Learning disability nurses have a key role in addressing the health inequalities experienced by people with learning disabilities. People with learning disabilities are less likely to participate in bowel screening than other sectors of the population, despite there being evidence of this population being at an increased risk of developing bowel cancer. There are a range of barriers at individual and systemic levels that impact on participation in bowel screening by people with learning disabilities. Actions to address these barriers have been identified in the literature and learning disability nurses are a key agent of change in enabling people with learning disabilities to participate in the national screening programmes.
Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin
People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…
... of illnesses and disabilities Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities affect how you ... ADHD. Learning disabilities Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Learning disabilities top Having a learning disability does not ...
... books. While his friends were meeting for pickup soccer games after school, he was back home in ... sometimes thought to contribute to learning disabilities. Poor nutrition early in life also may lead to learning ...
... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Patient Organizations CHADD - Children and ... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Definition Learning disabilities are disorders ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 'Learning disabilities' (LD refer to a wide group of neurological disorders caused by deficits in the central nervous system which influence the individual's ability to maintain-, process or convey information to others in an efficient way. A worldwide discussion about the definitions of LD continues while a conceptual framework for studying the diverse life outcomes of adults with LD is still missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the literature on the activity and participation of adults with LD based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF concepts. METHODS: "PsychInfo", "Eric" and "PubMed" were searched for relevant literature according to the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA. After a three-stage process, 62 articles relevant for domains of activity and participation of adults with LD were included in the review. RESULTS: Thirty-two articles focused on the domain of major life areas of education, work and employment and twelve articles focused on the domain of learning and applying knowledge. Limitations in activity and participation of the population with LD in these domains are recognized and discussed. Eighteen additional articles demonstrated that adults with LD confront difficulties in various life domains (e.g., communication, interpersonal interactions, mobility, and domestic life, however literature concerning these domains is scarce. CONCLUSIONS: The ICF can be useful for further exploration of activity and participation characteristics of adults with LD in various life domains. Such exploration is required in order to gain a wider perspective of their functional characteristics and daily needs.
Crook, Bradley; Tomlins, Rose; Bancroft, Ann; Ogi, Laura
The importance of making research participation accessible for people with learning disabilities is emphasised in government and NHS research strategies. This evaluation explored the realities of this goal from the perceptions of people with learning disabilities and clinicians within an NHS learning disability service. People with learning…
This booklet uses hypothetical case examples to illustrate the definition, causal theories, and specific types of learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive and language performance of students with LD is compared to standard developmental milestones, and common approaches to the identification and education of children with LD are outlined.…
Sharfi, Kineret; Rosenblum, Sara
Background ‘Learning disabilities’ (LD) refer to a wide group of neurological disorders caused by deficits in the central nervous system which influence the individual's ability to maintain-, process or convey information to others in an efficient way. A worldwide discussion about the definitions of LD continues while a conceptual framework for studying the diverse life outcomes of adults with LD is still missing. Objective The aim was to review the literature on the activity and participation of adults with LD based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) concepts. Methods “PsychInfo”, “Eric” and “PubMed” were searched for relevant literature according to the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). After a three-stage process, 62 articles relevant for domains of activity and participation of adults with LD were included in the review. Results Thirty-two articles focused on the domain of major life areas of education, work and employment and twelve articles focused on the domain of learning and applying knowledge. Limitations in activity and participation of the population with LD in these domains are recognized and discussed. Eighteen additional articles demonstrated that adults with LD confront difficulties in various life domains (e.g., communication, interpersonal interactions, mobility, and domestic life), however literature concerning these domains is scarce. Conclusions The ICF can be useful for further exploration of activity and participation characteristics of adults with LD in various life domains. Such exploration is required in order to gain a wider perspective of their functional characteristics and daily needs. PMID:25184315
Willis, Claire E; Reid, Siobhan; Elliott, Catherine; Nyquist, Astrid; Jahnsen, Reidun; Rosenberg, Michael; Girdler, Sonya
The actions and behaviors of parents have been identified as key factors that influence a child's participation in physical activity. However, there is limited knowledge of how parents can be supported to embody facilitative roles. This study aimed to explore how an ecological intervention encourages parents of children with disabilities to develop as facilitators, to enable ongoing physical activity participation in a child's local environment. A qualitative design using grounded theory was employed. Forty four parents (26 mothers, 18 fathers) of 31 children with a range of disabilities (mean age 12y 6m (SD 2y 2m); 18 males) partaking in the Local Environment Model intervention at Beitostolen Healthsports Centre in Norway participated in the study. Data were derived from the triangulation of semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Data analysis was an iterative approach of constant comparison, where data collection, memo writing, open, axial and selective coding analysis, were undertaken simultaneously. Findings were consolidated into a model describing the central phenomenon and its relationship to other categories. Thematic concepts uncovered in this study describe a social process of parent learning and empowerment, comprising three primary components; (i) active ingredients of the intervention that enabled learning and empowerment to transpire, (ii) parent learning and empowerment as a process, and (iii) related outcomes. A family-centered approach, encompassing family-to-family support, may enhance physical activity participation outcomes for children and youth with disabilities.
Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to compare loneliness and social skill levels of children with specific learning disabilities in terms of participation in sports. For this study, a screening model was used. The study group was composed of 56 children who were aged between 7 and 14 years and diagnosed with a specific learning disability (30 boys and 26 girls. “Personal Information Form”, “Children’s Loneliness Scale”, “Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters (MESSY” were used in this study. For the data processes and data analyses, SPSS 22 was used. According to the test of normality, non-parametric tests were employed for those data that did not follow a normal distribution and the correlations among variables were tested with correlation analysis at p < 0.05 while differences among variables were tested with Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests at p < 0.05. According to the findings obtained in this study, there were no significant differences in terms of sex, the number of family members and the number of brothers and sisters while there were significant correlations in terms of age, sports status, MESSY-subscales and loneliness. In sum, it may be concluded that sports played a positive role in social skill and loneliness levels among children with specific learning disabilities.
Joshi, Gauri S.; Bouck, Emily C.
Given the history of poor postschool outcomes for students with disabilities, researchers repeatedly sought to demonstrate the links between predictor variables and postschool outcomes for students with disabilities. This secondary data analysis used the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to examine the relationship between postsecondary…
Full Text Available The reflection and research on an obvious problem, in pedagogy, psychology and clinical psychology: the fact that some populations of children - because of functional limitations or environmental deprivation - the experience of the game is precluded, and their development appears to be reduced by the fact that it 'was defined as the royal road to learning.
Kenyon, Elinor; Beail, Nigel; Jackson, Tom
Studies have focused on the experience of diagnosis from the perspectives of parents of children with learning disabilities, but there has been limited methodologically rigorous investigation into the experience for the person themselves. Eight participants were recruited from a range of different backgrounds. Interviews were analysed using…
This entry presents an internationally comparative overview of adult learning patterns. Emphasis is placed on who is participating in adult learning and the observed unequal chances to participate. The entry covers three overarching questions that are central to participation research: a) What...
Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia
The authors reviewed recent quantitative genetic research on learning disabilities that led to the conclusion that genetic diagnoses differ from traditional diagnoses in that the effects of relevant genes are largely general rather than specific. This research suggests that most genes associated with common learning disabilities--language impairment, reading disability, and mathematics disability--are generalists in 3 ways. First, genes that affect common learning disabilities are largely the same genes responsible for normal variation in learning abilities. Second, genes that affect any aspect of a learning disability affect other aspects of the disability. Third, genes that affect one learning disability are also likely to affect other learning disabilities. These quantitative genetic findings have far-reaching implications for molecular genetics and neuroscience as well as psychology. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Sociological approaches to the understanding of learning disabilities are perhaps not as fully developed as they might be. Wittgenstein's notion of the language game is elucidated, and its relevance to the analysis of learning disabilities as a social phenomenon is explained. This gives some insight into an alternative conception of what learning disabilities might be, and why people who are classified as having learning disabilities continue, to some extent, to be excluded from full participation in society.
... provides the most current information on research, practice, theory, issues, and trends to broaden understanding and improve ... These services make LDA the leading resource for information on learning disabilities. Learn more about: Auditory Processing ... Processing Disorder ...
ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.
This digest defines learning disabilities, cites their prevalence, describes typical characteristics of learning-disabled students, outlines educational implications of learning disabilities, and lists several printed and organizational resources for further information. (JDD)
Rothuizen, Jan Jaap; Molpeceres, Mariangeles; Hansen, Helle Krogh
in involvement of older people in voluntary social work as mentors for young people. The challenge of the ageing societies is quite often discussed as the ‘burden of the elderly’ and discussed as an economic problem. However, the challenge is not only economical. It is also a social and cultural challenge, among...... other things because a unilateral focus on the economic aspects may cause dissolution of the social cohesion and decrease in well-being for far too many people. The HEAR ME project aimed at developing strategies for lifelong learning and new roles for older people based on their competences, network...... and an assumed desire of generativity. Action learning seems to be an appropriate learning concept in relation to keeping older people engaged in the community. The authors thus point at participating and lifelong learning as part of the answers to the demographic challenges, and they suggest what you might call...
... Research Information Research Goals Activities and Advances Scientific Articles Find a Study Resources and Publications For Patients and Consumers For Researchers and Health Care Providers Home Health A to Z List Learning Disabilities Condition Information How is it diagnosed? Share ...
Jukes, Mark; Aspinall, Susan-Louise
Leadership is seen as critical for the transformation of learning disability services and has been further emphasised since the publication of Transforming Care, the Department of Health's response to the review of events at Winterbourne View. What is clear within learning disability nursing and services is the demand for leadership in the quest for improving the quality and effectiveness of services across health and social care. This article discusses the challenges for the undergraduate learning disability nurse with the recommendation to pursue a framework that promotes and focuses on integrating knowledge transfer into services for people with a learning disability. It explores practice change using the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) framework, and the example of the involvement of service users in practitioner training on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and consent and capacity to consent for treatment.
... complica- tions of NF1 include: • Learning disabilities: Although intelligence is usually within the normal range, 50-60% ... and the ability to access meaning from the printed word. 5 Recent ﬁndings suggest that a high ...
Lilian, Ganira Khavugwi; Odundo, Paul Amolo; Ngaruiya, Boniface
During early childhood, the foundations for emotional, social and spiritual well being of children with learning disabilities (CWLD) are laid. The CWLD emotional well being is influenced by all the experiences they go through. It is essential to provide warm, trusting relationships, predictable and safe environment, affirmation and respect for all…
John k. McNamara
This paper presents a prevention model for supporting children with learning disabilities. The model holds that children can be identified as at-risk for learning disabilities by identifying and supporting potential academic failure early in their elementary years. A prevention model includes two elements, identification and instruction. Identification entails recognizing those children at-risk for poor achievement in the early primary grades. The second component of the model is to...
Klug Marilyn G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. Learning disabilities are frequently comorbid with TS. Using the largest sample of TS patients ever reported, we sought to identify differences between subjects with TS only and subjects with TS and a comorbid learning disability. Methods We used the Tourette Syndrome International Consortium database (TIC to compare subjects with comorbid Tourette Syndrome and learning disabilities (TS + LD to subjects who did not have a comorbid learning disability (TS - LD. The TIC database contained 5,500 subjects. We had usable data on 5,450 subjects. Results We found 1,235 subjects with TS + LD. Significant differences between the TS + LD group and the TS - LD group were found for gender (.001, age onset (.030, age first seen (.001, age at diagnosis (.001, prenatal problems (.001, sibling or other family member with tics (.024, two or more affected family members (.009, and severe tics (.046. We used logistic modeling to identify the optimal prediction model of group membership. This resulted in a five variable model with the epidemiologic performance characteristics of accuracy 65.2% (model correctly classified 4,406 of 5,450 subjects, sensitivity 66.1%, and specificity 62.2%. Conclusion Subjects with TS have high prevalence rates of comorbid learning disabilities. We identified phenotype differences between the TS - LD group compared to TS + LD group. In the evaluation of subjects with TS, the presence of a learning disability should always be a consideration. ADHD may be an important comorbid condition in the diagnosis of LD or may also be a potential confounder. Further research on etiology, course and response to intervention for subjects with TS only and TS with learning disabilities is needed.
This study examined the unanticipated effects that children with learning disabilities have on the life of their families. Eleven parents of students aged 8 to 16 years old participated in two separate focus group interviews. Findings showed that children with learning disabilities had a range of effects on their families. These included family…
Canino, Frank J.
The application of learned helplessness theory to achievement is discussed within the context of implications for research in learning disabilities. Finally, the similarities between helpless children and learning disabled students in terms of problems solving and attention are discussed. (Author)
Pooja Manghirmalani; Darshana More; Kavita Jain
The endeavor of this work is to support the special education community in their quest to be with the mainstream. The initial segment of the paper gives an exhaustive study of the different mechanisms of diagnosing learning disability. After diagnosis of learning disability the further classification of learning disability that is dyslexia, dysgraphia or dyscalculia are fuzzy. Hence the paper proposes a model based on Fuzzy Expert System which enables the classification of learning disability...
Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat
This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…
Zavala, Jesus; Mims, Joan
The study compared 10 learning disabled and 10 non-learning disabled limited English proficient Mexican American elementary grade children. Six tests were identified as predicting learning disabilities including the Prueba de Lectura y Lenguaje Escrito and the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. (Author/DB)
Chia, S H
Groupwork can be effective in meeting a range of needs presented by students with profound learning disabilities. This article describes the process involved in setting up groups for these students, and includes examples of a group session and methods for evaluating groupwork.
Sapir, Selma C.
The author discusses controversial issues in the field of learning disabilities (LD). Among topics addressed are conflicting definitions of LD and the impact of the operational definition accepted by the US Government; etiological questions concerning the separation of neurological, environmental, and emotional factors; approaches used in training…
Nolan, John D.; Driscoll, Rosemary L.
Memory storage and retrieval of learning disabled (LD) and normal children at two age levels (8-9 years and 11-12 years) were compared using a multitrial free recall paradigm. Stimuli were two lists of 20 high frequency nouns. Each child was tested individually on both lists on different days; one presentation was blocked, one random with…
Heisler, Alice B.
Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)
Gold, Sandra; Sherry, Lee
A review of research on the effects of alcohol consumption by pregnant women supports the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's warning about the possible negative effects (learning disabilities, hyperactivity, short attention span, and emotional liability) of children. (Author/CL)
O'Brien, Elysha Patino
This qualitative case study addressed a lack of research concerning literature discussions for students with learning disabilities in reading. Fourth and fifth grade students with reading disabilities participated in twice-weekly literature discussions, 30-to-60 minutes each, for 12 weeks. The students attended a Title I school and most were…
Fullana, Judit; Pallisera, Maria; Català, Elena; Puyalto, Carolina
This article presents the results of evaluating a research training programme aimed at developing the skills of people with intellectual disabilities to actively participate in inclusive research. The present authors opted for a responsive approach to evaluation, using a combination of interviews, questionnaires and focus groups to gather information on the views of students, trainers and members of the research team regarding how the programme progressed, the learning achieved and participants' satisfaction with the programme. The evaluation showed that most of the participants were satisfied with the programme and provided guidelines for planning contents and materials, demonstrating the usefulness of these types of programme in constructing the research group and empowering people with intellectual disabilities to participate in research. The evaluation revealed that the programme had been a positive social experience that fostered interest in lifelong learning for people with intellectual disabilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Roha, Abdul Rasid Aida; Fatt, Ong Tah
AbstractDesire to be accepted by other people is one of the basic human needs. Social isolation or rejection is very stressful to person with disabilities. Social acceptance by normal people towards physical activity participation for the disabled plays a vital role in motivating them to be more physically active. A review of literature indicated that there are several factors that influence public acceptance towards participation of people with disabilities in physical activity. The pr...
Zysberg, Leehu; Kasler, Jon
The literature is conflicted around the subject of the emotional abilities of individuals with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLDs): While many claim cognitive challenges are associated with emotional difficulties, some suggest emotional and interpersonal abilities are not compromised in such disorders and may help individuals compensate and cope effectively with the challenges they meet in learning environments. Two studies explored differences in emotional intelligence (EI) between young adults with and without SLD. Two samples (matched on gender, approximate age, and program of study; n = 100, and unmatched; n = 584) of college students took self-report and performance-based tests of EI (Ability-EI) as well as a measure of self-esteem and demographics associated with college performance (e.g.: SAT scores, gender, etc.). The results showed that while SAT scores and ability emotional intelligence (Ability-EI) were associated with college GPA, Ability-EI did not differ between the two groups, while self-report measures of EI and self-esteem did show differences, with the group with learning disabilities ranking lower. The effects remained stable when we controlled for demographics and potential intervening factors. The results suggest that EI may play a protective role in the association between background variables and college attainment in students with SLD. The results may provide a basis for interventions to empower students with SLD in academia.
Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Bernal, Jane; Hubert, Jane; Butler, Gary; Hollins, Sheila
Cancer incidence among people with learning disabilities is rising. There have been no published studies of the needs and experiences of people with learning disabilities and cancer, from their own perspective. To provide insight into the experiences and needs of people with learning disabilities who have cancer. Prospective qualitative study, using ethnographic methods. Participants' homes, hospitals, nursing homes, and hospices in London and surrounding areas. The participants were 13 people with learning disabilities ranging from mild to severe, who had a cancer diagnosis. The main method of data collection was participant observation (over 250 hours). The median length of participation was 7 months. Participants' cancer experiences were shaped by their previous experience of life, which included deprivation, loneliness, and a lack of autonomy and power. They depended on others to negotiate contact with the outside world, including the healthcare system. This could lead to delayed cancer diagnosis and a lack of treatment options being offered. Most participants were not helped to understand their illness and its implications. Doctors did not make an assessment of capacity, but relied on carers' opinions. Urgent action is warranted by findings of late diagnosis, possible discrimination around treatment options, and lack of patient involvement and assessment of capacity in decision making. There are significant gaps in knowledge and training among most health professionals, leading to disengaged services that are unaware of the physical, emotional, and practical needs of people with learning disabilities, and their carers.
Testa, Renée; Pantelis, Christos; Fontenelle, Leonardo F
Our objective was to describe the prevalence, comorbidity, and neuropsychological profiles of children with hoarding and learning disabilities. From 61 children with learning disabilities, 16.4% exhibited hoarding as a major clinical issue. Although children with learning disabilities and hoarding displayed greater rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (30%) as compared to those with learning disabilities without hoarding (5.9%), the majority of patients belonging to the former group did not display obsessive-compulsive disorder diagnosis. When learning disability patients with hoarding were compared to age-, sex-, and IQ-matched learning disability subjects without hoarding, hoarders exhibited a slower learning curve on word list-learning task. In conclusion, salient hoarding behaviors were found to be relatively common in a sample of children with learning disabilities and not necessarily associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder, supporting its nosological independence. It is unclear whether underlying cognitive features may play a major role in the development of hoarding behaviors in children with learning disabilities.
... What are common indicators? Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What are the indicators of learning disabilities? Many children have difficulty with reading, writing, or other learning-related tasks at some point, ...
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the support they need to achieve suitable employment is needed. Interventions to improve the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities were lacking. The...
Full Text Available Introduction. Physical activity is critical to effective rehabilitation in people with disabilities and, consequently, is of high importance in their lives. However, participation of the disabled in physical activity, including tourism, is a much more complex issue than in the case in able-bodied individuals. Material and methods. This paper aims to fill the gap and familiarise the reader with barriers faced by the disabled who engage in tourism. The study group consisted of randomly selected 460 participants with certificates specifying the degree of their disability. The group included 55 (12% individuals with visual impairments, 203 (44.1% individuals with hearing impairments, and 202 (43.9% individuals with locomotor system disabilities. Results. The data derived from interviews made with people with physical dysfunctions, designed with a view to achieving the aims of the study, were used to develop logistic regression models. Conclusions. On average, the greatest and smallest numbers of barriers were reported by individuals with severe disabilities and those who had large families, respectively. Younger disabled people most often complained about the equipment barriers to participation in tourism. Older respondents were mostly challenged with social barriers. Of all the determinants analysed in the study, the perception of barriers to participation in tourism most often depended on the subjects’ degree of disability.
J.A.C. Verhoef (Joan)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work
Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the Montessori philosophy and examines how this learning theory currently gives credence to cognitive processes of the mind, as suitable intervention used to the training of children with learning disabilities. Furthermore, Montessori’s system and materials in combination with the support of new technologies as well as their implementation on various kinds of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have great successes regarding the support of disability and the enhancement of learning process.
Kermanshahi, Sima Mohammad Khan; Vanaki, Zohreh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Azadfalah, Parviz
This qualitative phenomenological study explores the lived experiences of perceived support by Iranian mothers who have children with learning disability. Twelve open interviews with six mothers of learning-disabled children (7-12 years of age) were audiotape-recorded with participants' consent. The interviews were transcribed and data were analyzed using Van Manen methodology. Two major themes emerged from 138 thematic sentences. The mothers'experiences could be interpreted as a sense of being in the light or being in the shade of support, with variations for different participants. The results indicate a need for more specialized and individually adjusted support for mothers in Iran.
Background: The term "intellectual disability" is increasingly used to refer to people with learning disabilities in British learning disability policy, practice and research. This change is undoubtedly a reflection of the changing international context. The inclusion of the term "intellectual disability" has been particularly…
People with learning disabilities have poorer health than the general population and experience health inequalities - partly as a result of problems with accessing health services. Health services have a duty to address health inequalities, by making reasonable adjustments to their services so they are more accessible to people with learning disabilities, but this does not always happen. Failure to make reasonable adjustments can have significant adverse effects for people with learning disabilities and their families. Nurses are well placed to implement reasonable adjustments, many of which are simple to do and can save lives.
Dodiuk-Gad, R; Lerner, M; Breznitz, Z; Cohen-Barak, E; Ziv, M; Shani-Adir, A; Amichai, B; Zlotogorski, A; Shalev, S; Rozenman, D
Neuropsychiatric features and intellectual difficulties have been reported in studies of Darier's disease. Learning disabilities have never been reported or evaluated systematically in these patients. To assess the prevalence of learning disabilities in 76 patients with Darier's disease, and cognitive functioning in 19 of them. The data were collected by two methods: a questionnaire, as part of a larger study on the clinical characteristics of 76 patients; and neuropsychological measures for the assessment of learning disabilities in 19 of them. Thirty-one of the 76 patients reported learning disabilities (41%) and 56 (74%) reported a family history of learning disabilities. Significant differences were found between the 19 patients evaluated on cognitive tasks and a control group of 42 skilled learners on subtraction and multiplication tasks. Six (32%) of the 19 were identified as having reading difficulties and five (26%) exhibited low performance on the Concentration Performance Test. All patients had general cognitive ability in the average range. Findings suggest an association between Darier's disease and learning disabilities, a heretofore unreported association, pointing to the need to obtain personal and family history of such disabilities in order to refer cases of clinical concern for further study. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Reading affects a plethora of areas in life. Students with learning disabilities often fall into this category due to a lack of practice with reading and less time to focus on building skills. This paper examines the background, the relationship between reading and learning disabilities, the characteristics of students with learning disabilities…
In this paper the author considers the lessons to be drawn from what is termed "inclusive" learning disability research for user involvement around health improvement. Inclusive learning disability research refers to research where people with learning difficulties (intellectual disability) are involved as active participants, as opposed to passive subjects. There is by now a considerable body of such research, developed over the past 25 years. From the review, the author draws attention to areas which can inform practice in involvement of users in a way that adds value.
Bishara, Saied; Kaplan, Shani
The goal of the research was to examine executive functioning and figurative language comprehension among students with learning disabilities as compared to students without learning disabilities. As part of the research, we examined 20 students with learning disabilities and 21 students with no learning disabilities, both groups of students…
The thesis focuses on adolescents with specific learning disabilities in the milieu of secondary schools. It is divided into a theoretical part and an empirical part. The first part introduces a topic of specific learning disabilities in the developmental stage of adolescence. It first describes the most relevant aspects of adolescent development. The attention is then paid to typical manifestations of specific learning disabilities in adolescence, and also to secondary symptoms usually conne...
Bazna, Maysaa; Reid, D. Kim
Learning disabilities education in Kuwait grew from Kuwaiti's wholesale importation of the Western, medical model of disability--a model basically incompatible with Kuwaiti culture. Conflicting factors include its problematic normal/abnormal binary, its assumption that the "deficit" is located in the student and the segregation of…
Hayes, Cheryl W.
The paper reviews Belgian philosophy toward the education of learning disabled students and cites the differences between American behaviorally-oriented theory and Belgian emphasis on identifying the underlying causes of the disability. Academic methods observed in Belgium (including psychodrama and perceptual motor training) are discussed and are…
Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; And Others
This paper reviews ongoing research designed to specify the cognitive, behavioral, and neuroanatomical phenotypes of specific genetic etiologies of learning disability. The genetic disorders at the focus of the research include reading disability, neurofibromatosis type 1, Tourette syndrome, and fragile X syndrome. Implications for identifying…
... if they continue to struggle. Read More "Dyslexic" Articles In Their Own Words: Dealing with Dyslexia / Decoding Dyslexia, a Common Learning Disability / What is Dyslexia? / Special Education and Research ...
Dr. J.A.C. Verhoef
This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the
Morningstar, Mary E.; Shogren, Karrie A.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Born, Kiara
This descriptive study examined observational data collected in inclusive classrooms from six schools that were operating schoolwide inclusive policies and practices. Illustrative evidence of classroom practices supporting learning and participation of all students, including students with significant disabilities, adds to an understanding of…
Online gaming has become a very popular leisure activity among adolescents. Research suggests that a small minority of adolescents may display problematic gaming behaviour and that some of these individuals may be addicted to online games, including those who have learning disabilities. This article begins by examining a case study of a 15-year old adolescent with a learning disability who appeared to be addicted to various computer and internet applications. Despite the potential negative ef...
Araten-Bergman, Tal; Stein, Michael Ashley
Employment, social capital, and community participation have emerged in recent years as significant concepts for realizing the human rights of individuals with disabilities. Yet the theoretical interrelationship of these concepts remains largely overlooked, as does the empirical basis for understanding the underlying connections. This study explores the relationship between employment status, social capital, community participation, and well-being among Israelis with disabilities. It also explores the unique contribution of social capital to the well-being and integration of individuals with disabilities. 274 participants with self-reported disabilities completed a questionnaire containing measures of individual social capital, community participation, well-being, and background data. Correlation and Univariate analysis were used to compare scores between employed (n=131) and non-employed (n=143) participants, and logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the unique contribution of employment to social inclusion and well-being. Employed participants reported significantly higher levels of social capital and were more integrated in leisure and civic activities than their non-employed counterparts. Moreover, employment status was found to have a significant contribution to the variance in the subjective well-being of participants. By more fully understanding the importance of social capital for community inclusion, practitioners can better address the importance of network-building during the rehabilitation process as a means of promoting social and vocational integration.
Margalit, Malka; Zak, Itai
One hundred learning disabled (LD) and 118 nondisabled children (six-13 years old) participated in the study which demonstrated significantly higher anxiety and lower self-concept in the first group. The differences emphasized the self-dissatisfaction of the LD group and their pawning related anxiety. (Author/CL)
Bates, Claire; Terry, Louise; Popple, Keith
Background: Love is important aspect of life, including to people with learning disabilities both historically and more recently. Participants value the companionship, support and social status associated with a partner. Relationships are considered mechanisms to meet certain needs including feeling loved, company, intimacy and enabling…
Taderera, Clever; Hall, Herna
Parenting children with learning disabilities requires a high level of knowledge and access to resources, information and services. In developing countries, however, these resources and services are not always available. Parents in Namibia, a developing country, therefore face challenges addressing children's learning and other developmental disabilities, including challenges related to preventative and supportive interventions. This research focuses on challenges faced by parents as they parent children with learning disabilities in Opuwo, Namibia. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight parents regarding the challenges they face in parenting their children with learning disabilities. Thematic analysis enabled the researchers to identify, analyse and report on themes that emerged from the qualitative interview data. Analysis of the interviews indicated that some participants had only a vague understanding of learning disabilities, as they did not have access to essential knowledge about this phenomenon. They also lacked an awareness of the availability of programmes, services and policies meant to benefit their children with learning disabilities. Participants voiced that they, their children with learning disabilities and community members have stereotypes and prejudices regarding learning disabilities. In this study, most of the children with learning disabilities were raised by single, unemployed parents who seemed to have access to less support from external sources than married couples parenting children with learning disabilities. These single parents are usually not married and because of lack of financial support from the other parent, the majority of them indicated that they struggle to meet the financial and material needs of their children. The researchers concluded that the participants in this study experience a range of challenges in parenting their children with learning disabilities. The main challenges emanate from financial instability, as
Ali, Syed Asif; Soomro, Safeeullah; Memon, Abdul Ghafoor; Baqi, Abdul
There are various types of disability egress in world like blindness, deafness, and Physical disabilities. It is quite difficult to deal with people with disability. Learning disability (LD) is types of disability totally different from general disability. To deal children with learning disability is difficult for both parents and teacher. As parent deal with only single child so it bit easy. But teacher deals with different students at a time so its more difficult to deal with group of stude...
McClimens, Alex; Allmark, Peter
People with severe learning disability are particularly difficult to include in the research process. As a result, researchers may be tempted to focus on those with learning disability who can be included. The problem is exacerbated in this field as the political agenda of inclusion and involvement is driven by those people with learning disability who are the higher functioning. To overcome this we should first detach the notion of consent from ideas about autonomy and think instead of it as a way to avoid wronging others; this fits the original historical use of consent in research. This allows us to think in terms of including participants to the best of their abilities rather than in terms of a threshold of autonomy. Researchers could then use imaginative ways to include the least able and to ensure they are not wronged in research or by exclusion from it.
DeFries, J. C.; And Others
Results obtained from the center's six research projects are reviewed, including research on psychometric assessment of twins with reading disabilities, reading and language processes, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and executive functions, linkage analysis and physical mapping, computer-based remediation of reading disabilities, and…
Freeman, Stephen W.
This article offers three listings of signs and symptoms useful in detection of learning and perceptual deficiencies. The first list presents symptoms of the learning-disabled child; the second gives specific visual perceptual deficits (poor discrimination, figure-ground problems, reversals, etc.); and the third gives auditory perceptual deficits…
Talman, Lena; Gustafsson, Christine; Stier, Jonas; Wilder, Jenny
This study investigated what areas of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were documented in implementation plans for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities with focus on participation. A document analysis of 17 implementation plans was performed and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as an analytic tool. One hundred and sixty-three different codes were identified, especially in the components Activities and participation and Environmental factors. Participation was most frequently coded in the chapters Community, social and civic life and Self-care. Overall, the results showed that focus in the implementation plans concerned Self-care and Community, social and civic life. The other life areas in Activities and participation were seldom, or not at all, documented. A deeper focus on participation in the implementation plans and all life areas in the component Activities and participation is needed. It is important that the documentation clearly shows what the adult wants, wishes, and likes in everyday life. It is also important to ensure that the job description for staff contains both life areas and individual preferences so that staff have the possibility to work to fulfill social and individual participation for the target group. Implications for rehabilitation There is a need for functioning working models to increase participation significantly for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. For these adults, participation is achieved through the assistance of others and support and services carried out must be documented in an implementation plan. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can be used to support staff and ensure that information about the most important factors in an individual's functioning in their environment is not omitted in
Cole, Terry Stokes
Science teachers have long noticed the fact that their students come to school with their own concepts, produced from daily experiences and interactions with the world around them. Sometimes these ideas are in agreement with accepted scientific theories, but often they are not. These "incorrect" ideas, or "misconceptions" have been the focus of many studies, which can be helpful to teachers when planning their lessons. However, there is a dearth of information that is geared specifically to students with learning disabilities. These students generally have deficits in areas of perception and learning that could conceivably influence the way they formulate concepts. The purpose of this study was to examine the concepts held by students with learning disabilities on the causes of the day/night cycle, the phases of the moon, and the seasons. An interview format was judged to be the best method of ensuring that the students' ideas were clearly documented. The subjects were five, sixth-grade students in a city school, who had been determined to have a learning disability. In examining the results, there did not seem to be any direct link between the type of misconception formed and the learning deficit of the child. It seemed more likely that students formed their concepts the way students usually do, but the various disabilities they exhibited interfered with their learning of more appropriate conceptions. The results of this study will be helpful to science teachers, curriculum planners, or anyone who works with students who have learning disabilities. It is hoped that this will begin to fill a void in the area of learning disabilities research.
Morey, Melissa; Ennis, Robin Parks; Katsiyannis, Antonis
Engaging in physical activity is important for school-age children, as it promotes a healthy and active lifestyle. However, barriers to participation in physical education and athletics often prevent students with disabilities from engaging in these important activities. There are several legal precedents that should be considered as schools seek…
Gilboa, Yafit; Fuchs, Reut
We aim to examine the pattern of participation of children with intellectual developmental disabilities (IDD) or global developmental delay (GDD) in comparison with typically developing preschoolers. In addition, to identify environmental and personal factors associated with their participation, 20 children with mild to moderate GDD or IDD, and 24 age- and gender-matched controls, aged 3 to 6 years, were assessed using the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation and the Environmental Restriction Questionnaire. Significant differences were found between the groups, both for general scales of participation and for each activity area. For the IDD/GDD group, participation was significantly negatively correlated with environmental restrictions at home. For the control group, participation was correlated with demographic variables. Typically developing children participate at a higher frequency and in a more diverse range of activities compared with children with IDD/GDD. Associations between participation and contextual factors varied depending on the child's health condition.
The following article outlines the methodological approach used to include people with learning disabilities as active participants in an oral history produced in Australia. The history sought to document life inside Kew Cottages, Australia's oldest and largest specialised institution for people with learning disabilities. This work furthers…
Mackey, Ellen; Dodd, Karen
Following Beacroft & Dodd's (2009) audit of pain recognition and management within learning disability services in Surrey, it was recommended that learning disability services should receive training in pain recognition and management. Two hundred and seventy-five services were invited to participate, of which 197 services in Surrey accepted…
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (NJ1), 2011
Parents are often worried when their child has learning problems in school. There are many reasons for school failure, but a common one is a specific learning disability. Children with learning disabilities can have intelligence in the normal range but the specific learning disability may make teachers and parents concerned about their general…
This article provides a retrospective review and analysis of New Labour's policies in relation to lifelong learning. New Labour's plans to promote social inclusion through lifelong learning resulted in a focus upon participation in terms of increasing the numbers of students involved in formal learning and increasing their participation in…
Meister Eduardo Kaehler
Full Text Available With this article we intend to demonstrate the importance of evaluation and follow up of children with learning disabilities, through a multidisciplinary team. As well as to establish the need of intervention. We evaluate 69 children, from Aline Picheth Public School, in Curitiba, attending first or second grade of elementary school, through general and evolutionary neurological examination, pediatric checklist symptoms, and social, linguistic and psychological (WISC-III, Bender Infantile and WPPSI-figures evaluation. The incidence was higher in boys (84,1%, familiar history of learning disabilities was found in 42%, and writing abnormalities in 56,5%. The most frequent diagnosis was attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, in 39,1%. With this program, we aimed to reduce the retention taxes and stress the importance of this evaluation, and, if necessary, multidisciplinar intervention in the cases of learning disabilities.
McCoy, Thomasin E.; Conrad, Amy L.; Richman, Lynn C.; Nopoulos, Peg C.; Bell, Edward F.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory...
A majority of studies on learning disabilities have focused on elementary grades. Although problems with learning disabilities are life-affecting only a few studies focus on deficits in adults. In this study adults with isolated mathematical disabilities (n = 101) and adults with combined mathematical and reading disabilities (n = 130) solved…
Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will
In order to gain access to accommodations and services at colleges and universities, students with learning disabilities must provide documentation of their disabilities, and as students with learning disabilities access higher education at increasing rates, the need for documentation of their disabilities and its impact becomes even more…
This article provides a retrospective review and analysis of New Labour’s policies in relation to lifelong learning. New Labour’s plans to promote social inclusion through lifelong learning resulted in a focus upon participation in terms of increasing the numbers of students involved in formal learning and increasing their participation in classroom activities. Engaging in lifelong learning is considered to have broader social benefits for individuals and society, above and beyond purely acad...
Garbutt, Ruth; Tattersall, John; Dunn, Jo; Boycott-Garnett, Rachel
This is an article that talks about our research about sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It talks about how people with learning disabilities have been fully involved in the research. (Contains 2 footnotes.)
Mauk, Gary W.; Mauk, Pamela P.
This paper presents a definition of deaf and hard of hearing children with learning disabilities; notes the incidence of children with both disabilities; outlines roadblocks to learning; describes screening, diagnosis, and assessment practices; and offers suggestions for educational programming. (JDD)
Fahey, David A.
Provides an overview of some of the more common psychological theories and behavioral variables associated with learning disabilities. Reviews Adlerian Rational Emotive and behavioral and hypnotherapy approaches as intervention strategies for the counselor confronted with learning disabled students. (LLL)
Learning disabilities severely deteriorate the life of many NF1 patients. However, the pathogenic process for NF1-associated learning disabilities has not been fully understood and an effective therapy is not available...
Learning disabilities severely deteriorate the life of many NF1 patients. However, the pathogenic process for NF1-associated learning disabilities has not been fully understood and an effective therapy is not available...
Learning disabilities severely deteriorate the life of many NFI patients. However, the pathogenic process for NFI-associated learning disabilities has not been fully understood and an effective therapy is not available...
Hussein, S; Manthorpe, J
The life expectancy of people with learning disabilities has increased substantially. Services for older people with learning disabilities are provided by various sectors and practitioners (generic health and social care, or specialist learning disability or old age). The literature suggests that practitioners do not feel well-equipped to support people with learning disabilities as they grow older, and older people's services do not always have the opportunity to share experiences and skills...
This diploma thesis deals with the topic of specific learning disability. In the theoretical part I define the term specific learning disability and I mention the related terms. I deal with the history, types and causes of specific learning disability, further I describe the possibilities of diagnostics and re-education concerning specific learning disability. I also attend to the situation of a pupil in the family and school background. The main attention is especially paid to teaching forei...
Kavale, Kenneth A.; Spaulding, Lucinda S.; Beam, Andrea P.
Unlike other special education categories defined in U.S. law (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), the definition of specific learning disability (SLD) has not changed since first proposed in 1968. Thus, although the operational definition of SLD has responded to new knowledge and understanding about the construct, the formal definition…
Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta
This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…
Menon K. P., Seema
The study aims to find out the awareness on learning disabilities among elementary school teachers. The sample for the present study consisted of 500 elementary school teachers of Kerala. In this study the investigator used an Awareness Test on Learning Disabilities to measure the Awareness on Learning Disabilities among Elementary School…
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific learning disabilities. 300.307 Section 300.307... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities § 300.307 Specific learning disabilities. (a) General. A State must adopt, consistent with § 300.309...
Bane, Geraldine; Deely, Marie; Donohoe, Brian; Dooher, Martin; Flaherty, Josephine; Iriarte, Edurne Garcia; Hopkins, Rob; Mahon, Ann; Minogue, Ger; Mc Donagh, Padraig; O'Doherty, Siobhain; Curry, Martin; Shannon, Stephen; Tierney, Edel; Wolfe, Marie
This study explored the perspectives of people with learning disabilities on relationships and supports in the Republic of Ireland. A national research network consisting of 21 researchers with learning disabilities, 12 supporters, and 7 university researchers conducted the study. Researchers with learning disabilities and their supporters ran 16…
Epps, Susan; And Others
Eighteen judges with backgrounds in assessment, decision making, and learning disabilities were asked to use an array of information to differentiate learning disabled (LD) and non-learning disabled students. Each judge was provided with forms containing information on 42 test or subtest scores of 50 school-identified LD students and 49 non-LD…
Damian Haslett; Ben Fitzpatrick; Gavin Breslin
Sport and exercise psychology research in disability sport seldom engages with social models of disability. As a result, the socio-historical landscape of disability is underrepresented in sport psychology research. The aim of this study is to interpret influences on participation in disability sport through the conceptual lens of the social relational model (SRM) of disability (Thomas, 1999, 2004, 2007). Ten Irish adult male athletes with physical disabilities participated in semi-structured...
Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy
Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…
Chen, Charles P.; Chan, Janice
Learning disabilities (LDs) describe a number of disorders that affect the way information is acquired, retained, organized, and understood. This article aims to address the critical issue of improving the career well-being of LD youth. It first examines several critical issues that affect LD high school students/youth in their career development.…
Lerer, Robert J.
Complex motor tics associated with vocal tics indicate a high likelihood of Tourette syndrome; children with this syndrome may also have learning disabilities and attentional disorders. Individuals may be treated with stimulant drugs which may precipitate or exacerbate tics. Pharmacotherapy is available for management of tics and attentional…
Presents findings from several sources that give results of research in megavitamin nutritional therapy. Examines vitamin therapy in learning disabilities in general, schizophrenia, autism, mental retardation and Down's syndrome, and hyperkinesis. Concludes that holistic approach to treatment is needed and that vitamin therapy, if proven…
Conderman, Greg; Koman, Kara; Schibelka, Mary; Higgin, Karen; Cooper, Cody; Butler, Jordyn
Learning strategy instruction is an evidence-based practice for teaching adolescents with mild disabilities. However, researchers have not developed strategies for every content area or skill. Therefore, teachers need to be able develop strategies based on the needs of their students. This article reviews the process for developing and teaching…
In East Asia, Taiwan is one of only a few countries that has a clear definition of learning disabilities (LD) as well as operational criteria for the identification of LD. In Taiwan, special education services for students with LD are mandated in the Special Education Act of 1984. According to the official statistics from the Taiwanese Special…
MacInnes, Maryhelen; Broman, Clifford L.
It is well established that children and adolescents with learning disabilities are more likely to experience depressed mood than are their peers. Many scholars explain this relationship as resulting from low self-esteem, stress, or social isolation. However, little work has explored whether this relationship continues to exist into young…
Shalev, Ruth S.; Manor, Orly; Kerem, Batsheva; Ayali, Mady; Badichi, Navah; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gross-Tsur, Varda
Siblings and parents of 39 children with dyscalculia were assessed for arithmetic, reading, and attention disorders. Findings indicated a familial prevalence of dyscalculia almost tenfold higher than expected for the general population and suggest that dyscalculia, like other learning disabilities, has a significant familial aggregation,…
Johnson, Lynn S.; And Others
The impact of group hypnotic and self-hypnotic training on the academic performance and self-esteem of learning disabled children was explored. Three hypnotic training sessions and instructions for six weeks of daily self-hypnotic practice containing suggestions for imagery related to improvement in these areas were given to 15 children, their…
Swanson, H. Lee, Ed.; Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.
Widely regarded as the standard reference in the field, this comprehensive handbook presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the nature and classification of learning disabilities (LD), their causes, and how individuals with these difficulties can be identified and helped to succeed. Best practices are described for supporting student performance…
Bonti, Eleni; Bampalou, Christina E.; Kouimtzi, Eleni M.; Kyritsis, Zacharias
The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons why Greek young adults with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) seek learning assessments. The study sample consisted of 106 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for SLD. Data were collected through self-report records (clinical interview) of adults…
Lloyd, Jennifer L; Coulson, Neil S
Research suggests that the uptake of cervical screening by women with intellectual disabilities (commonly known as learning disabilities within UK policy frameworks, practice areas and health services) is poor compared to women without intellectual disabilities. The present study explored learning disability nurses' experiences of supporting women with intellectual disabilities to access cervical screening in order to examine their role in promoting attendance and elucidate potential barriers and facilitators to uptake. Ten participants recruited from a specialist learning disability service completed a semi-structured interview and data were analysed using experiential thematic analysis. Identified individual barriers included limited health literacy, negative attitudes and beliefs and competing demands; barriers attributed to primary care professionals included time pressures, limited exposure to people with intellectual disabilities and lack of appropriate knowledge, attitudes and skills. Attendance at cervical screening was facilitated by prolonged preparation work undertaken by learning disability nurses, helpful clinical behaviours in the primary care context and effective joint working. © The Author(s) 2014.
Many people with learning disabilities are frequently excluded from active involvement in research and, as a result, along with researchers, have questioned research processes. These discussions have influenced how research is undertaken by, and with, people who have learning disabilities. Learning disability research is now increasingly framed as inclusive. This article explores the development of inclusive learning disability research by tracing its background and influences, identifying key characteristics and highlighting some of the challenges in its application. It demonstrates how inclusive research can give people with learning disabilities a voice that will help to inform practice.
Lindsay, Sally; Hounsell, Kara Grace
Youth with disabilities are under-represented in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in school and in the workforce. One encouraging approach to engage youth's interest in STEM is through robotics; however, such programs are mostly for typically developing youth. The purpose of this study was to understand the development and implementation of an adapted robotics program for children and youth with disabilities and their experiences within it. Our mixed methods pilot study (pre- and post-workshop surveys, observations, and interviews) involved 41 participants including: 18 youth (aged 6-13), 12 parents and 11 key informants. The robotics program involved 6, two-hour workshops held at a paediatric hospital. Our findings showed that several adaptations made to the robotics program helped to enhance the participation of children with disabilities. Adaptations addressed the educational/curriculum, cognitive and learning, physical and social needs of the children. In regards to experiences within the adapted hospital program, our findings highlight that children enjoyed the program and learned about computer programming and building robots. Clinicians and educators should consider engaging youth with disabilities in robotics to enhance learning and interest in STEM. Implications for Rehabilitation Clinicians and educators should consider adapting curriculum content and mode of delivery of LEGO ® robotics programs to include youth with disabilities. Appropriate staffing including clinicians and educators who are knowledgeable about youth with disabilities and LEGO ® robotics are needed. Clinicians should consider engaging youth with disabilities in LEGO ® to enhance learning and interest in STEM.
Conclusion: The researchers concluded that the participants in this study experience a range of challenges in parenting their children with learning disabilities. The main challenges emanate from financial instability, as well as lack of knowledge regarding services and programmes for children with learning disabilities. This lack of knowledge on the part of participants could indicate poor policy education by policy implementers at grass-roots level.
Irwin, Curt B; Sesto, Mary E
Touch screens are becoming more prevalent in everyday environments. Therefore, it is important that this technology is accessible to those with varying disabilities. The objective of the current study was to evaluate performance and touch characteristics (forces, impulses, and dwell times) of individuals with and without a movement disorder during a reciprocal tapping touch screen task. Thirty-seven participants with a motor control disability and 15 non-disabled participants participated. Outcome measures include number of correct taps, dwell time, exerted force, and impulse. Results indicate non-disabled participants had 1.8 more taps than participants with fine motor control disabilities and 2.8 times more than those with gross motor impairments (ptouch characteristics exist between those with and without motor control disabilities. Understanding how people (including those with disabilities) interact with touch screens may allow designers and engineers to ultimately improve usability of touch screen technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata
The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…
Sun, Lei; Wallach, Geraldine P.
This article takes readers along the pathway of language learning and disorders across childhood and adolescence, highlighting the complex relationship between early (preschool) language disorders and later (school age) learning disabilities. The discussion starts with a review of diagnostic labels widely used in schools and other professional…
In the present study, we developed a new event-related potentials (ERPs) stimulator system applicable to simultaneous audio visual stimuli, and tested it clinically on healthy adults and patients with learning disabilities (LD), using Japanese language task stimuli: hiragana letters, kanji letters, and kanji letters with spoken words. (1) The origins of the P300 component were identified in these tasks. The sources in the former two tasks were located in different areas. In the simultaneous task stimuli, a combination of the two P300 sources was observed with dominance in the left posterior inferior temporal area. (2) In patients with learning disabilities, those with reading and writing disability showed low amplitudes in the left hemisphere in response to visual language task stimuli with kanji and hiragana letters, in contrast to healthy children and LD patients with arithmetic disability. (3) To evaluate the effect of methylphenidate (10 mg) on ADD, paired-associate ERPs were recorded. Methylphenidate increased the amplitude of P300.
There are a number of disabilities that music educators may never encounter among their students in the music classroom; however, all music educators will have students with learning disabilities. Students with learning disabilities may have a variety of "presenting problems" that limit their academic and social success in the music classroom. The…
Marita, Samantha; Hord, Casey
Recent educational policy has raised the standards that all students, including students with disabilities, must meet in mathematics. To examine the strategies currently used to support students with learning disabilities, the authors reviewed literature from 2006 to 2014 on mathematics interventions for students with learning disabilities. The 12…
Gonen, Ayala; Grinberg, Keren
Background: Learning disabilities (LD) are lifelong disabilities that affect all facets of a person's life. Aim: Identifying the relationship between academic students' attitudes toward learning disability, self-image, and selected factors. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 213 students from an academic center in Israel. Two different…
Mirandola, Chiara; Losito, Nunzia; Ghetti, Simona; Cornoldi, Cesare
Research has shown that children with learning disabilities (LD) are less prone to evince associative illusions of memory as a result of impairments in their ability to engage in semantic processing. However, it is unclear whether this observation is true for scripted life events, especially if they include emotional content, or across a broad spectrum of learning disabilities. The present study addressed these issues by assessing recognition memory for script-like information in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), children with dyslexia, and typically developing children (N=51). Participants viewed photographs about 8 common events (e.g., family dinner), and embedded in each episode was either a negative or a neutral consequence of an unseen action. Children's memory was then tested on a yes/no recognition task that included old and new photographs. Results showed that the three groups performed similarly in recognizing target photographs, but exhibited differences in memory errors. Compared to other groups, children with NLD were more likely to falsely recognize photographs that depicted an unseen cause of an emotional seen event and associated more "Remember" responses to these errors. Children with dyslexia were equally likely to falsely recognize both unseen causes of seen photographs and photographs generally consistent with the script, whereas the other participant groups were more likely to falsely recognize unseen causes rather than script-consistent distractors. Results are interpreted in terms of mechanisms underlying false memories' formation in different clinical populations of children with LD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nilsson, Lisbeth; Eklund, Mona; Nyberg, Per; Thulesius, Hans
The Driving to Learn project explored ways to help people with profound cognitive disabilities practice operating a joystick-operated powered wheelchair. The project used a grounded theory approach with constant comparative analysis and was carried out over 12 yr. The participants were 45 children and adults with profound cognitive disabilities. Reference groups included 17 typically developing infants and 64 participants with lesser degrees of cognitive disability. The data sources included video recordings, field notes, open interviews, and a rich mixture of literature. The findings that emerged yielded strategies for facilitating achievements, an 8-phase learning process, an assessment tool, and a grounded theory of deplateauing explaining the properties necessary for participants to exceed expected limitations and plateaus. Eight participants with profound cognitive disabilities reached goal-directed driving or higher. Participants were empowered by attaining increased control over tool use, improving their autonomy and quality of life.
Bal, M I; Sattoe, J N T; van Schaardenburgh, N R; Floothuis, M C S G; Roebroeck, M E; Miedema, H S
Finding and maintaining employment is a major challenge for young adults with physical disabilities and their work participation rate is lower than that of healthy peers. This paper is about a program that supports work participation amongst young adults with chronic physical disabilities. The study aims to explore their experienced barriers and facilitators for finding and maintaining employment after starting this program, the participant-perceived beneficial attributes of the program and participants' recommendations for additional intervention components. Semi-structured interviews (n = 19) were held with former intervention participations. Interviews were recorded and transcribed ad verbatim. Themes were derived using the phenomenological approach. Physical functions and capacities, supervisor's attitude, self-esteem and self-efficacy and openness and assertiveness were experienced barriers and facilitators for finding and maintaining employment. Improvement of self-promoting skills and disclosure skills through job interview-training, increased self-esteem or self-efficacy through peer-support, a suitable job through job placement, improvement of work ability through arrangement of adjusted work conditions and change of supervisor's attitude through education provided to the supervisor were perceived as beneficial attributes of the intervention. Respondents recommended to incorporate assertiveness and openness skills training into future intervention programs. The findings suggest that programs supporting work participation should be designed to provide challenging, real-world experiential opportunities that provide young adults with physical disabilities with new insights, self-efficacy and life skills. Also, such programs should facilitate context centered learning. Former intervention participants, therefore, evaluated job-interview training, sharing learning and social experiences with peers, job placement, arrangement of adjusted work conditions and
Ivy, Robert J.
There is a lack of research based data in the field of learning disabilities, especially at the secondary level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate personality configuration patterns and vocational interests through the administration of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Abbreviated Version (AV) and the Self-Directed Search, Form E (EASY) for learning disabled (LD) and non-learning disabled (NLD) students. The sample included 90 LD students and 100 Non-LD stud...
Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen
as a forum for learning, mutual inspiration and "human co-flourishing." We offer five design principles that specify how conferences may involve participants more and hence increase their learning. In the research and development effort reported here, our team collaborated with conference organizers......The typical conference is brimming with PowerPoint presentations that leave very little time for participant involvement. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies this massive show of one-way communication. We propose an alternative theory of the conference...... in Denmark to introduce a variety of simple learning techniques related to the design principles at thirty real conferences of some 100-200 participants each. We present twelve of these techniques and the data evaluating them and conclude that by spending a fraction of the time at a conference on involving...
Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Bernal, Jane; Hubert, Jane; Butler, Gary; Hollins, Sheila
Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are living longer and dying of age related illnesses such as cancer. To explore the experiences of people with learning disabilities who have cancer. The study used participant observation with 13 people with learning disabilities. All had a cancer diagnosis and 10 were terminally ill. Participants were visited regularly at home and in other settings, including hospitals. The main themes were: dependent lives; deprived lives; truth telling and understanding; the importance of families; inexperienced carers and unprepared services; and resilience. To understand the experiences of people with learning disabilities who are dying of cancer, it is important to understand their previous life experiences and key relationships. Healthcare professionals who treat people with respect, dignity and openness can make a positive difference to their care.
Background: In the debate about how to evaluate students suspected of having a learning disability, the role of context in learning has been consistently minimized in the United States. Objective: This article explores the implications of the current, deficit-based approach to the definition and assessment of learning disabilities and offers a…
Güven, N. Dilsad; Argün, Ziya
Teaching responsive to the needs of students with learning disabilities (LD) can be provided through understanding students' conceptions and their ways of learning. The current research, as a case study based on qualitative design, aimed to investigate the conceptions of students with learning disabilities with regard to the different…
Raja, B. William Dharma; Kumar, S. Praveen
This article focusses on the review of research studies done on the area of learning disabilities and the need to conduct more research studies in this area. School children are seen to have different types of learning difficulties with regard to academics. Children with learning disability, who occupy the largest number receiving special…
This article appraises the report Strengthening the Commitment, which is a UK-wide review of learning disabilities nursing by the UK's four chief nursing officers. Strengthening the Commitment has strategic importance in reviewing progress in the care of people with learning disabilities in the UK. It also has a role in helping to guide future strategies and initiatives addressing the continuing health inequalities experienced by people with learning disabilities throughout the UK.
Whinnery, Keith W.
A college preparation curriculum relevant to the needs of students with learning disabilities is presented, focusing on early planning, instructional modifications, strategy instruction, and support services. (JDD)
Shandra, Carrie L
People with disabilities in the United States experience lower levels of social integration than people without disabilities. However, less is known about the association between disability and volunteer participation-despite an extensive literature on other disparities in volunteerism. This study uses data from the 2009-2015 Volunteer Supplement of the Current Population Survey to evaluate how working-aged adults with sensory disabilities, cognitive disabilities, physical disabilities, or multiple disabilities access, participate in, and maintain volunteer roles. Net of sociodemographic characteristics, adults with disabilities are no less likely than those without disabilities to report informal volunteering, although the presence of physical and multiple disabilities negatively associates with formal volunteering. Adults with disabilities report no fewer annual hours or weeks than those without disabilities if they are formal volunteers, but the mechanism through which they initially become involved in volunteer organizations varies. People with different types of disability experience different patterns of volunteering, and the sociodemographic characteristics associated with having a disability exacerbate many of these differences. Results suggest that adults with disabilities can-and do-participate in voluntary work, but may face barriers to accessing formal volunteer roles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lau, Won-Fong K.; Ortega, Karina; Sharkey, Jill
Students with learning disabilities have been found to lack self-awareness about their disability, likely contributing to several challenges they experience, such as social skill deficits. At the same time, there is limited research investigating interventions to effectively increase disability self-awareness among this population. The current…
Learning Disability Quarterly, 1999
This document offers a framework for use by education agencies in developing rules and guidelines for use of paraprofessionals within programs serving individuals with learning disabilities. Separate sections address principles, definitions, ethical responsibilities, education requirements for paraprofessionals, roles and responsibilities of…
Fleming, Madalay; Wated, Guillermo
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of perceived stigma in the relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic performance among college students with learning disabilities and/or ADHD. Seventy-four college-aged participants with diagnosed learning disability or ADHD completed a perceived stigma scale…
Solvoll, Betty-Ann; Hall, Elisabeth O C; Brinchmann, Berit Støre
Healthcare providers caring for learning-disabled individuals in institutions face challenges of what is right or wrong in their daily work. Serving this group, it is of utmost importance for the healthcare staff to raise awareness and to understand how ethical values are at stake. What ethical challenges are discussed among healthcare providers working with adults with learning disabilities? The study had a qualitative and investigative design. The study was conducted in a community institution for adults with learning disabilities. Participants were healthcare providers joining regular focused group discussions. Two groups participated and each group consisted of six participants. The conversations were taped and transcribed. The study was reported to Norwegian Social Science Data Services and was approved by the regional ethics committee. Findings are presented in four themes: (a) feeling squeezed between conflicting actions, (b) being the client's spokesman, (c) searching shared responsibility, and (d) expecting immediate and fixed solutions. The healthcare providers wanted to be the clients' advocates. They felt obliged to speak up for the clients, however, seeking for someone with whom to share the heavily experienced responsibility. Data likewise revealed that the group discussions created expectations among the healthcare providers; they expected smart and final solutions to the problems they discussed. The discussion focuses on everyday ethical challenges, the meaning of being in-between and share responsibility, and the meaning of ethical sensitivity. Ethical challenges can be demanding for the staff; they might feel squeezed in-between contradictory attitudes or feel alone in decision-making. Frequent conversations about ethical challenges do not solve the ethical problems here-and-now, but they do visualize them. This also visualizes the staff's need for support. © The Author(s) 2014.
This article discusses the main advances and challenges for understanding and evaluating disability as a restriction for social participation. This new understanding has its origins in the 2006 WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health - ICF, the 2001 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and more recently, the July 2015 Brazilian Inclusion of People with Disabilities Act (IPDA), also known as the Statute on Persons with Disabilities. The change in the understanding of disability from a merely biomedical perspective, to an understanding that is based on oppression and social inequality reinforces the idea that disability is not an individual attribute, but the result of a society that is not prepared for human diversity. Based on a legislative analysis of the many documents on policies regarding persons with disabilities, notably the IPDA and the evaluations of disability that the ICF already uses in Brazil, the main contention proposed is that classifying and valuing disability is challenging for professional evaluators as well as for Brazilian public policy. This is mainly due to the challenges of recognizing the barriers and environmental factors that hamper the full participation in society of people with disabilities.
Personalized learning models can give each student differentiated learning experiences based on their needs, interests, and strengths, including students with disabilities. Personalized learning can pinpoint specific gaps in student learning, identify where a student is on his or her learning pathway, and provide the appropriate interventions to…
Naseem, Mustafa; Shah, Altaf H; Khiyani, Muhammad Faheem; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Gulzar, Shabnam; AlJameel, AlBandary H; Khalil, Hesham S
The prevalence of oral diseases including dental caries and periodontal conditions is remarkably higher in people with disabilities. The provision of accessible oral health services for people with learning disabilities may be challenging. The objectives of the review were to identify barriers in accessing oral health care that persists within society, enabling or disabling people with learning disabilities. Using the Arksey O'Malley framework, a scoping review was conducted on PubMed/Medline, OVIDSP, and EMBASE. Studies were evaluated and short-listed based on the inclusion criteria, which consisted of: (1) study participants or population with learning disabilities, (2) aged 16 years or over, (3) reporting on access to oral health services, (4) published in the English language. Those that justified the inclusion criteria were carefully chosen after a blind peer-reviewed process when relevance and quality were debated. Nine studies were eventually included from searches. Tabulation of data was done under the heading of study type, outcomes, the year of publication and patient selection. The majority of studies provided a biomedical overview of access for adults with learning disabilities. The concept of access for people with disability is still ill-defined and obscure. Access to oral health care and needs of people with learning disabilities are complex and multi-facet.
McArthur, Polly; Burch, Lillian; Moore, Katherine; Hodges, Mary Sue
This article describes interactive learning about independent living for people with disabilities and features the partnership of the College of Nursing and a Center for Independent Living (CIL). Using qualitative descriptive approach, students' written reflections were analyzed. Through "Xtreme Challenge," 82 undergraduate nursing students participated in aspects of independent living as well as identifying barriers. Students were engaged and learned to consider the person before the disability. Moreover, students valued the activity leaders' openness, which facilitated understanding the point of view of a person with disability. The value of partnership was evident as it allowed students to participate in active learning, which led to growth in the affective domain. Students became aware of potential education resources through the CIL. This article will guide educators in designing experiences that teach nursing care at the individual, family, and community level for people living with disabilities. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.
Brooks, B A; Floyd, F; Robins, D L; Chan, W Y
Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill acquisition. Participation in social activities is positively related to children's social adjustment, but little is known about the benefits of activity participation for children with intellectual and specific learning disabilities. This study investigated the association between frequency and type of social activity participation and the social competence of 8-11-year-old children with intellectual disability (n = 40) and specific learning disabilities (n = 53), in comparison with typically developing peers (n = 24). More time involved in unstructured activities, but not structured activities, was associated with higher levels of social competence for all children. This association was strongest for children with intellectual disability, suggesting that participation in unstructured social activities was most beneficial for these children. Future research on the quality of involvement is necessary to further understand specific aspects of unstructured activities that might facilitate social development. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Canadian Council on Learning, 2009
If stronger skills and more education are key to greater labour force participation, then it is important to identify critical barriers to education and training for Canadians with disabilities. In 2008, the Canadian Council on Learning's Adult Learning Knowledge Centre funded a "Community Outreach Initiative for Learner's with…
Marriott, Anna; Turner, Sue; Giraud-Saunders, Alison
People with learning disabilities have poorer health than their non-disabled peers, and are less likely to access screening services than the general population. The National Development Team for Inclusion and the Norah Fry Research Centre developed a toolkit and guidance to improve uptake of five national (English) screening programmes (one of which is delivered through local programmes), based on work to improve access by people with learning disabilities in the south west peninsula of the UK. This article describes the findings in relation to the five English screening programmes and suggests ways to improve uptake of cancer screening by people with learning disabilities.
Roelofsen, E.; Verbeeten, F.; Mertens, G.
We examine whether market participants learn from the information that is disseminated during the Q-and-A section of conference calls. Specifically, we investigate whether stock prices react to information on intangible assets provided during conference calls, and whether conference calls
The 5 professional associations for the disabled and the self-help organisations of disabled people state that in Germany a general concept for "participation research" is needed. This concept should address expectations and processes in developing aid services and improve self-determined participation of people with disabilities according to the human rights postulated in the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (2006). A concept of "participation research" will go beyond the objectives and methods of i. e., disability studies - it is a focus in the context of which the social and equal participation of the disabled (especially those with multiple and/or intellectual handicaps) has to be addressed. In this context the 5 professional associations for the disabled have drafted 10 theses which are presented in the following article. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Zitani, E. Alfredo
Learning disability is seen to be a dissociative disorder (school shock) similar to shell shock in wartime. The shell shock model is explained to focus diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities around the dynamics of the predisposing unconscious conflict, the dynamics in the environment, the mechanism which allows these two conditions to…
Anderson, Lisa K.; And Others
Past research has demonstrated a relationship between children's physical attractiveness and their self-esteem. Other research has found that learning disabled children are at risk for having low self-esteem. This study examined the relationship between self-esteem and facial attractiveness in learning disabled children. Subjects were 20 diagnosed…
This report describes the Learning Disabled College Writer's Project, implemented at the University of Minnesota during the 1985-86 school year and designed to aid learning disabled college students master composition skills through training in the use of microcomputer word processors. Following an executive summary, an introduction states the…
Schwarz, Robin; Terrill, Lynda
This digest reviews what is known about adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners and learning disabilities, suggests ways to identify and assess ESL adults who may have learning disabilities, and offers practical methods for both instruction and teacher training. Topics covered in some detail include identifying and diagnosing learning…
A large percent of the population is affected by learning disabilities, which significantly impacts individuals and families. Much research has been done to identify effective ways to best help the students with learning disabilities. One of the more promising strategies is the use of visual supports to enhance these students' understanding…
Considerations in estate planning for learning disabled children are presented from the perspective of an individual who is both a lawyer and the parent of a learning disabled child. It is suggested that an important goal for parents is to train the child to be able to deal with his/her financial situation. Early training in the habit of saving…
Curtis, Mary G.
Dr. Tanis Bryan graduated from Northwestern University during the beginning of the field of learning disabilities. From this beginning, Tanis has provided invaluable insight into the field through her desire to understand the social dimensions of learning disabilities. The author wishes to thank Tanis for her assistance with this interview.
Horn, Jaime Helena; Moss, Duncan
Research has identified the collective experiences of oppression, stigma and isolation in the lives of people with learning disabilities. Against the backdrop of social and cultural processes that shape and limit the life experiences of people with learning disabilities, the authors are interested in how the individual develops a sense of self and…
Nuwagaba, Ephraim L; Rule, Peter N
Despite Uganda's progress in promoting affirmative action for persons with disabilities and its strategy of using microfinance to fight poverty, access to microfinance services by persons with disabilities is still problematic due to barriers, characterised by discrepancies between policies and practices. Regarding education, the affirmative action in favour of learners with disabilities has not translated into actual learning opportunities due to personal and environmental barriers. The study on which this article is based investigated the non-formal and informal adult learning practices regarding microfinance that persons with disabilities engaged in. This article seeks to illuminate the barriers that a person with a visual impairment encountered while learning about and engaging with microfinance and the strategies that he developed to overcome them. This was a case study, framed within the social model of disability and critical research paradigm. Data were collected through in-depth interviews of a person with visual impairment and observations of the environment in which adult learning and engagement with Savings and Credit Cooperative Organisations (SACCOs) occurred. Findings indicate that the person with a visual disability faced barriers to learning about microfinance services. He experienced barriers in an integrated manner and developed strategies to overcome these barriers. The barriers and strategies are theorised using the social model of disability. The case of a person with visual impairment suggests that persons with disabilities face multiple barriers regarding microfinance, including social, psychological and educational. However, his own agency and attitudes were also of importance as they influenced his learning. Viewing these barriers as blockades can lead to non-participation in learning and engagement with microfinance whereas viewing them as surmountable hurdles can potentially motivate participants to succeed in learning about and engaging
Opini, Bathseba M.
This paper presents a review of the challenges that disabled people experience in participating in the Kenyan labour market. It draws on existing literature and on a narrative of the experiences of one disabled academic in a Kenyan university to highlight some of the forms of discrimination that disabled people have to cope with in their…
Pacheco, Heather A.
participants indicates that classroom teachers and disability-related educators have important roles in providing access to STEM mastery experiences as well as providing positive support and high expectations for students with disabilities. STEM and disability-based networks served to provide participants with role models, out of school STEM learning experiences and important long-term social connections in STEM communities.
Randle-Phillips, Cathy; Farquhar, Sarah; Thomas, Sally
Background: This study describes how a specific narrative therapy approach called 'the tree of life' was adapted to run a group for women with learning disabilities. The group consisted of four participants and ran for five consecutive weeks. Materials and Methods: Participants each constructed a tree to represent their lives and presented their…
Bergier, Barbara; Kubińska, Zofia; Bergier, Józef
The scope of problems concerning the disabled still remains a constantly up-to-date social issue, which requires current scientific analysis. In concern for the disabled, the problem of physical activity through their participation in tourism occupies an important position. The studies concern the disabled from three regions: Lublin, Białystok and Rzeszów, where there occurs the highest intensity of the phenomenon of disability. The recognition of interests and needs manifested by the disabled from the eastern regions of Poland concerning the use of forms of tourism during leisure time. The method of a diagnostic survey and questionnaire technique were applied. A total number of 750 disabled were examined. The study showed that the majority of the disabled spend their free time devoted to tourist activity according to their needs. The main forms of participation in tourism are sightseeing tours and package holidays, and the respondents would like most to participate in rehabilitation camps and sightseeing tours. A considerable variation was observed in the participation in forms of tourism among the disabled from individual regions. The disabled who do not wish to participate in sports-recreation and tourist activities, and for whom their state of health is the main barrier, require special interest. A relatively large variation of tourism forms used by the disabled in individual regions indicate the need for an exchange of experiences between specialist facilities taking care of the disabled.
Lawson, Janelle E; Cruz, Rebecca A; Knollman, Gregory A
Providing equal-status contact between those with and without disabilities can improve attitudes and reduce discrimination toward individuals with disabilities. This study investigated community service learning as a means by which to provide college students with equal-status contact with individuals with disabilities and increase their positive attitudes toward those with disabilities. A total of 166 college students in one university in the United States enrolled in an Introduction to Disability course received content on disability in society and participated in community service involving 20h of direct contact with individuals with disabilities. Findings indicated that college students who had prior contact with individuals with disabilities had more positive attitudes toward individuals with disabilities than college students who did not have prior contact at the start of the course. For the college students who did not have any prior contact, their attitudes toward individuals with disabilities became significantly more positive at the end of the community service learning course. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi
Research has documented overlapping and coexisting characteristics of learning disabilities (LD) and emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD). Such concomitance may impact teacher referrals of children at risk for LD which in turn may influence service delivery. Using the Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI) and the Strengths and…
Meloy, Linda L.; Deville, Craig; Frisbie, David
The effect of the Read Aloud accommodation on the performances of learning disabled in reading (LD-R) and non-learning disabled (non LD) middle school students was studied using selected texts from the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) achievement battery. Science, Usage and Expression, Math Problem Solving and Data Interpretation, and Reading…
Full Text Available Community support and participation among persons with disabilities. A study in three European countriesThis article describes a European project which was aimed at improving the situation of persons with psychiatric or learning disabilities with regard to social participation and citizenship. The project took place in three countries (Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands and four cities (Tallinn, Budapest, Amersfoort and Maastricht. The project included research and actions at the policy level, the organizational level and the practice level. At the policy level, the framework of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (United Nations, 2006 and the European Disability Strategy (European Commission, 2010 were used to look at national and local policies, at the reality of the lives of those with disabilities and at the support that professional services offer with regard to participation and inclusion. The project generated a number of insights, recommendations and methods by which to improve the quality of service and increase the number of opportunities for community engagement. In this article, we present some of the lessons learned from the meta-analysis. Although the circumstances in each country are quite different with regard to policy, culture and service systems, it is remarkable that people with disabilities face many of the same problems.The study shows that in all three countries, access to services could be improved. Barriers include bureaucratic procedures and a lack of services. The research identified that in every country and city there are considerable barriers regarding equal participation in the field of housing, work and leisure activities. In addition to financial barriers, there are the barriers of stigma and self-stigmatization. Marginalization keeps people in an unequal position and hinders their recovery and participation. In all countries, professionals need to develop a stronger focus
Shields, Nora; Synnot, Anneliese
Children with disability engage in less physical activity compared to their typically developing peers. Our aim was to explore the barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity for this group. Ten focus groups, involving 63 participants (23 children with disability, 20 parents of children with disability and 20 sport and recreation staff), were held to explore factors perceived as barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity by children with disability. Data were analysed thematically by two researchers. Four themes were identified: (1) similarities and differences, (2) people make the difference, (3) one size does not fit all, and (4) communication and connections. Key facilitators identified were the need for inclusive pathways that encourage ongoing participation as children grow or as their skills develop, and for better partnerships between key stakeholders from the disability, sport, education and government sectors. Children with disabilities' need for the early attainment of motor and social skills and the integral role of their families in supporting them were considered to influence their participation in physical activity. Children with disability were thought to face additional barriers to participation compared to children with typical development including a lack of instructor skills and unwillingness to be inclusive, negative societal attitudes towards disability, and a lack of local opportunities. The perspectives gathered in this study are relevant to the many stakeholders involved in the design and implementation of effective interventions, strategies and policies to promote participation in physical activity for children with disability. We outline ten strategies for facilitating participation.
Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder
Full Text Available Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sayeeda Rahman2, Urban JA D’Souza3, Gad Elbeheri4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, M Muzaherul Huq61,2Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 3School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; 4Centre for Child Evaluation and Teaching, Kuwait; 5College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Centre for Medical Education (CME, Mohakhali, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Learning disabilities (LDs represent the largest group of disabilities in higher education (HE institutes, including medical schools, and the numbers are continuing to rise. The worrying concern is that two-thirds to half of these students with LDs remain undiagnosed when they start their undergraduate education and may even graduate without having their disabilities diagnosed. These students struggle with their academic abilities, receive poor grades and, as a result, develop lower perceptions of their intellectual abilities than do those students without LDs. All these ultimately hamper their professional practice, employment, and career progression. Appropriate and adequate educational policies, provisions, and practices help students to progress satisfactorily. In Asian countries, public and professional awareness about LDs is low, supportive provisions are limited, legislations are inadequate, data are scarce, and equal-opportunity/widening-participation policies are not implemented effectively in the HE sector. This article discusses the issues related to LDs in medical education and draws policy, provision, and practice implications to identify, assess, and support students with LDs in medical schools, particularly in an Asian context.Keywords: medical education, learning disabilities, dyslexia, Asia
Mangina, Constantine A; Beuzeron-Mangina, Helen
This research pursues the crucial question of the differentiation of preadolescents with "Pure" ADHD, comorbid ADHD with learning disabilities, "Pure" learning disabilities and age-matched normal controls. For this purpose, Topographic Mapping of Event-Related Brain Potentials (ERPs) to a Memory Workload Paradigm with visually presented words, Bilateral Electrodermal Activity during cognitive workload and Mangina-Test performance were used. The analysis of Topographic distribution of amplitudes revealed that normal preadolescents were significantly different from "Pure" ADHD (Plearning disabilities (Plearning disabilities (Plearning disabilities have shown a marked reduction of prefrontal and frontal negativities (N450). As for the "Pure" Learning Disabled preadolescents, very small positivities (P450) in prefrontal and frontal regions were obtained as compared to the other pathological groups. Bilateral Electrodermal Activity during cognitive workload revealed a significant main effect for groups (P<0.00001), Left versus Right (P=0.0029) and sessions (P=0.0136). A significant main effect for the Mangina-Test performance which separated the four groups was found (P<0.000001). Overall, these data support the existence of clear differences and similarities between the pathological preadolescent groups as opposed to age-matched normal controls. The psychophysiological differentiation of these groups, provides distinct biological markers which integrate central, autonomic and neuropsychometric variables by targeting the key features of these pathologies for diagnosis and intervention strategies and by providing knowledge for the understanding of normal neurocognitive processes and functions.
Lloyd, Jennifer L.; Coulson, Neil S.
Research suggests that the uptake of cervical screening by women with intellectual disabilities (commonly known as learning disabilities within UK policy frameworks, practice areas and health services) is poor compared to women without intellectual disabilities. The present study explored learning disability nurses' experiences of supporting women…
Rak, Eniko C; Spencer, Lauren
This study examined similarities and differences between persons with and without disabilities on volunteering, donations and group participation. A sample of 1548 individuals participated and 60% of the sample were persons with disabilities. Data for this research was drawn from a major statewide survey in a Midwestern state in the United States. Community participation was measured through involvement with civic, religious and other community-based groups, volunteering activities and donations. Logistic regression was pursued to test the effect of disability on community participation. Findings support different trends in participation between persons with and without disabilities. Individuals without disabilities are more likely to volunteer, donate money and participate in civic organisations (e.g. clubs) and other groups. Employment and household income have a significant contribution in explaining these differences. This study found significant differences in community participation between persons with disabilities and persons without disabilities. Regression analysis outcomes underscore the importance of employment and income in eliminating disparities in community involvement between persons with and without disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation Policy change in rehabilitation agencies to fund supported volunteering services. Improve the representation of persons with disabilities in volunteering pursuits by making volunteering positions accessible to them (educate persons with disabilities to be more aware of these opportunities, provide reasonable accommodations at work sites, etc.). Educate stakeholders about the benefits of volunteering and being part of civic, and other community based groups in improving the quality of life of persons with disabilities. Identification of barriers for persons with disabilities in these pursuits (physical and attitudinal barriers, lack of resources). Identifying and utilising natural supports in the work site
MacArthur, Juliet; Brown, Michael; McKechanie, Andrew; Mack, Siobhan; Hayes, Matthew; Fletcher, Joan
To examine the role of learning disability liaison nurses in facilitating reasonable and achievable adjustments to support access to general hospital services for people with learning disabilities. Mixed methods study involving four health boards in Scotland with established Learning Disability Liaison Nurses (LDLN) Services. Quantitative data of all liaison nursing referrals over 18 months and qualitative data collected from stakeholders with experience of using the liaison services within the previous 3-6 months. Six liaison nurses collected quantitative data of 323 referrals and activity between September 2008-March 2010. Interviews and focus groups were held with 85 participants included adults with learning disabilities (n = 5), carers (n = 16), primary care (n = 39), general hospital (n = 19) and liaison nurses (n = 6). Facilitating reasonable and achievable adjustments was an important element of the LDLNs' role and focussed on access to information; adjustments to care; appropriate environment of care; ensuring equitable care; identifying patient need; meeting patient needs; and specialist tools/resources. Ensuring that reasonable adjustments are made in the general hospital setting promotes person-centred care and equal health outcomes for people with a learning disability. This view accords with 'Getting it right' charter produced by the UK Charity Mencap which argues that healthcare professionals need support, encouragement and guidance to make reasonable adjustments for this group. LDLNs have an important and increasing role to play in advising on and establishing adjustments that are both reasonable and achievable. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The field of bilingual special education is currently plagued with contradictions resulting in a serious underrepresentation of emergent bilinguals with learning disabilities in professional science fields. This underrepresentation is due in large part to the fact that educational systems around the world are inadequately prepared to address the educational needs of these children; this inadequacy is rooted in a lack of understanding of the linguistic and cultural factors impacting learning. Accepting such a premise and assuming that children learn in unexpected ways when instructional practices attend to culture and language, this study documents a place-based learning experience integrating geoscience and literacy in a fourth-grade dual language classroom. Data sources include transcribed audio-taped conversations from learning experience sessions and interviews that took place as six focus children, who had been identified as having specific learning disabilities, read published science texts (i.e. texts unaltered linguistically or conceptually to meet the needs of the readers). My analysis revealed that participants generated responses that were often unexpected if solely analyzed from those Western scientific perspectives traditionally valued in school contexts. However, these responses were also full of purposeful and rich understandings that revealed opportunities for expansive learning. Adopting a cultural historical activity theory perspective, instructional tools such as texts, visuals, and questions were found to act as mediators impacting the learning in both activity systems: (a) teacher- researcher learning from children, and (b) children learning from teachers. I conclude by suggesting that there is a need to understand students' ways of knowing to their full complexity, and to deliberately recognize teachers as learners, researchers, and means to expansive learning patterns that span beyond traditional learning boundaries.
Hilberink, Sander R; van der Slot, Wilma M A; Klem, Martijn
More attention and understanding of the health and participation problems of adults with early and later onset disabilities in the Netherlands is needed. To explore health/participation problems and unmet needs in adults aged ≥40 years with long-term disabilities and their relationship with the time of onset. Participants were recruited in the Netherlands through newsletters and social media to participate in a web-based questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed background characteristics, (change in) health/participation problems, and unmet needs. Spearman's rho was used to examine the relationships with time of onset. Of the 163 survey respondents, 42% acquired their disability before age 25 years and reported fatigue (77%), walking problems (66%), and pain (59%). In 21% of the respondents with early-onset disability fatigue, pain and depressive feelings co-occurred. Early-onset disability correlated with joint deformities, pain and anxiety. Participation problems included loss of income and fewer social activities. Early-onset correlated with the need for more information about diagnosis and prognosis. People aged over 40 years with long-term disability have significant and increasing health and participation problems. Adults with early-onset disability are more likely to have health or participation problems than adults with late-onset disability. Early identification is needed for preventive care and access to specialized services that focus on improving and maintaining physical symptoms, energy management, and participation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sport and exercise psychology research in disability sport seldom engages with social models of disability. As a result, the socio-historical landscape of disability is underrepresented in sport psychology research. The aim of this study is to interpret influences on participation in disability sport through the conceptual lens of the social relational model (SRM of disability (Thomas, 1999, 2004, 2007. Ten Irish adult male athletes with physical disabilities participated in semi-structured interviews exploring the barriers and facilitators that influence participation in Wheelchair Rugby. Deductive thematic analysis produced four themes influenced by the social relational model: impairment effects; societal attitudes and discourse; opportunities and access; and psychological well-being. Links were made to the experience of embodied impairment, classification, oppression, inequality, media, independence, and self-efficacy. The analysis illustrates how cultural constructions of disability are inextricably linked to individual influences on participation in Wheelchair Rugby. The results indicate that in disability sport participation, the experience of social oppression, inequality and cultural stereotypes of disability can be synonymous with the personal experience of physical impairment. The implication of this research is that there is a value in sport and exercise psychology practitioners utilising the social relational model as a tool to conceptualise the lived experience of physical disability.
Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among
Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among young adults with ID is lacking altogether.…
Holwerda, A.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; Brouwer, S.
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among
Badia, M.; Orgaz, M. B.; Verdugo, M. A.; Ullan, A. M.
Background: People with developmental disabilities are at high risk for a limited participation in leisure activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the participation in, preference for and interest in leisure activities of young and adults with developmental disabilities, and to examine the factors associated with leisure activity.…
Badia, Marta; Orgaz, María Begoña; Verdugo, Miguel Á.; Ullán, Ana M.; Martínez, Magdalena
Background: Studies of people with developmental disabilities suggest that participation in leisure activities might be a key factor for good quality of life. This study explores the relationships between objective and subjective quality of life and leisure participation of adults with developmental disabilities. Materials and Methods: A…
Koo, Kyo-Man; Kim, Chun-Jong; Park, Chae-Hee; Byeun, Jung-Kyun; Seo, Geon-Woo
Older adults with disability might have been increasing due to the rapid aging of society. Many studies showed that physical activity is an essential part for improving quality of life in later lives. Regular physical activity is an efficient means that has roles of primary prevention and secondary prevention. However, there were few studies regarding older adults with disability and physical activity participation. The purpose of this current study was to investigate restriction factors to regularly participate older adults with disability in physical activity by employing keyword network analysis. Two hundred twenty-nine older adults with disability who were over 65 including aging with disability and disability with aging in type of physical disability and brain lesions defined by disabled person welfare law partook in the open questionnaire assessing barriers to participate in physical activity. The results showed that the keyword the most often used was 'Traffic' which was total of 21 times (3.47%) and the same proportion as in the 'personal' and 'economical'. Exercise was considered the most central keyword for participating in physical activity and keywords such as facility, physical activity, disabled, program, transportation, gym, discomfort, opportunity, and leisure activity were associated with exercise. In conclusion, it is necessary to educate older persons with disability about a true meaning of physical activity and providing more physical activity opportunities and decreasing inconvenience should be systematically structured in Korea.
Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recent studies showed that children with learning disabilities present significant difficulties in learning as well as in social skills (Siperstein, 2009.Therefore, it was observed how it is difficult for these children to establish adequate relationships, especially to advise coping strategies to face interpersonal conflicts (Oliva & LaGreca, 1988. Accordingly to this argument and with reference to Agaliotis e Kalyva (2004, 2009, this study examines the preferences for strategies to solve an hypothetical conflict on a sample of children with LD in comparison to typical developing peers. They used the method of social story to conduct this research. In fact, researchers asked to the children, after they have listened a short story describing an interpersonal conflict interaction between adult and peers, which strategies they would have chosen if they were in the same situation and the strategies that would be most appropriate to resolve a conflict. Results obtained from the experiment corroborated literature data and demonstrated that children with LD, in comparison to typical developing peers, use and prefer dysfunctional coping strategies, aggressive or passive, also in relation to the partner interaction (adult or peers to face interpersonal conflict.
This article discusses the author's use of reflexivity in trying to gain a better understanding of ageing in older people with learning disabilities. In the general population ageing is viewed in rather negative terms and as a significant life transition. However, for some older people with learning disabilities this transition may go unnoticed because of their past negative life experiences and lack of opportunities. Reflexivity has the potential to provide nurses with greater understanding of the personal perspectives of older people with learning disabilities.
Aguilar, Jessica M; Plante, Elena
Two studies examined learning of grammar-like visual sequences to determine whether a general deficit in statistical learning characterizes this population. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that difficulty in sustaining attention during the learning task might account for differences in statistical learning. In Study 1, adults with normal language (NL) or language-learning disability (LLD) were familiarized with the visual artificial grammar and then tested using items that conformed or deviated from the grammar. In Study 2, a 2nd sample of adults with NL and LLD were presented auditory word pairs with weak semantic associations (e.g., groom + clean) along with the visual learning task. Participants were instructed to attend to visual sequences and to ignore the auditory stimuli. Incidental encoding of these words would indicate reduced attention to the primary task. In Studies 1 and 2, both groups demonstrated learning and generalization of the artificial grammar. In Study 2, neither the NL nor the LLD group appeared to encode the words presented during the learning phase. The results argue against a general deficit in statistical learning for individuals with LLD and demonstrate that both NL and LLD learners can ignore extraneous auditory stimuli during visual learning.
Jaarsma, E A; Dijkstra, P U; Geertzen, J H B; Dekker, R
Most people with physical disabilities do not participate in sports regularly, which could increase the chances of developing secondary health conditions. Therefore, knowledge about barriers to and facilitators of sports participation is needed. Barriers and facilitators for people with physical disabilities other than amputation or spinal cord injuries (SCI) are unknown. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature focusing on barriers to and facilitators of sports participation for all people with various physical disabilities. Four databases were searched using MeSH terms and free texts up to April 2012. The inclusion criteria were articles focusing on people with physical disabilities, sports and barriers and/or facilitators. The exclusion criteria were articles solely focusing on people with cognitive disabilities, sensory impairments or disabilities related to a recent organ transplant or similar condition. Fifty-two articles were included in this review, with 27 focusing on people with SCI. Personal barriers were disability and health; environmental barriers were lack of facilities, transport and difficulties with accessibility. Personal facilitators were fun and health, and the environmental facilitator was social contacts. Experiencing barriers to and facilitators of sports participation depends on age and type of disability and should be considered when advising people about sports. The extent of sports participation for people with physical disabilities also increases with the selection of the most appropriate sport. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In free recall of word lists involving different rehearsal strategies, more words were recalled by older (as against younger) children and by nondisabled (as against learning disabled) readers. Disabled readers tended to be nonstrategic recallers and less accurate estimators of their memory capacity. Recall differences were attributed to semantic…
Ullenhag, Anna; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena
To compare participation in leisure activities between Swedish children with and without disabilities and to examine whether age, gender, presence of disabilities, and mother's educational level influence participation. A Swedish version of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment was used to study the diversity, intensity, and enjoyment of participation in leisure activities of children aged 6 to 17 years. Fifty-five of the children had disabilities and 337 of the children did not have disabilities. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the impact of age, gender, mother's level of education, and disability on the diversity, intensity, and enjoyment of leisure activities. A t-test for independent samples was used to compare the diversity and intensity of participation between children with and without disabilities. The multiple regression analysis explained 4-36% of the variance of diversity, intensity, and enjoyment. Children with disabilities participated with higher diversity, but with less intensity, than children without disabilities. Younger children had higher levels of enjoyment. Children with disabilities participated in several different activities, but the presence of a disability was associated with lower intensity of participation. The low explanatory value of the investigated variables indicates that the combined effect of several variables needs to be taken into consideration when designing participation interventions. Implications for Rehabilitation Children with disabilities participated in a high number of activities but with a low intensity compared to children without disabilities. Analysis of the children's personal and environmental barriers and facilitators is critical to providing the therapist with ideas about which strategies should be implemented to increase participation. Assessment and intervention may need to focus on methods for supporting the children's autonomy and on creating goals for intervention
Kumar, S. Praveen; Raja, B. William Dharma
Children with learning disabilities are found in most schools. Learning disability is a widespread issue in today's society. A learning-disabled child is one whose achievement is less than his expected level of achievement despite having average or above average intelligence. Learning disability is nothing but a condition that affects the ability…
Tiekstra, Marlous; Hessels, Marco G P; Minnaert, Alexander E M G
Scores on a learning potential test (the Hessels Analogical Reasoning Test) were examined to assess how to provide a better estimate of the learning capacity of students with mild intellectual disabilities compared to IQ scores. As a criterion, a dynamic test of chemistry learning was used. 46
Dahan-Oliel, Noémi; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Mazer, Barbara; Majnemer, Annette
Community participation is restricted for youth with disabilities. The mall is an important gathering place where adolescents often socialise and develop community living skills, yet participation may be restricted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the facilitators and barriers to participation in a shopping mall through the perspectives of adolescents with disabilities. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with adolescents aged 12-19 years with a physical and/or sensory disability. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and coded following a template analysis using the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF). Eleven youth (six females, mean age = 17.0 years) participated. Medical conditions included visual impairment, hearing impairment, cerebral palsy, hemiplegia, osteogenesis imperfecta and congenital amputations. Six themes were identified by the adolescents: what the shopping mall means to me, physical environment, transportation, social factors, attitudes and the person. The majority of themes mapped to the ICF's 'environmental factors'. Facilitators and barriers identified were either generic or disability-specific, implying that some modifications to shopping malls may be beneficial across disability types. Changes made to the physical, social and attitudinal environment are required to enable full participation of youth with disabilities within a shopping mall and other built environments of high public access. Implications for Rehabilitation The meaning of the shopping mall according to youth with disabilities includes socialisation, shopping, getting out of the home and employment. The majority of themes mapped to 'environmental factors' indicating that most obstacles to participation are caused by environmental barriers. Facilitators and barriers identified were either generic or disability-specific implying that some modifications to shopping malls may be beneficial across disability types
In recent decades Western psychology has conceptualized learning disabilities (LD) in terms of deficits and such related 'social emotional issues' as insecurity, low self-esteem and social isolation that can be rehabilitated through combined remedial teaching and psychological intervention. With increasing advocacy and legislation on behalf of people with disabilities in the US, UK and Australia, more resources are being made available to students with LD in institutions of higher education. Due to this increase in the quantity of services, written programmes and accommodations made to their needs, increased numbers of students with LD have been graduating successfully from institutions of higher education. This paper describes an option for treating students with LD that is based on a theoretical perspective that understands these students as an excluded population and emphasizes the importance of their empowerment. A project involving social work students with LD at Hebrew University in Jerusalem is presented as a case study. Case-study investigation, one of the common methods of qualitative research, explores social and human problems in their natural context. A 6-year evaluation of this project was conducted based on questionnaires, focus groups, documentation of all activities related to the project, in-depth interviews and outcome measures. The results suggest that the project developed in three stages: raising awareness, building partnerships, and lobbying for rights and services. Outcome measures indicate that the project was successful in lowering dropout rates and improving students' academic achievement. Analysis of interviews with students suggests that the project positively affected the students' perceptions by helping them reframe the social and emotional connotations of their learning disability. Students reported marked social and emotional change, including reduced stress and anxiety levels and increased self-esteem. Empowerment practices that are
This paper focuses on definitions, incidence, and characteristics of the multihandicapping condition known as "learning disabled, hearing impaired," in order to provide a means of identifying these children and determining whether or not they require different teaching strategies. (JDD)
Prince, Elizabeth; Ring, Howard
Although the association between learning disability and epilepsy is well known, until relatively recently specific processes underlying this association were relatively poorly understood. However, scientific advances in molecular biology are starting to guide researchers towards descriptions of genetic and pathophysiological processes that may explain why syndromes of epilepsy and learning disability often co-exist. This article will focus largely on three areas of advancing knowledge: insights gained from wider use of genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), specific insights gained from detailed study of Rett syndrome and the role of abnormalities of astrocytic function in predisposing to both epilepsy and learning disability. The enormous complexity of the biological underpinnings of the co-occurrence of epilepsy and learning disability are becoming apparent. In the future it is likely that research into therapeutic approaches will include, amongst other approaches, investigations of gene structure and expression, the role of astrocytes and the stability of dendritic spines.
Espelage, Dorothy L.; Rose, Chad A.; Polanin, Joshua R.
This 3-year study evaluated the effectiveness of the Second Step-Student Success Through Prevention (SS-SSTP) social-emotional learning program on increasing prosocial behaviors that could serve as protective factors against peer conflict and bullying among students with disabilities. Participants included 123 students with disabilities across 12…
Rowiński, Rafał; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Ogonowska-Slodownik, Anna; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Geigle, Paula Richley
Health conditions associated with aging might be related to disability and lead to decreased independence. Physical activity assists in maintaining independence throughout life as well as improves quality of life. Individuals with disabilities demonstrate overall less activity than sedentary persons without disabilities. Efforts to reduce age-related functional autonomy decline and to increase physical activity may require separate approaches for older adults with and without disabilities. The aim of the study was to compare physical activity and participation in leisure activities and tourism among older people with and without disabilities in Poland. A cross-sectional, multicenter study (PolSenior) randomly recruited participants aged 65 years and over, in a stratified, proportional draw performed in three stages from all 16 Polish provinces. 3743 people, 2653 (70.9%) without disabilities, and 1090 (29.1%) with disabilities responded providing general sociodemographic characteristics and various health behaviors including subjective physical activity level, leisure time activities, tourism and activity limitations. Older males without disability reported more physical activity than women with disability, while no differences were observed for females with and without disability. Polish older people with and without disability were more involved in gardening and staying in a garden allotment or a holiday home rather than participating in organized forms of sport, physical activity, and tourism. Health conditions arose as the most frequently indicated barrier toward participation in sport physical activity and tourism. In conclusion, strategies and programs to increase physical activity among older Polish people, with and without disability, should focus on preserving health and physical function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Goel, Sonu; Das, Shyam Sinder; Sarkar, Siddharth; Sharma, Vijaylaxmi; Panigrahi, Mahima
To assess the prevalence and patterns of learning disabilities (LD) in school going children in a northern city of India. The present cross-sectional study comprised of three-staged screening procedure for assessing learning disabilities of 3rd and 4th grade students studying in government schools. The first stage comprised of the teacher identifying at-risk student. In the second stage, teachers assessed at-risk students using Specific Learning Disability-Screening Questionnaire (SLD-SQ). The third stage comprised of assessment of the screen positive students using Brigance Diagnostic Inventory (BDI) part of NIMHANS Index of Specific Learning Disabilities for identifying the cases of LD. A total of 1211 (33.6%) children out of the total screened (n = 3600) were identified as at-risk by the teachers at the first stage. Of them, 360 were found to screen positive on the second stage using SLD-SQ. The most common deficits were missing out words or sentences while reading, misplacing letters or words while reading or writing, and making frequent mistake in spelling while writing or reading. Of these, 108 children were confirmed to have learning disability on the third stage using BDI, which represented 3.08% of the total population. Learning disability is an important concern in young school aged children. Early identification of such students can help in early institution of intervention and suitable modifications in teaching techniques.
Learning problems occur in about 5% of school-aged children. Learning disabilities are specific and life-long but present with different school problems at different ages, depending on such factors as age, medical history, family history, and intelligence quotient. Proper individualized diagnosis and treatment plans are necessary to remediate these problems and to offer adequate coping strategies. Many children who have learning problems can be classified into one of two major categories: the dyslexia group or the nonverbal learning disability group. The role of the medical professional is important to guide parents in the diagnostic and therapeutic process.
Schreuer, N; Sachs, D; Rosenblum, S
The aim of the current study was to compare varied dimensions of participation in leisure activities among school-aged children ages 10-16 with and without disabilities. The Children Leisure Activity Scale (CLASS) was administrated to 294 children, 81 with and 213 without physical disability. Two-way MANCOVA revealed significant differences between the frequency of participation in leisure activities of the study groups: an effect of disability F(4,265=239.57; pleisure participation. In addition, the research further established the discriminate validity of the CLASS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leichtentritt, Judith; Shechtman, Zipora
This study compared outcomes and processes in counseling groups of an expressive-supportive modality for children with learning disabilities (LD) and without them (NLD). Participants were 266 students (ages 10-18), all referred for emotional, social, and behavioral difficulties; of these, 123 were identified with LD and 143 were not. There were 40…
Celinska, Dorota K.
This study analyzed personal and fictional narratives of culturally/ethnically diverse students with and without learning disabilities. The participants were 82 fourth to seventh graders from urban and suburban schools located in a Midwest metropolitan area. Narratives were elicited in the context of naturalistic conversation and analyzed using…
Webb, Carol L.
This study addresses parental perspectives and coping strategies related to Duchenne muscular dystrophy and specific learning disabilities. Data were collected through individual semi-structured in-depth interviews with fifteen sets of parents. Participants were selected based on variables such as age of children, number of children with both…
Keel, Joanna Mossmond; Cushing, Lisa Sharon; Awsumb, Jessica M.
This study explored perspectives about the desired components of adult life for 12th-grade Latino students with learning disabilities, their parents, and special education teachers. Focus groups and individual interviews were used to understand the similarities and differences in post-school visions and expectations among participants. Five…
Aydeniz, Mehmet; Cihak, David F.; Graham, Shannon C.; Retinger, Larryn
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of inquiry-based science instruction for five elementary students with learning disabilities (LD). Students participated in a series of inquiry-based activities targeting conceptual and application-based understanding of simple electric circuits, conductors and insulators, parallel circuits, and…
Thornton, Victoria; Williamson, Rachel; Cooke, Bronwen
Background: Mindfulness is becoming increasingly reported as an effective way to support well-being and reduce mental health difficulties. Materials and Methods: This study reports on the development and pilot of a mindfulness-based group for young people with learning disabilities and their carers. Results: Group participants reported that the…
Health inequalities start early in life for people with learning disabilities. In the UK, they can arise from various barriers that people experience when trying to access care that should be appropriate, timely and effective. Inequalities in health care are likely to result in many NHS organisations breaching their legal responsibilities, as outlined in the Disability Discrimination Acts 1995 and 2005, the Equality Act 2010 and the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (Emerson and Baines 2010). This article seeks to help nurses, healthcare professionals and hospital managers ensure that better services are delivered by encouraging them to explore how reasonable adjustments can improve outcomes for people with learning disabilities.
Douglas, Scott; Falcão, William R; Bloom, Gordon A
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the career development and learning pathways of Paralympic head coaches who previously competed as Paralympic athletes. Each coach participated in a semistructured interview. A thematic analysis of the data revealed three higher order themes, which were called becoming a coach, learning to coach, and lifelong learning and teaching. Across these themes, participants discussed interactions with other coaches and athletes with a disability, learning from mentors and coaching clinics, as well as limited formal educational opportunities they experienced transitioning from athlete to head coach. The findings revealed that they acquired most of their knowledge from a combination of knowledge gained as athletes and informal sources, including trial and error. They also stressed the need for enhanced recruiting of parasport coaches and parasport coach education opportunities that would enhance programs for athletes with physical disabilities, from grassroots to Paralympic levels.
Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2012
The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) affirms that the construct of learning disabilities represents a valid, unique, and heterogeneous group of disorders, and that recognition of this construct is essential for sound policy and practice. An extensive body of scientific research on learning disabilities continues to support…
Participation in social networking sites has considerable potential to leverage the individual's social capital, including persons with intellectual disabilities, whose real-world social networks are fairly limited. This study aimed to understand how individuals with intellectual disabilities use Facebook to access social capital benefits, if at all. Qualitative interviews and observations were conducted with 20 adult Facebook users with intellectual disabilities. The online participation enhanced their bonding social capital as well as contributed to their psychological well-being through increasing their online visibility, popularity and sense of belonging. At the same time, they experienced stress and frustration due to usage difficulties, which prevented them from enhancing their bridging social capital. Participation in social networking sites may also leverage bridging social capital of persons with intellectual disabilities, but they need a more accessible platform and ongoing support to ensure safe and fruitful participation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available This article considers the neglected topic of the relationship between the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, with regard to the participation rights of disabled children. It analyses key articles in both conventions and considers relevant general comments from both convention committees (the Committee on the Rights of the Child and the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and their interpretation by academic contributors. The article argues that much work on this topic fails to develop an adequate understanding of power relations, and that the ‘social model of disability’ which underpins the disabilities convention, when applied to ‘childhood’ (as opposed to ‘children’ suggests that the implications of that convention for the participation rights of all children, not only disabled children, are profound. This is because the disabilities convention rejects the relevance of tests of capacity and ‘best interests’ for disabled adults, for reasons which are equally germane to disabled children, and children in general. The article concludes with discussion of the difficulties in implementing the insights derived from the analysis of the disabilities convention in substantive law in the absence of a right to freedom from age discrimination for children, and suggests other, less far-reaching, reforms that could be made this notwithstanding.
Full Text Available CAPTCHA is one of the most common solutions to check if the user trying to enter a Website is a real person or an automated piece of software. This challenge-response test, implemented in many Internet Websites, emphasizes the gaps between accessibility and security on the Internet, as it poses an obstacle for the learning-impaired in the reading and comprehension of what is presented in the test. Various types of CAPTCHA tests have been developed in order to address accessibility and security issues. The objective of this study is to investigate how the differences between various CAPTCHA tests affect user experience among populations with and without learning disabilities. A questionnaire accompanied by experiencing five different tests was administered to 212 users, 60 of them with learning disabilities. Response rates for each test and levels of success were collected automatically. Findings suggest that users with learning disabilities have more difficulties in solving the tests, especially those with distorted texts, have more negative attitudes towards the CAPTCHA tests, but the response time has no statistical difference from users without learning disabilities. These insights can help to develop and implement solutions suitable for many users and especially for population with learning disabilities.
Maria Rosa Pizzamiglio
Full Text Available Studies suggest that genetic factors are associated with the etiology of learning disabilities. Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP, OMIM#308300, which is caused by mutations of the IKBKG/NEMO gene, is a rare X-linked genomic disorder (1:10000/20:000 that affects the neuroectodermal tissues. It always affects the skin and sometimes the hair, teeth, nails, eyes and central nervous system (CNS. Data from IP patients demonstrate the heterogeneity of the clinical phenotype; about 30% have CNS manifestations. This extreme variability suggests that IP patients might also have learning disabilities. However, no studies in the literature have evaluated the cognitive profile of IP patients. In fact, the learning disability may go unnoticed in general neurological analyses, which focus on major disabling manifestations of the CNS. Here, we investigated the neuropsychological outcomes of a selected group of IP-patients by focusing on learning disabilities. We enrolled 10 women with IP (7 without mental retardation and 3 with mild to severe mental retardation whose clinical diagnosis had been confirmed by the presence of a recurrent deletion in the IKBKG/NEMO gene. The participants were recruited from the Italian patients' association (I.P.A.SS.I. Onlus. They were submitted to a cognitive assessment that included the Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale and a battery of tests examining reading, arithmetic and writing skills. We found that 7 patients had deficits in calculation/arithmetic reasoning and reading but not writing skills; the remaining 3 had severe to mild intellectual disabilities. Results of this comprehensive evaluation of the molecular and psychoneurological aspects of IP make it possible to place "learning disabilities" among the CNS manifestations of the disease and suggest that the IKBKG/NEMO gene is a genetic determinant of this CNS defect. Our findings indicate the importance of an appropriate psychoneurological evaluation of IP patients, which
Pizzamiglio, Maria Rosa; Piccardi, Laura; Bianchini, Filippo; Canzano, Loredana; Palermo, Liana; Fusco, Francesca; D'Antuono, Giovanni; Gelmini, Chiara; Garavelli, Livia; Ursini, Matilde Valeria
Studies suggest that genetic factors are associated with the etiology of learning disabilities. Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP, OMIM#308300), which is caused by mutations of the IKBKG/NEMO gene, is a rare X-linked genomic disorder (1:10000/20:000) that affects the neuroectodermal tissues. It always affects the skin and sometimes the hair, teeth, nails, eyes and central nervous system (CNS). Data from IP patients demonstrate the heterogeneity of the clinical phenotype; about 30% have CNS manifestations. This extreme variability suggests that IP patients might also have learning disabilities. However, no studies in the literature have evaluated the cognitive profile of IP patients. In fact, the learning disability may go unnoticed in general neurological analyses, which focus on major disabling manifestations of the CNS. Here, we investigated the neuropsychological outcomes of a selected group of IP-patients by focusing on learning disabilities. We enrolled 10 women with IP (7 without mental retardation and 3 with mild to severe mental retardation) whose clinical diagnosis had been confirmed by the presence of a recurrent deletion in the IKBKG/NEMO gene. The participants were recruited from the Italian patients' association (I.P.A.SS.I. Onlus). They were submitted to a cognitive assessment that included the Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale and a battery of tests examining reading, arithmetic and writing skills. We found that 7 patients had deficits in calculation/arithmetic reasoning and reading but not writing skills; the remaining 3 had severe to mild intellectual disabilities. Results of this comprehensive evaluation of the molecular and psychoneurological aspects of IP make it possible to place "learning disabilities" among the CNS manifestations of the disease and suggest that the IKBKG/NEMO gene is a genetic determinant of this CNS defect. Our findings indicate the importance of an appropriate psychoneurological evaluation of IP patients, which includes early
Durand, Marie-Anne; Gates, Bob; Parkes, Georgina; Zia, Asif; Friedli, Karin; Barton, Garry; Ring, Howard; Oostendorp, Linda; Wellsted, David
Epilepsy is the most common neurological problem that affects people with learning disabilities. The high seizure frequency, resistance to treatments, associated skills deficit and co-morbidities make the management of epilepsy particularly challenging for people with learning disabilities. The Books Beyond Words booklet for epilepsy uses images to help people with learning disabilities manage their condition and improve quality of life. Our aim is to conduct a randomized controlled feasibility trial exploring key methodological, design and acceptability issues, in order to subsequently undertake a large-scale randomized controlled trial of the Books Beyond Words booklet for epilepsy. We will use a two-arm, single-centre randomized controlled feasibility design, over a 20-month period, across five epilepsy clinics in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. We will recruit 40 eligible adults with learning disabilities and a confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy and will randomize them to use either the Books Beyond Words booklet plus usual care (intervention group) or to receive routine information and services (control group). We will collect quantitative data about the number of eligible participants, number of recruited participants, demographic data, discontinuation rates, variability of the primary outcome measure (quality of life: Epilepsy and Learning Disabilities Quality of Life scale), seizure severity, seizure control, intervention's patterns of use, use of other epilepsy-related information, resource use and the EQ-5D-5L health questionnaire. We will also gather qualitative data about the feasibility and acceptability of the study procedures and the Books Beyond Words booklet. Ethical approval for this study was granted on 28 April 2014, by the Wales Research Ethics Committee 5. Recruitment began on 1 July 2014. The outcomes of this feasibility study will be used to inform the design and methodology of a definitive study, adequately powered to determine the impact of
Harris, Richard; Robertson, Jacqueline
Discussion of support services for college students with learning disabilities presents the nine-step process used at Ball State University (Indiana) to encourage students to identify themselves, meet eligibility guidelines, learn about services and accommodations provided by the university, talk to professors about needed accommodations, use…
Taking public transit can make anyone nervous, especially in a large or medium-sized city where there are many different bus lines going many different places. The author's daughter, Anna, has multiple learning disabilities and may never learn to drive, but she wants to be as independent as possible so the author taught her to ride the bus. This…
Foster, Carol; And Others
The study involving two learning disabled (LD) seventh graders was designed to develop and evaluate a self instructional booklet that teaches adolescents to change their behaviors with minimal intervention from other individuals. The first part of the study examined whether LD Ss could learn the principles of self monitoring, goal establishment,…
Backenson, Erica M.; Holland, Sara C.; Kubas, Hanna A.; Fitzer, Kim R.; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Smith, Amanda D.; Macoun, Sarah J.; Harrison, Gina L.; Hale, James B.
Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent…
Reichman, Julie; Healey, William C.
A review of research on the relationship of otitis media (ear infection) and learning/language/hearing disorders revealed that incidence of otitis media was twice as common in learning disabled as nonLD students; and that, in general, otitis-prone children scored below controls with frequent evidence of performance deficits. (CL)
Kourea, Lefki; Gibson, Lenwood; Werunga, Robai
As student populations are becoming more diverse in ability and ethnicity across American classrooms, teachers are faced with instructional challenges in meeting their students' learning needs. Challenges are heightened for general and special education teachers who teach students with learning disabilities (LD) and have a culturally and…
Gantschnig, Brigitte E.; Hemmingsson, Helena; la Cour, Karen
with disabilities appreciated attending regular schools. Being a part of school life was identified to include experiences of participation and nonparticipation. Different aspects of the environment influence experiences of participation and awareness of differences are facilitated through interaction with peers....... Together, the findings complement empirical insights to the understanding of experienced and performed involvement combined with subjective dimensions of environmental features that influence participation....
In this PhD thesis participation in leisure activities of children and youth aged 2 to 18 years with and without a physical disability in the Netherlands is described. Determinants of participation are identified. Participation is someone’s involvement in life situations (ICF-CY, WHO). This thesis
Peck, D G
This paper will primarily examine four concepts: emotional learning disabilities, adolescence, self-esteem, and the social-psychological concept of "significant others." Problems of definition will be discussed, with a literature review, and an attempt will be made to integrate all four of the above-mentioned concepts. The emphasis will be in applying a sociological perspective to an educational and growing problem: how do we (sic) educate students with some type of learning disability? What, if any, extra-curricular factors potentially affect in school learning behavior(s) of adolescents?
Boyle, Joseph R.
Students with learning disabilities lack effective note-taking skills for a variety of reasons. Despite the important role that notes play in helping students to understand lecture content information and serving as documents for later review, many students with learning disabilities are simply not effective note-takers. Many of these students…
Floyd, Frank J; Olsen, Darren L
Family interactions are potential contexts for children with intellectual and learning disabilities to develop skillful social behaviors needed to relate effectively with peers. This study examined problem solving interactions within families of elementary school-age children (7-11 years) with intellectual disability (n = 37), specific learning disabilities (n =48), and without disabilities (n = 22). After accounting for group differences in children's behaviors and peer acceptance, across all groups, mothers' behaviors that encouraged egalitarian problem solving predicted more engaged and skillful problem solving by the children. However, mothers' controlling, directive behaviors predicted fewer of these behaviors by the children. Fathers' behaviors had mixed associations with the children's actions, possibly because they were reactive to children's unengaged and negative behaviors. For the children, greater involvement, more facilitative behaviors, and less negativity with their families were associated with greater acceptance from their peers, supporting family-peer linkages for children at risk for peer rejection.
Kerri McBee-Black; Jung Ha-Brookshire
In response to research which argues that people living with a disability (PLWD) face societal barriers including workplace participation, this study explored how the barriers to social participation, specifically workplace participation, faced by PLWD are exacerbated by the lack of appropriate clothing and the role that stigma, self-efficacy, and clothing have in workplace participation. Finding appropriate clothing is a significant barrier to social participation for many PLWD. The social m...
Bergier, Barbara; Bergier, Józef; Kubińska, Zofia
Environmental determinants for participation of disabled subjects in tourism and recreation comprise an important social problem. The amount and use of free time for individuals with disabilities in daily life, holidays, and vacation leave and the location for tourism and recreation were examined. Seven hundred and fifty individuals, aged 16-75 yr, with varying degrees of disability, from three eastern provinces of Poland: Podlaskie, Lubelskie and Podkarpackie were investigated. In these studies, a diagnostic survey method with the use of questionnaire, interviews, and analysis of data was carried out. It was found that individuals with disabilities have a significant amount of free time, which is usually spent with family and friends. Among the specific benefits of participation in physical activities are well-being, health improvement, and making new acquaintances. The main factors determining participation in tourism and recreation were price, a friendly group, and doctor recommendations.
Karande, Sunil; Sholapurwala, Rukhshana; Kulkarni, Madhuri
Specific learning disability (dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia) afflicts 5-15% of school-going children. Over the last decade; awareness about this invisible handicap has grown in India. However, much needs to be done to ensure that each afflicted child gets an opportunity to achieve his or her full academic potential in regular mainstream schools. In order to achieve this ideal scenario, all regular classroom teachers should be sensitized to suspect, and trained to screen for this disability when the child is in primary school. School managements should become proactive to set up resource rooms and employ special educators to ensure that these children receive regular and affordable remedial education; and be diligent in ensuring that these children get the mandatory provisions both during school and board examinations. Once specific learning disability is recognized as a disability by the Government of India, these children with the backing of the Right to Education Act, would be able to benefit significantly.
Jan Doolittle Wilson
Full Text Available In 1975, Congress enacted a law eventually known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, which ensures that children with disabilities receive a free, appropriate, public education. Since then, scholarly and popular debates about the effectiveness of inclusive education have proliferated and typically focus on the ability or inability of students with disabilities to succeed in so-called regular classrooms. These debates reflect widespread assumptions that the regular classroom is rightly the province of nondisabled students and a neutral, value-free space that students with disabilities invade and disrupt via their very presence and their costly needs for adaptation. But as many scholars in the field of Disability Studies in Education (DSE have argued, these discussions often fail to recognize that the space of the regular classroom, far from neutral, is constructed for a nondisabled, neurotypical, white, male, middle-class "norm" that neither reflects nor accommodates the wide range of diverse learners within it, regardless of whether these learners have been diagnosed with a disability. A DSE perspective sees the educational environment, not students with disabilities, as the "problem" and calls for a Universal Design for Learning approach to education, or the design of instructional materials and activities that allows the learning goals to be achievable by individuals with wide differences in their abilities and backgrounds. Agreeing with this DSE perspective, this article uses an autoethnographic approach to reexamine inclusive education and to consider how university classrooms, pedagogy, and curricular materials can be improved in order to accommodate all students, not just those with disabilities. Ultimately, the article argues that Universal Design for Learning has the potential to radically transform the meaning of inclusive education and the very concept of disability.
Richardson, Jessica; Harris, Laurel; Plante, Elena; Gerken, Louann
The purpose of this experiment was to determine if nonreferential morphophonological information was sufficient to facilitate the learning of gender subcategories (i.e., masculine vs. feminine) in individuals with normal language (NL) and those with a history of language-based learning disabilities (HLD). Thirty-two adults listened for 18 min to a familiarization set of Russian words that included either 1 (single-marked) or 2 (double-marked) morphophonological markers indicating gender. Participants were then tested on their knowledge of both trained and untrained members of each gender subcategory. Testing indicated that morphophonological information is sufficient for lexical subcategory learning in both NL and HLD groups, although the HLD group had lower overall accuracy. The HLD group benefited from double-marking relative to single-marking for subcategory learning. The results demonstrated that learning through implicit mechanisms occurred after a relatively brief exposure to the language stimuli. In addition, the weaker overall learning by the HLD group was facilitated when multiple cues to linguistic subcategory were available in the input group members received.
Hammel, Joy; Magasi, Susan; Heinemann, Allen; Gray, David B; Stark, Susan; Kisala, Pamela; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Tulsky, David; Garcia, Sofia F; Hahn, Elizabeth A
To describe environmental factors that influence participation of people with disabilities. Constant comparative, qualitative analyses of transcripts from 36 focus groups across 5 research projects. Home, community, work, and social participation settings. Community-dwelling people (N=201) with diverse disabilities (primarily spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and stroke) from 8 states. None. Environmental barriers and supports to participation. We developed a conceptual framework to describe how environmental factors influence the participation of people with disabilities, highlighting 8 domains of environmental facilitators and barriers (built, natural, assistive technology, transportation, information and technology access, social support and attitudes, systems and policies, economics) and a transactional model showing the influence of environmental factors on participation at the micro (individual), mesa (community), and macro (societal) levels. Focus group data validated some International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health environmental categories while also bringing unique factors (eg, information and technology access, economic quality of life) to the fore. Data were used to construct items to enable people with disabilities to assess the impact of environmental factors on everyday participation from their firsthand experience. Participants with disabilities voiced the need to evaluate the impact of the environment on their participation at the immediate, community, and societal levels. The results have implications for assessing environmental facilitators and barriers to participation within rehabilitation and community settings, evaluating outcomes of environmental interventions, and effecting system and policy changes to target environmental barriers that may result in societal participation disparities versus opportunities. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Force, Crista Marie
Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear to be outside the reach of most individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research was to better understand the methods by which successful learning disabled scientists have overcome the barriers and challenges associated with their learning disabilities in their preparation and performance as scientists. This narrative inquiry involved the researcher writing the life stories of four scientists. These life stories were generated from extensive interviews in which each of the scientists recounted their life histories. The researcher used narrative analysis to "make sense" of these learning disabled scientists' life stories. The narrative analysis required the researcher to identify and describe emergent themes characterizing each scientist's life. A cross-case analysis was then performed to uncover commonalities and differences in the lives of these four individuals. Results of the cross-case analysis revealed that all four scientists had a passion for science that emerged at an early age, which, with strong drive and determination, drove these individuals to succeed in spite of the many obstacles arising from their learning disabilities. The analysis also revealed that these scientists chose careers based on their strengths; they actively sought mentors to guide them in their preparation as scientists; and they developed coping techniques to overcome difficulties and succeed. The cross-case analysis also revealed differences in the degree to which each scientist accepted his or her learning disability. While some demonstrated inferior feelings about their successes as scientists, still other individuals revealed feelings of having superior abilities in areas such as visualization and working with people. These individuals revealed
Dodero, Juan Manuel; Aedo, Ignacio; Diaz, Paloma
Defines a learning object as any digital resource that can be reused to support learning and thus considers electronic books as learning objects. Highlights include knowledge management; participative knowledge production, i.e. authoring electronic books by a distributed group of authors; participative knowledge production architecture; and…
Full Text Available School failure is one of the more complex, more difficult and unfortunately frequent problem that modern school meets. Many factors can cause school failure, such as: child development characteristics, family and school-originated factors. The purpose of the research is analysis of the specific learning problems in students with a mild intellectual disability. For our research we used ACADIA test, which contains 13 subtests for assessing the overall individual functioning. The research involved 144 students. We divided the sample into two groups, children with intellectual disability (our target group and control group. We found that generally all students with the intellectual disability have special learning problems. According to individual subtests analysis we concluded that the ability for visual association is best developed among these students while on the subtest for auditory memory they achieved worse results. With the analysis of the control group we found that 13.75% of the students have special learning problems.
Clark, M D
Attribution research has identified student ability and effort expended as causes of achievement outcomes that result in differing teacher affect, evaluative feedback, and expectation of future performance. Ninety-seven elementary-school general education teachers (84 women and 13 men) rated their responses to the test failures of hypothetical boys with and without learning disabilities. In most cases, greater reward and less punishment, less anger and more pity, and higher expectations of future failure followed the negative outcomes of the boys with learning disabilities, when compared with their nondisabled ability and effort matches, indicating that learning disability acts as a cause of achievement outcomes in the same way as ability and effort. This pattern of teacher affect and response can send negative messages that are often interpreted as low-ability cues, thus affecting students' self-esteem, sense of competence as learners, and motivation to achieve.
Miguel, Marta C.; Ornelas, José H.; Maroco, João P.
The current narrative on lifelong learning goes beyond formal education and training, including learning at work, in the family and in the community. Recognition of prior learning is a process of evaluation of those skills and knowledge acquired through life experience, allowing them to be formally recognized by the qualification systems. It is a…
Nowicki, E A; Brown, J; Stepien, M
Previous research has shown that children with intellectual or learning disabilities are at risk for social exclusion by their peers but little is known of children's views on this topic. In this study, we used concept mapping to investigate elementary school children's thoughts on why they believe their peers with intellectual or learning disabilities are sometimes socially excluded at school. Participants were 49 grade five and six children who attended inclusive classrooms. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. We extracted 49 unique statements from the transcribed data, and then invited participants to sort the statements into meaningful categories. Sorted data were entered into matrices, which were summed and analysed with multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis. A four-cluster solution provided the best conceptual fit for the data. Clusters reflected themes on (1) the thoughts and actions of other children; (2) differences in learning ability and resource allocation; (3) affect, physical characteristics and schooling; and (4) negative thoughts and behaviours. The overarching reason for social exclusion focused on differences between children with and without disabilities. This study also provided evidence that children are effective, reliable and competent participants in concept mapping. Educational and research implications are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSIDD.
Ryan, Stephanie; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Weiss, Jonathan A
Little is known about sport participation in youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current study examined sport characteristics (frequency, diversity, positive social experiences [PSE]) for youth with ASD and intellectual disability compared to youth with intellectual disability alone and explored the personal and contextual correlates of involvement. Parents (N = 409) completed an online survey, and multiple mediation analyses were used to examine the factors that explained the relationships between sport involvement in youth with ASD and intellectual disability. No significant main effects of ASD status were found for frequency or diversity, but youth with intellectual disability alone had higher scores for PSE compared to youth with ASD and intellectual disability. Sociocommunicative abilities, coach relationship and resources mediated the relationship between ASD status and PSE. A better understanding of the factors related to sport is essential for allowing families, service providers and policy makers to improve involvement for youth with ASD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Reynolds, Fiona; Stanistreet, Debbi; Elton, Peter
Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning disabilities. It was carried out in Bury, Heywood-and-Middleton and Rochdale. Methods Carried out using retrospective cohort study methods, women with learning disabilities were identified by Read code; and their cervical screening records were compared with the Call-and-Recall records of women without learning disabilities in order to examine their screening histories. Analysis was carried out using case-control methods – 1:2 (women with learning disabilities: women without learning disabilities), calculating odds ratios. Results 267 women's records were compared with the records of 534 women without learning disabilities. Women with learning disabilities had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.48 (Confidence Interval (CI) 0.38 – 0.58; X2: 72.227; p.value learning disabilities. Conclusion The reasons given for ceasing and/or not screening suggest that merely being coded as having a learning disability is not the sole reason for these actions. There are training needs among smear takers regarding appropriate reasons not to screen and providing screening for women with learning disabilities. PMID:18218106
Nicolielo-Carrilho, Ana Paola; Hage, Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos
to check the use of metacognitive reading strategies in children with learning disabilities and determine whether there is a relationship between their use and text comprehension. the study was conducted on 30 children, aged 8 to 12 years, of both genders, divided into experimental group (EG) - 15 children with learning disabilities; and control group (CG) - 15 children without disability. All children were submitted to the Reading Strategies Scale and Prolec text comprehension subtest. The sample was described in mean, median, minimum and maximum values. Comparative analysis was performed between the groups using the Mann-Whitney test. The degree of correlation between variables was verified by Spearman Correlation Analysis. The significance level was set at 5%. across the total scores of the scale, EG performance was lower in all descriptive measures, with a significant difference compared to CG. The EG achieved a performance close to children without difficulties only in global strategies. The correlation between the use of metacognitive strategies and reading comprehension was positive. children with learning disabilities showed deficits in the use of metacognitive reading strategies when compared to children without learning disabilities. The better the performance in reading strategies, the better textual comprehension was and vice versa, suggesting that metacognitive reading skills contribute to reading comprehension.
Full Text Available This paper explores the current rising rates of online learning in higher education. It examines how disability is activated differently online and the impact of this on learning and teaching through the internet and the accessibility of two of the most popular learning management systems, Blackboard and Moodle, and the different approaches, benefits and problems associated with each system. It then explores the eLearning environment beyond the structure of a LMS to a broader digital campus that includes social networks, video hosting sites and micro blogging, where students and staff are increasingly expanding the learning and social environment in higher education. It also questions the legal and moral responsibilities of universities to make all their online activities accessible to all students, regardless of disability.
Alary Gauvreau, Christine; Kairy, Dahlia; Mazer, Barbara; Guindon, Andréanne; Le Dorze, Guylaine
After rehabilitation, it is not clear the extent to which persons living with a disability return to their former activities in the community, such as going to shopping malls. Rehabilitation professionals are faced with the challenge to adequately prepare their clients to resume community participation. The purpose of this study was to identify rehabilitation strategies aimed at preparing clients to engage in activities in shopping malls. Twenty-two participants including 16 rehabilitation clinicians and 6 persons living with a disability participated in four nominal group sessions. Participants were questioned on current or potential rehabilitation strategies carried out to enhance participation in shopping malls for persons living with a disability. Discussions were audio-recorded and qualitative content analysis was conducted. Participants mentioned strategies that were either carried out by the clinician, or in collaboration with other parties. The latter type of strategies was either carried out with the collaboration of the client, the interdisciplinary team, the relatives, or community organizations. Rehabilitation clinicians have a role to play in preparing persons living with a disability to resume activities in a shopping mall. Additionally, therapeutic interventions in community settings may enhance the participation of rehabilitation clients in their everyday activities. Implications for rehabilitation Many strategies are currently used in rehabilitation to prepare persons living with a disability to resume shopping activities. Clinicians could implement shopping-oriented rehabilitation strategies with the client and/or with other rehabilitation partners. Involving clients in activities related to shopping might enhance their participation in shopping malls after rehabilitation. Rehabilitation clinicians can be facilitators for people living with a disability to reach optimal participation.
Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T; McGregor, Karla K; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee
The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list recall experiment. Participants listened to 12-item word lists that converged on a nonpresented critical item (e.g., rain) semantically (umbrella, drench, weather, hail), phonologically (train, main, ran, wren), or dually in a hybrid list (umbrella, train, drench, main) and recalled words in no particular order. Group comparisons were made on veridical recall (i.e., words that were presented) and false recall of nonpresented critical items. Recall performance was analyzed by list type and list position to examine potential differences in the quality of memorial processes. The LLD group produced fewer veridical recalls than the controls. Both groups demonstrated list type and list position effects in veridical recall. False recall of the critical items was comparable in the 2 groups and varied by list type in predictable ways. Young adults with LLD have verbal memory limitations characterized by quantitatively low levels of accurate recall. Qualitative patterns of recall are similar to those of unaffected peers. Therefore, the memory problem is characterized by limited capacity; memorial processes appear to be intact.
This paper explores the interdisciplinary nature of studies in the field of lifelong learning participation. Until recently, participation studies have been presented in a rather fragmented way, often drawing on insights from separate disciplines such as sociology or psychology. The complex nature of lifelong learning participation, however, urges…
Bal, M.I.; Sattoe, J.N.T.; Schaardenburgh, N.R. van
Background: Finding and maintaining employment is a major challenge for young adults with physical disabilities and their work participation rate is lower than that of healthy peers. This paper is about a program that supports work participation amongst young adults with chronic physical
Pence, Alicia R.; Dymond, Stacy K.
The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' beliefs about the participation of students with severe disabilities (SD) in school clubs. Participants were special education teachers (N = 60) of middle and junior high school students with SD from one state. Data were collected using a survey. Results indicate that teachers value including…
Eissa, Mourad Ali
This study investigated the effect of using advance graphic organizers on academic achievement, self efficacy, and motivation to learn social studies in learning disabled second year prep students. A total of 60 students identified with LD were invited to participate. The sample was randomly divided into two groups; experimental (n = 30, 23 boys,…
Eissa, Mourad Ali; Mostafa, Amaal Ahmed
This study investigated the effect of using differentiated instruction by integrating multiple intelligences and learning styles on solving problems, achievement in, and attitudes towards math in six graders with learning disabilities in cooperative groups. A total of 60 students identified with LD were invited to participate. The sample was…
Howe, Phill; Hancox, Linda
People with learning disabilities often experience health inequalities and poorer health than the general population. This article describes the development of an exercise group for people with learning disabilities in North Devon.
Solan, Harold A.; Springer, Florence E.
The Learning Disabilities Unit of New York's State College of Optometry, providing testing and research for learning disabled adults and children and professional instruction and clinical experience for students of optometry and related fields, is described. (MSE)
Little, Sara S.
This article presents an overview of literature relating to a nonverbal learning disabilities subtype. The article addresses the relationship between nonverbal learning disabilities and socioemotional functioning, generalizability of research outcomes, individual differences, and treatment validity. (Author/JDD)
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available The frequency of specific leaning disabilities (SLD in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 was determined in a cohort of 81 patients (43 males, 38 females; mean age 11 years 6 months; age range 8-16 followed at Children's Hospital, Westmead, NSW, Australia.
[Purpose] This study analyzes awareness and participation behavior in disabled sports and disability understanding after Tokyo's bid for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics. [Subjects and Methods] The study conducted a cross survey on 220 registrants of an Internet research firm. It analyzed: the awareness of citizens and their behavioral changes, in the aftermath of the allocation of Olympic and Paralympic Games; subject attributes and education level; recognition of disabled sports; and the awareness and behavior of participants, with regard to disabled sports. The analysis was conducted using SPSS Ver. 21 (IBM). [Results] The subjects were not interested in watching (72.2%), participating (76.8%), or volunteering (71.8%) in disabled sports. In addition, 76.8% of the subjects exhibited no behavioral changes-such as by watching, participating, or volunteering in disabled sports-after the Olympics and Paralympics bid decision. [Conclusion] This study's subjects had no confidence in their disability knowledge and no opportunities to interact with disabled persons. Furthermore, the bids for mega-events such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games did not lead to behavioral changes concerning disabled sports. Therefore, disability understanding should promote and deepen participation behavior in disabled sports.
Hurtubise, Karen; Carpenter, Christine
To better understand the learning experiences of parents of children with developmental disabilities and the strategies they develop to support their caregiving role. A qualitative secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with parents of children with developmental disability was conducted to better understand parents' learning experiences and the strategies they developed to use this learning in supporting their children. A foundational thematic analysis process was used to identify the main themes, and the interpretive process was influenced by adult education theories. Findings suggest that participants are highly motivated to learn by a need to understand, to do, and to belong. They also demonstrated varying levels of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning. Learning style preferences are evident in participants' narratives and in their self-reported learning strategies. Conceptualizing parents, as adult learners, can be helpful in designing clinical interactions and education initiatives. Knowledge of adult learning principles may enable pediatric therapists to better meet the needs of parents and fulfill their information sharing responsibilities.
Full Text Available In response to research which argues that people living with a disability (PLWD face societal barriers including workplace participation, this study explored how the barriers to social participation, specifically workplace participation, faced by PLWD are exacerbated by the lack of appropriate clothing and the role that stigma, self-efficacy, and clothing have in workplace participation. Finding appropriate clothing is a significant barrier to social participation for many PLWD. The social model of disability used in this study supports this by suggesting that it is society which places barriers to PLWD rather than their disability. A qualitative inquiry of semi-structured, in-depth interviews was used, and the results showcase six sub-themes of barriers: work defines me, disability as the barrier to workplace participation, work allows extra societal opportunities, stigma questions my self-efficacy, workplace accommodations diminish my stigma, and clothing builds my self-efficacy. The study found that, for PLWD, workplace participation is hindered because of occupational typecasting and lack of appropriate clothing, which increases their stigma and decreases their self-efficacy. The contributions of this study include theory support, policy, community, and educational enhancement.
Crabtree, Tim; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Konrad, Moira
This study used a multiple baseline across participants design to examine the effects of self-monitoring and active responding on the reading comprehension of three high school seniors with learning disabilities and significant attention problems. The self-monitoring intervention required the participants to read a story and stop reading at three…
Chiviacowsky, S; Wulf, G; Avila, L T G
The present study examined whether the learning benefits of an external focus of attention (i.e., on the movement effect) relative to an internal focus (i.e. on the movement), found previously in non-disabled children and adults would also be found in children with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Participants (n = 24; average age: 12.2 years) with mild intellectual deficiency (IQ = 51-69) practiced throwing beanbags at a target. In the external focus group, participants were instructed to direct their attention to the movement of the beanbag, while in the internal focus group, participants were asked to direct their attention to the movement of their hand. The practice phase consisted of 40 trials, and attentional focus reminders were given after every third trial. Learning was assessed 1 day later by retention and transfer (greater target distance) tests, each consisting of 10 trials. No focus reminders were given on that day. The external focus group demonstrated more effective learning than the internal focus group, as evidenced by more accurate tosses on the transfer test. The present findings show that instructions that induce an external focus of attention can enhance motor learning in children with IDs. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.
Anderson, E S; Smith, R; Thorpe, L N
The study aims to evaluate an interprofessional community-based learning event, focussing on disability. The learning opportunity was based on the Leicester Model of Interprofessional Education, organised around the experiences and perceptions of service users and their carers. Programme participants were drawn from medicine and social work education in Leicester, UK, bringing together diverse traditions in the care of people with disabilities. Small student groups (3-4 students) worked from one of the eight community rehabilitation hospitals through a programme of contact with people with disabilities in hospital, at home or in other community settings. The evaluation, in March 2005, used a mixed methods approach, incorporating questionnaire surveys, focus group interviews with students and feedback from service users. Responses were collated and analysed using quantitative and qualitative measures. Fifty social work and 100 medical students completed the first combined delivery of the module. The findings indicated that the merging of social work and medical perspectives appear to create some tensions, although overall the student experience was found to be beneficial. Service users (16 responses) valued the process. They were not concerned at the prospect of meeting a number of students at home or elsewhere and were pleased to think of themselves as educators. Problems and obstacles still anticipated include changing the mindset of clinicians and practising social workers to enable them to support students from each other's disciplines in practice learning. The generally positive outcomes highlight that disability focussed joint learning offers a meaningful platform for interprofessional education in a practice environment.
This phenomenological study investigated barriers to higher education faced by 11 college students labeled with learning disabilities (LD) using their voice as the primary data. Data were analyzed and interpreted through a disability theory perspective revealing barriers stemmed largely from external social causes rather than individual pathology. Barriers included being misunderstood by faculty, being reluctant to request accommodations for fear of invoking stigma, and having to work considerably longer hours than nonlabeled peers. Findings indicated barriers could be overcome through raising faculty awareness about LD issues, engaging the assistance of the college LD specialist, and participation in a LD democratic empowerment community on campus.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the key role of social and emotional learning programmes for children with Learning Disability (LD. The first part of the paper discusses the difficulties students with learning disability may encounter in their education, such as issues related to peer group acceptance, friendship and social isolation, low self-efficacy and self-esteem, and externalized and internalized behavior problems. The relationship between social and emotional learning programmes and learning disability is then discussed, underlining the benefits of social and emotional learning for students with LD. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for universal social and emotional learning as a vehicle for the academic and social inclusion of students with LD.
Goodley, Dan; Runswick-Cole, Katherine
This paper explores the shifting landscape of civil society alongside the emergence of ‘Big Society’ in the UK. We do so as we begin a research project Big Society? Disabled people with learning disabilities and Civil Society [Economic and Social Research Council (ES/K004883/1)]; we consider what ‘Big Society’ might mean for the lives of disabled people labelled with learning disabilities (LDs). In the paper, we explore the ways in which the disabled body/mind might be thought of as a locus o...
Full Text Available This paper discusses the participation in the scientific world by referring to the AKTIF project. It introduces how the research team of AKTIF takes on the problems of academics with disabilities and reflects on the participation in one’s own team. AKTIF project suggests that for a successful outcome of the participation in the academy, conditions of the recruitment process, employment intake, as well as the cooperation within the course of the project should be changed.
Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan
We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…
Herron, Daniel; Priest, Helena M.; Read, Sue
Background: There has been an increase in inclusive research in the learning disability field; however, this has not been reflected within learning disability and dementia research, where little is known from the perspective of people with learning disabilities. This paper will define inclusive research, explore reasons for the dearth of inclusive…
This paper examines the problems of learning disabled children and discusses possibilities for improving their self-concept and attitude toward school. It first notes the suspected link between juvenile delinquency and learning disabilities and suggests that initial efforts to help learning disabled children be directed at the lower-class urban…
Lamberg, Catherine Denise
Learning-disabled students face ongoing challenges in higher education. Despite efforts to promote recruitment and retention of students with learning disabilities to trade schools, colleges, and universities, barriers to enrollment and academic achievement persist. Barriers for learning-disabled students are not fully understood and might be…
This research aimed to illuminate the experiences of adults with learning disabilities of the reflecting team, in the context of their systemic family therapy. Five adults with learning disabilities were recruited from one community learning disability team. A qualitative design using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was appropriate…
The central purpose of this study was to analyze the dynamics of handwriting movements in real time for Spanish students in early grades with and without learning disabilities. The sample consisted of 120 children from Grades 1 through 3 (primary education), classified into two groups: with learning disabilities and without learning disabilities.…
Background: It is now expected that projects addressing the lives of people with learning disabilities include people with learning disabilities in the research process. In the past, such research often excluded people with learning disabilities, favouring the opinions of family members, carers and professionals. The inclusion of the voices of…
Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi
This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…
Apr 13, 1974 ... Diagnostic facilities for children with learning disabilities are essential and can be ... peers and teachers, as well as his recreational opportunities ... Full diagnostic assessments of 57 pupils were .... viour patterns are removal from the stress situation with .... in relation to his peer group in the classroom.
Lambie, Glenn W.; Milsom, Amy
Students diagnosed with learning disabilities experience many challenges that school counselors may address through narrative therapy. Narrative therapy is a postmodern, social constructionist approach based on the theoretical construct that individuals create their notions of truth and meaning of life through interpretive stories. This article…
Tormanen, Minna R. K.; Takala, Marjatta; Sajaniemi, Nina
This study examined whether audiovisual computer training without linguistic material had a remedial effect on different learning disabilities, like dyslexia and ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder). This study applied a pre-test-intervention-post-test design with students (N = 62) between the ages of 7 and 19. The computer training lasted eight weeks…
Walker, Stephen C.; Poteet, James A.
Thirty learning-disabled and 30 nonhandicapped intermediate grade children were assessed on memory performance for stimulus words, which were presented with congruent and noncongruent rhyming words and semantically congruent and noncongruent sentence frames. Both groups performed significantly better on words encoded using deep level congruent…
This paper describes the once-weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapy of a girl, called Ellie, aged eight at the start of her treatment. Ellie had a learning disability and displayed difficult behaviour at school and at home. In her therapy, Ellie grew in emotional intelligence, more in touch with and able to express her feelings. Her behaviour…
Madaus, Joseph W.; Zhao, Jiarong; Ruban, Lilia
Because of its significant impact on overall life satisfaction, employment satisfaction is one marker for determining successful adult outcomes. The present investigation reports the perceptions of employment satisfaction for 500 graduates with learning disabilities from three postsecondary institutions. The graduates reported high levels of…
Singleton, Sabrina M.; Filce, Hollie Gabler
Research suggests students with learning disabilities often have trouble connecting new and prior knowledge, distinguishing essential and nonessential information, and applying comprehension strategies (DiCecco & Gleason, 2002; Vaughn & Edmonds, 2006). Graphic organizers have been suggested as tools educators can use to facilitate critical…
Fais, Laurie; Wanderman, Richard
The paper describes the application of a computer-assisted writing program in a special high school for learning disabled and dyslexic students and reports on a study of the program's effectiveness. Particular advantages of the Macintosh Computer for such a program are identified including use of the mouse pointing tool, graphic icons to identify…
Cole, Emma V.; Cawthon, Stephanie W.
The number of students with learning disabilities (SLD) at postsecondary institutions has tripled over the past three decades and now constitutes about 11% of undergraduate students (Joyce & Rossen, 2006; U.S. Department of Education, 2013). Research has found that SLD who use accommodations at their postsecondary institution are more…
Background: There is very little research on how and when siblings understand that they have a brother or sister with a learning disability. Research regarding young children's understanding of intelligence, suggests that they may not develop a clear understanding of ability until about 7 years of age. Method: Through interviewing parents and then…
A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationship…
This publication contains self-esteem exercises and a learning disabilities (LD) curriculum for students with LD in adult basic education programs. The 37 student exercises are designed to build the self-esteem of students with LD. They include self-evaluations, profiles, and checklists. Topics covered are success, decision making, problem…
Johnson, Doris J.; Grant, James O.
Writing samples of 295 primary school children improved in productivity, syntax, and level of abstraction from grade one through three. The writing of learning-disabled children who were matched with average reading ability primary-school children indicated no significant differences in productivity, but problems in syntax (especially morphology),…
Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Miller, Daniel C.; Maricle, Denise E.
Reading, writing, and math are academic skills involving a number of different executive functions, particularly working memory. Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) may present myriad academic difficulties, depending on their specific area(s) of processing weakness. is study examined differences in academic achievement and working…
Fernández-Alcántara, Manuel; Correa-Delgado, Cayetana; Muñoz, Ángela; Salvatierra, María Teresa; Fuentes-Hélices, Tadeo; Laynez-Rubio, Carolina
The present study describes experiences associated with parenting children diagnosed with learning disabilities. Parents whose children were diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, dyslexia/language problems, and Asperger syndrome, related to poor performance at school, took part in the study. A qualitative study design was…
In the mid-1970s, Donald Hammill and his colleagues authored three scathing critiques of the two most trusted scientific traditions of learning disability treatment--movement education and psycholinguistic training (Hammill, 1972; Hammill & Larsen, 1974; Hammill, Goodman, & Wiederholt, 1974). These critical reviews of research rejected the older…
Quick, Carol; Mandell, Colleen
The relationship between recurrent otitis media (middle ear infection characterized by the presence of middle ear fluid and possibly leading to a temporary conductive hearing loss) and learning disabilities (LD) is examined. Traditional treatment approaches (antibiotic medication and surgery) are reviewed. The definition of LD is presented and the…
Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee
Many international studies have examined the gross motor skills of children studying in special schools while local studies of such nature are limited. This study investigated the gross motor skills of children with Mild Learning Disabilities (MLD; n = 14, M age = 8.93 years, SD = 0.33) with the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2, Ulrich,…
Witzel, Bradley S.; Riccomini, Paul J.; Schneider, Elke
Students with learning disabilities struggle to acquire essential mathematical concepts and skills, especially at the secondary level. One effective approach to improving secondary math performance supported by research is the concrete-to-representational-to-abstract (CRA) sequence of instruction. Although CRA is an evidenced-based instructional…
Solvoll, Betty-Ann; Hall, Elisabeth; Støre Brinchmann, Berit
Background: Healthcare providers caring for learning-disabled individuals in institutions face challenges of what is right or wrong in their daily work. Serving this group, it is of utmost importance for the healthcare staff to raise awareness and to understand how ethical values are at stake...
Diagnostic facilities for children with learning disabilities are essential and can be made available, even in smaller centres. Parents must be made aware of the child's needs, and details of treatment such as medication should be carefully explained to them. The remedial programme must be selected according to the ...
Friend, Marilyn; Bauwens, Jeanne
The article explores characteristics of resistance by general educators to special education consultation programs. It offers teachers of learning disabled students strategies for managing specific types of resistance as well as a general plan for minimizing resistance as well as suggestions for evaluating the impact of resistance management…
This literature review and primary qualitative research explores therapeutic role from the perspective of Community Learning Disability Nurses. Semi-structured interviews, based on Critical Incident Technique ("Psychol Bull", 51, 1954, 327), and descriptive phenomenological methodology were adopted to elicit data amenable to systematic…
Masterson, Julie J.; And Others
Children (ages 9-13) with language-learning disabilities were administered 5 types of verbal analogies: synonyms, antonyms, linear order, category membership, and functional relationship. Subjects performed worse than mental age-matched children on all types of analogies and performed worse than language age-matched children on all types except…
Sheridan, Lynnaire; Kotevski, Suzanne
This research examines the learning experience of university students who were tutored by a teacher with quadriplegia mixed type cerebral palsy. It was inspired by Pritchard's [2010. "Disabled People as Culturally Relevant Teachers." "Journal of Social Inclusion" 1 (1): 43-51] argument that the presence of people with a…
Fuchs, Douglas; And Others
Two studies were conducted to compare the performance instability of children (grades 3-9) labeled learning disabled/brain injured (LD/BI) to the performance instability of emotionally handicapped (EH) children. In the first study, 50 LD/BI and 37 EH students were measured on three third grade reading passages twice, once within one sitting and…
Abrams, Jules C.
The article proposes a dynamic-developmental-interaction approach to individuals with learning disabilities (LD) which addresses the absence of certain fundamental ego skills. Emotional conomitants to LD (such as low frustration tolerance and overcompensation) are noted, and intervention techniques based on the dynamic-developmental interaction…
Johnson, Lynn S.; And Others
Explored the impact of group hypnotic and self-hypnotic training on the academic performance and self-esteem of learning disabled (LD) children. Important predictors of self-esteem improvement were the child's hypnotic susceptibility score and self-hypnotic practice by children and parents. Hypnotherapy is of potential benefit to self-esteem…
Simoncelli, Andrew; Hinson, Janice
This research details the methodologies that could be used to better deliver online course content to students with learning disabilities. Research has shown how the design of the course affects the students' attitudes and performance. This article details the methodology and pedagogical side of the delivery including instructional methods that…
Dunn, Michael W.
A debate exists in the research community about replacing the traditional IQ/achievement discrepancy method for learning disability identification with a "response-to-intervention model". This new assessment paradigm uses a student's level of improvement with small-group or individual programming to determine a possible need for…
Landers, Andrew James
Past research indicates that teachers' beliefs are influential in their decisions and behaviors in the classroom. Teachers are also influenced by the socioeconomic status of their students. The present study on beliefs and evaluation of knowledge about working with students with learning disabilities included kindergarten through 12th grade…
Background: Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are now living into older age. This study aims to examine the state of knowledge about their lives and the challenges that ageing has for both family carers and policymakers and practitioners. Materials and Methods: The article synthesises existing research in the fields of learning…
Rodríguez, Ashley; Rodríguez, Diane
As the demographics across the United States continues to change, specifically with increases in school age English Learners who speak a home language other than English, it is imperative that schools meet the diverse needs of these children. This article summarizes studies about English Learners with learning disabilities. It reports on the…
Raja, B. William Dharma; Kumar, S. Praveen
This paper focusses on the need and benefit of using multimedia applications to cater to the needs of children with learning disabilities. The children with special educational needs found in various schools may face difficulties in acquiring academic skills such as reading, spelling, writing, speaking, understanding, listening, thinking or…
Bailey, Frank S.; Yocum, Russell G.
The purpose of this personal experience as a narrative investigation is to describe how an auditory processing learning disability exacerbated--and how spirituality and religiosity relieved--suicidal ideation, through the lived experiences of an individual born and raised in the United States. The study addresses: (a) how an auditory processing…
Law, Mary; King, Gillian; King, Susanne; Kertoy, Marilyn; Hurley, Patricia; Rosenbaum, Peter; Young, Nancy; Hanna, Steven
Children with physical disabilities are at increased risk of limitations to participation in everyday activities. This study describes research examining the participation of children in day-to-day formal and informal activities (excluding mandated academic schooling). Using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) measure, data on participation patterns were collected from 427 children (229 males, 198 females; mean age 10 y [SD 2 y 4 mo]; range 6-14 y) with physical limitations and from their families. The primary types of physical disability in the sample included cerebral palsy, spina bifida, acquired brain injury, and musculoskeletal limitations. Findings indicate a broad range of diversity and intensity of participation, with proportionately greater involvement in informal rather than formal activities. Significant differences in participation and enjoyment were found between males and females, and for children more than 12 years of age. Children's participation was less diverse in families reporting lower income, single-parent status, and lower respondent parent education. These findings provide a foundation for an improved understanding of the participation of children with physical disabilities, which can assist families and service providers in planning activities that fit with their child's preferences and ensure active participation.
Brabcová, Dana; Zárubová, Jana; Kohout, Jiří; Jošt, Jiří; Kršek, Pavel
Academic self-concept could significantly affect academic achievement and self-confidence in children with epilepsy. However, limited attention has been devoted to determining factors influencing academic self-concept of children with epilepsy. We aimed to analyze potentially significant variables (gender, frequency of seizures, duration of epilepsy, intellectual disability, learning disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) in relation to academic self-concept in children with epilepsy and to additional domains of their quality of life. The study group consisted of 182 children and adolescents aged 9-14 years who completed the SPAS (Student's Perception of Ability Scale) questionnaire determining their academic self-concept and the modified Czech version of the CHEQOL-25 (Health-Related Quality of Life Measure for Children with Epilepsy) questionnaire evaluating their health-related quality of life. Using regression analysis, we identified learning disability as a key predictor for academic-self concept of children with epilepsy. While children with epilepsy and with no learning disability exhibited results comparable to children without epilepsy, participants with epilepsy and some learning disability scored significantly lower in almost all domains of academic self-concept. We moreover found that children with epilepsy and learning disability have significantly lower quality of life in intrapersonal and interpersonal domains. In contrast to children with epilepsy and with no learning disability, these participants have practically no correlation between their quality of life and academic self-concept. Our findings suggest that considerable attention should be paid to children having both epilepsy and learning disability. It should comprise services of specialized counselors and teaching assistants with an appropriate knowledge of epilepsy and ability to empathize with these children as well as educational interventions focused on their teachers
Jeannis, Hervens; Joseph, James; Goldberg, Mary; Seelman, Katherine; Schmeler, Mark; Cooper, Rory A
To conduct a literature review identifying barriers and facilitators students with physical disabilities (SwD-P) may encounter in science and engineering (S&E) laboratories. Publications were identified from 1991 to 2015 in ERIC, web of science via web of knowledge, CINAHL, SCOPUS, IEEEXplore, engineering village, business source complete and PubMed databases using search terms and synonyms for accommodations, advanced manufacturing, additive manufacturing, assistive technology (AT), barriers, engineering, facilitators, instructor, laboratory, STEM education, science, students with disabilities and technology. Twenty-two of the 233 publications that met the review's inclusion criteria were examined. Barriers and facilitators were grouped based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health framework (ICF). None of the studies directly found barriers or facilitators to SwD-P in science or engineering laboratories within postsecondary environments. The literature is not clear on the issues specifically related to SwD-P. Given these findings, further research (e.g., surveys or interviews) should be conducted to identify more details to obtain more substantial information on the barriers that may prevent SwD-P from fully participating in S&E instructional laboratories. Implications for Rehabilitation Students with disabilities remain underrepresented going into STEM careers. A need exist to help uncover barriers students with disabilities encounter in STEM laboratory. Environments. Accommodations and strategies that facilitate participation in STEM laboratory environments are promising for students with disabilities.
Full Text Available Introduction Textbooks matter for an inclusive education. I examined the way in which 30 textbooks in history, religion, civics, and biology represent disability-related issues. Aim: The overall aim is to find out if textbooks represent the type of disability in association with age, ethnicity, and participation. Specifically, this research addresses the question: Are textbooks’ representations of the type of disability, age, and ethnicity associated with participation? By participation I refer to whether textbooks represent people with disabilities as (a engaged in daily activities located outside of institutionalized residence. Engagement in activities may be indicated by sports, being a wage earner, voting, protesting, spending time with family or friends or (b only being at their institutionalized residence/flat. Methods: I examined three hypotheses regarding representations of type of disability, ethnicity, and age and how these are associated with participation. I analysed the data using a combination of qualitative coding of the content as well as qualitative comparative analysis (QCA. Results: Although most textbooks do mention disability, people with a disability remain largely invisible, and less than half of the textbooks represent people with disabilities as active participants. Conclusions: First, I demonstrate that physical disability is associated with active participation. Second, I demonstrate that disability is associated with ethnic majority. Third, I demonstrate that the participation of people with disabilities is associated with both young and old age groups.
Kinn, Liv Grethe; Holgersen, Helge; Aas, Randi W; Davidson, Larry
To explore how persons with psychiatric disabilities experience facilitators of and barriers to participation in paid work in transitional, supported, and open employment settings, in order to provide guidance for efforts to attract and retain these persons in gainful employment as a key dimension of recovery and community life. A metasynthesis was conducted using 16 qualitative studies published between 1990 and 2011. Ten themes, two phases, and an overarching metaphor were identified. The first five themes describe facilitators of and impediments to getting a job (getting off the bench): (1) fighting inertia; (2) taking control; (3) encouraging peers; (4) disruptions related to the illness; (5) lack of opportunities and supports. The next five themes represent facilitators of and impediments to working (skating on the ice); (6) going mainstream; (7) social cohesion; (8) clarity in role and responsibilities; (9) environmental factors; (10) managing self-disclosure. We chose as our overarching metaphor "Balancing on Skates on the Icy Surface of Work," as we view both iceskaters and workers with psychiatric disabilities as needing to achieve and maintain their balance while being "on the edge" between various extremities. We have shown that, for persons with psychiatric disabilities to "get off the bench" and "onto the ice" of employment, they may need to be supported in finding and maintaining their balance in new situations through a combination of learning new skills and competencies (learning how to skate) while receiving in vivo assistance from empathic and knowledgeable supporters (being coached while on the ice).
Since moral action often requires understanding the nature of justice and the development of empathy and compassion, moral education involves the learner's intellect, emotions and will. The lifelong learning involved is thus multifaceted and plausibly benefits from the integration of personal and political with professional learning. I explore…
Stegers-Jager, Karen M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P N
Medical schools wish to better understand why some students excel academically and others have difficulty in passing medical courses. Components of self-regulated learning (SRL), such as motivational beliefs and learning strategies, as well as participation in scheduled learning activities, have been found to relate to student performance. Although participation may be a form of SRL, little is known about the relationships among motivational beliefs, learning strategies, participation and medical school performance. This study aimed to test and cross-validate a hypothesised model of relationships among motivational beliefs (value and self-efficacy), learning strategies (deep learning and resource management), participation (lecture attendance, skills training attendance and completion of optional study assignments) and Year 1 performance at medical school. Year 1 medical students in the cohorts of 2008 (n = 303) and 2009 (n = 369) completed a questionnaire on motivational beliefs and learning strategies (sourced from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) and participation. Year 1 performance was operationalised as students' average Year 1 course examination grades. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data. Participation and self-efficacy beliefs were positively associated with Year 1 performance (β = 0.78 and β = 0.19, respectively). Deep learning strategies were negatively associated with Year 1 performance (β =- 0.31), but positively related to resource management strategies (β = 0.77), which, in turn, were positively related to participation (β = 0.79). Value beliefs were positively related to deep learning strategies only (β = 0.71). The overall structural model for the 2008 cohort accounted for 47% of the variance in Year 1 grade point average and was cross-validated in the 2009 cohort. This study suggests that participation mediates the relationships between motivation and learning strategies, and medical school
Full Text Available Τhis study is a critical review of published scientific literature on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, Virtual Reality, multimedia, music and their applications in children with special learning difficulties. Technology and music are two factors that are recognized as tools which ensure quality of life, success and access to knowledge and learning resources. In the following papers of the last decade (2006-2015 are proposed models of music therapy for students with special learning difficulties in a psycho educational setting. There are also defined future research perspectives concerning the applications of technology in this particular research field.
McDonald, Katherine E; Conroy, Nicole E; Olick, Robert S
Attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability inform research policy and practice, impact interest in and support for research participation, and promote or discourage the generation of new knowledge to promote health among adults with intellectual disability. Yet we know little about these beliefs among the public and the scientific community. We quantitatively studied attitudes among adults with intellectual disability, family and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members. We predicted that adults with intellectual disability, and researchers would espouse views most consistent with disability rights, whereas IRB members, and to a lesser degree family, friends, and service providers, would espouse more protective views. We surveyed five hundred and twelve members of the five participant stakeholder groups on their attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability. We found broad support for research about people with intellectual disability, though slightly more tempered support for their direct participation therein. In general, IRB members and to some extent adults with intellectual disability endorsed direct participation less than others. We also found that adults with intellectual disability strongly believed in their consent capacity. Resources should be directed toward health-related research with adults with intellectual disability, and interventions should be pursued to address ethical challenges and promote beliefs consistent with human rights. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Preparing students for a life as active citizens in a democratic society is one of the aims within the Bologna process. The Council of Europe has also stressed the importance of focus on democracy in Higher Education. Higher Education is seen as important to develop a democratic culture among...... students. Teaching democracy should be promoted in lessons and curricula. Creating democratic learning systems in institutions of higher education could be the answer to reaching the aim related to democracy. The Aalborg Model practised at Aalborg University is a learning system which has collaborative...
Fletcher, Jack M; Grigorenko, Elena L
Over the past 50 years, research on children and adults with learning disabilities has seen significant advances. Neuropsychological research historically focused on the administration of tests sensitive to brain dysfunction to identify putative neural mechanisms underlying learning disabilities that would serve as the basis for treatment. Led by research on classifying and identifying learning disabilities, four pivotal changes in research paradigms have produced a contemporary scientific, interdisciplinary, and international understanding of these disabilities. These changes are (1) the emergence of cognitive science, (2) the development of quantitative and molecular genetics, (3) the advent of noninvasive structural and functional neuroimaging, and (4) experimental trials of interventions focused on improving academic skills and addressing comorbid conditions. Implications for practice indicate a need to move neuropsychological assessment away from a primary focus on systematic, comprehensive assessment of cognitive skills toward more targeted performance-based assessments of academic achievement, comorbid conditions, and intervention response that lead directly to evidence-based treatment plans. Future research will continue to cross disciplinary boundaries to address questions regarding the interaction of neurobiological and contextual variables, the importance of individual differences in treatment response, and an expanded research base on (a) the most severe cases, (b) older people with LDs, and (c) domains of math problem solving, reading comprehension, and written expression. (JINS, 2017, 23, 930-940).
Billingham, Carol J.; Harper, William W.
Describes the instructional development of a course for advanced finance students on the use of data files and/or databases for solving complex finance problems. Areas covered include course goals and the design. The course class schedule and sample learning assessment assignments are provided. (JD)
Soares, Neelkamal; Evans, Teresa; Patel, Dilip R
Math skills are necessary for success in the childhood educational and future adult work environment. This article reviews the changing terminology for specific learning disabilities (SLD) in math and describes the emerging genetics and neuroimaging studies that relate to individuals with math disability (MD). It is important to maintain a developmental perspective on MD, as presentation changes with age, instruction, and the different models (educational and medical) of identification. Intervention requires a systematic approach to screening and remediation that has evolved with more evidence-based literature. Newer directions in behavioral, educational and novel interventions are described.
Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Larson, Erik D.; Albus, Deb A.; Liu, Kristi K.; Kwong, Elena
With the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) in 2015, renewed attention was paid to the importance of guidelines for participation in alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) and to understanding of who the students are who have significant cognitive disabilities. The analyses…
Achterberg, Thea J.; Wind, Haije; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
Purpose: To define the most important factors for the work participation of the young disabled according to experts. Method: A Delphi study was conducted with internet questionnaires. Health-related, personal and environmental factors known from literature were presented to insurance physicians and
Ninot, G.; Bilard, J.; Delignieres, D.
Background: The purpose was to examine the effects of the type of athletic programme (integrated vs. segregated) on the athletic domain of perceived competence and on general self-worth. Methods: Participants were 32 adolescent females with intellectual disabilities (ID), divided equally into four groups: (1) segregated swimming; (2) integrated…
Rainey, J.F.M.; van Nispen, R.M.A.; van der Zee, C.H.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.
Purpose: To critically appraise the measurement properties of questionnaires measuring participation in children and adolescents (0–18 years) with a disability. Methods: Bibliographic databases were searched for studies evaluating the measurement properties of self-report or parent-report
Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris
This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50
Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris
This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 less than or equal to IQ greater than or equal to 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in…
Verdonschot, Manon M. L.; de Witte, L. P.; Reichrath, E.; Buntinx, W. H. E.; Curfs, L. M. G.
Study Design: A systematic review of the literature. Objectives: To describe which environmental factors have an impact on community participation of persons with an intellectual disability. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted for the period of 1996-2006 in Pubmed, CINAHL and PSYCINFO. Search terms were derived from the…
Haegele, Justin; Zhu, Xihe; Davis, Summer
The purpose of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to participation in physical education (PE) for students with disabilities (SWD) from the perspectives of in-service physical educators. A convenience sample of 168 physical educators (72% female, 94% Caucasian) from the United States completed a short questionnaire. After data…
Peter Edward Williams
Full Text Available Introduction: It is well-recognised that the Internet may be an appropriate vehicle to provide information for people with Learning Disabilities. A small but growing body of research has studied the usability of the Internet for this purpose. This review examines the literature relating to this issue. Objectives: The objective of the paper is to examine current research and thinking around the issue of web design for people with Learning Disabilities, including an exploration both of methods used and key findings. Methods: A comprehensive literature review was undertaken encompassing material from the fields of education, computer science and health. Literature was elicited from various appropriate bibliographic databases. In examining the literature, an analytical proforma was used to elicit information, evaluate and compare studies. Results: A large number of methods by which usability has been studied with this cohort were elicited, including using a mainstream website; comparing an especially adapted website against an equivalent ‘’mainstream’ version and comparing various ‘accessible’ website designs. Similarly, studies included those comparing the performance of people with Learning Disabilities with a ‘mainstream’ cohort and on their own. Findings overall suggest that ‘accessible sites’ are easier to use for people with Learning Disabilities. Difficulties encountered include in reading, finding content from a large quantity of text and scrolling. Work examining the efficacy of images or icons has had contradictory findings, from having little or no benefit in terms of access to information, to significantly aiding the understanding of text. Conclusions: Contradictory or inconclusive findings suggest both a need for further research and for greater participation by people with Learning Disabilities themselves in studying the usability of web sites and other IT applications.
Goldsmith, Lesley; Skirton, Heather; Webb, Christine
This paper is a report of an integrative review of informed consent to healthcare interventions in people with learning disabilities. Consent to treatment lies at the heart of the relationship between patient and healthcare professional. In order for people with learning disabilities to have equity of access to health care, they need to be able to give informed consent to health interventions--or be assessed as incompetent to give consent. The British Nursing Index (BNI), CINAHL, MEDLINE, Social Care Online, ERIC and ASSIA and PsycINFO databases were searched using the search terms: Consent or informed choice or capacity or consent to treat* or consent to examin* AND Learning disab* or intellectual* disab* or mental* retard* or learning difficult* or mental* handicap*. The search was limited to papers published in English from January 1990 to March 2007. An integrative review was conducted and the data analysed thematically. Twenty-two studies were reviewed. The main themes identified were: life experience, interaction between healthcare professionals and participants, ability to consent, and psychometric variables. A consensus seemed to emerge that capacity to consent is greater in people with higher cognitive ability and verbal skills, but that the attitudes and behaviour of healthcare professionals was also a crucial factor. The findings support use of the functional approach to assessing mental capacity for the purpose of obtaining informed consent. Future research into informed consent in people with learning disabilities is needed using real life situations rather than hypothetical vignettes.
In a large sample of Swedish unemployed disabled workers, the workers participate in between zero and ten policy programmes during their unemployment spell. Clustering of programmes to about half of the sample is prominent. The number of programmes is modelled as a standard count data model, as a zero-inflated model and as a hurdle model. The most important question is whether disadvantaged workers are more or less probable to participate in programmes. The empirical analysis shows that part...
Raymond, Émilie; Grenier, Amanda
Recent discourses on aging emphasize the value of older people's social participation. How participation is defined in policy, however, may not correspond with seniors' realities. This article reports on the results of a critical discourse analysis conducted on aging policy in Quebec between 2005 and 2011. Results indicate that participation definitions can be problematic recommendations, standards, and expectations. Over time, participation increasingly came to be defined as productivity. The participation context also changed from collective responsibility to community adjustment and personal choice. Finally, policy texts reflected a polarization between activity and a loss of autonomy that linked participation with health status. Results suggest that, although innovative in the Canadian context, articulation of participation in Quebec's recent policies on aging lacks the politics from which to discuss difference, otherness, and access to participative opportunities. The case of older people's aging with disabilities illustrates the challenges of the new participatory agenda.
Hearne, D; Stone, S
The field of learning disabilities, like education in the main, is undergoing calls for reform and restructuring, an upheaval brought on in great part by the forces of opposing paradigms--reductionism and constructivism. In reexamining our past, we must begin to address the failures of traditional deficit models and their abysmally low "cure" rate. Several new theories have arisen that challenge traditional practices in both general and special education classrooms. Particularly influential has been the work of Howard Gardner, whose theory of multiple intelligences calls for a restructuring of our schools to accommodate modes of learning and inquiry with something other than deficit approaches. At least some current research in the field of learning disabilities has begun to focus on creativity and nontraditional strengths and talents that have not been well understood or highly valued by the schools. In this article, we briefly summarize the findings in our search for the talents of students labeled learning disabled, evidence of their abilities, implications of these for the schools, and a beginning set of practical recommendations.
Perrier, Marie-Josée; Shirazipour, Celina H; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E
Despite numerous physical, social, and mental health benefits of engaging in moderate and vigorous intensity physical activities (e.g., sport), few individuals with acquired physical disabilities currently participate in adapted sport. Theory-based sport promotion interventions are one possible way to increase the amount of individuals who engage in sport. The primary objective of this study was to examine the profiles of three different sport participation groups with respect to demographic, injury, and Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) constructs. ANOVAs and Chi-square tests were used to determine group differences on demographic and disability-related constructs. A MANCOVA was conducted to determine differences between three sport participation groups (non-intenders, intenders, and actors) with age, years post-injury, mode of mobility, and sex included as covariates. A cohort of 201 individuals was recruited; 56 (27.9%) were non-intenders, 21 (10.4%) were intenders, and 124 (61.7%) were actors. The MANCOVA revealed significant differences between groups on the HAPA constructs, F(22,370) = 9.02, p sport intentions. These results provide an important framework that adapted sport organizations can use to tailor their sport promotion programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yazicioglu, Kamil; Yavuz, Ferdi; Goktepe, Ahmet Salim; Tan, Arif Kenan
The lack of controlled trials in the relationship between participation in adapted sports, and quality of life (QoL) and life satisfaction in people with physical disabilities encouraged us to consider conducting this study. The aim of this study was to compare the QoL and life satisfaction scores between people with physical disabilities who participated in adapted sports and those who did not participate in any adapted sports. This cross-sectional controlled study included 60 individuals with physical disabilities (paraplegia and amputee). Participants were divided into two groups based on sports participation and non-sports participation. Group one included 30 disabled elite athletes who participated in adapted sports. The control group included 30 disabled individuals not involved in any adapted sports. We compared scores on the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life Scale (WHOQoL-BREF) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) between the two groups. Participation in the community and QoL was examined as a reflection of participant's priority on sports participation. We found that WHOQoL-BREF physical, psychological, and social domain scores were significantly higher in group one than in the control group (p sports had significantly higher QoL and life satisfaction scores compared to people with physical disabilities not involved in any adapted sports. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carroll, Clare; Guinan, Nicole; Kinneen, Libby; Mulheir, Denise; Loughnane, Hannah; Joyce, Orla; Higgins, Elaine; Boyle, Emma; Mullarney, Margaret; Lyons, Rena
Although Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "everyone has a right to freedom of opinion and expression", for people with communication disability this may not be a reality. This commentary shares a practical example of how people with communication disabilities together with speech-language pathology (SLP) students, academics and clinical staff co-designed and co-implemented a Communication Awareness Training Programme for catering staff to enable communication access in coffee shops and restaurants. This is an example of how SLPs can embrace their social responsibility to break down barriers for people with communication disabilities. This commentary shares the reflections of those involved and how they felt empowered because they had learned new skills and made a difference. This commentary highlights the need for co-design and co-delivery of programs to raise awareness of communication disability among catering staff and how the stories of people with communication disabilities served as a catalyst for change. It also highlights the need to SLPs to move intervention to a social and community space.
Gacek, Michał; Smoleń, Tomasz; Pilecka, Władysława
Persons with intellectual disability are a group at risk of being exposed to overly demanding problem-solving situations, which may produce learned helplessness . The research was based on the informational model of learned helplessness. The consequences of exposure to an unsolvable task and the ability to recognize the symptoms of cognitive exhaustion were tested in 120 students with mild intellectual disability. After the exposure to the unsolvable task, persons in the experimental group obtained lower results than the control group in the escape/avoidance learning task, but a similar result was found in the divergent thinking fluency task. Also, participants in the experimental group had difficulties recognizing the symptoms of the cognitive exhaustion state. After a week's time, the difference in escape/avoidance learning performance was still observed. The results indicate that exposure to unsolvable tasks may negatively influence the cognitive performance in persons with intellectual disability, although those persons may not identify the cognitive state related to lowered performance.
Pintrich, P R; Anderman, E M; Klobucar, C
The present study examines several cognitive and motivational variables that distinguish children with learning disabilities (n = 19) from children without learning disabilities (n = 20). The total sample included 30 males and 9 females and was composed of white, fifth-grade students from a middle-class community in the Midwest. Results showed that although the students with learning disabilities displayed lower levels of metacognitive knowledge and reading comprehension, they did not differ from the students without learning disabilities on self-efficacy, intrinsic orientation, or anxiety. In addition, they did not show any signs of learned helplessness, although they did tend to attribute success and failure to external causes more often than the students without learning disabilities. Using a cluster analysis that grouped individuals, we found that differences in the motivational and cognitive variables cut across a priori categories of children with and without learning disabilities. Three clusters were formed: one with high comprehension, motivation, and metacognition (mostly children without learning disabilities); one with low levels of comprehension and metacognition but high intrinsic motivation (all children with learning disabilities); and one with low intrinsic motivation but average comprehension, metacognition, and attributional style (approximately equal numbers of children with and without learning disabilities). Implications for diagnosis and intervention for students with learning disabilities are discussed.
The increasing population of older people with learning disabilities may lead to higher demand for contact with registered nurses. To date, little research has been undertaken regarding the role of registered nurses in meeting the health and care needs of this client group. In this article, the author reports on the second stage of a three-stage research study that used six case studies to explore this issue. Implications for nursing were identified in areas such as health needs, record keeping, medication, advocacy, social aspects, ageing in place, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding, spirituality and end-of-life care. The author concludes that registered nurses will need to continue to remain up to date to meet the complex needs of older individuals with learning disabilities.
Claudia GRAU RUBIO
Full Text Available In this article, we describe the behavioral phenotype of individuals with Fragile X Syndrome and its impact in the educational scope. This syndrome is characterized by difficulties in sensory integration, cognitive deficits (verbal reasoning, abstract/ visual and cuantitative skills, short term memory, sequential processing, attention and executive processes, language disorders (phonetic-phonologicals, semanticals, morphosyntacticals and pragmaticals and communication disorders, social anxiety, general hyperarousal, autism, non autistic social difficulties, attention deficit and hyperactivity, and learning disabilities. The behavioral phenotype is highly variable and depends on sex, age, and mutation status (full mutation or premutation. The behavioural phenotype has important repercussions in education, as it enables us to understand the learning disabilities and to develop specific intervention strategies.
Dickinson, David L; Verbeek, Roelant L
Wage differential studies examining legally protected groups typically focus on gender or racial differences. Legislation also fully protects individuals with learning disabilities (LD). This article is the first to decompose wage differentials between adults with and without LD. An original data set of college graduates with documented LD was constructed, and these individuals were compared to a control group from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Our results show that much of the observed lower wages for individuals with LD is due to differences in productivity characteristics. However, there is an unexplained portion of the wage gap that could possibly be considered wage discrimination against individuals with LD. This possibility seems smaller due to the fact that the subsample of the employers who knew of the employee's learning disabilities did not appear to pay significantly lower wages to these individuals. Alternative hypotheses are discussed, as are sample-specific issues.
Strobel, Wendy; Arthanat, Sajay; Bauer, Stephen; Flagg, Jennifer
The primary market research outlined in this paper was conducted by the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Technology Transfer to identify critical technology needs for people with learning disabilities. Based on the research conducted, the underlying context of these technology needs is Universal Design for Learning (UDL). The paper…
Wight, Mary Caitlin S.
This examination of the literature on foreign, or second, language learning by native English-speaking students with disabilities addresses the benefits of language learning, the practices and policies of language exemption, the perceptions of students and educators regarding those practices, and available resources for supporting students with…
Terrazas-Arellanes, Fatima E.; Gallard M., Alejandro J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Walden, Emily D.
The purpose of this study was to document the design, classroom implementation, and effectiveness of interactive online units to enhance science learning over 3 years among students with learning disabilities, English learners, and general education students. Results of a randomised controlled trial with 2,303 middle school students and 71…
Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura; Kinsell, Carolyn; Poggio, John C.; Meyen, Edward L.
This article proposes a computer-mediated intersensory learning model as an alternative to traditional instructional approaches for students with learning disabilities (LDs) in the inclusive classroom. Predominant practices of classroom inclusion today reflect the six principles of zero reject, nondiscriminatory evaluation, appropriate education,…
Rodríguez, Celestino; Grünke, Matthias; González-Castro, Paloma; García, Trinidad; Álvarez-García, David
This comparative study investigated the productivity and the process of written composition in students with and without disabilities between 8 and 16 years of age. Participants were assigned to four groups as follows: (a) 59 with both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and writing learning disabilities (WLD), (b) 40 with ADHD, (c)…
Eissa, Mourad Ali
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a self regulated learning intervention program on cognitive and metacognitive EFL reading comprehension of 9th graders with reading disabilities. The participants in this study were 40 9th Graders with reading disabilities, selected from two schools located in Baltim Educational Edara. A…
Reynolds, Fiona; Stanistreet, Debbi; Elton, Peter
Abstract Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning ...
Walker, Heidi, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, 303-70 Dysart Road, Winnipeg R3T 2M6 (Canada); Sinclair, A. John, E-mail: email@example.com [Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, 303-70 Dysart Road, Winnipeg R3T 2M6 (Canada); Spaling, Harry, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, The King' s University College, 9125-50 Street, Edmonton, Alberta T6B 2H3 (Canada)
Meaningful public engagement is a challenging, but promising, feature of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) due to its potential for integrating sustainability principles into policies, plans and programs in developing countries such as Kenya. This research examined two selected SEA case studies to identify the extent of participation, learning outcomes attributable to participation, and if any learning outcomes led to social action for sustainability at the community level. Strengths across the two cases were the inclusion of marginalized populations and consideration of socio-economic concerns. Consistent weaknesses included inadequate notice, document inaccessibility, lack of feedback and communication, and late analysis of alternatives. Despite some learning conditions being unfulfilled, examples of instrumental, communicative, and transformative learning were identified through a focus group and semi-structured interviews with community participants and public officials. Some of these learning outcomes led to individual and social actions that contribute to sustainability. -- Highlights: • The strengths and weaknesses of Kenyan SEA public participation processes were identified. • Multiple deficiencies in the SEA process likely frustrate meaningful public engagement. • Participant learning was observed despite process weaknesses. • Participant learning can lead to action for sustainability at the community level.
Walker, Heidi; Sinclair, A. John; Spaling, Harry
Meaningful public engagement is a challenging, but promising, feature of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) due to its potential for integrating sustainability principles into policies, plans and programs in developing countries such as Kenya. This research examined two selected SEA case studies to identify the extent of participation, learning outcomes attributable to participation, and if any learning outcomes led to social action for sustainability at the community level. Strengths across the two cases were the inclusion of marginalized populations and consideration of socio-economic concerns. Consistent weaknesses included inadequate notice, document inaccessibility, lack of feedback and communication, and late analysis of alternatives. Despite some learning conditions being unfulfilled, examples of instrumental, communicative, and transformative learning were identified through a focus group and semi-structured interviews with community participants and public officials. Some of these learning outcomes led to individual and social actions that contribute to sustainability. -- Highlights: • The strengths and weaknesses of Kenyan SEA public participation processes were identified. • Multiple deficiencies in the SEA process likely frustrate meaningful public engagement. • Participant learning was observed despite process weaknesses. • Participant learning can lead to action for sustainability at the community level
McClimens, Alex; Partridge, Nick; Sexton, Ed
The use of city centre spaces by people with learning disability is not much debated in the literature. Here we include the thoughts and opinions of groups of people with learning disability as we undertook some guided walks through Sheffield city centre. We found that few of the participants had independent access to the city centre. Many cited concerns over personal safety and the most, on few occasions when they did visit, did so with family and/or paid staff for pre-planned purposes, usually linked to shopping. The need for appropriate support figured prominently. There is also a need to re-assess what we mean by social inclusion for this cohort. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Northway, Ruth; Howarth, Joyce; Evans, Lynne
The aim of this paper is to explore how making reasonable adjustments to the process of securing ethical approval for research can facilitate the meaningful involvement of people with intellectual disabilities as members of a research team. This is achieved through critical reflection upon the approach taken within one participatory research study whose objective was to explore how people with intellectual disabilities understand abuse. Internationally participatory research studies (in which active involvement of community members in all stages of the research process is sought) are becoming increasingly common in the context of health care and, more specifically, within research involving people with intellectual disabilities. However, whilst it is acknowledged that participatory research gives rise to specific ethical challenges, how (or if) involvement in securing ethical approval is facilitated, is not discussed in most research reports. The significance of this paper is that it seeks to address this gap by exploring how meaningful participation can be promoted by making reasonable adjustments. Within the study, the research team worked in collaboration with the ethics committee to identify potential barriers that could prevent the participation of members of the research team who had intellectual disabilities. Reasonable adjustments (such as redesigning forms) were made to the processes involved in securing ethical approval. This study demonstrated that it is possible to ensure that ethical standards are upheld and the requirements of ethics committees met whilst also facilitating the meaningful involvement of people with intellectual disabilities. The reasonable adjustments approach explored within this paper can be translated into the context of clinical practice: making changes to the way that services are delivered can promote greater involvement of people with intellectual disabilities in their own health care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sahlin, K Barbara; Lexell, Jan
Physical activity and exercise is the mainstay of chronic disease prevention and health maintenance for all people with and without a disability, and clear evidence exists of the benefits among various populations with neurologic disabilities. However, the potential benefits of organized sports for people with neurologic disabilities are not as well explored. In this narrative review, current evidence regarding the impact of organized sports on activity, participation, and quality of life in people with neurologic disabilities of all ages is summarized, and facilitators of and barriers to participation in sports for this population are discussed. The articles reviewed were divided into 2 sets: (1) children and adolescents and (2) adults. The subjects of almost all of the studies were persons with a spinal cord injury. Children and adolescents with a disability who engaged in sports reported self-concept scores close to those of able-bodied athletes, as well as higher levels of physical activity. Adults with a spinal cord injury who engaged in organized sports reported decreased depression and anxiety, increased life satisfaction, and increased opportunity for gainful employment compared with nonathletic persons with disabilities. General facilitators, regardless of age, were fitness, fun, health, competence, and social aspects, whereas overall barriers were lack of or inappropriate medical advice and facilities, decreased self-esteem, poor finances, dependency on others, and views held by others. The importance of this topic for further research is highlighted, and suggestions for future studies are proposed. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of attribution retraining group program on anxiety of students with learning disabilities. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study pre-test and post-test design with control group was used. Two learning disorders centers were selected on purpose and conveniently in Tehran City in 2012-13 academic years. Thirty six students (9 girls and 27 boys who were educating in 2nd to 6th grade in elementary school with learning disabilities selected in convenience. One center was considered as experimental group and the other one as control group randomly (each group consisted of 18 individuals. Experimental group was divided into three subgroups (each consisted of 6 individuals, and were participated in 11 intervention sessions (each lasts for 45 minutes twice a week and received attribution retraining program, but control group received no training. Spence Children Anxiety Scale (SCAS was completed before and after the intervention by all subjects. Data were analyzed by independent t-test and analysis of covariance. Results: The results of analysis of covariance showed that attribution retraining intervention did not influence the anxiety. There is no significant difference between the anxiety of experimental and control group (P=0.34. Conclusion: It was concluded that attribution retraining group program can not probably reduce anxiety symptoms of students with learning disabilities.
BIN YAO; HAN-RONG WU
Objective To investigate prevalence rate of learning disabilities (LD) in Chinese children, and to explore related risk factors, and to provide theoretical basis for preventing such disabilities.Methods One thousand and one hundred fifty one children were randomly selected in primary schools. According to criteria set by ICD-10, 118 children diagnosed as LD were classified into the study group. Four hundred and ninety one children were classified into the normal control group. Five hundred and forty two children were classified into the excellent control group. The study instruments included PRS (The pupil rating scale revised screening for learning disabilities), Conners' children behavior check-list taken by parents and YG-WR character check-list. Results The prevalence rate of LD in Chinese children was 10.3%. Significant differences were observed between LD and normally learning children, and between the LD group and the excellent group, in terms of scores of Conners' behavior check-list (P＜0.05). The study further showed that individual differences in character between the LD group and the control groups still existed even after controlling individual differences in age, IQ, and gender. Some possible causal explanations contributing to LD were improper teaching by parents, low educational level of the parents, and children's characteristics and social relationships. Conclusion These data underscore the fact that LD is a serious national public health problem in China. LD is resulted from a number of factors. Good studying and living environments should be created for LD children.
McKillop, Ashley B; Carroll, Linda J; Dick, Bruce D; Battié, Michele C
Of the three broad outcome domains of body functions and structures, activities, and participation (eg, engaging in valued social roles) outlined in the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), it has been argued that participation is the most important to individuals, particularly those with chronic health problems. Yet, participation is not commonly measured in back pain research. The aim of this study was to investigate the construct validity of a modified 5-Item Pain Disability Index (PDI) score as a measure of participation in people with chronic back pain. A validation study was conducted using cross-sectional data. Participants with chronic back pain were recruited from a multidisciplinary pain center in Alberta, Canada. The outcome measure of interest is the 5-Item PDI. Each study participant was given a questionnaire package containing measures of participation, resilience, anxiety and depression, pain intensity, and pain-related disability, in addition to the PDI. The first five items of the PDI deal with social roles involving family responsibilities, recreation, social activities with friends, work, and sexual behavior, and comprised the 5-Item PDI seeking to measure participation. The last two items of the PDI deal with self-care and life support functions and were excluded. Construct validity of the 5-Item PDI as a measure of participation was examined using Pearson correlations or point-biserial correlations to test each hypothesized association. Participants were 70 people with chronic back pain and a mean age of 48.1 years. Forty-four (62.9%) were women. As hypothesized, the 5-Item PDI was associated with all measures of participation, including the Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools-Objective (r=-0.61), Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument: Disability Component (frequency: r=-0.66; limitation: r=-0.65), Work and Social Adjustment Scale (r=0.85), a global
Anne Marie Witchger Hansen
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to understand how mothers of children with physical and cognitive disabilities who engaged their children in community-based rehabilitation (CBR services in Lusaka, Zambia, perceived and described (1 the level of support they received and the barriers they encountered in terms of their child’s meaningful social participation; (2 the use and awareness of these barriers to identify and pursue advocacy strategies; and (3 hopes for their child’s future. Methods: Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with each mother in her home.Results: Findings revealed both support and barriers to the child’s social participation in relationship to their family, friends and community. Support also came from the CBR programme and mothers’ personal resourcefulness. Mothers identified their child’s school,their immediate environment and financial burdens as barriers to participation as well as their own personal insecurities and fears. Strategies to overcome barriers included internal and external actions. The mothers involved in the study hope their child’s abilities will improve with continued CBR services. Some mothers described a bleak future for their child due to alack of acceptance and access to education. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest the significant role the mother of a child with a disability plays in her child’s social participation. Recommendations include enhancing CBR programming for families, especially for mothers, and advocating on behalf of children with disabilities and their families to attract the attention of policy makers.
El Shourbagi, Sahar
For a long time, Québec has fostered the integration and social participation of people with an intellectual disability. However, few adaptations have been made in the context of integration. The current situation of these people is characterized by poverty, dependency, illiteracy and isolation. The "Processus de production du handicap" (Disability Creation Process) shows that this situation can be improved by adapting certain environmental elements, such as television and posters, to the characteristics of these people. These two modes of communication could respond to the needs of people with an intellectual disability by more directly fostering their social participation. This would contribute to increased acceptance of their differences on the part of the general population, encourage them to act on their own behalf, encourage them to feel they are capable of and will succeed at accomplishing a task, and better serve them in terms of accessing information. In addition, creators of media messages should assume the responsibility of adapting their messages to the characteristics and needs of people with an intellectual disability by such means as simplifying texts or adding pictograms.
Achterberg, T J; Wind, H; de Boer, A G E M; Frings-Dresen, M H W
The aim of this systematic review was to study factors which promote or hinder young disabled people entering the labor market. We systematically searched PubMed (by means of MESH and text words), EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL for studies regarding (1) disabled patients diagnosed before the age of 18 years and (2) factors of work participation. Out of 1,268 retrieved studies and 28 extended studies from references and four from experts, ten articles were included. Promoting factors are male gender, high educational level, age at survey, low depression scores, high dispositional optimism and high psychosocial functioning. Female and low educational level gives high odds of unemployment just like low IQ, inpatient treatment during follow up, epilepsy, motor impairment, wheelchair dependency, functional limitations, co-morbidity, physical disability and chronic health conditions combined with mental retardation. High dose cranial radiotherapy, type of cancer, and age of diagnosis also interfered with employment. Of the promoting factors, education appeared to be important, and several physical obstructions were found to be hindering factors. The last mentioned factors can be influenced in contrast to for instance age and gender. However, to optimize work participation of this group of young disabled it is important to know the promoting or hindering influence for employment.
Johnson, Samantha; Strauss, Victoria; Gilmore, Camilla; Jaekel, Julia; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter
Children born extremely preterm are at high risk for intellectual disability, learning disabilities, executive dysfunction and special educational needs, but little is understood about the comorbidity of intellectual and learning disabilities in this population. This study explored comorbidity in intellectual disability (ID) and learning disabilities (LD) in children born extremely preterm (EP; disabilities. LD were associated with a 3 times increased risk for SEN. However, EP children with ID alone had poorer neuropsychological abilities and curriculum-based attainment than children with no disabilities, yet there was no increase in SEN provision among this group. EP children are at high risk for comorbid intellectual and learning disabilities. Education professionals should be aware of the complex nature of EP children's difficulties and the need for multi-domain assessments to guide intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mahoney-Davies, Gerwyn; Dixon, Clare; Tynan, Hannah; Mann, Sian
Background: The "Five Ways to Well-being" document presents five ways in which people in the general population may be able to improve their well-being. This study evaluates the use of a "Five Ways to Well-being" group in a population of people with learning disabilities. Materials and Methods: Twelve participants who attend a…
Unzueta, Caridad H.; Barbetta, Patricia M.
A multiple baseline design investigated the effects of computer graphic organizers on the persuasive composition writing skills of four Hispanic students with specific learning disabilities. Participants reviewed the elements of persuasive writing and then developed compositions using a word processing program. Baseline planning was done with a…
Peijnenborgh, J.C.A.W.; Hurks, P.M.; Aldenkamp, Albert; Vles, Johan S H; Hendriksen, J.G.M.
The effectiveness of working memory (WM) training programmes is still a subject of debate. Previous reviews were heterogeneous with regard to participant characteristics of the studies included. To examine whether these programmes are of added value for children with learning disabilities (LDs), a
Arthanat, Sajay; Curtin, Christine; Knotak, David
This study examined the use of the Apple iPad for learning by children with developmental disabilities (DD), including those on the autism spectrum. A single case design was used to record the participation of four students with DD when taught with their standard computer at baseline, followed by the introduction of the iPad. A six-component…
Metzger, Mary Ann; Freund, Lisa
The present research assessed the ability to attend to relevant information in the presence of irrelevant distraction in hyperactive (H), learning disabled (LD), and unselected (US) children. A total of 20 LD, 20 H, and 20 US children divided into younger and older age groups participated in the study. Younger children were between 94 and 104…
Burchard, Melinda S.
This dissertation examined long-term metacognitive effects of participation in a Strategic Learning course for postsecondary students with and without disabilities. The researcher integrated existing archival data from three sources, a university-wide assessment program, assessments of 114 students who took a postsecondary Strategic Learning…
Griess, Julie Omodio
This study explored the use of animal-assisted therapy with students identified with a learning disability and limited reading success. Initially, reading progress was defined as the participants' comprehension rate obtained from an oral Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) passage. The nature of the Informal Reading Inventory requires the…
Kreider, Consuelo M; Bendixen, Roxanna M; Young, Mary Ellen; Prudencio, Stephanie M; McCarty, Christopher; Mann, William C
Social participation involves activities and roles providing interactions with others, including those within their social networks. This study sought to characterize social networks and participation with others for 36 youth, ages 11 to 16 years, with (n = 19) and without (n = 17) learning disability, attention disorder, or high-functioning autism. Social networks were measured using methods of personal network analysis. The Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment With Whom dimension scores were used to measure participation with others. Youth from the clinical group were interviewed regarding their experiences within their social networks. Group differences were observed for six social network variables and in the proportion of overall, physical, recreational, social, and informal activities engaged with family and/or friends. Qualitative findings explicated strategies used in building, shaping, and maintaining social networks. Social network factors should be considered when seeking to understand social participation. © CAOT 2015.
Kofoed, L.B.; Jensen, Lars Peter; Rosenørn, T.U.
. The beginning of the change process where all actors are assumed to use all their potentials in developing their future organization is described. The different employee groups need to learn to participate. An important point is to use the change process to establish a learning culture. Experiments based...... on reflective learning in an "experimentarium" as support for the change process, and the positive results obtained are discussed....
Hilary Ingham; Mike Ingham; Jose Adelino Afonso
Lifelong learning (LLL) has now been on the agenda of the European Union and other major international organizations for some considerable time, with the European institutions stressing the need that such learning should be available to all, especially hard to reach groups. This paper seeks to explore LLL participation in Portugal and the UK, two countries at opposite ends of the adult learning spectrum and having very different labour market and educational contexts. Using Labour Force Surve...
Stegers-Jager, Karen M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P. N.
Medical Education 2012: 46:678688 Context Medical schools wish to better understand why some students excel academically and others have difficulty in passing medical courses. Components of self-regulated learning (SRL), such as motivational beliefs and learning strategies, as well as participation
Michinov, Nicolas; Brunot, Sophie; Le Bohec, Olivier; Juhel, Jacques; Delaval, Marine
The present study focuses on a specific learner characteristic in the management of time--procrastination--, and its role in an online learning environment. More specifically, it was expected that procrastination would influence the successfulness of online learning and that this could be explained by the level of participation of learners in…
Full Text Available A majority of studies on learning disabilities have focused on elementary grades. Although problems with learning disabilities are life-affecting only a few studies focus on deficits in adults. In this study adults with isolated mathematical disabilities (n=101 and adults with combined mathematical and reading disabilities (n=130 solved tests on procedural calculation and number knowledge, numerical facility and visuospatial skills. Metacognitive skilfulness was assessed through calibration measures, a questionnaire, stimulated recall, and thematic analyses after a qualitative interactive interview with a flexible agenda to discover the interviewee’s own framework of meanings and to avoid imposing the researcher’s structures and assumptions. In our dataset the isolated group (MD did worse than the comorbid group (M+RD on mental representation, dealing with contextual information and number knowledge. However the comorbid group did worse on the number sense tasks. No significant differences were found between the MD and M+RD adults for fact retrieval, procedural calculation and visuo spatial tasks. In addition adults with MD overestimated their mathematics results, whereas individuals with M+RD underestimated their results in the calibration task. Moreover, adults with M+RD thought that they were worse on the evaluation of the own results, the evaluation of the own capacities and on monitoring when things went wrong compared with adults in the M+RD group. Thematic analyses revealed that many adults had problems with planning and keeping track of steps and that supporting surroundings were important protective factors towards the chances of success. Consequences for the assessment of metacognition in adults and for the support of adults with mathematical disabilities are discussed.
Raghavendra, Parimala; Newman, Lareen; Grace, Emma; Wood, Denise
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a home-based intervention using social media to enhance social networks of young people with disabilities and communication difficulties. Eight young people (M(age) = 15.4 years) with communication disabilities participated from two rural Australian towns. The intervention provided assistive technology and training to learn social media use. A mixed-method design combined pre- and post-assessments measuring changes in performance, satisfaction with performance, attainment on social media goals, and social network extension, and interviews investigated the way in which the intervention influenced social participation. Participants showed an increase in performance, and satisfaction with performance, on the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure; paired t-tests showed statistical significance at p communication partners, p communication frequency and nature, and speech intelligibility and literacy as a result of the intervention. The findings suggest that learning to use social media leads to increase in social participation among rural-based young people with communication disabilities. In order to benefit from advantages of learning to use social media in rural areas, parents and service providers need knowledge and skills to integrate assistive technology with the Internet needs of this group.
The Spastic Society Of Karnataka , Bangalore
Study conducted by The Spastics Society of Karnataka on behalf of Azim Premji Foundation to assess the effectiveness of computers in enhancing learning for children with specific learning disabilities. Azim Premji Foundation is not liable for any direct or indirect loss or damage whatsoever arising from the use or access of any information, interpretation and conclusions that may be printed in this report.; Study to assess the effectiveness of computers in enhancing learning for children with...
Moone, Rajean Paul; Lightfoot, Elizabeth
Centers for independent living (CILs) provide critical supports, services, and advocacy for assisting people with disabilities in living independently. As there is a rapidly increasing population of older people with disabilities, many CILs are now considering how to actively engage older adults in their organizations. This study utilized a survey of older people with disabilities to help identify social marketing techniques that community organizations like CILs can use to effectively reach older people with disabilities. Utilizing the components of the social marketing mix in designing outreach efforts, including a critical examination of product, place, price, participants, and partnering, CILs and other community agencies can better reach older adults with disabilities.
Full Text Available Children with learning disabilities have significant impairment in reading, writing and mathematics, in spite of normal intelligence and sensory abilities. In reading disability, children will have difficulties in phonemic sensitivity, phonetic decoding, word recognition, word decoding skills and reading comprehension. The lifetime prevalence of learning disability is about 10%. Learning disabilities are more frequently seen in boys compared to girls. There are several risk factors for learning disabilities. Low birth weight, preterm birth, neonatal complications, language delay and epilepsy are important risk factors for learning disabilities in children. Students with learning disabilities have poor scholastic performance, anxiety and significant stress. They have more social, emotional and behavioural problems than those without learning problems. If not remedied at the earliest, learning disabilities will lead to failure in exams and these children may develop stress related disorders. Hence all children with learning problems should be evaluated scientifically at the earliest, for identification of learning disability. By providing scientific guidance and intensive one to one remedial training, learning problems of children can be managed successfully.
Sullivan, Amanda L; Kohli, Nidhi; Farnsworth, Elyse M; Sadeh, Shanna; Jones, Leila
Accurate estimation of developmental trajectories can inform instruction and intervention. We compared the fit of linear, quadratic, and piecewise mixed-effects models of reading development among students with learning disabilities relative to their typically developing peers. We drew an analytic sample of 1,990 students from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort of 1998, using reading achievement scores from kindergarten through eighth grade to estimate three models of students' reading growth. The piecewise mixed-effects models provided the best functional form of the students' reading trajectories as indicated by model fit indices. Results showed slightly different trajectories between students with learning disabilities and without disabilities, with varying but divergent rates of growth throughout elementary grades, as well as an increasing gap over time. These results highlight the need for additional research on appropriate methods for modeling reading trajectories and the implications for students' response to instruction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Nilsson, Charlotte Juul; Lund, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cohabitation status in older men and women on (a) onset of disability at 3- and 4.5-year follow-up and (b) changes in functional ability between 3- and 4.5-year follow-up, and to analyze whether this effect was mediated by social participation. METHOD...... of disability (T3 OR = 1.60[1.06-2.43], T4 OR = 1.74[1.22-2.47]) and the risk of sustained poor functional ability (OR = 2.35[1.44-3.84]) among men, but not among single-living women. Social participation mediated only a small part of the effect of cohabitation status on functional ability. DISCUSSION: Our...
Thompson-Janes, Emily; Brice, Samuel; McElroy, Rebecca; Abbott, Jennie; Ball, June
The Confident Parenting group is a therapeutic group for parents of children with learning disabilities and challenging behaviour, which is informed by the principles of behavioural theory and acceptance and commitment therapy. Parent's experiences of the group were elicited through participation in a large focus group which followed a…
Full Text Available Introduction: Paralympic sailing was introduced at the Atlanta 1996 Paralympic Games. Since then it has been developing rapidly and an increasing number of individuals in Poland and abroad regularly take part in sports competitions. Currently, disabled athletes can compete in three classes: Sonar, 2.4mR and Skud 18. The review of the Polish and foreign literature does not give a clear indication of the motives for participation in Paralympic sailing.
Renwick, Rebecca; Schormans, Ann Fudge; Shore, Deborah
Adults with intellectual/developmental disability (IDD), and their occupational participation, are vastly under-represented in Hollywood films. Because films often provide individuals' only experience of people with IDD, cinematic representations can influence audience perceptions. Thus, films can help inform public perceptions about desired and appropriate occupational participation for people with IDD, potentially impacting their access to meaningful occupational participation and achievement of occupational potential. Accordingly, this research examined occupational portrayals of adults with IDD in contemporary Hollywood films. Occupational portrayals, as defined here, refer to representations of the dynamic process of the person participating in occupation(s) in a context. Grounded theory methods guided coding and analysis of qualitative data collected from eight contemporary films using an occupation-focused tool. Two major, striking themes emerging from the qualitative analysis--infantilization and simplification of participation in complex occupations (with three associated sub-themes)--are discussed. Implications of the findings and future research directions are considered.
Full Text Available The efficacy of traditional training programs (e.g., neurodevelopmental therapy in promoting independent mobility and early child development across all three International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health levels lacks rigorous research support. Therefore, early power mobility training needs to be considered as a feasible intervention for very young children who are unlikely to achieve independent mobility. This perspective article has three aims: (1 to provide empirical evidence of differences in early independent mobility, motivation, daily life activities, and social participation between young children with typical development and motor disabilities; (2 to discuss the contemporary concepts of and approaches to early power mobility training for young children with motor disabilities and the current need for changes to such training; and (3 to provide recommendations for early power mobility training in pediatric rehabilitation. Independent mobility is critical for social participation; therefore, power mobility can be accessible and implemented as early as possible, specifically for infants who are at risk for mobility or developmental delay. To maximize the positive effects of independent mobility on children’s social participation, early power mobility training must consider their levels of functioning, the amount of exploration and contextual factors, including individual and environmental factors.
Kang, Lin-Ju; Palisano, Robert J; King, Gillian A; Chiarello, Lisa A
To present a conceptual model of optimal participation in recreational and leisure activities for children with physical disabilities. The conceptualization of the model was based on review of contemporary theories and frameworks, empirical research and the authors' practice knowledge. A case scenario is used to illustrate application to practice. The model proposes that optimal participation in recreational and leisure activities involves the dynamic interaction of multiple dimensions and determinants of participation. The three dimensions of participation are physical, social and self-engagement. Determinants of participation encompass attributes of the child, family and environment. Experiences of optimal participation are hypothesized to result in long-term benefits including better quality of life, a healthier lifestyle and emotional and psychosocial well-being. Consideration of relevant child, family and environment determinants of dimensions of optimal participation should assist children, families and health care professionals to identify meaningful goals and outcomes and guide the selection and implementation of innovative therapy approaches and methods of service delivery. Implications for Rehabilitation Optimal participation is proposed to involve the dynamic interaction of physical, social and self-engagement and attributes of the child, family and environment. The model emphasizes the importance of self-perceptions and participation experiences of children with physical disabilities. Optimal participation may have a positive influence on quality of life, a healthy lifestyle and emotional and psychosocial well-being. Knowledge of child, family, and environment determinants of physical, social and self-engagement should assist children, families and professionals in identifying meaningful goals and guiding innovative therapy approaches.
Full Text Available This article presents the results of research on how the daily participation of the "Other Women" women without an academic background or from cultural and ethnic minorities contributes to overcoming sexist stereotypes. The study demonstrates that their participation in instrumental learning activities transforms stereotypical beliefs about the skills of women without academic education, immigrant women, or those from cultural minorities. It can also be observed that their participation in decision-making spaces and in learning activities promotes student learning. In short, this study demonstrates that we need to include the "Other Women" into our diverse schools to progress towards the achievement of gender equity in education and society, and to create more positive learning experiences for all children.
Mulligan, Kerry; Calder, Allyson; Mulligan, Hilda
The built environment can facilitate or impede an individual's ability to participate in society. This is particularly so for people with disability. Architects are well placed to be advocates for design that enhances societal equality. This qualitative study explored architectural design students' perceptions of inclusive design, their reflections resulting from an experiential learning module and the subsequent influence of these on their design practice. Twenty four architectural design students participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Data were analyzed thematically. Three themes were evident: 1) Inclusive design was perceived as challenging, 2) Appreciation for the opportunity to learn about the perspectives of people with disabilities, and 3) Change of attitude toward inclusive design. Experiential learning had fostered reflection, changes in attitude and the realization that inclusive design, should begin at the start of the design process. For equitable access for all people to become reality, experiential learning, coupled with positive examples of inclusive design should be embedded in architectural education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith, Sean J.; Burdette, Paula J.; Cheatham, Gregory A.; Harvey, Susan P.
This study, conducted by researchers at the Center on Online Learning and Students With Disabilities, investigated parent perceptions and experiences regarding fully online learning for their children with disabilities. Results suggest that with the growth in K-12 fully online learning experiences, the parent (or adult member) in students'…
The paper presents the first systematic approach to the classification of inclusive information and communication technologies (ICT)-based learning technologies and ICT-based learning technologies for disabled people which covers both assistive and general learning technologies, is valid for all disabled people and considers the full range of…
MacMaster, Keith; Donovan, Leslie A.; MacIntyre, Peter D.
This study used a quasi-experimental design to examine the effect of being diagnosed with a learning disability on elementary school children's self-esteem. Findings indicated that self-esteem increased significantly above prediagnosis of a learning disability while self-esteem levels in a control group of children without learning disabilities…
Kitchens, Vivian D.; Deris, Aaron R.; Simon, Marilyn K.
Students with learning disabilities score lower than other at-risk groups on state standardized assessment tests. Educators are searching for intervention strategies to improve math achievement for students with learning disabilities. The study examined the effects of a mathematics intervention known as Cover, Copy, and Compare for learning basic…
Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne
This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic learning disability nurses in the United Kingdom. The two sample populations were forensic learning disability nurses from the high, medium, and low secure psychiatric services and non-forensic learning disability nurses from generic services. An information gathering schedule was used to collect the data; of 1200 schedules, 643 were returned for a response rate of 53.5%. The data identified the "top ten" problems that forensic learning disability nurses may encounter, the skills and competencies necessary to overcome them, and the areas that need to be developed in the future. The results indicated that the forensic learning disability nurses tended to focus on the physical aspects to the role whilst the non-forensic learning disability nurses tended to perceive the forensic role in relational terms. This has implications for practice, policy, and procedures.
Donovan, Kelsey Claire
The purposes of this study were (a) to determine if using the video learning game Quizlet in a middle school resource classroom increases science vocabulary acquisition of students with learning disabilities, (b) to determine if using the video learning game Quizlet in a middle school resource classroom increases the student engagement/on-task behavior of students with learning disabilities, and (c) to evaluate student comfort and satisfaction in using the video learning game Quizlet in a middle school resource classroom. Six middle school students, three female and three male participated in the study. A single subject design with ABAB phases was utilized over eight weeks. Results show that all students increased their science vocabulary acquisition and increased their on-task behaviors. A follow-up student satisfaction survey determined that the intervention was acceptable to all students. Further research to assess the effects of Quizlet is recommended.
Unwin, Gemma; Larkin, Michael; Rose, John; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Malcolm, Stephen
were conducted to explore participants' cultural identities, their understanding and experience of 'support'. The views and experiences expressed in the ASC-LD study were used in the 'Tools for Talking project' to develop a suite of resources designed to facilitate culturally-sensitive communication and information-sharing, service planning and delivery through improved mutual understanding between providers and users of services. This paper describes the Tools for Talking project which sought to co-develop the resources through a partnership event. Methods An inclusive approach was adopted to address issues that are important to people with learning disabilities, to represent their views and experiences, and to involve Black, Asian and minority ethnic people with learning disabilities in the research process. Partnerships were developed with provider organisations and service users who were invited to a 'Partnership Event'. Collaborators at the partnership event were asked to comment on and evaluate draft resources which included a series of videos and activities to explore topics that emerged as important in the ASC-LD study. Their comments were collated and the tools developed as they suggested. Results Using the results from the ASC-LD study helped to ensure that the draft resources were relevant to service users, addressing topics that were important to them. The partnership event was an effective method to collaborate with a relatively large number of stakeholders. However, the event was resource intensive and required substantial planning to ensure active and meaningful participation. Considerations, such as inviting stakeholders, developing the programme and selecting a venue are discussed. Conclusions The partnership approach has led to the development of a set of five illustrative videos and accompanying activities that address issues that emerged from the collaborative process including: culture, activities, support from staff, important people, choices and
of the development of a professional identity for the students as they learn to become competent practitioners or members (Sacks, 1989; Schegloff, 2007) in the field of nursing. The present study shows how students and their clinical supervisors move through different locations when students are introduced to new...... practices and interactions with patients: Instruction before interaction with patient takes place in the guardroom, the interaction with the patient takes place in the patient’s room and the assessment of the performed task takes place in the guard room again. Thus different kinds of routinized...... participation and interaction emerge that are connected to the different locations. Participation is thus understood in two ways: 1) Learning to participate as a competent practitioner with a patient is learned not just in situ by the patient’s side but also by 2) participating in interaction with the clinical...
Mengoni, Silvana E; Gates, Bob; Parkes, Georgina; Wellsted, David; Barton, Garry; Ring, Howard; Khoo, Mary Ellen; Monji-Patel, Deela; Friedli, Karin; Zia, Asif; Irvine, Lisa; Durand, Marie-Anne
Objective To investigate the feasibility of a full-scale randomised controlled trial of a picture booklet to improve quality of life for people with epilepsy and learning disabilities. Trial design A randomised controlled feasibility trial. Randomisation was not blinded and was conducted using a centralised secure database and a blocked 1:1 allocation ratio. Setting Epilepsy clinics in 1 English National Health Service (NHS) Trust. Participants Patients with learning disabilities and epilepsy who had: a seizure within the past 12 months, meaningful communication and a carer with sufficient proficiency in English. Intervention Participants in the intervention group used a picture booklet with a trained researcher, and a carer present. These participants kept the booklet, and were asked to use it at least twice more over 20 weeks. The control group received treatment as usual, and were provided with a booklet at the end of the study. Outcome measures 7 feasibility criteria were used relating to recruitment, data collection, attrition, potential effect on epilepsy-related quality of life (Epilepsy and Learning Disabilities Quality of Life Scale, ELDQOL) at 4-week, 12-week and 20-week follow-ups, feasibility of methodology, acceptability of the intervention and potential to calculate cost-effectiveness. Outcome The recruitment rate of eligible patients was 34% and the target of 40 participants was reached. There was minimal missing data and attrition. An intention-to-treat analysis was performed; data from the outcome measures suggest a benefit from the intervention on the ELDQOL behaviour and mood subscales at 4 and 20 weeks follow-up. The booklet and study methods were positively received, and no adverse events were reported. There was a positive indication of the potential for a cost-effectiveness analysis. Conclusions All feasibility criteria were fully or partially met, therefore confirming feasibility of a definitive trial. Trial registration number ISRCTN
It is without doubt that people with learning difficulties are considered vulnerable and meeting the healthcare needs of this group in society is now recognised as a challenging task. This case study examines the implications of life with a stoma for one particular man with learning difficulties and reflects on the key issues that have influenced his care: stigma and isolation, general healthcare needs for people with learning disabilities and the association with stoma care, and the provision of care and whose role it is. Key findings include inconsistencies between primary, secondary and social care, resulting in lack of integration and flexibility in provision of care; lack of responsibility for care, with a 'pass the buck' response; lack of knowledge about stoma care in most care settings; and, as a stoma care nurse, the importance of personal instinct, along with persistence in advocating appropriate levels of care for vulnerable ostomists.
Full Text Available The digital age has reached early childhood, and the use of touch screens by young children is common place. Research on the use of touch screen tablets with young children is becoming more prevalent; however, less information is available on the use of touch screen tablets to support young children with disabilities. Touch screen tablets may offer possibilities to preschool children with disabilities to participate in learning in a digital way. The iPad provides easy interaction on the touch screen and access to a multitude of engaging early learning applications. This paper summarizes a pilot study with 8 young children with disabilities included in a preschool classroom, who were given iPads to use in class and at home for a period of 21 weeks. Systematic observations, classroom assessments, and teacher and parent interviews documented the improvements in learning outcomes for each child in many areas including, but not limited to: shape and color recognition, letter recognition, and tracing letters throughout six research cycles.
The digital age has reached early childhood, and the use of touch screens by young children is common place. Research on the use of touch screen tablets with young children is becoming more prevalent; however, less information is available on the use of touch screen tablets to support young children with disabilities. Touch screen tablets may offer possibilities to preschool children with disabilities to participate in learning in a digital way. The iPad provides easy interaction on the touch screen and access to a multitude of engaging early learning applications. This paper summarizes a pilot study with 8 young children with disabilities included in a preschool classroom, who were given iPads to use in class and at home for a period of 21 weeks. Systematic observations, classroom assessments, and teacher and parent interviews documented the improvements in learning outcomes for each child in many areas including, but not limited to: shape and color recognition, letter recognition, and tracing letters throughout six research cycles.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning disabilities. It was carried out in Bury, Heywood-and-Middleton and Rochdale. Methods Carried out using retrospective cohort study methods, women with learning disabilities were identified by Read code; and their cervical screening records were compared with the Call-and-Recall records of women without learning disabilities in order to examine their screening histories. Analysis was carried out using case-control methods – 1:2 (women with learning disabilities: women without learning disabilities, calculating odds ratios. Results 267 women's records were compared with the records of 534 women without learning disabilities. Women with learning disabilities had an odds ratio (OR of 0.48 (Confidence Interval (CI 0.38 – 0.58; X2: 72.227; p.value X2: 24.236; p.value X2: 286.341; p.value Conclusion The reasons given for ceasing and/or not screening suggest that merely being coded as having a learning disability is not the sole reason for these actions. There are training needs among smear takers regarding appropriate reasons not to screen and providing screening for women with learning disabilities.
Mitchell, Wendy Ann
There is limited literature on the processes of choice-making in families of young people with learning disabilities. This paper examines the factors considered by parents of young people with learning disabilities when deciding their own and their child's role in a range of significant choices (health, social care and education) about their child's life. The paper reports data collected from a sub-sample of 14 parents recruited from 11 families participating in a longitudinal (2007-2010) qua...
Strydom, André; Al-Janabi, Tamara; Houston, Marie; Ridley, James
People with learning disabilities, particularly Down's syndrome, are at increased risk of dementia. At present, services and care tailored to people with both dementia and a learning disability are unsatisfactory. This article reviews the literature specific to dementia in people with learning disabilities, including: comprehensive screening, diagnosis, management, environmental considerations, end of life care and training issues for nursing staff. Recommendations for best practice and service improvement are made to improve the quality of life for individuals with dementia and learning disabilities, pre and post-diagnosis.
Participant direction allows people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and/or their families to direct services; in doing so, participant direction shifts participants from passive recipients to active consumers. Medicaid encourages, but does not require, states to allow participant direction. The aim of this study was to…
Rainey, Linda; van Nispen, Ruth; van der Zee, Carlijn; van Rens, Ger
To critically appraise the measurement properties of questionnaires measuring participation in children and adolescents (0-18 years) with a disability. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies evaluating the measurement properties of self-report or parent-report questionnaires measuring participation in children and adolescents (0-18 years) with a disability. The methodological quality of the included studies and the results of the measurement properties were evaluated using a checklist developed on consensus-based standards. The search strategy identified 3,977 unique publications, of which 22 were selected; these articles evaluated the development and measurement properties of eight different questionnaires. The Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation was evaluated most extensively, generally showing moderate positive results on content validity, internal consistency, reliability and construct validity. The remaining questionnaires also demonstrated positive results. However, at least 50 % of the measurement properties per questionnaire were not (or only poorly) assessed. Studies of high methodological quality, using modern statistical methods, are needed to accurately assess the measurement properties of currently available questionnaires. Moreover, consensus is required on the definition of the construct 'participation' to determine content validity and to enable meaningful interpretation of outcomes.
WA10 Working in partnership with people with learning disabilities: academics and people with learning disabilities working together to disseminate the findings of a confidential inquiry into deaths of people with learning disabilities through film.
In England, between 2010-2013, a Confidential Inquiry into premature Deaths of People with Learning Disabilities was commissioned by the Department of Health. This took place in SW England led by Norah Fry Research Centre at Bristol University. Findings from the investigations into 247 deaths included that men with learning disabilities die, on average 13 years sooner and women, on average 20 years sooner, than the general population. Over 1/3 (37%) were found to be avoidable, being amenable to good quality healthcare. A number of key recommendations were made which required understanding by a range of audiences including people with learning disabilities and their carers. This workshop will demonstrate how academics can work with actors with learning disabilities to disseminate research findings about a sensitive subject in a thought provoking and accessible way. Academics worked with the MISFITs theatre company to make a DVD about the findings and recommendations of the Confidential Inquiry. The DVD presents the findings of the Confidential Inquiry through the stories of John, Bill, Karen and Emily. It powerfully illustrates the importance of diagnosing and treating illness of people with learning disabilities in a timely and appropriate manner and highlights the measures that could be taken to reduce premature deaths in this population. The session provides an example of how the voices of people with learning disabilities can communicate research messages effectively to people with learning disabilities, health and social care practitioners and others who support the learning disability population. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available This case can be placed in a neurologic classification. The patient is a child with learning disability in school activities. He was first referred to an audiological clinic because of a central auditory processing disorder (CAPD. His mother has noticed several hearing problems and this led us to the evaluations for his central auditory processing disorder. He has problems in hearing speech in noise and speech processing and need his friends repeat words during communication. no vestibular disorder was noticed nor any localization problem. The child has a good progress in school and only suffered problems in reading tasks. Intelligence quotient(IQ was also normal.
Carver, Jordan; Ganus, Ashley; Ivey, Jon Mark; Plummer, Teresa; Eubank, Ann
This study aims to address the gap in research and contribute to the body of knowledge on the perspectives assistive technology device users have toward their devices. Mixed methods were used to better understand the impact of mobility assistive technology devices (MATDs) on participation for individuals with disabilities. The Functional Mobility Assessment was administered in conjunction with two qualitative questions developed by the research team allowing participants to expound on the impact of their MATD experience. Participants were recruited online via the National Spinal Cord Injury Association website and in-person at Abilities Expo in Atlanta, Georgia, and the International Seating Symposium in Nashville, Tennessee. Results are consistent with findings from prior research regarding accessibility for individuals with disabilities. Corresponding findings were found in both the quantitative and qualitative data and are categorized into several major themes: environment (indoor and outdoor), surface heights, transportation, dependence, independence, quality of life and participation. Quantitative data from this study indicate that users of MATD are satisfied with the way in which their devices enable maneuvering indoors, while qualitative data suggest otherwise. Implications for healthcare practitioners are described and future recommendations are provided. Implications for Rehabilitation Healthcare professionals should advocate for proper mobility assistive technology devices (MATDs) for their patients in order to enable increased independence, safety and efficiency. Healthcare professionals must be cognizant of the impact of the environment and/or environmental barriers when prescribing MATD. Additional areas of interest for future research may include investigating the impact of MATD in association with date of onset of disability, according to diagnoses, or specific to length of time since acquiring the device.
Haveman, Robert H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.
This paper presents a decision-process model for explaining the growth in transfer recipiency (the receipt by working age people of disability income), the choice of work status, and the reduction in labor force participation of older workers. It is hypothesized that the attractiveness of disability income transfer options has led older male…
Moriarity, L.; Dew, K.
The involvement of persons with disabilities in formal decision-making processes is thought to have a range of benefits. However, research suggests that participatory processes may fail to match normative ideals. This study examines the participation of persons with disabilities in the development of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of…
Paul, C; Holt, J
framework approach was used in the analysis to generate themes and core concepts. Results Participants valued the perspective PPI could bring to research, but frustration with tokenistic approaches to involvement work was also evident. Some cultural and attitudinal barriers to integrating PPI across the whole research process were identified. Discussion Despite clear guidelines and established service user involvement, challenges still exist in the integration of PPI in mental health and learning disability research in the UK. Implications for practice Guidelines on PPI may not be enough to prompt changes in research practice. Leaders and researchers need to support attitudinal and cultural changes where required, to ensure the full potential of PPI in mental health and learning disability services research is realized. Relevance statement Findings suggest that despite clear guidelines and a history of service user involvement, there are still challenges to the integration of PPI in mental health and learning disability research in the UK. For countries where PPI guidelines are being developed, attention needs to be paid to cultural factors in the research community to win "hearts and minds" and support the effective integration of PPI across the whole research process. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mittan, Robert J.
This is a six part article intended to give parents the information and strategies they need to cope with their child with epilepsy who may have school learning problems. Epilepsy and seizures affect the classroom in unique ways that can make the learning experience especially challenging for some kids. Fortunately, much can be done to give the…
Jorgensen, Mary; Budd, Jillian; Fichten, Catherine S.; Nguyen, Mai N.; Havel, Alice
This study's goal was to compare aspects related to academic persistence of two groups of college students with non-visible disabilities: 110 Canadian two and four-year college students--55 with mental health related disabilities and 55 with Specific Learning Disorder (LD). Results show that students with mental health related disabilities were…
Bellman, Scott; Burgstahler, Sheryl; Ladner, Richard
This case study describes evidence-based practices employed by a collection of University of Washington projects that engage high school and postsecondary students with disabilities in work-based learning experiences such as industry and research internships, career development activities, job shadows, field trips, and mock interviews. The purpose of the article is two-fold. First, authors share best practices with others who wish to increase the participation of students with disabilities in work-based learning and thereby contribute to their academic and career success. The article discusses methods used to recruit students, employers and mentors, match students with specific opportunities, and prepare students for success. Second, authors share outcomes from studies regarding participation in these work-based learning opportunities, which include increased employment success, motivation to work toward a career, knowledge about careers and the workplace, job-related skills, ability to work with supervisors and coworkers, skills in self-advocating for accommodations, and perceived career options.
Can organizations learn through participation in environmental assessment (EA)? This was the central research question of a study that explored the linkages among sustainable development, EA, public participation, and learning. To address this question, the research design involved a comparative case study of two concurrent but geographically separate projects, the Wuskwatim generation station and transmission lines projects (Wuskwatim projects), and the Snap Lake Diamonds Project (Snap Lake project). The Wuskwatim projects involve the construction of a low head dam and three 230 kV transmission line segments in Northern Manitoba, Canada. The Snap Lake Project involves the construction and operation of a diamond mine 220 km northwest of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, at the headwaters of the Lockhart River drainage system. The EAs of these proposed developments provided multiple opportunities for public (and organizational) involvement in the review, including comments on the scope of the assessment, information requests, and public hearings. Data collection included participant observation, semi-structured interviews with EA participants, and documentation generated through the course of the reviews. Data were organized using QSR Nvivo, a database software system. In this dissertation, three key contributions are made. The theoretical framework that draws together a number of separate but related fields of study---communicative action, discursive democracy, transformative learning, organizational learning---is the first contribution. The second is verification that organizations learn through participation in EA. Third, empirical support is presented far the assertion that transformative learning can address change beyond that experienced by the individual, to account for both policy-oriented and organizational learning. Related to the second contribution, results indicate that participants of EA engage in Teaming on multiple scales. Furthermore
Abrahamsen, Eileen P; Burke-Williams, Debra
Third and fifth grade children with and without learning disabilities participated in this study. Syntactically frozen and flexible idioms and transparent and opaque idioms were used as stimuli to examine the ability to identify the correct idiom and to explain idiom meanings. Grade and diagnostic category affected performance on the explanation task but not on the forced choice task. Idiom type was also a factor affecting comprehension and explanation. Literal responses occurred rarely and were more likely to occur on the forced choice task.
Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R
Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.
Koklanaris, Nikki; MacKenzie, Andrew P; Fino, M Elizabeth; Arslan, Alan A; Seubert, David E
Passive educational techniques (such as lectures) are thought to be less productive than active learning. We examined whether preparing for and participating in a debate would be an effective, active way to learn about a controversial topic. We compared quiz performance in residents who attended a lecture to residents who prepared for/participated in a debate. Twelve residents each participated in one lecture session and one debate session. Learning was evaluated via a quiz. Quizzes were given twice: before the debate/lecture and 1 week after the debate/lecture. Quiz scores were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance, with a p value of debating was given to all participants. There was a statistically significant difference in the pretest mean quiz score between the debate and lecture groups: 78.3% and 52.5%, respectively (p = .02). Similarly, on posttest quizzes, the average debater scored 85.8%, versus 61.7% for the lecture group (p = .003). Although no one in the debate group scored lower on a follow-up quiz, 3 residents in the lecture group did worse on follow-up. When learning about a controversial topic, residents who prepared for/participated in a debate achieved higher quiz scores and were better at retaining information than those who attended a lecture. When faced with teaching a controversial topic, organizing a debate may be more effective than giving a lecture.
As science instructors we are faced with two main barriers with respect to student learning. The first is motivating our students to attend class and the second is to make them active participants in the learning process once we have gotten them to class. As we head further into the internet age this problem only gets exacerbated as students have replaced newspapers with cell phones which can surf the web, check their emails, and play games. Quizzes can motivated the students to attend class but do not necessarily motivate them to pay attention. Active learning techniques work but we as instructors have been bombarded by the active learning message to the point that we either do it already or refuse to. I present another option which in my classroom has doubled the rate at which students learn my material. By using attendance worksheets instead of end of class quizzes I hold students accountable for not just their attendance but for when they show up and when they leave the class. In addition it makes the students an active participant in the class even without using active learning techniques as they are writing notes and answering the questions you have posed while the class is in progress. Therefore using attendance worksheets is an effective tool to use in order to guide student learning.
Martins, Anabela Correia
The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was approved by the World Health Assembly in 2001. Ten years later, strong arguments have arisen regarding the added value of ICF to the policies on employment and the outcomes at the workplace. As a conceptual framework, ICF has universality because of its inclusive and comprehensive view of human functioning. At a practical level ICF can be used to quantify the impact of impairment on an individual's ability to act in his/her environment and to assess interventions to minimize the impact of disability and maximize functioning. To explore key indicators of social participation (life habits) of persons with disabilities, particularly related to work, among environmental and personal factors. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires from a convenience sample of 149 working-age persons with disabilities. Social participation is a construct composed by multiple components and employment domain is the strongest indicator of participation. Correlations between social participation and personal factors, such as self-efficacy and attitudes towards disability were moderate. Those who are employed scored higher quality of life in terms of satisfaction with life, more positive attitudes toward disabilities and higher self-efficacy than the ones who are retired or unemployed. Persons using adapted wheelchair and those who were involved in wheelchair selection scored higher in social participation in general, performance at work, and quality of life. Age and disability duration were not associated with participants' employment status. These findings suggest that rehabilitation and vocational agents, like physiotherapists and other professionals, should have knowledge and understanding of the multiple factors that influence persons with disabilities' participation at work. Programs should provide appropriate wheelchairs, skills training, empowerment and problem-solving strategies in
Nwachukwu, Bethel C.
There has been a push towards the education of students with Learning Disabilities in inclusive educational settings with their non-disabled peers. Zigmond (2003) stated that it is not the placement of students with disabilities in general education setting alone that would guarantee their successes; instead, the strategies teachers use to ensure that these children are being engaged and learning will enable them become successful. Despite the fact that there are several bodies of research on effective teaching of students with learning disabilities, special education teachers continue to have difficulties concerning the appropriate strategies for promoting student engagement and improving learning for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive educational settings (Zigmond, 2003). This qualitative study interviewed and collected data from fifteen high performing special education teachers who were employed in a Southern state elementary school district to uncover the strategies they have found useful in their attempts to promote student engagement and attempts to improve student achievement for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive educational settings. The study uncovered strategies for promoting engagement and improving learning outcomes for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive classrooms. The findings showed that in order to actually reach the students with learning disabilities, special education teachers must go the extra miles by building rapport with the school communities, possess good classroom management skills, and become student advocates.
Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert
Twin studies comparing identical and fraternal twins consistently show substantial genetic influence on individual differences in learning abilities such as reading and mathematics, as well as in other cognitive abilities such as spatial ability and memory. Multivariate genetic research has shown that the same set of genes is largely responsible for genetic influence on these diverse cognitive areas. We call these "generalist genes." What differentiates these abilities is largely the environment, especially nonshared environments that make children growing up in the same family different from one another. These multivariate genetic findings of generalist genes and specialist environments have far-reaching implications for diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities and for understanding the brain mechanisms that mediate these effects.
Hwang, Ai-Wen; Yen, Chia-Feng; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Simeonsson, Rune J.; Chi, Wen-Chou; Lollar, Donald J.; Liao, Hua-Fang; Kang, Lin-Ju; Wu, Ting-Fang; Teng, Sue-Wen; Chiu, Wen-Ta
Background Independence and frequency are two distinct dimensions of participation in daily life. The gap between independence and frequency may reflect the role of the environment on participation, but this distinction has not been fully explored. Methods A total of 18,119 parents or primary caregivers of children with disabilities aged 6.0-17.9 years were interviewed in a cross-sectional nationwide survey with the Functioning Scale of the Disability Evaluation System - Child version (FUNDES-Child). A section consisting of 20 items measured the children’s daily participation in 4 environmental settings: home, neighborhood/community, school, and home/community. Higher independence and frequency restriction scores indicated greater limitation of participation in daily activities. Scores for independence, frequency and independence-frequency gaps were examined across ages along with trend analysis. ANOVA was used to compare the gaps across settings and diagnoses for children with mild levels of severity of impairment. Findings A negative independence-frequency gap (restriction of frequency was greater than that of independence) was found for children with mild to severe levels of impairment. A positive gap (restriction of independence was greater than that of frequency) was found for children with profound levels of severity. The gaps became wider with age in most settings of children with mild impairment and different diagnoses. Widest negative gaps were found for the neighborhood/community settings than for the other three settings for children with mild to severe impairment. Conclusions Children’s participation and independence-frequency gaps depend not only on the severity of their impairments or diagnoses, but also on their age, the setting and the support provided by their environment. In Taiwan, more frequency restrictions than ability restrictions were found for children with mild to moderate severity, especially in the neighborhood/community setting, and
Full Text Available BACKGROUND The paper deals with learning disabilities (LD of university students in the Czech Republic. The first part describes most common trends in professional care of students with LD in historical context, the second part analyses contemporary situation of support of students with LD during their university studies. Pivotal part of the text describes the situation at Faculty of Education, Charles University in Prague, from the perspective of state LD students, their difficulties and means of possible support. PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURE Qualitative analysis of functional diagnostics took place in the frame of evidence of 15 students with learning disabilities. Focal point of the functional diagnostics is a structured interview in which an identification of needed modification for studying with specific educational needs of students with LD takes place. RESULTS From our analyses it can be stated, that students with LD apply for registration basing on their experience with high school status of a student with SD, or that their decision is influenced by their current study problems or the fact that they went through a modified entrance exam. We have also discovered the fact, that except for the difficulties which result from the type and degree of the disability and which can be compensated by specific approaches, students also need an emotional and social support. Learning disability is not, however, perceived only as a disadvantage, many students have stated that it has motivated them in their further development. CONCLUSIONS Achieved results point to general specifics to the perceived difficulties, to the specifics of the concrete degrees and to the further personal (emotional, social characteristics of LD students and they support recommended modification for successful studies.
Full Text Available In considering the role that technology and e-learning can play in helping students access higher education and an effective learning experience, a large amount of the current research and practice literature focuses almost exclusively on accessibility legislation, guidelines and standards, and the rules contained within them (Abascal et al., 2004; Chisholm & Brewer, 2005; Gunderson & May, 2005; Paolucci, 2004; Reed et al., 2004; Slatin, 2005. One of the major problems of such an approach is that it has drawn higher education practitioners into thinking that their objective is to comply with rules. I argue that it is not (Seale, 2006. The objective should be to address the needs of students. The danger of only focusing on rules is that it can constrain thinking and therefore practice. We need to expand our thinking beyond that of how to comply with rules, towards how to meet the needs of students with disabilities, within the local contexts that students and practitioners are working. In thinking about how to meet the needs of students with disabilities, practitioners will need to develop their own tools. These tools might be user case studies, evaluation methodologies or conceptualizations:
Koutsoftas, Anthony D; Petersen, Victoria
Cohesion refers to the linguistic elements of discourse that contribute to its continuity and is an important element to consider as part of written language intervention, especially in children with language learning disabilities (LLD). There is substantial evidence that children with LLD perform more poorly than typically developing (TD) peers on measures of cohesion in spoken language and on written transcription measures; however, there is far less research comparing groups on cohesion as a measure of written language across genres. The current study addresses this gap through the following two aims. First, to describe and compare cohesion in narrative and expository writing samples of children with and without language learning disabilities. Second, to relate measures of cohesion to written transcription and translation measures, oral language, and writing quality. Fifty intermediate-grade children produced one narrative and one expository writing sample from which measures of written cohesion were obtained. These included the frequency, adequacy and complexity of referential and conjunctive ties. Expository samples resulted in more complex cohesive ties and children with TD used more complex ties than peers with LLD. Different relationships among cohesion measures and writing were observed for narrative verse expository samples. Findings from this study demonstrate cohesion as a discourse-level measure of written transcription and how the use of cohesion can vary by genre and group (LLD, TD). Clinical implications for assessment, intervention, and future research are provided. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Kennedy, Michael J; Deshler, Donald D; Lloyd, John Wills
The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.
Kasler, Jon; Fawcett, Angela
The Strengths and Weaknesses Academic Profile (SWAP) was constructed in Israel in response to the local need of career counselors for a valid, reliable, comprehensive, parsimonious, and computerized screening device for identifying those likely to be at risk of learning disabilities (LD). The method chosen was self-report. A set of cognitive items was written and divided into seven scales: reading, writing, attention and memory, computation, English as a foreign language (EFL), study skills, and self-image. The screening tool was validated on a research sample in Sheffield, UK, based on comparison of the results obtained from the screening with the results of standardized diagnosis of learning disabilities administered to the respondents. The questionnaire was administered to 39 students, half of them diagnosed for dyslexia and half tested and found to be free of dyslexia. Results indicate that SWAP is a reliable and valid questionnaire, with a classification power of approximately 90%. The questionnaire is now widely used in Israel, where an Internet site has been constructed to administer the questionnaire and provide immediate and direct results.
Wilhite, Barbara; Shank, John
Achieving and maintaining health are no less important to people with a disability than they are to anyone else; it is just typically more challenging. This report explores sport as a mechanism of health for people with a disability. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is used to frame the analysis and discussion of the narratives of 12 women and men with a disability who participate in sport. The goal was to describe how participating in sport, broadly defined, helps persons with a disability achieve and maintain health and health-related components of well-being. The ICF was used to frame a secondary analysis and discussion of participant narratives. Participants with physical or sensory disabilities responded to a request for participation in in-depth interviews to explore their sport participation; snowball sampling was used to ensure maximum variation in demographic characteristics. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. A secondary analysis was conducted that focused on the relationship of the data categories to the ICF. Sport benefits included enhanced functional capacity, health promotion, relationship development, increased optimism, and inclusion in meaningful life activities and roles. Health professionals were vital in introducing and encouraging people with disabilities to participate in sport. Sport is a valuable and promising mechanism for fostering physical and emotional health and building valuable social connections. Health professionals, in concert with individual, family, and community members, may use the framework of the ICF to guide their clinical and educational reasoning for enhancing sport participation among persons with a disability.
Holliday-Cashwell, Janet Rose
Selected K--12 public school science educators in 14 eastern North Carolina counties were surveyed to examine their perceptions of their undergraduate preparation programs with regard to instructing students with learning disabilities in the regular classroom. A quantitative study, this research examined science educator preparedness in instructing students with learning disabilities by evaluating educator perception in regard to mainstrearned and inclusive educational settings. Specifically, two null hypotheses were tested. Null hypothesis I stated a significant difference does not exist between selected North Carolina K--12 science educators' perceptions of their undergraduate teacher education preparation programs and their perceptions of their abilities to instruct students needing accommodations on behalf of their learning disabilities in mainstrearned or inclusive settings. Participants' responses to perception as well as value statements regarding opinions, adaptations, and undergraduate training with respect to mainstreaming and inclusion were evaluated through t-test analyses of 22 Likert-scale items. Null hypothesis 1 was not accepted because a statistically significant difference did exist between the educators' perceptions of their undergraduate training and their perceived abilities to instruct students with learning disabilities in mainstreamed or inclusive settings. Null hypothesis 2 stated a significant difference does not exist between selected North Carolina K--12 science educators' attained educational level; grade level currently taught, supervised or chaired; and years of experience in teaching science, supervising science education, and/or chairing science departments in selected North Carolina public schools and their opinions of their undergraduate teacher education program with regard to instructing students with learning disabilities in mainstreamed or inclusive educational settings. Null hypothesis 2 was evaluated through an analysis of
Mathias, Kaaren; Pant, Hira; Marella, Manjula; Singh, Lawrence; Murthy, Gvs; Grills, Nathan
This study used a population-based cross-sectional survey to describe the prevalence of psychosocial disability and unmet need for access to services in North India. This study was conducted in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, in 2014. A population-based sample of 2441 people over the age of 18 years. The Rapid Assessment of Disability survey tool identified people with disability and used an adapted version of the Kessler scale to identify those with psychosocial disability. It additionally collected information on socioeconomic variables, access to community services and barriers to participation. Prevalence of psychosocial disability and unmet needs and descriptions of barriers to services were calculated, and multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between risk factors and psychosocial disability. Prevalence of psychosocial disability was 4.8% and 75% of participants with psychological distress also reported comorbid functional impairments. Adjusted ORs for depression of more than two were found for people who were unschooled, unemployed and of moderate or poor socioeconomic status. The unmet need for access to services was significantly higher in every domain for people with psychosocial disability and was more than 25% in the areas of employment, health service access and community consultation. People with psychosocial disability encountered greater barriers in each domain compared with controls. People who are poor, uneducated and unemployed are two to four times more likely to have psychosocial disability in Dehradun district. They face unmet needs in accessing community services and perceive negative social attitudes, lack of physical accessibility and lack of information as barriers limiting their participation. Social policy must increase access to education and reduce poverty but additionally ensure action is taken in all community services to increase information, physical accessibility and social inclusion of people with
The neurocentric worldview that identifies the essence of the human being with the material brain has become a central paradigm in current academic discourse. Israeli researchers also seek to understand educational principles and processes via neuroscientific models. On this background, the article uncovers the central role that visual brain images play in the learning-disabilities field in Israel. It examines the place brain images have in the professional imagination of didactic-diagnosticians as well as their influence on the diagnosticians' clinical attitudes. It relies on two theoretical fields: sociology and anthropology of the body and sociology of neuromedical knowledge. The research consists of three methodologies: ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews, and rhetorical analysis of visual and verbal texts. It uncovers the various rhetorical and ideological functions of brain images in the field. It also charts the repertoire of rhetorical devices which are utilized to strengthen the neuroreducionist messages contained in the images.
Bonfiglioli Stagni, S; Tomba, P; Viganò, A; Zati, A; Benedetti, M G
The First World War produced a huge number of disabled soldiers. During the war, surgeons realized that it was not enough to merely treat the limbs of the wounded soldiers; it was also necessary to train them to use their remaining abilities to their greatest capacity. Governments at the same time realized that such a high number of veterans created a financial burden, by entitling disabled veterans to full healthcare, raising the issues of social welfare. Both in the US and Europe, programs of rehabilitation were instituted, providing injured soldiers with long-term medical care and vocational training aimed at restituting soldier's independence for a speedy return to work. In Italy at the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, one of the most renowned Hospitals for the treatment of orthopedic deformities, Putti set up a technologically advanced Orthopedic Workshop, and a Rehabilitation House. The so called "reconstruction programs" addressed all aspects of rehabilitation (including physiotherapy, curative workshops and vocational therapy), seeing disability in terms of function. The experience gained in the treatment of war victims markedly enriched rehabilitation techniques, but overall the First World War helped engender the concept of rehabilitative programs to assist disabled veterans reintegrate in the workplace, thus laying the foundations of the modern concept of participation at a social level. In the centenary of Italy's entry into the First World War, it is worth underlining just how much hindsight affords us a new perspective on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. It reminds us that rehabilitation is not merely the role of medicine, but forms part of a multifaceted approach involving societal roles and expectations, regardless of the psychological and physical impairments suffered by the individuals concerned.
The aim of the current study is to examine differences in social anxiety between learning disabled (LD) and non-learning disabled (non-LD) students, taking into account educational placement. The present research is the first to consider the above relations among Christian Arab adolescents living in Israel as an Eastern collectivist minority. On…
Davidson, Terence; Smith, Hilary; Burns, Jan
Researchers and clinicians have hypothesised that cognitive assessments have the power to influence the self-identity of people with learning disabilities. This research aimed to explore the experience of a sample of people who had been given a cognitive assessment by a psychologist based in a team for people with learning disabilities. Five…
Barrocas, Lisa; Cramer, Elizabeth D.
This study examined achievement gains in reading and math for Hispanic middle school students with specific learning disabilities in inclusive versus segregated settings in a large urban school district. The authors report learning gains for students with and without disabilities in inclusive versus segregated settings. Results indicate no…
Freides, David; And Others
Twelve 6 to 10 year old boys with learning disability were blindly compared with paired controls on measures of postural and equilibrium reflexes as well as skills. Learning disabled children as a group showed significant deficits on all measures; a few, however, were totally without deficit. (Author/SBH)
Williams, Donna Elizabeth
Preparation, Development, and Transition of Learning-Disabled Students for Workforce Success. Donna Elizabeth Williams, 2011: Applied Dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Abraham S. Fischler School of Education. ERIC Descriptors: Learning Disabilities, Community Based Instruction, Academic Advising, Career Counseling, Career Planning. This…
This qualitative study explored the views of three learning disability nurses, and three district nurses, caring for people with learning disabilities at the end of their lives. Although they saw some good practice, the nurses identified several difficulties associated with end of life care.
Rayner, Kelly; Wood, Harry; Beail, Nigel
Although the development of secure attachments has been shown to be more problematic for people with learning disabilities, there is a shortage of research into the attachment experience of people with learning disabilities who have broken the law. The present study used thematic analysis to explore the attachment experiences of 10 men with…
Galli, Manuela; Vimercati, Sara Laura; Stella, Giacomo; Caiazzo, Giorgia; Norveti, Federica; Onnis, Francesca; Rigoldi, Chiara; Albertini, Giorgio
A new method for a quantitative and objective description of drawing and for the quantification of drawing ability in children with learning disabilities (LD) is hereby presented. Twenty-four normally developing children (N) (age 10.6 [plus or minus] 0.5) and 18 children with learning disabilities (LD) (age 10.3 [plus or minus] 2.4) took part to…
Scholz, Markus; Niesch, Harald; Steffen, Olaf; Ernst, Baerbel; Loeffler, Markus; Witruk, Evelin; Schwarz, Hans
The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefit of chess in mathematics lessons for children with learning disabilities based on lower intelligence (IQ 70-85). School classes of four German schools for children with learning disabilities were randomly assigned to receive one hour of chess lesson instead of one hour of regular mathematics lessons…
Johnson, Clair; Viljoen, Nina
Background: Systemic approaches can be useful in working with people with learning disabilities and their network. The evidence base for these approaches within the field of learning disabilities, however, is currently limited. Materials and Methods: This article presents part of a service evaluation of systemic consultations in a Community…
Margalit, Malka; Almougy, Katrina
Questioning of teachers and mothers of 84 Israeli students (ages 7-10) classified as either hyperactive, learning disabled, both, or neither, found higher distractibility and hostility among hyperactive children whose families were also reported as less supportive. Learning-disabled students were characterized by dependent interpersonal relations…
Mealor, David J.; Abrams, Pamela F.
Profile analysis was performed on Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) scores of 29 learning disabled students (6-10 years old) in a Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) program, to determine whether subtest patterns for initial and re-evaluation WISC-R administrations would differ significantly. Profile analysis was applied…
This qualitative study aimed to add to the research on the self-concept of adults with mild learning disabilities and to generate a deeper understanding of their self-perceptions rather than draw generalised quantitative conclusions. Eight adults diagnosed with mild learning disabilities receiving support from a supported living project were…
Luna, Alberto D.
Given the paucity of research on factors associated with motivation in learning disabled college students, the present study investigated the motivation levels in college students with learning disabilities. The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) has been validated cross-nationally and across all educational age groups of students having various…
Brooks, Sharon; Paterson, Gail
This article describes a project about using contact work with people with learning disabilities and autistic spectrum disorder. People with learning disabilities and additional autistic spectrum disorder are at risk of becoming socially isolated because of their difficulties in interacting with others. Contact work is a form of Pre-Therapy, which…
Schmitz, Suzanne J.
Although Sir William Blackstone would not have known if he had been lecturing to students with learning disabilities, today's law professors are. Law schools are legally required to accommodate students with learning disabilities unless the requested accommodation would alter the fundamental nature of the program. Courts give great deference to…
McManus, Dean; Dryer, Rachel; Henning, Marcus
Online education is widely regarded as increasing accessibility to higher education to individuals with disadvantage and disability, including those with a mental health disability. However, the learning challenges these students experience within the online learning environment are not well understood. The purpose of this qualitative case study…
Tarver, Sara G.; Ellsworth, Patricia S.
To test the hypothesis that the developmental lag in verbal rehearsal which has been documented for the learning disabled is due to a naming speed deficit (i.e., slow retrieval of stimulus names), the serial recall performance of 64 learning disabled children at four grade levels (1, 3, 5, and 7) was compared under three stimulus presentation…
Beckmann, Else; Minnaert, Alexander
Gifted students who also have learning disabilities (G/LD) are often overlooked when students are assessed either for giftedness or specific learning disabilities. The cognitive and non-cognitive characteristics of these G/LD students are habitually discussed only briefly alongside identification
Williams, Janet K.; And Others
Thirteen females with Turner syndrome, 13 females with nonverbal learning disabilities, and 14 males with nonverbal learning disabilities, ages 7-14, were taught via a cognitive behavioral modification approach to verbally mediate a spatial matching task. All three groups showed significant task improvement after the training, with no significant…
Smith, Donald E. P.; And Others
Repeated impedance measures were given over five weeks to 11 autistic, 20 learning-disabled, and 20 normal children. A repeated measures analysis of variance led to the conclusion that fluctuating, negative middle ear pressure greater than normal characterizes both autistic and learning-disabled children with the more abnormal pressures typical in…
Kitchens, Vivian D.
Students with learning disabilities score lower than other at-risk groups on state standardized assessment tests. Educators are searching for intervention strategies to improve math achievement for students with learning disabilities. Using the theoretical framework of behaviorism, the purpose of this quantitative one group pre post test design…
According to the 23rd Annual Report to Congress, U.S. Department of Education, one out of every five people in the United States has a learning disability (LD). The dropout rate among these students is high, and students with learning disabilities are also less likely to attend 4-year colleges and universities. Although a majority of students with…
Jabareen-Taha, Samaher; Taha, Haitham
This article seeks to identify and review the basic characteristics of learning disability which are specifically mentioned in the literature. In addition, the article intends to conduct a brief analysis on learning disability policy in Israel and the differentiation problems at the level of awareness among the Arab society in Israel. Despite the…
This article considers the aesthetics of applied performance with people with learning disabilities. Focusing on the integrated punk band Heavy Load, it explores how the aesthetic structure reconstructs notions of learning disability and intervenes in its social experience. It argues that this is facilitated through the punk form which positions…
Feurer, D. Paige; Andrews, Jac J. W.
This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. A total of 87 students (38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled) from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported…
People with learning disabilities have talents and skills, but rarely do they get the chance to start their own business. In Business was designed to challenge this and to make self employment a realistic option for some by setting out to support and capture the journey to business for people with a learning disability and those who support them.…
Roberts, Helen; Ingold, Anne; Liabo, Kristin; Manzotti, Grazia; Reeves, David; Bradby, Hannah
Background: Young people with learning disabilities are frequently underrepresented in research accounts. This study describes the experiences of young people moving from the care system. Methods: We scoped the English and Swedish literature for first-hand accounts and interviewed four young people with learning disabilities leaving the English…
Peter Thomas Sandy
Conclusion: Observation is a useful practice in in-patient learning disability services, which can be used to prevent or reduce the incidence of self-harm in these settings. This approach should therefore be an integral part of nurses' daily therapeutic activities in in-patient learning disability services.
Pickar, Daniel B.; Tori, Christopher D.
Using a developmental perspective, this study contrasted learning and nonlearning disabled adolescents on three variables: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; self-concept; and delinquent behavior. The results indicated that the learning disabled subjects, due to years of failing, were unable to develop a sense of industry and…
Cowdrey, Felicity A.; Walz, Linda
The evidence-base for exposure therapy in people with learning disabilities experiencing specific phobias is sparse. This case study describes the assessment, formulation and treatment of spider phobia in a woman with learning disabilities using an exposure-based intervention augmented with mindfulness practice and bereavement work. To evaluate…
Poch, Apryl L.
Anniversaries offer a time for reflection, celebration, validation, and sometimes, simply a candid conversation on the current state of a field. In the field of learning disabilities, anniversaries offer a time to consider how far the field has come and just how far is left to go to understand what a learning disability is. Definitional…
Connor, David J.; Cavendish, Wendy
In this closing commentary to the special edition of "Learning Disability Quarterly" ("LDQ") on parent voice in educational decision making for students with learning disabilities, we briefly survey main topics from each article, illuminating important findings from the authors, along with several questions they raise, and…
Holly, Deirdre; Sharp, John
People with learning disabilities are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Research suggests this may be due to inequalities in health status and inequities in the way health services respond to need. Little is known about the most effective way to improve health outcomes for people with learning disabilities. A previously developed…
Newberry, Gayle; Martin, Carol; Robbins, Lorna
Background: Not enough is currently known about how people with learning disabilities experience and understand the ageing process. This is particularly important as the population of older people with learning disabilities is growing due to increased life expectancy. This article draws on the first author's doctoral research study, which aimed to…
Lees, Carolyn; Poole, Helen; Brennan, Michelle; Irvine, Fiona
Background: The government alongside other health and social care organisation have identified the need to improve the care provided for people with learning disabilities. Materials and Methods: This service evaluation aimed to explore the experiences of people with learning disabilities and their carers who accessed community dental services…
Murders, Michael R.
The body of research concerning college students with learning disabilities is sparse relative to the percentage of college students with learning disabilities who attend college. Further, the majority of existing research fails to capture the student voice and the lived experiences of the students themselves. The purpose of this study was to…
Witsø, Aud Elisabeth; Kittelsaa, Anna M.
Background: Living active adult lives is both a value and a right, but the right to do so is associated with restrictions among adults with learning disabilities. This research aimed to capture professionals' understanding and perception of active adult living for people with learning disabilities living in clustered housing in a Norwegian…
Weis, Robert; Erickson, Celeste P.; Till, Christina H.
Adolescents with learning disabilities disproportionately come from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds, show normative deficits in academic skills, and attend 2-year, public colleges instead of 4-year institutions. However, students with learning disabilities are well represented at the United States' most expensive and selective postsecondary…
Beckmann, Else; Minnaert, Alexander
Gifted students who also have learning disabilities (G/LD) are often overlooked when students are assessed either for giftedness or specific learning disabilities. The cognitive and non-cognitive characteristics of these G/LD students are habitually discussed only briefly alongside identification
Head, Annabel; Ellis-Caird, Helen; Rhodes, Louisa; Parkinson, Kathie
Background: People with learning disabilities are moving out of hospitals as part of the Transforming Care programme, although thus far their views on how they have experienced this have not been researched. Materials and Methods: A qualitative design was used to explore how people with learning disabilities experienced moving as part of…
Students with learning disabilities are suspended at disproportionate rates in schools. Although research has shown the ineffectiveness of suspension as a disciplinary tool, school administrators continue to use it to combat behavior infractions. This column presents a review of the literature on suspension for students with learning disabilities,…
Miller, Daniel C.; Maricle, Denise E.; Jones, Alicia M.
Processing Strengths and Weaknesses (PSW) models have been proposed as a method for identifying specific learning disabilities. Three PSW models were examined for their ability to predict expert identified specific learning disabilities cases. The Dual Discrepancy/Consistency Model (DD/C; Flanagan, Ortiz, & Alfonso, 2013) as operationalized by…
Nind, Melanie; Chapman, Rohhss; Seale, Jane; Tilley, Liz
Background: This study explores the training involved when people with learning disabilities take their place in the community as researchers. This was a theme in a recent UK seminar series where a network of researchers explored pushing the boundaries of participatory research. Method: Academics, researchers with learning disabilities, supporters…
Carey, Eileen; Griffiths, Colin
This paper reflects the impact of policy and legislation in the context of how adults with learning disabilities make choices. Following an overview of policies which have improved choice for people with learning disability in the United Kingdom, this paper reviews "choice" in current Irish policy and legislation. This paper, while…
Redley, Marcus; Banks, Carys; Foody, Karen; Holland, Anthony
Healthcare for men and women with learning disabilities (known internationally as intellectual disabilities) has risen up the political agenda in the United Kingdom, propelled by a report from the charity Mencap. This report has resulted in renewed efforts, set out in "Valuing People Now", to ensure that people with learning disabilities…
Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy
Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD…
Terrazas-Arellanes, Fatima E.; Gallard M., Alejandro J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Walden, Emily D.
The purpose of this study was to document the design, classroom implementation, and effectiveness of interactive online units to enhance science learning over 3 years among students with learning disabilities, English learners, and general education students. Results of a randomised controlled trial with 2,303 middle school students and 71 teachers across 13 schools in two states indicated that online units effectively deepened science knowledge across all three student groups. Comparing all treatment and control students on pretest-to-posttest improvement on standards-based content-specific assessments, there were statistically significant mean differences (17% improvement treatment vs. 6% control; p English learner status, indicating that these two groups performed similarly to their peers; students with learning disabilities had significantly lower assessment scores overall. Teachers and students were moderately satisfied with the units.
Gaudioso, Jennifer A.
Perceptions of School Principals on Participation in Professional Learning Communities as Job-Embedded Learning Jennifer Gaudioso Principal Professional Learning Communities (PPLCs) have emerged as a vehicle for professional development of principals, but there is little research on how principals experience PPLCs or how districts can support…
Berry, Ruth; Firth, Graham; Leeming, Catherine; Sharma, Vishal
Intensive Interaction was initially developed in the 1980s as an educational approach for developing social communication and engagement with people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities and/or autism. Intensive Interaction has subsequently been adopted by a range of practitioners and professionals working in learning disability services and has a broad multi-disciplinary acceptance, being recommended in a number of UK governmental guidance documents. Despite this, there has been limited work on developing a deeper psychological understanding of the approach. This study utilises a qualitative description/thematic analysis approach to explore how clinical psychologists conceptualise the approach with regard to currently accepted psychological theories, as well as looking at other factors that influence their adoption and advocacy. The sample deliberately consisted of eight NHS (National Health Service) clinical psychologists known to be using or advocating the use of Intensive Interaction with people with a learning disability. The results of this study indicate that although the participants referred to some theories that might explain the beneficial outcomes of Intensive Interaction, these theories were rarely explicitly or clearly referenced, resulting in the authors having to attribute specific theoretical positions on the basis of inductive analysis of the participants' responses. Moreover, the participants provided varying views on how Intensive Interaction might be conceptualised, highlighting the lack of a generally accepted, psychologically framed definition of the approach. In conclusion, it was felt that further research is required to develop a specifically psychological understanding of Intensive Interaction alongside the formation of a Special Interest Group, which might have this task as one of its aims. There appeared to be a limited recognition amongst the participants of the specific psychological theories that can be seen to explain
Parental involvement is a crucial force in children’s development, learning and success at school and in life . Participation, defined by the World Health Organization as ‘a person’s involvement in life situations’  for children means involvement in everyday activities, such as recreational,
Full Text Available The perceived contribution of science education online course to pre-service students (N=121 from diverse backgrounds - students with learning disabilities (25 LD students, 28 excellent students and 68 average students is presented in this five years research. During the online course students were asked to choose a scientific subject; to map it and to plan teaching activities; to carry out the proposed activities with students in a classroom experience; and to reflect the process. The assumption was that adapting the online course by using information and communication technology following formative assessment will improve students' self-learning ability as well as broaden their science knowledge, their lab performance and teaching skills. Data were collected using quantitative and qualitative tools including: pre and post questionnaires and nine (three students from each group depth interviews upon completion of the course. Findings, based on students` perceived evaluation, pinpointed on the advantages of the online course for students of the three groups. LD students’ achievements were not inferior to those of their peers, excellent students and average students. Yet, it carefully reports on a slight but explicitly marginal perceived evaluation of the LD students in comparison to excellent students and average students regarding: forum participation, authentic task and water lab performance. The article discusses the affordance of the online course via additional features that can be grouped into two categories: knowledge construction and flexibility in time, interaction and knowledge. Further research is suggested to extend the current study by examine the effect of other courses and different contents and by considering various evaluation methods of online courses, such as: observation, the think aloud, text and tasks analysis, and reflection.
Esmail, Alida; Poncet, Frédérique; Rochette, Annie; Auger, Claudine; Billebaud, Christophe; de Guise, Élaine; Ducharme, Isabelle; Kehayia, Eva; Labbé, Delphine; Dahan-Oliel, Noémi; Lessard, Isabelle; Vermeersch, Olivier; Swaine, Bonnie
Clothing is an important aspect of nearly all human societies from performing social and cultural functions to indicating social status, a form of protection and a way for self-expression. It can help or hinder the ability to fulfil everyday activities and social roles and with the rising industry of wearable technologies, smart textiles are adding health-monitoring functions to clothing. The influence that clothing can have on the life of someone with a physical disability is significant, and further research is needed to understand it better. To achieve this, a scoping review will be performed with the aim of understanding the role of clothing in participation (ie, at home, in the community, etc) of individuals with a physical disability. This article presents the protocol and procedure to be adopted. An in-depth iterative analysis of the scientific literature from six databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO and ERIC) as well as a hand search of grey literature and reference lists will be performed. After an abstract and full-text review of references by three reviewers independently, data from the selected articles will be tabulated and synthesised with a qualitative and quantitative approach using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a unifying conceptual framework. A multidisciplinary consultation group of experts from various stakeholder groups will be involved in multiple steps to ensure validation and relevance of the data. As this is a review involving analysis of data available in the public domain and does not involve human participants, ethical approval was not required. Results will be presented in a co-constructed format with the expert consultation group to ensure validity and maximise its practicality moving forward. Our dissemination plan includes peer-reviewed publications, presentations and stakeholder meetings. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the
Theobald, Roddy J; Goldhaber, Dan D; Gratz, Trevor M; Holden, Kristian L
We used longitudinal data from Washington State to investigate the relationships among career and technical education (CTE) enrollment, inclusion in general education, and high school and postsecondary outcomes for students with learning disabilities. We replicated earlier findings that students with learning disabilities who were enrolled in a "concentration" of CTE courses had higher rates of employment after graduation than observably similar students with learning disabilities who were enrolled in fewer CTE courses. We also found that students with learning disabilities who spent more time in general education classrooms in high school had higher rates of on-time graduation, college attendance, and employment than observably similar students with learning disabilities who spent less time in general education classrooms in these grades.
People with learning disabilities are often marginalised in healthcare, including in hospice settings, and as a result may not receive effective end of life care. Research in hospice settings has identified that many staff lack confidence, skills and knowledge in caring for people with learning disabilities, which can have a negative effect on the care these individuals receive. To address these issues, the author has proposed a service improvement initiative, which she developed as part of her learning disability nursing degree programme. This proposed initiative aimed to enhance end of life care for people with learning disabilities through the implementation of a community learning disability link nurse in the hospice setting. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Narimoto, Tadamasa; Matsuura, Naomi; Takezawa, Tomohiro; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Hiratani, Michio
The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a problem in the encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item was changed or all items including the target were in the same position. The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short-term memory.
Rice, Travis A.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the disability support service (DSS) office designs at three varying U.S. postsecondary institutions and their relationship to the experiences of students with a learning disability. The three postsecondary institutions represent a community college, a medium sized university and a large research university all-residing in a single bellwether state. Selection of the cases and postsecondary institutions was carefully done in order to investig...
Saaltink, R.; MacKinnon, G.; Owen, F.; Tardif-Williams, C.
Background: Research suggests that persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) are expected to be more compliant than persons without disabilities and that expectations for compliance begin in childhood. No study, however, seems yet to have included a primary focus on the participatory rights, or rights to express opinions, desires and preferences…
Jordan, Brian T; Martin, Nancy; Austin, J Sue
The purpose of this research was to establish new norms for the Jordan-3 for children ages 5 to 18 years. The research also investigated the frequency of visual reversals in children previously identified as having reading disability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and broader learning disabilities. Participants were regular education students, ages 5 through 18 years, and special education students previously diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, reading disability, or broader learning disability. Jordan-3 Accuracy and Error raw scores were compared to assess if there was a significant difference between the two groups. Mean Accuracy and Error scores were compared for males and females. Children with learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder had higher reversals when compared to regular education children, which lends continued support to the Jordan-3 as a valid and reliable measure of visual reversals in children and adolescents. This study illustrates the utility of the Jordan-3 when assessing children who may require remediation to reach their academic potential.
Full Text Available Target: With advances in cognitive neuroscience and the developing connection between neuroscience and education in recent years, new windows has been opened in the realm of teaching and learning for the education experts. So education has vastly benefited from the results of researches in neuroscience to improve learning. The study strived to investigate the effectiveness of “brain based teaching” on the executive functions of the students with mathematics learning disability in Isfahan city. Method: To this end, three students with mathematical learning disability were selected using purposeful sampling. In this investing used a single subject with A-B design. Intervention was started after determining the base-line. The “brain based teaching” package was taught to each single participant for 26 intervention sessions. And 1 month after the intervention period follow-up test was performed. The instruments used, included, Raven intelligence test, The Iran key math diagnostic arithmetic and Conner’s questionnaire neuropsychological. The gathered data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and visual analysis. Results: Based on that, Results revealed that during the visual analysis of data graphs for executive function deficits, the study intervention was significantly effective for all 3 participants. Conclusions: This study showed that brain based teaching improves the executive functions of the students and thus, could be used in educating children with learning disabilities.
de la Torre-Luque, Alejandro; Valero-Aguayo, Luis; de la Rubia-Cuestas, Ernesto J.
This study aims to test how an intervention based on virtual reality (VR) may enhance visuospatial skills amongst people with disability. A quasi-experimental intra-group study was therefore conducted. Participants were 20 people with severe disability (65% males; 34.35 years, on average, and 84.95% of disability rate according to the Andalusian…
Thurston, Linda P.; Shuman, Cindy; Middendorf, B. Jan; Johnson, Cassandra
The Research in Disabilities Education Synthesis Project (RDE-SP), a four-year mixed methods research project, assessed a decade of funded projects (2001-2011) under the National Science Foundation's Research in Disabilities Education program which is aimed at increasing participation and retention of students with disabilities (SWD) in Science,…
Liebel, Spencer W; Nelson, Jason M
We investigated the auditory and visual working memory functioning in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, and clinical controls. We examined the role attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subtype status played in working memory functioning. The unique influence that both domains of working memory have on reading and math abilities was investigated. A sample of 268 individuals seeking postsecondary education comprise four groups of the present study: 110 had an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis only, 72 had a learning disability diagnosis only, 35 had comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disability diagnoses, and 60 individuals without either of these disorders comprise a clinical control group. Participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, and licensed psychologists employed a multi-informant, multi-method approach in obtaining diagnoses. In the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder only group, there was no difference between auditory and visual working memory functioning, t(100) = -1.57, p = .12. In the learning disability group, however, auditory working memory functioning was significantly weaker compared with visual working memory, t(71) = -6.19, p attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder only group, there were no auditory or visual working memory functioning differences between participants with either a predominantly inattentive type or a combined type diagnosis. Visual working memory did not incrementally contribute to the prediction of academic achievement skills. Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder did not demonstrate significant working memory differences compared with clinical controls. Individuals with a learning disability demonstrated weaker auditory working memory than individuals in either the attention-deficit/hyperactivity or clinical control groups. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University
Heyn, Patricia C; Baumgardner, Chad A; McLachlan, Leslie; Bodine, Cathy
The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effectiveness of a mixed-reality (MR) exercise environment on engagement and enjoyment levels of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Six people participated in this cross-sectional, observational pilot study involving one MR exercise trial. The augmented reality environment was based on a first-person perspective video of a scenic biking/walking trail in Colorado. Males and females (mean age, 43.3 ± 13.7 years) were recruited from a research database for their participation in previous clinical studies. Of the 6 participants, 2 had SCI, 2 had IDD, and 2 were without disability. The primary outcome measurement of this pilot study was the self-reported engagement and enjoyment level of each participant after the exercise trial. All participants reported increased levels of engagement, enjoyment, and immersion involving the MR exercise environment as well as positive feedback recommending this type of exercise approach to peers with similar disabilities. All the participants reported higher than normal levels of enjoyment and 66.7% reported higher than normal levels of being on a real trail. Participants' feedback suggested that the MR environment could be entertaining, motivating, and engaging for users with disabilities, resulting in a foundation for further development of this technology for use in individuals with cognitive and physical disabilities.
Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.
Three cohorts of third-grade students (N = 813) were evaluated on achievement, cognitive abilities, and behavioral attention according to contrasting research traditions in defining math learning disability (LD) status: low achievement versus extremely low achievement and IQ-achievement discrepant versus strictly low-achieving LD. We use methods from these two traditions to form math problem solving LD groups. To evaluate group differences, we used MANOVA-based profile and canonical analyses to control for relations among the outcomes and regression to control for group definition variables. Results suggest that basic arithmetic is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates low-achieving problem solvers (including LD, regardless of definition) from typically achieving students. Word problem solving is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates IQ-achievement-discrepant from strictly low-achieving LD students, favoring the IQ-achievement-discrepant students. PMID:24939971
The increasing life expectancy of people with learning disabilities makes it imperative that families plan for the future. The number of people with learning disabilities over the age of 65 is predicted to double over the next two decades. The greatest increase in life expectancy will be amongst people with mild learning disabilities who will have…
A person-oriented approach was used to examine the role of parenting in the associations between single learning disabilities and multiple learning disabilities and the adjustment difficulties in 8-11-year-olds. The results revealed that multiple, but not single, learning disabilities were associated with greater difficulties in emotional and…
Interstate Research Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.
This fact sheet providing general information about learning disabilities is presented in both English and Spanish versions. It begins with the federal definition of learning disabilities and a discussion of its implications followed by estimates of incidence. Typical characteristics of students with learning disabilities are then summarized as…
Britz, R.; Bester, M. J.; da Silva, A.; Motsoane, N. A.; Marx, J.; Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.
The use of pharmaceutical products such as Piracetam (Nootropil[R]) for the treatment of learning disabilities is becoming increasingly prevalent, and some studies have shown successful treatment of learning disabilities in children. This research article will discuss traditional uses of Piracetam, as well as uses in learning disabilities, with…
Pilling, Rachel F.
Equality of access to health care for adults with learning disability has been in the spotlight in the UK in recent years due to publication of several reports. Adults with learning disability are thought to account for a significant proportion of the diabetic population in the UK. A list of adults known to the learning disability health…
Full Text Available Intercultural education seeks to create a forum for integrating Western scientific knowledge and indigenous knowledge to address local and global challenges such as biocultural diversity conservation, natural resource management, and social justice for indigenous peoples. Intercultural education is based on learning together with, rather than learning about or from, indigenous communities. In the best examples, problem-based learning dissolves the dichotomy between indigenous and nonindigenous, resulting in full partnerships in which participants share expertise to meet mutual needs. With reference to literature and two illustrative examples of intercultural education initiatives in Mexico and Tanzania, we present an original conceptual framework for assessing indigenous participation in intercultural education. This incorporates a new ladder of participation depth (in relation to both curriculum content and decision making alongside separate considerations of breadth, i.e., stakeholder diversity, and scope, i.e., the number of key project stages in which certain stakeholder groups are participating. The framework can be used to compare intercultural education initiatives in differing contexts and might be adaptable to other intercultural work.
Geary, David C
Children's quantitative competencies upon entry into school can have lifelong consequences. Children who start behind generally stay behind, and mathematical skills at school completion influence employment prospects and wages in adulthood. I review the current debate over whether early quantitative learning is supported by (a) an inherent system for representing approximate magnitudes, (b) an attentional-control system that enables explicit processing of quantitative symbols, such as Arabic numerals, or (c) the logical problem-solving abilities that facilitate learning of the relations among numerals. Studies of children with mathematical learning disabilities and difficulties have suggested that each of these competencies may be involved, but to different degrees and at different points in the learning process. Clarifying how and when these competencies facilitate early quantitative learning and developing interventions to address their impact on children have the potential to yield substantial benefits for individuals and for society.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether children with learning disabilities present any impairment in the components of motor development. Thirty children (21 boys and 9 girls, aged 8 to 10 years, with learning difficulties in school were studied. The Motor Development Scale was used to evaluate the development of the children in terms of fine motor control, gross motor control, balance, body scheme, spatial organization, and temporal organization. A deficit in the development of the body scheme component was observed for all three age groups, as well as a delayed motor development in terms of balance and gross motor control. No significant differences in general motor age were observed between (age groups. In conclusion, the children studied, especially older ones, presented motor deficits in most of the components evaluated. The inclusion of tasks that assist in the development of motor components, in addition to regular school tasks, is recommended to improve the process of learning in these children..
Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1 is a genetic condition generally associated with intellectual deficiency and learning disabilities. Although there have been groundbreaking advances in the understanding of the molecular, cellular, and neural systems underlying learning deficits associated to NF1 in animal models, much remains to be learned about the spectrum of neurocognitive phenotype associated with the NF1 clinical syndrome. In the present study, 32 children with NF1 ranging from 7 to 14 years were evaluated with neurocognitive tests dedicated to assess basic capacities which are involved in reading and mathematical achievement. Deficits in lexical and phonological strategies and poor number facts retrieval were found underlying reading and arithmetic disorders, respectively. Additionally, efficiencies in lexical/phonological strategies and mental arithmetic were significant predictors of individual differences in reading attainment and math. However, deficits in core numeric capacities were not found in the sample, suggesting that it is not responsible for calculation dysfluency. The estimated prevalence of Developmental Dyscalculia was 18.8%, and the male:female ratio was 5:1. On the other hand, the prevalence of Developmental Dyslexia was almost 3 times as high (50%, and no gender differences were found (male:female ratio=1:1. This study offers new evidence to the neurocognitive phenotype of NF1 contributing to an in depth understanding of this condition, but also to possible treatments for the cognitive deficits associated with NF1.
The publication of the DSM-5 means changes in the classification and recommendations for diagnosis of specific learning disabilities. Dyslexia and dyscalculia have been reintroduced into the DSM. Three specific learning disorders - impairment in reading, impairment in the written expression, and impairment in mathematics, described by subskills - are now part of the DSM-5. Three subcomponents of the reading disorder are expressly differentiated: word reading accuracy, reading rate, and fluency and reading comprehension. Impaired subskills of the specific learning disorder with impairment in written expression are spelling accuracy, grammar and punctuation accuracy, and clarity and organization of written expression. Four subskills are found in the mathematics disorder: number sense, memorization of arithmetic facts, accurate or fluent calculation, and accurate math reasoning. Each impaired academic domain and subskill should be recorded. A description of the severity degree was also included. The diagnosis is based on a variety of methods, including medical history, clinical interview, school report, teacher evaluation, rating scales, and psychometric tests. The IQ discrepancy criterion was abandoned, though that of age or class discrepancy criterion was retained. The application of a discrepancy is recommended by 1 to 2.5 SD. All three specific developmental disorders are common (prevalence 5 %-15 %), occur early during the first years of formal schooling, and persist into adulthood.
Marsden, Daniel; Giles, Rachel
Background People with learning disabilities experience significant inequalities in accessing healthcare. Legal frameworks, such as the Equality Act 2010, are intended to reduce such disparities in care, and require organisations to make 'reasonable adjustments' for people with disabilities, including learning disabilities. However, reasonable adjustments are often not clearly defined or adequately implemented in clinical practice. Aim To examine and synthesise the challenges in caring for people with learning disabilities to develop a framework for making reasonable adjustments for people with learning disabilities in hospital. This framework would assist ward staff in identifying and managing the challenges of delivering person-centred, safe and effective healthcare to people with learning disabilities in this setting. Method Fourth-generation evaluation, collaborative thematic analysis, reflection and a secondary analysis were used to develop a framework for making reasonable adjustments in the hospital setting. The authors attended ward manager and matron group meetings to collect their claims, concerns and issues, then conducted a collaborative thematic analysis with the group members to identify the main themes. Findings Four main themes were identified from the ward manager and matron group meetings: communication, choice-making, collaboration and coordination. These were used to develop the 4C framework for making reasonable adjustments for people with learning disabilities in hospital. Discussion The 4C framework has provided a basis for delivering person-centred care for people with learning disabilities. It has been used to inform training needs analyses, develop audit tools to review delivery of care that is adjusted appropriately to the individual patient; and to develop competencies for learning disability champions. The most significant benefit of the 4C framework has been in helping to evaluate and resolve practice-based scenarios. Conclusion Use of