype A, except for one that was RFLP type VN II. C. neoformans var. grubii, subtype VN I, was the predominant subtype in Singapore, infecting younger, mainly immunocompromised hosts with HIV. C. gattii was uncommon, causing pulmonary manifestations in older, immunocompetent patients and were RFLP type VG II. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a unique disease deserving unique management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenauer, Dennis A; Engert, Andreas

    2017-12-08

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare lymphoma entity with an incidence of 0.1 to 0.2/100 000/y. Compared with the more common subtypes of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, NLPHL is characterized by distinct pathological and clinical features. Histologically, the disease-defining lymphocyte predominant cells consistently express CD20 but lack CD30. Clinically, NLPHL mostly has a rather indolent course, and patients usually are diagnosed in early stages. The prognosis of early-stage NLPHL is excellent, with progression-free survival and overall survival rates exceeding 90% after involved-field radiotherapy (IF-RT) alone (stage IA) or combined modality treatment consisting of a brief chemotherapy with 2 cycles of ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) chemotherapy followed by IF-RT (early stages other than stage IA). In contrast, patients with advanced disease at diagnosis tend to relapse either with NLPHL histology or with histological transformation into aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma despite more aggressive first-line treatment with 6 to 8 cycles of multiagent chemotherapy. However, even NLPHL patients with multiple relapses successfully respond to salvage therapy in many cases. Salvage therapies range from single-agent anti-CD20 antibody treatment to high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Treatment at disease recurrence should be chosen on the basis of various factors, including histology at relapse, time to relapse, extent of disease at relapse, and prior treatment. Because death among NLPHL patients is more often caused by therapy-related late effects than lymphoma-related complications, optimizing the risk-benefit ratio of treatment by decreasing toxicity whenever possible is the major goal of clinical research in this disease. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  4. The Impact of Changing Technology: The Case of E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Nadia; Al-Banawi, Nisreen

    2013-01-01

    For centuries, education has relied on classroom methods, but technology-enhanced learning can potentially bring about a revolution in learning, making high-quality, cost-effective education available to a greater number of people. The basic advantages of e-learning include anytime-anywhere access to learning, cost reductions, ability to reach…

  5. Reverse hypothesis machine learning a practitioner's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Parag

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces a paradigm of reverse hypothesis machines (RHM), focusing on knowledge innovation and machine learning. Knowledge- acquisition -based learning is constrained by large volumes of data and is time consuming. Hence Knowledge innovation based learning is the need of time. Since under-learning results in cognitive inabilities and over-learning compromises freedom, there is need for optimal machine learning. All existing learning techniques rely on mapping input and output and establishing mathematical relationships between them. Though methods change the paradigm remains the same—the forward hypothesis machine paradigm, which tries to minimize uncertainty. The RHM, on the other hand, makes use of uncertainty for creative learning. The approach uses limited data to help identify new and surprising solutions. It focuses on improving learnability, unlike traditional approaches, which focus on accuracy. The book is useful as a reference book for machine learning researchers and professionals as ...

  6. Predominant Lactobacillus species types of vaginal microbiota in pregnant Korean women: quantification of the five Lactobacillus species and two anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hyun; Yoo, Seung Min; Sohn, Yong Hak; Jin, Chan Hee; Yang, Yun Suk; Hwang, In Taek; Oh, Kwan Young

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the predominant Lactobacillus species types (LSTs) of vaginal microbiota in pregnant Korean women by quantifying five Lactobacillus species and two anaerobes. In all, 168 pregnant Korean women under antenatal care at Eulji University Hospital and local clinics were enrolled in the prospective cohort study during pregnancy (10-14 weeks). Vaginal samples were collected with Eswab for Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and stored in a -80 °C freezer. qPCR was performed for five Lactobacillus species and two anaerobes. To identify the predominant LSTs, quantifications were analyzed by the Cluster and Tree View programs of Eisen Lab. Also the quantifications were compared among classified groups. L. crispatus and L. iners were most commonly found in pregnant Korean women, followed by L. gasseri and L. jensenii; L. vaginalis was nearly absent. Five types (four predominant LSTs and one predominant anaerobe type without predominant Lactobacillus species) were classified. Five predominant LSTs were identified in vaginal microbiota of pregnant Korean women. L. crispatus and L. iners predominant types comprised a large proportion.

  7. Longitudinal patterns of predominant asthma disease activity in pediatric patients enrolled in an asthma-specific disease management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lyne; Nichols, Breck; Choi Kwong, Kenny Yat; Morphew, Tricia; Jones, Craig A

    2008-08-01

    To determine if patterns of predominant asthma disease activity are more closely related than baseline asthma severity to measures of morbidity (acute asthma attack, emergency room visit/hospitalization, missed school days, and/or steroid burst). Retrospective analysis was performed for inner-city Los Angeles asthmatic children (3 to 18 years of age) during their first year of enrollment in an asthma-specific disease management program. All measures of morbidity were more closely related to patterns of predominant disease activity than baseline severity. We conclude that patterns of predominant disease activity are a more significant predictor of asthma morbidity than is baseline severity.

  8. Vestibular Dysfunction in Wernicke’s Encephalopathy: Predominant Impairment of the Horizontal Semicircular Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Han Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWernicke’s encephalopathy (WE, a metabolic disorder due to thiamine deficiency, manifests with various neurological symptoms and signs. It has been known as a cause of vestibular dysfunction. Preliminary reports have proposed predominant involvement of the horizontal semicircular canals (HSCs.ObjectiveTo better characterize the pattern of vestibular impairment in patients with WE using quantitative video head-impulse testing and to review the literature regarding this topic.MethodFrom January 2014 to December 2016, we retrospectively enrolled five cases of WE that received quantitative video-head-impulse testing (vHIT. We retrieved the clinical features from the medical records and reviewed quantitative head-impulse testing (qHIT and caloric irrigation. Based on the gain and the number of corrective saccades, the function (normal vs. impaired of each semicircular canal was rated. In addition, we conducted a MEDLINE and EMBASE search to identify other published cases of WE that had received qHIT. Neuro-otologic and neuro-ophthalmologic findings and vestibular testing results were extracted.ResultsA total of 17 patients (own series = 5; published cases = 12 aged 54.6 ± 11 years were included. Key neurologic findings were ataxia of stance and gait (13/13, 100%, spontaneous nystagmus (7/14, 50%, gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN (17/17, 100%, positive bedside head-impulse testing for the horizontal canals (16/17, 94%, and memory impairment and mental changes (6/11, 54.5%. Regarding vestibular testing, qHIT (either video based or search-coil based documented selective bilateral horizontal canal dysfunction with normal or minimal vertical canal impairment (14/14, 100%. On caloric irrigation, bilateral horizontal canal paresis was noted in most cases (10/11, 91%.ConclusionIn WE, signs of both peripheral and central vestibular dysfunction (i.e., GEN, ataxia of stance and gait, abnormal head-impulse testing were common. Selective or

  9. Aerosol indirect effects on the nighttime Arctic Ocean surface from thin, predominantly liquid clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Zamora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol indirect effects have potentially large impacts on the Arctic Ocean surface energy budget, but model estimates of regional-scale aerosol indirect effects are highly uncertain and poorly validated by observations. Here we demonstrate a new way to quantitatively estimate aerosol indirect effects on a regional scale from remote sensing observations. In this study, we focus on nighttime, optically thin, predominantly liquid clouds. The method is based on differences in cloud physical and microphysical characteristics in carefully selected clean, average, and aerosol-impacted conditions. The cloud subset of focus covers just ∼ 5 % of cloudy Arctic Ocean regions, warming the Arctic Ocean surface by ∼ 1–1.4 W m−2 regionally during polar night. However, within this cloud subset, aerosol and cloud conditions can be determined with high confidence using CALIPSO and CloudSat data and model output. This cloud subset is generally susceptible to aerosols, with a polar nighttime estimated maximum regionally integrated indirect cooling effect of ∼ −0.11 W m−2 at the Arctic sea ice surface (∼ 8 % of the clean background cloud effect, excluding cloud fraction changes. Aerosol presence is related to reduced precipitation, cloud thickness, and radar reflectivity, and in some cases, an increased likelihood of cloud presence in the liquid phase. These observations are inconsistent with a glaciation indirect effect and are consistent with either a deactivation effect or less-efficient secondary ice formation related to smaller liquid cloud droplets. However, this cloud subset shows large differences in surface and meteorological forcing in shallow and higher-altitude clouds and between sea ice and open-ocean regions. For example, optically thin, predominantly liquid clouds are much more likely to overlay another cloud over the open ocean, which may reduce aerosol indirect effects on the surface. Also, shallow clouds over

  10. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization as risk factor for treatment failure in honey bee venom immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Marcel; Fischer, Jörg; Helbling, Arthur; Ruëff, Franziska; Wieczorek, Dorothea; Ollert, Markus; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Müller, Sabine; Huss-Marp, Johannes; Dorn, Britta; Biedermann, Tilo; Lidholm, Jonas; Ruecker, Gerta; Bantleon, Frank; Miehe, Michaela; Spillner, Edzard; Jakob, Thilo

    2016-12-01

    Component resolution recently identified distinct sensitization profiles in honey bee venom (HBV) allergy, some of which were dominated by specific IgE to Api m 3 and/or Api m 10, which have been reported to be underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. We performed a retrospective analysis of component-resolved sensitization profiles in HBV-allergic patients and association with treatment outcome. HBV-allergic patients who had undergone controlled honey bee sting challenge after at least 6 months of HBV immunotherapy (n = 115) were included and classified as responder (n = 79) or treatment failure (n = 36) on the basis of absence or presence of systemic allergic reactions upon sting challenge. IgE reactivity to a panel of HBV allergens was analyzed in sera obtained before immunotherapy and before sting challenge. No differences were observed between responders and nonresponders regarding levels of IgE sensitization to Api m 1, Api m 2, Api m 3, and Api m 5. In contrast, Api m 10 specific IgE was moderately but significantly increased in nonresponders. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization (>50% of specific IgE to HBV) was the best discriminator (specificity, 95%; sensitivity, 25%) with an odds ratio of 8.444 (2.127-33.53; P = .0013) for treatment failure. Some but not all therapeutic HBV preparations displayed a lack of Api m 10, whereas Api m 1 and Api m 3 immunoreactivity was comparable to that of crude HBV. In line with this, significant Api m 10 sIgG 4 induction was observed only in those patients who were treated with HBV in which Api m 10 was detectable. Component-resolved sensitization profiles in HBV allergy suggest predominant IgE sensitization to Api m 10 as a risk factor for treatment failure in HBV immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethanol ablation of predominantly cystic thyroid nodules: Evaluation of recurrence rate and factors related to recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, C.H.; Baek, J.H.; Ha, E.J.; Choi, Y.J.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, J.K.; Chung, K.-W.; Kim, T.Y.; Kim, W.B.; Shong, Y.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate recurrence rate and associated risk factors for recurrence after ethanol ablation (EA) in patients with predominantly cystic thyroid nodules. Materials and methods: This observational study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institutional Review Board and informed consent for procedures was obtained. From April 2009 to April 2013, 107 consecutive patients with predominantly cystic nodules were treated using EA. Recurrence was defined as nodules showing a residual solid portion with internal vascularity, cosmetic problems remaining, or persistent symptoms, and patients who requested additional therapy to resolve their symptomatic or cosmetic problems. Delayed recurrence was defined as treated nodules that showed no recurrent features at 1 month, but showed newly developed recurrent features during the longer follow-up period. Multivariate analysis was used for variables to demonstrate the independent factors related to volume reduction. Results: One month after EA, 18.7% of patients (20/107) showed recurrence. Among 87 patients with non-recurrence, 24.1% (21/87) showed delayed recurrence. The total recurrence rate was 38.3% (41/107). Patients with recurrence (n = 41) were treated using radiofrequency ablation (n = 28), second EA (n = 4), and refused further treatment (n = 9). These patients responded well to repeat EA and radiofrequency ablation. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the initial nodule volume (>20 ml; p < 0.036) and vascularity (grade >1; p < 0.049) were independent predictors of volume reduction at last follow-up. Conclusions: The results revealed that although EA seemed to be effective during the initial period, delayed recurrence should be considered during longer-term follow-up. The independent predictors of recurrence were initial volume (>20 ml) and vascularity. - Highlights: • Ethanol ablation showed unsatisfactory results in 18.7% of patient at one month. • Delayed recurrence was observed in 24

  12. Climate Change Predominantly Caused U.S. Soil Water Storage Decline from 2003 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Ma, C.; Song, X.; Gao, L.; Liu, M.; Xu, X.

    2016-12-01

    The water storage in soils is a fundamental resource for natural ecosystems and human society, while it is highly variable due to its complicated controlling factors in a changing climate; therefore, understanding water storage variation and its controlling factors is essential for sustaining human society, which relies on water resources. Although we are confident for water availability at global scale, the regional-scale water storage and its controlling factors are not fully understood. A number of researchers have reported that water resources are expected to diminish as climate continues warming in the 21stcentury, which will further influence human and ecological systems. However, few studies to date have fully quantitatively examined the water balances and its individual controlling mechanisms in the conterminous US. In this study, we integrated the time-series data of water storage and evapotranspiration derived from satellite imageries, regional meteorological data, and social-economic water consumption, to quantify water storage dynamics and its controlling factors across the conterminous US from 2003 to 2014. The water storage decline was found in majority of conterminous US, with the largest decline in southwestern US. Net atmospheric water input, which is difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration, could explain more than 50% of the inter-annual variation of water storage variation in majority of US with minor contributions from human water consumption. Climate change, expressed as precipitation decreases and warming, made dominant contribution to the water storage decline in the conterminous U.S. from 2003 to 2014.

  13. Colouring the Gaps in Learning Design: Aesthetics and the Visual in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Fiona; Kop, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The visual is a dominant mode of information retrieval and understanding however, the focus on the visual dimension of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) is still quite weak in relation to its predominant focus on usability. To accommodate the future needs of the visual learner, designers of e-learning environments should advance the current…

  14. Computer-Mediated Intersensory Learning Model for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura; Kinsell, Carolyn; Poggio, John C.; Meyen, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a computer-mediated intersensory learning model as an alternative to traditional instructional approaches for students with learning disabilities (LDs) in the inclusive classroom. Predominant practices of classroom inclusion today reflect the six principles of zero reject, nondiscriminatory evaluation, appropriate education,…

  15. Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Coll. of Education.

    Information is provided regarding major learning styles and other factors important to student learning. Several typically asked questions are presented regarding different learning styles (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic, and multisensory learning), associated considerations, determining individuals' learning styles, and appropriate…

  16. Flow Function of Pharmaceutical Powders Is Predominantly Governed by Cohesion, Not by Friction Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lap Yin; Mao, Chen; Srivastava, Ishan; Du, Ping; Yang, Chia-Yi

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the flow function (FFc) of pharmaceutical powders, as measured by rotational shear cell, is predominantly governed by cohesion but not friction coefficients. Driven by an earlier report showing an inverse correlation between FFc and the cohesion divided by the corresponding pre-consolidation stress (Wang et al. 2016. Powder Tech. 294:105-112), we performed analysis on a large data set containing 1130 measurements from a ring shear tester and identified a near-perfect inverse correlation between the FFc and cohesion. Conversely, no correlation was found between FFc and friction angles. We also conducted theoretical analysis and estimated such correlations based on Mohr-Coulomb failure model. We discovered that the correlation between FFc and cohesion can sustain as long as the angle of internal friction at incipient flow is not significantly larger than the angle of internal friction at steady-state flow, a condition covering almost all pharmaceutical powders. The outcome of this study bears significance in pharmaceutical development. Because the cohesion value is strongly influenced by the interparticle cohesive forces, this study effectively shows that it is more efficient to improve the pharmaceutical powder flow by lowering the interparticle cohesive forces than by lowering the interparticle frictions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli for Producing Astaxanthin as the Predominant Carotenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin is a carotenoid of significant commercial value due to its superior antioxidant potential and wide applications in the aquaculture, food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. A higher ratio of astaxanthin to the total carotenoids is required for efficient astaxanthin production. β-Carotene ketolase and hydroxylase play important roles in astaxanthin production. We first compared the conversion efficiency to astaxanthin in several β-carotene ketolases from Brevundimonas sp. SD212, Sphingomonas sp. DC18, Paracoccus sp. PC1, P. sp. N81106 and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with the recombinant Escherichia coli cells that synthesize zeaxanthin due to the presence of the Pantoea ananatis crtEBIYZ. The B. sp. SD212 crtW and P. ananatis crtZ genes are the best combination for astaxanthin production. After balancing the activities of β-carotene ketolase and hydroxylase, an E. coli ASTA-1 that carries neither a plasmid nor an antibiotic marker was constructed to produce astaxanthin as the predominant carotenoid (96.6% with a specific content of 7.4 ± 0.3 mg/g DCW without an addition of inducer.

  18. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Beatty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s. Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation.

  19. Correlation between permanent tooth eruption pattern and the predominance of the motor function laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso-Durán, Ana; Vazquez-Salceda, Ma Carmen; López-Jiménez, Julian; Veloso-Durán, Margarita; Puigdollers, Andreu

    2014-09-01

    To asses whether dental eruption order can play a role in the early diagnosis of crossed laterality. Dental eruption pattern along with eye, ear, hand and foot lateralism were examined on 131 children between 6 to 8 years old from public schools from a multietnic population area of Barcelona city. Statistic methods (Statgraphics Plus 5.1 program) were used to evaluate data recollected. Only foot and dentition lateralities behave as independent variables regarding hand laterality. So dental eruption laterality (along with the foot one) would be one of the parameters more related to hand laterality given that dentition variable relationship is greater that the foot one. This suggests that tooth eruption could be more clinically relevant. Crossed laterality hand-foot is significantly more predominant in men (13%) than in women (1,6%). Meanwhile, the relationship between hand and dentition didn't show any influence of sex. Dental eruption order, can be used as a good parameter in the determination of the patient's laterality.

  20. Presenilin 2 is the predominant γ-secretase in microglia and modulates cytokine release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Jayadev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Presenilin 1 (PS1 and Presenilin 2 (PS2 are the enzymatic component of the γ-secretase complex that cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP to release amyloid beta (Aβ peptide. PS deficiency in mice results in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the absence of accumulated Aβ. We hypothesize that PS influences neuroinflammation through its γ-secretase action in CNS innate immune cells. We exposed primary murine microglia to a pharmacological γ-secretase inhibitor which resulted in exaggerated release of TNFα and IL-6 in response to lipopolysaccharide. To determine if this response was mediated by PS1, PS2 or both we used shRNA to knockdown each PS in a murine microglia cell line. Knockdown of PS1 did not lead to decreased γ-secretase activity while PS2 knockdown caused markedly decreased γ-secretase activity. Augmented proinflammatory cytokine release was observed after knockdown of PS2 but not PS1. Proinflammatory stimuli increased microglial PS2 gene transcription and protein in vitro. This is the first demonstration that PS2 regulates CNS innate immunity. Taken together, our findings suggest that PS2 is the predominant γ-secretase in microglia and modulates release of proinflammatory cytokines. We propose PS2 may participate in a negative feedback loop regulating inflammatory behavior in microglia.

  1. Primary histiocytic sarcoma arising in the head and neck with predominant spindle cell component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao XF

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the first case report of Histiocytic Sarcoma (HS with predominant spindle cell component occurring in the head and neck region of a 41-year-old man. The tumor was composed of sheets of large round to oval cells with pleomorphic vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Multinucleated forms, numerous mitoses, and tumor necrosis were also noted. Sheets, fascicles, and whorls of spindle cells with spindled to ovoid vesicular nuclei, small to medium-sized distinct nucleoli, and eosinophilic cytoplasm were frequently observed. Immunohistochemical staining in the tumor cells was positive for CD163, CD68, lysozyme, CD45, and NSE. Focal expression of CD4 and S-100 was also noted. Electron microscopy demonstrated an abundance of lysosomes in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Chromosome study revealed a 57–80 hyperdiploid [7]/46, XY [13] karyotype, including 3 to 4 copies of various chromosomes. The immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings confirmed the diagnosis of HS.

  2. Subsurface clade of Geobacteraceae that predominates in a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing subsurface environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dawn E.; O'Neil, Regina A.; Vrionis, Helen A.; N'Guessan, Lucie A.; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; Larrahondo, Maria J.; Adams, Lorrie A.; Ward, Joy A.; Nicoll , Julie S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Chavan, Milind A.; Johnson, Jessica P.; Long, Philip E.; Lovely, Derek R.

    2007-01-01

    There are distinct differences in the physiology of Geobacter species available in pure culture. Therefore, to understand the ecology of Geobacter species in subsurface environments, it is important to know which species predominate. Clone libraries were assembled with 16S rRNA genes and transcripts amplified from three subsurface environments in which Geobacter species are known to be important members of the microbial community: (1) a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, USA undergoing in situ bioremediation; (2) an acetate-impacted aquifer that serves as an analog for the long-term acetate amendments proposed for in situ uranium bioremediation and (3) a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which Geobacter species play a role in the oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons coupled with the reduction of Fe(III). The majority of Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA sequences found in these environments clustered in a phylogenetically coherent subsurface clade, which also contains a number of Geobacter species isolated from subsurface environments. Concatamers constructed with 43 Geobacter genes amplified from these sites also clustered within this subsurface clade. 16S rRNA transcript and gene sequences in the sediments and groundwater at the Rifle site were highly similar, suggesting that sampling groundwater via monitoring wells can recover the most active Geobacter species. These results suggest that further study of Geobacter species in the subsurface clade is necessary to accurately model the behavior of Geobacter species during subsurface bioremediation of metal and organic contaminants.

  3. Epidemiological and clinical variables related with the predominant polarity on bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, Jesús; Álvarez-Fernández, Marisol; Aguado-Bailón, Lidia; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis

    2017-08-14

    Current classification of bipolar disorder (BD) in type i or type ii, however useful, may be insufficient to provide relevant clinical information in some patients. As a result, complementary classifications are being proposed, like the predominant polarity (PP) based, which is defined as a clear tendency in the patient to present relapses in the manic or depressive poles. We carried out a search in PubMed and Web of Science databases, following the Preferred Items for Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses -PRISMA- guidelines, to identify studies about BD reporting PP. The search is updated to June 2016. Initial search revealed 907 articles, of which 16 met inclusion criteria. Manic PP was found to be associated with manic onset, drug consumption prior to onset and a better response to atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. Depressive PP showed an association with depressive onset, more relapses, prolonged acute episodes, a greater suicide risk and a later diagnosis of BD. Depressive PP was also associated with anxiety disorders, mixed symptoms, melancholic symptoms and a wider use of quetiapine and lamotrigine. Few prospective studies. Variability in some results. PP may be useful as a supplement to current BD classifications. We have found consistent data on a great number of studies, but there is also contradictory information regarding PP. Further studies are needed, ideally of a prospective design and with a unified methodology. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Foreign-body ingestion: characteristics and outcomes in a lower socioeconomic population with predominantly intentional ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Renee; Sahota, Amandeep; Bemarki, Ali; Salama, Paul; Simpson, Nicole; Laine, Loren

    2009-03-01

    Previous reports of foreign-body ingestions focused primarily on accidental ingestions. To describe the characteristics and management of foreign-body ingestions, with predominantly intentional ingestion, in a lower socioeconomic status population. A retrospective case series. An urban county hospital. Patients >/=17 years old, with foreign-body ingestions between 2000 and 2006. Characteristics of ingestion cases, endoscopic extraction, need for surgery, and complications. Among 262 cases, 92% were intentional, 85% involved psychiatric patients, and 84% occurred in patients with prior ingestions. The time from ingestion to presentation was >48 hours in 168 cases (64%). The overall success rate for endoscopic extraction was 90% (165/183 cases). Surgery was performed in 30 cases (11%) and was more common for objects beyond the pylorus versus objects above the pylorus (16/43 [37%] vs 10/151 [7%], respectively) and in cases with a greater delay from ingestion to presentation (25/168 [15%] if >48 hours vs 4/77 [5%] if 48 hours vs 14/165 [8%] if

  5. Predominant and common cause of urinary tract infection(s) in sukkur city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    To examine and evaluate the predominant and common etiologic agent(s) of urinary tract infection (UTI) in Sukkur city and to determine their current antibiotic susceptibility/resistance trends. Nine hundred sixty six patients out of 1430 abnormal urine reports (showing significant abnormalities such as protein, pus, red cells) were asked to give second sample. The urine samples were examined by both urine test strip (Combur 10 Test, Roche) and microscopically (wet preparation) followed by culture and sensitivity. The culture sensitivity was done on urine samples of which bacterial numbers were estimated as more than 105CFU. The study was conducted at Safeway Diagnostic and Research Laboratory Sukkur and the Department of Microbiology, Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur, Sindh from March 2001 to March 2003. Eight hundred fifty-two (88.2%) showed Escherichia spp followed by Klebsiella spp (6.9%) and proteus spp (4.9%). These showed 95%, 90%, 90% sensitivity to ofloxacin respectively. Ninety percent isolates of Escherichia spp, Proteus spp and Klebsiella spp were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Escherichia spp was found to be major uropathogen and ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were effective antibiotics against these strains isolated from UTI patients of Sukkur city. (author)

  6. First 100 laparoscopic surgeries in a predominantly rural Nigerian population: a template for future growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwunife, Christopher N; Nwobe, Ogechukwu

    2014-11-01

    Minimal access surgery has revolutionized surgery practice. Its proven advantages, such as reduced postoperative pain, early return to unrestricted activities, and better cosmesis, have become important drivers for its rapid development. In sub-Saharan Africa this development has been slow. The aim of the current study was to describe the challenges and outcomes of laparoscopic procedures in a public hospital that caters to a predominantly rural population. The first 100 patients who underwent laparoscopic procedure in the Department of Surgery at Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Nigeria were retrospectively analyzed. Data were retrieved from the medical records department as well as the surgical theater procedure register. The focus of the study was on patient demographics, indication for surgery, procedure performed, length of hospital stay, and morbidity and mortality data. Staff training was done locally and abroad. Altogether, 100 patients had laparoscopic surgery in our general surgery unit from September 2007 through July 2013. The ages of the patients was 5-75 years (median 36.5 years). The three main procedures were cholecystectomy (36 %), diagnostic laparoscopy (29 %), and appendectomy (21 %). The other operations performed included liver abscess drainage (7 %), adhesiolysis (3 %), hernia repair (1 %), and Heller's myotomy (1 %). Four cases were converted to open surgery. There were no deaths. There were 14 grades I and II postoperative complications in nine patients. Our study suggests that basic laparoscopic procedures could be offered safely to our resource-poor rural population. It is a platform on which we can hopefully introduce advanced laparoscopic surgical operations.

  7. Paradoxes of cyberspace: why an e-book exists predominantly on paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Kovač

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the failure of predictions from mid-nineties that an e-book will become more popular than a printed book. The author stresses that the reasons for this failure are predominantly economical and sociological and have much less to do with technological failures of e-book reading devices that it is popularly believed. Thebackbone of the book publishing process is the inseparable link between the contentand its carrier; on this basis, the publishers has become the gatekeepers of intellectualproduction and the authorship has become a profession. In e-publishing, the linkbetween the content and its carrier disintegrated; as a consequence, e-book publishingnever established itself in a form of successful business process. Additionally,throughout the last 500 years, the printed book established itself as the most appropriatemedia for dissemination and storage of the most sophisticated product of humanmind. The paper shows that the e-book lacks the necessary features to substituteprinted book in this role. However, regardless its dominance over e-book, the productionand marketing of printed books have become almost entirely digitized. As a consequence,instead of e-book readers, paper has become the most important carrier ofe-book content

  8. Characteristics and predictors of oral cancer knowledge in a predominantly African American community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei Boakye, Eric; Hussaini, Adnan S.; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Ganesh, Rajan N.; Snider, Matthew; Thompson, Devin; Varvares, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To characterize smoking and alcohol use, and to describe predictors of oral cancer knowledge among a predominantly African-American population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between September, 2013 among drag racers and fans in East St. Louis. Oral cancer knowledge was derived from combining questionnaire items to form knowledge score. Covariates examined included age, sex, race, marital status, education status, income level, insurance status, tobacco and alcohol use. Adjusted linear regression analysis measured predictors of oral cancer knowledge. Results Three hundred and four participants completed questionnaire; 72.7% were African Americans. Smoking rate was 26.7%, alcohol use was 58.3%, and mean knowledge score was 4.60 ± 2.52 out of 17. In final adjusted regression model, oral cancer knowledge was associated with race and education status. Compared with Caucasians, African Americans were 29% less likely to have high oral cancer knowledge (β = -0.71; 95% CI: -1.35, -0.07); and participants with a high school diploma or less were 124% less likely to have high oral cancer knowledge compared with college graduates (β = -1.24; 95% CI: -2.44, -0.41). Conclusions There was lower oral cancer knowledge among African Americans and those with low education. The prevalence of smoking was also very high. Understanding predictors of oral cancer knowledge is important in future design of educational interventions specifically targeted towards high-risk group for oral cancer. PMID:28545057

  9. De novo insertions and deletions of predominantly paternal origin are associated with autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shan; Walker, Michael F.; Carriero, Nicholas J.; DiCola, Michael; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Ye, Adam Y.; Waqar, Zainulabedin; Gonzalez, Luis E.; Overton, John D.; Frahm, Stephanie; Keaney, John F.; Teran, Nicole A.; Dea, Jeanselle; Mandell, Jeffrey D.; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Sullivan, Catherine A.; DiLullo, Nicholas M.; Khalil, Rehab O.; Gockley, Jake; Yuksel, Zafer; Sertel, Sinem M.; Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Gupta, Abha R.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Sheldon, Michael; Brooks, Andrew I.; Roeder, Kathryn; Devlin, Bernie; State, Matthew W.; Wei, Liping; Sanders, Stephan J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Whole-exome sequencing (WES) studies have demonstrated the contribution of de novo loss-of-function single nucleotide variants to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, challenges in the reliable detection of de novo insertions and deletions (indels) have limited inclusion of these variants in prior analyses. Through the application of a robust indel detection method to WES data from 787 ASD families (2,963 individuals), we demonstrate that de novo frameshift indels contribute to ASD risk (OR=1.6; 95%CI=1.0-2.7; p=0.03), are more common in female probands (p=0.02), are enriched among genes encoding FMRP targets (p=6×10−9), and arise predominantly on the paternal chromosome (p<0.001). Based on mutation rates in probands versus unaffected siblings, de novo frameshift indels contribute to risk in approximately 3.0% of individuals with ASD. Finally, through observing clustering of mutations in unrelated probands, we report two novel ASD-associated genes: KMT2E (MLL5), a chromatin regulator, and RIMS1, a regulator of synaptic vesicle release. PMID:25284784

  10. Recipient clinical risk factors predominate in possible transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Pearl; Bacchetti, Peter; Grimes, Barbara; Gajic, Ognjen; Murphy, Edward L; Winters, Jeffrey L; Gropper, Michael A; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Matthay, Michael A; Wilson, Gregory; Koenigsberg, Monique; Lee, Deanna C; Hirschler, Nora V; Lowell, Clifford A; Schuller, Randy M; Gandhi, Manish J; Norris, Philip J; Mair, David C; Sanchez Rosen, Rosa; Looney, Mark R

    2015-05-01

    Possible transfusion-related acute lung injury (pTRALI) cases by definition have a clear temporal relationship to an alternative recipient risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We questioned whether transfusion factors are important for the development of pTRALI. In this nested case-control study, we prospectively identified 145 consecutive patients with pTRALI and randomly selected 163 transfused controls over a 4-year period at the University of California at San Francisco and the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota). For pTRALI, we found evidence against transfusion being important: receipt of plasma from female donors (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-2.3; p = 0.70), total number of units transfused (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89-1.10; p = 0.86), and number of red blood cell and whole blood units transfused (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.59-1.03; p = 0.079). In contrast, we found that risk for pTRALI was associated with additional recipient factors: chronic alcohol abuse (OR, 12.5; 95% CI, 2.8-55; p transfusion (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.0-10.7; p transfusion (OR, 1.32/L; 95% CI, 1.20-1.44; p transfusion risk factors predominate in pTRALI. © 2014 AABB.

  11. Effects of a proprietary Bacillus coagulans preparation on symptoms of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolin, B J

    2009-12-01

    Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have a profound impact on quality of life for many patients and current treatments are sometimes unsatisfactory. This controlled pilot study was conducted to evaluate effects of the proprietary GanedenBC(30) (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086) probiotic on IBS symptoms, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial including patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D). Patients were randomized to receive either B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 or placebo once a day for 8 weeks. Patients filled out a quality-of-life questionnaire, and self-assessment diaries were provided to record stool count and consistency, symptom severity, and medication consumption. Of the 61 patients enrolled, six did not meet the inclusion criteria and three were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 52 patients with IBS-D, the average number of bowel movements per day was significantly reduced for patients treated with B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 when compared to placebo (P = 0.042). Large variability in baseline scores prevented the assessment of severity scores and quality of life. This small pilot study provides evidence that the proprietary B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 probiotic is safe and effective for reducing daily bowel movements in patients with IBS-D. Copyright 2009 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  12. Predominant Role of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α in Dioxin-induced Neonatal Hydronephrosis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Wataru; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Fujisawa, Nozomi; Aida-Yasuoka, Keiko; Shimizu, Takao; Matsumura, Fumio; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2014-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is a common disease characterized by dilation of the renal pelvis and calices, resulting in loss of kidney function in the most severe cases. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces nonobstructive hydronephrosis in mouse neonates through upregulation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis pathway consisting of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) by a yet unknown mechanism. We here studied possible involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) in this mechanism. To this end, we used a cPLA2α-null mouse model and found that cPLA2α has a significant role in the upregulation of the PGE2 synthesis pathway through a noncanonical pathway of aryl hydrocarbon receptor. This study is the first to demonstrate the predominant role of cPLA2α in hydronephrosis. Elucidation of the pathway leading to the onset of hydronephrosis using the TCDD-exposed mouse model will deepen our understanding of the molecular basis of nonobstructive hydronephrosis in humans. PMID:24509627

  13. Novel investigational drugs for constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosińska, Paula; Salaga, Maciej; Fichna, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder with an unknown etiology. A number of the drugs tested for IBS-C have also been applied to chronic constipation and chronic idiopathic constipation. Unfortunately, due to severe adverse effects, many drugs envisioned for IBS-C had been withdrawn from the market. Nevertheless, a number of potential new agents for this indication are now under development. The following review describes the most recently developed agents in preclinical as well as Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical studies. Information was obtained from published literature, abstracts and the latest results found in Clinicaltrial.gov database. The authors put a special interest on glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, bile acid modulators, serotonergic agents, guanylate cyclase C and cannabinoid antagonists. To enter the market, a newly-developed drug has to meet several criteria, such as good bioavailability or the absence of drug-related adverse events. Taking into account constipation and abdominal pain as the main symptoms in IBS-C, a novel successful drug is usually able to improve both at the same time. Four out of fifteen investigational drugs described in this paper belong to the serotonergic family and have a good prognosis to reach the market; still, more long-term clinical studies are warranted.

  14. An assessment of predominant causal factors of pilot deviations that contribute to runway incursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Denado M.

    The aim of this study was to identify predominant causal factors of pilot deviations in runway incursions over a two-year period. Runway incursion reports were obtained from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), and a qualitative method was used by classifying and coding each report to a specific causal factor(s). The causal factors that were used were substantiated by research from the Aircraft Owner's and Pilot's Association that found that these causal factors were the most common in runway incursion incidents and accidents. An additional causal factor was also utilized to determine the significance of pilot training in relation to runway incursions. From the reports examined, it was found that miscommunication and situational awareness have the greatest impact on pilots and are most often the major causes of runway incursions. This data can be used to assist airports, airlines, and the FAA to understand trends in pilot deviations, and to find solutions for specific problem areas in runway incursion incidents.

  15. Radiofrequency versus ethanol ablation for treating predominantly cystic thyroid nodules:A randomized clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beak, Jung Hwan; Ha, Eun Ju; Choi, Young Jun; Shong, Young Kee [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jin Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Thyroid Center, Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Kyun [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To compare single-session radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and ethanol ablation (EA) for treating predominantly cystic thyroid nodules (PCTNs). This single-blind, randomized trial was approved by the Institutional Review Board of two centers and informed consent was obtained from all patients before enrollment. Fifty patients with a single PCTN (cystic portion less than 90% and greater than 50%) were randomly assigned to be treated by either RFA (25 patients) or EA (25 patients) at two hospitals. The primary outcome was the tumor volume reduction ratio (%) at the six-month follow-up and the superiority margin was set at 13% (RFA minus EA). Analysis was performed primarily in an intention-to-treat manner. The secondary outcomes were the therapeutic success rate, improvement of symptomatic and cosmetic problems, and the number of major complications. The mean volume reduction was 87.5 ± 11.5% for RFA (n = 22) and 82.4 ± 28.6% for EA (n = 24) (p = 0.710; mean difference [95% confidence interval], 5.1% [-8.0 to 18.2]), indicating no significant difference. Regarding the secondary outcomes, therapeutic success (p = 0.490), mean symptom (p = 0.205) and cosmetic scores (p = 0.710) showed no difference. There were no major complications in either group (p > 0.99). The therapeutic efficacy of RFA is not superior to that of EA; therefore, EA might be preferable as the first-line treatment for PCTNs.

  16. Identifying a system of predominant negative symptoms: Network analysis of three randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Leucht, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Reasons for the recent mixed success of research into negative symptoms may be informed by conceptualizing negative symptoms as a system that is identifiable from network analysis. We aimed to identify: (I) negative symptom systems; (I) central negative symptoms within each system; and (III) differences between the systems, based on network analysis of negative symptoms for baseline, endpoint and change. Patients with chronic schizophrenia and predominant negative symptoms participated in three clinical trials that compared placebo and amisulpride to 60days (n=487). Networks analyses were computed from the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) scores for baseline and endpoint for severity, and estimated change based on mixed models. Central symptoms to each network were identified. The networks were contrasted for connectivity with permutation tests. Network analysis showed that the baseline and endpoint symptom severity systems formed symptom groups of Affect, Poor responsiveness, Lack of interest, and Apathy-inattentiveness. The baseline and endpoint networks did not significantly differ in terms of connectivity, but both significantly (Psymptom group split into three other groups. The most central symptoms were Decreased Spontaneous Movements at baseline and endpoint, and Poverty of Speech for estimated change. Results provide preliminary evidence for: (I) a replicable negative symptom severity system; and (II) symptoms with high centrality (e.g., Decreased Spontaneous Movement), that may be future treatment targets following replication to ensure the curent results generalize to other samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple human papilloma virus infections predominant in squamous cell cervical carcinoma in Bandung

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    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Persistent infection of high risk genotypes of human papilloma virus (hrHPV has been established as the etiological cause for cervical cancer, and the most prevalent genotypes that infect the cervical tissue are HPV-16 and HPV-18. However, HPV genotype profile has been shown to differ according to geographical distribution across the globe. The present study aimed to determine the HPV genotype distribution in cervical cancer patients from Bandung, Indonesia. Methods During the period of July – November 2010 viral DNA was extracted from randomly chosen cervical cancer biopsies and subjected to genotype determination using the diagnostic linear array genotyping test (Roche. The distribution of HPV genotypes was explored and the prevalence of HPV genotypes was mapped. Results Of 96 cervical cancer tissue samples, 76 (79.2% were histopathologically classified as squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Due to the high cost of HPV genotyping tests, only twenty-five samples were randomly genotyped. Almost 90% of the cervical cancer patients were multiply infected with HPV-16 in combination with HPV-18, HPV-45, or HPV-52. The HPV-16 genotype had the highest prevalence, all samples being infected with HPV-16. Conclusion The cervical cancer cases were predominantly infected by multiple hrHPVs with HPV-16 as the major genotype among other hrHPVs, supporting the carcinogenic role of this hrHPV. Therefore, screening for hrHPVs in the general population is urgently needed as a means of early detection of cervical cancer.

  18. Multiple human papilloma virus infections predominant in squamous cell cervical carcinoma in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Persistent infection of high risk genotypes of human papilloma virus (hrHPV has been established as the etiological cause for cervical cancer, and the most prevalent genotypes that infect the cervical tissue are HPV-16 and HPV-18. However, HPV genotype profile has been shown to differ according to geographical distribution across the globe. The present study aimed to determine the HPV genotype distribution in cervical cancer patients from Bandung, Indonesia. METHODS During the period of July – November 2010 viral DNA was extracted from randomly chosen cervical cancer biopsies and subjected to genotype determination using the diagnostic linear array genotyping test (Roche. The distribution of HPV genotypes was explored and the prevalence of HPV genotypes was mapped. RESULTS Of 96 cervical cancer tissue samples, 76 (79.2% were histopathologically classified as squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Due to the high cost of HPV genotyping tests, only twenty-five samples were randomly genotyped. Almost 90% of the cervical cancer patients were multiply infected with HPV-16 in combination with HPV-18, HPV-45, or HPV-52. The HPV-16 genotype had the highest prevalence, all samples being infected with HPV-16. CONCLUSION The cervical cancer cases were predominantly infected by multiple hrHPVs with HPV-16 as the major genotype among other hrHPVs, supporting the carcinogenic role of this hrHPV. Therefore, screening for hrHPVs in the general population is urgently needed as a means of early detection of cervical cancer.

  19. Bacteremias in liver transplant recipients: shift toward gram-negative bacteria as predominant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nina; Wagener, Marilyn M; Obman, Asia; Cacciarelli, Thomas V; de Vera, Michael E; Gayowski, Timothy

    2004-07-01

    During the 1990s, gram-positive bacteria emerged as major pathogens after liver transplantation. We sought to determine whether the pathogens associated with bacteremias in liver transplant recipients have changed. Patients included 233 liver transplant recipients transplanted between 1989 and 2003. The proportion of all infections due to bacteremias increased significantly over time (P gram-negatives increased from 25% in the period of 1989-1993 to 51.8% in 1998-03, that of gram-positive bacteria decreased from 75% in the period of 1989-93 to 48.2% in the period of 1998-2003. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most frequent pathogens in bacteremic patients. The incidence of bacteremias due to MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has remained unchanged (P gram-negative bacteria, particularly Klebsiella pneumoniae has increased (P =.02). Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in the current quartile were not clonally related. In conclusion, bacteremias as a proportion of all infections in liver transplant recipients have increased significantly over time, due in part to a decline in infections due to other major pathogens, e.g., fungi, primarily Candida species, and CMV. Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as predominant pathogens in bacteremic liver transplant recipients.

  20. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization as risk factor for treatment failure in honey bee venom immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frick, Marcel; Fischer, Jörg; Helbing, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Component resolution recently identified distinct sensitization profiles in honey bee venom (HBV) allergy, some of which were dominated by specific IgE to Api m 3 and/or Api m 10, which have been reported to be underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. OBJECTIVE: We performed...... responders and nonresponders regarding levels of IgE sensitization to Api m 1, Api m 2, Api m 3, and Api m 5. In contrast, Api m 10 specific IgE was moderately but significantly increased in nonresponders. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization (>50% of specific IgE to HBV) was the best discriminator...... (specificity, 95%; sensitivity, 25%) with an odds ratio of 8.444 (2.127-33.53; P = .0013) for treatment failure. Some but not all therapeutic HBV preparations displayed a lack of Api m 10, whereas Api m 1 and Api m 3 immunoreactivity was comparable to that of crude HBV. In line with this, significant Api m 10...

  1. European ancestry predominates in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis patients from Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralina Guimarães Brum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is considered relatively more common in non-Whites, whereas multiple sclerosis (MS presents a high prevalence rate, particularly in Whites from Western countries populations. However, no study has used ancestry informative markers (AIMs to estimate the genetic ancestry contribution to NMO patients. METHODS: Twelve AIMs were selected based on the large allele frequency differences among European, African, and Amerindian populations, in order to investigate the genetic contribution of each ancestral group in 236 patients with MS and NMO, diagnosed using the McDonald and Wingerchuck criteria, respectively. All 128 MS patients were recruited at the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto (MS-RP, Southeastern Brazil, as well as 108 healthy bone marrow donors considered as healthy controls. A total of 108 NMO patients were recruited from five Neurology centers from different Brazilian regions, including Ribeirão Preto (NMO-RP. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: European ancestry contribution was higher in MS-RP than in NMO-RP (78.5% vs. 68.7% patients. In contrast, African ancestry estimates were higher in NMO-RP than in MS-RP (20.5% vs. 12.5% patients. Moreover, principal component analyses showed that groups of NMO patients from different Brazilian regions were clustered close to the European ancestral population. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that European genetic contribution predominates in NMO and MS patients from Brazil.

  2. The predominant cholecystokinin in human plasma and intestine is cholecystokinin-33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Sun, G; Christensen, T

    2001-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) occurs in multiple molecular forms; the major ones are CCK-58, -33, -22, and -8. Their relative abundance in human plasma and intestine, however, is debated. To settle the issue, extracts of intestinal biopsies and plasma from 10 human subjects have been examined by chromato......Cholecystokinin (CCK) occurs in multiple molecular forms; the major ones are CCK-58, -33, -22, and -8. Their relative abundance in human plasma and intestine, however, is debated. To settle the issue, extracts of intestinal biopsies and plasma from 10 human subjects have been examined...... by chromatography, enzyme cleavages, and measurements using a library of sequence-specific RIAs. Plasma samples were drawn in the fasting state and at intervals after a meal. The abundance of the larger forms varied with the 8 C-terminal assays in the library, as 2 assays overestimated and 3 underestimated...... the amounts present. One assay, however, measured carboxyamidated and O:-sulfated CCKs with equimolar potency before and after tryptic cleavage. This assay showed that the predominant plasma form is CCK-33, both in the fasting state ( approximately 51%) and postprandially ( approximately 57%), whereas CCK-22...

  3. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we…

  4. Cooperative Learning, Responsibility, Ambiguity, Controversy and Support in Motivating Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Brecke, PhD

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that student motivation is nurtured more by intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards. Rather than relying on grades alone to stimulate students, this paper explores how engendering a natural critical learning environment can give students a sense of ownership in their own learning and lead to their commitment to that learning. We examine uses of cooperative learning, shared responsibility, ambiguity, controversy and support in student motivation.

  5. Cooperative Learning, Responsibility, Ambiguity, Controversy and Support in Motivating Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Brecke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that student motivation is nurtured more by intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards. Rather than relying on grades alone to stimulate students, this paper explores how engendering a natural critical learning environment can give students a sense of ownership in their own learning and lead to their commitment to that learning. We examine uses of cooperative learning, shared responsibility, ambiguity, controversy and support in student motivation.

  6. Early results of experiments with responsive open learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, M.; Wolpers, M.; Shen, R.; Ullrich, C.; Klamma, R.; Renzel, D.; Richert, A.; Heiden, B. von der

    2011-01-01

    Responsive open learning environments (ROLEs) are the next generation of personal learning environments (PLEs). While PLEs rely on the simple aggregation of existing content and services mainly using Web 2.0 technologies, ROLEs are transforming lifelong learning by introducing a new infrastructure on a global scale while dealing with existing learning management systems, institutions, and technologies. The requirements engineering process in highly populated test-beds is as important as the t...

  7. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF E-LEARNING: Academic and Business Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Ayham FAYYOUMI

    2009-01-01

    Countries’ success in the knowledge economy increasingly rely on highly-skilled and qualified people, which in turn, requires rapid, effective, and less expensive education and training. In this context, e-Learning has emerged; e-Learning is scalable, less expensive than traditional learning, and clearly advantageous for learners to access educational information and content anywhere and anytime. However, for evaluating the effectiveness of e-learning programs, a definition of ‘effectiveness’...

  8. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  9. An Investigation on the impact of using problem-based trainings in the in-service courses on the teachers' performance and capabilities, by relying on the elementary sixth grade mathematics book (case study: the city of Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pari Cheraq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the administrative structure of the education system and the need to coordinate with the world of science and technology and hence, the need to update the general and technical information and knowledge, have doubled the importance and necessity of holding the new and efficient in-service trainings for the teachers. In this study, the attempt was taken to examine and analyze the impact of using problem-based trainings during the in-service courses on the teachers' performance and capabilities, by relying on the mathematics book of the sixth grade elementary level (case study: the city of Ahvaz. To do so, using a quasi-experimental study, 37 teachers of the sixth grade were selected from the elementary schools of Ahvaz city. For the in-service training courses on the teaching of mathematics, the problem-based learning method was used. After conducting the problem-based teaching method and the traditional method of teaching, through using the test and the standard questionnaire, the data about the teaching practice and the capabilities of the teachers were collected. Using t-test for the paired and independent samples, it was demonstrated that the problem-based in-service trainings, enhance the teachers' capabilities and performance regarding the problem-solving skills.

  10. Allocation of development assistance for health: is the predominance of national income justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterck, Olivier; Roser, Max; Ncube, Mthuli; Thewissen, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    Gross national income (GNI) per capita is widely regarded as a key determinant of health outcomes. Major donors heavily rely on GNI per capita to allocate development assistance for health (DAH). This article questions this paradigm by analysing the determinants of health outcomes using cross-sectional data from 99 countries in 2012. We use disability-adjusted life years (Group I) per capita as our main indicator for health outcomes. We consider four primary variables: GNI per capita, institutional capacity, individual poverty and the epidemiological surroundings. Our empirical strategy has two innovations. First, we construct a health poverty line of 10.89 international-$ per day, which measures the minimum level of income an individual needs to have access to basic healthcare. Second, we take the contagious nature of communicable diseases into account, by estimating the extent to which the population health in neighbouring countries (the epidemiological surroundings) affects health outcomes. We apply a spatial two-stage least-squares model to mitigate the risks of reverse causality. Our model captures 92% of the variation in health outcomes. We emphasize four findings. First, GNI per capita is not a significant predictor of health outcomes once other factors are controlled for. Second, the poverty gap below the 10.89 health poverty line is a good measure of universal access to healthcare, as it explains 19% of deviation in health outcomes. Third, the epidemiological surroundings in which countries are embedded capture as much as 47% of deviation in health outcomes. Finally, institutional capacity explains 10% of deviation in health outcomes. Our empirical findings suggest that allocation frameworks for DAH should not only take into account national income, which remains an important indicator of countries' financial capacity, but also individual poverty, governance and epidemiological surroundings to increase impact on health outcomes. The Author(s) 2017

  11. Outcomes of combined trabecular micro-bypass and phacoemulsification in a predominantly Hispanic patient population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallardo MJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mark J Gallardo,1,2 Richard A Supnet,1 Jane Ellen Giamporcaro,3 Dana M Hornbeak3 1El Paso Eye Surgeons, PA, El Paso, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 3Division of Clinical Research and Medical Affairs, Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP and topical ocular hypotensive medication burden at 12 months postoperatively in a predominantly Hispanic patient population with primary open-angle glaucoma each implanted with one trabecular micro-bypass stent during cataract surgery.Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive case series. The main objective was to assess reduction of IOP and/or medication burden in all eyes at the 12-month postoperative exam. A secondary objective was to assess outcomes in 3 subgroups, distinguished preoperatively by IOP control and by medication burden (suboptimal or maximum therapy and with different treatment goals. Group 1 had medication-controlled IOP and goal to reduce medications while maintaining IOP control (n=65; Group 2 had uncontrolled IOP on ≤2 medications and goal to reduce IOP and maintain/reduce medication burden (n=31; and Group 3 had uncontrolled IOP on ≥3 medications and goal to reduce IOP and avoid filtering surgery (n=38. Evaluations included IOP, medication use, cup-to-disc ratio, visual fields, complications, and interventions. One hundred subjects (134 eyes have been followed for 12 months.Results: Most patients (80% were Hispanic and had moderate or severe glaucoma (87%. At 12 months, mean IOP reduced to 12.9 mmHg vs 16.5 mmHg preoperatively; 92% had an IOP ≤15 mmHg at 12 months (99% had ≤18 mmHg. Mean medication burden had decreased to 0.9 vs 2.3 preoperatively. At the 12-month time point, 94% of all eyes achieved their predefined treatment goal of reduced IOP and/or medications. Reductions in medication burden for Group 1, and

  12. HK2 Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells Synthesize and Secrete Plasma Proteins Predominantly Through the Apical Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke-Wei; Murray, Elsa J Brochmann; Murray, Samuel S

    2017-04-01

    Renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs) are known to reabsorb salts and small plasma proteins filtered through Bowman's capsule. Following acute kidney injury, PTECs assume some characteristics of hepatocytes in producing various plasma proteins. We now demonstrate that even at a resting state, a PTEC cell line, HK2 expresses mRNAs for and synthesizes and secretes plasma proteins in a complex with complement C3, an α 2 -macroglobulin family chaperone, including albumin, transferrin, α 1 -antitrypsin, α 1 -antichymotrypsin, α 2 -HS-glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, C1-inhibitor, secreted phosphoprotein-24, and insulin-like growth factor-1. When grown on transwell inserts, HK2 cells predominantly secrete (∼90%) plasma proteins into the apical side and a smaller fraction into the basolateral side as determined by ELISA assays. When cultured in the presence of exogenous cytokines such as IL1β, IL6, TNFα, BMP2, or TGFβ1, HK2 cell mRNA expressions for plasma proteins were variably affected whereas basolateral secretions were elevated to or in excess of those of the apical level. In addition, HK2 cells produce proTGFβ1 with its intact N-terminal latency associated peptide and latent-TGF-β-binding proteins. The complex cannot be dissociated under conditions of SDS, heating, and electrophoresis. Moreover, HK2 cells maintain their ability to quickly uptake exogenously added serum proteins from the culture medium, as if they are recognized differently by the endocytic receptors. These results provide new insight into the hepatization of PTECs. In addition to their unique uptake of plasma proteins and salts from the filtrate, they are a source of urinary proteins under normal conditions as wells as in chronic and acute kidney diseases. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 924-933, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Aortic root dimensions are predominantly determined by genetic factors: a classical twin study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celeng, Csilla; Kolossvary, Marton; Kovacs, Attila; Molnar, Andrea Agnes; Szilveszter, Balint; Karolyi, Mihaly; Jermendy, Adam L.; Karady, Julia; Merkely, Bela; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal [Semmelweis University, MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Budapest (Hungary); Horvath, Tamas [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Hydrodynamic Systems, Budapest (Hungary); Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L. [Semmelweis University, Department of Radiology and Oncotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Voros, Szilard [Global Genomics Group, Atlanta, GA (United States); Jermendy, Gyoergy [Bajcsy-Zsilinszky Hospital, Medical Department, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-06-15

    Previous studies using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) observed moderate heritability of aortic root dimensions. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) might provide more accurate heritability estimates. Our primary aim was to assess the heritability of the aortic root with CTA. Our secondary aim was to derive TTE-based heritability and compare this with the CTA-based results. In the BUDAPEST-GLOBAL study 198 twin subjects (118 monozygotic, 80 dizygotic; age 56.1 ± 9.4 years; 126 female) underwent CTA and TTE. We assessed the diameter of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), annulus, sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and ascending aorta. Heritability was assessed using ACDE model (A additive genetic, C common environmental, D dominant genetic, E unique environmental factors). Based on CTA, additive genetic effects were dominant (LVOT: A = 0.67, E = 0.33; annulus: A = 0.76, E = 0.24; sinus of Valsalva: A = 0.83, E = 0.17; sinotubular junction: A = 0.82, E = 0.18; ascending aorta: A = 0.75, E = 0.25). TTE-derived measurements showed moderate to no genetic influence (LVOT: A = 0.38, E = 0.62; annulus: C = 0.47, E = 0.53; sinus of Valsalva: C = 0.63, E = 0.37; sinotubular junction: C = 0.45, E = 0.55; ascending aorta: A = 0.67, E = 0.33). CTA-based assessment suggests that aortic root dimensions are predominantly determined by genetic factors. TTE-based measurements showed moderate to no genetic influence. The choice of measurement method has substantial impact on heritability estimates. (orig.)

  14. Drought and Oxidative Load in the Leaves of C3 Plants: a Predominant Role for Photorespiration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOCTOR, GRAHAM; VELJOVIC‐JOVANOVIC, SONJA; DRISCOLL, SIMON; NOVITSKAYA, LARISSA; FOYER, CHRISTINE H.

    2002-01-01

    Although active oxygen species are produced at high rates in both the chloroplasts and peroxisomes of the leaves of C3 plants, most attention has focused on the potentially damaging consequences of enhanced chloroplastic production in stress conditions such as drought. This article attempts to provide quantitative estimates of the relative contributions of the chloroplast electron transport chain and the glycolate oxidase reaction to the oxidative load placed on the photosynthetic leaf cell. Rates of photorespiratory H2O2 production were obtained from photosynthetic and photorespiratory flux rates, derived from steady‐state leaf gas exchange measurements at varying irradiance and ambient CO2. Assuming a 10 % allocation of photosynthetic electron flow to the Mehler reaction, photorespiratory H2O2 production would account for about 70 % of total H2O2 formed at all irradiances measured. When chloroplastic CO2 concentration rates are decreased, photorespiration becomes even more predominant in H2O2 generation. At the increased flux through photorespiration observed at lower ambient CO2, the Mehler reaction would have to account for more than 35 % of the total photosynthetic electron flow in order to match the rate of peroxisomal H2O2 production. The potential signalling role of H2O2 produced in the peroxisomes is emphasized, and it is demonstrated that photorespiratory H2O2 can perturb the redox states of leaf antioxidant pools. We discuss the interactions between oxidants, antioxidants and redox changes leading to modified gene expression, particularly in relation to drought, and call attention to the potential significance of photorespiratory H2O2 in signalling and acclimation. PMID:12102510

  15. IMPACT OF FOOD ENRICHED WITH DIETARY FIBER ON PATIENTS WITH CONSTIPATION PREDOMINANT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaberidze, G; Okujava, M; Liluashvili, K; Tughushi, M; Abramashvili, M

    2017-03-01

    The causes of motility disorder of gastrointestinal tract and in particular Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS are multifold, leading to complexity of treatment and requirement of more precise investigation of different pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. The aim of the study was investigation and comparison of the dietary fiber intake among women with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) and without, improvement of the dietary fiber intake using interventions with less rough changes of food related behavior and study of its effects on the bowel function, general wellbeing and compliance of patients. In total 100 healthy women, without any clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders and 98 women who met Rome III criteria of IBS-C were enrolled in the dietary fiber intake assessment survey. The dietary habits of all participants, as well as bowel function, digestive feelings and general wellbeing of patients at baseline, on the 7th and 14th day of dietary intervention was assessed by the means of adopted questionnaires. The dietary supplementation was provided during the breakfast with fiber enriched food - bread and muesli. Research data reviled significantly lower daily intake of dietary fiber among patients with IBS-C compared with healthy group. The main source of dietary fiber in IBS-C group was bread and cereals, therefore introduction of dietary fiber rich bread and muesli in the breakfast didn't affect diet-related habits and determined high compliance of patients. Two week long intervention significantly improved the bowel function and irritation related complains, the feeling of general wellbeing was considerably better on the endpoint as well.

  16. Predominant diagnoses, gender, and admission duration in an adult psychiatric inpatient hospital in United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Lazzari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study objective was to epidemiologically analyse patients presenting at an adult and mixed-gender psychiatric inpatient unit in Essex, Kingswood Centre, UK, to report the predominant diagnoses, gender, and admission duration. Method and material: Meta-analysis and descriptive statistics analysed the year 2016 discharge data on Excel® for 162 patients. ICD-10 codes classified their mental illnesses. Results: Meta-analysis evidenced statistically significant heterogeneity in numbers admissions (I2=95%; p≤0.001, length (I2=78%; p≤0.001, and gender (I2=76%; p≤0.001. The prevailing diagnosis was borderline personality disorder (BPD (rate, 95% CI=0.46 [0.38-0.54]. The longest admission was for schizoaffective disorder (mean duration, 95% CI=53 [22.65-83.34], p=0.001. Gender presented a prevalence of male over female admissions for schizophrenia (OR, 95% CI=0.14 [0.05-0.35], p≤0.001 and BPD with prevalence of female over male admissions (OR, 95% CI=2.79 [1.35-5.76], p=0.05. Conclusion: Female patients with BPD were the most represented category in non-forensic psychiatric inpatient wards in the population studied. Male patients with schizophrenia represented the other gender highly represented. The longest admission was recorded for schizoaffective disorder due to the complexity to treat both mood and psychotic symptoms. It is likely that women with BPD will be the future recipients of psychiatric inpatient and outpatient healthcare services.

  17. Aortic root dimensions are predominantly determined by genetic factors: a classical twin study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celeng, Csilla; Kolossvary, Marton; Kovacs, Attila; Molnar, Andrea Agnes; Szilveszter, Balint; Karolyi, Mihaly; Jermendy, Adam L.; Karady, Julia; Merkely, Bela; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Horvath, Tamas; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Voros, Szilard; Jermendy, Gyoergy

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) observed moderate heritability of aortic root dimensions. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) might provide more accurate heritability estimates. Our primary aim was to assess the heritability of the aortic root with CTA. Our secondary aim was to derive TTE-based heritability and compare this with the CTA-based results. In the BUDAPEST-GLOBAL study 198 twin subjects (118 monozygotic, 80 dizygotic; age 56.1 ± 9.4 years; 126 female) underwent CTA and TTE. We assessed the diameter of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), annulus, sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and ascending aorta. Heritability was assessed using ACDE model (A additive genetic, C common environmental, D dominant genetic, E unique environmental factors). Based on CTA, additive genetic effects were dominant (LVOT: A = 0.67, E = 0.33; annulus: A = 0.76, E = 0.24; sinus of Valsalva: A = 0.83, E = 0.17; sinotubular junction: A = 0.82, E = 0.18; ascending aorta: A = 0.75, E = 0.25). TTE-derived measurements showed moderate to no genetic influence (LVOT: A = 0.38, E = 0.62; annulus: C = 0.47, E = 0.53; sinus of Valsalva: C = 0.63, E = 0.37; sinotubular junction: C = 0.45, E = 0.55; ascending aorta: A = 0.67, E = 0.33). CTA-based assessment suggests that aortic root dimensions are predominantly determined by genetic factors. TTE-based measurements showed moderate to no genetic influence. The choice of measurement method has substantial impact on heritability estimates. (orig.)

  18. Pulmonary microRNA profiling: implications in upper lobe predominant lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David A; Nymon, Amanda B; Ringelberg, Carol S; Lesseur, Corina; Hazlett, Haley F; Howard, Louisa; Marsit, Carmen J; Ashare, Alix

    2017-01-01

    Numerous pulmonary diseases manifest with upper lobe predominance including cystic fibrosis, smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and tuberculosis. Zonal hypoxia, characteristic of these pulmonary maladies, and oxygen stress in general is known to exert profound effects on various important aspects of cell biology. Lung macrophages are major participants in the pulmonary innate immune response and regional differences in macrophage responsiveness to hypoxia may contribute in the development of lung disease. MicroRNAs are ubiquitous regulators of human biology and emerging evidence indicates altered microRNA expression modulates respiratory disease processes. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the epigenetic and cellular mechanisms influencing regional differences in lung disease by investigating effect of hypoxia on regional microRNA expression in the lung. All studies were performed using primary alveolar macrophages ( n  = 10) or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( n  = 16) isolated from human subjects. MicroRNA was assayed via the NanoString nCounter microRNA assay. Divergent molecular patterns of microRNA expression were observed in alternate lung lobes, specifically noted was disparate expression of miR-93 and miR-4454 in alveolar macrophages along with altered expression of miR-451a and miR-663a in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Gene ontology was used to identify potential downstream targets of divergent microRNAs. Targets include cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases, molecules that could have a significant impact on pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Our findings show variant regional microRNA expression associated with hypoxia in alveolar macrophages and BAL fluid in the lung-upper vs lower lobe. Future studies should address whether these specific microRNAs may act intracellularly, in a paracrine/endocrine manner to direct the innate immune response or may ultimately be involved in pulmonary host-to-pathogen trans

  19. Predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and associated variables in children at the Lambayeque Regional Hospital, Peru

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    Heber Silva-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the type and frequency of predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and their associated characteristics in children treated at Hospital Regional Lambayeque (HRL - Peru. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in 70 fecal samples between March and May 2015. These samples were studied by coproculture and immunochromatography for the detection of enteropathogenic bacteria and viruses, respectively, while enteroparasites were sought by direct microscopic examination, Kinyoun staining method and ELISA for the detection of coproantigens (Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Leukocyte count and chemical tests (Benedict, Thevenon and Sudan III were also performed for the functional study of the diarrheal disease. Results: In 48.6% of the samples, the infectious etiology of diarrhea was detected, prevailing the parasitic cause (25.8%, followed by the bacterial (17.1% and viral (5.8% ones. The most common enteropathogens were G. lamblia (18.6% and Salmonella enteritidis (10.0%. An association between greater than 100 fecal leukocytes per field and the bacterial etiology (p=0.027 was observed, while less than 10 fecal leukocytes per field (p=0.002 and a positive Sudam III test (p=0.003 were associated with the parasitic etiology. Conclusions: In more than half of the samples (51.4% the infectious etiology of diarrhea could not be proven, whereas Giardia lamblia was the most frequent cause of diarrhea in the studied population. However, it is necessary to implement more sensitive and specific techniques for the detection of a greater range of enteropathogens with which to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease

  20. De Novo Insertions and Deletions of Predominantly Paternal Origin Are Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Shan Dong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Whole-exome sequencing (WES studies have demonstrated the contribution of de novo loss-of-function single-nucleotide variants (SNVs to autism spectrum disorder (ASD. However, challenges in the reliable detection of de novo insertions and deletions (indels have limited inclusion of these variants in prior analyses. By applying a robust indel detection method to WES data from 787 ASD families (2,963 individuals, we demonstrate that de novo frameshift indels contribute to ASD risk (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.0–2.7; p = 0.03, are more common in female probands (p = 0.02, are enriched among genes encoding FMRP targets (p = 6 × 10−9, and arise predominantly on the paternal chromosome (p < 0.001. On the basis of mutation rates in probands versus unaffected siblings, we conclude that de novo frameshift indels contribute to risk in approximately 3% of individuals with ASD. Finally, by observing clustering of mutations in unrelated probands, we uncover two ASD-associated genes: KMT2E (MLL5, a chromatin regulator, and RIMS1, a regulator of synaptic vesicle release. : Insertions and deletions (indels have proven especially difficult to detect in exome sequencing data. Dong et al. now identify indels in exome data for 787 autism spectrum disorder (ASD families. They demonstrate association between de novo indels that alter the reading frame and ASD. Furthermore, by observing clustering of indels in unrelated probands, they uncover two additional ASD-associated genes: KMT2E (MLL5, a chromatin regulator, and RIMS1, a regulator of synaptic vesicle release.

  1. Irradiated fetal thymus transplantation in a patient with combined immunodeficiency with predominant T cell defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Shigenori; Yanabe, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Akahoshi, Izumi; Migita, Masahiro; Matsuda, Ichiro; Udaka, Keiji.

    1993-01-01

    A 6 month old boy was diagnosed as a case of combined immunodeficiency (with predominant T cell defect by previous classification). His T cell count was decreased, his B cell count in peripheral blood was increased, his serum IgG level was decreased, his serum IgM level was normal and the thymus was not evident on CT scans and magnetic resonance imaging. Administration of the thymus hormone, thymosin, led to a partial recovery of T cell function without normalization of the T cell count. At age 26 months the patient received an irradiated thymus transplantation from a 16 week old female fetus. After the transplantation, the T cell count (mainly CD4 + cells) increased by 50-70%. A mild graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) occurred and several immunosuppressants were prescribed. Chromosome analysis showed that the T cells have both 46 XY and 46 XX karyotypes while the B cells have the 46 XY karyotype alone. His cellular immunity (skin tests, DNA synthesis, mixed lymphocyte reaction, cytotoxic activity and natural killer cell function) and his serum IgG level remained low. However, being on regular γ-globulin therapy and oral anti-fungal drugs, he is now living normally with almost no trouble at age 6 years and 3 months. This case showed that irradiated thymus transplantation might be a useful method when an adequate donor for bone marrow transplantation is not available. The unexpected observation that the increased T cells were mainly CD4 may be related to the mild GVHR and the clinical improvement. (author)

  2. Microscopic colitis - a missed diagnosis in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoicescu, Adriana; Becheanu, Gabriel; Dumbrava, Mona; Gheorghe, Cristian; Diculescu, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    Clinical presentation in microscopic colitis (MC) is similar in many cases to that of diarrhea-predominent irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). The proper differential diagnosis requires total colonoscopy with multiple biopsies from normal-appearing mucosa and a detailed histopathological exam. Specific treatment may improve symptomatology. To evaluate the prevalence of MC in patients with an initial diagnosis of IBS-D, to analyse demographic and clinical features of MC patients and to assess the efficacy of specific treatment. Our retrospective study analyzed patients diagnosed with microscopic colitis in clinic during a three-year period. Diagnosis was established on histological exams of the samples obtained during colonoscopy in patients previously thought to have IBS-D. We evaluated clinical manifestations, time lapsed from their onset to definitive diagnosis, the association of MC with autoimmune diseases or with prior medication and the efficacy of treatment with budesonide or mesalazine. From 247 patients considered to have IBS-D, 15 patients (6.07%) had actually MC (13 lymphocytic colitis and 2 collagenous colitis). MC was associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (3 patients), Lansoprazole (2 patients) and autoimmune diseases (6 patients). Watery, non-bloody diarrhea was present in all patients with MC. Other frequent complaints were nocturnal diarrhea (11 patients), abdominal pain (8 patients), abdominal bloating and flatulence (8 patients) and slight weight loss (6 patients). The diagnostic samples were obtained from the right colon in 6 cases and from rectosigmoid or transverse colon in 9 patients. Treatment was initial symptomatic in all patients, but there were 5 patients that required mesalazine and/or Budesonide, with favourable outcome. All the patients thought to have diarrhea-irritable bowel syndrome should be evaluated for microscopic colitis. Symptomatology is almost superimposable, but a few distinct features can be noticed. The proper

  3. Greater stroke severity predominates over all other factors for the worse outcome of cardioembolic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Keun-Sik; Lee, Juneyoung; Bae, Hee-Joon; Lee, Ji Sung; Kang, Dong-Wha; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Han, Moon-Ku; Cho, Yong-Jin; Song, Pamela; Park, Jong-Moo; Oh, Mi-Sun; Koo, Jaseong; Lee, Byung-Chul

    2013-11-01

    Cardioembolic (CE) strokes are more disabling and more fatal than non-CE strokes. Multiple prognostic factors have been recognized, but the magnitude of their relative contributions has not been well explored. Using a prospective stroke outcome database, we compared the 3-month outcomes of CE and non-CE strokes. We assessed the relative contribution of each prognostic factor of initial stroke severity, poststroke complications, and baseline characteristics with multivariable analyses and model fitness improvement using -2 log-likelihood and Nagelkerke R2. This study included 1233 patients with acute ischemic stroke: 193 CE strokes and 1040 non-CE strokes. Compared with the non-CE group, CE group had less modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2 outcomes (47.2% versus 68.5%; odds ratio [95% confidence interval], .41 [.30-.56]), less mRS 0-1 outcomes (33.7% versus 53.5%; .44 [.32-.61]), more mRS 5-6 outcomes (32.1% versus 10.9%; 3.88 [2.71-5.56]), and higher mortality (19.2% versus 5.2%; 4.33 [2.76-6.80]) at 3 months. When adjusting either baseline characteristics or poststroke complications, the outcome differences between the 2 groups remained significant. However, adjusting initial National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score alone abolished all outcome differences except for mortality. For mRS 0-2 outcomes, the decrement of -2 log-likelihood and the Nagelkerke R2 of the model adjusting initial NIHSS score alone approached 70.2% and 76.7% of the fully adjusting model. Greater stroke severity predominates over all other factors for the worse outcome of CE stroke. Primary prevention and more efficient acute therapy for stroke victims should be given top priorities to reduce the burden of CE strokes. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Parenting as a Mechanism of Change in Psychosocial Treatment for Youth with ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Lauren M; Villodas, Miguel; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda J

    2017-07-01

    We investigated whether parenting and child behavior improve following psychosocial treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation (ADHD-I) and whether parenting improvements mediate child outcomes. We analyzed data from a randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention (Child Life and Attention Skills, CLAS, n = 74) in comparison to Parent-Focused Treatment (PFT, n = 74) and treatment as usual (TAU, n = 51) for youth with ADHD-I (average child age = 8.6 years, range 7-11 years, 58 % boys). Child and parent/family functioning were assessed prior to treatment, immediately following treatment, and at follow-up into the subsequent school year using parent and teacher reports of inattention, organization, social skills, academic competency (teachers only), parenting daily hassles, and positive and negative parenting behaviors (parents only). Both treatment groups improved on negative parenting and home impairment, but only CLAS families also improved on positive parenting as well as academic impairment. Improvements in positive and negative parenting mediated treatment effects on child impairment independent of improvements in child inattention, implicating parenting as an important mechanism of change in psychosocial treatment for ADHD-I. Further, whereas parent-focused training produces improvements in negative parenting and impairment at home for children with ADHD-I, a multicomponent approach (incorporating child skills training and teacher consultation) more consistently produces improvements at school and in positive parenting, which may contribute to improvements in social skills into the next school year.

  5. Increased serum free tryptophan in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, David M; Badawy, Abdulla A-B; Hince, Dana; Davies, Simon J C; Probert, Christopher; Creed, Tom; Smithson, John; Afzal, Muhammad; Nutt, David J; Potokar, John P

    2010-10-01

    Irregularities of serotonin function in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may be due to changes in the metabolism of the serotonin precursor l-tryptophan. Dietary alteration of tryptophan intake may impact upon the mood and bowel symptoms of IBS. We hypothesized that diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (d-IBS) patients would exhibit an increase in plasma tryptophan due to alterations in tryptophan metabolism. We also hypothesized that a diet low in tryptophan would reverse this change and reduce symptoms. Thirteen patients with d-IBS had fasting serum free and total tryptophan, large neutral amino acids, and 6 kynurenine metabolites measured before and after 2 weeks of a strict dairy-free diet. Baseline tryptophan parameters were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. Changes in the specific tryptophan parameters before and after dairy-free diet were correlated with symptoms of IBS and mood. Compared with the control group, d-IBS patients at baseline exhibited significantly higher free serum tryptophan (10.5 ± 4.35 vs 4.75 ± 2.43 μmol/L [means ± standard deviation], P = .006) and significantly lower tryptophan dioxygenase and total tryptophan oxidation as measured by the kynurenine to free tryptophan and total kynurenines to free tryptophan ratios (23.37 ± 10.12 vs 55.33 ± 16.02, P < .001 and 49.34 ± 17.84 vs 258.46 ± 98.67, P < .001, respectively). Dairy-free diet did not modulate metabolites of the kynurenine pathway or symptoms. Tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway is inhibited in d-IBS, and a dairy-free diet does not alter this. Our findings are consistent with possible enhanced serotonin activity in d-IBS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cytotoxicity Comparison of Harvard Zinc Phosphate Cement Versus Panavia F2 and Rely X Plus Resin Cements on Rat L929-fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasti, Sahabi; Sattari, Mandana; Romoozi, Elham; Akbar-Zadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Resin cements, regardless of their biocompatibility, have been widely used in restorative dentistry during the recent years. These cements contain hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) molecules which are claimed to penetrate into dentinal tubules and may affect dental pulp. Since tooth preparation for metal ceramic restorations involves a large surface of the tooth, cytotoxicity of these cements would be more important in fixed prosthodontic treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity of two resin cements (Panavia F2 and Rely X Plus) versus zinc phosphate cement (Harvard) using rat L929-fibroblasts in vitro. In this experimental study, ninety hollow glass cylinders (internal diameter 5-mm, height 2-mm) were made and divided into three groups. Each group was filled with one of three experimental cements; Harvard Zinc Phosphate cement, Panavia F2 resin cement and Rely X Plus resin cement. L929- Fibroblast were passaged and subsequently cultured in 6-well plates of 5×10(5) cells each. The culture medium was RPMI_ 1640. All samples were incubated in CO2. Using enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) and (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay, the cytotoxicity of the cements was investigated at 1 hour, 24 hours and one week post exposure. Statistical analyses were performed via two-way ANOVA and honestly significant difference (HSD) Tukey tests. This study revealed significant differences between the three cements at the different time intervals. Harvard cement displayed the greatest cytotoxicity at all three intervals. After 1 hour Panavia F2 showed the next greatest cytotoxicity, but after 24-hours and oneweek intervals Rely X Plus showed the next greatest cytotoxicity. The results further showed that cytotoxicity decreased significantly in the Panavia F2 group with time (pHarvard cement group failed to showed no noticeable change in cytotoxicity with time. Although this study has limitations, it provides

  7. The description-experience gap and its relation to instructional control: Do people rely more on their experience than in objective descriptions?

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    Álvaro Viúdez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to reveal contradictory results obtained on two different fields; particularly from two studies conducted on the description-experience gap field showing that descriptions are neglected when personal experience is available (1,2, and several others conducted on the instructional control field getting to the opposite conclusion (3–8. To account for this contradiction, we hypothesized that participants from the studies of Jessup, Bishara and Busemeyer (1 and Lejarraga and Gonzalez (2 relied on their experience rather than on the descriptions because of the difficult, demanding nature of the probabilistic descriptions they faced. Enriched descriptions were created in our experiment to assess the contribution of this factor to the differential influence of the descriptions in choice behavior. Nonetheless, our hypothesis did not find support in the results and further research is needed to account for the aforementioned contradiction.

  8. On the organizational learning work process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weil, Richard; Apostolakis, George

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an organizational learning work process for use at nuclear power plants or other high-risk industries. Relying on insights gained from surveying organizational learning activities at nuclear power plants, the proposed work process synthesizes distributed learning activities and improves upon existing organizational learning processes. A root-cause analysis that targets organizational factors is presented. Additionally, a more accurate and objective methodology for prioritizing operating experience is presented. This methodology was applied to a case study during a workshop with utility personnel held at MIT. (author)

  9. Pyrosequencing Reveals the Predominance of Pseudomonadaceae in Gut Microbiome of a Gall Midge

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    Raman Bansal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbes are known to play various roles in insects such as digestion of inaccessible nutrients, synthesis of deficient amino acids, and interaction with ecological environments, including host plants. Here, we analyzed the gut microbiome in Hessian fly, a serious pest of wheat. A total of 3,654 high quality sequences of the V3 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene were obtained through 454-pyrosequencing. From these sequences, 311 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained at the >97% similarity cutoff. In the gut of 1st instar, otu01, a member of Pseudomonas, was predominant, representing 90.2% of total sequences. otu13, an unidentified genus in the Pseudomonadaceae family, represented 1.9% of total sequences. The remaining OTUs were each less than 1%. In the gut of the 2nd instar, otu01 and otu13 decreased to 85.5% and 1.5%, respectively. otu04, a member of Buttiauxella, represented 9.7% of total sequences. The remaining OTUs were each less than 1%. In the gut of the 3rd instar, otu01 and otu13 further decreased to 29.0% and 0%, respectively. otu06, otu08, and otu16, also three members of the Pseudomonadaceae family were 13.2%, 8.6%, and 2.3%, respectively. In addition, otu04 and otu14, two members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, were 4.7% and 2.5%; otu18 and otu20, two members of the Xanthomonadaceae family, were 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively; otu12, a member of Achromobacter, was 4.2%; otu19, a member of Undibacterium, was 1.4%; and otu9, otu10, and otu15, members of various families, were 6.1%, 6.3%, and 1.9%, respectively. The investigation into dynamics of Pseudomonas, the most abundant genera, revealed that its population level was at peak in freshly hatched or 1 day larvae as well as in later developmental stages, thus suggesting a prominent role for this bacterium in Hessian fly development and in its interaction with host plants. This study is the first comprehensive survey on bacteria associated with the gut of a gall

  10. TREATMENT OF DIARRHEA-PREDOMINANT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME WITH MESALAZINE AND/OR SACCHAROMYCES BOULARDII

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    Mauro BAFUTTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional bowel disease characterized by abdominal pain and altered intestinal habits. The pathophysiology of IBS remains unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated that some IBS patients, especially in diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D, display persistent signs of minor mucosal inflammation and a modified intestinal microflora. The mesalazine has known intestinal anti-inflammatory properties. Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic used for a long time in treatment of diarrhea, including infectious diarrhea. Objective Evaluate the effects of mesalazine alone, combined therapy of mesalazine with liophylised Saccharomyces boulardii or alone on symptoms of IBS-D patients. Methods Based on Rome III criteria, 53 IBS-D patients (18 year or more were included. To exclude organic diseases all patients underwent colonoscopy, stool culture, serum anti-endomisium antibody, lactose tolerance test and ova and parasite exam. Patients were divided in three groups: mesalazine group (MG - 20 patients received mesalazine 800 mg t.i.d. for 30 days; mesalazine and Saccharomyces boulardii group (MSbG - 21 patients received mesalazine 800 mg t.i.d. and Saccharomyces boulardii 200 mg t.i.d. for 30 days and; Saccharomyces boulardii group (SbG – 12 patients received Sb 200 mg t.i.d. for 30 days. Drugs that might have any effect on intestinal motility or secretion were not allowed. Symptom evaluations at baseline and after treatment were performed by means of a 4-point likert scale including: stool frequency, stool form and consistency (Bristol scale, abdominal pain and distension. Paired t test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for statistical analyses. Results Compared to baseline, there were statistically significant reduction of symptom score after 30 th day therapy in all three groups: MG (P<0.0001; MSbG (P<0.0001 and in SbG (P = 0.003. There were statistically significant differences in the symptom score at 30 th day

  11. Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly puerto rican population

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    Tovar Alison

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952. Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference was assessed in early pregnancy. Results Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2kg for grandparents born in PR/DR and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. Conclusion We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the

  12. Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Bermudez, Odilia I; Hyatt, Raymond R; Must, Aviva

    2012-11-21

    Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952). Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference) was assessed in early pregnancy. Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR) and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2 kg for grandparents born in PR/DR) and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR) vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg) and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk) vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the US "obesogenic" environment in influencing unhealthy

  13. Predominant membrane localization is an essential feature of the bacterial signal recognition particle receptor

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    Graumann Peter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The signal recognition particle (SRP receptor plays a vital role in co-translational protein targeting, because it connects the soluble SRP-ribosome-nascent chain complex (SRP-RNCs to the membrane bound Sec translocon. The eukaryotic SRP receptor (SR is a heterodimeric protein complex, consisting of two unrelated GTPases. The SRβ subunit is an integral membrane protein, which tethers the SRP-interacting SRα subunit permanently to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The prokaryotic SR lacks the SRβ subunit and consists of only the SRα homologue FtsY. Strikingly, although FtsY requires membrane contact for functionality, cell fractionation studies have localized FtsY predominantly to the cytosolic fraction of Escherichia coli. So far, the exact function of the soluble SR in E. coli is unknown, but it has been suggested that, in contrast to eukaryotes, the prokaryotic SR might bind SRP-RNCs already in the cytosol and only then initiates membrane targeting. Results In the current study we have determined the contribution of soluble FtsY to co-translational targeting in vitro and have re-analysed the localization of FtsY in vivo by fluorescence microscopy. Our data show that FtsY can bind to SRP-ribosome nascent chains (RNCs in the absence of membranes. However, these soluble FtsY-SRP-RNC complexes are not efficiently targeted to the membrane. In contrast, we observed effective targeting of SRP-RNCs to membrane-bond FtsY. These data show that soluble FtsY does not contribute significantly to cotranslational targeting in E. coli. In agreement with this observation, our in vivo analyses of FtsY localization in bacterial cells by fluorescence microscopy revealed that the vast majority of FtsY was localized to the inner membrane and that soluble FtsY constituted only a negligible species in vivo. Conclusion The exact function of the SRP receptor (SR in bacteria has so far been enigmatic. Our data show that the bacterial SR is

  14. Delayed Diagnosis and Complications of Predominantly Antibody Deficiencies in a Cohort of Australian Adults

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    Charlotte A. Slade

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPredominantly antibody deficiencies (PADs are the most common type of primary immunodeficiency in adults. PADs frequently pass undetected leading to delayed diagnosis, delayed treatment, and the potential for end-organ damage including bronchiectasis. In addition, PADs are frequently accompanied by comorbid autoimmune disease, and an increased risk of malignancy.ObjectivesTo characterize the diagnostic and clinical features of adult PAD patients in Victoria, Australia.MethodsWe identified adult patients receiving, or having previously received immunoglobulin replacement therapy for a PAD at four hospitals in metropolitan Melbourne, and retrospectively characterized their clinical and diagnostic features.Results179 patients from The Royal Melbourne, Alfred and Austin Hospitals, and Monash Medical Centre were included in the study with a median age of 49.7 years (range: 16–87 years, of whom 98 (54.7% were female. The majority of patients (116; 64.8% met diagnostic criteria for common variable immunodeficiency (CVID, and 21 (11.7% were diagnosed with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA. Unclassified hypogammaglobulinemia (HGG was described in 22 patients (12.3%, IgG subclass deficiency (IGSCD in 12 (6.7%, and specific antibody deficiency (SpAD in 4 individuals (2.2%. The remaining four patients had a diagnosis of Good syndrome (thymoma with immunodeficiency. There was no significant difference between the age at diagnosis of the disorders, with the exception of XLA, with a median age at diagnosis of less than 1 year. The median age of reported symptom onset was 20 years for those with a diagnosis of CVID, with a median age at diagnosis of 35 years. CVID patients experienced significantly more non-infectious complications, such as autoimmune cytopenias and lymphoproliferative disease, than the other antibody deficiency disorders. The presence of non-infectious complications was associated with significantly reduced survival in the

  15. Development and validation of a biomarker for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in human subjects.

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    Mark Pimentel

    Full Text Available Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is diagnosed through clinical criteria after excluding "organic" conditions, and can be precipitated by acute gastroenteritis. Cytolethal distending toxin B (CdtB is produced by bacteria that cause acute gastroenteritis, and a post-infectious animal model demonstrates that host antibodies to CdtB cross-react with vinculin in the host gut, producing an IBS-like phenotype. Therefore, we assessed circulating anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies as biomarkers for D-IBS in human subjects. Subjects with D-IBS based on Rome criteria (n=2375 were recruited from a large-scale multicenter clinical trial for D-IBS (TARGET 3. Subjects with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD (n=142, subjects with celiac disease (n=121, and healthy controls (n=43 were obtained for comparison. Subjects with IBD and celiac disease were recruited based on the presence of intestinal complaints and histologic confirmation of chronic inflammatory changes in the colon or small intestine. Subjects with celiac disease were also required to have an elevated tTG and biopsy. All subjects were aged between 18 and 65 years. Plasma levels of anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies were determined by ELISA, and compared between groups. Anti-CdtB titers were significantly higher in D-IBS subjects compared to IBD, healthy controls and celiac disease (P<0.001. Anti-vinculin titers were also significantly higher in IBS (P<0.001 compared to the other groups. The area-under-the-receiver operating curves (AUCs were 0.81 and 0.62 for diagnosis of D-IBS against IBD for anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin, respectively. Both tests were less specific in differentiating IBS from celiac disease. Optimization demonstrated that for anti-CdtB (optical density≥2.80 the specificity, sensitivity and likelihood ratio were 91.6%, 43.7 and 5.2, respectively, and for anti-vinculin (OD≥1.68 were 83.8%, 32.6 and 2.0, respectively. These results confirm that anti-CdtB and

  16. CC8 MRSA strains harboring SCCmec type IVc are predominant in Colombian hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Natalia Jiménez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent reports highlight the incursion of community-associated MRSA within healthcare settings. However, knowledge of this phenomenon remains limited in Latin America. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of MRSA in three tertiary-care hospitals in Medellín, Colombia. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted from 2008-2010. MRSA infections were classified as either community-associated (CA-MRSA or healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA, with HA-MRSA further classified as hospital-onset (HAHO-MRSA or community-onset (HACO-MRSA according to standard epidemiological definitions established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Genotypic analysis included SCCmec typing, spa typing, PFGE and MLST. RESULTS: Out of 538 total MRSA isolates, 68 (12.6% were defined as CA-MRSA, 243 (45.2% as HACO-MRSA and 227 (42.2% as HAHO-MRSA. The majority harbored SCCmec type IVc (306, 58.7%, followed by SCCmec type I (174, 33.4%. The prevalence of type IVc among CA-, HACO- and HAHO-MRSA isolates was 92.4%, 65.1% and 43.6%, respectively. From 2008 to 2010, the prevalence of type IVc-bearing strains increased significantly, from 50.0% to 68.2% (p = 0.004. Strains harboring SCCmec IVc were mainly associated with spa types t1610, t008 and t024 (MLST clonal complex 8, while PFGE confirmed that the t008 and t1610 strains were closely related to the USA300-0114 CA-MRSA clone. Notably, strains belonging to these three spa types exhibited high levels of tetracycline resistance (45.9%. CONCLUSION: CC8 MRSA strains harboring SCCmec type IVc are becoming predominant in Medellín hospitals, displacing previously reported CC5 HA-MRSA clones. Based on shared characteristics including SCCmec IVc, absence of the ACME element and tetracycline resistance, the USA300-related isolates in this study are most likely related to USA300-LV, the recently-described 'Latin American variant' of USA300.

  17. Attention benefits after a single dose of metadoxine extended release in adults with predominantly inattentive ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Iris; Rubin, Jonathan; Daniely, Yaron; Adler, Lenard A

    2014-09-01

    To assess the first-dose effectiveness and tolerability of metadoxine extended release (MDX) in adults with predominantly inattentive attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-PI). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, adults with ADHD-PI were randomized 1:1:1 to receive a single dose of MDX 1400 mg, MDX 700 mg, and placebo (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01685281). The primary efficacy end point was the mean change in the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) ADHD score from baseline to 3 to 5 hours after drug administration. Secondary assessments included TOVA subscores, TOVA response rates (defined as an increase of 0.8 points in the TOVA ADHD score), and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Test Battery. Safety assessments included adverse events and vital signs. The intention-to-treat population included 36 patients (52.8% men; mean age, 32 years). The efficacy of MDX 1400 mg was demonstrated by a statistically significant difference in the mean (± SD) change in the TOVA ADHD score at baseline to 3 to 5 hours after drug administration compared with placebo (2.0 [4.2]; P = 0.009). The TOVA response time variability subscore was significantly different between MDX 1400 mg and placebo (mean difference, 7.9 [19.2] points; P = 0.022). Significantly more adults responded to single-dose MDX 1400 mg versus placebo (97.1% vs 71.4%, P = 0.006). There were no statistically significant differences between MDX 700 mg and placebo on any measures. Exploratory analyses of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Test Battery did not yield significant findings. Fatigue and headache were the 2 most frequently reported adverse events. There were no clinically significant abnormalities in laboratory values, vital signs measurements, Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale scores, or electrocardiographic parameters. Single-dose MDX 1400 mg significantly improved sustained and selective attention in adults with ADHD-PI as measured by the TOVA

  18. Microscopic Colitis – A Missed Diagnosis in Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    STOICESCU, Adriana; BECHEANU, Gabriel; DUMBRAVA, Mona; GHEORGHE, Cristian; DICULESCU, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Clinical presentation in microscopic colitis (MC) is similar in many cases to that of diarrhea-predominent irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). The proper differential diagnosis requires total colonoscopy with multiple biopsies from normal-appearing mucosa and a detailed histopathological exam. Specific treatment may improve symptomatology. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of MC in patients with an initial diagnosis of IBS-D, to analyse demographic and clinical features of MC patients and to assess the efficacy of specific treatment. Material and methods: Our retrospective study analyzed patients diagnosed with microscopic colitis in clinic during a three-year period. Diagnosis was established on histological exams of the samples obtained during colonoscopy in patients previously thought to have IBS-D. We evaluated clinical manifestations, time lapsed from their onset to definitive diagnosis, the association of MC with autoimmune diseases or with prior medication and the efficacy of treatment with budesonide or mesalazine. Results: From 247 patients considered to have IBS-D, 15 patients (6.07%) had actually MC (13 lymphocytic colitis and 2 collagenous colitis). MC was associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (3 patients), Lansoprazole (2 patients) and autoimmune diseases (6 patients). Watery, non-bloody diarrhea was present in all patients with MC. Other frequent complaints were nocturnal diarrhea (11 patients), abdominal pain (8 patients), abdominal bloating and flatulence (8 patients) and slight weight loss (6 patients). The diagnostic samples were obtained from the right colon in 6 cases and from rectosigmoid or transverse colon in 9 patients. Treatment was initial symptomatic in all patients, but there were 5 patients that required mesalazine and/or Budesonide, with favourable outcome. Conclusions: All the patients thought to have diarrhea-irritable bowel syndrome should be evaluated for microscopic colitis. Symptomatology is almost

  19. Triiodothyronine-predominant Graves' disease in childhood: detection and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvengt, Julie; Boizeau, Priscilla; Chevenne, Didier; Zenaty, Delphine; Paulsen, Anne; Simon, Dominique; Guilmin Crepon, Sophie; Alberti, Corinne; Carel, Jean-Claude; Léger, Juliane

    2015-06-01

    To assess in a pediatric population, the clinical characteristics and management of triiodothyronine-predominant Graves' disease (T3-P-GD), a rare condition well known in adults, but not previously described in children. We conducted a university hospital-based observational study. All patients with GD followed for more than 1 year between 2003 and 2013 (n=60) were included. T3-P-GD (group I) was defined as high free T3 (fT3) concentration (>8.0 pmol/l) associated with a normal free thyroxine (fT4) concentration and undetectable TSH more than 1 month after the initiation of antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment. Group II contained patients with classical GD without T3-P-GD. Eight (13%) of the patients were found to have T3-P-GD, a median of 6.3 (3.0-10.5) months after initial diagnosis (n=4) or 2.8 (2.0-11.9) months after the first relapse after treatment discontinuation (n=4). At GD diagnosis, group I patients were more likely to be younger (6.8 (4.3-11.0) vs 10.7 (7.2-13.7) years) and had more severe disease than group II patients, with higher serum TSH receptor autoantibodies (TRAb) levels: 40 (31-69) vs 17 (8-25) IU/l, P<0.04, and with slightly higher serum fT4 (92 (64-99) vs 63 (44-83) pmol/l) and fT3 (31 (30-46) vs 25 (17-31) pmol/l) concentrations. During the 3 years following T3-P-GD diagnosis, a double dose of ATD was required and median serum fT4:fT3 ratio remained lower in group I than in group II. Severe hyperthyroidism, with particularly high TRAb concentrations at diagnosis, may facilitate the identification of patients requiring regular serum fT3 determinations and potentially needing higher doses of ATD dosage during follow-up. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  20. Regulatory T Cells and Pro-inflammatory Responses Predominate in Children with Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Whittaker

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFollowing infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, children are more susceptible to develop disease particularly extrapulmonary disease than adults. The exact mechanisms required for containment of M.tb are not known, but would be important to identify correlates of protection.ObjectiveTo comprehensively analyze key immune responses to mycobacteria between HIV-negative children with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB compared to children with pulmonary TB (PTB or healthy controls.MethodsWhole blood was stimulated in vitro with mycobacteria for 24 h or 6 days to induce effector and memory responses. CD4, CD8, γδ, regulatory T cells, and their related cytokines were measured. Samples of children with tuberculosis (TB disease were analyzed both at time of diagnosis and at the end of TB treatment to determine if any differences were due to TB disease or an underlying host phenotype.ResultsSeventy-six children with TB disease (48 with PTB and 28 with EPTB and 83 healthy controls were recruited to the study. The frequency of CD4+CD25+CD39+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells and secreted IL10 were significantly higher in children with TB compared to healthy controls. IFNγ-, IL17-, and IL22-producing γδ T cells, IL22-producing CD4+ T cells and secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, IL1β, and TNFα were significantly lower in children with TB disease compared to healthy controls. IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells and Ki67+-proliferating CD4+ T cells, however, were present in equal numbers in both groups. Following treatment, these immune parameters recovered to “healthy” levels or greater in children with PTB, but not those with extrapulmonary TB.ConclusionIn children with TB disease, a predominantly immune regulatory state is present. These immune findings do not distinguish between children with PTB and EPTB at the time of diagnosis. Following treatment, these inflammatory responses recover in PTB, suggesting that the effect is disease

  1. Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Is Associated With Diverticular Disease: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hye-kyung; Choung, Rok Seon; Locke, G. Richard; Schleck, Cathy D.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES A subset of patients with colonic diverticular disease have chronic gastrointestinal symptoms, and some have a clinical diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but whether IBS and diverticular disease are linked is uncertain. We aimed to evaluate this association in the community. METHODS A population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted by mailing a valid symptom questionnaire to the eligible residents of Olmsted County, MN, aged 30 –95 years. Colonic diverticular disease (diverticulosis and diverticulitis) was ascertained through a review of the complete medical history of all responders. Subjects with at least one relevant test (colonoscopy, computed tomography (CT) scan, CT colonography, or barium enema) were included. IBS was defined using Rome II criteria. RESULTS Among 2,267 eligible respondents, there were 1,712 subjects who had undergone colon testing (76%): 919 women (54%); mean (±s.d.) age 65 (±11 years). Colonic diverticular disease was identified in 44.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 42.1–46.8) of the subject. IBS was reported by 8.8% (95% CI 6.9 –11.0) of men and 17.0% (95% CI 14.6 –19.6) of women. After adjusting for age and gender, the presence of IBS was associated with an increased odds for diverticulosis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% CI 1.3 – 2.4) but not diverticulitis (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.9 –3.2). In those 65 years of age or older, the presence of IBS was associated with a ninefold higher odds for diverticulosis (OR = 9.4, 95% CI 5.8–15.1). Relative to the non-IBS subgroup, diarrhea-predominant IBS and mixed IBS were significantly associated with an increased odds for diverticular disease (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.2; OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.0 –6.4, respectively). CONCLUSIONS There is a significantly increased odds for colonic diverticulosis in subjects with IBS (relative to those without IBS). These results suggest that IBS and colonic diverticular disease may be connected. PMID:19861955

  2. The influences and experiences of African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockus, Linda Helen

    The purpose of this study is to describe and explore some of the social and academic experiences of successful African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities with the expectation of conceptualizing emerging patterns for future study. The study surveyed 80 upperclass African Americans at 11 public research universities about their perceptions of the influences that affect their educational experiences and career interests in science. The mailed survey included the Persistence/ voluntary Dropout Decision Scale, the Cultural Congruity Scale and the University Environment Scale. A variety of potential influences were considered including family background, career goals, psychosocial development, academic and social connections with the university, faculty relationships, environmental fit, retention factors, validation, participation in mentored research projects and other experiences. The students' sources of influences, opportunities for connection, and cultural values were considered in the context of a research university environment and investigated for emerging themes and direction for future research. Results indicate that performance in coursework appears to be the most salient factor in African American students' experience as science majors. The mean college gpa was 3.01 for students in this study. Challenging content, time demands, study habits and concern with poor grades all serve to discourage students; however, for most of the students in this study, it has not dissuaded them from their educational and career plans. Positive course performance provided encouragement. Science faculty provide less influence than family members, and more students find faculty members discouraging than supportive. Measures of faculty relations were not associated with academic success. No evidence was provided to confirm the disadvantages of being female in a scientific discipline. Students were concerned with lack of minority role models

  3. Treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome with mesalazine and/or Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafutto, Mauro; Almeida, José Roberto de; Leite, Nayle Vilela; Costa, Michelle Bafutto Gomes; Oliveira, Enio Chaves de; Resende-Filho, Joffre

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease characterized by abdominal pain and altered intestinal habits. The pathophysiology of IBS remains unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated that some IBS patients, especially in diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D), display persistent signs of minor mucosal inflammation and a modified intestinal microflora. The mesalazine has known intestinal anti-inflammatory properties. Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic used for a long time in treatment of diarrhea, including infectious diarrhea. Evaluate the effects of mesalazine alone, combined therapy of mesalazine with liophylised Saccharomyces boulardii or alone on symptoms of IBS-D patients. Based on Rome III criteria, 53 IBS-D patients (18 year or more) were included. To exclude organic diseases all patients underwent colonoscopy, stool culture, serum anti-endomisium antibody, lactose tolerance test and ova and parasite exam. Patients were divided in three groups: mesalazine group (MG) - 20 patients received mesalazine 800 mg t.i.d. for 30 days; mesalazine and Saccharomyces boulardii group (MSbG) - 21 patients received mesalazine 800 mg t.i.d. and Saccharomyces boulardii 200 mg t.i.d. for 30 days and; Saccharomyces boulardii group (SbG) - 12 patients received Sb 200 mg t.i.d. for 30 days. Drugs that might have any effect on intestinal motility or secretion were not allowed. Symptom evaluations at baseline and after treatment were performed by means of a 4-point likert scale including: stool frequency, stool form and consistency (Bristol scale), abdominal pain and distension. Paired t test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for statistical analyses. Compared to baseline, there were statistically significant reduction of symptom score after 30 th day therapy in all three groups: MG (PSaccharomyces boulardii alone or combined treatment with mesalasine and Saccaromyces boulardii improved IBS-D symptoms. The improvement of the symptom score was greater with mesalazine

  4. Hydrogen content and density in nanocrystalline carbon films of a predominant diamond character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.; Heiman, A.; Akhvlediani, R.; Lakin, E.; Zolotoyabko, E.; Cyterman, C.

    2003-01-01

    Nanocrystalline carbon films possessing a prevailing diamond or graphite character, depending on substrate temperature, can be deposited from a methane hydrogen mixture by the direct current glow discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition method. While at a temperature of ∼880 deg. C, following the formation of a thin precursor graphitic film, diamond nucleation occurs and a nanodiamond film grows, at higher and lower deposition temperatures the films maintain their graphitic character. In this study the hydrogen content, density and nanocrystalline phase composition of films deposited at various temperatures are investigated. We aim to elucidate the role of hydrogen in nanocrystalline films with a predominant diamond character. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed a considerable increase of the hydrogen concentration in the films that accompanies the growth of nanodiamond. It correlates with near edge x-ray adsorption spectroscopy measurements, that showed an appearance of spectroscopic features associated with the diamond structure, and with a substantial increase of the film density detected by x-ray reflectivity. Electron energy loss spectroscopy showed that nanocrystalline diamond films can be deposited from a CH 4 /H 2 mixture with hydrogen concentration in the 80%-95% range. For a deposition temperature of 880 deg. C, the highest diamond character of the films was found for a hydrogen concentration of 91% of H 2 . The deposition temperature plays an important role in diamond formation, strongly influencing the content of adsorbed hydrogen with an optimum at 880 deg. C. It is suggested that diamond nucleation and growth of the nanodiamond phase is driven by densification of the deposited graphitic films which results in high local compressive stresses. Nanodiamond formation is accompanied by an increase of hydrogen concentration in the films. It is suggested that hydrogen retention is critical for stabilization of nanodiamond crystallites. At lower

  5. Imputation of missing genotypes within LD-blocks relying on the basic coalescent and beyond: consideration of population growth and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Maria; Hamann, Ute; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo

    2017-10-17

    Genotypes not directly measured in genetic studies are often imputed to improve statistical power and to increase mapping resolution. The accuracy of standard imputation techniques strongly depends on the similarity of linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns in the study and reference populations. Here we develop a novel approach for genotype imputation in low-recombination regions that relies on the coalescent and permits to explicitly account for population demographic factors. To test the new method, study and reference haplotypes were simulated and gene trees were inferred under the basic coalescent and also considering population growth and structure. The reference haplotypes that first coalesced with study haplotypes were used as templates for genotype imputation. Computer simulations were complemented with the analysis of real data. Genotype concordance rates were used to compare the accuracies of coalescent-based and standard (IMPUTE2) imputation. Simulations revealed that, in LD-blocks, imputation accuracy relying on the basic coalescent was higher and less variable than with IMPUTE2. Explicit consideration of population growth and structure, even if present, did not practically improve accuracy. The advantage of coalescent-based over standard imputation increased with the minor allele frequency and it decreased with population stratification. Results based on real data indicated that, even in low-recombination regions, further research is needed to incorporate recombination in coalescence inference, in particular for studies with genetically diverse and admixed individuals. To exploit the full potential of coalescent-based methods for the imputation of missing genotypes in genetic studies, further methodological research is needed to reduce computer time, to take into account recombination, and to implement these methods in user-friendly computer programs. Here we provide reproducible code which takes advantage of publicly available software to facilitate

  6. Knowledge Building Conceptualisation within Smart Constructivist Learning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the meeting of Constructivism (as a learning theory) and Smart Learning and, thus, theorises Smart Constructivist Learning. The main field of research is Smart Learning Environments. Relying on the phenomena of ‘meaning construction’ and ‘meaningful understanding production......’ in the framework of smart constructivism, we will focus on analysing Smart Constructivist Knowledge Building. Accordingly, we analysed Learning-and-Constructing-Together as a smart constructivist model. The outcomes of this chapter could support the developments of smart learning strategies....

  7. Learning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning Problems KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning Problems What's in ... for how to make it better. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities aren't contagious, but they ...

  8. Vicarious Neural Processing of Outcomes during Observational Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monfardini, Elisabetta; Gazzola, Valeria; Boussaoud, Driss; Brovelli, Andrea; Keysers, Christian; Wicker, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Learning what behaviour is appropriate in a specific context by observing the actions of others and their outcomes is a key constituent of human cognition, because it saves time and energy and reduces exposure to potentially dangerous situations. Observational learning of associative rules relies on

  9. Learning styles in otolaryngology fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Malik, Mohammad U; Laeeq, Kulsoom; Pandian, Vinciya; Brown, David J; Weatherly, Robert A; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have identified a predominant learning style in trainees from different specialties, more recently in otolaryngology residents. The purpose of our study was to determine a predominant learning style within otolaryngology fellowships and to identify any differences between otolaryngology fellows and residents. We conducted a survey of otolaryngology fellows at 25 otolaryngology fellowship programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. We emailed Kolb's Learning Style Index version 3.1 to 16 pediatric otolaryngology (PO) and 24 otology/neurotology (ON) fellows. This index is a widely used 12-item questionnaire. The participants answered each item in the questionnaire as it applied to their preferred learning style: accommodating, converging, diverging, or assimilating. Results were then analyzed and compared between each subspecialty and the previously reported preferred styles of otolaryngology residents. Ten PO and 20 ON fellows completed the survey, with an overall response rate of 75%. PO and ON fellows (60% of each group) preferred a learning style that was "balanced" across all four styles. For ON fellows, 35% preferred converging and 5% preferred accommodating styles. For PO fellows, converging and accommodating styles accounted for 20% each. It was previously reported that 74.4% of otolaryngology residents prefer either converging or accommodating styles. We believe that the fellowship training environment calls for fellows to use more than one learning style to become proficient physicians, hence the trend toward potentially developing a balanced style when at this level. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Predicting Process Behaviour using Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Evermann, Joerg; Rehse, Jana-Rebecca; Fettke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Predicting business process behaviour is an important aspect of business process management. Motivated by research in natural language processing, this paper describes an application of deep learning with recurrent neural networks to the problem of predicting the next event in a business process. This is both a novel method in process prediction, which has largely relied on explicit process models, and also a novel application of deep learning methods. The approach is evaluated on two real da...

  11. Learning Morse Code Alters Microstructural Properties in the Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus: A DTI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schlaffke, Lara; Leemans, Alexander; Schweizer, Lauren M.; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Learning relies on neuroplasticity, which has mainly been studied in gray matter (GM). However, there is mounting evidence indicating a critical role of white matter changes involved in learning processes. One of the most important learning processes in human development is language acquisition. However, due to the length of this learning process, it has been notoriously difficult to investigate the underlying neuroplastic changes. Here, we report a novel learning paradigm to assess the role ...

  12. Innovation and learning facilitated by play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; O´Connor, Rory

    2008-01-01

    "This paper describes an approach to facilitate interaction between students and industrial companies in a problem based learning environment. The approach is adapted from a methodology developed at the LEGO Company and relies on an improved ability to communicate complex problems when using...

  13. Learning context conditions for BDI plan selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, D.; Sardina, S.; Padgham, L.; Airiau, S.; van der Hoek, W.; Kaminka, G.A.; Lespérance, Y.; Luck, M.; Sen, S.

    2010-01-01

    An important drawback to the popular Belief, Desire, and Intentions (BDI) paradigm is that such systems include no element of learning from experience. In particular, the so-called context conditions of plans, on which the whole model relies for plan selection, are restricted to be boolean formulas

  14. Teamwork Skills Assessment for Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Teamwork skills are required at work, but teacher efforts in many countries to track achievement within this context have been hindered by lack of assessment tools and input from students. The Teamwork Skills Inventory relies on peer and self-evaluation to establish accountability, identify competencies, and detect learning needs. Twenty-five…

  15. The Classroom Environment Study: Teaching for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    1987-01-01

    The IEA's Classroom Environment Study, implemented in grades 5-9 in 9 countries, examined effects on student outcomes of home, community, school, teacher, and student characteristics and classroom practices. Across countries, course content varied widely, but teachers relied on relatively few classroom behaviors. Student learning was affected by…

  16. Teaching Real-World Applications of Business Statistics Using Communication to Scaffold Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gareth P.; Jones, Stacey; Bean, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Our assessment research suggests that quantitative business courses that rely primarily on algorithmic problem solving may not produce the deep learning required for addressing real-world business problems. This article illustrates a strategy, supported by recent learning theory, for promoting deep learning by moving students gradually from…

  17. Creating Usage Context-Based Object Similarities to Boost Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Katja; Wolpers, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new way of detecting semantic similarities between learning objects by analysing their usage in web portals. Our approach relies on the usage-based relations between the objects themselves rather then on the content of the learning objects or on the relations between users and learning objects. We then take this new…

  18. A Framework for Adaptive Learning Design in a Web-Conferencing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Many recent technologies provide the ability to dynamically adjust the interface depending on the emerging cognitive and collaborative needs of the learning episode. This means that educators can adaptively re-design the learning environment during the lesson, rather than purely relying on preemptive learning design thinking. Based on a…

  19. An Integration Architecture of Virtual Campuses with External e-Learning Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Antonio; Cigarran, Juan; Huertas, Francisco; Rodriguez-Artacho, Miguel; Cogolludo, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Technology enhanced learning relies on a variety of software architectures and platforms to provide different kinds of management service and enhanced instructional interaction. As e-learning support has become more complex, there is a need for virtual campuses that combine learning management systems with the services demanded by educational…

  20. Powerful Feelings: Exploring the Affective Domain of Informal and Arts-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Randee Lipson

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the ways in which people learn informally through artistic expression such as dance, drama, poetry, music, literature, film, and all of the visual arts and how people access this learning through their emotions. The author begins with a look at the limitations of relying primarily on technical-rational learning processes.…

  1. Learning about Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    The field of children's learning was thriving when the Merrill-Palmer Quarterly was launched; the field later went into eclipse and now is in the midst of a resurgence. This commentary examines reasons for these trends, and describes the emerging field of children's learning. In particular, the new field is seen as differing from the old in its…

  2. Learning to Learn Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Trude Høgvold; Glad, Tone; Filstad, Cathrine

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate whether the formal and informal learning patterns of community health-care nurses changed in the wake of a reform that altered their work by introducing new patient groups, and to explore whether conditions in the new workplaces facilitated or impeded shifts in learning patterns. Design/methodology/approach:…

  3. From Access to Engagement: African American Female Students' Engagement at a Predominantly White University in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amber R.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the impact of a predominantly White university's efforts to improve engagement of African American female students through the lens of organizational theory. This qualitative study consists of 10 semistructured interviews of undergraduate, African American women. Research on psychological presence and its impact on employee…

  4. Consumption habits of pregnant women and implications for developmental biology: a survey of predominantly Hispanic women in California

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, Sarah E; Park, Grace H; Huffman, Kelly J

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Healthy post-pregnancy outcomes are contingent upon an informed regimen of prenatal care encouraging healthy maternal consumption habits. In this article, we describe aspects of maternal intake of food, drink, and medication in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California. Potential implications for unhealthy prenatal dietary choices are discussed. Methods The Food, B...

  5. Recent gestational diabetes was associated with mothers stopping predominant breastfeeding earlier in a multi-ethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerug, Anne; Sletner, Line; Laake, Petter; Fretheim, Atle; Løland, Beate Fossum; Waage, Christin W; Birkeland, Kåre I; Jenum, Anne Karen

    2018-06-01

    It has previously been shown that breastfeeding may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in mothers with recent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study compared the cessation of predominant breastfeeding in mothers with and without recent GDM in a multi-ethnic population. From May 2008 to May 2010, healthy pregnant women attending antenatal care provided by community health services in Eastern Oslo, Norway were recruited. We included 616 women-58% non-Western-and interviewed and examined them at a mean of 15 and 28 weeks of gestation and 14 weeks' postpartum. Cox regression models examined the association between GDM, as assessed by the 2013 World Health Organization criteria, and breastfeeding cessation. Overall, 190 of the 616 (31%) mothers had GDM and they ended predominant breastfeeding earlier than mothers without GDM, with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.33 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 1.01-1.77. Mothers of South Asian origin ended predominant breastfeeding earlier than Western European mothers in the adjusted analysis (aHR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.04-2.25), but Middle Eastern mothers did not. Recent gestational diabetes was associated with earlier cessation of predominant breastfeeding in Western European and non-Western women. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 78 FR 20755 - Definitions of “Predominantly Engaged In Financial Activities” and “Significant” Nonbank...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... and Chief Executive Officer, Center for Capital Markets Competitiveness, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, p... role of this rulemaking is to define activities that are financial. This rulemaking does not designate... of ``Predominantly Engaged In Financial Activities'' and ``Significant'' Nonbank Financial Company...

  7. Understanding the Role of Spirituality in African American Undergraduate Men's Responses to Stereotype Threat at Predominately White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Some African American undergraduate men attending Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) are adversely affected by perception of institutional barriers, such as negative stereotypes, that may exist on campus. The awareness of the possibility of being stereotyped can have a negative impact on a student's academic performance. This phenomenon is…

  8. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  9. Quality of life and health care consultation in 13 to 18 year olds with abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Benninga, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases (AP-FGD) are commonly seen in the paediatric age group. It has significant impact on daily activities of affected children. Main objective of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with AP-FGD.

  10. Epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects of abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders in children and adolescents: a Sri Lankan perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devanarayana, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs) are a worldwide pediatric problem with uncertain pathology. Main objectives of this thesis were to assess epidemiology, risk factors and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of AP-FGIDs. A systematic review and

  11. The Relationship of Assertiveness and the Academic Success of Black Students in Predominantly White Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaights, Ernest; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated relationship among nonacademic factors and retention of Black students at predominantly White universities. Examined assertiveness as measured by the College Self Expression Scale, cumulative grade point average, and retention of 119 Black college students. While nonsignificant findings prevailed when total sample was analyzed, trends…

  12. Perceptions of Parenting Practices as Predictors of Aggression in a Low-Income, Urban, Predominately African American Middle School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kantahyanee W.; Haynie, Denise L.; Howard, Donna E.; Cheng, Tina L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of…

  13. Polaromonas and Hydrogenophaga species are the predominant bacteria cultured from granular activated carbon filters in water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magic-Knezev, A.; Wullings, B.A.; Kooij, van der D.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Identification of the predominating cultivable bacteria in granular activated carbon (GAC) filters used in a variety of water treatment plants for selecting representative strains to study the role of bacteria in the removal of dissolved organic matter. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial isolates

  14. Political Incongruity between Students' Ideological Identity and Stance on Specific Public Policies in a Predominantly White Southeastern State Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jeremy T.; Carstens, Brittany A.; Wright, Jennifer M.; Williams, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The study determined whether or not a predominantly Caucasian sample (N = 187) attending a southeastern state's major public university embraced political policies consistent with their self-identified political ideology. The findings showed that the highest percentage of students identified with a conservative ideology and that a much lower…

  15. Perceptions of African American Faculty in Kinesiology-Based Programs at Predominantly White American Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Joe W., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American faculty on their organizational socialization in kinesiology-based (i.e., sport pedagogy, exercise physiology, motor behavior, sport management/history) programs at predominantly White American (1) institutions of higher education (PW-IHE). Participants were 9 African…

  16. Negotiating Worlds, Managing Subjectivities, and Redefining Selves: The Lived Experiences of African American Undergraduate Females at Predominately White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ayana Ma-el

    2010-01-01

    A narrative analysis of the lived experiences of seven undergraduate African American females at Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) is presented in this study. The purpose of the study was to explore the ways the seven women constructed their identity and self-concept in the context of their PWI environment. Other key purposes of the study…

  17. Competing Values Framework: A useful tool to define the predominant culture in a maternity setting in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Dawson, Angela; Foureur, Maralyn

    2017-04-01

    To identify the predominant culture of an organisation which could then assess readiness for change. An exploratory design using the Competing Values Framework (CVF) as a self-administered survey tool. The Maternity Unit in one Australian metropolitan tertiary referral hospital. All 120 clinicians (100 midwives and 20 obstetricians) employed in the maternity service were invited to participate; 26% responded. The identification of the predominant culture of an organisation to assess readiness for change prior to the implementation of a new policy. The predominant culture of this maternity unit, as described by those who responded to the survey, was one of hierarchy with a focus on rules and regulations and less focus on innovation, flexibility and teamwork. These results suggest that this unit did not have readiness to change. There is value in undertaking preparatory work to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of an organisation prior to designing and implementing change. This understanding can influence additional preliminary work that may be required to increase the readiness for change and therefore increase the opportunity for successful change. The CVF is a useful tool to identify the predominant culture and characteristics of an organisation that could influence the success of change. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of current mood state, number of previous affective episodes and predominant polarity on insight in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Mograbi, Daniel C; Camelo, Evelyn Vieira Miranda; Peixoto, Ursula; Santana, Cristina Maria Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Morris, Robin G; Cheniaux, Elie

    2017-11-01

    Although many studies have explored the effect of current affective episodes on insight into bipolar disorder, the potential interaction between current mood state and previous affective episodes has not been consistently investigated. To explore the influence of dominant polarity, number of previous affective episodes and current affective state on insight in bipolar disorder patients in euthymia or mania. A total of 101 patients with bipolar disorder were recruited for the study, including 58 patients in euthymia (30 with no defined predominant polarity and 28 with manic predominant polarity) and 43 in mania (26 with no defined predominant polarity and 17 with manic predominant polarity). Patients underwent a clinical assessment and insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders. Bipolar disorder patients in mania had worse insight than those in euthymia, with no effect of dominant polarity. In addition, positive psychotic symptoms showed a significant effect on insight and its inclusion as a covariate eliminated differences related to mood state. Finally, the number of previous manic or depressive episodes did not correlate with insight level. Mania is a predictor of loss of insight into bipolar disorder. However, it is possible that its contribution is linked to the more frequent presence of psychotic symptoms in this state. Dominant polarity and number/type of previous affective episodes have a limited impact on insight.

  19. Classroom Management Training for Teachers in Urban Environments Serving Predominately African American Students: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kristine E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the literature in terms of professional development activities that researchers have enlisted to reduce student problem behaviors and improve classroom management competencies among teachers who work in urban environments serving predominately African American students. First, the author conducted a…

  20. Minority-Serving Institutions, Race-Conscious "Dwelling," and Possible Futures for Basic Writing at Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamos, Steve

    2012-01-01

    This essay looks to Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs) for strategies that can be implemented in order to combat contemporary neoliberal attacks against the programmatic and institutional spaces of basic writing within Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). Working from Nedra Reynolds' notion of thirdspace-oriented "dwelling"…

  1. Deep Learning for ECG Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyakillya, B.; Kazachenko, N.; Mikhailovsky, N.

    2017-10-01

    The importance of ECG classification is very high now due to many current medical applications where this problem can be stated. Currently, there are many machine learning (ML) solutions which can be used for analyzing and classifying ECG data. However, the main disadvantages of these ML results is use of heuristic hand-crafted or engineered features with shallow feature learning architectures. The problem relies in the possibility not to find most appropriate features which will give high classification accuracy in this ECG problem. One of the proposing solution is to use deep learning architectures where first layers of convolutional neurons behave as feature extractors and in the end some fully-connected (FCN) layers are used for making final decision about ECG classes. In this work the deep learning architecture with 1D convolutional layers and FCN layers for ECG classification is presented and some classification results are showed.

  2. Diversity and seasonal fluctuation of predominant microbial communities in Bhitarkanika, a tropical mangrove ecosystem in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ranjan Mishra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Different groups of microorganisms are present in mangrove areas, and they perform complex interactions for nutrient and ecological balances. Since little is known about microbial populations in mangroves, this study analyzed the microbial community structure and function in relation to soil physico-chemical properties in Bhitarkanika, a tropical mangrove ecosystem in India. Spatial and seasonal fluctuations of thirteen important groups of microorganisms were evaluated from the mangrove forest sediments during different seasons, along with soil physico-chemical parameters. The overall microbial load (x10(5cfu/g soil in soil declined in the order of heterotrophic, free living N2 fixing, Gram-negative nitrifying, sulphur oxidizing, Gram-positive, spore forming, denitrifying, anaerobic, phosphate solubilizing, cellulose degrading bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. Populations of the heterotrophic, phosphate solubilizing, sulphur oxidizing bacteria and fungi were more represented in the rainy season, while, Gram-negative, Gram-positive, nitrifying, denitrifying, cellulose decomposing bacteria and actinomycetes in the winter season. The pool size of most of other microbes either declined or maintained throughout the season. Soil nutrients such as N, P, K (Kg/ha and total C (% contents were higher in the rainy season and they did not follow any common trend of changes throughout the study period. Soil pH and salinity (mS/cm varied from 6-8 and 6.4-19.5, respectively, and they normally affected the microbial population dynamics. Determination of bacterial diversity in Bhitarkanika mangrove soil by culture method showed the predominance of bacterial genera such as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Desulfotomaculum, Desulfovibrio, Desulfomonas, Methylococcus, Vibrio, Micrococcus, Klebsiella and Azotobacter. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed a correlation among local environmental variables with the sampling locations on the microbial community in the

  3. Automatic and Intentional Number Processing Both Rely on Intact Right Parietal Cortex: A Combined fMRI and Neuronavigated TMS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Bien, Nina; Sack, Alexander T.

    2012-01-01

    Practice and training usually lead to performance increase in a given task. In addition, a shift from intentional toward more automatic processing mechanisms is often observed. It is currently debated whether automatic and intentional processing is subserved by the same or by different mechanism(s), and whether the same or different regions in the brain are recruited. Previous correlational evidence provided by behavioral, neuroimaging, modeling, and neuropsychological studies addressing this question yielded conflicting results. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to compare the causal influence of disrupting either left or right parietal cortex during automatic and intentional numerical processing, as reflected by the size congruity effect and the numerical distance effect, respectively. We found a functional hemispheric asymmetry within parietal cortex with only the TMS-induced right parietal disruption impairing both automatic and intentional numerical processing. In contrast, disrupting the left parietal lobe with TMS, or applying sham stimulation, did not affect performance during automatic or intentional numerical processing. The current results provide causal evidence for the functional relevance of right, but not left, parietal cortex for intentional, and automatic numerical processing, implying that at least within the parietal cortices, automatic, and intentional numerical processing rely on the same underlying hemispheric lateralization. PMID:22347175

  4. Abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases in children and adolescents: prevalence, symptomatology, and association with emotional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Mettananda, Sachith; Liyanarachchi, Chathurangi; Nanayakkara, Navoda; Mendis, Niranjala; Perera, Nimnadi; Rajindrajith, Shaman

    2011-12-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGD) are common among children, but little is known regarding their prevalence in developing countries. We assessed the prevalence of abdominal pain-predominant FGD, in addition to the predisposing factors and symptomatology, in Sri Lankan children. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a randomly selected group of 10- to 16-year-olds in 8 randomly selected schools in 4 provinces in Sri Lanka. A validated, self-administered questionnaire was completed by children independently in an examination setting. FGD were diagnosed using Rome III criteria. A total of 2180 questionnaires were distributed and 2163 (99.2%) were included in the analysis (1189 [55%] boys, mean age 13.4 years, standard deviation 1.8 years). Of them, 270 (12.5%) had at least 1 abdominal pain-predominant FGD. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was seen in 107 (4.9%), functional dyspepsia in 54 (2.5%), functional abdominal pain in 96 (4.4%), and abdominal migraine (AM) in 21 (1.0%) (2 had AM and functional dyspepsia, 6 had AM and IBS). Extraintestinal symptoms were more common among affected children (P Abdominal pain-predominant FGD were higher in girls and those exposed to stressful events (P Abdominal pain-predominant FGD affects 12.5% of children ages 10 to 16 years and constitutes a significant health problem in Sri Lanka. IBS is the most common FGD subtype present. Abdominal pain-predominant FGD are higher in girls and those exposed to emotional stress. Prevalence of FGD decreased with age. Extraintestinal symptoms are more frequent in affected children.

  5. Social learning of fear and safety is determined by the demonstrator's racial group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Armita; Castro, Vasco; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Social learning offers an efficient route through which humans and other animals learn about potential dangers in the environment. Such learning inherently relies on the transmission of social information and should imply selectivity in what to learn from whom. Here, we conducted two observational learning experiments to assess how humans learn about danger and safety from members ('demonstrators') of an other social group than their own. We show that both fear and safety learning from a racial in-group demonstrator was more potent than learning from a racial out-group demonstrator. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Asymmetrical learning between a tactile and visual serial RT task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, E.L.; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Verwey, Willem B.

    2007-01-01

    According to many researchers, implicit learning in the serial reaction-time task is predominantly motor based and therefore should be independent of stimulus modality. Previous research on the task, however, has focused almost completely on the visual domain. Here we investigated sequence learning

  7. Learning to Be Mobile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    of this creative cyclomobility research focuses on adult cycling or more extreme sports, such as BMX trials or mountain biking. There is, however, little qualitative research to date on family bike rides, eg. how children learn to sit in or ride a bike and how parents or caregivers talk and interact with children...... predominantly on separate bike lanes, with bike-only traffic lights at intersections for example. The analysis will be illustrated with clips comprising multi-angle video recordings of the two types of bike rides. After several experiments, more than one video camera was necessary to capture audio and visual...... are presented and discussed: 1) riding/talk formations; 2) stretchy participation frameworks; 3) navigating static and moving obstacles; 4) situated noticings: 5) learning safe riding; and 6) negotiating the appropriate road conduct of other road users....

  8. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Guzman, R Marena; Passement, Celeste A; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2015-01-01

    Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths) on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae) were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae) allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation.

  9. Moralized Rationality: Relying on Logic and Evidence in the Formation and Evaluation of Belief Can Be Seen as a Moral Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skitka, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present article we demonstrate stable individual differences in the extent to which a reliance on logic and evidence in the formation and evaluation of beliefs is perceived as a moral virtue, and a reliance on less rational processes is perceived as a vice. We refer to this individual difference variable as moralized rationality. Eight studies are reported in which an instrument to measure individual differences in moralized rationality is validated. Results show that the Moralized Rationality Scale (MRS) is internally consistent, and captures something distinct from the personal importance people attach to being rational (Studies 1–3). Furthermore, the MRS has high test-retest reliability (Study 4), is conceptually distinct from frequently used measures of individual differences in moral values, and it is negatively related to common beliefs that are not supported by scientific evidence (Study 5). We further demonstrate that the MRS predicts morally laden reactions, such as a desire for punishment, of people who rely on irrational (vs. rational) ways of forming and evaluating beliefs (Studies 6 and 7). Finally, we show that the MRS uniquely predicts motivation to contribute to a charity that works to prevent the spread of irrational beliefs (Study 8). We conclude that (1) there are stable individual differences in the extent to which people moralize a reliance on rationality in the formation and evaluation of beliefs, (2) that these individual differences do not reduce to the personal importance attached to rationality, and (3) that individual differences in moralized rationality have important motivational and interpersonal consequences. PMID:27851777

  10. Moralized Rationality: Relying on Logic and Evidence in the Formation and Evaluation of Belief Can Be Seen as a Moral Issue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ståhl

    Full Text Available In the present article we demonstrate stable individual differences in the extent to which a reliance on logic and evidence in the formation and evaluation of beliefs is perceived as a moral virtue, and a reliance on less rational processes is perceived as a vice. We refer to this individual difference variable as moralized rationality. Eight studies are reported in which an instrument to measure individual differences in moralized rationality is validated. Results show that the Moralized Rationality Scale (MRS is internally consistent, and captures something distinct from the personal importance people attach to being rational (Studies 1-3. Furthermore, the MRS has high test-retest reliability (Study 4, is conceptually distinct from frequently used measures of individual differences in moral values, and it is negatively related to common beliefs that are not supported by scientific evidence (Study 5. We further demonstrate that the MRS predicts morally laden reactions, such as a desire for punishment, of people who rely on irrational (vs. rational ways of forming and evaluating beliefs (Studies 6 and 7. Finally, we show that the MRS uniquely predicts motivation to contribute to a charity that works to prevent the spread of irrational beliefs (Study 8. We conclude that (1 there are stable individual differences in the extent to which people moralize a reliance on rationality in the formation and evaluation of beliefs, (2 that these individual differences do not reduce to the personal importance attached to rationality, and (3 that individual differences in moralized rationality have important motivational and interpersonal consequences.

  11. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall D McCue

    Full Text Available Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation.

  12. Stepped MS(All) Relied Transition (SMART): An approach to rapidly determine optimal multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry parameters for small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Lin; Liu, Huiying; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-02-11

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is a universal approach for quantitative analysis because of its high specificity and sensitivity. Nevertheless, optimization of MRM parameters remains as a time and labor-intensive task particularly in multiplexed quantitative analysis of small molecules in complex mixtures. In this study, we have developed an approach named Stepped MS(All) Relied Transition (SMART) to predict the optimal MRM parameters of small molecules. SMART requires firstly a rapid and high-throughput analysis of samples using a Stepped MS(All) technique (sMS(All)) on a Q-TOF, which consists of serial MS(All) events acquired from low CE to gradually stepped-up CE values in a cycle. The optimal CE values can then be determined by comparing the extracted ion chromatograms for the ion pairs of interest among serial scans. The SMART-predicted parameters were found to agree well with the parameters optimized on a triple quadrupole from the same vendor using a mixture of standards. The parameters optimized on a triple quadrupole from a different vendor was also employed for comparison, and found to be linearly correlated with the SMART-predicted parameters, suggesting the potential applications of the SMART approach among different instrumental platforms. This approach was further validated by applying to simultaneous quantification of 31 herbal components in the plasma of rats treated with a herbal prescription. Because the sMS(All) acquisition can be accomplished in a single run for multiple components independent of standards, the SMART approach are expected to find its wide application in the multiplexed quantitative analysis of complex mixtures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PACS infrastructure supporting e-learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mildenberger, Peter; Brueggemann, Kerstin; Roesner, Freya; Koch, Katja; Ahlers, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Digital imaging is becoming predominant in radiology. This has implications for teaching support, because conventional film-based concepts are now obsolete. The IHE Teaching File and Clinical Study Export (TCE) profile provides an excellent platform to enhance PACS infrastructure with educational functionality. This can be supplemented with dedicated e-learning tools.

  14. PACS infrastructure supporting e-learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mildenberger, Peter, E-mail: milden@radiologie.klinik.uni-mainz.de [University Medicine Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Langenbeckstr 1, Mainz (Germany); Brueggemann, Kerstin; Roesner, Freya; Koch, Katja; Ahlers, Christopher [University Medicine Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Langenbeckstr 1, Mainz (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Digital imaging is becoming predominant in radiology. This has implications for teaching support, because conventional film-based concepts are now obsolete. The IHE Teaching File and Clinical Study Export (TCE) profile provides an excellent platform to enhance PACS infrastructure with educational functionality. This can be supplemented with dedicated e-learning tools.

  15. Sensorimotor Distractions When Learning with Mobile Phones On-the-Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Soledad; Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion on potential conflicts originated by sensorimotor distractions when learning with mobile phones on-the-move. While research in mobile learning points to the possibility of everywhere, all the time learning; research in the area suggests that tasks performed while on-the-move predominantly require low cognitive…

  16. When Collaborative Is Not Collaborative: Supporting Student Learning through Self-Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative learning has been widely endorsed in education. This qualitative research examines instances of collaborative learning during mathematics that were seen to be predominantly non-collaborative despite the pedagogical efforts and intentions of the teacher and the task. In an effort to disrupt the non-collaborative learning, small groups…

  17. Can E-learning change work practices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    Stand-alone e-learning is unlikely to change work practices. This claim contrasts with a comprehensive body of research arguing that e-learning is at least as effective as face-to-face instruction in improving work performance. Such a comparison is, however, problematic. On the one hand, it relies...... on the premise that face-to-face instruction is effective in changing work behaviors. This article argues that instruction—whether e-learning, face-to-face, or a blend of both—cannot stand alone. Individualized on-the-job scaffolding of employees is needed for meaningful learning transfer and sustainable...... behavior change to occur. On the other hand, e-learning can be as important as face-to-face instruction in preparing the ground for advancing work practices, when e-learning is designed in acknowledgement of its strength and limitations. In outlining the above arguments, this article contributes a four...

  18. The neurobiology of infant maternal odor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Raineki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Infant rats must learn to identify their mother’s diet-dependent odor. Once learned, maternal odor controls pups’ approach to the mother, their social behavior and nipple attachment. Here we present a review of the research from four different laboratories, which suggests that neural and behavioral responses to the natural maternal odor and neonatal learned odors are similar. Together, these data indicate that pups have a unique learning circuit relying on the olfactory bulb for neural plasticity and on the hyperfunctioning noradrenergic locus coeruleus flooding the olfactory bulb with norepinephrine to support the neural changes. Another important factor making this system unique is the inability of the amygdala to become incorporated into the infant learning circuit. Thus, infant rats appear to be primed in early life to learn odors that will evoke approach responses supporting attachment to the caregiver.

  19. Characterization of T cell clones from chagasic patients: predominance of CD8 surface phenotype in clones from patients with pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington R. Cuna

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Human Chagas' disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is associated with pathological processes whose mechanisms are not known. To address this question, T cell lines were developed from chronic chagasic patients peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and cloned. These T cell clones (TCC were analyzed phenotypically with monoclonal antibodies by the use of a fluorescence microscope. The surface phenotype of the TCC from the asymptomatic patient were predominantly CD4 positive (86%. On the contrary, the surface phenotype CD8 was predominant in the TCC from the patients suffering from cardiomegaly with right bundle branch block (83%, bradycardia with megacolon (75 % and bradycardia (75%. Future studies will be developed in order to identify the antigens eliciting these T cell subpopulations.

  20. Effects of Image-Based and Text-Based Active Learning Exercises on Student Examination Performance in a Musculoskeletal Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, M. Melissa; Wright, Mary C.; Anderson, Olivia S.

    2017-01-01

    Research on the benefits of visual learning has relied primarily on lecture-based pedagogy, but the potential benefits of combining active learning strategies with visual and verbal materials on learning anatomy has not yet been explored. In this study, the differential effects of text-based and image-based active learning exercises on examination…

  1. "A Fly in the Buttermilk": Descriptions of University Life by Successful Black Undergraduate Students at a Predominately White Southeastern University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mitzi; Dias-Bowie, Yvonne; Greenberg, Katherine; Klukken, Gary; Pollio, Howard R.; Thomas, Sandra P.; Thompson, Charles L.

    2004-01-01

    "And so a lot of times I felt out of place, because you see all white faces. You know I'm the only fly in the buttermilk, so that took some getting used to ..." These words, shared by a black student during an interview for the present study, poignantly reflect the essence of the experience of being a minority student on a predominately white…

  2. Mixed states with predominant manic or depressive symptoms: baseline characteristics and 24-month outcomes of the EMBLEM cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Baraille, Laurent; Gérard, Stéphanie; Bertsch, Jordan; Reed, Catherine; Lukasiewicz, Michael

    2013-04-25

    While factors associated with mixed states have been extensively studied, data are scant regarding the clinical heterogeneity of mixed states. The EMBLEM study was a prospective, observational study on patients with manic and mixed states. We describe and compare baseline characteristics and 24-month clinical course of mixed states with predominant depressive symptoms (MSDS) and mixed states with predominant manic symptoms (MSMS). Adult inpatients/outpatients with bipolar disorder were enrolled within the standard course of care if they initiated or changed oral medication for acute mania or mixed states. A logistic regression was used to identify the baseline factors associated with each polarity. Comparisons with mixed episode without symptom predominance (OMS) were performed for informational purpose only. About 573 mixed patients were analyzed (23.7% of the cohort): 59.5% (n=341) had MSMS, 11.9% (n=68) had MSDS, and 28.6% (n=164) had OMS. At baseline, hallucinations/delusions during the index episode, inpatient status, high CGI-BP overall score, and low education level were more often associated with MSMS versus MSDS. Alcohol abuse or dependence and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or benzodiazepine use at inclusion were significantly more frequent with MSDS. MSDS had a significantly lower 24-month recurrence rate than MSMS; MSMS experienced more switches to mania whereas MSDS switched more to depression. The post hoc dimensional definitions in the study require caution in the interpretation of the results. These results present evidence of clinical heterogeneity within mixed states. Predominant manic or depressive symptoms within mixed episode could influence clinicians' decisions in term of hospitalization, treatment, and perception of bipolar severity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A nucleolus-predominant piggyBac transposase, NP-mPB, mediates elevated transposition efficiency in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin-Bon; Chou, Fu-Ju; Ku, Amy T; Fan, Hsiang-Hsuan; Lee, Tung-Lung; Huang, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Su, I-Chang; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Chien, Chung-Liang; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Chen, You-Tzung

    2014-01-01

    PiggyBac is a prevalent transposon system used to deliver transgenes and functionally explore the mammalian untouched genomic territory. The important features of piggyBac transposon are the relatively low insertion site preference and the ability of seamless removal from genome, which allow its potential uses in functional genomics and regenerative medicine. Efforts to increase its transposition efficiency in mammals were made through engineering the corresponding transposase (PBase) codon usage to enhance its expression level and through screening for mutant PBase variants with increased enzyme activity. To improve the safety for its potential use in regenerative medicine applications, site-specific transposition was achieved by using engineered zinc finger- and Gal4-fused PBases. An excision-prone PBase variant has also been successfully developed. Here we describe the construction of a nucleolus-predominant PBase, NP-mPB, by adding a nucleolus-predominant (NP) signal peptide from HIV-1 TAT protein to a mammalian codon-optimized PBase (mPB). Although there is a predominant fraction of the NP-mPB-tGFP fusion proteins concentrated in the nucleoli, an insertion site preference toward nucleolar organizer regions is not detected. Instead a 3-4 fold increase in piggyBac transposition efficiency is reproducibly observed in mouse and human cells.

  4. Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braddock, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    A study reviewing the existing Army Distance Learning Plan (ADLP) and current Distance Learning practices, with a focus on the Army's training and educational challenges and the benefits of applying Distance Learning techniques...

  5. Reward-Guided Learning with and without Causal Attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocham, Gerhard; Brodersen, Kay H.; Constantinescu, Alexandra O.; Kahn, Martin C.; Ianni, Angela M.; Walton, Mark E.; Rushworth, Matthew F.S.; Behrens, Timothy E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary When an organism receives a reward, it is crucial to know which of many candidate actions caused this reward. However, recent work suggests that learning is possible even when this most fundamental assumption is not met. We used novel reward-guided learning paradigms in two fMRI studies to show that humans deploy separable learning mechanisms that operate in parallel. While behavior was dominated by precise contingent learning, it also revealed hallmarks of noncontingent learning strategies. These learning mechanisms were separable behaviorally and neurally. Lateral orbitofrontal cortex supported contingent learning and reflected contingencies between outcomes and their causal choices. Amygdala responses around reward times related to statistical patterns of learning. Time-based heuristic mechanisms were related to activity in sensorimotor corticostriatal circuitry. Our data point to the existence of several learning mechanisms in the human brain, of which only one relies on applying known rules about the causal structure of the task. PMID:26971947

  6. An optimized single chain TCR scaffold relying on the assembly with the native CD3-complex prevents residual mispairing with endogenous TCRs in human T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Diana; Klobuch, Sebastian; Xue, Shao-An; Birtel, Matthias; Echchannaoui, Hakim; Yildiz, Oezlem; Omokoko, Tana; Guillaume, Philippe; Romero, Pedro; Stauss, Hans; Sahin, Ugur; Herr, Wolfgang; Theobald, Matthias; Thomas, Simone; Voss, Ralf-Holger

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy of cancer envisions the adoptive transfer of T-cells genetically engineered with tumor-specific heterodimeric α/β T-cell receptors (TCRα/β). However, potential mispairing of introduced TCRα/β-chains with endogenous β/α-ones may evoke unpredictable autoimmune reactivities. A novel single chain (sc)TCR format relies on the fusion of the Vα-Linker-Vβ-fragment to the TCR Cβ-domain and coexpression of the TCR Cα-domain capable of recruiting the natural CD3-complex for full and hence, native T-cell signaling. Here, we tested whether such a gp100(280-288)- or p53(264-272) tumor antigen-specific scTCR is still prone to mispairing with TCRα. In a human Jurkat-76 T-cell line lacking endogenous TCRs, surface expression and function of a scTCR could be reconstituted by any cointroduced TCRα-chain indicating mispairing to take place on a molecular basis. In contrast, transduction into human TCRα/β-positive T-cells revealed that mispairing is largely reduced. Competition experiments in Jurkat-76 confirmed the preference of dcTCR to selfpair and to spare scTCR. This also allowed for the generation of dc/scTCR-modified cytomegalovirus/tumor antigen-bispecific T-cells to augment T-cell activation in CMV-infected tumor patients. Residual mispairing was prevented by strenghtening the Vα-Li-Vβ-fragment through the design of a novel disulfide bond between a Vα- and a linker-resident residue close to Vβ. Multimer-stainings, and cytotoxicity-, IFNγ-secretion-, and CFSE-proliferation-assays, the latter towards dendritic cells endogenously processing RNA-electroporated gp100 antigen proved the absence of hybrid scTCR/TCRα-formation without impairing avidity of scTCR/Cα in T-cells. Moreover, a fragile cytomegalovirus pp65(495-503)-specific scTCR modified this way acquired enhanced cytotoxicity. Thus, optimized scTCR/Cα inhibits residual TCR mispairing to accomplish safe adoptive immunotherapy for bulk endogenous TCRα/β-positive T-cells. PMID:27028870

  7. Biological adhesion of the flatworm Macrostomum lignano relies on a duo-gland system and is mediated by a cell type-specific intermediate filament protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengerer, Birgit; Pjeta, Robert; Wunderer, Julia; Rodrigues, Marcelo; Arbore, Roberto; Schärer, Lukas; Berezikov, Eugene; Hess, Michael W; Pfaller, Kristian; Egger, Bernhard; Obwegeser, Sabrina; Salvenmoser, Willi; Ladurner, Peter

    2014-02-12

    Free-living flatworms, in both marine and freshwater environments, are able to adhere to and release from a substrate several times within a second. This reversible adhesion relies on adhesive organs comprised of three cell types: an adhesive gland cell, a releasing gland cell, and an anchor cell, which is a modified epidermal cell responsible for structural support. However, nothing is currently known about the molecules that are involved in this adhesion process. In this study we present the detailed morphology of the adhesive organs of the free-living marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano. About 130 adhesive organs are located in a horse-shoe-shaped arc along the ventral side of the tail plate. Each organ consists of exactly three cells, an adhesive gland cell, a releasing gland cell, and an anchor cell. The necks of the two gland cells penetrate the anchor cell through a common pore. Modified microvilli of the anchor cell form a collar surrounding the necks of the adhesive- and releasing glands, jointly forming the papilla, the outer visible part of the adhesive organs. Next, we identified an intermediate filament (IF) gene, macif1, which is expressed in the anchor cells. RNA interference mediated knock-down resulted in the first experimentally induced non-adhesion phenotype in any marine animal. Specifically, the absence of intermediate filaments in the anchor cells led to papillae with open tips, a reduction of the cytoskeleton network, a decline in hemidesmosomal connections, and to shortened microvilli containing less actin. Our findings reveal an elaborate biological adhesion system in a free-living flatworm, which permits impressively rapid temporary adhesion-release performance in the marine environment. We demonstrate that the structural integrity of the supportive cell, the anchor cell, is essential for this adhesion process: the knock-down of the anchor cell-specific intermediate filament gene resulted in the inability of the animals to adhere. The RNAi

  8. Learning classification models with soft-label information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang; Valizadegan, Hamed; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2014-01-01

    Learning of classification models in medicine often relies on data labeled by a human expert. Since labeling of clinical data may be time-consuming, finding ways of alleviating the labeling costs is critical for our ability to automatically learn such models. In this paper we propose a new machine learning approach that is able to learn improved binary classification models more efficiently by refining the binary class information in the training phase with soft labels that reflect how strongly the human expert feels about the original class labels. Two types of methods that can learn improved binary classification models from soft labels are proposed. The first relies on probabilistic/numeric labels, the other on ordinal categorical labels. We study and demonstrate the benefits of these methods for learning an alerting model for heparin induced thrombocytopenia. The experiments are conducted on the data of 377 patient instances labeled by three different human experts. The methods are compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) score. Our AUC results show that the new approach is capable of learning classification models more efficiently compared to traditional learning methods. The improvement in AUC is most remarkable when the number of examples we learn from is small. A new classification learning framework that lets us learn from auxiliary soft-label information provided by a human expert is a promising new direction for learning classification models from expert labels, reducing the time and cost needed to label data.

  9. The Computational Development of Reinforcement Learning during Adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Palminteri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of life characterised by changes in learning and decision-making. Learning and decision-making do not rely on a unitary system, but instead require the coordination of different cognitive processes that can be mathematically formalised as dissociable computational modules. Here, we aimed to trace the developmental time-course of the computational modules responsible for learning from reward or punishment, and learning from counterfactual feedback. Adolescents and adults carried out a novel reinforcement learning paradigm in which participants learned the association between cues and probabilistic outcomes, where the outcomes differed in valence (reward versus punishment and feedback was either partial or complete (either the outcome of the chosen option only, or the outcomes of both the chosen and unchosen option, were displayed. Computational strategies changed during development: whereas adolescents' behaviour was better explained by a basic reinforcement learning algorithm, adults' behaviour integrated increasingly complex computational features, namely a counterfactual learning module (enabling enhanced performance in the presence of complete feedback and a value contextualisation module (enabling symmetrical reward and punishment learning. Unlike adults, adolescent performance did not benefit from counterfactual (complete feedback. In addition, while adults learned symmetrically from both reward and punishment, adolescents learned from reward but were less likely to learn from punishment. This tendency to rely on rewards and not to consider alternative consequences of actions might contribute to our understanding of decision-making in adolescence.

  10. iLearning: The Future of Higher Education? Student Perceptions on Learning with Mobile Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Jonathan P.; Miller, Willie M.; Cecil, Amanda K.; Stamper, Suzan E.

    2012-01-01

    The growing use of mobile technology on college campuses suggests the future of the classroom, including learning activities, research, and even student faculty communications, will rely heavily on mobile technology. Since Fall 2010, an interdisciplinary team of faculty from Indiana University--Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) has…

  11. Contextual Markup and Mining in Digital Games for Science Learning: Connecting Player Behaviors to Learning Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnebrew John S.; Killingsworth, Stephen S.; Clark, Douglas B.; Biswas, Gautam; Sengupta, Pratim; Minstrell, James; Martinez-Garza, Mario; Krinks, Kara

    2017-01-01

    Digital games can make unique and powerful contributions to K-12 science education, but much of that potential remains unrealized. Research evaluating games for learning still relies primarily on pre- and post-test data, which limits possible insights into more complex interactions between game design features, gameplay, and formal assessment.…

  12. Active Learning Not Associated with Student Learning in a Random Sample of College Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T. M.; Leonard, M. J.; Colgrove, C. A.; Kalinowski, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that adding active learning to traditional college science lectures substantially improves student learning. However, this research predominantly studied courses taught by science education researchers, who are likely to have exceptional teaching expertise. The present study investigated introductory biology courses randomly selected from a list of prominent colleges and universities to include instructors representing a broader population. We examined the relationship between active learning and student learning in the subject area of natural selection. We found no association between student learning gains and the use of active-learning instruction. Although active learning has the potential to substantially improve student learning, this research suggests that active learning, as used by typical college biology instructors, is not associated with greater learning gains. We contend that most instructors lack the rich and nuanced understanding of teaching and learning that science education researchers have developed. Therefore, active learning as designed and implemented by typical college biology instructors may superficially resemble active learning used by education researchers, but lacks the constructivist elements necessary for improving learning. PMID:22135373

  13. Understanding Learning Style Variations among Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu state to understand the learning styles of students. The term learning style refers to the way or method or approach by which a student learns. The study explored the possible learning style variations among agricultural, horticultural, engineering and arts & science students and their association with academic achievement. One hundred and twelve students were randomly selected from the four streams and their learning styles were analyzed. In the agricultural and horticultural streams, a majority of the students were auditory learners. They were also found to be predominantly unimodal learners. Overall, it was found that majority of the students were visual learners followed by auditory and kinesthetic style. The highest percentage of kinesthetic learners was found among engineering students. Trimodal learners scored the highest mean percentage of marks. The influence of learning styles on the academic achievements of the students did not show a significant relationship.

  14. Constructivism, the so-called semantic learning theories, and situated cognition versus the psychological learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Juan José; Rodríguez Moneo, María

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, the perspective of situated cognition, which gave rise both to the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning and has probably become the most representative standpoint of constructivism, is examined. We consider the claim of situated cognition to provide alternative explanations of the learning phenomenon to those of psychology and, especially, to those of the symbolic perspective, currently predominant in cognitive psychology. The level of analysis of situated cognition (i.e., global interactive systems) is considered an inappropriate approach to the problem of learning. From our analysis, it is concluded that the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning which originated in situated cognition can hardly be considered alternatives to the psychological learning theories, and they are unlikely to add anything of interest to the learning theory or to contribute to the improvement of our knowledge about the learning phenomenon.

  15. Blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Blended Learning has been implemented, evaluated and researched for the last decades within different educational areas and levels. Blended learning has been coupled with different epistemological understandings and learning theories, but the fundamental character and dimensions of learning...... in blended learning are still insufficient. Moreover, blended learning is a misleading concept described as learning, despite the fact that it fundamentally is an instructional and didactic approach (Oliver & Trigwell, 2005) addressing the learning environment (Inglis, Palipoana, Trenhom & Ward, 2011......) instead of the learning processes behind. Much of the existing research within the field seems to miss this perspective. The consequence is a lack of acknowledgement of the driven forces behind the context and the instructional design limiting the knowledge foundation of learning in blended learning. Thus...

  16. Active Learning of Classification Models with Likert-Scale Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yanbing; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2017-01-01

    Annotation of classification data by humans can be a time-consuming and tedious process. Finding ways of reducing the annotation effort is critical for building the classification models in practice and for applying them to a variety of classification tasks. In this paper, we develop a new active learning framework that combines two strategies to reduce the annotation effort. First, it relies on label uncertainty information obtained from the human in terms of the Likert-scale feedback. Second, it uses active learning to annotate examples with the greatest expected change. We propose a Bayesian approach to calculate the expectation and an incremental SVM solver to reduce the time complexity of the solvers. We show the combination of our active learning strategy and the Likert-scale feedback can learn classification models more rapidly and with a smaller number of labeled instances than methods that rely on either Likert-scale labels or active learning alone.

  17. Blending Online Asynchronous and Synchronous Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C. Yamagata-Lynch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will share a qualitative self-study about a 15-week blended 100% online graduate level course facilitated through synchronous meetings on Blackboard Collaborate and asynchronous discussions on Blackboard. I taught the course at the University of Tennessee (UT during the spring 2012 semester and the course topic was online learning environments. The primary research question of this study was: How can the designer/instructor optimize learning experiences for students who are studying about online learning environments in a blended online course relying on both synchronous and asynchronous technologies? I relied on student reflections of course activities during the beginning, middle, and the end of the semester as the primary data source to obtain their insights regarding course experiences. Through the experiences involved in designing and teaching the course and engaging in this study I found that there is room in the instructional technology research community to address strategies for facilitating online synchronous learning that complement asynchronous learning. Synchronous online whole class meetings and well-structured small group meetings can help students feel a stronger sense of connection to their peers and instructor and stay engaged with course activities. In order to provide meaningful learning spaces in synchronous learning environments, the instructor/designer needs to balance the tension between embracing the flexibility that the online space affords to users and designing deliberate structures that will help them take advantage of the flexible space.

  18. Effect of lesion site on serial position during list learning: a study with the CVLT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Luisa; Loureiro, Clara; Martins, Isabel Pavao

    2008-07-01

    Successful learning of supraspan word lists such as the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) relies more on clustering strategies than rote learning, subserved by the frontal and temporal lobes. The authors studied the effect of word sequence in CVLT learning, in 15 patients with frontal (FLL) and 15 temporal (TLL) lesions, and 33 controls. Experimental measures were: number of clusters, number of first (FI), middle (MI) and last items (LI), in learning trials and in total immediate recall. FLL disclosed significantly lower FI along learning. Clusters were similar among groups. This difficulty is discussed according to the role of frontal lobes in learning and memory.

  19. Why copy others? Insights from the social learning strategies tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, L; Boyd, R; Cownden, D; Enquist, M; Eriksson, K; Feldman, M W; Fogarty, L; Ghirlanda, S; Lillicrap, T; Laland, K N

    2010-04-09

    Social learning (learning through observation or interaction with other individuals) is widespread in nature and is central to the remarkable success of humanity, yet it remains unclear why copying is profitable and how to copy most effectively. To address these questions, we organized a computer tournament in which entrants submitted strategies specifying how to use social learning and its asocial alternative (for example, trial-and-error learning) to acquire adaptive behavior in a complex environment. Most current theory predicts the emergence of mixed strategies that rely on some combination of the two types of learning. In the tournament, however, strategies that relied heavily on social learning were found to be remarkably successful, even when asocial information was no more costly than social information. Social learning proved advantageous because individuals frequently demonstrated the highest-payoff behavior in their repertoire, inadvertently filtering information for copiers. The winning strategy (discountmachine) relied nearly exclusively on social learning and weighted information according to the time since acquisition.

  20. Computational Investigations of Multiword Chunks in Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Stewart M; Christiansen, Morten H

    2017-07-01

    Second-language learners rarely arrive at native proficiency in a number of linguistic domains, including morphological and syntactic processing. Previous approaches to understanding the different outcomes of first- versus second-language learning have focused on cognitive and neural factors. In contrast, we explore the possibility that children and adults may rely on different linguistic units throughout the course of language learning, with specific focus on the granularity of those units. Following recent psycholinguistic evidence for the role of multiword chunks in online language processing, we explore the hypothesis that children rely more heavily on multiword units in language learning than do adults learning a second language. To this end, we take an initial step toward using large-scale, corpus-based computational modeling as a tool for exploring the granularity of speakers' linguistic units. Employing a computational model of language learning, the Chunk-Based Learner, we compare the usefulness of chunk-based knowledge in accounting for the speech of second-language learners versus children and adults speaking their first language. Our findings suggest that while multiword units are likely to play a role in second-language learning, adults may learn less useful chunks, rely on them to a lesser extent, and arrive at them through different means than children learning a first language. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Learning via Query Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim Mansour

    2017-05-07

    Active learning is a subfield of machine learning that has been successfully used in many applications. One of the main branches of active learning is query synthe- sis, where the learning agent constructs artificial queries from scratch in order to reveal sensitive information about the underlying decision boundary. It has found applications in areas, such as adversarial reverse engineering, automated science, and computational chemistry. Nevertheless, the existing literature on membership query synthesis has, generally, focused on finite concept classes or toy problems, with a limited extension to real-world applications. In this thesis, I develop two spectral algorithms for learning halfspaces via query synthesis. The first algorithm is a maximum-determinant convex optimization method while the second algorithm is a Markovian method that relies on Khachiyan’s classical update formulas for solving linear programs. The general theme of these methods is to construct an ellipsoidal approximation of the version space and to synthesize queries, afterward, via spectral decomposition. Moreover, I also describe how these algorithms can be extended to other settings as well, such as pool-based active learning. Having demonstrated that halfspaces can be learned quite efficiently via query synthesis, the second part of this thesis proposes strategies for mitigating the risk of reverse engineering in adversarial environments. One approach that can be used to render query synthesis algorithms ineffective is to implement a randomized response. In this thesis, I propose a semidefinite program (SDP) for learning a distribution of classifiers, subject to the constraint that any individual classifier picked at random from this distributions provides reliable predictions with a high probability. This algorithm is, then, justified both theoretically and empirically. A second approach is to use a non-parametric classification method, such as similarity-based classification. In this

  2. Relying on the National Mobile Disaster Hospital as a business continuity strategy in the aftermath of a tornado: The Louisville experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Randy D; Stringer, Lew; Craig, James; Godette-Crawford, Regina; Black, Paul S; Andra, David L; Winslow, James

    2017-01-01

    On 28th April, 2014, a tornado left much of Louisville, MS and the local hospital, Winston Medical Center, in ruin. In the USA, temporary hospital solutions have been used to augment the mainstream healthcare system since the American Civil War. As memories fade, however, the necessary readiness for a temporary hospital also fades, at times leaving a patchwork of resources either underfunded or abandoned. With the creation of the Hospital Preparedness Program, several temporary hospital solutions were created in various states across the USA. In the present case, Mississippi and North Carolina resources were used in Louisville in the aftermath of a direct impact that destroyed the hospital and nursing home. In the hours that followed, after lives were saved and patients safely relocated, a frank assessment confirmed the structural loss of the hospital. Local emergency responders, hospital staff, state and federal representatives all rallied with the aim of saving the community's only hospital. The steps taken in Louisville and the deliberate restoration of these essential services offer a learning opportunity for all involved in healthcare disaster preparedness, response and recovery.

  3. Model brain based learning (BBL and whole brain teaching (WBT in learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Sri Handayani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The learning process is a process of change in behavior as a form of the result of learning. The learning model is a crucial component of the success of the learning process. The learning model is growing fastly, and each model has different characteristics. Teachers are required to be able to understand each model to teach the students optimally by matching the materials and the learning model. The best of the learning model is the model that based on the brain system in learning that are the model of Brain Based Learning (BBL and the model of Whole Brain Teaching (WBT. The purposes of this article are to obtain information related to (1 the brain’s natural learning system, (2 analyze the characteristics of the model BBL and WBT based on theory, brain sections that play a role associated with syntax, similarities, and differences, (3 explain the distinctive characteristics of both models in comparison to other models. The results of this study are: (1 the brain’s natural learning system are: (a the nerves in each hemisphere do not work independently, (b doing more activities can connect more brain nerves, (c the right hemisphere controls the left side motoric sensor of the body, and vice versa; (2 the characteristics of BBL and WBT are: (a BBL is based on the brain’s structure and function, while the model WBT is based on the instructional approach, neurolinguistic, and body language, (b the parts of the brain that work in BBL are: cerebellum, cerebral cortex, frontal lobe, limbic system, and prefrontal cortex; whereas the parts that work WBT are: prefrontal cortex, visual cortex, motor cortex, limbic system, and amygdala, (c the similarities between them are that they both rely on the brain’s system and they both promote gesture in learning, whereas the differences are on the view of the purposes of gestures and the learning theory that they rely on. BBL relies on cognitive theory while WBT relies on social theory; (3 the typical

  4. On the Use of Machine Learning for Identifying Botnet Network Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2016-01-01

    contemporary approaches use machine learning techniques for identifying malicious traffic. This paper presents a survey of contemporary botnet detection methods that rely on machine learning for identifying botnet network traffic. The paper provides a comprehensive overview on the existing scientific work thus...... contributing to the better understanding of capabilities, limitations and opportunities of using machine learning for identifying botnet traffic. Furthermore, the paper outlines possibilities for the future development of machine learning-based botnet detection systems....

  5. Neutrophil predominance in induced sputum from asthmatic patients: Therapeutic implications and role of clara cell 16-KD protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa M. Uribe Echevarría

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil is considered to be a main protagonist in asthma; however, often discordances between clinical manifestations and response to treatment are observed. We aimed to determine the occurrence of neutrophil predominance in asthma and to identify its characteristics on the basis of clinical-functional features, induced sputum cellular pattern and soluble molecules, to guide the appropriated anti-inflammatory therapy. A total of 41 patients were included in randomized groups: 21-40 year-old, with stable mild-to-severe asthma, steroid-naïve and non-smokers. An induced sputum sample was obtained under basal conditions, a second one after treatment with budesonide (400 µg b.i.d. or montelukast (10 mg/d for six weeks, and a final one after a 4-week washout period. By cytospin we evaluated eosinophil (EP or neutrophil predominance (NP, and in supernatant we determined LTE4, and CC16. Peak expiratory flow variability (PEFV was measured. A total of 23/41 patients corresponded to EP and 18/41 patients to NP. The PEFV was higher in EP than in NP. LTE4 was higher with NP than with EP. No difference was found for CC16. Montelukast reduced the predominant cell in both subsets, whereas budesonide only reduced eosinophils in EP. Budesonide and montelukast reduced PEFV in EP but not in NP. Considering the total treated-samples in each subset, CC16 level increased significantly in EP. In conclusion: a NP subset of asthmatic patients was identified. These patients show a lower bronchial lability; the leukotriene pathway is involved which responds to anti-leukotriene treatment. This phenotype shows a poor recovery of CC16 level after treatment.

  6. Carcass characteristics of steers of different genetic predominance fed diets containing levels of substitution of corn grain by millet grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Medeiros da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the carcass and meat characteristics of European crossbred young bulls or Zebu crossbred young bulls feedlot finished with diets with high percentage of concentrate (80% containing different levels of grounded millet grain as replacement for grounded corn grain (0, 33, 66 and 100%. Forty-five young bulls with genotype predominance of Aberdeen Angus and forty-four young bulls with genotype predominance Nellore with average initial weight of 317.8 and 320.7 kg, respectively, and average age of 21 month, were allocated in 16 collective pens. At the end of the finishing period were slaughtered six animals of each genetic group, chosen according to the body weight and degree of finishing each treatment. The experimental design was the completely randomized design with treatments in a 4x2 factorial arrangement using six replicates. The replacement of corn grain by millet grain did not significantly influence slaughter weight (480.4 kg, hot carcass weight (259.5 kg, carcass yield (54.1% and subcutaneous fat thickness (3.95 mm. Young bulls with genotype predominance of Aberdeen Angus showed significantly higher values for slaughter weight (507.6 vs. 453.3 kg, hot carcass weight (269.6 vs. 249.3 kg and longissimus dorsi area (65.34 vs 56.83 cm2, however, were lower in carcass yield (53.2 vs. 55.00%. Millet grain can be used in substitution to corn grain for finishing steers since it does not change carcass traits of economic interest.

  7. Electrical properties of (1 0 0)-predominant BaTiO3 films derived from alkoxide solutions of two concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yiping; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Nishizawa, Kaori; Miki, Takeshi; Kato, Kazumi

    2006-01-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric films with thickness larger than 1 μm integrated on silicon substrates have been receiving considerable attention because of environmental concerns and their potential applications in microelectromechanical systems. We demonstrate that, by chemical solution deposition, it is possible to process (1 0 0)-predominant 1 μm BaTiO 3 films on LaNiO 3 /Pt/TiO x /SiO 2 /Si substrates using thinner high-crystallinity columnar BaTiO 3 films as buffer layers. We point out that this kind of buffer layer prepared with a lower concentration solution on the surface of an LaNiO 3 /Pt electrode is effective in enhancing the crystallinity and orientation degree of final BaTiO 3 films prepared with a higher concentration solution. The 1 μm BaTiO 3 films show good dielectric and insulating characteristics against an applied field, and the conduction current shows Schottky emission behavior at modest voltage and space-charge-limited behavior at higher voltage. We also demonstrate that the (1 0 0)-predominant 1 μm BaTiO 3 films have excellent piezoelectric properties: piezoelectric coefficients d 33 higher than 50 pm/V have been determined for the bare films using atomic force microscopy, which are comparable to those of Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 films. These results indicate that the (1 0 0)-predominant BaTiO 3 films should be promising candidates for microelectromechanical systems applications

  8. Preliminary Study of Intravenous Amantadine Treatment for Ataxia Management in Patients with Probable Multiple System Atrophy with Predominant Cerebellar Ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Youn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia is a disabling neurologic disease. However, effective management has not yet been established. We conducted a short-term, open-label preliminary study to assess the benefits of intravenous amantadine treatment in patients with probable multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia. Methods: Twenty patients (10 male, 10 female with probable multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia received 400 mg of amantadine by intravenous per day for 5 days. Ataxia severity was evaluated by the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale before and after intravenous amantadine therapy and all subjects reported subjective improvement after intravenous amantadine treatment using a patient global impression scale. We analyzed the total and subscale scores by the ataxia scale and patient global impression scale. Results: The mean age was 57.4 years (range: 47–72 and the mean disease duration was 30.8 months (range: 11–79. The ataxia severity significantly decreased after intravenous amantadine therapy from 42.5 to 37.3 (p < 0.001. The mean patient global impression scale for improvement was 2.9 and there were no side effects of intravenous amantadine treatment observed. When we assessed responders, the duration of intravenous amantadine effect was more than 1 month in 4 subjects of 7 responders. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that intravenous amantadine treatment can be a safe management option in cerebellar ataxia, although the mechanism is unclear. Thus, further double-blind, long-term studies with a larger sample size are needed.

  9. Characterisation and biochemical properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria from fermenting cassava for selection as starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostinek, M; Specht, I; Edward, V A; Pinto, C; Egounlety, M; Sossa, C; Mbugua, S; Dortu, C; Thonart, P; Taljaard, L; Mengu, M; Franz, C M A P; Holzapfel, W H

    2007-03-20

    A total of 375 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermenting cassava in South Africa, Benin, Kenya and Germany, and were characterised by phenotypic and genotypic tests. These could be divided into five main groups comprising strains of facultatively heterofermentative rods, obligately heterofermentative rods, heterofermentative cocci, homofermentative cocci and obligately homofermentative rods, in decreasing order of predominance. Most of the facultatively heterofermentative rods were identified by phenotypic tests as presumptive Lactobacillus plantarum-group strains, which also comprised the most predominant bacteria (54.4% of strains) isolated in the study. The next predominant group of lactic acid bacteria (14.1% of total isolates) consisted of obligately heterofermentative rods belonging either to the genus Lactobacillus or Weissella, followed by the heterofermentative cocci (13.9% of isolates) belonging to the genera Weissella or Leuconostoc. Homofermentative cocci were also isolated (13.3% of isolates). Biochemical properties such as production of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase, tannase, antimicrobials (presumptive bacteriocin and H(2)O(2)-production), acidification and fermentation of the indigestible sugars raffinose and stachyose, were evaluated in vitro for selection of potential starter strains. A total of 32 strains with one or more desirable biochemical properties were pre-selected and identified using rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 16S rRNA sequencing of representative rep-PCR cluster isolates. Of these strains, 18 were identified as L. plantarum, four as Lactobacillus pentosus, two each as Leuconostoc fallax, Weissella paramesenteroides and Lactobacillus fermentum, one each as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Weissella cibaria, while two remained unidentified but could be assigned to the L. plantarum-group. These strains were further investigated for clonal relationships, using RAPD-PCR with three primers, and of

  10. Behavior patterns of cows with Charolais or Nellore breed predominance fed diets with plant extract or monensin sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Rumpel Segabinazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the ingestive behavior of feedlot cows fed additives based on plant extracts or monensin sodium. Twenty-four Charolais and Nellore crossbred cows with age and average initial weight of 7 years and 423 kg, respectively, were used. The experimental diets were plant extracts: basal diet + 5 g/animal/day of a natural additive composed of 750 mg of essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris, 150 mg of garlic (Allium sativum, 250 mg of rosemary extract (Rosmarimus officinalis, 250 mg of canola oil (Brassica napus, 250 mg extract of quillaja (Quillaja saponaria, and 3350 mg of corn starch; sodium monensin: basal diet + 300 mg/monensin/animal/day; and control: basal diet without additive. The basal diet contained sorghum silage and concentrate in a 62:38 ratio. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 3 × 2 (3 diets and 2 breed predominances factorial arrangement, and means were compared using DMS test at 5% of significance. The type of additive consumed did not alter animal feeding behavior. Cows with Charolais predominance consumed more dry matter (13.78 vs. 12.38 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber (7.81 vs. 6.89 kg/day, ruminated for longer (8.47 vs. 7.82 h, spent more time chewing (13.05 vs 12.01 h, had a greater number of chews per minute (58.88 vs 53.21 and a greater number of ruminal bolus (541.43 vs. 464.09 boluses/day; however, cows with Nellore predominance had greater idling time (11.82 vs. 10.74 h.

  11. Genotype 3 is the predominant hepatitis C genotype in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shiaw-Hooi; Ng, Kee-Peng; Kaur, Harvinder; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-06-01

    Genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are distributed differently across the world. There is a paucity of such data in a multi-ethnic Asian population like Malaysia. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes between major ethnic groups and to ascertain their association with basic demographic variables like age and gender. This was a cross-sectional prospective study conducted from September 2007 to September 2013. Consecutive patients who were detected to have anti-HCV antibodies in the University of Malaya Medical Centre were included and tested for the presence of HCV RNA using Roche Cobas Amplicor Analyzer and HCV genotype using Roche single Linear Array HCV Genotyping strip. Five hundred and ninety-six subjects were found to have positive anti-HCV antibodies during this period of time. However, only 396 (66.4%) were HCV RNA positive and included in the final analysis. Our results showed that HCV genotype 3 was the predominant genotype with overall frequency of 61.9% followed by genotypes 1 (35.9%), 2 (1.8%) and 6 (0.5%). There was a slightly higher prevalence of HCV genotype 3 among the Malays when compared to the Chinese (P=0.043). No other statistical significant differences were observed in the distribution of HCV genotypes among the major ethnic groups. There was also no association between the predominant genotypes and basic demographic variables. In a multi-ethnic Asian society in Malaysia, genotype 3 is the predominant genotype among all the major ethnic groups with genotype 1 as the second commonest genotype. Both genotypes 2 and 6 are uncommon. Neither genotype 4 nor 5 was detected. There is no identification of HCV genotype according to ethnic origin, age and gender.

  12. Predominance of new G9P[8] rotaviruses closely related to Turkish strains in Nizhny Novgorod (Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashina, T A; Morozova, O V; Epifanova, N V; Novikova, N A

    2017-08-01

    Genotype G9P[8] rotaviruses are rare in the territory of Russia. They were found in Nizhny Novgorod only in 2011-2012 for the first time, when their proportion was 25.9%. During the next two seasons, G9P[8] strains were detected in only 1.8% of cases. Their proportion substantially increased again in 2014, and they became predominant in the city by 2016. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of gene VP7 nucleotide sequences showed that this increase was accompanied by the emergence of new strains in the population. These isolates were related to Turkish strains, but not to Russian ones detected earlier.

  13. High fungal spore burden with predominance of Aspergillus in hospital air of a tertiary care hospital in Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Rudramurthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fungal spores in the hospital air is essential to understand the hospital-acquired fungal infections. Air conditioners (ACs used in hospitals may either reduce spores in air or be colonised by fungi and aid in its dissemination. The present study was conducted to assess the fungal spore burden in AC and non-AC areas. We found a high fungal spore count in air irrespective of whether the area was AC or non-AC. The most predominant species isolated were Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Such high concentrations of pathogenic fungi in air may predispose individuals to develop disease.

  14. Real-Time Magnitude Characterization of Large Earthquakes Using the Predominant Period Derived From 1 Hz GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimoulis, Panos A.; Houlié, Nicolas; Behr, Yannik

    2018-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems' performance is driven by the trade-off between the need for a rapid alert and the accuracy of each solution. A challenge for many EEW systems has been the magnitude saturation for large events (MW > 7) and the resulting underestimation of seismic moment magnitude. In this study, we test the performance of high-rate (1 Hz) GPS, based on seven seismic events, to evaluate whether long-period ground motions can be measured well enough to infer reliably earthquake predominant periods. We show that high-rate GPS data allow the computation of a GPS-based predominant period (τg) to estimate lower bounds for the magnitude of earthquakes and distinguish between large (MW > 7) and great (MW > 8) events and thus extend the capability of EEW systems for larger events. It has also identified the impact of the different values of the smoothing factor α on the τg results and how the sampling rate and the computation process differentiate τg from the commonly used τp.

  15. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in predominantly selfing plants with limited seed dispersal: A rule or exception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Volis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene flow at a fine scale is still poorly understood despite its recognized importance for plant population demographic and genetic processes. We tested the hypothesis that intensity of gene flow will be lower and strength of spatial genetic structure (SGS will be higher in more peripheral populations because of lower population density. The study was performed on the predominantly selfing Avena sterilis and included: (1 direct measurement of dispersal in a controlled environment; and (2 analyses of SGS in three natural populations, sampled in linear transects at fixed increasing inter-plant distances. We found that in A. sterilis major seed dispersal is by gravity in close (less than 2 m vicinity of the mother plant, with a minor additional effect of wind. Analysis of SGS with six nuclear SSRs revealed a significant autocorrelation for the distance class of 1 m only in the most peripheral desert population, while in the two core populations with Mediterranean conditions, no genetic structure was found. Our results support the hypothesis that intensity of SGS increases from the species core to periphery as a result of decreased within-population gene flow related to low plant density. Our findings also show that predominant self-pollination and highly localized seed dispersal lead to SGS at a very fine scale, but only if plant density is not too high.

  16. A study of a culturally enhanced EatRight dietary intervention in a predominately African American workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Jamy D; Cox, Tiffany L; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks C; Jefferson, Wendy K; Brakhage, Cora

    2010-01-01

    The workplace may be an ideal venue for engaging African American women in behavioral interventions for weight reduction. To examine the effectiveness of a culturally enhanced EatRight dietary intervention among a group of predominately African American women in a workplace setting. Crossover design study. Workplace. A total of 39 women volunteered for this study, of whom 27 completed it. The control period involved observation of participants for 22 weeks after receiving standard counseling on lifestyle methods to achieve a healthy weight; following the control period, participants crossed over to the 22-week intervention period. The intervention was culturally enhanced using feedback derived from formative assessment and delivered as 15 group sessions. The primary outcome measure was the difference in weight change between the control and intervention periods; changes in waist circumference and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Most participants were obese, with a mean baseline body mass index of 36 kg/m², weight of 97.9 kg, and waist circumference of 111 cm. Weight increased during the control period by 0.7 kg but decreased by 2.6 kg during the intervention (net difference = -3.4 kg, P culturally enhanced behavioral weight loss intervention in a predominately African American workplace setting. The workplace may be conducive for targeting African American women who are disproportionately affected by obesity.

  17. Identification of predominant odorants in thai desserts flavored by smoking with "Tian Op", a traditional Thai scented candle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharananun, Wanwarang; Cadwallader, Keith R; Huangrak, Kittiphong; Kim, Hun; Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa

    2009-02-11

    "Tian Op", a traditional Thai scented candle, is used for the smoking and flavoring of sweets, cakes, and other desserts for the purpose of adding a unique aroma to the final product. Gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma extract dilution analysis, and GC-MS were applied to identify the potent odorants in two types of traditional Thai desserts ("num dok mai" and "gleep lum duan") prepared using a Tian Op smoking process. On the basis of the results of AEDA and calculated odor-activity values, the predominant odorants in the Tian Op flavored desserts were vinyl ketones (C(5)-C(9)), n-aldehydes (C(5)-C(11)), (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8)-C(11)), and omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8) and C(9)). Sensory studies of model mixtures confirmed the importance of n-aldehydes, omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes, and guaiacol as predominant odorants; however, the results showed that vinyl ketones and (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes, despite having high odor-activity values, may be of only minor importance in the typical aroma profiles of traditional Tian Op smoked desserts.

  18. Metabolic Capability of a Predominant Halanaerobium sp. in Hydraulically Fractured Gas Wells and Its Implication in Pipeline Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Renxing; Davidova, Irene A.; Marks, Christopher R.; Stamps, Blake W.; Harriman, Brian H.; Stevenson, Bradley S.; Duncan, Kathleen E.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial activity associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to gas souring and corrosion of carbon-steel equipment. We examined the microbial ecology of produced water and the prospective role of the prevalent microorganisms in corrosion in a gas production field in the Barnett Shale. The microbial community was mainly composed of halophilic, sulfidogenic bacteria within the order Halanaerobiales, which reflected the geochemical conditions of highly saline water containing sulfur species (S2O32-, SO42-, and HS-). A predominant, halophilic bacterium (strain DL-01) was subsequently isolated and identified as belonging to the genus Halanaerobium. The isolate could degrade guar gum, a polysaccharide polymer used in fracture fluids, to produce acetate and sulfide in a 10% NaCl medium at 37°C when thiosulfate was available. To mitigate potential deleterious effects of sulfide and acetate, a quaternary ammonium compound was found to be an efficient biocide in inhibiting the growth and metabolic activity of strain DL-01 relative to glutaraldehyde and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate. Collectively, our findings suggest that predominant halophiles associated with unconventional shale gas extraction could proliferate and produce sulfide and acetate from the metabolism of polysaccharides used in hydraulic fracturing fluids. These metabolic products might be returned to the surface and transported in pipelines to cause pitting corrosion in downstream infrastructure. PMID:27446028

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation in the primary-care setting: focus on linaclotide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandar AK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Apoorva Krishna Chandar1,2 1Department of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Case Western Reserve University, 2Digestive Health Institute, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a complex functional gastrointestinal disorder that is exceedingly common in clinical practice. IBS with predominant constipation (IBS-C is a subtype of IBS that accounts for more than a third of the IBS diagnosed. Diagnosis of IBS requires a careful personalized approach, a comprehensive clinical history, limited but relevant investigations, and continued follow-up. Major IBS societies and guidelines recommend offering a positive diagnosis of IBS based on presenting symptomatology. Abdominal pain that may or may not be relieved by defecation is the cardinal symptom of IBS; distension and bloating are other common symptoms. Careful attention should be paid to alarm symptoms before a diagnosis of IBS is made. Pharmacotherapy with linaclotide is recommended for moderate–severe IBS-C, based on high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials. Diarrhea is the major side effect of linaclotide, and limited cost-effectiveness data currently exist. Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation, primary care, Rome IV, linaclotide, systematic review 

  20. Nerve growth factor and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D): a potential therapeutic target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-juan; Liu, Liang; Yao, Shu-kun

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with abnormal bowel habits. Diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) is a major subtype of IBS, the predominant manifestations of which are abdominal pain and diarrhea. The pathogenesis of IBS-D remained unknown until recently. The effects of psychosocial stress, central hypervigilance, neuroendocrine abnormality, disturbed gastrointestinal motility, mucosal immune activation, intestinal barrier dysfunction, visceral hypersensitivity (VH), altered gut flora, and genetic susceptibility may be involved in its development. Recently, increased attention has been placed on the neural-immune-endocrine network mechanism in IBS-D, especially the role of various neuroendocrine mediators. As a member of the neurotrophin family, nerve growth factor (NGF) has diverse biological effects, and participates in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Basic studies have demonstrated that NGF is associated with inflammatory- and stress-related VH, as well as stress-related intestinal barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study is to summarize recent literature and discuss the role of NGF in the pathophysiology of IBS-D, especially in VH and intestinal barrier dysfunction, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target in IBS-D.

  1. Learn, how to learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2002-12-01

    Ernest L. Boyer, in his 1990 book, "Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate" cites some ground breaking studies and offers a new paradigm that identifies the need to recognize the growing conversation about teaching, scholarship and research in the Universities. The use of `ACORN' model suggested by Hawkins and Winter to conquer and mastering change, may offer some helpful hints for the novice professor, whose primary objective might be to teach students to `learn how to learn'. Action : It is possible to effectively change things only when a teaching professor actually tries out a new idea. Communication : Changes are successful only when the new ideas effectively communicated and implemented. Ownership : Support for change is extremely important and is critical. Only strong commitment for accepting changes demonstrates genuine leadership. Reflection : Feedback helps towards thoughtful evaluation of the changes implemented. Only reflection can provide a tool for continuous improvement. Nurture : Implemented changes deliver results only when nurtured and promoted with necessary support systems, documentation and infrastructures. Inspired by the ACORN model, the author experimented on implementing certain principles of `Total Quality Management' in the classroom. The author believes that observing the following twenty principles would indeed help the student learners how to learn, on their own towards achieving the goal of `Lifelong Learning'. The author uses an acronym : QUOTES : Quality Underscored On Teaching Excellence Strategy, to describe his methods for improving classroom teacher-learner participation. 1. Break down all barriers. 2. Create consistency of purpose with a plan. 3. Adopt the new philosophy of quality. 4. Establish high Standards. 5. Establish Targets / Goals. 6. Reduce dependence on Lectures. 7. Employ Modern Methods. 8. Control the Process. 9. Organize to reach goals. 10. Prevention vs. Correction. 11. Periodic Improvements. 12

  2. Intentional Learning Vs Incidental Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This study is conducted to demonstrate the knowledge of intentional learning and incidental learning. Hypothesis of this experiment is intentional learning is better than incidental learning, participants were demonstrated and were asked to learn the 10 non sense syllables in a specific sequence from the colored cards in the end they were asked to recall the background color of each card instead of non-sense syllables. Independent variables of the experiment are the colored cards containing n...

  3. Posthuman learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    This book shall explore the concept of learning from the new perspective of the posthuman. The vast majority of cognitive, behavioral and part of the constructionist learning theories operate with an autonomous individual who learn in a world of separate objects. Technology is (if mentioned at all......) understood as separate from the individual learner and perceived as tools. Learning theory has in general not been acknowledging materiality in their theorizing about what learning is. A new posthuman learning theory is needed to keep up with the transformations of human learning resulting from new...... technological experiences. One definition of learning is that it is a relatively permanent change in behavior as the result of experience. During the first half of the twentieth century, two theoretical approaches dominated the domain of learning theory: the schools of thought commonly known as behaviorism...

  4. Shifting workplace behavior to inspire learning: a journey to building a learning culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonbeek, Sue; Henderson, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the process of building a learning culture. It began with establishing acceptance and connection with the nurse unit manager and the ward team. In the early phases of developing rapport, bullying became apparent. Because bullying undermines sharing and trust, the hallmarks of learning environments, the early intervention work assisted staff to recognize and counteract bullying behaviors. When predominantly positive relationships were restored, interactions that facilitated open communication, including asking questions and providing feedback-behaviors commensurate with learning in the workplace-were developed during regular in-service sessions. Staff participated in role-play and role modeling desired behaviors. Once staff became knowledgeable about positive learning interactions, reward and recognition strategies began to reinforce attitudes and behaviors that align with learning. Through rewards, all nurses had the opportunity to be recognized for their contribution. Nurses who excelled were invited to become champions to continue engaging the key stakeholders to further build the learning environment. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Insulin Like Growth Factor 2 Expression in the Rat Brain Both in Basal Condition and following Learning Predominantly Derives from the Maternal Allele.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Ye

    Full Text Available Insulin like growth factor 2 (Igf2 is known as a maternally imprinted gene involved in growth and development. Recently, Igf2 was found to also be regulated and required in the adult rat hippocampus for long-term memory formation, raising the question of its allelic regulation in adult brain regions following experience and in cognitive processes. We show that, in adult rats, Igf2 is abundantly expressed in brain regions involved in cognitive functions, like hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, compared to the peripheral tissues. In contrast to its maternal imprinting in peripheral tissues, Igf2 is mainly expressed from the maternal allele in these brain regions. The training-dependent increase in Igf2 expression derives proportionally from both parental alleles, and, hence, is mostly maternal. Thus, Igf2 parental expression in the adult rat brain does not follow the imprinting rules found in peripheral tissues, suggesting differential expression regulation and functions of imprinted genes in the brain.

  6. Learning e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ZAMFIR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available What You Understand Is What Your Cognitive Integrates. Scientific research develops, as a native environment, knowledge. This environment consists of two interdependent divisions: theory and technology. First division occurs as a recursive research, while the second one becomes an application of the research activity. Over time, theories integrate methodologies and technology extends as infrastructure. The engine of this environment is learning, as the human activity of knowledge work. The threshold term of this model is the concepts map; it is based on Bloom’ taxonomy for the cognitive domain and highlights the notion of software scaffolding which is grounded in Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory with its major theme, Zone of Proximal Development. This article is designed as a conceptual paper, which analyzes specific structures of this type of educational research: the model reflects a foundation for a theory and finally, the theory evolves as groundwork for a system. The outcomes of this kind of approach are the examples, which are, theoretically, learning outcomes, and practically exist as educational objects, so-called e-learning.

  7. Aging and the statistical learning of grammatical form classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Jessica F; Schuler, Kathryn D; Stillman, Chelsea M; Newport, Elissa L; Howard, James H; Howard, Darlene V

    2016-08-01

    Language learners must place unfamiliar words into categories, often with few explicit indicators about when and how that word can be used grammatically. Reeder, Newport, and Aslin (2013) showed that college students can learn grammatical form classes from an artificial language by relying solely on distributional information (i.e., contextual cues in the input). Here, 2 experiments revealed that healthy older adults also show such statistical learning, though they are poorer than young at distinguishing grammatical from ungrammatical strings. This finding expands knowledge of which aspects of learning vary with aging, with potential implications for second language learning in late adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Child and Parent Perceptions of Relational Aggression within Urban Predominantly African American Children's Friendships: Examining Patterns of Concordance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing research documents the negative short- and long-term effects of relational aggression on children's behavior and social-emotional functioning. Although parents likely play an important role in the way children learn to cope with and attempt to resolve relational aggression, there is little research on this issue. The present study…

  9. ELFN1-AS1: A Novel Primate Gene with Possible MicroRNA Function Expressed Predominantly in Human Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii E. Polev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human gene LOC100505644 uncharacterized LOC100505644 [Homo sapiens] (Entrez Gene ID 100505644 is abundantly expressed in tumors but weakly expressed in few normal tissues. Till now the function of this gene remains unknown. Here we identified the chromosomal borders of the transcribed region and the major splice form of the LOC100505644-specific transcript. We characterised the major regulatory motifs of the gene and its splice sites. Analysis of the secondary structure of the major transcript variant revealed a hairpin-like structure characteristic for precursor microRNAs. Comparative genomic analysis of the locus showed that it originated in primates de novo. Taken together, our data indicate that human gene LOC100505644 encodes some non-protein coding RNA, likely a microRNA. It was assigned a gene symbol ELFN1-AS1 (ELFN1 antisense RNA 1 (non-protein coding. This gene combines features of evolutionary novelty and predominant expression in tumors.

  10. Perceptions of African American faculty in kinesiology-based programs at predominantly White American institutions of higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Joe W; Harrison, Louis; Hodge, Samuel R

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American faculty on their organizational socialization in kinesiology-based (i.e., sport pedagogy, exercise physiology, motor behavior, sport management/history) programs at predominantly White American institutions of higher education (PW-IHE). Participants were 9 African American tenure-track faculty members from various kinesiology-based programs at PW-IHE. Data were gathered via interviewing and analyzed within the framework of critical race theory (Ladson-Billings, 2000). Findings are presented using storytelling and thematic narratives. Interviews with the participants revealed four major recurring themes with regard to: (a) resources, opportunities, and power structures; (b) programmatic neglects and faculty mentoring needs; (c) social isolation, disengagement, and intellectual inferiority issues; and (d) double standards, marginalization, and scholarship biases. This study suggests that faculty and administrators at PW-IHE should develop sensitivity toward organizational socialization issues relevant to faculty of color.

  11. The naturally occurring α-tocopherol stereoisomer RRR-α-tocopherol is predominant in the human infant brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuchan, J M; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Johnson, E J

    2016-01-01

    α-Tocopherol is the principal source of vitamin E, an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy brain function. Infant formula is routinely supplemented with synthetic α-tocopherol, a racaemic mixture of eight stereoisomers with less bioactivity than the natural...... stereoisomer RRR-α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol stereoisomer profiles have not been previously reported in the human brain. In the present study, we analysed total α-tocopherol and α-tocopherol stereoisomers in the frontal cortex (FC), hippocampus (HPC) and visual cortex (VC) of infants (n 36) who died of sudden...... infant death syndrome or other conditions. RRR-α-tocopherol was the predominant stereoisomer in all brain regions (Ptocopherol (5–17 μg/g). Mean RRR-α-tocopherol concentrations in FC, HPC and VC were 10·5, 6·8 and 5·5 μg...

  12. Are lipid disorders involved in the predominance of human T-lymphotropic virus-1 infections in women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Debortoli de Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION : The human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1 is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP, a chronic inflammatory disease. Disturbances in lipid metabolism are involved in inflammatory and demyelinating diseases. METHODS : Plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fractions of HTLV-1-infected individuals of both sexes with different clinical progressions were determined. RESULTS : Elevated levels of triglyceride and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL were exclusively detected in HTLV-1-infected women from asymptomatic and HAM/TSP groups compared with uninfected individuals (p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS : Elevated triglyceride and VLDL levels in HTLV-1-infected women may be related to the predominance of HAM/TSP in women.

  13. Childbirths and risk of female predominant and other autoimmune diseases in a population-based Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard; Nielsen, Nete Munk

    2012-01-01

    were at a relative risk of 1.04 (1.02-1.06) for any autoimmune diseases, 1.11 (1.08-1.14) for female predominant and 0.97 (0.95-1.00) for other autoimmune diseases. Possibly biologically related associations with parity were found for Hashimoto thyroiditis (1.11; 1.00-1.24), Graves' disease (1.19; 1.......14-1.24), erythema nodosum (1.15; 1.01-1.32), psoriasis (1.08; 1.01-1.15), sarcoidosis (1.17; 1.06-1.28) and systemic lupus erythematosus (0.83; 0.74-0.93). Especially the one-year postpartum period was associated with an increased risk of Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves' disease and sarcoidosis. Overall, parity...

  14. The predominant mechanism of intercellular calcium wave propagation changes during long-term culture of human osteoblast-like cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Zanne; Hiken, Jeffrey F; Steinberg, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    cells still responded to addition of ATP, but P2Y desensitization did not inhibit ICW propagation. Our data indicate that the relative role of P2Y-mediated and gap junction-mediated ICW changes during osteoblast differentiation in vitro. In less differentiated cells, P2Y-mediated ICW predominate......Intercellular calcium waves (ICW) are calcium transients that spread from cell to cell in response to different stimuli. We previously demonstrated that human osteoblast-like cells in culture propagate ICW in response to mechanical stimulation by two mechanisms. One mechanism involves autocrine...... activation of P2Y receptors, and the other requires gap junctional communication. In the current work we ask whether long-term culture of osteoblast-like cells affects the propagation of ICW by these two mechanisms. Human osteoblast-like cells were isolated from bone marrow. Mechanically induced ICW were...

  15. The entry of women in predominantly male professions: when training supports the search of alternative ways of organizing work time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Sónia; Lacomblez, Marianne; Santos, Marta; Cunha, Liliana; Castelhano, Joana

    2012-01-01

    Following a research carried out on the integration of women in professional areas predominantly for men, this paper intends to present and debate the project of a training course which aims the transformation of the organization of work schedules in order to improve the well-being of the workers involved. The conception of training courses with this type of objective involves the confrontation and debate between the "invested skills" of the trainers and the "constituted skills" of the trainees. But will this paradigm remain intact when applied to training courses permeated by the gender dimension? That is what one will try to realize with the effective implementation of a training course, whose reflection will allow, ultimately, to enrich our understanding on gender, work, health and training.

  16. Perceptions of Parenting Practices as Predictors of Aggression in a Low-Income, Urban, Predominately African American Middle School Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kantahyanee W; Haynie, Denise L; Howard, Donna E; Cheng, Tina L; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions at Time 1 were associated with a lower likelihood of overt aggression at Time 2. Furthermore, findings suggest that when caregivers' support and knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts were relatively low or when caregivers' exerted high psychological control, moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions protected early adolescents against engagement in both overt and relational aggression. The implications of the findings for schools and other youth violence prevention settings are discussed.

  17. The minor wall-networks between monolignols and interlinked-phenolics predominantly affect biomass enzymatic digestibility in Miscanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengru; Zhao, Chunqiao; Zha, Yi; Wan, Can; Si, Shengli; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Rui; Li, Fengcheng; Yu, Bin; Yi, Zili; Xu, Ning; Peng, Liangcai; Li, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Plant lignin is one of the major wall components that greatly contribute to biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. In this study, total 79 representative Miscanthus germplasms were determined with wide biomass digestibility and diverse monolignol composition. Integrative analyses indicated that three major monolignols (S, G, H) and S/G ratio could account for lignin negative influence on biomass digestibility upon NaOH and H2SO4 pretreatments. Notably, the biomass enzymatic digestions were predominately affected by the non-KOH-extractable lignin and interlinked-phenolics, other than the KOH-extractable ones that cover 80% of total lignin. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between the monolignols and phenolics at pnetworks against cellulases accessibility. The results indicated that the non-KOH-extractable lignin-complex should be the target either for cost-effective biomass pretreatments or for relatively simply genetic modification of plant cell walls in Miscanthus.

  18. Application of a Heat- and Steam-Generating Sheet Increases Peripheral Blood Flow and Induces Parasympathetic Predominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinao Nagashima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To promote the practical application of a Japanese traditional medical treatment, such as hot compresses, we developed a plaster-type warming device consisting of a heat- and steam-generating sheet (HSG sheet. First, we tested its effects when applied to the anterior abdominal wall or lumbar region of women complaining of a tendency towards constipation. Application of the sheet to either region produced a feeling of comfort in the abdomen, as assessed by a survey of the subjects. The significant increases in the total hemoglobin observed in these regions suggested an increase in peripheral blood flow, and significant increases in the HF component on ECG and in the amplitude of gastric motility suggested parasympathetic predominance. We concluded that application of the HSG sheet improves the peripheral hemodynamics and autonomic regulation, induces a feeling of comfort in the abdomen, and provides a beneficial environment for the improvement of gastrointestinal movements.

  19. Analysis of speech sounds is left-hemisphere predominant at 100-150ms after sound onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, T; Alho, K; Alku, P; Holi, M; Sinkkonen, J; Virtanen, J; Bertrand, O; Näätänen, R

    1999-04-06

    Hemispheric specialization of human speech processing has been found in brain imaging studies using fMRI and PET. Due to the restricted time resolution, these methods cannot, however, determine the stage of auditory processing at which this specialization first emerges. We used a dense electrode array covering the whole scalp to record the mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) automatically elicited by occasional changes in sounds, which ranged from non-phonetic (tones) to phonetic (vowels). MMN can be used to probe auditory central processing on a millisecond scale with no attention-dependent task requirements. Our results indicate that speech processing occurs predominantly in the left hemisphere at the early, pre-attentive level of auditory analysis.

  20. Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brighton, Cheryl A.; Rievaj, Juraj; Kuhre, Rune E.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are well-recognized stimuli of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. This action has been attributed to activation of the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5), although other potential bile acid sensors include the nuclear farnesoid receptor and the apical sodium......-coupled bile acid transporter ASBT. The aim of this study was to identify pathways important for GLP-1 release and to determine whether bile acids target their receptors on GLP-1-secreting L-cells from the apical or basolateral compartment. Using transgenic mice expressing fluorescent sensors specifically in L...... to either TLCA or TDCA. We conclude that the action of bile acids on GLP-1 secretion is predominantly mediated by GPBAR1 located on the basolateral L-cell membrane, suggesting that stimulation of gut hormone secretion may include postabsorptive mechanisms....

  1. Hda inactivation of DnaA is the predominant mechanism preventing hyperinitiation of Escherichia coli DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Johanna E; Breier, Adam M; Brendler, Therese; Austin, Stuart; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R; Crooke, Elliott

    2005-08-01

    Initiation of DNA replication from the Escherichia coli chromosomal origin is highly regulated, assuring that replication occurs precisely once per cell cycle. Three mechanisms for regulation of replication initiation have been proposed: titration of free DnaA initiator protein by the datA locus, sequestration of newly replicated origins by SeqA protein and regulatory inactivation of DnaA (RIDA), in which active ATP-DnaA is converted to the inactive ADP-bound form. DNA microarray analyses showed that the level of initiation in rapidly growing cells that lack datA was indistinguishable from that in wild-type cells, and that the absence of SeqA protein caused only a modest increase in initiation, in agreement with flow-cytometry data. In contrast, cells lacking Hda overinitiated replication twofold, implicating RIDA as the predominant mechanism preventing extra initiation events in a cell cycle.

  2. A national retrospective survey of anisakidosis in France (2010-2014: decreasing incidence, female predominance, and emerging allergic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yera Hélène

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective survey was carried out over the years 2010–2014 among all Parasitology laboratories of University hospitals in France (ANOFEL network. The objective was to estimate the incidence of anisakidosis in France as new culinary habits such as the consumption of raw fish (sushi or undercooked fish are increasing. A total of 37 cases of anisakidosis were notified by all French laboratories: 7 proven cases with evidence of a worm, 12 possible cases with abdominal pain after consumption of raw fish with detection of anti-Anisakis precipitins, and 18 allergic cases defined as acute manifestations after consumption of fish, associated with specific IgE for Anisakis. The median age of affected individuals was 42 years (11-69 and there was a significant predominance of women (67%. Compared with previous surveys in France, this study indicates a decrease in clinical cases of anisakidosis and illustrates the emerging allergic potential of anisakids.

  3. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION OF THOSE INDIVIDUALS WITH THE PREDOMINANCE OF INDIVIDUALISTIC / COLLECTIVIST ATTITUDES WHO IS READY TO TAKE RISKS

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    Svetlana Vladimirovna Gutsunaeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the results of empirical research displaying differences in achievement motivation and willingness to take risks depending on the prevalence of collectivist or individualistic attitudes of a personality. The research may contribute to profound knowledge of influence of the factor of belonging to the culture on individual features. The obtained results indicate that the young people with a predominance of individualistic attitudes are more motivated to achievements and inclined to risk than the young people who are collectivists. However, the results also demonstrate that in some socio-demographic groups collectivists – the representatives of the older generation strive to achievements, although they are more cautious in their behavior. The empirical data can be used in a cross-cultural investigations, the results of the study may be useful in the work of psychologist in predicting behavior and social success of the individual in various spheres of activity.

  4. Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the effect of human milk, maternal and donor, on in-hospital growth of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing in-hospital growth in VLBW infants by proportion of human milk diet, including subgroup analysis by maternal or donor milk type. Primary outcome was change in weight z-score from birth to hospital discharge. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results 171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9) and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064) were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, 75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving human milk fortifier was related to human milk intake (p = 0.04). Among infants receiving > 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor −0.84, maternal −0.56, mixed −0.45, p = 0.54). Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal), 21% (mixed), p = 0.08). Conclusions VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk. PMID:22900590

  5. [Predominant strains of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading consortia from deep sea of the Middle Atlantic Ridge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhisong; Shao, Zongze

    2009-07-01

    In order to identify the predominant strains of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading consortia harboring in sea water and surface sediment collected from deep sea of the Middle Atlantic Ridge. We employed enrichment method and spread-plate method to isolate cultivable bacteria and PAHs degraders from deep sea samples. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the bacteria. Then we analyzed the dominant bacteria in the PAHs-degrading consortia by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) combined with DNA sequencing. Altogether 16 cultivable bacteria were obtained, including one PAHs degrader Novosphingobium sp. 4D. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strains closely related to Alcanivorax dieselolei NO1A (5/16) and Tistrella mobilis TISTR 1108T (5/16) constituted two biggest groups among the cultivable bacteria. DGGE analysis showed that strain 4L (also 4M and 4N, Alcanivorax dieselolei NO1A, 99.21%), 4D (Novosphingobium pentaromativorans US6-1(T), 97.07%) and 4B (also 4E, 4H and 4K, Tistrella mobilis TISTR 1108T, > 99%) dominated the consortium MC2D. While in consortium MC3CO, the predominant strains were strain 5C (also 5H, Alcanivorax dieselolei NO1A, > 99%), uncultivable strain represented by band 5-8 (Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM 12444T, 99.41%), 5J (Tistrella mobilis TISTR 1108T, 99.52%) and 5F (also 5G, Thalassospira lucentensis DSM 14000T, degrading consortia in sea water and surface sediment of Middle Atlantic Ridge deep sea, with Novosphingobium spp. as their main PAHs degraders.

  6. Peripheral blood CD161+ T cells from asthmatic patients are activated during asthma attack and predominantly produce IFN-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hernández, Y; Pedraza-Sánchez, S; Blandón-Vijil, V; del Río-Navarro, B E; Vaughan, G; Moreno-Lafont, M; Escobar-Gutiérrez, A

    2007-04-01

    In humans, T cells expressing the CD161 molecule NKR-P1A constitute around 20% of the circulating CD3(+) cells and are potentially immunoregulatory in several diseases. Their role in asthma is not well known, but they could participate in asthma attacks. To determinate whether activation of CD161(+) T cells and their cytokine production correlate with clinical status of asthma, we analysed blood samples from asthma attack patients (AAP) and stable asthma patients (SAP) in comparison with healthy non-atopic controls (HC). There was a significant higher baseline expression of CD69 on T cells from AAP and the difference was more notorious on CD161(+) T cells; upregulation of CD69 was observed on both CD161(-) and CD161(+) T cells driven by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus crude extract, whereas polyclonal stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin predominantly induced IFN-gamma but no IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by CD161(+) T cells in all groups; upon polyclonal stimulation, there were more CD161(+) T cells producing IFN-gamma and less CD161(-) T cells producing this cytokine, contrasting with the opposite results observed in SAP and HC groups. Our results indicate that, during asthma attack, CD161(+) T cells are activated and are able to produce predominantly IFN-gamma but no Th2 cytokines. We hypothesize that during an asthma attack, IFN-gamma produced by CD161(+) T cells could help to reestablish the Th1/Th2 equilibrium. These observations may contribute to the understanding of the immune mechanisms involved in asthma attacks.

  7. Predominant Expression of Hybrid N-Glycans Has Distinct Cellular Roles Relative to Complex and Oligomannose N-Glycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kristen Hall

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation modulates growth, maintenance, and stress signaling processes. Consequently, altered N-glycosylation is associated with reduced fitness and disease. Therefore, expanding our understanding of N-glycans in altering biological processes is of utmost interest. Herein, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/caspase9 (CRISPR/Cas9 technology was employed to engineer a glycosylation mutant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell line, K16, which expresses predominantly hybrid type N-glycans. This newly engineered cell line enabled us to compare N-glycan effects on cellular properties of hybrid type N-glycans, to the well-established Pro−5 and Lec1 cell lines, which express complex and oligomannose types of N-glycans, respectively. Lectin binding studies revealed the predominant N-glycan expressed in K16 is hybrid type. Cell dissociation and migration assays demonstrated the greatest strength of cell–cell adhesion and fastest migratory rates for oligomannose N-glycans, and these properties decreased as oligomannose type were converted to hybrid type, and further decreased upon conversion to complex type. Next, we examined the roles of three general types of N-glycans on ectopic expression of E-cadherin, a cell–cell adhesion protein. Microscopy revealed more functional E-cadherin at the cell–cell border when N-glycans were oligomannose and these levels decreased as the oligomannose N-glycans were processed to hybrid and then to complex. Thus, we provide evidence that all three general types of N-glycans impact plasma membrane architecture and cellular properties.

  8. Elemental stoichiometry indicates predominant influence of potassium and phosphorus limitation on arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in acidic soil at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Haneef; Meghvansi, Mukesh K; Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay

    2015-09-15

    The functioning of high-altitude agro-ecosystems is constrained by the harsh environmental conditions, such as low temperatures, acidic soil, and low nutrient supply. It is therefore imperative to investigate the site-specific ecological stoichiometry with respect to AM symbiosis in order to maximize the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) benefits for the plants in such ecosystems. Here, we assess the elemental stoichiometry of four Capsicum genotypes grown on acidic soil at high altitude in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Further, we try to identify the predominant resource limitations influencing the symbioses of different Capsicum genotypes with the AM fungi. Foliar and soil elemental stoichiometric relations of Capsicum genotypes were evaluated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and occurrence under field conditions. AM fungal diversity in rhizosphere, was estimated through PCR-DGGE profiling. Results demonstrated that the symbiotic interaction of various Capsicum genotypes with the AM fungi in acidic soil was not prominent in the study site as evident from the low range of root colonization (21-43.67%). In addition, despite the rich availability of carbon in plant leaves as well as in soil, the carbon-for-phosphorus trade between AMF and plants appeared to be limited. Our results provide strong evidences of predominant influence of the potassium-limitation, in addition to phosphorus-limitation, on AM symbiosis with Capsicum in acidic soil at high altitude. We also conclude that the potassium should be considered in addition to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in further studies investigating the stoichiometric relationships with the AMF symbioses in high altitude agro-ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Predominant cerebral cytokine release syndrome in CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cell therapy

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    Yongxian Hu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chimeric antigen receptor-modified (CAR T cells targeting CD19 (CART19 have shown therapeutical activities in CD19+ malignancies. However, the etiological nature of neurologic complications remains a conundrum. In our study, the evidence of blood-brain barrier (BBB-penetrating CAR T cells as a culprit was revealed. A patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia developed sustained pyrexia with tremors about 6 h after CART19 infusion, followed by a grade 2 cytokine release syndrome (CRS and neurological symptoms in the next 3 days. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance showed signs of intracranial edema. Lumbar puncture on day 5 showed an over 400-mmH2O cerebrospinal pressure. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF contained 20 WBCs/μL with predominant CD3+ T cells. qPCR analysis for CAR constructs showed 3,032,265 copies/μg DNA in CSF and 988,747 copies/μg DNA in blood. Cytokine levels including IFN-γ and IL-6 in CSF were extremely higher than those in the serum. Methyprednisone was administrated and the symptoms relieved gradually. The predominance of CART19 in CSF and the huge discrepancies in cytokine distributions indicated the development of a cerebral CRS, presumably featured as CSF cytokines largely in situ produced by BBB-penetrating CAR T cells. For the first time, we reported the development of cerebral CRS triggered by BBB-penetrating CAR T cells. Trial registration: ChiCTR-OCC-15007008 .

  10. Mouse embryonic stem cells, but not somatic cells, predominantly use homologous recombination to repair double-strand DNA breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, Elisia D; Pillai, Resmi; Deng, Li; Liang, Li; Tischfield, Jay; Schwemberger, Sandy J; Babcock, George F; Stambrook, Peter J

    2010-11-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells give rise to all cell types of an organism. Since mutations at this embryonic stage would affect all cells and be detrimental to the overall health of an organism, robust mechanisms must exist to ensure that genomic integrity is maintained. To test this proposition, we compared the capacity of murine ES cells to repair DNA double-strand breaks with that of differentiated cells. Of the 2 major pathways that repair double-strand breaks, error-prone nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) predominated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, whereas the high fidelity homologous recombinational repair (HRR) predominated in ES cells. Microhomology-mediated end joining, an emerging repair pathway, persisted at low levels in all cell types examined. The levels of proteins involved in HRR and microhomology-mediated end joining were highly elevated in ES cells compared with mouse embryonic fibroblasts, whereas those for NHEJ were quite variable, with DNA Ligase IV expression low in ES cells. The half-life of DNA Ligase IV protein was also low in ES cells. Attempts to increase the abundance of DNA Ligase IV protein by overexpression or inhibition of its degradation, and thereby elevate NHEJ in ES cells, were unsuccessful. When ES cells were induced to differentiate, however, the level of DNA Ligase IV protein increased, as did the capacity to repair by NHEJ. The data suggest that preferential use of HRR rather than NHEJ may lend ES cells an additional layer of genomic protection and that the limited levels of DNA Ligase IV may account for the low level of NHEJ activity.

  11. Adenocarcinoma predominant pattern subtyping and nuclear grading in cytology: Is there a role in prognostication of advanced pulmonary adenocarcinomas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambirajan, A; Kaur, H; Jangra, K; Kaur, K; Madan, K; Mathur, S R; Iyer, V K; Jain, D

    2018-04-01

    Primary lung adenocarcinomas (ADs) show varied architectural patterns, and pattern-based subtyping of ADs is currently recommended due to prognostic implications. Predicting AD patterns on cytology is challenging; however, cytological nuclear features appear to correlate with histological grade and survival in early stage lung ADs. The feasibility and value of AD pattern prediction and nuclear grading on cytology in advanced lung ADs is not known. We aimed to predict patterns and analyse nuclear features on cytology and evaluate their role in prognostication. One-hundred patients of Stage III/IV lung AD with available matched cytology and histology samples were included. Cyto-patterns based on cell arrangement patterns (flat sheets vs three-dimensional clusters vs papillae) and cyto-nuclear score based on nuclear features (size, shape, contour), nucleoli (macronucleoli vs prominent vs inconspicuous), and nuclear chromatin were determined, and correlated with predominant histological-pattern observed on the matched small biopsy and outcome. Higher cyto-nuclear scores were observed with high-grade histo-patterns (solid, micropapillary and cribriform), while the predicted cyto-patterns did not correspond to the predominant pattern on histology in 77% cases. Highest cyto-histo agreement was observed for solid pattern (72%). High grade histo-patterns and cyto-nuclear scores > 3 showed a trend towards inferior survival (not significant). Nuclear grade scoring on cytology is simple to perform, and is predictive of high grade patterns. Its inclusion in routine reporting of cytology samples of lung ADs may be valuable. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Long-term efficacy and safety of ramosetron in the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiba T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Toshimi Chiba, Kazunari Yamamoto, Shoko Sato, Kazuyuki Suzuki Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Iwate, Japan Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional disease with persisting gastrointestinal symptoms that has been classified into four subtypes. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT] plays important physiological roles in the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle. Intraluminal distension of the intestine is known to stimulate the release of endogenous 5-HT from enterochromaffin cells, activating 5-HT3 receptors located on primary afferent neurons and leading to increases in intestinal secretions and peristaltic activity. Ramosetron, a potent and selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, has been in development for use in patients suffering from diarrhea-predominant IBS. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of 418 patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS-D, once-daily 5 µg and 10 µg doses of ramosetron increased the monthly responder rates of IBS symptoms compared to placebo. In a 12-week randomized controlled trial of 539 patients, a positive response to treatment was reported by 47% of a once-daily 5 µg dose of ramosetron-treated individuals compared to 27% of patients receiving placebo (P<0.001. Furthermore, the responder rate was increased in the oral administration of 5 µg of ramosetron for at least 28 weeks (up to 52 weeks, and long-term efficacy for overall improvement of IBS symptoms was also demonstrated. The rate was further increased subsequently. Adverse events were reported by 7% in ramosetron treatment. No serious adverse events, eg, severe constipation or ischemic colitis, were reported for long-term treatment with ramosetron. In conclusion, further studies to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of ramosetron are warranted in the form of randomized controlled trials. Keywords: long

  13. Lubiprostone: evaluation of the newest medication for the treatment of adult women with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisha N Lunsford

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tisha N Lunsford, Lucinda A HarrisDepartment of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic – School of Medicine, Scottsdale, Arizona, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a chronic disorder that affects primarily female patients and is thought also to afflict approximately 7%–10% of the population of the Western World. Although bowel habits may change over the course of years, patients with IBS are characterized according to their predominant bowel habit, constipation (IBS-C, diarrhea (IBS-D, or mixed type (IBS-M, and treatments are focused toward the predominant symptom. Current treatments for IBS-C have included fiber, antispasmodics, osmotic and stimulant laxatives, and the now severely limited 5-HT4 agonist tegaserod. No one agent has been universally successful in the treatment of this bothersome syndrome and the search for new agents continues. Lubiprostone (Amitiza®, a novel compound, is a member of a new class of agents called prostones and was approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in 2006 at a dose of 24 µg twice daily and then in 2008 for the treatment of IBS-C in women only at a dose of 8 µg twice daily. Its purported mechanism is as a type 2 chloride channel activator, but recent evidence suggests that it may also work at the cystic fibrosis transport receptor. This article will compare the newly proposed mechanism of action of this compound to the purported mechanism and review the structure, pharmacology, safety, efficacy, and tolerability of this new therapeutic option. Clinical trial data leading to the approval of this agent for the treatment of IBS-C and the gender-based understanding of IBS, as well as this agent’s place among existing and emerging therapies, will be examined.Keywords: large intestine, functional bowel disorder, therapy

  14. Hexose transporter mRNAs for GLUT4, GLUT5, and GLUT12 predominate in human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Charles A; Yin, Deling; Howell, Mary E A; Dykes, Rhesa J; Laffan, John J; Ferrando, Arny A

    2006-11-01

    In the past few years, 8 additional members of the facilitative hexose transporter family have been identified, giving a total of 14 members of the SLC2A family of membrane-bound hexose transporters. To determine which of the new hexose transporters were expressed in muscle, mRNA concentrations of 11 glucose transporters (GLUTs) were quantified and compared. RNA from muscle from 10 normal volunteers was subjected to RT-PCR. Primers were designed that amplified 78- to 241-base fragments, and cDNA standards were cloned for GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT3, GLUT4, GLUT5, GLUT6, GLUT8, GLUT9, GLUT10, GLUT11, GLUT12, and GAPDH. Seven of these eleven hexose transporters were detectable in normal human muscle. The rank order was GLUT4, GLUT5, GLUT12, GLUT8, GLUT11, GLUT3, and GLUT1, with corresponding concentrations of 404 +/- 49, 131 +/- 14, 33 +/- 4, 5.5 +/- 0.5, 4.1 +/- 0.4, 1.2 +/- .0.1, and 0.9 +/- 0.2 copies/ng RNA (means +/- SE), respectively, for the 10 subjects. Concentrations of mRNA for GLUT4, GLUT5, and GLUT12 were much higher than those for the remainder of the GLUTs and together accounted for 98% of the total GLUT isoform mRNA. Immunoblots of muscle homogenates verified that the respective proteins for GLUT4, GLUT5, and GLUT12 were present in normal human muscle. Immunofluorescent studies demonstrated that GLUT4 and GLUT12 were predominantly expressed in type I oxidative fibers; however, GLUT5 was expressed predominantly in type II (white) fibers.

  15. Randomised controlled trial of a brief intervention targeting predominantly non-verbal communication in general practice consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; White, Peter; Kelly, Joanne; Everitt, Hazel; Mercer, Stewart

    2015-06-01

    The impact of changing non-verbal consultation behaviours is unknown. To assess brief physician training on improving predominantly non-verbal communication. Cluster randomised parallel group trial among adults aged ≥16 years attending general practices close to the study coordinating centres in Southampton. Sixteen GPs were randomised to no training, or training consisting of a brief presentation of behaviours identified from a prior study (acronym KEPe Warm: demonstrating Knowledge of the patient; Encouraging [back-channelling by saying 'hmm', for example]; Physically engaging [touch, gestures, slight lean]; Warm-up: cool/professional initially, warming up, avoiding distancing or non-verbal cut-offs at the end of the consultation); and encouragement to reflect on videos of their consultation. Outcomes were the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS) mean item score (1-7) and patients' perceptions of other domains of communication. Intervention participants scored higher MISS overall (0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.06 to 0.41), with the largest changes in the distress-relief and perceived relationship subscales. Significant improvement occurred in perceived communication/partnership (0.29, 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.49) and health promotion (0.26, 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.46). Non-significant improvements occurred in perceptions of a personal relationship, a positive approach, and understanding the effects of the illness on life. Brief training of GPs in predominantly non-verbal communication in the consultation and reflection on consultation videotapes improves patients' perceptions of satisfaction, distress, a partnership approach, and health promotion. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  16. Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colaizy Tarah T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effect of human milk, maternal and donor, on in-hospital growth of very low birthweight (VLBW infants. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing in-hospital growth in VLBW infants by proportion of human milk diet, including subgroup analysis by maternal or donor milk type. Primary outcome was change in weight z-score from birth to hospital discharge. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results 171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9 and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064 were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, th percentile at birth, and 34% of infants were SGA at discharge. Infants fed >75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor −0.84, maternal −0.56, mixed −0.45, p = 0.54. Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal, 21% (mixed, p = 0.08. Conclusions VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk.

  17. Reinforcement Learning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Schuetze

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Early behavioral interventions are recognized as integral to standard care in autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and often focus on reinforcing desired behaviors (e.g., eye contact and reducing the presence of atypical behaviors (e.g., echoing others' phrases. However, efficacy of these programs is mixed. Reinforcement learning relies on neurocircuitry that has been reported to be atypical in ASD: prefrontal-sub-cortical circuits, amygdala, brainstem, and cerebellum. Thus, early behavioral interventions rely on neurocircuitry that may function atypically in at least a subset of individuals with ASD. Recent work has investigated physiological, behavioral, and neural responses to reinforcers to uncover differences in motivation and learning in ASD. We will synthesize this work to identify promising avenues for future research that ultimately can be used to enhance the efficacy of early intervention.

  18. Blended Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Baaren, John

    2009-01-01

    Van der Baaren, J. (2009). Blended Learning. Presentation given at the Mini symposium 'Blended Learning the way to go?'. November, 5, 2009, The Hague, The Netherlands: Netherlands Defence Academy (NDLA).

  19. Interface learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2014-01-01

    "Interface learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration" investigates and analyzes the learning that takes place when museums and upper secondary schools in Denmark work together in local partnerships to develop and carry out school-related, museum-based coursework...... for students. The research focuses on the learning that the students experience in the interface of the two learning environments: The formal learning environment of the upper secondary school and the informal learning environment of the museum. Focus is also on the learning that the teachers and museum...... professionals experience as a result of their collaboration. The dissertation demonstrates how a given partnership’s collaboration affects the students’ learning experiences when they are doing the coursework. The dissertation presents findings that museum-school partnerships can use in order to develop...

  20. Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... books. While his friends were meeting for pickup soccer games after school, he was back home in ... sometimes thought to contribute to learning disabilities. Poor nutrition early in life also may lead to learning ...

  1. Integrated and implicit : how residents learn CanMEDS roles by participating in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renting, Nienke; Raat, A N Janet; Dornan, Tim; Wenger-Trayner, Etienne; van der Wal, Martha A; Borleffs, Jan C C; Gans, Rijk O B; Jaarsma, A Debbie C

    CONTEXT: Learning outcomes for residency training are defined in competency frameworks such as the CanMEDS framework, which ultimately aim to better prepare residents for their future tasks. Although residents' training relies heavily on learning through participation in the workplace under the

  2. Effects of "Handep" Cooperative Learning Based on Indigenous Knowledge on Mathematical Problem Solving Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitra; Sarjoko

    2018-01-01

    Indigenous people of Dayak tribe in Kalimantan, Indonesia have traditionally relied on a system of mutual cooperation called "handep." The cultural context has an influence on students mathematics learning. The "handep" system might be suitable for modern learning situations to develop mathematical problem-solving skill. The…

  3. What Makes the Learning of Physiology in a PBL Medical Curriculum Challenging? Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Mark A.; Higgins-Opitz, Susan B.

    2009-01-01

    Physiology is an integral component of any medical curriculum. Traditionally, the learning of physiology has relied heavily on systems-based didactic lectures. In 2001, the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine (NRMSM; Durban, South Africa) embarked on a problem-based curriculum in which the learning of physiology was integrated with relevant…

  4. Intrinsic Motivation to Learn: The Nexus between Psychological Health and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Oros, Emily; Smith, Liana; Hirchert, Tyrell

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) to learn, if cultivated, can lead to many academic and social/emotional improvements among K-12 students. This article discusses intrinsic motivation to learn as it relates to Self Determination Theory and the trouble with relying solely on extrinsic motivators. The academic benefits of IM in the specific subject areas of…

  5. Improving Information Literacy Skills through Learning to Use and Edit Wikipedia: A Chemistry Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin A.; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Our students rely on Wikipedia on their mobile devices or laptops, since it is an extremely rich and broad resource. This article overviews the Chemistry content on Wikipedia and how students can learn to use it effectively as an information resource, critically evaluating content, and learning key information literacy skills. We also discuss how…

  6. Perceptual Learning in Early Mathematics: Interacting with Problem Structure Improves Mapping, Solving and Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Khanh-Phuong; Son, Ji Y.; Hoffman, Jessica; Devers, Christopher; Kellman, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics is the study of structure but students think of math as solving problems according to rules. Students can learn procedures, but they often have trouble knowing when to apply learned procedures, especially to problems unlike those they trained with. In this study, the authors rely on the psychological mechanism of perceptual learning…

  7. Workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2005-01-01

    In November 2004 the Research Consortium on workplace learning under Learning Lab Denmark arranged the international conference “Workplace Learning – from the learner’s perspective”. The conference’s aim was to bring together researchers from different countries and institutions to explore...... and discuss recent developments in our understanding of workplace and work-related learning. The conference had nearly 100 participants with 59 papers presented, and among these five have been selected for presentation is this Special Issue....

  8. Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    A new field of children's learning is emerging. This new field differs from the old in recognizing that children's learning includes active as well as passive mechanisms and qualitative as well as quantitative changes. Children's learning involves substantial variability of representations and strategies within individual children as well as…

  9. Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbriale, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Teachers always have been and always will be the essential element in the classroom. They can create magic inside four walls, but they have never been able to create learning environments outside the classroom like they can today, thanks to blended learning. Blended learning allows students and teachers to break free of the isolation of the…

  10. Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor C. X.; Cranton, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The theory of transformative learning has been explored by different theorists and scholars. However, few scholars have made an attempt to make a comparison between transformative learning and Confucianism or between transformative learning and andragogy. The authors of this article address these comparisons to develop new and different insights…

  11. Blended Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bauerová, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is focused on a new approach of education called blended learning. The history and developement of Blended Learning is described in the first part. Then the methods and tools of Blended Learning are evaluated and compared to the traditional methods of education. At the final part an efficient developement of the educational programs is emphasized.

  12. Just Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2017-01-01

    In this "First Person Singular" essay, the author describes her education, teaching experience, and interest in understanding the learning of language. Anyone reading this essay will not be surprised to learn that the author's questions about language learning and optimal teaching methods were only met with further questions, and no…

  13. Reinforcement Learning in Repeated Portfolio Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Linan; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    How do people make investment decisions when they receive outcome feedback? We examined how well the standard mean-variance model and two reinforcement models predict people's portfolio decisions. The basic reinforcement model predicts a learning process that relies solely on the portfolio's overall return, whereas the proposed extended reinforcement model also takes the risk and covariance of the investments into account. The experimental results illustrate that people reacted sensitively to...

  14. Sabiedriskās attiecības jauno reliģisko kustību praksē. Baznīcas "Jaunā paaudze" gadījuma analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Maļuha, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Izstrādātā bakalaura darba nosaukums ir „Sabiedriskās attiecības jauno reliģisko kustību praksē: baznīcas „Jaunā paaudze” gadījuma analīze”. Darbā aplūkotā pētnieciskā problēma ir jauns, līdz šim maz pētīts fenomens - sabiedrisko attiecību mērķu realizācija jauno reliģisko kustību darbībā. Izvēlētais pētniecības objekts ir baznīca „Jaunā paaudze”, kura, pēc Tieslietu ministrijas Reliģisko lietu pārvaldes sniegtajiem datiem, šobrīd ir lielākā jaunā reliģiskā kustība Latvijā. Teorētiskā pama...

  15. PowerPoint presentation in learning physiology by undergraduates with different learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankad, Roopa B; Shashikala, G V; Herur, Anita; Manjula, R; Chinagudi, Surekharani; Patil, Shailaja

    2015-12-01

    PowerPoint presentations (PPTs) have become routine in medical colleges because of their flexible and varied presentation capabilities. Research indicates that students prefer PPTs over the chalk-and-talk method, and there is a lot of debate over advantages and disadvantages of PPTs. However, there is no clear evidence that PPTs improve student learning/performance. Furthermore, there are a variety of learning styles with sex differences in classrooms. It is the responsibility of teacher/facilitator and student to be aware of learning style preferences to improve learning. The present study asked the following research question: do PPTs equally affect the learning of students with different learning styles in a mixed sex classroom? After we assessed students' predominant learning style according to the sensory modality that one most prefers to use when learning, a test was conducted before and after a PPT to assess student performance. The results were analyzed using Student's t-test and ANOVA with a Bonferroni post hoc test. A z-test showed no sex differences in preferred learning styles. There was significant increase in posttest performance compared with that of the pretest in all types of learners of both sexes. There was also a nonsignificant relationship among sex, learning style, and performance after the PPT. A PPT is equally effective for students with different learning style preferences and supports mixed sex classrooms. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  16. Learning Networks for Lifelong Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Presentation in a seminar organized by Christopher Hoadley at Penn State University, October 2004.Contains general introduction into the Learning Network Programme and a demonstration of the Netlogo Simulation of a Learning Network.

  17. Toward A Dual-Learning Systems Model of Speech Category Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath eChandrasekaran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More than two decades of work in vision posits the existence of dual-learning systems of category learning. The reflective system uses working memory to develop and test rules for classifying in an explicit fashion, while the reflexive system operates by implicitly associating perception with actions that lead to reinforcement. Dual-learning systems models hypothesize that in learning natural categories, learners initially use the reflective system and, with practice, transfer control to the reflexive system. The role of reflective and reflexive systems in auditory category learning and more specifically in speech category learning has not been systematically examined. In this article we describe a neurobiologically-constrained dual-learning systems theoretical framework that is currently being developed in speech category learning and review recent applications of this framework. Using behavioral and computational modeling approaches, we provide evidence that speech category learning is predominantly mediated by the reflexive learning system. In one application, we explore the effects of normal aging on non-speech and speech category learning. We find an age related deficit in reflective-optimal but not reflexive-optimal auditory category learning. Prominently, we find a large age-related deficit in speech learning. The computational modeling suggests that older adults are less likely to transition from simple, reflective, uni-dimensional rules to more complex, reflexive, multi-dimensional rules. In a second application we summarize a recent study examining auditory category learning in individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. We find a deficit in reflective-optimal and an enhancement in reflexive-optimal auditory category learning. Interestingly, individuals with elevated depressive symptoms also show an advantage in learning speech categories. We end with a brief summary and description of a number of future directions.

  18. Multiple goals, motivation and academic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Antonio; Cabanach, Ramón G; Núnez, José C; González-Pienda, Julio; Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel

    2003-03-01

    The type of academic goals pursued by students is one of the most important variables in motivational research in educational contexts. Although motivational theory and research have emphasised the somewhat exclusive nature of two types of goal orientation (learning goals versus performance goals), some studies (Meece, 1994; Seifert, 1995, 1996) have shown that the two kinds of goals are relatively complementary and that it is possible for students to have multiple goals simultaneously, which guarantees some flexibility to adapt more efficaciously to various contexts and learning situations. The principal aim of this study is to determine the academic goals pursued by university students and to analyse the differences in several very significant variables related to motivation and academic learning. Participants were 609 university students (74% women and 26% men) who filled in several questionnaires about the variables under study. We used cluster analysis ('quick cluster analysis' method) to establish the different groups or clusters of individuals as a function of the three types of goals (learning goals, performance goals, and social reinforcement goals). By means of MANOVA, we determined whether the groups or clusters identified were significantly different in the variables that are relevant to motivation and academic learning. Lastly, we performed ANOVA on the variables that revealed significant effects in the previous analysis. Using cluster analysis, three groups of students with different motivational orientations were identified: a group with predominance of performance goals (Group PG: n = 230), a group with predominance of multiple goals (Group MG: n = 238), and a group with predominance of learning goals (Group LG: n = 141). Groups MG and LG attributed their success more to ability, they had higher perceived ability, they took task characteristics into account when planning which strategies to use in the learning process, they showed higher persistence

  19. Educators' Experiences of Inclusive Learning Contexts: An Exploration of Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magare, Ishmael; Kitching, Ansie Elizabeth; Roos, Vera

    2010-01-01

    The successful implementation of inclusive education relies heavily on educators. Inclusive education is based on values such as human dignity, equality, human rights and freedom. The complexity of the interactive relationships between different systems, such as learners, educators, families, schools and the learning context, was recognised in…

  20. Machine learning for network-based malware detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija

    and based on different, mutually complementary, principles of traffic analysis. The proposed approaches rely on machine learning algorithms (MLAs) for automated and resource-efficient identification of the patterns of malicious network traffic. We evaluated the proposed methods through extensive evaluations...

  1. A Social Learning Model of Adolescent Contraceptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balassone, Mary Lou

    1991-01-01

    Research findings and theories regarding adolescent contraceptive use are reviewed to propose an alternative framework relying on social learning theory. Environmental context, cognitive influences, and behavior execution constraints are suggested as the foundation for contraceptive behaviors. The behavioral skills teenagers need to use birth…

  2. Learning state representation for deep actor-critic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munk, J.; Kober, J.; Babuska, R.; Bullo, Francesco; Prieur, Christophe; Giua, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) can be used as function approximators in Reinforcement Learning (RL). One advantage of DNNs is that they can cope with large input dimensions. Instead of relying on feature engineering to lower the input dimension, DNNs can extract the features from raw observations. The

  3. Ditching the Desks: Kinesthetic Learning in College Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Kayce; Fisher, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In this article we argue that social science instructors at all levels should openly embrace kinesthetic learning as an everyday pedagogical tool. The standard model of instruction at the college level relies on lecture, perhaps with special alternative activities (e.g., simulations) scattered throughout each semester. We argue that students…

  4. Modeling of Students' Profile and Learning Chronicle with Data Cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Ade G.; Bai, Xue; Omojokun, Emmanuel E.

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, companies have relied on On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) to answer complex questions relating to issues in business environments such as identifying profitability, trends, correlations, and patterns. This paper addresses the application of OLAP in education and learning. The objective of the research presented in the paper is…

  5. Neuronal Rac1 is required for learning-evoked neurogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haditsch, Ursula; Anderson, Matthew P; Freewoman, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning and memory relies on synaptic plasticity as well as network adaptations provided by the addition of adult-born neurons. We have previously shown that activity-induced intracellular signaling through the Rho family small GTPase Rac1 is necessary in forebrain projection...

  6. Optimal Control via Reinforcement Learning with Symbolic Policy Approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubalìk, Jiřì; Alibekov, Eduard; Babuska, R.; Dochain, Denis; Henrion, Didier; Peaucelle, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms can be used to derive optimal control laws for nonlinear dynamic systems. With continuous-valued state and input variables, RL algorithms have to rely on function approximators to represent the value function and policy mappings. This paper

  7. Robust semi-supervised learning : projections, limits & constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijthe, J.H.

    2018-01-01

    In many domains of science and society, the amount of data being gathered is increasing rapidly. To estimate input-output relationships that are often of interest, supervised learning techniques rely on a specific type of data: labeled examples for which we know both the input and an outcome. The

  8. Learning organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jelenc Krašovec

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A vast array of economical, social, political, cultural and other factors influences the transformed role of learning and education in the society, as well as the functioning of local community and its social and communication patterns. The influences which are manifested as global problems can only be successfully solved on the level of local community. Analogously with the society in general, there is a great need of transforming a local community into a learning, flexible and interconnected environment which takes into account different interests, wishes and needs regarding learning and being active. The fundamental answer to changes is the strategy of lifelong learning and education which requires reorganisation of all walks of life (work, free time, family, mass media, culture, sport, education and transforming of organisations into learning organisations. With learning society based on networks of knowledge individuals are turning into learning individuals, and organisations into learning organisations; people who learn take the responsibility of their progress, learning denotes partnership among learning people, teachers, parents, employers and local community, so that they work together to achieve better results.

  9. Learning Opportunities for Group Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Alfonso J.; Mataveli, Mara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyse the impact of organizational learning culture and learning facilitators in group learning. Design/methodology/approach: This study was conducted using a survey method applied to a statistically representative sample of employees from Rioja wine companies in Spain. A model was tested using a structural equation…

  10. Behavioral and genetic evidence for a novel animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-James Y

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to DSM-IV there are three subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, namely: ADHD predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-PI, ADHD predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type (ADHD-HI, and ADHD combined type (ADHD-C. These subtypes may represent distinct neurobehavioral disorders of childhood onset with separate etiologies. The diagnosis of ADHD is behaviorally based; therefore, investigations into its possible etiologies should be based in behavior. Animal models of ADHD demonstrate construct validity when they accurately reproduce elements of the etiology, biochemistry, symptoms, and treatment of the disorder. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR fulfill many of the validation criteria and compare well with clinical cases of ADHD-C. The present study describes a novel rat model of the predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-PI. Methods ADHD-like behavior was tested with a visual discrimination task measuring overactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness. Several strains with varied genetic background were needed to determine what constitutes a normal comparison. Five groups of rats were used: SHR/NCrl spontaneously hypertensive and WKY/NCrl Wistar/Kyoto rats from Charles River; SD/NTac Sprague Dawley and WH/HanTac Wistar rats from Taconic Europe; and WKY/NHsd Wistar/Kyoto rats from Harlan. DNA was analyzed to determine background differences in the strains by PCR genotyping of eight highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and 2625 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Results Compared to appropriate comparison strains (WKY/NHsd and SD/NTac rats, SHR/NCrl showed ADHD-C-like behavior: striking overactivity and poor sustained attention. Compared to WKY/NHsd rats, WKY/NCrl rats showed inattention, but no overactivity or impulsiveness. WH/HanTac rats deviated significantly from the other control groups by being more active and less attentive than the WKY/NHsd and SD/NTac rats. We also found substantial

  11. Mimetic Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wulf

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mimetic learning, learning by imitation, constitutes one of the most important forms of learning. Mimetic learning does not, however, just denote mere imitation or copying: Rather, it is a process by which the act of relating to other persons and worlds in a mimetic way leads to an en-hancement of one’s own world view, action, and behaviour. Mimetic learning is productive; it is related to the body, and it establishes a connection between the individual and the world as well as other persons; it creates practical knowledge, which is what makes it constitutive of social, artistic, and practical action. Mimetic learning is cultural learning, and as such it is crucial to teaching and education (Wulf, 2004; 2005.

  12. Deep learning

    CERN Document Server

    Goodfellow, Ian; Courville, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language proces...

  13. Machine learning a Bayesian and optimization perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial text gives a unifying perspective on machine learning by covering both probabilistic and deterministic approaches, which rely on optimization techniques, as well as Bayesian inference, which is based on a hierarchy of probabilistic models. The book presents the major machine learning methods as they have been developed in different disciplines, such as statistics, statistical and adaptive signal processing and computer science. Focusing on the physical reasoning behind the mathematics, all the various methods and techniques are explained in depth, supported by examples and problems, giving an invaluable resource to the student and researcher for understanding and applying machine learning concepts. The book builds carefully from the basic classical methods to the most recent trends, with chapters written to be as self-contained as possible, making the text suitable for different courses: pattern recognition, statistical/adaptive signal processing, statistical/Bayesian learning, as well as shor...

  14. Crossmodal Perceptual Learning and Sensory Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Proulx

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A sensory substitution device for blind persons aims to provide the missing visual input by converting images into a form that another modality can perceive, such as sound. Here I will discuss the perceptual learning and attentional mechanisms necessary for interpreting sounds produced by a device (The vOICe in a visuospatial manner. Although some aspects of the conversion, such as relating vertical location to pitch, rely on natural crossmodal mappings, the extensive training required suggests that synthetic mappings are required to generalize perceptual learning to new objects and environments, and ultimately to experience visual qualia. Here I will discuss the effects of the conversion and training on perception and attention that demonstrate the synthetic nature of learning the crossmodal mapping. Sensorimotor experience may be required to facilitate learning, develop expertise, and to develop a form of synthetic synaesthesia.

  15. Predominance of Single Prophage Carrying a CRISPR/cas System in "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" Strains in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Bao, Minli; Wu, Fengnian; Chen, Jianchi; Deng, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" (CLas) is an uncultureable α-proteobacterium associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease), a highly destructive disease affecting citrus production worldwide. HLB was observed in Guangdong Province of China over a hundred years ago and remains endemic there. Little is known about CLas biology due to its uncultureable nature. This study began with the genome sequence analysis of CLas Strain A4 from Guangdong in the prophage region. Within the two currently known prophage types, Type 1 (SC1-like) and Type 2 (SC2-like), A4 genome contained only a Type 2 prophage, CGdP2, namely. An analysis on CLas strains collected in Guangdong showed that Type 2 prophage dominated the bacterial population (82.6%, 71/86). An extended survey covering five provinces in southern China also revealed the predominance of single prophage (Type 1 or Type 2) in the CLas population (90.4%, 169/187). CLas strains with two and no prophage types accounted for 7.2% and 2.8%, respectively. In silico analyses on CGdP2 identified a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/cas (CRISPR-associated protein genes) system, consisting of four 22 bp repeats, three 23 bp spacers and 9 predicted cas. Similar CRISPR/cas systems were detected in all 10 published CLas prophages as well as 13 CLas field strains in southern China. Both Type 1 and Type 2 prophages shared almost identical sequences in spacer 1 and 3 but not spacer 2. Considering that the function of a CRISPR/cas system was to destroy invading DNA, it was hypothesized that a pre-established CLas prophage could use its CRISPR/cas system guided by spacer 1 and/or 3 to defeat the invasion of the other phage/prophage. This hypothesis explained the predominance of single prophage type in the CLas population in southern China. This is the first report of CRISPR/cas system in the "Ca. Liberibacter" genera.

  16. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli is the predominant diarrheagenic E. coli pathotype among irrigation water and food sources in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijuka, Matthew; Santiago, Araceli E; Girón, Jorge A; Nataro, James P; Buys, Elna M

    2018-08-02

    Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) has been implicated in foodborne outbreaks worldwide and have been associated with childhood stunting in the absence of diarrhoea. Infection is extraordinarily common, but the routes of transmission have not been determined. Therefore, determining the most prevalent pathotypes in food and environmental sources may help provide better guidance to various stakeholders in ensuring food safety and public health and advancing understanding of the epidemiology of enteric disease. We characterized 205 E. coli strains previously isolated from producer distributor bulk milk (PDBM)(118), irrigation water (48), irrigated lettuce (29) and street vendor coleslaw (10) in South Africa. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) and diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) were sought. We used PCR and partial gene sequencing for all 205 strains while 46 out of 205 that showed poor resolution were subsequently characterized using cell adherence (HeLa cells). PCR and partial gene sequencing of aatA and/or aaiC genes confirmed EAEC (2%, 5 out of 205) as the only pathotype. Phylogenetic analysis of sequenced EAEC strains with E. coli strains in GenBank showing ≥80% nucleotide sequence similarity based on possession of aaiC and aatA generated distinct clusters of strains separated predominantly based on their source of isolation (food source or human stool) suggesting a potential role of virulence genes in source tracking. EAEC 24%, 11 out of 46 strains (PDBM = 15%, irrigation water = 7%, irrigated lettuce = 2%) was similarly the predominant pathotype followed by strains showing invasiveness to HeLa cells, 4%, 2 out of 46 (PDBM = 2%, irrigated lettuce = 2%), among stains characterized using cell adherence. Therefore, EAEC may be the leading cause of DEC associated food and water-borne enteric infection in South Africa. Additionally, solely using molecular based methods targeting virulence

  17. The Genotypic Population Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex from Moroccan Patients Reveals a Predominance of Euro-American Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlou, Ouafae; Millet, Julie; Chaoui, Imane; Sabouni, Radia; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Akrim, Mohammed; El Mzibri, Mohammed; Rastogi, Nalin; El Aouad, Rajae

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem in Morocco. Characterization of circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypic lineages, important to understand the dynamic of the disease, was hereby addressed for the first time at a national level. Methodology/Principal Findings Spoligotyping was performed on a panel of 592 M. tuberculosis complex strains covering a 2-year period (2004–2006). It identified 129 patterns: 105 (n = 568 strains) corresponded to a SIT number in the SITVIT2 database, while 24 patterns were labeled as orphan. A total of 523 (88.3%) strains were clustered vs. 69 or 11.7% unclustered. Classification of strains within 3 large phylogenetical groups was as follows: group 1– ancestral/TbD1+/PGG1 (EAI, Bovis, Africanum), group 2– modern/TbD1−/PGG1 group (Beijing, CAS), group 3– evolutionary recent/TbD1−/PGG2/3 (Haarlem, X, S, T, LAM; alternatively designated as the Euro-American lineage). As opposed to group 3 strains (namely LAM, Haarlem, and T) that predominated (86.5% of all isolates), 6 strains belonged to group 2 (Beijing n = 5, CAS n = 1), and 3 strains (BOV_1 n = 2, BOV_4-CAPRAE) belonged to ancestral group 1 (EAI and AFRI lineage strains were absent). 12-loci MIRU-VNTR typing of the Casablanca subgroup (n = 114 strains) identified 71 patterns: 48 MITs and 23 orphan patterns; it allowed to reduce the clustering rate from 72.8% to 29.8% and the recent transmission rate from 64% to 20.2%. Conclusion The M. tuberculosis population structure in Morocco is highly homogeneous, and is characterized by the predominance of the Euro-American lineages, namely LAM, Haarlem, and T, which belong to the “evolutionary recent” TbD1−/PGG2/3 phylogenetic group. The combination of spoligotyping and MIRUs decreased the clustering rate significantly, and should now be systematically applied in larger studies. The methods used in this study appear well suited to monitor the M. tuberculosis population

  18. Predominance of Single Prophage Carrying a CRISPR/cas System in “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” Strains in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Bao, Minli; Wu, Fengnian; Chen, Jianchi; Deng, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” (CLas) is an uncultureable α-proteobacterium associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease), a highly destructive disease affecting citrus production worldwide. HLB was observed in Guangdong Province of China over a hundred years ago and remains endemic there. Little is known about CLas biology due to its uncultureable nature. This study began with the genome sequence analysis of CLas Strain A4 from Guangdong in the prophage region. Within the two currently known prophage types, Type 1 (SC1-like) and Type 2 (SC2-like), A4 genome contained only a Type 2 prophage, CGdP2, namely. An analysis on CLas strains collected in Guangdong showed that Type 2 prophage dominated the bacterial population (82.6%, 71/86). An extended survey covering five provinces in southern China also revealed the predominance of single prophage (Type 1 or Type 2) in the CLas population (90.4%, 169/187). CLas strains with two and no prophage types accounted for 7.2% and 2.8%, respectively. In silico analyses on CGdP2 identified a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/cas (CRISPR-associated protein genes) system, consisting of four 22 bp repeats, three 23 bp spacers and 9 predicted cas. Similar CRISPR/cas systems were detected in all 10 published CLas prophages as well as 13 CLas field strains in southern China. Both Type 1 and Type 2 prophages shared almost identical sequences in spacer 1 and 3 but not spacer 2. Considering that the function of a CRISPR/cas system was to destroy invading DNA, it was hypothesized that a pre-established CLas prophage could use its CRISPR/cas system guided by spacer 1 and/or 3 to defeat the invasion of the other phage/prophage. This hypothesis explained the predominance of single prophage type in the CLas population in southern China. This is the first report of CRISPR/cas system in the “Ca. Liberibacter” genera. PMID:26741827

  19. PKC in motorneurons underlies self-learning, a form of motor learning in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Colomb

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tethering a fly for stationary flight allows for exquisite control of its sensory input, such as visual or olfactory stimuli or a punishing infrared laser beam. A torque meter measures the turning attempts of the tethered fly around its vertical body axis. By punishing, say, left turning attempts (in a homogeneous environment, one can train a fly to restrict its behaviour to right turning attempts. It was recently discovered that this form of operant conditioning (called operant self-learning, may constitute a form of motor learning in Drosophila. Previous work had shown that Protein Kinase C (PKC and the transcription factor dFoxP were specifically involved in self-learning, but not in other forms of learning. These molecules are specifically involved in various forms of motor learning in other animals, such as compulsive biting in Aplysia, song-learning in birds, procedural learning in mice or language acquisition in humans. Here we describe our efforts to decipher which PKC gene is involved in self-learning in Drosophila. We also provide evidence that motorneurons may be one part of the neuronal network modified during self-learning experiments. The collected evidence is reminiscent of one of the simplest, clinically relevant forms of motor learning in humans, operant reflex conditioning, which also relies on motorneuron plasticity.

  20. Learning Styles of Pilots Currently Qualified in United States Air Force Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was used to identify the predominant learning styles of pilots currently qualified in United States Air Force aircraft. The results indicate that these pilots show a significant preference for facts and things over people and feelings. By understanding the preferred learning styles of the target population, course material can be developed that take advantage of the strengths of these learning styles. This information can be especially useful in the future design of cockpit resource management training. The training program can be developed to demonstrate both that there are different learning styles and that it is possible to take advantage of the relative strengths of each of these learning styles.

  1. Diversity and technological properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria from fermented cassava used for the preparation of Gari, a traditional African food

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kostinek, M

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available fermentation for the preparation of Gari, and their technologically relevant characteristics were investigated with a view towards selection of appropriate starter cultures. A total of 139 predominant strains isolated from fermenting cassava were identified...

  2. Two-year follow-up of an open-label multicenter study of polyacrylamide hydrogel (Bulkamid®) for female stress and stress-predominant mixed incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Al-Singary, Waleed; Fynes, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG, Bulkamid®) is a promising urethral bulking agent. This article presents the 2-year follow-up results of a multicenter study of PAHG injections for treating stress and stress-predominant mixed urinary incontinence....

  3. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of illnesses and disabilities Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities affect how you ... ADHD. Learning disabilities Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Learning disabilities top Having a learning disability does not ...

  4. Acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) 4 predominantly localizes to an early endosome-related organelle upon heterologous expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Verena; Friedrich, Katharina; Polleichtner, Georg; Gründer, Stefan

    2015-12-15

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are voltage-independent proton-gated amiloride sensitive sodium channels, belonging to the DEG/ENaC gene family. Six different ASICs have been identified (ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, ASIC3, ASIC4) that are activated by a drop in extracellular pH, either as homo- or heteromers. An exception is ASIC4, which is not activated by protons as a homomer and which does not contribute to functional heteromeric ASICs. Insensitivity of ASIC4 to protons and its comparatively low sequence identity to other ASICs (45%) raises the question whether ASIC4 may have different functions than other ASICs. In this study, we therefore investigated the subcellular localization of ASIC4 in heterologous cell lines, which revealed a surprising accumulation of the channel in early endosome-related vacuoles. Moreover, we identified an unique amino-terminal motif as important for forward-trafficking from the ER/Golgi to the early endosome-related compartment. Collectively, our results show that heterologously expressed ASIC4 predominantly resides in an intracellular endosomal compartment.

  5. Measurements of breast milk intake in exclusively or predominantly breast-fed infants, and the impact of lactation counseling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albernaz, E.; Haisma, H.; Victora, C.

    2000-01-01

    In a mirror sample of the Multicenter Growth Reference Study the deuterium dilution method was used to measure breast milk intake. The following hypotheses were tested: a) There is no statistically significant difference in breast milk intake between exclusively and predominantly breast-fed babies; b) Breast milk intake is higher in babies from mothers who get lactation support; and c) Mothers who report exclusive breast-feeding are not taking any other fluids or foods. Mothers were randomly assigned to an intervention group who received lactation counseling from birth to 4 months onwards, and a control group who did not receive lactation support. 142 mother and infant pairs were followed up. Preliminary results show that the sample was an exact mirror of the MGRS, and that at 4 months mothers who received lactation support were exclusively breast-feeding more frequently than those who did not receive support. Similarly, the number of infants weaned off the breast was smaller in the intervention than in the control group. At the time of writing of this report 72 mother-infant pairs were included in the deuterium study. Results on breast milk intake are awaiting completion of the study and sample analysis. (author)

  6. One Country, Two Cultures: Are Hong Kong Mock Jurors "Mainlandized" by the Predominant Chinese Criminal Justice Concept of Confession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on confession has had a long history in the Chinese criminal justice system. Recent high-profile wrongful conviction cases have raised public awareness of the coercive and torturous methods used to extract confessions. Despite the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty, Hong Kong remains a common law jurisdiction and the most serious criminal offences are tried by a jury. The present study empirically examines the relative impact of DNA evidence, confession, eyewitness testimony, and victim testimony in a Hong Kong-Chinese mock juror sample. The results show that the participants placed greater value on DNA evidence than on confession, and placed the lowest value on testimonial evidence. It is argued that the situation of "one country, two cultures" remains strong: Whereas participants are still influenced by the Chinese criminal justice concept of confession, their judgment is still predominately influenced by the scientific evidence as commonly practiced in the West. Thus, no solid evidence has been found to confirm the emergence of mainlandization in Hong Kong's criminal justice system. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. The high genetic variation of viruses of the genus Nairovirus reflects the diversity of their predominant tick hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, Jessica E.; Osborne, Jane C.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2004-01-01

    The genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae) contains seven serogroups consisting of 34 predominantly tick-borne viruses, including several associated with severe human and livestock diseases [e.g., Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and Nairobi sheep disease (NSD), respectively]. Before this report, no comparative genetic studies or molecular detection assays had been developed for this virus genus. To characterize at least one representative from each of the seven serogroups, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) primers targeting the L polymerase-encoding region of the RNA genome of these viruses were successfully designed based on conserved amino acid motifs present in the predicted catalytic core region. Sequence analysis showed the nairoviruses to be a highly diverse group, exhibiting up to 39.4% and 46.0% nucleotide and amino acid identity differences, respectively. Virus genetic relationships correlated well with serologic groupings and with tick host associations. Hosts of these viruses include both the hard (family Ixodidae) and soft (family Argasidae) ticks. Virus phylogenetic analysis reveals two major monophyletic groups: hard tick and soft tick-vectored viruses. In addition, viruses vectored by Ornithodoros, Carios, and Argas genera ticks also form three separate monophyletic lineages. The striking similarities between tick and nairovirus phylogenies are consistent with possible coevolution of the viruses and their tick hosts. Fossil and phylogenetic data placing the hard tick-soft tick divergence between 120 and 92 million years ago suggest an ancient origin for viruses of the genus Nairovirus

  8. Factors associated with rear seating of children in motor vehicles: a study in two low-income, predominantly Hispanic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg-Seth, Jennifer; Hemenway, David; Gallagher, Susan S; Lissy, Karen S; Ross, Julie B

    2004-07-01

    This study examined child seating patterns in two predominantly low-income, Hispanic communities in Massachusetts. The purpose was to determine the factors associated with child rear seating in the community as a whole and for a subset of Hispanic motorists. Five hundred and five vehicles carrying child passengers and no adult other than the driver were observed in parking lots of fast food restaurants and grocery stores. Four hundred and thirty-two vehicle drivers agreed to be interviewed. A child was defined as a passenger younger than age 12 as determined by appearance and height (head below the vehicle headrest when seated). Variables under study included driver gender, age, ethnicity, and educational attainment; driver shoulder belt use; driver perception of passenger-side airbag presence; and the number and ages of children in the car. Overall, 51% of vehicles were observed with all children seated in the rear. In a bivariate analysis, child rear seating was strongly associated with female drivers ( P = 0.01), younger drivers ( P = 0.02) driver shoulder belt use ( P safety behavior (e.g. seat belt use). Messages should be culturally appropriate and should emphasize driver seat belt use in conjunction with rear seating and the importance of rear seating regardless of the presence of a passenger-side airbag.

  9. Quantification of the predominant monomeric catechins in baking chocolate standard reference material by LC/APCI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bryant C; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2003-01-29

    Catechins are polyphenolic plant compounds (flavonoids) that may offer significant health benefits to humans. These benefits stem largely from their anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, and antimutagenic properties. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of flavonoid-containing foods is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate is a natural cocoa bean-based product that reportedly contains high levels of monomeric, oligomeric, and polymeric catechins. We have applied solid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry to the identification and determination of the predominant monomeric catechins, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, in a baking chocolate Standard Reference Material (NIST Standard Reference Material 2384). (+)-Catechin and (-)-epicatechin are detected and quantified in chocolate extracts on the basis of selected-ion monitoring of their protonated [M + H](+) molecular ions. Tryptophan methyl ester is used as an internal standard. The developed method has the capacity to accurately quantify as little as 0.1 microg/mL (0.01 mg of catechin/g of chocolate) of either catechin in chocolate extracts, and the method has additionally been used to certify (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin levels in the baking chocolate Standard Reference Material. This is the first reported use of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the quantitative determination of monomeric catechins in chocolate and the only report certifying monomeric catechin levels in a food-based Standard Reference Material.

  10. Recessive variants of MuSK are associated with late onset CMS and predominant limb girdle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, David; Töpf, Ana; Preethish-Kumar, Veeramani; Lorenzoni, Paulo José; Vroling, Bas; Scola, Rosana Herminia; Dias-Tosta, Elza; Geraldo, Argemiro; Polavarapu, Kiran; Nashi, Saraswati; Cox, Daniel; Evangelista, Teresinha; Dawson, John; Thompson, Rachel; Senderek, Jan; Laurie, Steven; Beltran, Sergi; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Nalini, Atchayaram; Lochmüller, Hanns

    2018-04-28

    Congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) is a heterogeneous disorder that causes fatigable muscle weakness. CMS has been associated with variants in the MuSK gene and, to date, 16 patients have been reported. MuSK-CMS patients present a different phenotypic pattern of limb girdle weakness. Here, we describe four additional patients and discuss the phenotypic and clinical relationship with those previously reported. Two novel damaging missense variants are described: c.1742T > A; p.I581N found in homozygosis, and c.1634T > C; p.L545P found in compound heterozygosis with p.R166*. The reported patients had predominant limb girdle weakness with symptom onset at 12, 17, 18, and 30 years of age, and the majority exhibited a good clinical response to Salbutamol therapy, but not to esterase inhibitors. Meta-analysis including previously reported variants revealed an increased likelihood of a severe, respiratory phenotype with null alleles. Missense variants exclusively affecting the kinase domain, but not the catalytic site, are associated with late onset. These data refine the phenotype associated with MuSK-related CMS. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Characterization of Serum Cytokine Profile in Predominantly Colonic Inflammatory Bowel Disease to Delineate Ulcerative and Crohn's Colitides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Y. Korolkova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background As accessible diagnostic approaches fail to differentiate between ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's colitis (CC in one-third of patients with predominantly colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, leading to inappropriate therapy, we aim to investigate the serum cytokine levels in these patients in search of molecular biometric markers delineating UC from CC. Methods We measured 38 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors using magnetic-bead-based multiplex immunoassay in 25 UC patients, 28 CC patients, and 30 controls. Our results are compared with those from a review of current literature regarding advances in serum cytokine profiles and associated challenges preventing their use for diagnostic/prognostic purposes. Results Univariate analysis showed statistically significant increases of eotaxin, GRO, and TNF-α in UC patients compared to controls (Ctrl; interferon γ, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-7 in CC group compared to Ctrl; and IL-8 in both UC and CC versus Ctrl. No cytokines were found to be different between UC and CC. A generalized linear model identified combinations of cytokines, allowing the identification of UC and CC patients, with area under the curve (AUC = 0.936, as determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Conclusions The current knowledge available about circulating cytokines in IBD is often contradictory. The development of an evidence-based tool using cytokines for diagnostic accuracy is still preliminary.

  12. Proteomic Characterization of Middle Ear Fluid Confirms Neutrophil Extracellular Traps as a Predominant Innate Immune Response in Chronic Otitis Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Val

    Full Text Available Chronic Otitis Media (COM is characterized by middle ear effusion (MEE and conductive hearing loss. MEE reflect mucus hypersecretion, but global proteomic profiling of the mucosal components are limited.This study aimed at characterizing the proteome of MEEs from children with COM with the goal of elucidating important innate immune responses.MEEs were collected from children (n = 49 with COM undergoing myringotomy. Mass spectrometry was employed for proteomic profiling in nine samples. Independent samples were further analyzed by cytokine multiplex assay, immunoblotting, neutrophil elastase activity, next generation DNA sequencing, and/or immunofluorescence analysis.109 unique and common proteins were identified by MS. A majority were innate immune molecules, along with typically intracellular proteins such as histones and actin. 19.5% percent of all mapped peptide counts were from proteins known to be released by neutrophils. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting demonstrated the presence of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs in every MEE, along with MUC5B colocalization. DNA found in effusions revealed unfragmented DNA of human origin.Proteomic analysis of MEEs revealed a predominantly neutrophilic innate mucosal response in which MUC5B is associated with NET DNA. NETs are a primary macromolecular constituent of human COM middle ear effusions.

  13. Potential mechanism of corpus-predominant gastritis after PPI therapy in Helicobacter pylori-positive patients with GERD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Hagiwara, Tadashi; Nakayama, Takahisa; Hattori, Takanori; Sugihara, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-14

    The long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) exacerbates corpus atrophic gastritis in patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. To identify a potential mechanism for this change, we discuss interactions between pH, bile acids, and H. pylori. Duodenogastric reflux, which includes bile, occurs in healthy individuals, and bile reflux is increased in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Diluted human plasma and bile acids have been found to be significant chemoattractants and chemorepellents, respectively, for the bacillus H. pylori. Although only taurine conjugates, with a pKa of 1.8-1.9, are soluble in an acidic environment, glycine conjugates, with a pKa of 4.3-5.2, as well as taurine-conjugated bile acids are soluble in the presence of PPI therapy. Thus, the soluble bile acid concentrations in the gastric contents of patients with GERD after continuous PPI therapy are considerably higher than that in those with intact acid production. In the distal stomach, the high concentration of soluble bile acids is likely to act as a bactericide or chemorepellent for H. pylori. In contrast, the mucous layer in the proximal stomach has an optimal bile concentration that forms chemotactic gradients with plasma components required to direct H. pylori to the epithelial surface. H. pylori may then colonize in the stomach body rather than in the pyloric antrum, which may explain the occurrence of corpus-predominant gastritis after PPI therapy in H. pylori-positive patients with GERD.

  14. The minor wall-networks between monolignols and interlinked-phenolics predominantly affect biomass enzymatic digestibility in Miscanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengru Li

    Full Text Available Plant lignin is one of the major wall components that greatly contribute to biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. In this study, total 79 representative Miscanthus germplasms were determined with wide biomass digestibility and diverse monolignol composition. Integrative analyses indicated that three major monolignols (S, G, H and S/G ratio could account for lignin negative influence on biomass digestibility upon NaOH and H2SO4 pretreatments. Notably, the biomass enzymatic digestions were predominately affected by the non-KOH-extractable lignin and interlinked-phenolics, other than the KOH-extractable ones that cover 80% of total lignin. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between the monolignols and phenolics at p<0.05 level in the non-KOH-extractable only, suggesting their tight association to form the minor wall-networks against cellulases accessibility. The results indicated that the non-KOH-extractable lignin-complex should be the target either for cost-effective biomass pretreatments or for relatively simply genetic modification of plant cell walls in Miscanthus.

  15. Estimating Fitness by Competition Assays between Drug Susceptible and Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis of Predominant Lineages in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatter, Purva; Chatterjee, Anirvan; D'souza, Desiree; Tolani, Monica; Mistry, Nerges

    2012-01-01

    Background Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) is a threat to global tuberculosis control. A significant fitness cost has been associated with DR strains from specific lineages. Evaluation of the influence of the competing drug susceptible strains on fitness of drug resistant strains may have an important bearing on understanding the spread of MDR TB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fitness of MDR TB strains, from a TB endemic region of western India: Mumbai, belonging to 3 predominant lineages namely CAS, Beijing and MANU in the presence of drug susceptible strains from the same lineages. Methodology Drug susceptible strains from a single lineage were mixed with drug resistant strain, bearing particular non synonymous mutation (rpoB D516V; inhA, A16G; katG, S315T1/T2) from the same or different lineages. Fitness of M.tuberculosis (M.tb) strains was evaluated using the difference in growth rates obtained by using the CFU assay system. Conclusion/Significance While MANU were most fit amongst the drug susceptible strains of the 3 lineages, only Beijing MDR strains were found to grow in the presence of any of the competing drug susceptible strains. A disproportionate increase in Beijing MDR could be an alarm for an impending epidemic in this locale. In addition to particular non synonymous substitutions, the competing strains in an environment may impact the fitness of circulating drug resistant strains. PMID:22479407

  16. Performance of FDG PET/CT at initial diagnosis in a rare lymphoma: nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grellier, Jean Francois; Weinmann, Pierre [AP-HP- Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Service de medecine nucleaire, Paris (France); Vercellino, Laetitia; Merlet, Pascal; Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth; Berenger, Nathalie [AP-HP- Hopital Saint-Louis, Service de medecine nucleaire, Paris (France); Leblanc, Thierry [Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d' immuno-hematologie, Paris (France); Thieblemont, Catherine [Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite - INSERM UMR-S1165, AP-HP- Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d' hemato-Oncologie, Paris (France); Briere, Josette [AP-HP- Hopital Saint-Louis, Service de pathologie, Paris (France); Brice, Pauline [AP-HP- Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d' hemato-Oncologie, Paris (France)

    2014-11-15

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare Hodgkin lymphoma distinguished from classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) by the nature of the neoplastic cells which express B-cell markers. We wanted to determine the diagnostic performance of FDG PET/CT in initial assessment and its therapeutic impact on staging. We retrospectively studied a population of 35 patients with NLPHL (8 previously treated for NLHPL, 27 untreated). All patients underwent an initial staging by pretherapeutic FDG PET/CT. The impact on initial stage or relapse stage was assessed by an independent physician. In a per-patient analysis, the sensitivity of the pretherapeutic FDG PET/CT was 100 %. In a per-site analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of pretherapeutic FDG PET/CT were 100 %, 99 %, 97 %, 100 % and 99 %, respectively. Pretherapeutic FDG PET/CT led to a change in the initial stage/relapse stage in 12 of the 35 patients (34 %). In contrast to previous results established without FDG PET/CT, 20 % of patient had osteomedullary lesions. Pretherapeutic FDG PET/CT has excellent performance for initial staging or relapse staging of NLPHL. (orig.)

  17. HIV and selected blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections in a predominantly Roma (Gypsy) neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Neaigus, Alan

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of HIV and selected blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections among a convenience sample of 64 residents of Dzsumbuj, a predominantly Roma (Gypsy) neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary. No cases of HIV were detected, while the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection (anti-HBc) was 27% and syphilis prevalence was 2%. Romas (n=50) were significantly more likely than non-Romas (n=14) to have HAV antibodies (80% vs. 43%) and less likely to be HBV immunized (anti-HBs only; 6% vs. 29%). Current drug injectors (n=13) were more likely than non-injectors (n=51) to have antibodies against HAV (85% vs. 69%) and HCV (85% vs. 8%). While HIV has not been introduced in this population, risk conditions for a potentially explosive HIV epidemic are present. Health care policies should focus on expanding coverage for HAV and HBV immunizations, and access to HIV preventive services needs to be extended to marginalized, mostly minority populations, such as the Roma in Europe. PMID:18935777

  18. A comparison of peer influence measures as predictors of smoking among predominately hispanic/latino high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W; Fujimoto, Kayo; Soto, Daniel; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Unger, Jennifer B

    2013-03-01

    Consistent evidence has shown that one of the most significant influences on adolescent smoking is peer influence. There is considerable variation, however, in how peer influence is measured. This study constructs social network influence and selection variables from egocentric and sociometric data to compare their associations with smoking, with considerations of perceived smoking norms and adolescent popularity. Longitudinal data were collected in the 9th and 10th grades in October 2006 and 2007 from predominantly Hispanic/Latino adolescents in seven Southern California schools; among these adolescents, 1,950 completed surveys at both waves. Both cross-sectional (separately for 9th and 10th graders) and longitudinal models were estimated. An egocentric measure of perceived friend smoking was strongly and consistently associated with individual smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] ≈ 1.80, p peer influence and underscores the importance of perceptions and popularity as mechanisms that influence adolescent smoking. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Predominant polarity in type-I bipolar patients: Study in an isolated population with a high prevalence of mood disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obando, Antonio Carlos Toro; García, Ángela María Agudelo; Rodríguez, María Aurora Gallo; Palacio, Tomás Felipe Restrepo; Ontoso, Miguel Soto; Tamayo, Alejandra; Jaramillo, Carlos Alberto López

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that the predominant description of polarity has effects upon early detection and the timely beginning of treatment in patients with bipolar affective disorder (BAD). Cross sectional cut and descriptive study in 101 BAD patients coming from a genetically isolated population from the Colombian Region of Antioquia. The study covered a population of 101 patients with type-I BAD diagnosis, out of which 57,4% met the criteria for maniac polarity (MP), 10,1% exhibited depressive polarity (DP) and 25,7% were classified with Indefinite Polarity (IP). In comparison, MP patients have a lower education level and less starting age, including a greater number of single people. The MP group showed the greatest prevalence of suicide and greater use of cannabinoids and cocaine. Within the DP group there was a strong tendency to cigarette and alcohol consumption. With respect to pharmaceutical drugs consumed by the study patients during their lives, antipsychotics were the most widely used group, followed by lithium and anti-convulsivants. There is high percentage of MP patients who have used antidepressants during their lives. The polarity of the first episode of the disease seems to be a valid predictive parameter concerning the polarity of subsequent episodes; therefore, it works indirectly as a valid predictor of the disease's course. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical Exploration of Kaldorian Interregional Macrodynamics: Enhanced Stability and Predominance of Period Doubling under Flexible Exchange Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toichiro Asada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a discrete two-regional Kaldorian macrodynamic model with flexible exchange rates and explore numerically the stability of equilibrium and the possibility of generation of business cycles. We use a grid search method in two-dimensional parameter subspaces, and coefficient criteria for the flip and Hopf bifurcation curves, to determine the stability region and its boundary curves in several parameter ranges. The model is characterized by enhanced stability of equilibrium, while its predominant asymptotic behavior when equilibrium is unstable is period doubling. Cycles are scarce and short-lived in parameter space, occurring at large values of the degree of capital movement β. By contrast to the corresponding fixed exchange rates system, for cycles to occur sufficient amount of trade is required together with high levels of capital movement. Rapid changes in exchange rate expectations and decreased government expenditure are factors contributing to the creation of interregional cycles. Examples of bifurcation and Lyapunov exponent diagrams illustrating period doubling or cycles, and their development into chaotic attractors, are given. The paper illustrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the numerical approach for dynamical systems of moderately high dimensionality and several parameters.