This paper presents a case study of using blended learning to enhance students' language skills and learner autonomy in an Asian university environment. Blended learning represents an educational environment for much of the world where computers and the Internet are readily available. It combines self-study with valuable face-to-face interaction…
It has long been the assumption of many in the field of second language teaching that learning a second language helps to promote and enhance native language skill development, and that this correlation is direct and positive. Language professionals have assumed that learning a second language directly supports the development of better skills,…
The aim of this essay to draw an outline of the effect of various types of intelligence, paying particular attention to the concept of so called "Emotional Intelligence" with a language teacher's perspective. Throughout the essay it is aimed to create an awareness of different intelligence capacity of each individual learner in an ideal language teaching environment. While doing this literature on the area has been scanned and case studies have been performed on learners of various cultu...
Goldberg, Michelle; Corson, David
Many immigrants, refugees, and aboriginal Canadians learn their own languages in the normal, informal way. These minority languages learned informally are not valued as a skill that yields returns in the labor market in the same way the official languages or formally learned languages do. What counts as a skill in a society, in a given point in…
Shawer, Saad Fathy
This article examines the differences in language learning strategies (LLS) use between preservice teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and Arabic as a second language (ASL). It also examines the relationship between LLS use and language performance (academic achievement and four language skills) among ASL students. The study made use…
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the contribution of foreign language learning to stimulating students’ life skills at non-linguistic higher institutions. In the article, the author considers the possibilities of motivating students to exercise life skills in the process of foreign language instruction. The author analyses the cooperative learning technology as a means that enables students to be involved into interaction with one another as well as it develops their team-building skills to successfully cooperate and communicate with each other. The author describes different forms of cooperative leaning, which give students an opportunity to mutually enrich and complement each other’s skills in foreign language learning. The author argues that cooperative learning technology stimulates the students’ existent life skills and makes them work in the process of professionally-biased instruction of a foreign language.
Anderson, Alida; Berry, Katherine A.
This study examined the influence of tableau on the expressive language skills of three students with language-based learning disabilities in inclusive urban fourth-grade English language arts (ELA) classroom settings. Data were collected on linguistic productivity, specificity, and narrative cohesion through analysis of students' responses to…
Artini, Luh Putu
This research aimed at developing rich language learning environment to help elementary school students develop their literacy skills in English. Shortage of professional English teachers in primary school, limited time allocation, as well as the lack of tools and facilities that support English language teaching and learning for young learners had resulted in students’low literacy skills in English. It was tried out in six primary schools across Bali involving 12 teachers and 520 students. T...
Chater, Nick; McCauley, Stewart M.; Christiansen, M. H.
occurs on-line. These properties are difficult to reconcile with the 'abstract knowledge' viewpoint, and crucially suggest that language comprehension and production are facets of a unitary skill. This viewpoint is exemplified in the Chunk-Based Learner, a computational acquisition model that processes...... incrementally and learns on-line. The model both parses and produces language; and implements the idea that language acquisition is nothing more than learning to process. We suggest that the Now-or-Never bottleneck also provides a strong motivation for unified perception-production models in other domains......Are comprehension and production a single, integrated skill, or are they separate processes drawing on a shared abstract knowledge of language? We argue that a fundamental constraint on memory, the Now-or-Never bottleneck, implies that language processing is incremental and that language learning...
Abdelhalim, Safaa M.
This study examines the effectiveness of a proposed English language program based on integrating two forms of children literature, mainly short stories and songs, in developing the needed life skills and language learning strategies of primary school students. Besides, it emphasized the importance of providing EFL fifth year primary students with…
Petersen, Karen Bjerg
For decades foreign and second language teachers have taken advantage of the technology development and ensuing possibilities to use e-learning facilities for language training. Since the 1980s, the use of computer assisted language learning (CALL), Internet, web 2.0, and various kinds of e-learning technology has been developed and researched…
Full Text Available Foreign language learning has been a part of German elementary schools for several years now. Montessori schools focusing on individual learning, i.e. mostly independent from the teacher and based on auto-education, interest, and free choice, are also asked to teach an L2. The original lack of a concept of L2 learning for this environment has brought forth different approaches. Bilingual education seems to be feasible and applicable in Montessori education. The downside to this is that even in a bilingual classroom the Montessori way of learning may not allow for very much oral production of the foreign language. The role of L2 production (cf. Swain 1985, 1995, 2005 for language acquisition has been theoretically claimed and empirically investigated. Output can have a positive influence on L2 learning (cf. e.g. Izumi 2002, Keck et al. 2006. This also applies to interaction (cf. Long 1996, where negotiation of meaning and modified output are factors supporting L2 development (cf. e.g. de la Fuente 2002, McDonough 2005. Task-based Language Learning (TBLL presents itself as one way to promote oral language production and to provide opportunities for meaning-negotiation. Especially tasks with required information exchange and a closed outcome have been shown to be beneficial for the elicitation of negotiation of meaning and modified output. This paper argues that TBLL is a promising approach for the facilitation of L2 production and thus the development of speaking skills in a Montessori context. It also hypothesizes that TBLL can be implemented in a bilingual Montessori environment while still making the Montessori way of learning possible. Different tasks on various topics, examples of which are presented in this article, can lay the foundation for this. Offering such tasks in a bilingual Montessori elementary classroom promises to foster language production and the use of communication strategies like negotiation of meaning, both being
Natalia A. Kameneva
Full Text Available The importance of using distance learning for developing knowledge, skills and competences in English Language teaching in contemporary educational process is justified in the article. In this connection the great attention is focused on radical changes in English Language teaching methodology. With the advent of online education the relationships between the lecturers or the tutors and the students alter and become more open and cooperating, because the students get more involved, interested and motivated in learning foreign languages. Apart from this, the main components of distance education are briefly considered.
The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed-methods case study was to investigate the effects of English language learning on creative thinking skills in the domains of fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration as measured with the Alternate Uses Test. Unlike the previous research studies that investigated the links between English…
Lu, Zhihong; Wen, Fuan; Li, Ping
Teaching listening and speaking in English in China has been given top priority on the post-secondary level. This has lead to the question of how learners develop communicative language ability (CLA) effectively in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) environments. The authors demonstrate a self-developed language skill learning system with…
For students entering health education, it is essential to learn the languages that are native to the place of education. The study is undertaken with purpose to assess language skill of undergraduate students at Sharad Pawar Dental College in India so that remedying can be planned at their entry to the new course. This cross-sectional study was done from September 2014 to February 2015. The 157 dental undergraduates were subjected to structured questionnaire that has items on their assessment of three languages i.e., Marathi, Hindi and English. Later, the need assessment to develop language skills of students was done through focus group discussions. Students` perception about language classes was obtained through interviews. The correct response rate of study participants to test items on three languages ranged from 69.4%-81.05% and 82.5%-91.59% for first and second year, respectively. There were significant differences in response rate among three language item groups. The language classes brought out appreciable changes in their understanding of local languages. Study brought out need to address language gaps to aid to smooth out their transitions in new institute.
Full Text Available Listening skills play an important role in an individual’s communication with others and in their understanding of the environment. Since it provides a basis for the acquisition of language skills it is one of the most important learning tools, and because it is frequently used in everyday life and in the learning process, listening skill is the foreground of foreign language teaching. It is important for students to understand what they listen to in order that they do not encounter any difficulties in the language learning process. To ensure success in the environments where the Turkish language is taught as a foreign language, it is necessary to follow the listening processes of the students attentively and to identify the problems they face during this process. This study aims to identify the listening barriers encountered by university students learning Turkish as a foreign language at level B2, and was designed based on a qualitative research approach and a phenomenological design. Within the scope of the study, eight students studying at Dumlupınar University’s TÖMER (Turkish & Foreign Languages Research and Application Center were identified as participants. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted with students included in the sample, and descriptive analysis technique was applied in the analysis of the research data. Participants expressed views that they often encountered problems such as accented speech, frequent use of idioms and proverbs during listening, lack of vocabulary development, and lack of emphasis and voice intonation during speech. Also, factors that make listening easy to understand are identified as the other languages they speak, good vocabulary knowledge, interesting topics, listening to audiovisual elements, and the speaker’s use of gestures and mimics.
Petersen, Karen Bjerg
For decades foreign and second language teachers have taken advantage of the technology development and ensuing possibilities to use e-learning facilities for language training. Since the 1980s, the use of computer assisted language learning (CALL), Internet, web 2.0, and various kinds of e-learning...... in Denmark with special attention towards the development of web-based materials for Danish pronunciation. This paper sets out to introduce differences between the international and Danish use of web-based language learning and teaching. Finally, dilemmas and challenges for the use of CALL, IT, and web 2.0 in...
Robinson, H Fiona; Dennick, Reg
This review was carried out to highlight relevant learning theory and its application to the teaching of endoscopic skills to speech and language therapists (SLTs). This article explains the most relevant models from Constructivist, Experiential and Humanistic Learning Theory, a combination that has been described as Constructive Experience, and describes the relevance and the benefits of applying educational frameworks in course design. This approach has been formally used to design and deliver practical skills teaching in medicine. SLTs carry out endoscopic evaluation of the larynx (EEL) to provide information for evaluation and rehabilitation of voice and swallowing disorders. These are essential procedures in ear, nose and throat, voice and swallowing specialist centres. Training in endoscopy skills for SLTs working in the ear, nose and throat specialist centres in the United Kingdom has traditionally been provided external to the local clinic environment as 1 or 2-day courses. In one survey in the United Kingdom, 79% of SLTs reported that they did not acquire the depth of skill required to carry out EEL autonomously after attending such courses. Course development to teach practical skills should be underpinned by educational theory. One EEL course in the United Kingdom is described, wherein sessions are interactive and experiential, promoting deep learning, constructive feedback and reflection, enriched by the completion of logs and portfolios. From course evaluations, all the learners met the learning objectives, developing and applying skills to become confident endoscopists in autonomous clinical practice.
Luh Putu Artini
Full Text Available This research aimed at developing rich language learning environment to help elementary school students develop their literacy skills in English. Shortage of professional English teachers in primary school, limited time allocation, as well as the lack of tools and facilities that support English language teaching and learning for young learners had resulted in students’low literacy skills in English. It was tried out in six primary schools across Bali involving 12 teachers and 520 students. The data were collected through questionnaires, observation, interview, English literacy tests, and students’ literacy journals. Research finds that young learners should have the opportunity to learn by doing without too much intervention so that anatural process of learning could occur. The product comprises multiple literacy experiences in the form of five different texts. The findings revealed that the readability of the material was in the category of high. The systematic exposures of these materials to beginner learners of English have been proven to have the significant impact on their literacy skills. Thehighest improvement is found in word level (87,1%, followed by sentence level (56,2%, and discourse level (46,8%. The improvements are all confirmed at the significance level of 0,05. The research also finds that RLLE has the positive impact on the development of self-directed learning skills.
Full Text Available Introduction: This action research project aims to strengthen English language reading comprehension and speaking skills in college students through the use of Google Apps and Literature Circles (LCs in virtual communities for learning. Method: The study involved 70 students at a public university in Ecuador. The educational intervention lasted a semester, included the implementation of LCs virtually and in person with a phase of independent reading and another for the discussion. 14 learning communities were organized and students assumed specific roles in order to warranty equality participation. The “Google Apps” were chosen for their ease of access. To monitor the progress of learning English, a pretest and a posttest were applied using the Preliminary English Test (PET by Cambridge University, whose validity and reliability are amply recognized internationally. Results: It showed an improvement of the reading comprehension and speaking skills in English Language in the participants group, who went from A1 to B2 of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL at the end of the process. Conclusion: it is confirmed that the use of “Google Apps” aided in the building of virtual learning communities to support the second language acquisition process (L2 in the university context.
Caruso, Marinella; Gadd Colombi, Anna; Tebbit, Simon
This paper discusses the integration and effectiveness of blended learning for the development and assessment of listening skills in a second language. The development of oral abilities (listening and speaking) is one of the most challenging and neglected aspects of second language learning (Vandergrift & Goh 2012, Graham & Santos 2015).…
The purposes of this investigation were (1) to examine the findings of effectiveness of the process of learning-by-doing; (2) to develop students' skill of designing English teaching materials and teaching English language; and (3) to determine an efficient format of learning-by-doing used for training student-teachers in the skill of teaching…
Eaton, Sarah Elaine
This paper examines literacy and language learning across the lifespan within the context of immigrants in the Canadian context. It explores the process of improving literacy skills and acquiring second or third language skills through the systems of formal, non-formal and informal learning, as defined by the OECD [Organisation for Economic…
Burgoyne, K; Kelly, J M; Whiteley, H E; Spooner, A
Data from national test results suggests that children who are learning English as an additional language (EAL) experience relatively lower levels of educational attainment in comparison to their monolingual, English-speaking peers. The relative underachievement of children who are learning EAL demands that the literacy needs of this group are identified. To this end, this study aimed to explore the reading- and comprehension-related skills of a group of EAL learners. Data are reported from 92 Year 3 pupils, of whom 46 children are learning EAL. Children completed standardized measures of reading accuracy and comprehension, listening comprehension, and receptive and expressive vocabulary. Results indicate that many EAL learners experience difficulties in understanding written and spoken text. These comprehension difficulties are not related to decoding problems but are related to significantly lower levels of vocabulary knowledge experienced by this group. Many EAL learners experience significantly lower levels of English vocabulary knowledge which has a significant impact on their ability to understand written and spoken text. Greater emphasis on language development is therefore needed in the school curriculum to attempt to address the limited language skills of children learning EAL.
Full Text Available Diagnostics and assessment of the functional skills of children with disabilities and autism spectrum disorders are to be conducted to develop comprehensive remedial educational programmes. The described Methodology of the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills — Revisited (ABLLS-R allows to simplify and make the diagnostics more efficient, to conduct a comprehensive examination of the child in different areas of development, detect the formed and deficit skills. The second and final part of the description of the methodology offers recommendations on the filling of the Table of the Results of Initial and Repeated Testing and on the choice of goals of correctional work with a child on the basis of performance of individual test scales. The pattern of the table filled after the initial and repeated testing is given. In drawing up of the programme of individual development the willingness of the child to the development of that skill should be considered. Regular practice of selected skills in various situations and the preventive measures against the regression of skills are also important. Conclusive part. Beginning in № 3 (48, 2015
Abdoola, Fareeaa; Flack, Penelope S; Karrim, Saira B
Role-based learning involves the process whereby learners acquire skills, knowledge and understanding through the assumption of roles within real-life settings. Role-play holds potential as an effective learning strategy for children; however, there is limited research on the use of role-play as a therapy method within the field of speech-language pathology. Children with language learning disability (LLD) typically present with difficulties in social communication, which can negatively affect their social and academic achievement. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of role-play as a therapy approach targeting the pragmatic skills of stylistic variation and requesting for clarification in learners with LLD. The use of combined positivist and interpretivist paradigms allowed for the implementation of an embedded mixed methods design. An experimental pretest-posttest design was implemented. Eight participants, who were learners with a diagnosis of LLD, were purposefully selected. Data collection was conducted over five phases, utilising the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (4th Ed.) Pragmatics Profile, discourse completion tasks, session plans and session records. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and were supplemented by qualitative data from session records. Results revealed improvements in stylistic variation and requesting for clarification post role-play intervention, with minimal changes in the control group. Limitations of the study have been reported for consideration when interpreting results. Role-play as a therapy approach targeting two pragmatic skills, stylistic variation and requesting for clarification, was found to be beneficial for learners with LLD. Recommendations for the implementation of role-play as a therapy approach were made.
Full Text Available Background: Role-based learning involves the process whereby learners acquire skills, knowledge and understanding through the assumption of roles within real-life settings. Role-play holds potential as an effective learning strategy for children; however, there is limited research on the use of role-play as a therapy method within the field of speech-language pathology. Children with language learning disability (LLD typically present with difficulties in social communication, which can negatively affect their social and academic achievement. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of role-play as a therapy approach targeting the pragmatic skills of stylistic variation and requesting for clarification in learners with LLD. Method: The use of combined positivist and interpretivist paradigms allowed for the implementation of an embedded mixed methods design. An experimental pretest-posttest design was implemented. Eight participants, who were learners with a diagnosis of LLD, were purposefully selected. Data collection was conducted over five phases, utilising the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (4th Ed. Pragmatics Profile, discourse completion tasks, session plans and session records. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and were supplemented by qualitative data from session records. Results: Results revealed improvements in stylistic variation and requesting for clarification post role-play intervention, with minimal changes in the control group. Limitations of the study have been reported for consideration when interpreting results. Conclusion: Role-play as a therapy approach targeting two pragmatic skills, stylistic variation and requesting for clarification, was found to be beneficial for learners with LLD. Recommendations for the implementation of role-play as a therapy approach were made.
Lekgoko, Olemme; Winskel, Heather
The current study investigates how beginner readers learn to read Setswana and English, and whether there is cross-language transference of skills between these two languages. Letter knowledge, phoneme awareness and reading of words and pseudowords in both Setswana and English were assessed in 36 Grade 2 children. A complex pattern emerged.…
Camilleri, Bernard; Law, James
Dynamic assessment has been shown to have considerable theoretical and clinical significance in the assessment of socially disadvantaged and culturally and linguistically diverse children. In this study it is used to enhance assessment of pre-school children with primary language impairment. The purpose of the study was to determine whether a dynamic assessment (DA) has the potential to enhance the predictive capacity of a static measure of receptive vocabulary in pre-school children. Forty pre-school children were assessed using the static British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS), a DA of word learning potential and an assessment of non-verbal cognitive ability. Thirty-seven children were followed up 6 months later and re-assessed using the BPVS. Although the predictive capacity of the static measure was found to be substantial, the DA increased this significantly especially for children with static scores below the 25th centile. The DA of children's word learning has the potential to add value to the static assessment of the child with low language skills, to predict subsequent receptive vocabulary skills and to increase the chance of correctly identifying children in need of ongoing support.
The development of effective second and foreign (L2) language learning materials needs to be grounded in two types of theories: (a) a theory of language and language use and (b) a theory of language learning. Both are equally important, insofar as an effective learning environment requires an understanding of the knowledge, skills, and abilities…
Hashim, Muhammad J; Major, Stella; Mirza, Deen M; Prinsloo, Engela A M; Osman, Ossama; Amiri, Leena; McLean, Michelle
Communications skills (CS) training for medical interviewing is increasingly being conducted in English at medical schools worldwide. In this study, we sought to identify whether Arabic-speaking medical students experienced difficulty with the different components of the CS training that were conducted in English. Individual third-year preclinical medical students (N = 45) were videotaped while interviewing simulated patients. Each student assessed his/her performance on a 13-item (5-point scale) assessment form, which was also completed by the tutor and other students in the group. Of the 13 components of their CS training, tutors awarded the lowest marks for students' abilities to express empathy, ask about patients' feelings, use transition statements, ask about functional impact, and elicit patients' expectations (P students learning CS in a second language.
Full Text Available The present research is the implementation of the 2013 doctoral disertation report funded by DIKTI. The research is a part of IPTEKS scheme for community devotion that have strong relation to language education technology. It concern with the use of multimedia learning and vocabulary mastery on students’ Japanese language reading skills at SMK 1 Purwokerto. The method is implemented experimentally by giving multimedia learning treatment such as Rosetta Stone and Tell Me More Japanese. Through some presentation with the use of those multimedia learning material, the purpose of this research is to know the extent to which the level of their vocabulary mastery and to encourage students in order to have an approriate skill to read Japanese documents. With the implementation of this multimedia learning training, graduate students of SMK Negeri I Purwokerto will be increased and for the future they have a good job at Japanese companies in Indonesia
Bolukbas, Fatma; Keskin, Funda; Polat, Mustafa
Cooperative learning is a process through which students with various abilities, gender, nationalities and different level of social skills carry out their learning process by working in small groups and helping each other. Cooperative learning is a pedagogical use of small groups which enable students to maximize both their own and others'…
Flores, Margaret M.; Schweck, Kelly B.; Hinton, Vanessa
Language intervention using Direct Instruction (DI) has shown positive results. There is a growing body of investigation of Language for Learning (LL), a DI program, on the performance of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and students with developmental delays (DD). There is need for replication and extension of research to include…
The role of outdoor education activities in the Kanda University English language institute is described. The outdoor program was developed to unite faculty and students interested in recreational activities and provide an opportunity to explore common interests in nature, sports, and language learning. The activities develop self-esteem,…
Altintas, Tugba; Gunes, Ali; Sayan, Hamiyet
Peer learning or, as commonly expressed, peer-assisted learning (PAL) involves school students who actively assist others to learn and in turn benefit from an effective learning environment. This research was designed to support students in becoming more autonomous in their learning, help them enhance their confidence level in tackling computer…
Sanders, Steven; Zunkiewicz, Kelly; Strait, Laura; Towne, Michael
A single great teacher can change a life by introducing a new language, helping you master a new skill or opening a door you never knew was there. That's why every year, TNTP awards the Fishman Prize for Superlative Classroom Practice: to celebrate a select cohort of public school teachers who demonstrate exceptionally effective teaching with…
Amin, Iman Abdul-Reheem; Amin, Magdy Mohammad; Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq
The present study aimed at exploring the effectiveness of using explicit language learning strategy-based instruction in developing secondary school students' EFL listening comprehension skills. It was hypothesized that using explicit strategy-based instruction would develop students' EFL listening comprehension skill and its sub-skills. The…
Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, JoAnn M.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the cross-language relations between the phonological awareness (PA) skills of preschool children learning more than one language are dependent upon their first-and second-language oral language skills. Four hundred sixty-six Spanish-speaking language minority children participated in this study.…
Leticia Mercedes Cedeño Macías
Full Text Available Reading is one of communicative skills, so it is one of the topics all English learners have to study, it is a receptive skill and it is not using to be very popular among language students because they think it is passive, monotonous and even boring, and all these characteristics are against the extrovert and dynamic nature of youth who live in this century. But, is reading really a passive activity? The objective of this essay is to demonstrate that reading is a participative activity where students can interact in pairs or groups improving the communication through certain active and participative strategies like mind map, debates, drills and panels throughout an effective teacher’s planning. The methodology used for this study will be the bibliographic over the analysis of English teaching experts’ books and their experience.
Language Training; Tel. 73127; Andrée Fontbonne; Tel. 72844
This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. Languages: French and English. Length: 3 days, 7 hours per day. Dates: 4, 5, 6 March 2002. Price: 460 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training
Language Training; Tel. 73127; Andrée Fontbonne; Tel. 72844
This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. Languages: French and English. Length: 3 days, 7 hours per day. Dates: 5, 6, 7 November 2001. Price: 460 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training
Language training; tel. 78582
This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. Languages: French and English. Length: 3 days, 7 hours per day. Dates: 4, 5, 6 March 2002. Price: 460 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training
Language and social skills are essential for intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning and quality of life. Since epilepsy impacts these important domains of individuals' functioning, understanding the psychosocial and biological factors involved in the relationship among epilepsy, language, and social skills has important theoretical and clinical implications. This review first describes the psychosocial and biological factors involved in the association between language and social behavior in children and in adults and their relevance for epilepsy. It reviews the findings of studies of social skills and the few studies conducted on the inter-relationship of language and social skills in pediatric and adult epilepsy. The paper concludes with suggested future research and clinical directions that will enhance early identification and treatment of epilepsy patients at risk for impaired language and social skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maria Yu. Lebedeva
Full Text Available The research explores the effectiveness of using computer-assisted language learning (CALL approach for the development of non-reciprocal listening skills in the context of studying Russian as a foreign language (RFL. Despite the fact that the influence of CALL on the development of listening skills has been well studied based on a case study of teaching other languages (especially English, a similar study in the context of teaching the Russian language is performed for the first time. The RFL students (N=68 and teachers (N=7 of the Preparatory Department in Russian took part in the intervention study. The students were divided into experimental and control groups. The research was conducted based on both qualitative and quantitative methods. The researchers focused the attention on two kinds of listening: listening for general information and selective listening. As the listening competence, and especially academic listening proficiency, is critically important for the students of the preparatory department, he researchers’ target was to research ways of improving listening abilities with different approaches of using CALL. The testing and assessment materials were developed and the statistics was collected for each kind of listening. In addition, the students of the experimental group were surveyed to identify their experiences from using CALL in the classroom. The research findings allowed concluding about the effectiveness of CALL application for developing listening for the detail skills, whereas in the general listening no significant effect was found. In addition, the study revealed specific complexities in the application of CALL in teaching listening in Russian.
This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. Languages: French and English. Length: 3 days, 7 hours per day. Dates: 4, 5, 6 March 2002. Price: 460 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training Language Training Moniek Laurent Tel. 78582 email@example.com
Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of ESP learning motivation. The meaning of motivation and three main approaches to motivational psychology: expectancy-value theory, goal-directed theory and the self-determination theory are presented, two distinct orientations for learning a language: integrative and instrumental are described in the paper. The importance of needs analysis to ESP learning is stressed and the main conditions (interest in the topic and activity; relevance to the students’ lives; expectancy of success and feelings of being in control and satisfaction in the outcome for motivation are described. The skills that ESP learners need to develop are specified. The description of approaches to motivational psychology is proposed, as motivation is of great significance in foreign language learning.
Full Text Available The experiment covered in this paper was conducted from November 2011 until February 2012 in the University of Third Age at the University of Wrocław in Poland as a part of the Third Age and New Technologies (TANT project which was realised as a Grundtvig partnership programme. The aim of the experiment was to determine whether memory training can positively affect learning a foreign language (English by senior students.
Hungi, Njora; Njagi, Joan; Wekulo, Patricia; Ngware, Moses
This study investigates the relationship between the language of instruction and learning of literacy skills among pre-primary school children in a multilingual environment. The sample consists of 1867 learners from low-income urban households, attending 147 low-cost private pre-primary schools located in low-income areas of Nairobi, Kenya. About…
This study investigated the effects of learning-style based activities on students' reading comprehension skills and self-efficacy perceptions in English foreign language classes. A quasi-experimental, matching-only pretest-posttest control group design was utilized. The study was conducted with freshmen university students majoring in Elementary…
Satya Sundar SETHY
Learning is an ever-present phenomenon. It takes place irrespective of time and place. It engages learners in their interested topic/content. Learning absorbs many skills, such as; reading skills, writing skills, technological skills, emotional skills, behavioral skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Out of all these, cognitive skills play significant role for apprehending a concept and comprehending a discussion. In the context of distance education (DE), learning never restrains to...
Murphy, Caroline; Hermann, Charlotte; Andersen, Signe Hvalsøe; Grigalauskyte, Simona; Tolsgaard, Mads; Holmegaard, Thorbjørn; Hajaya, Zaedo Musa
This study examines the concept of second language learning in Denmark with focus on how second language learners negotiate their identities in relation to language learning and integration. By investigating three language learners’ acquisition of Danish through key theories on the field of second language learning, focus is centred on the subjects’ lived experiences of the learning process within their everyday lives and in the classroom. Through interviews and observations it can be conclud...
Language Training; Tel. 73127; Andrée Fontbonne; Tel. 72844
This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. Languages: French and English. Length: 3 days, 7 hours per day. Dates: 7, 8, 9 March 2001. Price: 462 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/LANG/lang0_F.html
Formation en Langues; Andrée Fontbonne - Tél. 72844; Language Training; Françoise Benz - Tel. 73127; Andrée Fontbonne - Tel. 72844
This bilingual seminar is for anyone who would like to develop learning strategies and skills for learning a foreign language. It is particularly recommended for those wishing to sign up for a 3-month self-study session in the Resource Centre. Languages: French and English. Length: 5 hours a day for one week. Dates: 27 November to December 2000. Price: 490 CHF per person (for a group of 8 people). If you are interested, please enrol through our Web pages.
The Effect of In-Service Training of Computer Science Teachers on Scratch Programming Language Skills Using an Electronic Learning Platform on Programming Skills and the Attitudes towards Teaching Programming
Alkaria, Ahmed; Alhassan, Riyadh
This study was conducted to examine the effect of in-service training of computer science teachers in Scratch language using an electronic learning platform on acquiring programming skills and attitudes towards teaching programming. The sample of this study consisted of 40 middle school computer science teachers. They were assigned into two…
Luz María Muñoz de Cote
Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a qualitative research project set to investigate the piloting process of an innovative language program for university students. It challenges traditional English language teaching courses celebrating a view centered on learning; classes become spaces for students to understand the language they are learning through the development of small projects. The approach moves from a teaching transmission paradigm to one where the most important agent is each student who has to engage with a topic of his or her interest. Students are seen as individuals whose knowledge and understanding of the world is valued and not as people whose lack of language skills prevents themfrom engaging in discussions of complex topics. The objective of this innovation is to enhance students’ understanding and use of academic English in their field of interest. In this project, we argue that knowledge and understanding of the mother tongue and culture play key roles in the development of a second language. A number of studies suggest that students who had strong first language literacy skills achieved higher proficiency levels in their second language. Based on this argument and Vygotsky’s sociocultural learning theory, we designed disciplinary content language learning workshops for first-degree students. The main tenet is that students can develop academic English given that they know about their discipline. Findings so far reveal the difficulty of students to take distance from their previous learning experiences. They also show that students’ ideas expressed in English are far more complex than what would be expected of them given their second language skills. The complexity is not only related to thecontent, but to the way they construct their paragraphs and the understanding of how the register of their field may be used.
Full Text Available Reading is one of the fundamental skills across all subjects. A student with low competency in reading will experience difficulties in teaching and learning. The purpose of this research is to improve reading skills among student with learning disability in one secondary school in Bangi, Selangor. This action research had employed Reading Assessment Approach and descriptive analysis in data collection. Seven students with reading problem participated in this research. However, these students were having potential to be included in either Inclusive Program or Job Transition Program. Therefore, one reading program known as KLISA Program (Language Clinic Program was created and it has been implemented in classroom for 30 minutes during the first period every day. This 9-month program had employed phonics method and used a set of ‘Bacalah Anakku’ books and ABM Velcro in three phases. The reading assessment was conducted at the end of each phase to evaluate the students’ achievement in reading. The findings of this research proved that KLISA Program was effective for students’ improvement in reading. Hence, it is recommended that this program can be consistently implemented to overcome illiterate and reading disorder among primary and secondary school students. Kemahiran membaca adalah merentas semua matapelajaran. Kelemahan dalam kemahiran membaca akan menyebabkan kesulitan mengikuti pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meningkatkan kemahiran membaca di kalangan murid-murid bermasalah pembelajaran di sebuah sekolah menengah di Bangi, Selangor. Penelitian tindakan ini menggunakan pendekatan penilaian penaksiran bacaan dan analisis deskriptif untuk mengumpul data, Seramai 7 orang murid dalam sebuah kelas terlibat dalam kajian ini. Mereka terdiri dari murid bermasalah pembelajaran yang berpotensi untuk diserapkan di dalam Program Inklusif atau Transisi pekerjaan tetapi masih tidak boleh membaca. Satu program pemulihan
Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard
Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular...
Hopman, Elise W M; MacDonald, Maryellen C
Language learners often spend more time comprehending than producing a new language. However, memory research suggests reasons to suspect that production practice might provide a stronger learning experience than comprehension practice. We tested the benefits of production during language learning and the degree to which this learning transfers to comprehension skill. We taught participants an artificial language containing multiple linguistic dependencies. Participants were randomly assigned to either a production- or a comprehension-learning condition, with conditions designed to balance attention demands and other known production-comprehension differences. After training, production-learning participants outperformed comprehension-learning participants on vocabulary comprehension and on comprehension tests of grammatical dependencies, even when we controlled for individual differences in vocabulary learning. This result shows that producing a language during learning can improve subsequent comprehension, which has implications for theories of memory and learning, language representations, and educational practices.
Yoong Li Kuen
Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to examine the English language learning strategies (LLS used by Lower Six students in secondary schools who are sitting for their MUET test. It analyzed the language learning strategies that students use in order to prepare for the MUET test. Data were collected using a survey questionnaire with 300 students. The instrument used in this study called “MUET Preparation Language Strategy Use Inventory” is an adapted and bilingual questionnaire designed by Cohen, Oxford and Chi (2005 known as Language Strategy Use Inventory. Forty items were analyzed and they comprised of the four skills tested in MUET which is listening, speaking, reading and writing. Data were analyzed by performing frequency analysis. The findings revealed that the listening skill is the most frequently used, while the writing skill is the least frequently used. Only the listening skill has high frequency of use, while the reading, speaking and writing skills fall under the range of moderate frequency of use. There were variations in responses with regard to the use of LLS among Form Six students in secondary schools. The findings had practical implications.
Al-Awidi, Hamed Mubarak; Ismail, Sadiq Abdulwahed
This study investigated ESL teachers' perceptions regarding the use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in teaching reading to children. A random sample of 145 teachers participated in the study by completing a survey developed by the researchers. To explore the situation in depth, 16 teachers were later interviewed. Results indicated…
Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chai, Ching Sing; Aw, Guat Poh
This conceptual paper describes a language learning model that applies social media to foster contextualized and connected language learning in communities. The model emphasizes weaving together different forms of language learning activities that take place in different learning contexts to achieve seamless language learning. it promotes social…
Firth, Mary M; Mitchell, John
A brand new edition of a bestselling title, updated for the newest Higher English (for CfE) syllabus. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. This book provides you with the support and advice you will need to succeed in Higher English. By studying literary techniques and with top experts guiding you through and explaining how to use these skills, you will be helped to understand why questions are framed in a particular way and how to answer them in a manner that ensures the highest possible grade. - Become more secure in your knowledge of the English language. - Learn ho
Braet, Wouter; Noppe, Nele; Wagemans, Johan; Op de Beeck, Hans
Skilled readers demonstrate remarkable efficiency in processing written words, unlike beginning readers for whom reading occurs more serially and places higher demands on visual attention. In the present study, we used the Stroop paradigm to investigate the relationship between reading skill and automaticity, in individuals learning a second language with a different orthographic system. Prior studies using this paradigm have presented a mixed picture, finding a positive, a negative, or no relationship between the size of Stroop interference and reading skills. Our results show that Stroop interference in the second language was positively related to reading skill (when controlled for interference in the first language). Furthermore, interference was positively related to objective but not subjective indices of the amount of exposure to the second language. We suggest that the lack of consistency in the results of earlier studies may be due, at least in part, to these studies looking at Stroop interference in isolation, rather than comparing interference between languages.
SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language) educators in Gauteng regarding the ...
Full Text Available This research is aimed to analyse language functions in English, specifically those which are used in the context of Food and Beverage Service. The findings of the analysis related to the language functions are then applied in a teaching method which is designed to improve the students’ abilities in speaking English. There are two novelties in this research. The first one is the theory of language functions which is reconstructed in accordance with the Food and Beverage Service context. Those language functions are: permisive (to soften utterances, to avoid repetition, and to adjust intonation; interactive (to greet, to have small talks, and farewell; informative (to introduce, to show, to state, to explain, to ask, to agree, to reject, and to confirm; persuasive (to offer, to promise, to suggest, and to persuade; directive (to tell, to order, and to request; indicative (to praise, to complain, to thank, and to apologize. The second novelty which is more practical is the design of the ASRI method which consists of four basic components, namely: Aims (the purpose in communicating; Sequence (the operational procedure in handling guests in the restaurant; Role play (the simmulation activities in language learning; and Interaction (the interactive communications between participants. The method of ASRI with the application of the language functions in its ABCD procedure, namely Acquire, Brainstorm, Chance and Develop is proven to be effective in improving the students’ abilities in speaking English, specifically in the context of Food and Beverage Service.
Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Sing-Chai, Ching; Poh-Aw, Guat
This conceptual paper describes a language learning model that applies social media to foster contextualized and connected language learning in communities. The model emphasizes weaving together different forms of language learning activities that take place in different learning contexts to achieve seamless language learning. It promotes social interactions with social media about the learners’ day-to-day life using the targeted second or foreign language. The paper first identifies three ke...
The results for that intervention show that the hypothesis was correct and students need more time and structure if they are to improve their language competence sufficiently. Keywords: language learning interventions, English for specific purposes, language competence, fossilization. Journal for Language Teaching Vol.
This article reviews how a receptive, bilingual four-year-old increased her Spanish productive-language skills over five weeks as she engaged in Spanish-language play sessions with bilingual peers. The data show her growing participation in group verbal interactions along with her growing production of her weaker language. In addition, a…
Hammerman, Myrna Lynn
A thorough investiqation is attempted of efforts to apply hypnosis and suggestive learning techniques to education in general and specifically to second language learning. Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its dangers, its definition, and its application. Included in this discussion is a comparison of auto- and hetero-hypnosis, an overview of the…
Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of developing listening skills for improving foreign language communicative competence. The practical value of using an authentic foreign language text at a foreign language lesson is determined. The ways of the use of the English language recordings in the educational process of students are outlined. It is found out that tracks with foreign information should be used only in the certain methodical situations. Multimedia helps effectively a teacher to achieve outlined objectives of improving foreign language communicative competence for multiple repetition of a speech model for making permanent listening item of language units. The basic stages of work with foreign language recordings are determined: teaching a foreign language listening (teaching to listen and understand the foreign language track means to overcome the methodological difficulties that require a certain amount of time and special training. This is explained by the fact that there are lots of difficulties on the way of understanding a foreign language: an unusual speed of speech, presence of unknown vocabulary, specific rhythms and melody; teaching a foreign language speech with the special models pronounced by foreign speakers (teaching students to practical mastery of a foreign language is intrinsically linked with involvement into the educational process of original English tracks, those are made by highly skilled experts (foreign speakers; learning a new vocabulary due to a dialogue, an extract of a play or a conversation, songs, prose and poetry (it is noted that the students’ interest of learning foreign language songs and poems is extremely high, and it primarily promotes strong learning; analysing the recorded students’ speech (fixing student’s speech and analysing their mistakes is very important at any stage of learning a foreign language for self-control and self-correction.
Forbes, Karen; Fisher, Linda
In an increasingly multilingual world, the question of how to improve foreign language speaking skills of pupils in British schools is of paramount importance to language teachers and policy-makers today. This paper examines how an explicit focus on metacognitive strategy use within secondary school foreign language lessons impacts pupils'…
Full Text Available Teachers or educators, most of the time, concentrate on the theoretical aspects oflanguage teaching and study them as much as possible. However, in practice, we start thinkingthat we will have to keep a number of people together in the same place. These are often thepeople who come from many different backgrounds and whose expectations differ. In thiscase, it becomes more and more difficult to appeal to every individual in class. Therefore, asteachers we should initially be trained on how to manage our classrooms and how to providethe necessary environment to put into practice the things we have learned to teach a language.Obviously, we need management skills as well as the language teaching skill. Actually, it isnot as difficult as many people think. As teachers if we fulfill our duties properly, a wellmanagedclass will ensue. In this study, therefore, the definition of class management isregarded roughly “to keep people from different environments directed to one single goal”.When this is accomplished, we are unlikely to live discipline problems.
Fauzia Hasan Siddiqui
This study aims at grabbing the attention of EFL /ESL teachers, trainers, and administrators towards the importance of teaching speaking skill to enhance overall language proficiency of EFL learners. Comprehensive research done in the field of applied linguistics and English Language Teaching (ELT) establishes a positive correlation of speaking skill with the overall language proficiency. Despite this obvious significance of speaking skill in language learning process, it has not gained suffi...
Olda Xhepa BALLIU
Full Text Available This paper tries to analyze the importance and the relationship between communication and pragmatic skills in foreign language classes. Philosophers and linguists have dealt with language, analyzing it from the psychological viewpoint. Communication in L1 or L2 is related and it depends on the science of pragmatics. While communicating, interlocutors interact impacted by the context, the situation, the receiver, the sender, by using the formal or the informal language according to the circumstances. For this reason, we try, in this paper, to make a thorough description of the relationship between communication and pragmatics. Students need to master pragmatic skills in order to communicate. If Italian students or foreign language students have developed pragmatic skills in the native language, this will help them learning a foreign language. The goal of the foreign language teacher is to help students achieve communication skills. The pragmatic and communication skills can be practiced through communication activities like in L1 for speech acts are practiced in communication.
Edwiges Conceição de Souza Fernandes
Full Text Available This paper focuses on a FLSP1 course where principles on the aural and oral development skills were addressed with the aim of preparing competent conference hosts to work for the CONFINTEA VI. The course takers were selected from two Public Brazilian Universities: The State University of Pará and The Federal University of Pará, by a process which involved previous needs assessment, course design, material selection and continuous collaborative teaching. Contextualized communicative strategies were used in order to facilitate interaction in the foreign languages with distinct groups of foreigners invited for the international event. The theoretical foundation of this paper lies principally on the works of Almeida Filho (1998, Dudley-Evans and St. John (1998, Hutchinson and Waters (1987, Munby (1978 and Nunan (1988. This teaching experience is reported through a qualitative perspective and its positive results were accredited to the effective learning environment created for the development of multicultural linguistic knowledge.
Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011
This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.
Williams, Joshua T.; Darcy, Isabelle; Newman, Sharlene D.
Understanding how language modality (i.e., signed vs. spoken) affects second language outcomes in hearing adults is important both theoretically and pedagogically, as it can determine the specificity of second language (L2) theory and inform how best to teach a language that uses a new modality. The present study investigated which…
Park, Jaeuk; Seedhouse, Paul; Seedhouse, Rob; Kiaer, Jieun
The study draws on the digital technology which allows users to be able to learn both linguistic and non-linguistic skills at the same time. Activity recognition as well as wireless sensor technology, similar to a Nintendo Wii, is embedded or attached to the equipment and ingredients, allowing users to detect and evaluate progress as they carry…
Denizer, Elif Nur
Mother tongue largely refers to not only the language one learns from one’s mother but also the speaker’s dominant and home language. It’s also called native language. This study was conducted to find whether mother tongue interferences in second-language learning, and if so; whether it affects the learners’ performance in four language skills, and also in which skill(s) it has the biggest effect. Data collection tool included a questionnaire by which participants were asked to rate the quest...
Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa
The present study aimed to investigate the contribution of oral language skills, linguistic skills, and transcription skills to Chinese written composition among Grade 4 students in Hong Kong. Measures assessing verbal working memory, oral language skills, linguistic skills (i.e., syntactic skills and discourse skills), transcription skills (i.e.,…
acquiring the foreign language. Purpose—The purpose of this study is to investigate the ways in which foreign language teachers could take advantage of web 2.0 technologies to form efficient and easy to use personal learning environments (PLEs for their students in foreign language learning courses. Design/methodology/approach—In this paper we firstly present the current research on PLEs, as well as the different ways of their formation and the pedagogical context in which they are based. Furthermore, in order to investigate the possibility of developing PLEs for language teaching/learning, we examine the technological platforms and web 2.0 tools that could help a foreign language teacher without special technical skills to develop an environment suitable for use in a language course. Towards this direction, specific solutions-PLEs based on tools available on the web and especially designed for this purpose, are proposed. Findings—In this paper, the capabilities and characteristics of the proposed PLEs as well as the advantages and the disadvantages of the proposed settlements are detected. Moreover, as PLEs are a potential next step in the formation of future VLEs, the way in which the proposed solutions could extend the existing VLE installations and potential as well as the possibility of their parallel utilization is also examined. Research limitations/implications—A PLE can be developed in several different ways, which vary in degree of difficulty and development requirements, in terms of manpower and the skills involved, and of course in terms of financial resources. Having that in mind, the proposed solutions meet many of the above requirements, as they are exclusively based on tools that are freely available on the web and do not require the allocation of funds, or the existence of a multidisciplinary production team. Practical implications—Application solutions such as those proposed in this article will help foreign language teachers to use a wider
the foreign language.Purpose—The purpose of this study is to investigate the ways in which foreign language teachers could take advantage of web 2.0 technologies to form efficient and easy to use personal learning environments (PLEs for their students in foreign language learning courses.Design/methodology/approach—In this paper we firstly present the current research on PLEs, as well as the different ways of their formation and the pedagogical context in which they are based. Furthermore, in order to investigate the possibility of developing PLEs for language teaching/learning, we examine the technological platforms and web 2.0 tools that could help a foreign language teacher without special technical skills to develop an environment suitable for use in a language course. Towards this direction, specific solutions-PLEs based on tools available on the web and especially designed for this purpose, are proposed.Findings—In this paper, the capabilities and characteristics of the proposed PLEs as well as the advantages and the disadvantages of the proposed settlements are detected. Moreover, as PLEs are a potential next step in the formation of future VLEs, the way in which the proposed solutions could extend the existing VLE installations and potential as well as the possibility of their parallel utilization is also examined.Research limitations/implications—A PLE can be developed in several different ways, which vary in degree of difficulty and development requirements, in terms of manpower and the skills involved, and of course in terms of financial resources. Having that in mind, the proposed solutions meet many of the above requirements, as they are exclusively based on tools that are freely available on the web and do not require the allocation of funds, or the existence of a multidisciplinary production team.Practical implications—Application solutions such as those proposed in this article will help foreign language teachers to use a wider variety of
Rudner, Mary; Andin, Josefine; Rönnberg, Jerker; Heimann, Mikael; Hermansson, Anders; Nelson, Keith; Tjus, Tomas
The literacy skills of deaf children generally lag behind those of their hearing peers. The mechanisms of reading in deaf individuals are only just beginning to be unraveled but it seems that native language skills play an important role. In this study 12 deaf pupils (six in grades 1-2 and six in grades 4-6) at a Swedish state primary school for…
Full Text Available The concept of intercultural competence is associated in the literature lists both abilities to be "successful" as an individual and an organization in cross-cultural relations, as most critical visions and interested in different contexts and social roles that play a role in the definition and perception of these relations.The concept of intercultural competence authors as Earley and Ang (2003, p. 59 prefer the concept of cultural intelligence in relation to how people can adapt to new cultural contexts, and in continuity with the work on intelligence of educational psychologists (H. Gardner, RJ Sternberg, and in relation to the interaction between cognitive styles and management of daily activities (Zhang, Sternberg, 2001, p. 198-200.From different approaches, has occurred in recent years a significant number of tools for assessing intercultural competence (Earley and Ang 2003, p. 193-199; Fowler and Blohm 2004, p. 37-84, Paige 2004, pp. 85-128.In this contribution we investigate the relevant aspects and implications of the discourses on intercultural skills for learning and for education policies that integrate an intercultural approach.
Gençtürk, Abdullah Tarik; Korucu, Agah Tugrul
It is observed that teacher candidates receiving education in the department of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education are not able to gain enough experience and knowledge in "Programming Languages" lesson. The goal of this study is to analyse the effects of web 2.0 technologies usage in programming languages lesson on the…
Chun, Dorothy; Smith, Bryan; Kern, Richard
This article offers a capacious view of technology to suggest broad principles relating technology and language use, language teaching, and language learning. The first part of the article considers some of the ways that technological media influence contexts and forms of expression and communication. In the second part, a set of heuristic…
Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…
Motivation, which is one of the individual differences, contributes a lot to the success and failure in second language learning. This essay focus on the discussion of the definition, types, effect and implications of motivation in second language learning with the aim of promoting learners' learning proficiency.
Full Text Available This paper looks at the important elements of language learning and teaching i.e. the role of teachers as well as the attitude and motivation of learners. Teachers undoubtedly play crucial roles in students’ language learning outcome which could ignite or diminish students’ motivation. Positive attitudes and motivation – instrumental or integrative and intrinsic or extrinsic – are key to successful learning. Therefore it is paramount for language teachers as well as learners to know these roles and nurture the best possible ways where language teaching and learning will thrive. This paper also suggested that both stake-holders should be open to holistic approach of language learning and that other factors such as the environment could play an important part in language teaching and learning success.
This study sought to find out the influence of language and communication skills on students\\' performance in vocational courses. The study used the cumulative mean scores of two sets of final year students over tine three-year perrod of their N.C.E course in Agricultural Education, Business Education, and Fine and Applied ...
Grace, Abbie; Kemp, Nenagh; Martin, Frances Heritage; Parrila, Rauno
Research investigating whether people's literacy skill is being affected by the use of text messaging language has produced largely positive results for children, but mixed results for adults. We asked 150 undergraduate university students in Western Canada and 86 in South Eastern Australia to supply naturalistic text messages and to complete…
This study used both quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the role of lower- and higher-level language skills in classical Chinese (CC) text comprehension. A CC word and sentence translation test, text comprehension test, and questionnaire were administered to 393 Secondary Four students; and 12 of these were randomly selected to…
Djiwandono, Patrisius Istiarto
Recent developments in language teaching increasingly put a stronger importance on critical thinking skills. While studies in this area have begun to emerge, it is believed that a probe into the learners' mind when they process information can contribute significantly to the effort of identifying exactly how our learners think. This study was…
It is commonplace to discourage people affected with dyslexia from learning foreign languages. But the condition occurs on a wide spectrum affecting individuals in unique ways. That is why directing dyslexic people away from language learning solely on the basis of their dyslexia, is scientifically unfounded. In this article, we will take a linguistic perspective on this issue, that is to say that we will present the scientific facts about language learning and dyslexia.
This paper reviews the learning theories, focusing to the strong interest in technology use for language learning. It is important to look at how technology has been used in the field thus far. The goals of this review are to understand how computers have been used in the past years to support foreign language learning, and to explore any research evidence with regards to how computer technology can enhance language skills acquisition
This article is an attempt to the work on language learning strategies(LLS) in second & foreign language acquisiton (SFLA) research, and to give suggestions for future language learning strategies research. In the first section, I will discuss briefly the background of language learning strategies reserch, and in the ensuing sections, I will review articles on: (i) the identification & classification of language learning strategies; (ii) the variables affecting the use of language learning st...
Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…
Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.
For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756
Rajapaksha, P. L. N. Randima
Children best learn language through playful learning experiences in the preschool classroom. The present study focused on developing oral language skills in preschool children through a sociodramatic play intervention. The study employed a case study design under qualitative approach. The researcher conducted a sociodramatic play intervention…
Fauzia Hasan Siddiqui
Full Text Available This study aims at grabbing the attention of EFL /ESL teachers, trainers, and administrators towards the importance of teaching speaking skill to enhance overall language proficiency of EFL learners. Comprehensive research done in the field of applied linguistics and English Language Teaching (ELT establishes a positive correlation of speaking skill with the overall language proficiency. Despite this obvious significance of speaking skill in language learning process, it has not gained sufficient attention in the ELT or the assessments in Oman. Relying on the available literature on the importance of the speaking skill and its effective role in enhancing other language macro skills (listening, reading, and writing, this exploratory research analyzes the currents status of speaking skill in ELT and assessments at the General Foundation Programme (GFP in Oman. As many GFP’s have IELTS (International English Language Testing System exam as their programme exit examination, the study begins with measuring the correlation of speaking skill grades with other macro skill in order to accentuate the positive impact of speaking skill on other language skills. Secondly, it presents the statistics of time devoted to teaching and weights that speaking skill hold in the GFP in Oman. Finally, the study suggests the ways to optimize speaking skill opportunities to create successful literacy experience among adult EFL learners.
Katushemererwe, Fridah; Nerbonne, John
This study presents the results from a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system of Runyakitara (RU_CALL). The major objective was to provide an electronic language learning environment that can enable learners with mother tongue deficiencies to enhance their knowledge of grammar and acquire writing skills in Runyakitara. The system…
The topics of autonomy and independence play an increasingly important role in language education. They raise issues such as learners' responsibility for their own learning, and their right to determine the direction of their own learning, the skills which can be learned and applied in self-directed learning and capacity for independent learning and the extents to which this can be suppressed by institutional education. This volume offers new insights into the principles of autonomy and independence and the practices associated with them focusing on the area of EFL teaching. The editors' introduction provides the context and outlines the main issues involved in autonomy and independence. Later chapters discuss the social and political implications of autonomy and independence and their effects on educational structures. The consequences for the design of learner-centred materials and methods is discussed, together with an exploration of the practical ways of implementing autonomy and independence in language ...
P.L.N. Randima Rajapaksha
Full Text Available Children best learn language through playful learning experiences in the preschool classroom. The present study focused on developing oral language skills in preschool children through a sociodramatic play intervention. The study employed a case study design under qualitative approach. The researcher conducted a sociodramatic play intervention collaboratively with the class teacher for a group of 10 children selected utilizing purposive sampling method in a preschool classroom. The intervention was conducted in a preschool located in Colombo, Sri Lanka for 3 weeks. The observation, interview and reflective journal were the instrument used to collect data. The observation carried under two criteria namely, ability to initiate a conversation and ability to respond in a conversation revealed that the sociodramatic play intervention created many opportunities to develop oral language skills in the children than the regular classroom activities. The sociodramatic play activities enhanced children's oral language skills while creating a language rich playful learning experiences. Keywords: Language development, Early childhood education, Sociodramatic play
Greller, W. (2010). Language Technologies for Lifelong Learning. In S. Trausan-Matu & P. Dessus (Eds.), Proceedings of the Natural Language Processing in Support of Learning: Metrics, Feedback and Connectivity. Second Internationl Workshop - NLPSL 2010 (pp. 6-8). September, 14, 2010, Bucharest,
Blue, George M.
This paper reports on a research project that examined nonnative Southampton University (England) students' attitudes to continued language learning and the importance of language learning and cultural adaptation. A survey was administered to pre-sessional and in-sessional students that included information on background, past and present language…
Kuen, Yoong Li; Embi, Mohamed Amin
The main objective of the study was to examine the English language learning strategies (LLS) used by Lower Six students in secondary schools who are sitting for their MUET test. It analyzed the language learning strategies that students use in order to prepare for the MUET test. Data were collected using a survey questionnaire with 300 students.…
Full Text Available A growing body of research has been documenting environmental factors that support preschoolers’ vocabulary skills. However, less is known about how environmental factors are related to morphological skills of dual language learners (DLLs and single language learners (SLLs. We examined connections with preschool experiences by investigating the effects of duration of preschool attendance, classroom quality, and classroom composition variables (percentage of DLLs and percentage of children from families with a low socio-economic status on preschoolers’ expressive morphological skills. Several multilevel regression models were estimated using cross-sectional data from 835 children (n = 255 DLLs aged 30–47 months. These children were nested in 169 preschool classrooms in Germany. As a control task, we also investigated children’s phonological processing abilities, for which we found, as expected, no differences between DLLs and SLLs. Our main finding was that DLL children scored lower in expressive morphological skills than their German monolingual peers, but this difference was considerably smaller in classrooms that scored high in instructive teacher–child interactions (measured by the Classroom Assessment Scoring System for pre-kindergarten children; CLASS Pre-K. Taken together, these results support the notion that supportive teacher–child instructive interactions have a positive impact on the development of DLLs’ morphological skills.
Full Text Available The present paper aims at exploring the potential role that social media technologies play in learning foreign languages. For this purpose, a survey was carried out to examine students’ and language learners’ perceptions and attitudes about using these platforms. Results of the research study revealed that the great majority of the respondents actually use these web-based applications to enhance their language skills. Most importantly, they noted that social media contribute in improving their listening, reading, speaking and writing skills. Accordingly, we strongly recommend that instructors use these online tools in distant, blended, or face-to-face language learning settings.
Saidi, Tamana; Djurhuus, Terji; Egeslund, Søren Due; Oikonomou, Anna Maria; Pietilä, Minerva
This project aims to display how the process differs when acquiring a first language, two first languages simultaneously or a second language. The linguistic elements are presented in First Language and Second Language and in bilingualism. We will be looking at Chomsky’s Nativist approach, as well as Behaviorism by Skinner. Also, socio-cultural theory by Vygotsky and the cognitive approach are used. A study will be conducted to find out whether bilinguals can perform as well as native speaker...
This article is devoted to the innovative model for language education Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) which has gained in immense popularity all over the world. Based on communicative approach, CLIL provides progress in language and in the content subject, creativity and independence in language using, developing higher order thinking skills. A successful CLIL lesson should combine such elements as content, communication, cognition and culture
Tolmie, Andrew K; Ghazali, Zayba; Morris, Suzanne
Research has identified the core skills that predict success during primary school in reading and arithmetic, and this knowledge increasingly informs teaching. However, there has been no comparable work that pinpoints the core skills that underlie success in science. The present paper attempts to redress this by examining candidate skills and considering what is known about the way in which they emerge, how they relate to each other and to other abilities, how they change with age, and how their growth may vary between topic areas. There is growing evidence that early-emerging tacit awareness of causal associations is initially separated from language-based causal knowledge, which is acquired in part from everyday conversation and shows inaccuracies not evident in tacit knowledge. Mapping of descriptive and explanatory language onto causal awareness appears therefore to be a key development, which promotes unified conceptual and procedural understanding. This account suggests that the core components of initial science learning are (1) accurate observation, (2) the ability to extract and reason explicitly about causal connections, and (3) knowledge of mechanisms that explain these connections. Observational ability is educationally inaccessible until integrated with verbal description and explanation, for instance, via collaborative group work tasks that require explicit reasoning with respect to joint observations. Descriptive ability and explanatory ability are further promoted by managed exposure to scientific vocabulary and use of scientific language. Scientific reasoning and hypothesis testing are later acquisitions that depend on this integration of systems and improved executive control. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
The main goal consisted in identifying and bringing together strategies of multilinguals as a particular learner group. Therefore, research was placed in the intersection of the three fields: language learning strategies (LLS), third language acquisition (TLA), and the didactics of plurilingualism. First, the paper synthesises the major findings…
Full Text Available Attitude is the most important element in determining one’s achievements in learning the Arabic language either as a full or part-time student. This study is based on the Gardner's socio-educational model, and focuses on two types of motivational orientation, which are integrative and instrumental, and attitudes toward the learning conditions. The main purpose of this study is to identify the level of integrative orientation, attitudes toward the learning conditions and instrumental orientation among students in a Distance Learning (DL program at the Faculty of Islamic Studies (FPI, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM, The National University of Malaysia. This study used a quantitative research design. Data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed descriptively. A total of 170 distance learning students were selected using the simple random sampling technique. Findings show that the students possessed a high level of integrative orientation and their attitudes toward learning environment were positive. The level of instrumental orientation, on the other hand, was very high with the instrumental orientation obtaining the highest mean score. One of the implications that can be drawn from this study is that teachers and students need to take into account and emphasize integrative orientation, attitudes toward learning conditions and instrumental orientation in order to develop a positive attitude in students who aim to master the Arabic language. Other than that, educational institutions should provide support and carry out other related activities and programs in order to ensure that students consistently have positive attitudes whilst achieving excellent results in learning the Arabic language.
Gabbard, Carl P.
The purpose of this article is to briefly describe schema theory and indicate its relevance to early childhood development, with specific reference to children's acquisition of motor skills. Schema theory proposes an explanation of how individuals learn and perform a seemingly endless variety of movements. According to Schmidt (1975), goal…
Pinzon, David; Vega, Roberto; Sanchez, Yerly Paola; Zheng, Bin
It is important for a surgeon to perform surgical tasks under appropriate guidance from visual and kinesthetic feedback. However, our knowledge on kinesthetic (muscle) memory and its role in learning motor skills remains elementary. To discover the effect of exclusive kinesthetic training on kinesthetic memory in both performance and learning. In Phase 1, a total of twenty participants duplicated five 2 dimensional movements of increasing complexity via passive kinesthetic guidance, without visual or auditory stimuli. Five participants were asked to repeat the task in the Phase 2 over a period of three weeks, for a total of nine sessions. Subjects accurately recalled movement direction using kinesthetic memory, but recalling movement length was less precise. Over the nine training sessions, error occurrence dropped after the sixth session. Muscle memory constructs the foundation for kinesthetic training. Knowledge gained helps surgeons learn skills from kinesthetic information in the condition where visual feedback is limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen, Ed.; Félix-Brasdefer, J. César, Ed.
This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 2014 International Conference of Pragmatics and Language Learning at Indiana University. It includes fourteen papers on a variety of topics, with a diversity of first and second languages, and a wide range of methods used to collect pragmatic data in L2 and FL settings. This volume is…
Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias
To help facilitate language learning for immigrants or foreigners arriving to another culture and language, we propose a context-aware mobile application. To expand on the known elements like location, activity, time and identity, we investigate the challenges on including cultural awareness to e...
Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik
What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. PMID:23200510
Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica
Learning a new language involves substantial vocabulary acquisition. Learners can accelerate this process by relying on words with native-language overlap, such as cognates. For bilingual third language learners, it is necessary to determine how their two existing languages interact during novel language learning. A scaffolding account predicts transfer from either language for individual words, whereas an accumulation account predicts cumulative transfer from both languages. To compare these accounts, twenty English-German bilingual adults were taught an artificial language containing 48 novel written words that varied orthogonally in English and German wordlikeness (neighborhood size and orthotactic probability). Wordlikeness in each language improved word production accuracy, and similarity to one language provided the same benefit as dual-language overlap. In addition, participants' memory for novel words was affected by the statistical distributions of letters in the novel language. Results indicate that bilinguals utilize both languages during third language acquisition, supporting a scaffolding learning model.
Juni Bayu Saputra
This article points out the results of the study attempting to solve the speaking problem faced by students in one of the Higher School of Teacher Training and Education (STKIP in Central Lampung. For the purpose of the topic, 30 fellow students were selected as the subject. Research method was Classroom Action Research with Kemmis and Taggart model. It was conducted for about four cycles. According to the results of speaking test, findings showed that using Communicative Language Teaching (CLT had positive meaningful effect on improving students’ speaking skill. To sum up, CLT is an effective method to teach speaking to the subject.
Full Text Available This study investigates international students’ perceptions of the issues they face using English as a second language while attending American higher education institutions. In order to fully understand those challenges involved in learning English as a Second Language, it is necessary to know the extent to which international students have mastered the English language before they start their study in America. Most international students experience an overload of English language input upon arrival in the United States. Cultural differences influence international students’ learning of English in other ways, including international students’ isolation within their communities and America’s lack of teaching listening skills to its own students. Other factors also affect international students’ learning of English, such as the many forms of informal English spoken in the USA, as well as a variety of dialects. Moreover, since most international students have learned English in an environment that precluded much contact with spoken English, they often speak English with an accent that reveals their own language. This study offers informed insight into the complicated process of simultaneously learning the language and culture of another country. Readers will find three main voices in addition to the international students who “speak” (in quotation marks throughout this article. Hong Li, a Chinese doctoral student in English Education at the University of Missouri-Columbia, authored the “regular” text. Second, Roy F. Fox’s voice appears in italics. Fox is Professor of English Education and Chair of the Department of Learning, Teaching, and Curriculum at the University of Missouri-Columbia. Third, Dario J. Almarza’s voice appears in boldface. Almarza, a native of Venezuela, is an Assistant Professor of Social Studies Education at the same institution.
Zou, Bin; Li, Jiaying
Many recent studies have shown that mobile learning can provide potential possibilities for foreign language learners to practice language skills on their smart mobile phones and tablet PCs (e.g. Chang & Hsu, 2011; Egbert, Akasha, Huff, & Lee, 2011; Hoven & Palalas, 2011; Stockwell, 2010). A number of apps have been created and used…
Neoliberal ideology compels people to develop language skills as human capital. As English is considered to be the most useful language for global communication, learning, and teaching, English has been promoted in many countries. However, the belief that English connects people from diverse linguistic backgrounds in a borderless society…
The basic aim of this research is to examine the predicting role of social emotional learning skills in educational stress. The participants were 238 adolescents at high school. In this study, the Social Emotional Learning Skills Scale and the Educational Stress Scale were used. The relationships between social emotional learning skills and…
Almeida, Ana Bela; Puig, Idoya
The international research network, "Literature in the Foreign Language Class" ("Litinclass"), was created with a view of exploring and sharing ideas on the numerous skills and benefits that can be derived from language learning through literature. This paper focuses on how literature can have an important role in the…
This article presents a framework for the elaboration of Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) grammar materials for adults based on the application to SLA of Skill Acquisition Theory (SAT). This theory is argued to compensate for the major drawbacks of FLT settings in comparison with second language contexts (lack of classroom learning time and limited…
Drummond, Helen P.; Selvaratnam, Mailoo
Many students' difficulties in learning and applying chemical knowledge are associated with their being incompetent in a few widely applicable intellectual skills and strategies. This paper discusses the results of a study that was done to test first year university students' competence in some types of intellectual skills that are important in chemistry. The skills tested include language skills, mathematical skills, graphical skills, three-dimensional visualization skills, information proce...
Lany, Jill; Shoaib, Amber; Thompson, Abbie; Estes, Katharine Graf
Infants are adept at learning statistical regularities in artificial language materials, suggesting that the ability to learn statistical structure may support language development. Indeed, infants who perform better on statistical learning tasks tend to be more advanced in parental reports of infants' language skills. Work with adults suggests…
Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton
Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.
The article provides an example of psycho-societal analysis of work related learning. Initially a conceptual framework of learning and life experience is established drawing on Alfred Lorenzer and Oskar Negt, and the interactional development of psychoanalysis. A case of learning experience from...... process, which is related to a career shift enforced by labor market transition requiring male workers to retrain for a social work profession which used to be female, and more widely to a reconfiguration of the societal relation between work and gender. The final section discusses the methodological...... framework for analyzing learning processes by means of interpreting language use. The notion of language game connects the level of unconscious social engagements and level of formal learning and knowledge, and the opportunity for a deeper understanding of professional learning and identity is indicated...
A. N. Astanina
Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, the problem of standardization of foreign language training at the higher school is becoming currently topical. With regard to the processes of globalization, the international educational projects and students exchange programs gain greater international recognition. Such international programmes involve foreign language knowledge graded as not only high certified academic levels but also as basic language skills. The lack of foreign language competence becomes the obstacle for successful training, depriving a future graduate of a part of chances to become the competitive and popular expert in the chosen profession. The success of a foreign language course completion among students depends on many factors; the most important factor is motivation which can affect self-assessment of training results. The aim of the study is to describe possibilities of the CanDos tools implementation for the organization of students self-consciousness and self-assessment of own achievements in order to influence the motivation for mastering a foreign language.Methodology and research methods. The research is based on competencybased approach. The methods involve comparative analysis, synthesis, and generalization.Results and scientific novelty. The questionnaire developed for the experiment helped to collect the data concerning the effectiveness of the CanDos software implementation for self-assessment of students’ foreign language skills. The corresponding self-assessment helps students to carry out a self-reflection of own knowledge and abilities, and to find “weak points” in language proficiency which need additional practice and improvement. By regularly using CanDos software as self-assessment tools, students learn to identify the correspondence of their language competence to the external requirements and standards of education. Orientation to training results will help future experts to create self-motivation that positively
In this paper, I discuss language learning in Wittgenstein and Davidson. Starting from a remark by Bakhurst, I hold that both Wittgenstein and Davidson's philosophies of language contain responses to the problem of language learning, albeit of a different form. Following Williams, I hold that the concept of language learning can explain…
Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F
Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.
Elif Nur Denizer
Full Text Available Mother tongue largely refers to not only the language one learns from one’s mother but also the speaker’s dominant and home language. It’s also called native language. This study was conducted to find whether mother tongue interferences in second-language learning, and if so; whether it affects the learners’ performance in four language skills, and also in which skill(s it has the biggest effect. Data collection tool included a questionnaire by which participants were asked to rate the questions and tick-circle or write in the correct blank. The questionnaire was based on both quantitative and qualitative approaches with the help of 4-point Likert-scale questions and one open-ended question at the last part. The participants of the study were 20 volunteer students (15 females and 5 males in Uludag University on whom the questionnaire was randomly applied. They ranged in age from 18 to 40 and the mean age was 23. Their mother tongue was Turkish, and they knew English as a foreign language. The questionnaire shows that mother tongue interferes with second language learning in some way. In English language, the most challenging part was Grammar, while the most difficult and influenced skills was Speaking. In addition, participants had difficulty with speaking without any preparation. When it comes to having difficulty, participants had difficulty with determiners, English tenses and articles. The results indicated the interference of mother tongue in almost all aspects.
Full Text Available This article examined the rate of self-initiated communication acquisition, in a second language, of a child with autism. The language treatment objective was to teach functional communication skills in English through the use of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS. The findings of this study show that it is possible for a child with autism to acquire functional communication skills in his second language even though he did not possess such communication skills in his first language.
Geertsema, Salomé; Hyman, Charene; van Deventer, Chantelle
SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language) educators in Gauteng regarding the possible influence of SMS language on…
One of the objectives of this paper is to investigate the pedagogical impact of both the mobile testing system PeLe (Norway, HiST) and the enquiry-based learning approach on language skills development in the context of mobile-assisted learning. The research aims to work out a methodological framework of PeLe implementation into the language…
Young, Richard F.
This chapter is framed by the three questions related to learning in Practice Theory posed by Johannes Wagner (2008): (1) What is learned?; (2) Who is learning?; and (3) Who is participating in the learning? These questions are addressed in two learning theories: Language Socialization and Situated Learning theory. In Language Socialization, the…
Full Text Available How can other languages be used in conjunction with English to further intercultural and multilingual learning when teachers and students participate in computer-based global learning networks? Two portraits are presented of multilingual activities in the Orillas and I*EARN learning networks, and are discussed as examples of the principal modalities of communication employed in networking projects between distant classes. Next, an important historical precedent --the social controversy which accompanied the introduction of telephone technology at the end of the last century-- is examined in terms of its implications for language choice in contemporary classroom telecomputing projects. Finally, recommendations are offered to guide decision making concerning the role of language choice in promoting collaborative critical inquiry.
Jillian M. Schuh
Full Text Available While many studies have reported working memory (WM impairments in autism spectrum disorders, others do not. Sample characteristics, WM domain, and task complexity likely contribute to these discrepancies. Although deficits in visuospatial WM have been more consistently documented, there is much controversy regarding verbal WM in autism. The goal of the current study was to explore visuospatial and verbal WM in a well-controlled sample of children with high-functioning autism (HFA and typical development. Individuals ages 9–17 with HFA (n = 18 and typical development (n = 18, were carefully matched on gender, age, IQ, and language, and were administered a series of standardized visuospatial and verbal WM tasks. The HFA group displayed significant impairment across WM domains. No differences in performance were noted across WM tasks for either the HFA or typically developing groups. Over and above nonverbal cognition, WM abilities accounted for significant variance in language skills and symptom severity. The current study suggests broad WM limitations in HFA. We further suggest that deficits in verbal WM are observed in more complex tasks, as well as in simpler tasks, such as phonological WM. Increased task complexity and linguistic demands may influence WM abilities.
Bullying has become a major problem in schools worldwide. It might escalate to serious forms of anti-social behaviour, therefore the teaching of social skills are important in the school as a whole. The language classroom is the ideal place to teach social and communication skills. In the whole language approach, combined ...
Full Text Available is required for tertiary education. Unfortunately, cell phones are often blamed for the degradation of language skills. There have been many studies blaming cell phone usage and instant messaging as being responsible for the lack of language skills of children...
Full Text Available Abstract Through research and classroom observation undertaken while conceptualizing and implementing the Intensive French program in Canada, many new insights were gained into the development of communication skills in a classroom situation. Five lessons learned about the development of spontaneous oral communication are presented in this article: the ineffectiveness of core French in primary school; the minimum number of intensive hours necessary to develop spontaneous oral communication; the need to develop implicit competence rather than explicit knowledge; the distinction between accuracy as knowledge and accuracy as skill; and the importance of teaching strategies focusing on language use. These lessons have implications for our understanding of how oral competence in an L2 develops and for the improvement of communicative language pedagogy.
Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Kupiainen, Sirkku; Hotulainen, Risto; Hautamäki, Jarkko
In Finland, schools' effectiveness in fostering the development of transversal skills is evaluated through large-scale learning to learn (LTL) assessments. This article presents how LTL skills--general cognitive competences and learning-related motivational beliefs--develop during primary school and how they predict pupils' CPS skills at the end…
Mark B. Ulla
Full Text Available Learners’ success in language learning always has implications for curriculum and instruction. Thus, it is important to take into account the kinds of learning experiences that these learners will find helpful in learning English as a foreign language; and, highlight them when planning a curriculum and adapting classroom activities. This study, with 72 first year engineering students, 3 English for Specific Purposes (ESP teachers of King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT Ratchaburi, and 3 other stakeholders as respondents, aimed to identify the Thai engineering students’ linguistic needs and the language skills needed for them to get a job in the future. It also assessed whether the linguistic needs and the language skills required for the students were addressed in the curriculum. Methods used in this study were modified questionnaire, focus groups and semistructured individual interviews. Findings revealed that students wanted to go abroad and to be successful in their future careers; thus, considered speaking as the most important skill to be developed and should be emphasized in their English classes. Students preferred to learn through engaging classroom activities and strategies, exposure to the language, and use of technology in the classroom. However, the ESP curriculum did not provide these linguistic needs and language skills.
Norma Esmeralda RODRÍGUEZ RAMÍREZ
Full Text Available This article presents the results and reflections obtained across a research aimed to analyze the quality criteria of an opened learning object oriented to develop communication skills in order to be able to report and validate it according to its content, pedagogic structure, technological structure, graphical and textual language and usability to teacher training, in order to base it theoretically, pedagogically and technologically. The research question was: Which are the quality criteria that a learning object aimed to develop communication skills must cover? Under a quantitative approach, there were electronic questionnaires applied to: 34 Technological University teachers, eight experts about of communicative competence, teaching, technology and graphic design. The results indicated that some of the quality criteria of learning object are: the effective managing of the learning content, the balanced composition of his pedagogic structure, the technological structure efficiency and the proper managing of graphical and textual language.
Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy
Oral language development can help English learners develop academic proficiency with the English language. In this investigation, at one middle school, teachers focused on improving oral language skills. Using a formative experiment process, the teachers developed an intervention to accomplish their pedagogical goal and then tracked data to see…
Francesca Romero Forteza
Full Text Available Nowadays there are many approaches aimed at helping learners acquire knowledge through the Internet. Virtual Learning Environments (VLE facilitate the acquisition and practice of skills, but some of these learning platforms are not evaluated or do not follow a standard that guarantees the quality of the tasks involved. In this paper, we set out a proposal for the standardization of the evaluation of VLEs available on the World Wide Web. Thus, the main objective of this study is to establish an evaluation template with which to test whether a VLE is appropriate for computer-assisted language learning (CALL. In the methodology section, a learning platform is analysed and tested to establish the characteristics learning platforms must have. Having established the design of the template for language learning environments, we concluded that a VLE must be versatile enough for application with different language learning and teaching approaches.
Sergio Di Carlo
Full Text Available Over time, definitions and taxonomies of language learning strategies have been critically examined. This article defines and classifies cognitive language learning strategies on a more grounded basis. Language learning is a macro-process for which the general hypotheses of information processing are valid. Cognitive strategies are represented by the pillars underlying the encoding, storage and retrieval of information. In order to understand the processes taking place on these three dimensions, a functional model was elaborated from multiple theoretical contributions and previous models: the Smart Processing Model. This model operates with linguistic inputs as well as with any other kind of information. It helps to illustrate the stages, relations, modules and processes that occur during the flow of information. This theoretical advance is a core element to classify cognitive strategies. Contributions from cognitive neuroscience have also been considered to establish the proposed classification which consists of five categories. Each of these categories has a different predominant function: classification, preparation, association, elaboration and transfer-practice. This better founded taxonomy opens the doors to potential studies that would allow a better understanding of the interdisciplinary complexity of language learning. Pedagogical and methodological implications are also discussed.
Norton, Bonny; Toohey, Kelleen
In this review article on identity, language learning, and social change, we argue that contemporary poststructuralist theories of language, identity, and power offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching, and have been of considerable interest in our field. We first review poststructuralist theories of language, subjectivity, and…
Libertus, Klaus; Violi, Dominic A
Relations between walking skills and language development have been reported in 10- to 14-month-old infants. However, whether earlier emerging motor milestones also affect language skills remains unknown. The current research fills this gap by examining the relation between reaching and sitting skills and later language development, respectively. Reaching and sitting were assessed eight times, starting when infants (N = 29) were around 3 months of age. All assessments were completed and recorded remotely via videoconference using Skype or FaceTime. Subsequently, infants' language and motor skills were assessed via parent questionnaires (Communicative Development Inventories and Early Motor Questionnaire) at 10 and 14 months of age. Results revealed a significant correlation between the emergence of sitting skills and receptive vocabulary size at 10 and 14 months of age. Regression analyses further confirmed this pattern and revealed that the emergence of sitting is a significant predictor of subsequent language development above and beyond influences of concurrent motor skills. These findings suggest that the onset of independent sitting may initiate a developmental cascade that results in increased language learning opportunities. Further, this study also demonstrates how infants' early motor skills can be assessed remotely using videoconference.
Full Text Available Relations between walking skills and language development have been reported in 10- to 14-month-old infants. However, whether earlier emerging motor milestones also affect language skills remains unknown. The current research fills this gap by examining the relation between reaching and sitting skills and later language development respectively. Reaching and sitting were assessed eight times, starting when infants (N=29 were around three months of age. All assessments were completed and recorded remotely via videoconference using Skype or FaceTime. Subsequently, infants’ language and motor skills were assessed via parent questionnaires (Communicative Development Inventories and Early Motor Questionnaire at 10 and 14 months of age. Results revealed a significant correlation between the emergence of sitting skills and receptive vocabulary size at 10 and 14 months of age. Regression analyses further confirmed this pattern and revealed that the emergence of sitting is a significant predictor of subsequent language development above and beyond influences of concurrent motor skills. These findings suggest that the onset of independent sitting may initiate a developmental cascade that results in increased language learning opportunities. Further, this study also demonstrates how infants’ early motor skills can be assessed remotely using videoconference.
Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth
Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language. This article is part of the themed issue ‘New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences’. PMID:27872370
Smith, Kenny; Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth
Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language.This article is part of the themed issue 'New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences'. © 2016 The Authors.
Full Text Available The paper presents a meta-analysis of 37 scientific papers dealing with the use and adoption of ICT for learning and teaching Chinese as a foreign language. It has shown that systematic content reviews providing overall insight into the nature and level of development in the field are rare. The author tries to fill this content gap by answering three research questions: 1 What is the overall state of research in the field of ICT-assisted learning of CFL in terms of language teaching methods? 2 Which learning technologies are in use for the specific teaching and learning methods for Chinese as a foreign language? 3 Are some learning technologies used more often for practis ng specific language skills than others?
Evaluating the nature and extent of the influence of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on the quality of language learning is highly problematic. This is owing to the number and complexity of interacting variables involved in setting the items for teaching and learning languages. This paper identified and ...
Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep
The purpose of this study was to determine the use of language learning strategies of e-learners and to understand whether there were any correlations between language learning strategies and academic achievement. Participants of the study were 274?e-learners, 132 males and 142 females, enrolled in an e-learning program from various majors and…
Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Leeuwe, Jan; van Balkom, Hans
In this study, we investigated which componential skills can be distinguished in the second language (L2) development of 140 bilingual children with specific language impairment in the Netherlands, aged 6-11 years, divided into 3 age groups. L2 development was assessed by means of spoken language tasks representing different language skills…
Full Text Available Taking into account severa1 limitations of communicative language teaching (CLT, this paper calls for the need to consider research on language use and learning through communication as a basis for language teaching. It will be argued that a reflective approach towards language teaching and learning might be generated, which is explained in terms of the need to develop a context-sensitive pedagogy and in terms of teachers' and learners' development.
Gaved, Mark; Peasgood, Alice
There is great interest in the potential of smartphones to enable language learning during daily activities. However, this overlooks the paradox faced by migrant learners that while they have the educational goal of seeking to improve their language skills, they also have the cultural goal of fitting into the host society. Inappropriate use of…
Besides focusing on grammar, writing skills, and web-based language learning, researchers in "CALL" and second language acquisition have also argued for the importance of promoting higher-order thinking skills in ESL (English as Second Language) and EFL (English as Foreign Language) classrooms. There is solid evidence supporting the…
Full Text Available India is a multilingual country. English is the second most important language in the country after the national language Hindi since it is taught as a compulsory subject in all the Indian schools. In the educational system of a multilingual country, it becomes imperative to improve the English Language teaching skills of the school teachers who come from various linguistic backgrounds. The school teacher plays a vital role in the development of linguistic skills of the students. What children learn can affect their later success or failure in school, work, and their personal lives. As such, the school teachers need to improve their own English language skills if they are teaching without any previous English language training. This paper throws light on the communicative approach of English language teaching. It introduces the Certificate in Teaching of English (CTE programme of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU and outlines the syllabus and the methods used by the university to impart English Language Teaching skills to the elementary/secondary school teachers through this programme with the objective to enhance teacher’s understanding of the learners and their learning process.
Mariia A. Umryk
Full Text Available In the research it was reviewed the use of distance learning technologies in the organization of research tasks while studying modern programming languages. The article contains an example of a training project on the subject "Modern programming languages". The authors argue the necessity of the use of modern information and communication technologies, in particular in modern programming languages distance learning, for the formation of students' 21st century skills that are essential in the process of programming (it is skills such as self-organization and self-discipline, communication skills, teamwork skills etc.. It is pointed out the structural units of the training project in accordance with the use of distance learning technologies. It is described the general characteristics and the use of appropriate methods of modern information and communication technologies.
Full Text Available New technologies including digital game-based language learning have increasingly received attention. However, their implementation is far from expected and desired levels due to technical, instructional, financial and sociological barriers. Previous studies suggest that there is a strong need to establish courses in order to support adaptation of game-based learning pedagogy through helping teachers experience digital games themselves before they are expected to use them in teaching. This study was conducted to investigate educational digital games in foreign language teaching, to identify the determining reasons behind the pittfalls in applications and to explore the contribution of a serious game to the development of professional language skills of pre-service teachers. Pre- and post-tests were applied to measure the contribution of the game to the development of their language skills. In addition, a game diary and semi-structured interviews were used to elicit information about the problems pre-service teachers had and their perceptions on the whole process. The analysis of the data illustrated that there was great improvement in pre-service teachers’ professional language skills and attitudes towards using these games while teaching in the future. This is important in foreign language teacher education in terms of enhancing digital game-based language learning pedagogy for teachers.
Please, cite this publication as: Kremenska, A. (2006). Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL): Using Internet for Effective Language Learning. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia,
Zahra Abolhassani Chimeh
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of those activities which are based on all types of strategies for teaching conversational skills. These strategies are practiced in the form of 17 activities and their effectiveness on the oral language performane of Persian learners has been investigated. The second language learning strategies in this research are dependent on two Kuhn's paradigms and include "learning" and "using" second language. The former consists of recognition and acceptance of materials, distinction from other materials, categorizing them for a better learning, constant involvement with materials, using common memorization methods for rehearsal to improve natural conversation learning. The teacher's Linguistics and Iranology knowledge in choosing teaching materials, producing similarities and differences in two languages, lexical and syntactic categorizations of activities based on the first to the third strategies were implemented in the classroom. Informal gatherings, appropriate assignments of certain tasks like memorizing the dialogues or proverbs were practiced for the fourth and the fifth strategies. These strategies were applied on 19 undergaduate intermediate Persian language learners, with Slav mother tongue in 5 successive semesters from 2011 to 2013. In this research, it was affirmed that there is a positive correlation between using strategic activities with the improvement of converational skill of language learners. That is, the more learners are active in the activities related to strategies, the better they become in the conversational skill.
Eriksson, Mårten; Marschik, Peter B; Tulviste, Tiia
The present study explored gender differences in emerging language skills in 13,783 European children from 10 non-English language communities. It was based on a synthesis of published data assessed with adapted versions of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) from age 0.......08 to 2.06. The results showed that girls are slightly ahead of boys in early communicative gestures, in productive vocabulary, and in combining words. The difference increased with age. Boys were not found to be more variable than girls. Despite extensive variation in language skills between language...
To, Carol K S; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin
Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language disorders (LD). Nineteen Cantonese-speaking students aged 5;8-6;8 who were diagnosed with LD were recruited from a school that used Putonghua (an alternative Chinese dialect) as the MOI when learning Chinese language and were compared with 18 age-and-gender-matched Cantonese-speaking students with LD from a school that used Cantonese as the MOI when learning Chinese language. All the students also learned English (L2) as a subject at school. Proficiency in Cantonese was tested at the beginning and the end of the semester in Grade One in terms of: (1) grammar, (2) expressive vocabulary, (3) auditory textual comprehension, (4) word definition and (5) narration. Mixed-model ANOVAs revealed an effect of time on language proficiency indicating positive gains in both groups. Interaction effects between time and group were not significant. There was a trend that children learning Putonghua showed slightly more improvement in auditory textual comprehension. Proficiency gains were similar across groups. The study found no evidence that a multilingual learning environment hinders the language proficiency in L1 in students who have LD. © 2011 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Brown, Freddy Jackson; Gillard, Duncan
This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of a classroom based learning programme in the acquisition of road safety skills. The participant, a child with severe learning disabilities, was taught road safety behaviours in the classroom with the aid of photograph cards. When he had mastered these skills in the classroom, he returned to the…
Hugo, Anna J.
Full Text Available Music activities can be used to develop and enhance young learners’ listening abilities. Listening is a language skill which is a prerequisite for the development of other language skills and especially for the development of a person’s speaking abilities. It is also a prerequisite for the development of a person’s language abilities in a second language. In a research project involving a group of 70 English first additional language learners, two Grade 1 classes were selected. One class was the experimental group and the other class was the comparison group. Over a period of six months the experimental group received planned music activities daily. When the two groups were retested after six months, significant differences in the means between the experimental and the control groups were found. The experimental group significantly improved their listening skills in English as a second language (ESL. This has implications for teaching ESL learners in the Foundation Phase.
why people enjoy different degrees of success in second language learning,given similar opportunities.in the presence of overly negative emotions such as anxiety,fear,stress,anger or depression,our optimal learning potential maybe compromised.the affective domain refers to the emotional domain that has to do with the emotional behavior of human beings.it includes such factors as self-confidence,extroversion,anxiety,attitudes and motivation.three major factors are introduced here:self-confidence,anxiety and motivation.
Background Motor skill learning (MSL) is the persistent increase in performance of a skill obtained through practice. This process is associated with changes throughout the central nervous system. One of these is a change in corticospinal excitability (CSE) assessable with Transcranial Magnetic...... a novel visuomotor skill. I hypothesized that changes in CSE accompanying long-term motor practice relate to the process of learning rather than repetitive practice on an acquired skill and investigated this by incrementally increasing task difficulty and thus postponing saturation of learning....... Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of applying paired associative stimulation to the investigation of learning-dependent motor cortical plasticity by comparing the transient increase in CSE accompanying motor skill learning to the associative plasticity induced by pairing electrical motor...
This article traces how a language and soft skills training approach to Canadian immigrant integration emerged with Canada's shift towards a post-industrial tertiary economy. In this economy, soft skills index characteristics of ideal workers that fit the needs of Canada's post-Fordist labour regime. It examines how skills' training is not viewed…
Sparks, R L
In this paper, it is suggested that foreign language learning problems result from difficulties with native language learning and hypothesized that difficulties with phonological processing may be the locus of foreign language learning difficulties for some poor foreign language learners. Evidence is described that supports these positions. It is argued that conceptualizing foreign language learning problems as alanguage problem allows researchers to more clearly specify deficits related to the learning of a foreign language. Research evidence which shows that good and poor foreign language learners exhibit significantly different levels of native language skill and phonological processing is summarized. Finally, potential challenges to my hypotheses as an explanation for foreign language learning problems are reviewed.
The Four Skills News Project is an example of communicative language learning, developed for final year German students at the University of Liverpool. It focuses on how students use and practise their reading, writing, listening and speaking skills via the creative use of news reports and digital technology. Each student creates an avatar using…
Butgereit, Laurie; Botha, Adele; van Niekerk, Daniel
Language skills are essential for education and economic development. Many countries (especially in Africa) have more than one official language and even more unofficial languages. Being able to express oneself effectively in the written word is required for tertiary education. Unfortunately, cell phones are often blamed for the degradation of language skills. There have been many studies blaming cell phone usage and instant messaging as being responsible for the the lack of language skills of children, teenagers, and young adults. Hadeda is a facility where teachers and parents can create spelling lists for pupils and children using either a cell phone or an internet based workstation. Hadeda then generates a fun and enjoyable cell phone midlet (computer program) which pupils and children can download onto their personal cell phone. Hadeda pronounces the words with electronic voices and the pupils and children can then practice their spelling on a medium they enjoy.
The study reported on in this paper investigated the concurrent development of spelling in children learning two languages. The study compared over time and between languages the types of spelling errors made in English as a first language and French as a second. Fortyseven grade one English-speaking children completed an English and French…
This paper reports on part of the first phase of a longitudinal project investigating the development of academic language in English as the Language of Teaching and Learning (LoLT) by Foundation phase learners in two different educational contexts. In the first context, the learners were all English additional language ...
Moloney, Robyn; Harbon, Lesley
While languages education (Liddicoat, 2002) is being transformed by intercultural language learning theory, there is little illustration of either how students are achieving intercultural learning or how to assess it. This article reports on a study of high school language students in Sydney, Australia. Its findings make visible student…
Sparks, Richard; Ganschow, Leonore
Review research on foreign language aptitude and its measurement prior to 1990. Describes research areas in the 1990s, including affective variables, language learning strategies, learning styles as contributors to aptitude and aptitude as a cognitive construct affected by language variables. Reviews research on individual differences and the…
Mawer, Giselle; Fletcher, Lee; McCall, Julia; O'Grady, Catherine; Ong, Bee Jong
Interweaving theory and commentary with case studies, this book explores a multifaceted approach to workplace education that develops workers' skills and integrates learning, language, and cross-cultural issues into work, communication, and management practices. Chapter 1 explores the changing world of work and implications for workforce skill…
Genç, Gülten; Kulusakh, Emine; Aydin, Savas
Emotional intelligence has recently attracted educators' attention around the world. Educators who try to investigate the factors in language learning achievement have decided to pave the way to success through emotional intelligence. The relationship between emotional intelligence and language learning is the major concern of this study. The…
There are abundant possibilities for using smart phones and tablet computers for foreign language learning. However, if there is an emphasis on memorization or on technology, language learners may not develop proficiency in their target language. Therefore, language teachers should be familiar with strategies for facilitating creative…
Hall, Robert A., Jr.
This text focuses on the nature of language learning in the light of modern linguistic analysis. Common linguistic problems encountered by students of eight major languages are examined--Latin, Greek, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, German, and Russian. The text discusses the nature of language, building new language habits, overcoming…
Mani, Nivedita; Huettig, Falk
Despite the efficiency with which language users typically process spoken language, a growing body of research finds substantial individual differences in both the speed and accuracy of spoken language processing potentially attributable to participants' literacy skills. Against this background, the current study took a look at the role of word reading skill in listeners' anticipation of upcoming spoken language input in children at the cusp of learning to read; if reading skills affect predictive language processing, then children at this stage of literacy acquisition should be most susceptible to the effects of reading skills on spoken language processing. We tested 8-year-olds on their prediction of upcoming spoken language input in an eye-tracking task. Although children, like in previous studies to date, were successfully able to anticipate upcoming spoken language input, there was a strong positive correlation between children's word reading skills (but not their pseudo-word reading and meta-phonological awareness or their spoken word recognition skills) and their prediction skills. We suggest that these findings are most compatible with the notion that the process of learning orthographic representations during reading acquisition sharpens pre-existing lexical representations, which in turn also supports anticipation of upcoming spoken words. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J.; Göbel, Silke M.; Hulme, Charles
Two important foundations for learning are language and executive skills. Data from a longitudinal study tracking the development of 93 children at family-risk of dyslexia and 76 controls was used to investigate the influence of these skills on the development of arithmetic. A two-group longitudinal path model assessed the relationships between language and executive skills at 3–4 years, verbal number skills (counting and number knowledge) and phonological processing skills at 4–5 years, and written arithmetic in primary school. The same cognitive processes accounted for variability in arithmetic skills in both groups. Early language and executive skills predicted variations in preschool verbal number skills, which in turn, predicted arithmetic skills in school. In contrast, phonological awareness was not a predictor of later arithmetic skills. These results suggest that verbal and executive processes provide the foundation for verbal number skills, which in turn influence the development of formal arithmetic skills. Problems in early language development may explain the comorbidity between reading and mathematics disorder. PMID:26412946
Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J; Göbel, Silke M; Hulme, Charles
Two important foundations for learning are language and executive skills. Data from a longitudinal study tracking the development of 93 children at family-risk of dyslexia and 76 controls was used to investigate the influence of these skills on the development of arithmetic. A two-group longitudinal path model assessed the relationships between language and executive skills at 3-4 years, verbal number skills (counting and number knowledge) and phonological processing skills at 4-5 years, and written arithmetic in primary school. The same cognitive processes accounted for variability in arithmetic skills in both groups. Early language and executive skills predicted variations in preschool verbal number skills, which in turn, predicted arithmetic skills in school. In contrast, phonological awareness was not a predictor of later arithmetic skills. These results suggest that verbal and executive processes provide the foundation for verbal number skills, which in turn influence the development of formal arithmetic skills. Problems in early language development may explain the comorbidity between reading and mathematics disorder.
Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne
There are no known biomedical or genetic markers to identify which infants with galactosaemia (GAL) are most at risk of poor language skill development, yet pre-linguistic communicative "red flag" behaviours are recognised as early identifiers of heightened vulnerability to impaired language development. We report on pre-linguistic…
Full Text Available Language and gesture are highly interdependent systems that reciprocally influence each other. For example, performing a gesture when learning a word or a phrase enhances its retrieval compared to pure verbal learning. Although the enhancing effects of co-speech gestures on memory are known to be robust, the underlying neural mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we summarize the results of behavioral and neuroscientific studies. They indicate that the neural representation of words consists of complex multimodal networks connecting perception and motor acts that occur during learning. In this context, gestures can reinforce the sensorimotor representation of a word or a phrase, making it resistant to decay. Also, gestures can favor embodiment of abstract words by creating it from scratch. Thus, we propose the use of gesture as a facilitating educational tool that integrates body and mind.
Neoliberal transformation of self, learning, and teaching constructs individuals as bundles of skills (or human capital) and subordinates learning to skill production characterized by an ethic of entrepreneurial self-management [Urciuoli, Bonnie. 2010. "Neoliberal Education: Preparing the Student for the New Workplace." In…
Kontio, Janne; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin
The present article deals with language choice as communicative strategies in the language learning environment of an English-medium content and language integrated learning (CLIL) workshop at an auto mechanics class in a Swedish upper secondary school. The article presents the organisation and functions of language alternations (LAs) which are…
Spangenberg, Cynthia Pont
Results of a study involving 20 hard of hearing school aged students indicated that Ss in two experimental conditions (language stimulation by Big Brothers or Big Sisters and special training in oral and written language skills with a hearing specialist) increased in the complexity of their oral language more than control Ss did. (CL)
Banerjee, Rashida; Alsalman, Amani; Alqafari, Shehana
English language learners are often at risk for communication and language delays--crucial elements in the foundation of early literacy skills. Studies have shown that preschool children involved in sociodramatic play demonstrate greater proficiency and interest in language development and reading. The manuscript shares evidence-based strategies…
Renner, Fritz; Kersbergen, Inge; Field, Matt; Werthmann, Jessica
A popular belief is that alcohol improves the ability to speak in a foreign language. The effect of acute alcohol consumption on perceived foreign language performance and actual foreign language performance in foreign language learners has not been investigated. The aim of the current study was to test the effects of acute alcohol consumption on self-rated and observer-rated verbal foreign language performance in participants who have recently learned this language. Fifty native German speakers who had recently learned Dutch were randomized to receive either a low dose of alcohol or a control beverage that contained no alcohol. Following the experimental manipulation, participants took part in a standardized discussion in Dutch with a blinded experimenter. The discussion was audio-recorded and foreign language skills were subsequently rated by two native Dutch speakers who were blind to the experimental condition (observer-rating). Participants also rated their own individual Dutch language skills during the discussion (self-rating). Participants who consumed alcohol had significantly better observer-ratings for their Dutch language, specifically better pronunciation, compared with those who did not consume alcohol. However, alcohol had no effect on self-ratings of Dutch language skills. Acute alcohol consumption may have beneficial effects on the pronunciation of a foreign language in people who have recently learned that language.
Tippins, Deborah; And Others
Describes teaching strategies, including science activities, for challenging students' misconceptions about turtles and helping limited-English-proficiency students enhance their language proficiency. (PR)
This paper selects one of classifications of motivation in foreign language learning,that is,instrumental and integrative motivation.By analyzing such a distinction,it hopes to direct foreign language teaching in China.
Language learning is a very complex process, which is related to many factors, either internal or external. Affective factors plays an important role in a second language learning. If only we realize such affective factors, we can overcome the emotional barriers effectively and have a successful learning.
Toppelberg, Claudio O; Medrano, Laura; Peña Morgens, Liana; Nieto-Castañon, Alfonso
To investigate (1) the prevalence of language deficits and disorders and (2) the relationship of bilingual language skills and psychopathology, in Spanish-English bilingual children referred for child and adolescent psychiatry services. Bilingual language skills, emotional/behavioral problems, sociodemographics, immigration variables, and nonverbal IQ were studied in 50 consecutively referred children. Estimated prevalence was high for language deficits (48%) and disorders (41%), with most cases (>79%) being of the mixed receptive-expressive type. In children with clinically significant emotional/behavioral problems, bilingual language skills were strongly and inversely correlated with problem scores, particularly global problems (r = -0.67, p or = -0.54; p language disorders and delays and (2) the close tie between poor language skills and emotional/behavioral problems. The data strongly suggest the clinical importance and feasibility of language assessment and the significance of receptive problems in bilingual children referred for psychiatric services. A safe approach is to fully assess language skills, rather than misattributing these children's language delays to normal bilingual acquisition processes.
Under the situation of economic globalization today, the internationalization of advertising is becoming more and more obvious. All enterprises in all countries are meeting the same international, global problem, the problem of advertising translation. When dealing with advertising translation, we should take full account of language habits and cultural background of target customers. Therefore, it turns out to be important that we should be familiar with the language characteristics and translation skills of English advertisements. In this paper, I will introduce the language characteristics of English advertisements from three aspects of words, syntax and rhetorical devices, and introduce skills of advertising translation.
James A. Ejiwale
Full Text Available The engagement of students in service learning will help them acquire and improve on necessary leadership skills required of them upon graduation. This is essential to help prepare and put the graduates of STEM programs at the forefront of employment in the new industrial revolution. It is therefore important that STEM majors should participate in service learning so as to discharge their civic responsibility and to improve their leadership skills. This paper addresses the forms, assessment and the need for service learning in STEM programs and how it can help develop the leadership skills of Â the participants.
Linda Joy Mesh
Full Text Available Sustainable support for educational development using new technologies in higher education depends on having a basic roadmap that links current demands for developmental support to a plan for ways in which longer term needs will be recognized and met. The growing demand for lifelong learning of a second language is evident within the workplace where new technologies offer flexible solutions. In order to meet the special needs of working adults, the University of Siena Language Center (CLA has developed a multiple-level series of blended English courses from beginner to intermediate level for both university technical-administrative personnel and the hospital staff of the Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese (AOUS. The pedagogical approach takes into consideration both the needs of adults who are working full-time and the aims of the curriculum, which are to develop the four linguistic abilities of reading, writing, listening and speaking up to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR Level B1. Taking into consideration a constructive use of both teaching hours and classrooms, as well as the limited time available to adult learners, a blended approach was chosen. The face-to-face (f2f lessons provide activities concentrating on the development of speaking and listening skills. The online lessons provide a collaborative workspace for interaction in the second language and present a flexible solution for working adults who can structure their study time when and where it is most convenient. This paper will attempt to draw several conclusions regarding the effectiveness of blending approaches for lifelong learning of a second language based on both learner and teacher interviews as well as quantitative and qualitative data collection through questionnaires and end of course evaluation.
It argues that this could be achieved through an approach that integrates the teaching of vocabulary and grammar with the teaching of critical language awareness. ... The results indicate how using the integrated approach in question can facilitate not only second-language learners' acquisition of linguistic competence in ...
Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida
The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.
The mastery of English learning is influenced by some variables, one of them is motivation. Motivation in learning second language is classified as integrative motivation and instrumental motivation. Some experts of language teaching also categorized motivation into two types namely intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. This paper discusses about kinds of motivation and how it takes a role in influencing students mastery in learning language. It was literature study that focused to f...
Ferman, Sara; Karni, Avi
A leading notion is that language skill acquisition declines between childhood and adulthood. While several lines of evidence indicate that declarative ("what", explicit) memory undergoes maturation, it is commonly assumed that procedural ("how-to", implicit) memory, in children, is well established. The language superiority of children has been ascribed to the childhood reliance on implicit learning. Here we show that when 8-year-olds, 12-year-olds and young adults were provided with an equivalent multi-session training experience in producing and judging an artificial morphological rule (AMR), adults were superior to children of both age groups and the 8-year-olds were the poorest learners in all task parameters including in those that were clearly implicit. The AMR consisted of phonological transformations of verbs expressing a semantic distinction: whether the preceding noun was animate or inanimate. No explicit instruction of the AMR was provided. The 8-year-olds, unlike most adults and 12-year-olds, failed to explicitly uncover the semantic aspect of the AMR and subsequently to generalize it accurately to novel items. However, all participants learned to apply the AMR to repeated items and to generalize its phonological patterns to novel items, attaining accurate and fluent production, and exhibiting key characteristics of procedural memory. Nevertheless, adults showed a clear advantage in learning implicit task aspects, and in their long-term retention. Thus, our findings support the notion of age-dependent maturation in the establishment of declarative but also of procedural memory in a complex language task. In line with recent reports of no childhood advantage in non-linguistic skill learning, we propose that under some learning conditions adults can effectively express their language skill acquisition potential. Altogether, the maturational effects in the acquisition of an implicit AMR do not support a simple notion of a language skill learning advantage
Full Text Available A leading notion is that language skill acquisition declines between childhood and adulthood. While several lines of evidence indicate that declarative ("what", explicit memory undergoes maturation, it is commonly assumed that procedural ("how-to", implicit memory, in children, is well established. The language superiority of children has been ascribed to the childhood reliance on implicit learning. Here we show that when 8-year-olds, 12-year-olds and young adults were provided with an equivalent multi-session training experience in producing and judging an artificial morphological rule (AMR, adults were superior to children of both age groups and the 8-year-olds were the poorest learners in all task parameters including in those that were clearly implicit. The AMR consisted of phonological transformations of verbs expressing a semantic distinction: whether the preceding noun was animate or inanimate. No explicit instruction of the AMR was provided. The 8-year-olds, unlike most adults and 12-year-olds, failed to explicitly uncover the semantic aspect of the AMR and subsequently to generalize it accurately to novel items. However, all participants learned to apply the AMR to repeated items and to generalize its phonological patterns to novel items, attaining accurate and fluent production, and exhibiting key characteristics of procedural memory. Nevertheless, adults showed a clear advantage in learning implicit task aspects, and in their long-term retention. Thus, our findings support the notion of age-dependent maturation in the establishment of declarative but also of procedural memory in a complex language task. In line with recent reports of no childhood advantage in non-linguistic skill learning, we propose that under some learning conditions adults can effectively express their language skill acquisition potential. Altogether, the maturational effects in the acquisition of an implicit AMR do not support a simple notion of a language skill
White, Lisa J; Alexander, Alexandra; Greenfield, Daryl B
Early childhood marks a time of dynamic development within language and cognitive domains. Specifically, a body of research focuses on the development of language as related to executive functions, which are foundational cognitive skills that relate to both academic achievement and social-emotional development during early childhood and beyond. Although there is evidence to support the relationship between language and executive functions, existing studies focus mostly on vocabulary and fail to examine other components of language such as syntax and language learning skills. To address this gap, this study examined the relationship between executive functioning (EF) and three aspects of language: syntax, vocabulary, and language learning. A diverse sample of 182 children (67% Latino and 33% African American) attending Head Start were assessed on both EF and language ability. Findings demonstrated that EF related to a comprehensive latent construct of language composed of vocabulary, syntax, and language learning. EF also related to each individual component of language. This study furthers our understanding of the complex relationship between language and cognitive development by measuring EF as it relates to various components of language in a sample of preschoolers from low-income backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Learning Greek as a second or foreign language has drawn the attention of many researchers throughout time. A dictionary is amongst the first things a foreign language student uses. Reading comprehension is significantly improved by the use of a dictionary, especially when this includes the way words are pronounced. We developed a assistance software for learning the Greek Language via Greeklish. Since, the basic vocabulary of a language is the basis of understanding the language itself, the dictionary proposed aims to make the basic Greek words easier to pronounce as well as to give the explanation of the word in English. The aim of this software is to provide a useful tool to learn the Greek language individually. Moreover, it aims to be involved, as an assistance tool for learning Greek as a second or foreign language.
Full Text Available We present findings of a project that investigated the potential of an online tandem program to enhance the foreign language learning of two groups of school-aged beginner learners, one learning English in Colombia and the other learning Spanish in New Zealand. We assessed the impact of the project on students’ learning with a free writing activity done as pretest and posttest and used a semi-structured interview to explore their attitudes towards language learning and their perceived development of their native language. Data analysis indicated statistically significant gains in foreign language writing and positive attitudinal changes toward foreign and native language learning.
Yeadon-Lee, Annie; Hall, Roger
There has been increasing criticism of the relevance of the Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree in developing skills and competencies. Action learning, devised to address problem solving in the
Chen, Chi Wai Jason
This study is to investigate the effectiveness of using mobile devices such as iPhone/iPad/android phone/tablet to facilitate mobile learning in aural skills. The application "Auralbook" was designed in 2011 by an engineer/musician to use mobile devices to learn aural skills. This application enables students to sing, record, clap and…
Rasmussen, Ann Marie
This article describes an undergraduate, German-language course that aimed to improve students' language skills, critical thinking, and declarative knowledge of German history and culture by studying multiple manifestations of the legend of Siegfried the Dragonslayer. The course used web-based e-learning tools to address two major learning…
Full Text Available This study uses voice blogs as a platform for an extensive study of language learners’ speaking skills. To triangulate the findings, the study collected data by surveying the learners’ blogging processes, investigating learning strategies, and conducting retrospective interviews. The results revealed that students (a developed a series of blogging stages, including conceptualizing, brainstorming, articulation, monitoring, and evaluating, and used a wide variety of strategies to cope with blogging-related difficulties, and (b perceived blogging as a means of learning, self-presentation, information exchange, and social networking. Findings suggest that blogs can constitute a dynamic forum that fosters extensive practice, learning motivation, authorship, and development of learning strategies.
Clark, N. Cecil; Thompson, Faith E.
A major goal of the elementary and secondary schools is to help each person become an efficient and autonomous learner. Outlined in this report are skills abstracted from the literature on such topics as verbal learning, problem solving, study habits, and behavior modification. The learner-oriented skills are presented so that they may be…
Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.
Teamwork skills are required at work, but teacher efforts in many countries to track achievement within this context have been hindered by lack of assessment tools and input from students. The Teamwork Skills Inventory relies on peer and self-evaluation to establish accountability, identify competencies, and detect learning needs. Twenty-five…
Vallance, Denise D.; Cummings, Richard L.; Humphries, Tom
The independent and relative influences of social discourse and social skills on problem behaviors were examined in 50 children with language learning disabilities (LLD) and 50 control children. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that both impaired social discourse skills and poor social skills accounted for the negative effects of LLD on…
M J Booysen
Full Text Available The National Curriculum Statement of South Africa envisages qualified and competent teachers to deal with the diversity of learners and their needs in the classroom. One of the needs refers to all learners (Gr R-12 who need to acquire the necessary social skills to enable them to work effectively with others as members of a team, group, organization and community. These skills refer inter alia to: learning to work with others, listening to others, giving attention, asking clarifying questions, learning how to evaluate, and to praise others, handling conflict, reflecting on group work and allowing all group members to participate. The most obvious place to deal purposefully with the development of social skills is the classroom. This implies that alternative ways and methods of teaching must be introduced to develop the necessary social skills. This article reports on the findings obtained from a combined quantitative and qualitative study that set out to determine the levels of social competence achieved by a group of Grade 2 learners, and the possible association of a cooperative teaching and learning intervention programme for enhancing the social skills of these learners. The results revealed the latent potential of cooperative learning to enhance the social skills of Grade 2 learners. The significance of this research lies in the contribution it makes to establish the social competence of a group of Grade 2 learners and to determine the possibilities for enhancing their social skills through cooperative learning.
Full Text Available In our study we examined the background of the foreign language knowledge and learning of the Hungarian Youth. Who are successful and what group of learners can convert their knowledge into language certificates? What aspects lie behind their success? We based our analysis on the Magyar Ifjúság 2012 database using the variables that could help us draw conclusions about language skills, language learning and language certificates. As in the first place we studied the effect of age and student status, we divided the sample into 3 main categories: 15-19-year-old secondary school students, 20-24-year-old students mostly students studying at higher education and 25-29-year-old students predominantly workers. We examined several dimensions of language learning: (1 the subjective perception of language skills (2 the objective perception of language skills (language certificates and their level, (3 formal and non-formal education (4 students’ plans to study foreign languages in the future. Examining the similarities and the differences between the groups we also analysed what correlations there were between the socioeconomic status of the parents and the language skills of the students. We analysed the students’ attitude to foreign languages as we ll as their attitude towards English as a foreign language. As a result we detected strong parental influence, however, some differences between the age groups could be observed .
Mari, Giorgia; Scorpecci, Alessandro; Reali, Laura; D'Alatri, Lucia
To date very few studies have investigated the musical skills of children with specific language impairment (SLI). There is growing evidence that SLI affects areas other than language, and it is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that children with this disorder may have difficulties in perceiving musical stimuli appropriately. To compare melody and song identification skills in a group of children with SLI and in a control group of children with typical language development (TD); and to study possible correlations between music identification skills and language abilities in the SLI group. This is a prospective case control study. Two groups of children were enrolled: one meeting DSM-IV-TR(®) diagnostic criteria for SLI and the other comprising an age-matched group of children with TD. All children received a melody and a song identification test, together with a test battery assessing receptive and productive language abilities. 30 children with SLI (mean age = 56 ± 9 months) and 23 with TD (mean age = 60 ± 10 months) were included. Melody and song identification scores among SLI children were significantly lower than those of TD children, and in both groups song identification scores were significantly higher than melody identification scores. Song identification skills bore a significant correlation to chronological age in both groups (TD: r = 0.529, p = 0.009; SLI: r = 0.506, p = 0.004). Whereas no other variables were found explaining the variability of melody or song identification scores in either group, the correlation between language comprehension and song identification in the SLI group approached significance (r = 0.166, p = 0.076). The poorer music perception skills of SLI children as compared with TD ones suggests that SLI may also affect music perception. Therefore, training programmes that simultaneously stimulate via language and music may prove useful in the rehabilitation of children affected by SLI. © 2015 Royal College of Speech and
Full Text Available We present curiosity-driven, autonomous acquisition of tactile exploratory skills on a biomimetic robot finger equipped with an array of microelectromechanical touch sensors. Instead of building tailored algorithms for solving a specific tactile task, we employ a more general curiosity-driven reinforcement learning approach that autonomously learns a set of motor skills in absence of an explicit teacher signal. In this approach, the acquisition of skills is driven by the information content of the sensory input signals relative to a learner that aims at representing sensory inputs using fewer and fewer computational resources. We show that, from initially random exploration of its environment, the robotic system autonomously develops a small set of basic motor skills that lead to different kinds of tactile input. Next, the system learns how to exploit the learned motor skills to solve supervised texture classification tasks. Our approach demonstrates the feasibility of autonomous acquisition of tactile skills on physical robotic platforms through curiosity-driven reinforcement learning, overcomes typical difficulties of engineered solutions for active tactile exploration and underactuated control, and provides a basis for studying developmental learning through intrinsic motivation in robots.
Henrike K. Blumenfeld
Full Text Available Understanding language learning in later life can elucidate how linguistic experiences and age-specific cognitive skills can be leveraged for language acquisition, providing insight into how lifelong experiences configure our learning capacity. In this study, we examined to what extent acquisition and maintenance of a non-native language (English is scaffolded by cognitive skills and previous linguistic experiences in older adults; and to what extent these cognitive/linguistic factors predict older learners’ success in acquiring novel functional language. We recruited 53 participants who were native speakers of Mandarin, Spanish, Tagalog, and Somali, had continued to learn English as adults, and were currently exposed to majority-English contexts. To identify contributors to participants’ English skills, we administered a language history and self-reported proficiency interview, brief cognitive testing, and verbal fluency tasks in L1 and English. We found that digit span and orientation measures were cognitive predictors of English proficiency, while similarity of known languages to English, L1 skills, and English language exposure were linguistic predictors of English skills. To examine participants’ ability to maintain language knowledge and to learn new functional English, we also conducted a preliminary longitudinal service-based study in a subset of 19 participants using our Specific-Purpose English Communication System for Seniors (SPECSS curriculum. In this subset of SPECSS learners, we identified digit span and orientation, but not age, as cognitive predictors of short-term language maintenance. Further, better novel English learning as a result of our curriculum was observed in learners whose other known languages were less similar to English. Findings inform best practices in developing language curricula for older adults, and help generate new hypotheses on preparedness for language learning across the adult lifespan with a
The dynamics of the communicative discourse is a natural process that requires an application of a wide range of skills and strategies. In particular, linguistic discourse and the interaction process have a huge impact on promoting literacy and academic skills in all students especially English language learners (ELLs). Using interactive…
Loo, Alfred; Chung, C. W.; Lam, Alan
Students will speak a second language with an accent if they learn the language after the age of six. It does not matter how motivated and clever they are, the accent will not go away. Only a few gifted students can speak a second language flawlessly. The exact reasons for this phenomenon are unknown. Although a large number of hypotheses have…
THE OBJECTIVES OF SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING, AND SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS FOR PRESENTING AND DRILLING STRUCTURES BY THE USE OF CERTAIN GESTURES, WERE PRESENTED. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONCENTRATING EFFORTS ON THE ESSENTIALS OF LANGUAGE LEARNING REVOLVED AROUND AN EMPHASIS ON THE TEACHING OF THE LANGUAGE ITSELF RATHER THAN ABOUT ITS HISTORY, VOCABULARY,…
This paper explores empirically implications of language use for MNCs’ learning from subsidiaries. Drawing on sociolinguistic literature, the article argues that while employing a single corporate language facilitates quick and direct communication of explicit knowledge, such a language design...... is insufficient to leverage contextually specific and culturally embedded knowledge. This indicates the need for disentangling language and culture. The paper further argues for the need to go beyond national language to consider how prevailing kinds of corporate talk may curb headquarters potential for learning...
The role of motivation in language learning has been studied since the 1960s. It is indeed one of the most important areas of linguistics. This paper suggests strategies of motivating language learners and focuses on the role which motivation can play in language learning. The concept of motivation from different points of view is defined, a number of suggestions on how to motivate language learners are presented and the role of motivation based on various motivational theories are highlighted. With regard to the role of motivation in language learning, it is concluded that motivation plays an increasingly important role in many aspects, such as identifying with the target language society, achieving long-term and short-term goals, improving language learners' internal and external powers and exerting a group force. It also indicates that there should be more research areas to be examined and a long way is probably requlred to go in future theoretical and practical study.
Scarino, Angela; Liddicoat, Anthony J.
Understanding and working with the complexity of second language learning and use in an intercultural orientation necessitates a re-examination of the different theories of learning that inform the different schools of second language acquisition (SLA). This re-examination takes place in a context where explicitly conceptualizing the nature of…
Tuttle, Harry Grover
College professors can transform their modern language classes through mobile devices. Their students' learning becomes more active, more personalized, more contextual, and more culturally authentic as illustrated through the author's modern language mobile learning classroom examples. In addition, their students engage in many diverse types of…
Maggioli, Gabriel Diaz
Teaching Language Teachers: Scaffolding Professional Learning provides an updated view of as well as a reader-friendly introduction to the field of Teaching Teachers, with special reference to language teaching. By taking a decidedly Sociocultural perspective, the book addresses the main role of the Teacher of Teachers (ToT) as that of scaffolding the professional learning of aspiring teachers.
Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin
To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…
Glenda A. Gunter
Full Text Available Abstract: Combining games with mobile devices can promote learning opportunities at the learners' fingertips and enable ubiquitous learning experiences. As teachers increasingly assign games to reinforce language learning, it becomes essential to evaluate how effective these applications are in helping students learn the content or develop the skills that the games are reinforcing. This article examines two English language learning apps under the RETAIN model (GUNTER; KENNY; VICK, 2008. The findings indicate that although these apps offer some language learning opportunities, they do not present scenario-based quality or gameplay, among other elements, if they are to be considered games.
Full Text Available Technology Assisted Language Learning (TALL is an infallible means to develop profound knowledge and wide range of language skills. It instills in EFL learners an illimitable passion for task-based and skills oriented learning rather than rote memorization. New technological gadgets have commoditized a broad-based learning and teaching avenues and brought the whole learning process to life. A vast variety of authentic online- learning resources, motivational visual prompts, exciting videos, web-based interactivity and customizable language software, email, discussion forums, Skype, Twitter, apps, Internet mobiles, Facebook and YouTube have become obtrusive tools to enhance competence and performance in EFL teaching and learning realms. Technology can also provide various types of scaffolding for students learning to read. Nevertheless, instructors can also enhance their pedagogical effectiveness. However, the main focus of interest in this study is to ascertain to what extent the modern technological devices augment learners’ competence and performance specifically in vocabulary learning, grammatical accuracy and listening/ speaking skills. The remarkable scores of empirical surveys conducted in the present study reveal that TALL does assist learners to improve listening / speaking skills, pronunciation, extensive vocabulary and grammatical accuracy. The findings also manifest that the hybridity, instantaneity and super-diversity of digital learning lay far-reaching impact on learners' motivation for learning and incredibly maneuver learners to immerse in the whole learning process.
Asjad Ahmed Saeed Balla
Full Text Available This Paper investigates the relation between studying in Self-Access centres and learners’ confidence, motivation and autonomous learning. The study based on three questions: (a To what extent autonomous learning motivates students/users of SAC? (b Is the use of SAC reinforcing students’ confidence? (c To what extent using SAC help in developing the students; learning skills? A questionnaire conducted to show learners; attitudes towards using SAC. The data was statistically analysed. The most important result revealed that the learners felt more confident and motivated after using SAC. Besides, there were a noticeable change in their language understanding and remarkable improvement in their language skills.
It's important to master a foreign language, English in particular.But the problem is how students should learn in order to communicate well with the native speakers and even become members of the target language community.The author narrates two incidents related to the Chinese study and English study experiences, pointing out that language study can't be separated from culture study.In line with the research results by some language experts about culture, language is the carrier of culture as literature is accomplished through languages,therefore language learning and teaching in isolation from culture is impossible.The author argues that language should be taught and learnt in a cultural approach.But as a sword with double blades, cultural approach may lead to culture invasion, culture inequality and the loss of culture diversity.
Engel de Abreu, Pascale; Gathercole, S
The relationship between working memory, verbal short-term memory, phonological awareness, and developing language skills was explored longitudinally in children growing up in a multilingual society. A sample of 121 children from Luxembourg were followed from the end of Kindergarten to 1st Grade, and completed multiple assessments of verbal short-term memory, complex working memory, phonological awareness, native and foreign vocabulary knowledge, language comprehension, and reading. Resu...
KARTAL, Erdogan; UZUN, Levent
In the present study we call attention to the close connection between languages and globalization, and we also emphasize the importance of the Internet and online websites in foreign language teaching and learning as unavoidable elements of computer assisted language learning (CALL). We prepared a checklist by which we investigated 28 foreign language teaching websites (4 from each of seven languages including English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish and Turkish). The participants ...
Mustafa Mubarak Pathan
Full Text Available Of the four major language skills, speaking is regarded as the most crucial and central one as it enables the learner to establish successful communication in that language, which is often the main aim of learning any foreign language. That is why it forms the focus of attention in any foreign language teaching and learning as failure to master this crucial language skill leads to the failure to establish successful communication. However, mastering this language skill does not go so easily with the EFL learners and particularly for the Arab EFL learners as many factors, including the mother tongue interference, hinder and influence the process of learning and mastering this crucial foreign language skill. The consequent result is that the EFL learners, especially Arab learners, encounter various difficulties while communicating in English and speak the language in their own way with the flavour of their mother tongue, Arabic. This problem of the Libyan EFL learners, encountered while speaking in English, is the subject of investigation in this paper. Various other problems, nature of these problems, sources of these problems and some pedagogical suggestion to overcome these problems are also some of the central topics of discussion in the paper.
The languages of Klingon and Na'vi, both created for media, are also languages that have garnered much media attention throughout the course of their existence. Speakers of these languages also utilize social media and information technologies, specifically websites, in order to learn the languages and then put them into practice. While teaching a…
Wei, Yingzi; Zhao, Mingyang
Robot acquiring skill is a process similar to human skill learning. Reinforcement learning (RL) is an on-line actor critic method for a robot to develop its skill. The reinforcement function has become the critical component for its effect of evaluating the action and guiding the learning process. We present an augmented reward function that provides a new way for RL controller to incorporate prior knowledge and experience into the RL controller. Also, the difference form of augmented reward function is considered carefully. The additional reward beyond conventional reward will provide more heuristic information for RL. In this paper, we present a strategy for the task of complex skill learning. Automatic robot shaping policy is to dissolve the complex skill into a hierarchical learning process. The new form of value function is introduced to attain smooth motion switching swiftly. We present a formal, but practical, framework for robot skill learning and also illustrate with an example the utility of method for learning skilled robot control on line.
Bregman, Micah R; Creel, Sarah C
Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect. The current study investigated the relationship between speech and talker processing by assessing bilingual and monolingual listeners' ability to learn voices as a function of language familiarity and age of acquisition. Two effects emerged. First, bilinguals learned to recognize talkers in their first language (Korean) more rapidly than they learned to recognize talkers in their second language (English), while English-speaking participants showed the opposite pattern (learning English talkers faster than Korean talkers). Second, bilinguals' learning rate for talkers in their second language (English) correlated with age of English acquisition. Taken together, these results suggest that language background materially affects talker encoding, implying a tight relationship between speech and talker representations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Imagine a child who has never seen or heard language. Would such a child be able to invent a language? Despite what one might guess, the answer is "yes". This chapter describes children who are congenitally deaf and cannot learn the spoken language that surrounds them. In addition, the children have not been exposed to sign language, either by their hearing parents or their oral schools. Nevertheless, the children use their hands to communicate--they gesture--and those gestures take on many of the forms and functions of language (Goldin-Meadow 2003a). The properties of language that we find in these gestures are just those properties that do not need to be handed down from generation to generation, but can be reinvented by a child de novo. They are the resilient properties of language, properties that all children, deaf or hearing, come to language-learning ready to develop. In contrast to these deaf children who are inventing language with their hands, hearing children are learning language from a linguistic model. But they too produce gestures, as do all hearing speakers (Feyereisen and de Lannoy 1991; Goldin-Meadow 2003b; Kendon 1980; McNeill 1992). Indeed, young hearing children often use gesture to communicate before they use words. Interestingly, changes in a child's gestures not only predate but also predict changes in the child's early language, suggesting that gesture may be playing a role in the language-learning process. This chapter begins with a description of the gestures the deaf child produces without speech. These gestures assume the full burden of communication and take on a language-like form--they are language. This phenomenon stands in contrast to the gestures hearing speakers produce with speech. These gestures share the burden of communication with speech and do not take on a language-like form--they are part of language.
Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie
This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases.
Eriksson, Marten; Marschik, Peter B.; Tulviste, Tiia; Almgren, Margareta; Perez Pereira, Miguel; Wehberg, Sonja; Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Gayraud, Frederique; Kovacevic, Melita; Gallego, Carlos
The present study explored gender differences in emerging language skills in 13,783 European children from 10 non-English language communities. It was based on a synthesis of published data assessed with adapted versions of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) from age 0.08 to 2.06. The results showed that girls are…
DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C.; Goffman, Lisa
Purpose: To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for…
Full Text Available Background and aims The ‘dual-systems’ model of language acquisition has been used by Ullman et al. to explain patterns of strength and weakness in the language of higher-functioning people with autism spectrum disorder. Specifically, intact declarative/explicit learning is argued to compensate for a deficit in non-declarative/implicit procedural learning, constituting an example of the so-called see-saw effect. Ullman and Pullman extended their argument concerning a see-saw effect on language in autism spectrum disorder to cover other perceived anomalies of behaviour, including impaired acquisition of social skills. The aim of this paper is to present a critique of Ullman et al.’s claims and to propose an alternative model of links between memory systems and language in autism spectrum disorder. Main contribution We argue that a four-system model of learning, in which intact semantic and procedural memory are used to compensate for weaknesses in episodic memory and perceptual learning, can better explain patterns of language ability across the autistic spectrum. We also argue that attempts to generalise the ‘impaired implicit learning/spared declarative learning’ theory to other behaviours in autism spectrum disorder are unsustainable. Conclusions Clinically significant language impairments in autism spectrum disorder are under-researched, despite their impact on everyday functioning and quality of life. The relative paucity of research findings in this area lays it open to speculative interpretation which may be misleading. Implications More research is needed into links between memory/learning systems and language impairments across the spectrum. Improved understanding should inform therapeutic intervention and contribute to investigation of the causes of language impairment in autism spectrum disorder with potential implications for prevention.
Guidance Oriented Acquisition of Learning Skills (Project GOALS) was a federally-funded project in three Brooklyn (New York) high schools in its fourth year of operation in 1992-93. It served 312 limited-English-proficient and 57 English-proficient students through instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), native language arts (NLA) in…
Marriott, Rita De Cássia Veiga; Torres, Patrícia Lupion
This chapter aims to investigate new ways of foreign-language teaching/learning via a study of how concept mapping can help develop a student's reading, writing and oral skills as part of a blended methodology for language teaching known as LAPLI (Laboratorio de Aprendizagem de LInguas: The Language Learning Lab). LAPLI is a student-centred and collaborative methodology which encourages students to challenge their limitations and expand their current knowledge whilst developing their linguistic and interpersonal skills. We explore the theories that underpin LAPLI and detail the 12 activities comprising its programme with specify reference to the use of "concept mapping". An innovative table enabling a formative and summative assessment of the concept maps is formulated. Also presented are some of the qualitative and quantitative results achieved when this methodology was first implemented with a group of pre-service students studying for a degree in English and Portuguese languages at the Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR) in Brazil. The contribution of concept mapping and LAPLI to an under standing of language learning along with a consideration of the difficulties encountered in its implementation with student groups is discussed and suggestions made for future research.
Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip
One point investigated in our research project on the linguistic experiences of exchange students in Denmark and Sweden is the reasons students have for coming on exchange. Traditionally, an important goal of student exchange was to acquire improved language skills usually in the language spoken...... in the host country. To what extent is this true when students plan to study in English in a non-English speaking country? Do they hope and expect to improve their English skills, their knowledge of the local language, both, or neither? to what extent are these expectations fulfilled? Results form the project...
Gasiorek, Jessica; van de Poel, Kris
Interactions between people from different cultures are becoming increasingly commonplace in contemporary healthcare settings. To date, most research evaluating cross-cultural preparedness has assumed that medical professionals are speaking their first language (L1). However, as healthcare workers are increasingly mobile and patient populations are increasingly diverse, more and more interactions are likely to occur in a professional's non-native language (L2). This study assessed and compared nurses' perceived cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness in their interactions with patients from other cultures when speaking both their L1 and L2. The goal of this project was to inform the creation of a communication skills training program. Nurses reported their perceived cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness (scales adapted from Park et al., 2009) in their L1 and L2 via an online questionnaire. This questionnaire was distributed among nurses working in Vienna, Austria, through the Vienna Hospital Association (VHA). Nurses and nurses-in-training working in VHA hospitals participated. Most participants who provided demographic information were currently nurses (n=179) with an average of 16.88years (SD=11.50) of professional experience (range: 0-40); n=40 were nurses-in-training with an average of 2.13years (SD=0.88) of experience (range: 1-5). Descriptive statistics for each cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness (in each language) are reported; comparisons between L1 and L2 responses were also conducted. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictors of preparedness and L1/L2 skillfulness. Nurses reported feeling significantly less confident in their skills when working in an L2, across a range of culture-related issues. Having had previous communication skills training predicted (better) self-reported L2 skillfulness, although it did not predict L1 skillfulness. These results indicate that there is a language-specific component to cross
Tsang, Tawny; Atagi, Natsuki; Johnson, Scott P
Infants increasingly attend to the mouths of others during the latter half of the first postnatal year, and individual differences in selective attention to talking mouths during infancy predict verbal skills during toddlerhood. There is some evidence suggesting that trajectories in mouth-looking vary by early language environment, in particular monolingual or bilingual language exposure, which may have differential consequences in developing sensitivity to the communicative and social affordances of the face. Here, we evaluated whether 6- to 12-month-olds' mouth-looking is related to skills associated with concurrent social communicative development-including early language functioning and emotion discriminability. We found that attention to the mouth of a talking face increased with age but that mouth-looking was more strongly associated with concurrent expressive language skills than chronological age for both monolingual and bilingual infants. Mouth-looking was not related to emotion discrimination. These data suggest that selective attention to a talking mouth may be one important mechanism by which infants learn language regardless of home language environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language educators in Gauteng regarding the possible influence of SMS language on certain aspects of learners' written language skills. If an influence was perceived by the educators, their perceptions regarding the degree and nature of the influence were also explored. A quantitative research design, utilising a questionnaire, was employed. The sample of participants comprised 22 educators employed at independent secondaryschools within Gauteng, South Africa. The results indicated that the majority of educators viewed SMS language as having a negative influence on the written language skills of Grade 8 and 9 learners. The influence was perceived as occurring in the learners' spelling, punctuation, and sentence length. A further finding was that the majority of educators address the negative influences of SMS language when encountered in written tasks.
Dooly, Melinda; Masats, Dolors
This state-of-the-art review provides a critical overview of research publications in Spain in the last ten years in three areas of teaching and learning foreign languages (especially English): context and language integrated learning (CLIL), young language learners (YLL), and technology-enhanced language learning (TELL). These three domains have…
The terms "interactional competence" and "learning" are discussed in the context of recent research in the areas of cognitive science and ethnomethodological conversation analysis studies of language learning. Two data excerpts from a longitudinal case study of a beginning learner of English are presented to illustrate (1) the…
Morse, Anthony F; Cangelosi, Angelo
Most theories of learning would predict a gradual acquisition and refinement of skills as learning progresses, and while some highlight exponential growth, this fails to explain why natural cognitive development typically progresses in stages. Models that do span multiple developmental stages typically have parameters to "switch" between stages. We argue that by taking an embodied view, the interaction between learning mechanisms, the resulting behavior of the agent, and the opportunities for learning that the environment provides can account for the stage-wise development of cognitive abilities. We summarize work relevant to this hypothesis and suggest two simple mechanisms that account for some developmental transitions: neural readiness focuses on changes in the neural substrate resulting from ongoing learning, and perceptual readiness focuses on the perceptual requirements for learning new tasks. Previous work has demonstrated these mechanisms in replications of a wide variety of infant language experiments, spanning multiple developmental stages. Here we piece this work together as a single model of ongoing learning with no parameter changes at all. The model, an instance of the Epigenetic Robotics Architecture (Morse et al 2010) embodied on the iCub humanoid robot, exhibits ongoing multi-stage development while learning pre-linguistic and then basic language skills. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Kartal, Erdogan; Uzun, Levent
In the present study we call attention to the close connection between languages and globalization, and we also emphasize the importance of the Internet and online websites in foreign language teaching and learning as unavoidable elements of computer assisted language learning (CALL). We prepared a checklist by which we investigated 28 foreign…
Left to their own devices, many students are happy to work within their comfort zone of skill and understanding, a level where they are confident that they will achieve regular success. The job of the classroom teacher is to help students reach beyond this and to help them make this level their new comfort zone. Clearly, teachers need to employ a…
De Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.
This study investigated how individual differences in linguistic knowledge and processing skills relate to individual differences in speaking fluency. Speakers of Dutch as a second language ("N" = 179) performed eight speaking tasks, from which several measures of fluency were derived such as measures for pausing, repairing, and speed…
Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L.; Keysar, Boaz; Kinzler, Katherine D.
Early exposure to multiple languages can enhance children's communication skills, even when children are effectively monolingual (Fan, Liberman, Keysar & Kinzler, 2015). Here we report evidence that the social benefits of multilingual exposure emerge in infancy. Sixteen-month-old infants participated in a communication task that required…
Leslie, David; Russell, Hilary; Forbes, Allison
A survey of first-year and final-year management students (n=104) and 17 tourism employers revealed differences in the perceptions of the two groups regarding the role of foreign language skills. Results raised concerns in light of the demand for multilingual tourism staff. (Contains 24 references.) (JOW)
... and literature as an alternative paradigm shift capable of fostering character and skill development. The research identifies challenges against harnessing language education in Nigeria. These challenges include, poor reading culture, non-availability of literary reading materials. In conclusion, the paper beams its light on ...
Hammer, A.; van den Bogaerde, B.; Cirillo, L.; Niemants, N.
We present a description of our didactic approach to train undergraduate sign language interpreters on their interpersonal and reflective skills. Based predominantly on the theory of role-space by Llewellyn-Jones and Lee (2014), we argue that dialogue settings require a dynamic role of the
Annemiek Hammer; Dr. Beppie van den Bogaerde
We present a description of our didactic approach to train undergraduate sign language interpreters on their interpersonal and reflective skills. Based pre-dominantly on the theory of role-space by Llewellyn-Jones and Lee (2014), we argue that dialogue settings require a dynamic role of the
Fransman, Johanna Sandra
Metacognition is commonly understood in the context of the learners and not their teachers. Extant literature focusing on how Mathematics teachers apply their metacognitive skills in the classroom, clearly distinguishes between teaching with metacognition (TwM) referring to teachers thinking about their own thinking and teaching for metacognition (TfM) which refers to teachers creating opportunities for learners to reflect on their thinking. However, in both of these cases, thinking requires ...
Tokunaga, Masahiko; 徳永, 昌彦
Student enthusiasm would seem to be a fundamental aspect of learning, yet it is a difficult concept to define because it takes in a range of different behaviours on the part of students. Nevertheless, it is important to consider just what student enthusiasm for learning is. This concept will be explored before comparing how the various theories of learning treat it. Finally, theories that are most useful for maximising student enthusiasm for learning particularly related to language learning,...
O'Rourke, Bernadette; DePalma, Renée
In this article, we examine the experiences of 18 Galician language learners who participated in what Garland [(2008). "The minority language and the cosmopolitan speaker: Ideologies of Irish language learners" (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of California, Santa Barbara] refers to as a "language-learning holiday" in…
Stevenson, Jennifer L; Lindley, Caitlin E; Murlo, Nicole
Autistic individuals often struggle developmentally, even in areas that are not explicit diagnostic criteria, such as motor skills. This study explored the relation between early motor skills, assessed retrospectively, and current pragmatic language skills. Caregivers of neurotypical and autistic children, matched on gender and age, completed assessments of their child's early motor development and current language abilities. Early motor skills were correlated with later pragmatic language skills, and autistic children exhibited fewer motor skills than neurotypical children. In fact, motor skills were a better predictor of an autism spectrum diagnosis than were scores on a measure of current pragmatic language. These results highlight the important role of motor skills in autism spectrum disorders.
Motivation is the indispensable condition for a student's learning success. As a foreign language teacher, they should motivate the second language learners by promoting positive language-related values. Dornyei identifies three value dimensions. They are intrinsic value, integrative value and instrumental value. In China, the Communicative Language Teaching is an innovation approach and learner- centered. The CLT approach and curriculum have motivated students' interest, appreciation and values in learning English. In English classroom, the teacher should establish the cooperative situation rather than the competitive environment in order to arouse the students' motivation and reduce the psychological pressure.
THE INFLUENCE OF INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA AUDIO TELLING MACHINE (IMATE USE AND STUDENTS’ SELF REGU-LATED LEARNING LEVEL ON ENGLISH LANGUAGE GREET-INGS APPLICATION SKILLS (PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA AU-DIO TELLING MACHINE (iMATE DAN TINGKAT SELF REGU-LATED LEARNING SISWA TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN MENERAP-KAN GREETINGS BAHASA INGGRIS
Muhammad Ridwan Sutisna
Full Text Available Abstract. New trends of technology and also the higher needs of English proficiency have encouraged the quality improvent of English instructions. The aim of this research is to deter-mine the effect of Interactive Multimedia Audio Telling Machine (iMATE and self regulated learning level in English language greetings application skill of vocational school students. iMATE is an Interactive instructional media used in this research. While student’s self regulated learning is divided into high and low level. This research used experimental design. This re-search was held at SMK Pasundan 3 Bandung. Findings of this research were; (1 Generally students achieved better result when using iMATE. (2 There was an interaction between use of instructional media and students’ self regulated learning level. (3 Students with high self regu-lated learning achieved much better when using iMATE. (4 Students with low self regulated learning had a better result when not using iMATE. This Findings lead to the conclusion that students’ self regulated learning level may affect the succes of instructional media use, especially in teaching English language skills. Abstrak. Perkembangan teknologi dan kebutuhan akan kemampuan Bahasa Inggris yang lebih tinggi mendorong kualitas pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris juga mengalami perkem-bangan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari penggunaan Interactive Multimedia Audio Telling Machine (iMATE dan tingkat self regulated learning terhadap ke-mampuan menerapkan greetings Bahasa Inggris siswa SMK. iMATE adalah multimedia inter-aktif pembelajaran yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Siswa sebagai subjek penelitian dibagi kedalam dua kelompok yaitu yang memiliki tingkat self regulated learning yang tinggi dan ren-dah. Penelitian yang dilaksanakan di SMK Pasundan 3 Bandung ini menggunakan desain ek-sperimen. Temuan dari penelitian ini adalah (1 Secara umum siswa memperoleh hasil yang lebih baik dengan
Nassar, May F; Shaaban, Sanaa Y; Nassar, Jilan F; Younis, Neveen T; Abdel-Mobdy, Ahmad E
The study was conducted on 33 children aged 3-6 years who suffered from protein energy malnutrition (PEM) during infancy in comparison to 30 matching children to assess the long-term deficits in cognition and language skills. The patients' files were revised to record their admission and follow-up data and history, clinical examination, intelligence quotient and language assessment were done. The study revealed that 2-5 years from the acute attack the PEM patients were still shorter than the controls and their cognitive abilities were poorer. Their mental ages and language skills were mostly determined by their height and the duration of follow-up during their acute illness. Additionally their diet after the 3-5 years is still defective and does not meet their recommended daily allowance. These observations urge us to continue following these patients for longer durations to make sure no permanent damage occurs due to the PEM insult to the growing brain.
Sparks, R L; Artzer, M
Children with hyperlexia read words spontaneously before the age of five, have impaired comprehension on both listening and reading tasks, and have word recognition skill above expectations based on cognitive and linguistic abilities. One student with hyperlexia and another student with higher word recognition than comprehension skills who started to read words at a very early age were followed over several years from the primary grades through high school when both were completing a second-year Spanish course. The purpose of the present study was to examine the foreign language (FL) word recognition, spelling, reading comprehension, writing, speaking, and listening skills of the two students and another high school student without hyperlexia. Results showed that the student without hyperlexia achieved higher scores than the hyperlexic student and the student with above average word recognition skills on most FL proficiency measures. The student with hyperlexia and the student with above average word recognition skills achieved higher scores on the Spanish proficiency tasks that required the exclusive use of phonological (pronunciation) and phonological/orthographic (word recognition, spelling) skills than on Spanish proficiency tasks that required the use of listening comprehension and speaking and writing skills. The findings provide support for the notion that word recognition and spelling in a FL may be modular processes and exist independently of general cognitive and linguistic skills. Results also suggest that students may have stronger FL learning skills in one language component than in other components of language, and that there may be a weak relationship between FL word recognition and oral proficiency in the FL.
With the proliferation of online courses nowadays, it is necessary to ask what defines the success of teaching and learning in these new learning environments exactly. This paper identifies and critically discusses a number of factors for successful implementation of online delivery, particularly as far as online language learning is concerned.…
Full Text Available There are many reasons for students of Sport Science to use English. Yet, knowing the importance of learning English is sometimes not enough to encourage them to learn English well. Based on the experience in teaching them, erroneous belief seems to be held by many of them. It arouses curiosity about the beliefs which might be revealed to help the students to be successful in language learning. By investigating sport science students‘ beliefs about language learning, it is expected that types of the beliefs which they hold can be revealed. Understanding students‘ beliefs about language learning is essential because these beliefs can have possible consequences for second language learning and instruction. This study is expected to provide empirical evidence. The subjects of this study were 1st semester students majoring in Sport Science of Sport Science Faculty. There were 4 classes with 38 students in each class. There were approximately 152 students as the population of the study. The sample was taken by using random sampling. All members of the population received the questionnaire. The questionnaire which was later handed back to the researcher is considered as the sample. The instrument in this study is the newest version of Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI, version 2.0, developed by Horwitz to asses the beliefs about learning a foreign language.
Full Text Available This study investigated whether and to what extent an English Language Voluntary Intensive Independent Catch-up Study (ELVIICS, a Self-Access Language Learning (SALL programme, was effective in helping first-year Greek-Cypriot students fill in the gaps in their English language learning and come closer to the required language competence level of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR B1 level. It also examined students’ perceptions of such learning. The students followed the ELVIICS at their own pace, time and space until they felt they had reached the aimed level. Analysis of the achievement test results revealed that students’ language competence improved and reached the required level. Additional quantitative data also revealed that students felt ELVIICS also helped them improve their self-confidence, computer skills and autonomous learning. Moreover, students claimed that ELVIICS assisted them in getting through and successfully completing their compulsory course.
Speak, Move, Play and Learn with Children on the Autism Spectrum: Activities to Boost Communication Skills, Sensory Integration and Coordination Using Simple Ideas from Speech and Language Pathology and Occupational Therapy
Brady, Lois Jean; Gonzalez, America X.; Zawadzki, Maciej; Presley, Corinda
This practical resource is brimming with ideas and guidance for using simple ideas from speech and language pathology and occupational therapy to boost communication, sensory integration, and coordination skills in children on the autism spectrum. Suitable for use in the classroom, at home, and in community settings, it is packed with…
Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. This books provides an up-to date and comprehensive overview of…
This paper addresses language learner strategy research. It arises from two sources: firstly, an individual background in research and writing about Language Learning Strategy research in the context of Modern Foreign Language Learning and Teaching in the UK over the past decades; secondly, a newly constituted British based interest group dedicated to this area of applied linguistics - UK Project on Language Learner Strategies (UKPOLLS). The aim of this SIG paper is to introduce and present t...
Full Text Available The study of skill acquisition is of great importance in cognitive psychology. One aspect of skill acquisition research is whether practice in SLA is skill-specific or not. To date, research done has not led to either unanimous rejection or acceptance of the theory. This article is an attempt to examine this question in an EFL context where L2 learners have limited or no access to target language data outside the classroom. More specifically, it tries to see whether listening and speaking in an EFL context necessitate their own specific practice or not. Based on a post-test only design, 16 male, beginner Iranian EFL learners received input-based instruction for three months. When the instruction was over, both listening and speaking performances of the subjects were assessed. The result showed that the subjects had significantly improved their listening ability while their speaking ability had little or no improvement, indicating that different language skills in EFL contexts need specific practice. The findings not only confirm the skill-specificity of language practice, but also rejects VanPatten’s seminal claim that comprehension practice is enough to bring about development, not only in comprehension but also in production.
This article discusses human capital development through the seven soft skills elements which comprise communication skills, critical thinking and problem solving skills, team work, lifelong learning and information management skills, entrepreneurship skills, ethics, and professional moral and leadership skills. The Ministry of Higher Education,…
Clark, Dav; Ivry, Richard B.
Motor learning is a ubiquitous feature of human competence. This review focuses on two particular classes of model tasks for studying skill acquisition. The serial reaction time (SRT) task is used to probe how people learn sequences of actions, while adaptation in the context of visuomotor or force field perturbations serves to illustrate how preexisting movements are recalibrated in novel environments. These tasks highlight important issues regarding the representational changes that occur d...
Dohmen, Andrea; Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny
Research in children with language problems has focussed on verbal deficits, and we have less understanding of children's deficits with nonverbal sociocognitive skills which have been proposed to be important for language acquisition. This study was designed to investigate elicited nonverbal imitation in children with specific language delay (SLD). It is argued that difficulties in nonverbal imitation, which do not involve the processing of structural aspects of language, may be indicative of sociocognitive deficits. Participants were German-speaking typically developing children (n=60) and children with SLD (n=45) aged 2-3 ½ years. A novel battery of tasks measured their ability to imitate a range of nonverbal target acts that to a greater or lesser extent involve sociocognitive skills (body movements, instrumental acts on objects, pretend acts). Significant group differences were found for all body movement and pretend act tasks, but not for the instrumental act tasks. The poorer imitative performance of the SLD sample was not explained by motor or nonverbal cognitive skills. Thus, it appeared that the nature of the task affected children's imitation performance. It is argued that the ability to establish a sense of connectedness with the demonstrator was at the core of children's imitation difficulty in the SLD sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tseng, Wen-Ta; Liu, Heidi; Nix, John-Michael L
Self-regulated learning has been a widely researched subject for decades in educational psychology. Different instruments have been developed to understand learners' self-regulated learning in a specific subject domain. This study developed a measurement scale to assess English-as-a-foreign-language learners' self-regulatory capacity in English language learning and further examined the effects of gender on English-as-a-foreign-language learners' self-regulatory capacity. A series of psychometric analyses including exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and full structural equation modeling were undertaken to answer the research questions raised. The findings suggest that the scale can attain high reliability and strong validity in two different samplings, and the underlying construct of self-regulation in English language learning is shown to be multidimensional with a significant impact by gender. Theoretical and pedagogical implications are further put forward in light of the research findings.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of Facebook for out-of-class, informal language learning. 190 New Zealand university language students (Chinese, German, French, Japanese and Spanish completed an anonymous online questionnaire on (1 their perceptions of Facebook as a multilingual environment, (2 their online writing practices and (3 their views on the educational value of their experiences. Findings indicate that language students are using a range of Facebook features to expose themselves to the languages they study (L2 and to communicate in their L2 with native speaker Facebook friends. The use of the social networking site varied according to proficiency-levels of the participants (beginner, intermediate and advanced levels, strength of social ties with native speaker Facebook friends and personal attitudes towards the site. Learning experiences on Facebook were not perceived as useful for the formal language learning context which suggests the need for bridging strategies between informal and formal learning environments.
is insufficient to leverage contextually specific and culturally embedded knowledge. This indicates the need for disentangling language and culture. The paper further argues for the need to go beyond national language to consider how prevailing kinds of corporate talk may curb headquarters potential for learning...... from cultural and contextual diversity....
learning and recommends ways in which foreign language students and teachers can exploit the ... languages at university level in the Ugandan context. ... management and catering, the hospitality industry and international relations. .... Especially in the era of globalization, there is an increasing demand for intercultural.
MaCoy, Katherine W.
The methods used and the results obtained by means of the accelerated language learning techniques developed by Georgi Lozanov, Director of the Institute of Suggestology in Bulgaria, are discussed. The following topics are included: (1) discussion of hypermnesia, "super memory," and the reasons foreign languages were chosen for purposes…
Thompson, Amy S.; Erdil-Moody, Zeynep
This study is an examination of language learning motivation and multilingual status in the Turkish English as a foreign language (EFL) context. Using Dörnyei's L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) framework, specifically the ideal and ought-to L2 selves, this study examines the relationship between motivation and two operationalizations of…
Coffin, Caroline; Hewings, Ann
Guest editorial - article outline\\ud 1. Why is language significant?\\ud 2. Research settings\\ud 2.1. School age students: \\ud (i) text-based conferencing \\ud (ii) multimodal writing\\ud 2.2. University students: \\ud (i) text-based conferencing \\ud (ii) web-based literacy support\\ud 2.3. Informal adult learning: web-based reading\\ud 3. Methodologies for exploring language and learning\\ud \\ud
The purpose of this study is to compare the communication skills of individuals with different disabilities with athletes and sedentary people and to examine their learning abilities which influence the development of communication. A total of 159 male subjects 31 sedentary, 30 visually impaired, 27 hearing impaired, 40 physically impaired and 31…
Memmert, D.; Hagemann, N.; Althoetmar, R.; Geppert, S.; Seiler, D.
This study uses three experiments with different kinds of training conditions to investigate the "easy-to-hard" principle, context interference conditions, and feedback effects for learning anticipatory skills in badminton. Experiment 1 (N = 60) showed that a training program that gradually increases the difficulty level has no advantage over the…
Full Text Available Individual differences researchers have recently begun to investigate the concept of emotions and their role in language learning (MacIntyre, Gregersen, & Mercer, 2016. Our aim is to report on a project exploring English majors’ feelings related to their use of foreign languages. Using a qualitative research design, participants were asked to write a paragraph in their mother tongue (Hungarian describing their emotional experiences in connection with foreign languages and one of the four language skills. Our database comprised altogether 166 paragraphs from 31 male and 135 female students, with 43 texts on listening, 35 on speaking, 47 on reading, and 41 on writing. With the help of content analytical techniques, the texts were divided into thematic units and coded by the two authors. A framework of academically-relevant emotions (Pekrun, 2014 was used to guide our initial coding and the categories were modified where it was felt necessary. Results indicate that the two emotions most frequently experienced by English majors are predominantly related to enjoyment and language anxiety, and these emotions vary not only according to the skill involved but also depending on the context of language use (in class or outside class.
Broeder, P.; Fu, G.
In order to promote transparency and coherence for language learning, teaching and especially estimate, Council of Europe(CoE）developed the Common European Framework of Reference(CEFR) and European Language Portfolio(ELP).The CEFR and the ELP are one of the most influential documents of the last
Hernández, Cesar; Pulido, Jose L; Arias, Jorge E
To develop a technological tool that improves the initial learning of sign language in hearing impaired children. The development of this research was conducted in three phases: the lifting of requirements, design and development of the proposed device, and validation and evaluation device. Through the use of information technology and with the advice of special education professionals, we were able to develop an electronic device that facilitates the learning of sign language in deaf children. This is formed mainly by a graphic touch screen, a voice synthesizer, and a voice recognition system. Validation was performed with the deaf children in the Filadelfia School of the city of Bogotá. A learning methodology was established that improves learning times through a small, portable, lightweight, and educational technological prototype. Tests showed the effectiveness of this prototype, achieving a 32 % reduction in the initial learning time for sign language in deaf children.
Rodríguez, Cathi Draper; Cumming, Therese M
This exploratory study investigated the effects of a language building iPad application on the language skills (i.e., receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and sentence formation) of young students with language-based disabilities. The study utilized a pre-test-post-test control group design. Students in the treatment group used the iPad language building application, Language Builder, for 30 minutes a day. Participants were 31 first-grade to third-grade students with identified language-based disabilities. Students were assigned to two groups for the 8-week intervention. Data indicated that students in the treatment group made significantly greater gains in the area of sentence formation than the control group. Results revealed no significant difference between the two groups in the areas of expressive and receptive vocabulary. A short intervention of using Language Builder via the iPad may increase the sentence formation skills of young students with language delays. Additionally, discussion regarding the usefulness of iPad applications in education is presented.
Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein; Sabouri, Narjes Banou
Listening is one of the most important skills in English language learning. When students listen to English language, they face a lot of listening difficulties. Students have critical difficulties in listening comprehension because universities and schools pay more attention to writing, reading, and vocabulary. Listening is not an important part…
Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Archibald, Lisa
The authors compared 6- to 11-year-olds with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those with specific language impairment (SLI) on measures of memory (verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory) and learning (reading and mathematics). Children with DCD with typical language skills were impaired in all four areas of memory…
Full Text Available The European ‘Lifelong Learning Programme’ (LLP) project ‘Games Online for Basic Language learning’ (GOBL) aimed to provide youths and adults wishing to improve their basic language skills access to materials for the development of communicative...
The starting-point of this thesis is the hypothesis that, from at least 22 months old, children who watch movies (i.e. any moving-image media) may be learning how to make sense of them. Rather than looking for evidence of precursors to further learning (such as language, literacy or technological skills) or for the risks or benefits that movie-watching may entail, the thesis argues that viewing behaviour provides enough evidence about the practices and processes through which children of this...
Full Text Available This research paper tends to focus on comparison and contrast between first and second language learning. It investigates the different factors that have inhibiting influences on the language learning process of the learners in the two different environments. There are many factors involved in this respect. The age factor is one of the vital factors that influence the progress of learners in the language learning process. The other factor between first and second language learning, which mostly influences the performance of second language learners, is language input in terms of the quantity and quality in both cases of the limitations of the second language learning in classroom. This research study also studies the language input in both cases and limitations of second language learning in classroom. The present research also investigates the individual differences between first and second language learning, covering aptitude of the language learner, motivation of teacher and classmates, language anxiety and language ego. This research paper suggests that motivation of the teacher and other class fellows, aptitude of learner and teacher’s instructions and teaching methodology as well as classroom setting may help the second language learners to overcome their language anxiety and language ego in the classroom. Keywords: First language learning, Second language Learning, Age Factor, Individual Differences, Language Input, Language Anxiety and Language Ego
Duvivier, R.; Stalmeijer, R.; Dalen, J. Van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Scherpbier, A.
BACKGROUND: Hospital clerkships are considered crucial for acquiring competencies such as diagnostic reasoning and clinical skills. The actual learning process in the hospital remains poorly understood. This study investigates how students learn clinical skills in workplaces and factors affecting
Hansen, Leif Emil
what characterises low skilled male workers socio-culturally - and how does this influence their participation in lifelong learning?......what characterises low skilled male workers socio-culturally - and how does this influence their participation in lifelong learning?...
Anggraini, Agita Dzulhajh; Fadiawati, Noor; Diawati, Chansyanah
Accuracy educators in selecting and implementing learning models influence students' science process skills. Models of learning that can be applied to improve science process skills and tend constructivist among athers learning model of problem solving. This research was conducted to describe the effectiveness of the learning model of problem solving in improving communication skills and prediction skills. Subjects in this research were students of high school YP Unila Bandar Lampung Even ...
Dos Santos, Roberto-Márcio; Sobrinho, Jerônimo Coura
In the area of language teaching both language skills and textual genres can be worked with simultaneously (thus responding to the Brazilian Curricular Parameters and to the trends in contemporary education, which emphasize contextualized teaching) by means of computers. Computers can make the teaching process dynamic and rich, since they enable the access to the foreign language through virtual environments, which creates a larger number of learning contexts, with all their specific vocabulary and linguistic features in real communication. This study focuses on possible applications of this kind of approach. The computer online is a resource of diverse textual genres and can be an important tool in the language classroom as well as an access to authentic material produced in contextualized practice close to real-life communication. On the other hand, all these materials must be appropriately used without ever worshipping the technology as if it were a miraculous solution. After all, the professional pedagogic skills of the teacher should never be forgotten or taken for granted. In this study, a series of interviews with teachers was carried out - both with Brazilian teachers of the public sector (basic education) and language institutes (private English courses) as well as teacher trainers (university professors), in order to verify if the teachers were prepared to work with informatics in teaching practices, and check the professionals’ views on the subject. The ideas of Maingueneau and Marcuschi about textual genres are a theoretical base in this work, besides the concept of cognitive economy. The text and its typology are focused here as the basic material for teaching English, through digital technologies and hypermedia. The study is also based on Sharma and Barrett’s notion of blended learning as a balanced combination of technological resources and traditional practices in the classroom. Thus, this is an attempt to investigate the relevance of
Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Alibali, Martha Wagner
When speakers talk, they gesture. The goal of this review is to investigate the contribution that these gestures make to how we communicate and think. Gesture can play a role in communication and thought at many timespans. We explore, in turn, gesture's contribution to how language is produced and understood in the moment; its contribution to how we learn language and other cognitive skills; and its contribution to how language is created over generations, over childhood, and on the spot. We find that the gestures speakers produce when they talk are integral to communication and can be harnessed in a number of ways. (a) Gesture reflects speakers' thoughts, often their unspoken thoughts, and thus can serve as a window onto cognition. Encouraging speakers to gesture can thus provide another route for teachers, clinicians, interviewers, etc., to better understand their communication partners. (b) Gesture can change speakers' thoughts. Encouraging gesture thus has the potential to change how students, patients, witnesses, etc., think about a problem and, as a result, alter the course of learning, therapy, or an interchange. (c) Gesture provides building blocks that can be used to construct a language. By watching how children and adults who do not already have a language put those blocks together, we can observe the process of language creation. Our hands are with us at all times and thus provide researchers and learners with an ever-present tool for understanding how we talk and think.
Hautopp, Heidi; Hanghøj, Thorkild
experiences with the central goals in communicative language teaching (CLT). The paper is based on a study of The Danish Simulator when integrated in a game‐based language course with 15 students at a language center in Copenhagen during spring, 2013. The Danish Simulator consists of language drills......, the analysis presents preliminary findings in relation to students’ different experiences of The Danish Simulator and the teacher’s redesign of the game based teaching. It is concluded that the meaningful use of The Danish Simulator in a game‐based language course for bilingual adults depends on the students......What happens when a single‐player training game enters a classroom context? The use of training activities in game‐based learning (GBL) has often been criticized for letting players perform mechanical operations with no reflection upon the learning experiences involved (e.g. Egenfeldt‐Nielsen, 2005...
Throughout time, healers, philosophers, scientists, and teachers have recognized the place of music for therapeutic and developmental functions (Bancroft,1985:3-7). Researchers over the last twenty years have made astounding advances in the the⁃ory of language acquisition. Many find the pedagogical conjoining of language and music compelling. The first part of this review focuses on the historical and developmental proofs of music’ s relationship with language learning. In part two, neurological the⁃ory on music and the mind are covered. Part three summarizes scholarly inquiry on the use of music for learning languages, espe⁃cially those studies that could prove most instructive both for language teachers and for music therapists in the development of curricula.
von der Emde, Silke; Schneider, Jeffrey; Kotter, Markus
Draws on experiences from a 7-week exchange between students learning German at an American college and advanced students of English at a German university. Maps out the benefits to using a MOO (multiple user domains object-oriented) for language learning: a student-centered learning environment structured by such objectives as peer teaching,…
Kuhl, Patricia K
Explaining how every typically developing child acquires language is one of the grand challenges of cognitive neuroscience. Historically, language learning provoked classic debates about the contributions of innately specialized as opposed to general learning mechanisms. Now, new data are being brought to bear from studies that employ magnetoencephalograph (MEG), electroencephalograph (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies on young children. These studies examine the patterns of association between brain and behavioral measures. The resulting data offer both expected results and surprises that are altering theory. As we uncover what it means to be human through the lens of young children, and their ability to speak, what we learn will not only inform theories of human development, but also lead to the discovery of neural biomarkers, early in life, that indicate risk for language impairment and allow early intervention for children with developmental disabilities involving language. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.
Kim, Daesang; Ruecker, Daniel; Kim, Dong-Joong
The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of learning with mobile technology for TESOL students and to explore their perceptions of learning with this type of technology. The study provided valuable insights on how students perceive and adapt to learning with mobile technology for effective learning experiences for both students…
Basaran, Süleyman; Cabaroglu, Nese
The ubiquitous use of Internet-based mobile devices in educational contexts means that mobile learning has become a plausible alternative to or a good complement for conventional classroom-based teaching. However, there is a lack of research that explores and defines the characteristics and effects of mobile language learning (LL) through language…
Tatiana M. Gulaya
Full Text Available This paper presents results of the surveyperformed in MESI, in academic groupsmajoring in “World Economy”. The surveywas conducted on three foreign languagelearning websites that use Web 2.0 technology to gain an understanding of how current users of language learning websitesuse them for learning English and Frenchand explore the pedagogical and technicalusability and effectiveness of these sites.
Orpet, Brian R.
Describes a visit made to Sweden to ascertain why Swedish citizens speak such excellent English. Motivation was a key factor. Describes observations of the methods of teaching English as a second language in Swedish schools. Makes recommendations for foreign language teaching in Great Britain based on these observations. (SED)
Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary
Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into
Full Text Available Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU model (Rönnberg et al., 2013 pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1 we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2. Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at the T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills
This article is a combined result of a three years research project on low-skilled learners' experiences as participants of various kinds of adult training and education in Denmark, and the findings of a three years research consortium on workplace learning, summing up and generalizing our various...... findings as to how low-skilled adults function in relation to participation in training and education activities, how they feel about it, what is important to them, and consequently what works in practice in relation to this very important but often neglected group of adult learners....
Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip
Most exchange students now come to Scandinavian countries not because they are students of the languages of the countries concerned, but because they wish to experience study abroad and can do so in Scandinavia through the medium of English used as a lingua franca. This paper reports on a three......-year study (2005-2007) of the language experiences and language-related attitudes of exchange students in Sweden and Denmark. The study includes some 240 subjects who were interviewed individually three times each during their stay in Scandinavia and who all, at the end of each interview, completed a simple...... vocabulary test and a picture description test. On this basis, the paper addresses issues such as the following: Though the incoming exchange students' studies are to be in the medium of English rather than Swedish/Danish, does language learning nevertheless still play a role in their motivation for going...
Full Text Available The digital explosion of information on the Internet has resulted in a need for a new and up-to-date way for Digital Natives to learn English. Educators have reported numerous benefits of using weblogs in English language learning. This article presents a small scale study on the use of weblogs for English language learning at tertiary level in Malaysia. Twenty six students kept weblogs for a duration of a semester. This study investigated how students perceived the use of weblogs for English language learning. A questionnaire which was made up of both close-ended and open-ended questions was administered at the end of the study. A mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods was used to analyse the students’ responses to the questionnaire. The study found that students were aware of their audience when they blogged and that they geared their writing towards their audience. In addition, they also interacted with others through the use of the comment feature on their weblogs. Furthermore, the majority of the students enjoyed blogging and found weblogs useful for English language learning. This study found that weblogs are promising interactive tools for English language learning.
Rosemeire de Araújo Rangni
Full Text Available The field of high skills/giftedness presents some polemic questions, among them, the use of names or terms that define it. This paper has aimed the use of terminology in the area of high skills/giftedness for diverse Brazilian authors. For this, it was researched the published papers on Revista Educação Especial, of Santa Maria, RS, editions 2001 to 2010. The terminologies used to perform the research are the bibliographical and the documental. The results found indicate the terminological use in the titles of the papers as in the key words vary among authors as well as it is observed that languages used in the field of high skills/giftedness can cause conflicts in the educational service to that group of students.
The digital explosion of information on the Internet has resulted in a need for a new and up-to-date way for Digital Natives to learn English. Educators have reported numerous benefits of using weblogs in English language learning. This article presents a small scale study on the use of weblogs for English language learning at tertiary level in Malaysia. Twenty six students kept weblogs for a duration of a semester. This study investigated how students perceived the use of weblogs for Eng...
Tolosa, Constanza; Ordóñez, Claudia Lucía; Guevara, Diana Carolina
We present findings of a project that investigated the potential of an online tandem program to enhance the foreign language learning of two groups of school-aged beginner learners, one learning English in Colombia and the other learning Spanish in New Zealand. We assessed the impact of the project on students' learning with a free writing…
Sun, Lei; Wallach, Geraldine P.
This article takes readers along the pathway of language learning and disorders across childhood and adolescence, highlighting the complex relationship between early (preschool) language disorders and later (school age) learning disabilities. The discussion starts with a review of diagnostic labels widely used in schools and other professional…
contacts and experiences can be enhanced and brought back into the classroom to study and learn from them. How can the ‘wild’ language be practically supported to become the ‘food chain’ of language acquisition? The paper will present an example of language encounters ‘in the wild’ and analyze the sense......When adult newcomers arrive in a new society, the new language encroaches immediately into their everyday lives. As a minimum, newcomers are overhearers of and eavesdroppers to encounters in public life, education, at workplaces, or in the media and they meet texts wherever they go. In daily life......, there are ample daily opportunities for engaging with the language of the society. It has a paramount presence in the daily life of newcomers even before they have acquired the nuts and bolts for using it actively. Language encounters ‘in the wild’ happen in a sometimes chaotic, sometimes repetitive environment...
van der Post, Daniel J; Franz, Mathias; Laland, Kevin N
Social learning is potentially advantageous, but evolutionary theory predicts that (i) its benefits may be self-limiting because social learning can lead to information parasitism, and (ii) these limitations can be mitigated via forms of selective copying. However, these findings arise from a functional approach in which learning mechanisms are not specified, and which assumes that social learning avoids the costs of asocial learning but does not produce information about the environment. Whether these findings generalize to all kinds of social learning remains to be established. Using a detailed multi-scale evolutionary model, we investigate the payoffs and information production processes of specific social learning mechanisms (including local enhancement, stimulus enhancement and observational learning) and their evolutionary consequences in the context of skill learning in foraging groups. We find that local enhancement does not benefit foraging success, but could evolve as a side-effect of grouping. In contrast, stimulus enhancement and observational learning can be beneficial across a wide range of environmental conditions because they generate opportunities for new learning outcomes. In contrast to much existing theory, we find that the functional outcomes of social learning are mechanism specific. Social learning nearly always produces information about the environment, and does not always avoid the costs of asocial learning or support information parasitism. Our study supports work emphasizing the value of incorporating mechanistic detail in functional analyses.
Birulés-Muntané, J; Soto-Faraco, S
Watching English-spoken films with subtitles is becoming increasingly popular throughout the world. One reason for this trend is the assumption that perceptual learning of the sounds of a foreign language, English, will improve perception skills in non-English speakers. Yet, solid proof for this is scarce. In order to test the potential learning effects derived from watching subtitled media, a group of intermediate Spanish students of English as a foreign language watched a 1h-long episode of a TV drama in its original English version, with English, Spanish or no subtitles overlaid. Before and after the viewing, participants took a listening and vocabulary test to evaluate their speech perception and vocabulary acquisition in English, plus a final plot comprehension test. The results of the listening skills tests revealed that after watching the English subtitled version, participants improved these skills significantly more than after watching the Spanish subtitled or no-subtitles versions. The vocabulary test showed no reliable differences between subtitled conditions. Finally, as one could expect, plot comprehension was best under native, Spanish subtitles. These learning effects with just 1 hour exposure might have major implications with longer exposure times.
Claassen, Joel; Jama, Zukile; Manga, Nayna; Lewis, Minnie; Hellenberg, Derek
This study reflects on the development and teaching of communication skills courses in additional national languages to health care staff within two primary health care facilities in Cape Town, South Africa. These courses were aimed at addressing the language disparities that recent research has identified globally between patients and health care staff. Communication skills courses were offered to staff at two Metropolitan District Health Services clinics to strengthen patient access to health care services. This study reflects on the communicative proficiency in the additional languages that were offered to health care staff. A mixed-method approach was utilised during this case study with quantitative data-gathering through surveys and qualitative analysis of assessment results. The language profiles of the respective communities were assessed through data obtained from the South African National census, while staff language profiles were obtained at the health care centres. Quantitative measuring, by means of a patient survey at the centres, occurred on a randomly chosen day to ascertain the language profile of the patient population. Participating staff performed assessments at different phases of the training courses to determine their skill levels by the end of the course. The performances of the participating staff during the Xhosa and Afrikaans language courses were assessed, and the development of the staff communicative competencies was measured. Health care staff learning the additional languages could develop Basic or Intermediate Xhosa and Afrikaans that enables communication with patients. In multilingual countries such as South Africa, language has been recognised as a health care barrier preventing patients from receiving quality care. Equipping health care staff with communication skills in the additional languages, represents an attempt to bridge a vital barrier in the South African health care system. The study proves that offering communication
Ammar Abdullah Mahmoud Ismial
Full Text Available The emerging paradigm shift in educational contexts from walled classroom environments to virtual, hybrid, blended, and lately personal learning environments has brought about vast changes in the foreign language classroom practices. Numerous calls for experimenting with new instructional treatments to enhance students' language performance in these new learning environments have been voiced by researchers and language educators in different settings. The current study aimed at investigating the impact of using reflective blogfolios in teaching argumentation to EFL tertiary students on their argumentative essay writing skills and ways of knowing. As well, the study investigated the relationship between student's ways of knowing and their argumentative writing capabilities. The participants of the study were fifty one EFL tertiary students in the Emirati context. Two assessment instruments were used, including a ways-of-knowing scale and a rubric for tapping EFL students' argumentative writing skills. Results of the study indicated that using reflective blogfolios in the foreign language classroom brought about significant changes in EFL tertiary students' argumentative writing skills and their ways of knowing. Results of the study also indicated that connected ways of knowing were better predictors of EFL tertiary students' argumentative writing performance than separate ways of knowing. Details of the instructional intervention, the assessment instruments, results of the study, implications for foreign language instruction in virtual learning environments, and suggestions for further research are discussed. Keywords: Reflective blogfolios, argumentative writing skills, ways of knowing
Nguyen, Trang Thi Thuy
This paper discusses the issue of learner outcomes in learning culture as part of their language learning. First, some brief discussion on the role of culture in language teaching and learning, as well as on culture contents in language lessons is presented. Based on a detailed review of previous literature related to culture in language teaching…
Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation…
By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…
Attempts will be made in this paper to examine what we mean by language, language teaching and learning, resources and resourcefulness in language teaching and learning and the benefit of teachers being resourceful in language teaching and learning to both the learners, the teachers, the society and the nation at ...
Jarvis, Huw; Krashen, Stephen
In this article, Huw Jarvis and Stephen Krashen ask "Is CALL Obsolete?" When the term CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) was introduced in the 1960s, the language education profession knew only about language learning, not language acquisition, and assumed the computer's primary contribution to second language acquisition…
Research on communication in classrooms is reviewed to provide implications for the writing process. Studies address language, social identity, and teacher expectation. The importance of meaning as the focus of writing is stressed. (CL)
Álvarez Valencia, José Aldemar
Social networking has compelled the area of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) to expand its research palette and account for new virtual ecologies that afford language learning and socialization. This study focuses on Busuu, a social networking site for language learning (SNSLL), and analyzes the views of language that are enacted through…
Immink, Maarten A; Wright, David L; Barnes, William S
The present study investigated the role of temperature as a contextual condition for motor skill learning. Precision grip task training occurred while forearm cutaneous temperature was either heated (40-45 °C) or cooled (10-15 °C). At test, temperature was either reinstated or changed. Performance was comparable between training conditions while at test, temperature changes decreased accuracy, especially after hot training conditions. After cold training, temperature change deficits were only evident when concurrent force feedback was presented. These findings are the first evidence of localized temperature dependency in motor skill learning in humans. Results are not entirely accounted for by a context-dependent memory explanation and appear to represent an interaction of neuromuscular and sensory processes with the temperature present during training and test.
Full Text Available The author discusses some psycho linguistic conditions for second language learning based on a preference rr ode! in linguistics. The outcome of second language learning depends on a number of conditions. Second language learning takes place in a social context, and social conditions determine a learner's attitudes. These attitudes are twofold in nature, namely those towards the community speaking the target language and those towards the learning situation. The two kinds of attitudes lead to motivation. The social context also provides opportunities for language learning and can be divided into formal and informal situations. There are also individual conditions of the learner. The author is concerned with the exploration of several specific psycholinguistic factors, as well as the kinds of rules which they contribute to the theory. Die skrywer bespreek enkele psigolinguistiese voorwaardes vir die aanleer van 'n tweede taal, gebaseer op 'n voorkeurmodel in die l!nguistiek. Die aanleer van 'n tweede taal geskied bin ne 'n sosiale konteks, en sosiale omstandighede bepaal 'n leerder se houding. Hierdie houding kan bestaan ten opsigte van die gemeenskap wat die teikentaal praat, sowel as ten opsigte van die leersituasie. Motivering word bepaal deur hierdie tweeledige houding. Die sosiale konteks bepaal ook geleenthede vir die aanleer van 'n taal en kan verdeel word in forme le en informele situasies. Verder is daar die individuele omstandighede van elke leerder. Die skrywer hou horn besig met 'n verkenning van spesifieke psigolinguistiese faktore, sowel as die soort reels wat hydra tot die teorie.
Success in learning a second language nevertheless an African language has proven a tremendous effort on the part of foreign adult learners enrolled in universities. Motivation and attitude as well as the strategies used by the learners themselves play an important role. However, the greatest challenge for this group of ...
Reeves, J B; Newell, W; Holcomb, B R; Stinson, M
In collaboration with teachers and students at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID), the Sign Language Skills Classroom Observation (SLSCO) was designed to provide feedback to teachers on their sign language communication skills in the classroom. In the present article, the impetus and rationale for development of the SLSCO is discussed. Previous studies related to classroom signing and observation methodology are reviewed. The procedure for developing the SLSCO is then described. This procedure included (a) interviews with faculty and students at NTID, (b) identification of linguistic features of sign language important for conveying content to deaf students, (c) development of forms for recording observations of classroom signing, (d) analysis of use of the forms, (e) development of a protocol for conducting the SLSCO, and (f) piloting of the SLSCO in classrooms. The results of use of the SLSCO with NTID faculty during a trial year are summarized.
Hirosh, Zoya; Degani, Tamar
Accumulated recent research suggests that prior knowledge of multiple languages leads to advantages in learning additional languages. In the current article, we review studies examining potential differences between monolingual and multilingual speakers in novel language learning in an effort to uncover the cognitive mechanisms that underlie such differences. We examine the multilingual advantage in children and adults, across a wide array of languages and learner populations. The majority of this literature focused on vocabulary learning, but studies that address phonology, grammar, and literacy learning are also discussed to provide a comprehensive picture of the way in which multilingualism affects novel language learning. Our synthesis indicates two avenues to the multilingual advantage including direct transfer of prior knowledge and prior skills as well as indirect influences that result from multilingual background and include more general changes to the cognitive-linguistic system. Finally, we highlight topics that are in need of future systematic research.
Clark, Dav; Ivry, Richard B
Motor learning is a ubiquitous feature of human competence. This review focuses on two particular classes of model tasks for studying skill acquisition. The serial reaction time (SRT) task is used to probe how people learn sequences of actions, while adaptation in the context of visuomotor or force field perturbations serves to illustrate how preexisting movements are recalibrated in novel environments. These tasks highlight important issues regarding the representational changes that occur during the course of motor learning. One important theme is that distinct mechanisms vary in their information processing costs during learning and performance. Fast learning processes may require few trials to produce large changes in performance but impose demands on cognitive resources. Slower processes are limited in their ability to integrate complex information but minimally demanding in terms of attention or processing resources. The representations derived from fast systems may be accessible to conscious processing and provide a relatively greater measure of flexibility, while the representations derived from slower systems are more inflexible and automatic in their behavior. In exploring these issues, we focus on how multiple neural systems may interact and compete during the acquisition and consolidation of new behaviors. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is categorized under: Psychology > Motor Skill and Performance. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes
Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of English language proficiency and levels of scientific reasoning skills of Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students on their acquisition of science content knowledge as measured by a state-wide standardized science test. The researcher studied a group of high school Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students participating in Grade 10 science classes. The language proficiency of the students was to be measured through the use of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) instrument. A Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning developed by Lawson (1978) was administered in either English or Spanish to the group of Hispanic English language learners and in English to the group of native English language-speaking students in order to determine their levels of scientific reasoning skills. The students' acquisition of science content knowledge was measured through the use of statewide-standardized science test developed by the State's Department of Education. This study suggests that the levels of English language proficiency appear to influence the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners in the study. The results of the study also suggest that with regards to scientific reasoning skills, students that showed high levels or reflective reasoning skills for the most part performed better on the statewide-standardized science test than students with intuitive or transitional reasoning skills. This assertion was supported by the studies conducted by Lawson and his colleagues, which showed that high levels of reasoning or reflective reasoning skills are prerequisite for most high school science courses. The findings in this study imply that high order English language proficiency combined with high levels of reasoning skills enhances students' abilities to learn science content subject matter. This
Full Text Available Learner self-assessment of linguistic performance has been lately used due to its potential to activate the process of learning. Self-assessment raises learner awareness of language use and leads to developing learner responsibility and autonomy. However, usefulness of self-assessment for evaluation purposes has been scarcely researched. This paper examines some aspects of learners’ self-assessment for evaluation purposes at tertiary level. Research focuses on self-assessment of English for Specific Purposes (ESP vocabulary and some language skills relevant for vocabulary retention. Data on learner self-assessment are compared to actual results in tests. The analysis provided points to importance of self-evaluation in language acquisition and suggests practical implications of self-assessment for evaluation.
Aarnio, Matti; Nieminen, Juha; Pyörälä, Eeva; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari
This study examined teaching teamwork skills to first-year medical students. Teamwork skills focused on verbal communication in PBL-tutorial sessions and in healthcare teams. The aim was to find out how to teach teamwork skills to first-year medical students and how to motivate them to learn these skills. Three consecutive classes of first-year medical students (N = 342) participated in teamwork skills module in the years 2006, 2007 and 2008. After the first year, the introduction to the topic was revised in order to be more motivating to medical students. After each module data were collected with a feedback questionnaire containing numerical and open questions. By analyzing the students' numerical answers and the content of students' open answers regarding the module, we examined how the revised introduction affected students' perceptions of the usefulness of the module. Medical students' feedback in the years 1 (n = 81), 2 (n = 99) and 3 (n = 95) showed that the students found the module in the second and third years significantly more useful than in the first year. These results support earlier findings that clearly stated clinical relevance motivates medical students. When introducing multidisciplinary subjects to medical students, it is important to think through the clinical relevance of the topic and how it is introduced to medical students.
Ag. Bambang Setiyadi
Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to explore language learning strategies (Rubin, 1975, Naiman et . al ., 1978; Fillmore, 1979; O'Malley et . al ., 1985 and 1990; Politzer and Groarty, 1985; Prokop, 1989; Oxford, 1990; and Wenden, 1991. In the current study a total of 79 university students participating in a 3 month English course participated. This study attempted to explore what language learning strategies successful learners used and to what extent the strategies contributed to success in learning English in Indonesia . Factor analyses, accounting for 62.1 %, 56.0 %, 41.1 %, and 43.5 % of the varience of speaking, listening, reading and writing measures in the language learning strategy questionnaire, suggested that the questionnaire constituted three constructs. The three constructs were named metacognitive strategies, deep level cognitive and surface level cognitive strategies. Regression analyses, performed using scales based on these factors revealed significant main effects for the use of the language learning strategies in learning English, constituting 43 % of the varience in the posttest English achievement scores. An analysis of varience of the gain scores of the highest, middle, and the lowest groups of performers suggested a greater use of metacognitive strategies among successful learners and a greater use of surface level cognitive strategies among unsuccessful learners. Implications for the classroom and future research are also discussed.
Ankara : The Institute of Economic and Social Sciences Bilkent Univ., 2000. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2000. Includes bibliographical references leaves 54-58 This study investigated the relationship between students’ perceptual learning style preferences, language learning strategies and English language vocabulary size. It is very important for teachers to be aware of students’ preferences in learning to help them be more successful and to avoid conflicts when...
Full Text Available Arts are commonly used in primary and secondary classrooms for learning purposes, but arts integration in higher education curricula could benefit university-level students academically and emotionally as well. Integrating arts into an English as a Foreign Language (EFL curriculum could benefit students who experience foreign language anxiety, which hinders them from being socially and linguistically successful in the classroom according to multiple studies outlined in the literature section. The focus for students in this study was on listening skills because it is a major element in foreign language development that is explored to a lesser degree than reading, writing and speaking skills. The eight introductory-level classes were split between control and experimental classes. During the first part of the arts implementation, the experimental classes began with drama theatre for 30 minutes. This consisted of students taking a theme in English, such as home and directions, then creating a creative performance for their peers involving relevant vocabulary and phrases. The second part consisted of a 15 minute music cloze section, where students were filling in lyrics for a song that they were actively listening to. Two academic assessments were given as department-wide mid-term and final academic assessments, two subjective surveys and the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS were given at the beginning and end of the school semester. The FLCAS determined that students’ anxieties lowered on 15 questions and increased on 18 questions, so the arts integration has not notably altered foreign language anxiety. The arts-integrated classes received average scores of 80.5%, while the control classes received 74%. Students have performed higher academically with an arts integrated curriculum. It is therefore recommended that arts in the form of music cloze and drama theatre should be included in EFL curricula to increase academic achievement
Full Text Available Abstract Abstract This article explores the concept and role of intensity in the research project on Intensive Core French in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Intensity in this project is characterized by a reorganization of the timetable and a reorientation of the curriculum. The theoretical foundation of the project – a transdisciplinary approach to second language learning/teaching – is based on Cummins's hypothesis on the interdependence of languages, a sociopsychological theory of development, and Vygotsky's conception of the relationship between instruction and development. A model is developed in order to illustrate the relationship between second language learning and the development of cognitive, social and personal capacities and organizational skills. It is argued that the types of teaching strategies used in second language classrooms have important effects on the development of these capacities. The transdisciplinary approach developed in our research project, which tests on the concept of intensity and implies the compacting of the curriculum both in English and other subjects, enhances the effects of second language instruction.
Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U
Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes
Bailey, Richard; Pickard, Angela
This paper was stimulated by the authors' attempt to understand the process of skill learning in dance. Its stimulus was a period of fieldwork based at the Royal Ballet School in London, and subsequent discussions with the school's teachers and with academic colleagues about how it was that the young dancers developed their characteristic set of…
Gose, Robin Margaretha
English language learners (EL) are the fastest growing sub-group of the student population in California, yet ELs also score the lowest on the science section of the California Standardized Tests. In the area of bilingual education, California has dramatically changed its approach to English learners since the passage of Proposition 227 in 1998, which called for most EL instruction to be conducted in English (Cummins, 2000; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008). In reality, this means that EL students are often placed in programs that focus on basic language skills rather than rigorous content, meaning that they are not getting access to grade level science content (Lee & Fradd, 1998). As a result, many EL students exit eighth grade without a strong foundation in science, and they continue to score below their English-speaking peers on standardized achievements. While the usefulness of the academic language construct remains controversial (Bailey, 2012), the language used in science instruction is nevertheless often unfamiliar to both EL and English proficient students. The discourse is frequently specialized for discipline-specific interactions and activities (Bailey, 2007; Lemke, 1990). This qualitative case study examined academic language instruction in three middle school science classrooms at a dual language charter school. The goal was to understand how teachers integrate academic language and content for linguistically diverse students. The findings fom this study indicate that targeting language instruction in isolation from science content instruction prohibits students from engaging in the "doing of science" and scientific discourse, or the ability to think, reason, and communicate about science. The recommendations of this study support authentically embedding language development into rigorous science instruction in order to maximize opportunities for learning in both domains.
This article examined about the important of using dictionary in English language learning. We cannot deny in learning a foreign language, we need to consult a dictionary. It is supported by Laufer in Koca believes that when word looks familiar but the sentence in which it is found or its wider context makes no sense at all, the learner should be encouraged to consult a dictionary. Sometimes the learners are reluctant to find out the other meaning of word from dictionary, as a result the mea...
Full Text Available Drawing on a lengthier review completed for the US National Institute for Literacy, this paper examines emerging technologies that are applicable to self-access and autonomous learning in the areas of listening and speaking, collaborative writing, reading and language structure, and online interaction. Digital media reviewed include podcasts, blogs, wikis, online writing sites, text-scaffolding software, concordancers, multiuser virtual environments, multiplayer games, and chatbots. For each of these technologies, we summarize recent research and discuss possible uses for autonomous language learning.
Das, Bikram K.
Observation of machine or production operators in a Singapore factory for insight into their need for English language skills, existing skills, and the results of a basic English language program in which many were enrolled revealed that, although the workers were generally poorly educated and had minimal English skills, they were able to decode…
DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C; Goffman, Lisa
To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for articulatory duration and variability. Standard measures of motor, language, and articulation skill were also obtained. Sentences containing particles, as compared with prepositions, were less likely to be produced in a priming task and were longer in duration, suggesting increased difficulty with this syntactic structure. Children with SLI demonstrated higher articulatory variability and poorer gross and fine motor skills compared with aged-matched controls. Articulatory variability was correlated with generalized gross and fine motor performance. Children with SLI show co-occurring speech motor and generalized motor deficits. Current theories do not fully account for the present findings, though the procedural deficit hypothesis provides a framework for interpreting overlap among language and motor domains.
With the aim of investigating the role of first language skills in second language acquisition and school achievement in the immigration context, this study presents the findings of the home language skills of the third-generation Turkish-Dutch bilingual children (n=24) living in the Netherlands by
Gooch, Debbie; Thompson, Paul; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles
Background: The developmental relationships between executive functions (EF) and early language skills are unclear. This study explores the longitudinal relationships between children's early EF and language skills in a sample of children with a wide range of language abilities including children at risk of dyslexia. In addition, we investigated…
Cameron, Thomas H.; Kelly, Desmond P.
The subject of this case report is a two-year, seven-month-old girl with de Lange syndrome, normal intelligence, and age-appropriate language skills. She demonstrated initial delays in gross motor skills and in receptive and expressive language but responded well to intensive speech and language intervention, as well as to physical therapy.…
Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) wants English language education to be more communicative. Japanese teachers of English (JTEs) need to adapt their instructional practices to meet this goal; however, they may not feel confident enough to teach speaking themselves. Using technology, JTEs have the ability…
Ionescu, Thea; Ilie, Adriana
In Romanian preschool settings, there is a tendency to use abstract strategies in language-learning activities. The present study explored if strategies based on an embodied cognition approach facilitate learning more than traditional strategies that progress from concrete to abstract. Twenty-five children between 4 and 5 years of age listened to…
Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.
This article presents receptive and expressive American Sign Language skills of 85 students, 6 through 22 years of age at a residential school for the deaf using the American Sign Language Receptive Skills Test and the Ozcaliskan Motion Stimuli. Results are presented by ages and indicate that students' receptive skills increased with age and…
Goodrich, J. Marc; Farrington, Amber L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.
Although there is a growing body of literature on the development of reading skills of Spanish-speaking language minority children, little research has focused on the development of writing skills in this population. This study evaluated whether children's Spanish early reading skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness, oral language)…
Full Text Available This study aims to adapt European Language Portfolio (ELP to teaching Turkish as a foreign languagewhose application has been planned since 2005 in all European countries. With the European Language Passport programEuropean Validity Committee aims to set a langugage learning standard and encourage multi-culturalism among EUcountries. This program targets to find out which langugages the individuals speak and to discover where, how and whenthey have learnt the language. It also provides an opportunity for them to travel, reside and work in European countries.Today, ELP is in progress of becoming a common purpose in Europe. Therefore, ELP must be utilized in teaching Turkishas a foreign language. ELP must be piloted in laboratory schools through experimental studies with an approprietlydeveloped portfolio. Pilot projects must be applied in elementary, secondary, high schools and universities with acollaboration with the Ministry of Education. This study was conducted in TOMER ( the language center of AnkaraUniversity. For this study an experimental design was used. The sample includes 20 students in the control group and 20students in the experimental group. In this study students’ proficiency level of Turkish related to four basic language skills(reading, writing, listening and speaking and their attitude towards ELP application were examined.
Khoiru Rakhman Abidin
Full Text Available The aims of the study are (1 the concepts of language learning in behaviorism perspective, (2 the relation between language and learning in behaviorism perspective, (3 the influence of behaviorism in language learning. This is a descriptive qualitative study. The results showed that (1 behaviorism theories of languages also give good contribution in language learning process that describes a child can learn language from their environments, (2 behaviorism perspective defines as change of behavior through experience, it means human learn something from their environments, (3 human uses language for communication in the world and he also spreads his culture with his language so human gets knowledge of language through learning.
Metaphor is an important teaching tool in our teaching history. In this essay, I try to explain how to play a lesson around metaphor, and how to use metaphor for students' memory aids or vocabulary learning.
Sparks, R L; Ganschow, L; Kenneweg, S; Miller, K
Recent research findings suggest that students who have difficulty learning a second language have weaknesses in oral and written native-language skills which affect their performance in the foreign-language classroom. These weaknesses involve understanding the phonological, syntactic, and semantic codes of language. Evidence suggests that dyslexic/learning-disabled and other "at risk" students who struggle in the second language classroom exhibit particular difficulty with the phonological and syntactic codes of the language. The Orton-Gillingham method, a multisensory, structured language approach which adheres to the direct and explicit teaching of phonology, is presented as an alternative to the "natural" communication approaches recently developed by foreign-language educators to teach a second language. A method for adapting this approach for teaching Spanish is described.
Eser, Oktay; Saltan, Fatih; Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin; Erdem, Gamze
Recent research shows that bi-lingual competence is one of the necessary skills that a translator needs in order to translate (PACTE, 2003). Apart from the mother tongue, a translator must have a command of other working languages. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the online multimedia-supported learning environment concerning…
Enever, Janet, Ed.; Lindgren, Eva, Ed.
This is the first collection of research studies to explore the potential for mixed methods to shed light on foreign or second language learning by young learners in instructed contexts. It brings together recent studies undertaken in Cameroon, China, Croatia, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Italy, Kenya, Mexico, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Tanzania and…
This article examines a study of seven learners who logged their experiences on the language leaning social networking site Livemocha over a period of three months. The features of the site are described and the likelihood of their future success is considered. The learners were introduced to the Social Networking Site (SNS) and asked to learn a…
Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias
"Sometimes maligned for its allegedly behaviorist connotations but critical for success in many fields from music to sport to mathematics and language learning, 'practice' is undergoing something of a revival in the applied linguistics literature" (Long & Richards 2007, p. xi). This research timeline provides a systematic overview of…
Hallett, Terry L.
Introduces educators to inexpensive, commercially-available CD-ROM software that combines speech, text, graphics, sound, video, animation, and special effects that may be incorporated into classroom activities for both normally developing and language learning disabled children. Discusses three types of multimedia CD-ROM products: (1) virtual…
There has been a substantial increase in recent years in the interest in using digital games for language learning. This coincides with the explosive growth in multiplayer online gaming and with the proliferation of mobile games for smart phones. It also reflects the growing recognition among educators of the importance of extramural, informal…
Lamb, Terry; Murray, Garold; Gao, Xuesong
In this volume researchers from Asia, Europe, the Middle East and North and South America employ a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches in their exploration of the links between identity, motivation, and autonomy in language learning. On a conceptual level the authors explore issues related to agency, metacognition,…
Figueroa Flores, Jorge Francisco
One major competence for learners in the 21st century is acquiring a second language (L2). Based on this, L2 instruction has integrated new concepts to motivate learners in their pursue of achieving fluency. A concept that is adaptable to digital natives and digital immigrants that are learning a L2 is Gamification. As a pedagogical strategy,…
The metaphor of education as a conversation that is currently popular is attractive in many respects and it continues to be explored and applied in philosophy of education. This article seeks to consider that aspect of education that involves the literal conversation required to learn other languages. The burden of the argument is that language…
Job Summary Plans and coordinates human resources services in the areas of Learning, Official Languages (OL) and Employment Equity (EE) while ensuring that management's needs are met. Provides operational services and advises managers and employees in determining their needs, analyzing problems, ...
When I was invited to give one of the keynote talks at the Second International Conference on Telecollaboration in Higher Education, my first thought was that I should decline. It is true that for thirty years I was responsible for Trinity College Dublin's self-access language learning facilities and resources; true also that around the turn of…
This timeline looks at explicit uses of corpora in foreign or second language (L2) teaching and learning, i.e. what happens when end-users explore corpus data, whether directly via concordancers or integrated into CALL programs, or indirectly with prepared printed materials. The underlying rationale is that such contact provides the massive…
Ettlinger, Marc; Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Wong, Patrick C. M.
Artificial language learning (ALL) experiments have become an important tool in exploring principles of language and language learning. A persistent question in all of this work, however, is whether ALL engages the linguistic system and whether ALL studies are ecologically valid assessments of natural language ability. In the present study, we…
Peters, Jan; Schaal, Stefan; Schölkopf, Bernhard
Autonomous robots that can adapt to novel situations has been a long standing vision of robotics, artificial intelligence, and cognitive sciences. Early approaches to this goal during the heydays of artificial intelligence research in the late 1980s, however, made it clear that an approach purely based on reasoning or human insights would not be able to model all the perceptuomotor tasks that a robot should fulfill. Instead, new hope was put in the growing wake of machine learning that promised fully adaptive control algorithms which learn both by observation and trial-and-error. However, to date, learning techniques have yet to fulfill this promise as only few methods manage to scale into the high-dimensional domains of manipulator robotics, or even the new upcoming trend of humanoid robotics, and usually scaling was only achieved in precisely pre-structured domains. In this paper, we investigate the ingredients for a general approach to motor skill learning in order to get one step closer towards human-like performance. For doing so, we study two major components for such an approach, i.e., firstly, a theoretically well-founded general approach to representing the required control structures for task representation and execution and, secondly, appropriate learning algorithms which can be applied in this setting.
Fu, Wai-Tat; Anderson, John R
Acquisition of interactive skills involves the use of internal and external cues. Experiment 1 showed that when actions were interdependent, learning was effective with and without external cues in the single-task condition but was effective only with the presence of external cues in the dual-task condition. In the dual-task condition, actions closer to the feedback were learned faster than actions farther away but this difference was reversed in the single-task condition. Experiment 2 tested how knowledge acquired in single and dual-task conditions would transfer to a new reward structure. Results confirmed the two forms of learning mediated by the secondary task: A declarative memory encoding process that simultaneously assigned credits to actions and a reinforcement-learning process that slowly propagated credits backward from the feedback. The results showed that both forms of learning were engaged during training, but only at the response selection stage, one form of knowledge may dominate over the other depending on the availability of attentional resources. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved
Berube, Daniel; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.
The relationship between first language (L1) typology, defined as the classification of languages according to their structural characteristics (e.g. phonological systems and writing systems), and the development of second (L2) and third (L3) language skills and literacy proficiency in multilingual children was investigated in this study. The…
Rodriguez, Cathi Draper; Filler, John; Higgins, Kyle
Through this exploratory study the authors investigated the effects of primary language support delivered via computer on the English reading comprehension skills of English language learners. Participants were 28 First-grade students identified as Limited English Proficient. The primary language of all participants was Spanish. Students were…
Córdoba Zúñiga, Eulices
This article reports the findings of a qualitative research study conducted with six first semester students of an English as a foreign language program in a public university in Colombia. The aim of the study was to implement task-based language teaching as a way to integrate language skills and help learners to improve their communicative…
This book explores how using small groups in second language classrooms supports language learning. Chappell's experience as a language teacher equips him to present a clear, evidence-based argument for the powerful influence group work has upon the opportunities for learning, and how it should therefore be an integral part of language lessons.
The present study investigated whether English language teachers were aware of the innovative language learning methodologies in language learning, how they made use of these methodologies and the learners' reactions to them. The descriptive survey method was employed to disclose the frequencies and percentages of 175 English language teachers'…
Kromann, Charles B; Jensen, Morten L; Ringsted, Charlotte
OBJECTIVES: In addition to the extrinsic effects of assessment and examinations on students' study habits, testing can have an intrinsic effect on the memory of studied material. Whether this testing effect also applies to skills learning is not known. However, this is especially interesting...... a prospective, controlled, randomised, single-blind, post-test-only intervention study, preceded by a similar pre- and post-test pilot study in order to make a power calculation. A total of 140 medical students participating in a mandatory 4-hour in-hospital resuscitation course in the seventh semester were...
Gooch, Debbie; Thompson, Paul; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles
The developmental relationships between executive functions (EF) and early language skills are unclear. This study explores the longitudinal relationships between children's early EF and language skills in a sample of children with a wide range of language abilities including children at risk of dyslexia. In addition, we investigated whether these skills independently predict children's attention/behaviour skills. Data are presented from 243 children at four time points. Children were selected for being at risk of reading difficulties either because of a family history of dyslexia (FR; N = 90) or because of concerns regarding their language development (LI; N = 79) or as typically developing controls (TD; N = 74). The children completed tasks to assess their executive function and language skills at ages 4, 5 and 6 years. At 6 (T4) and 7 years (T5) parents and teachers rated the children's attention/behaviour skills. There was a strong concurrent relationship between language and EF at each assessment. Longitudinal analyses indicated a considerable degree of stability in children's language and EF skills: the influence of language on later EF skills (and vice versa) was weak and not significant in the current sample. Children's EF, but not language, skills at T3 predicted attention/behaviour ratings at T4/T5. There is a strong concurrent association between language and EF skills during the preschool and early school years, when children with language impairment show persistent EF deficits. Latent variables measuring language and EF show high longitudinal stability with little evidence of significant or strong reciprocal influences between these constructs. EF, but not language, skills predict later ratings of children's attention and behaviour. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Lin, Tsun-Ju; Lan, Yu-Ju
This study investigated the research trends in language learning in a virtual reality environment by conducting a content analysis of findings published in the literature from 2004 to 2013 in four top ranked computer-assisted language learning journals: "Language Learning & Technology," "CALICO Journal," "Computer…
Hsiao, Indy Y. T.; Lan, Yu-Ju; Kao, Chia-Ling; Li, Ping
Language learning occurring in authentic contexts has been shown to be more effective. Virtual worlds provide simulated contexts that have the necessary elements of authentic contexts for language learning, and as a result, many studies have adopted virtual worlds as a useful platform for language learning. However, few studies so far have…
Altan, Mustafa Zulkuf
Beliefs are central constructs in every discipline which deals with human behaviour and learning. In addition to learner beliefs about language learning, language teachers themselves may hold certain beliefs about language learning that will have an impact on their instructional practices and that are likely to influence their students' beliefs…
Shaalan, Khaled F.
This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…
Eisenberg, Nancy; Sadovsky, Adrienne; Spinrad, Tracy L.
Research suggests that the development of emotional regulation in early childhood is interrelated with emotional understanding and language skills. Heuristic models are proposed on how these factors influence children’s emerging academic motivation and skills.
Eisenberg, Nancy; Sadovsky, Adrienne; Spinrad, Tracy L.
Research suggests that the development of emotional regulation in early childhood is interrelated with emotional understanding and language skills. Heuristic models are proposed on how these factors influence children's emerging academic motivation and skills. (Contains 2 figures.)
Brookes, David T.
Many studies in PER suggest that language poses a serious difficulty for students learning physics. These difficulties are mostly attributed to misunderstanding of specialized terminology. This terminology often assigns new meanings to everyday terms used to describe physical models and phenomena. In this dissertation I present a novel approach to analyzing of the role of language in learning physics. This approach is based on the analysis of the historical development of physics ideas, the language of modern physicists, and students' difficulties in the areas of quantum mechanics, classical mechanics, and thermodynamics. These data are analyzed using linguistic tools borrowed from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar. Specifically, I combine the idea of conceptual metaphor and grammar to build a theoretical framework that accounts for: (1) the role and function that language serves for physicists when they speak and reason about physical ideas and phenomena, (2) specific features of students' reasoning and difficulties that may be related to or derived from language that students read or hear. The theoretical framework is developed using the methodology of a grounded theoretical approach. The theoretical framework allows us to make predictions about the relationship between student discourse and their conceptual and problem solving difficulties. Tests of the theoretical framework are presented in the context of "heat" in thermodynamics and "force" in dynamics. In each case the language that students use to reason about the concepts of "heat" and "force" is analyzed using the theoretical framework. The results of this analysis show that language is very important in students' learning. In particular, students are (1) using features of physicists' conceptual metaphors to reason about physical phenomena, often overextending and misapplying these features, (2) drawing cues from the grammar of physicists' speech and writing to categorize physics
In his work with schools and other workplaces, psychologist Paul White has learned that many programs designed to appreciate employees fall flat because the appreciation is too generic or involves something the employees don't want (such as getting up in front of a group). Effective appreciation is (1) offered regularly, (2) valued by the…
Carroll, Fiona; Kop, Rita; Thomas, Nathan; Dunning, Rebecca
Mobile devices and the interactions that these technologies afford have the potential to change the face and nature of education in our schools. Indeed, mobile technological advances are seen to offer better access to educational material and new interactive ways to learn. However, the question arises, as to whether these new technologies are…
In categorial systems with a fixed structural component, the learning problem comes down to finding the solution for a set of typeassignment equations. A hard-wired structural component is problematic if one want to address issues of structural variation. Our starting point is a type-logical
Seidenberg, Mark S.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.
This article reviews the important role of statistical learning for language and reading development. Although statistical learning--the unconscious encoding of patterns in language input--has become widely known as a force in infants' early interpretation of speech, the role of this kind of learning for language and reading comprehension in…
Karin eKeller; Karin eKeller; Larissa Maria Troesch; Alexander eGrob
We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical...
Full Text Available This study focuses on the assessment of speaking skills with reference to young learners. This is achieved by using an alternative method of assessment, namely portfolios. The general aim is to introduce learners’ to portfolio assessment of their speaking skills and to promote further learning and autonomy making, thus, learning and assessment coexist in a non-threatening mode. Three methodological tools are used for this research; a needs analysis questionnaire addressing the pupils��� needs of the fifth grade of a Greek primary school, the European Portfolio of Languages (ELP - used in tandem with the oral portfolio Dossier - and a final evaluation questionnaire given to the pupils after the completion of the oral portfolio project. Based on the statistical analysis of pupils’ evaluation results and the teacher’s observation throughout the school year, it is evident that the oral portfolio denotes a time-consuming and laborious assessment process. Nevertheless, the pupils see it as an interesting experience and are willing to use it again in the future. In conclusion, students’ portfolios are an innovative method of assessment that can actually promote the development of speaking skills and young learners’ metacognitive strategies in the EFL classroom, and raise their interest in learning.
Qi, Zhenghan; Beach, Sara D; Finn, Amy S; Minas, Jennifer; Goetz, Calvin; Chan, Brian; Gabrieli, John D E
Language learning aptitude during adulthood varies markedly across individuals. An individual's native-language ability has been associated with success in learning a new language as an adult. However, little is known about how native-language processing affects learning success and what neural markers of native-language processing, if any, are related to success in learning. We therefore related variation in electrophysiology during native-language processing to success in learning a novel artificial language. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while native English speakers judged the acceptability of English sentences prior to learning an artificial language. There was a trend towards a double dissociation between native-language ERPs and their relationships to novel syntax and vocabulary learning. Individuals who exhibited a greater N400 effect when processing English semantics showed better future learning of the artificial language overall. The N400 effect was related to syntax learning via its specific relationship to vocabulary learning. In contrast, the P600 effect size when processing English syntax predicted future syntax learning but not vocabulary learning. These findings show that distinct neural signatures of native-language processing relate to dissociable abilities for learning novel semantic and syntactic information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Qi, Zhenghan; Beach, Sara D.; Finn, Amy S.; Minas, Jennifer; Goetz, Calvin; Chan, Brian; Gabrieli, John D.E.
Language learning aptitude during adulthood varies markedly across individuals. An individual’s native-language ability has been associated with success in learning a new language as an adult. However, little is known about how native-language processing affects learning success and what neural markers of native-language processing, if any, are related to success in learning. We therefore related variation in electrophysiology during native-language processing to success in learning a novel artificial language. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while native English speakers judged the acceptability of English sentences prior to learning an artificial language. There was a trend towards a double dissociation between native-language ERPs and their relationships to novel syntax and vocabulary learning. Individuals who exhibited a greater N400 effect when processing English semantics showed better future learning of the artificial language overall. The N400 effect was related to syntax learning via its specific relationship to vocabulary learning. In contrast, the P600 effect size when processing English syntax predicted future syntax learning but not vocabulary learning. These findings show that distinct neural signatures of native-language processing relate to dissociable abilities for learning novel semantic and syntactic information. PMID:27737775
Fluhr, Christian Yves Andre
This research thesis concerns the field of artificial intelligence. It addresses learning algorithms applied to automatic processing of languages. The author first briefly describes some mechanisms of human intelligence in order to describe how these mechanisms are simulated on a computer. He outlines the specific role of learning in various manifestations of intelligence. Then, based on the Markov's algorithm theory, the author discusses the notion of learning algorithm. Two main types of learning algorithms are then addressed: firstly, an 'algorithm-teacher dialogue' type sanction-based algorithm which aims at learning how to solve grammatical ambiguities in submitted texts; secondly, an algorithm related to a document system which structures semantic data automatically obtained from a set of texts in order to be able to understand by references to any question on the content of these texts
Jan Oliver Huelle
Full Text Available Research on the mechanisms underlying human facial emotion recognition has long focussed on genetically determined neural algorithms and often neglected the question of how these algorithms might be tuned by social learning. Here we show that facial emotion decoding skills can be significantly and sustainably improved by practise without an external teaching signal. Participants saw video clips of dynamic facial expressions of five different women and were asked to decide which of four possible emotions (anger, disgust, fear and sadness was shown in each clip. Although no external information about the correctness of the participant’s response or the sender’s true affective state was provided, participants showed a significant increase of facial emotion recognition accuracy both within and across two training sessions two days to several weeks apart. We discuss several similarities and differences between the unsupervised improvement of facial decoding skills observed in the current study, unsupervised perceptual learning of simple stimuli described in previous studies and practise effects often observed in cognitive tasks.
Huelle, Jan O; Sack, Benjamin; Broer, Katja; Komlewa, Irina; Anders, Silke
Research on the mechanisms underlying human facial emotion recognition has long focussed on genetically determined neural algorithms and often neglected the question of how these algorithms might be tuned by social learning. Here we show that facial emotion decoding skills can be significantly and sustainably improved by practice without an external teaching signal. Participants saw video clips of dynamic facial expressions of five different women and were asked to decide which of four possible emotions (anger, disgust, fear, and sadness) was shown in each clip. Although no external information about the correctness of the participant's response or the sender's true affective state was provided, participants showed a significant increase of facial emotion recognition accuracy both within and across two training sessions two days to several weeks apart. We discuss several similarities and differences between the unsupervised improvement of facial decoding skills observed in the current study, unsupervised perceptual learning of simple stimuli described in previous studies and practice effects often observed in cognitive tasks.
Subekti, S.; Ana, A.
Vocational High Schools as one of the educational institutions that has the responsibility in preparing skilled labors has a challenge to improve the quality of human resources as a candidate for skilled labors, to compete and survive in a changing climate of work. BPS noted an increase in the number of non-worker population (BAK) in 2015-2017 on vocational graduates as many as 564,272 people. The ability to adapt and maintain jobs in a variety of conditions is called employability skills. This study purpose to measure the development of employability skills of communication skills, problem-solving skills and teamwork skills on the implementation of teaching factory learning in SMK Negeri 1 Cibadak, THPH Skills Program on bakery competency. This research uses mixed method, with concurrent triangulation mix methods research design. Data collection techniques used interviews and questionnaires. The result shows that there are increasing students’ employability skills in communication skills, problem solving skills, and teamwork skills in teaching factory learning. Principles of learning that apply learning by doing student centering and learning arrangements such as situations and conditions in the workplace have an impact on improving student employability skills.
It is an increasingly popular trend in the language field that people become bilingual or even multilingual, which expos-es the fact that people are strongly motivated to learn another language in addition to their mother tongue. A large-scale of re-search has confirmed that motivation, serving as the internal impulse and initiative taste for second language learning, is among on of the key factors in second language acquisition and learning. The paper reviews the recent available literature on motivation of second language learning from both theoretical and empirical perspectives, with the purpose of neatening the important theories and relevant empirical studies in the field of second language motivation.
Full Text Available Objective: Linguistic and metalinguistic knowledge are the effective factors for definitional skills. This study investigated definitional skills both content and form in children with specific language impairment. Materials and Method: The participants were 32 Children in two groups of 16 SLI and 16 normal children, matched with age, sex and educational level. The SLI group was referred from Learning Difficulties Centers and Zarei Rehabilitation Center in Tehran, as well as the control group who was selected by randomized sampling from normal primary schools. The stimuli were 14 high frequency nouns from seven different categories. The reliability was calculated by interjudge agreement and the validity was assessed by content. Data was analyzed using independent T-test. Results: There were significant differences between mean scores of content and form of the definitional skills in two groups. The mean and SD scores of the content of word definition were M= 45.87, SD=12.22 in control group and M=33.18, SD= 17.60 for SLI one, out of possible 70 points (P= 0.025. The mean and SD scores of the form of word definition were M= 48.87, SD= 9.49 in control group and M= 38.18, SD= 12.85 for SLI one, out of 70 points (P= 0.012. Conclusion: Based on the results, it was concluded that, language problems of the SLI children may not let them semantic represention in order to form and present a complete process of word definition. Although this skill in children with SLI is inadequate, all the definitions given by SLI children were consistent with the categories of content and form of word definition used in this study. Therefore, an exact planning and intervention by speech and language pathologist can be effective for this skill. Linguistic intervention especially in semantic and grammatical aspects not only improves the definition of familiar words but also it might be useful for the definition of new words, consequently lead to educational and
Tolsgaard, Martin G.; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M.; Ringsted, Charlotte V
Objectives: This study is designed to provide an overview of why, how, when and for whom collaborative learning of clinical skills may work in health professions education. Why: Collaborative learning of clinical skills may influence learning positively according to the non-medical literature...... suggests that learning is dependent on cognitive co-construction, shared knowledge and reduced cognitive load. When and for whom: The literature on the collaborative learning of clinical skills in health science education is reviewed to support or contradict the hypotheses provided by the theories outlined...... above. Collaborative learning of clinical skills leads to improvements in self-efficacy, confidence and performance when task processing is observable or communicable. However, the effects of collaborative learning of clinical skills may decrease over time as benefits in terms of shared cognition...
Samaneh Sadat Dastgheib
Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, music has been employed in many intervention and rehabilitation program to enhance cognitive abilities in patients. Numerous researches show that music therapy can help improving language skills in patients including hearing impaired. In this study, a new method of music training is introduced based on principles of neuroscience and capabilities of Persian language to optimize language development in deaf children after implantation. Materials and Methods: The candidate children are classified in three groups according to their hearing age and language development. The music training program is established and centered on four principles, as follows: hearing and listening to music (with special attention to boost hearing, singing, rhythmic movements with music and playing musical instruments. Results: Recently much research has demonstrated that even after cochlear implant operation, a child cannot acquire language to the same level of detail as a normal child. As a result of this study music could compensate this developmental delay .It is known that the greater the area of the brain that is activated, the more synaptic learning and plasticity changes occur in that specific area. According to the principles of neural plasticity, music could improve language skills by activating the same areas for language processing in the brain. Conclusion: In conclusion, the effects of music on the human brain seem to be very promising and therapeutic in various types of disorders and conditions, including cochlear implantation.
Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of a mobile assisted blended learning scenario for pronunciation in Korean language. In particular, we analyze how asynchronous oral communication between learners of Korean and native speakers via "kakaotalk" (an open source mobile phone application may be beneficial to the learner in terms of pronunciation. Our methodological approach is based on task resolution (Ellis, 2003 in peer-to-peer collaborative settings and the spaced repetition concept (Ebbinghaus, 1885, cited by Dempster, 1988. The outcomes of our study show that the learners appreciated the possibility to interact with native speakers but most of them preferred synchronous communication for training their pronunciation skills.
As part of a learner's learning ecology, the informal, out-of-school settings offer virtually boundless opportunities to advance one's learning. This paper reports on "Move, Idioms!", a design for Mobile-Assisted Language Learning experience that accentuates learners' habit of mind and skills in making meaning with their daily…
Full Text Available Language environment is highlighted as an important area in the early childhood education sector. The term language environment refers to language-promoting aspects of education, such as preschool staff’s use of verbal language in interacting with the children. There is a lack of research about language learning in outdoor environments; thus children’s language learning is mostly based on the indoor physical environment. The aim of this study is therefore to explore, analyse, and describe how preschool staff perceive language learning in outdoor environments. The data consists of focus-group interviews with 165 preschool staff members, conducted in three cities in Sweden. The study is meaningful, thus results contribute knowledge regarding preschool staffs’ understandings of language learning in outdoor environments and develop insights to help preschool staff stimulate children’s language learning in outdoor environments.
Full Text Available The role of speech-language therapists (SLTs has been redefined by White Paper 6, which emphasises the role of support to both teachers and learners. SLTs have expert knowledge and skills pertaining to communication and language, and therefore have much to contribute to the process of learning in teaching. This article builds on a previous article published in the 2010 edition of the journal, which reported on the process of supporting teachers to facilitate listening, language and numeracy skills in semi-rural and urban (township contexts. In this follow-up article the focus is on the qualitative findings obtained from a specific section of the larger study. Where the overall study made use of a mixed methods approach to evaluate the process of providing support, and reported on the entire continued professional development (CPD programme, this article focuses specifically on the qualitative data collected when the CPD programme addressed the facilitation of language. This article explores how the strategies were used in the classrooms, and the benefits of the support provided. The data discussed in this article were obtained from questionnaires, focus groups, and critical self-evaluation by teachers, as well as a research diary used by the programme facilitator. The results show that both the participants and their learners benefited from the support provided. The participants reportedly for the first time were able to meet curriculum outcomes which previously had been omitted, and showed an increased ability to plan their lessons. Several teachers experienced changes in their teaching practices and could reflect on their practices, which contributed to their professional development. These teachers became more empowered. Learning in the classroom was enhanced through increased participation of all learners, and enjoyment of the strategies.
Full Text Available The current study aimed at diagnosing the language needs of Iranian undergraduate students of computer engineering in order to find out whether there is any significant difference in perceptions between the students and their ESAP (English for Specific Academic Purpose teachers, concerning their Reading skill needs. To conduct the intended research study, both qualitative and quantitative approaches were taken. The quantitative approach included the use of self-assessment, and two questionnaires, and the qualitative approach included participant observation. The questionnaires were adapted from Atai and Shoja (2009, and were distributed among 500 undergraduate students of computer engineering and 30 ESAP teachers who were chosen randomly through cluster sampling method from thirteen universities. Mann-Whitney U-test results showed that there was a significant difference between perceptions of the students and their teachers about their Reading skill needs and ‘Reading’ was mentioned as one of the most difficult skills for the students. Moreover, it was found that the majority of students suffered from low level of General English Language Proficiency, and also ‘low motivation’ and the ‘character’ of teachers were found to be important factors affecting students’ learning. Keywords: Needs analysis, English for specific purposes, English for academic purposes, Present situation analysis, Target situation analysis
This article reports on a case study that investigates the learning preferences and strategies of Chinese students learning English as a second language (ESL) in Canadian school settings. It focuses on the interaction between second language (L2) learning methods that the students have adopted from their previous learning experience in China and…
Kuama, Settha; Intharaksa, Usa
This study aimed to examine online language learning strategies (OLLS) used and affection in online learning of successful and unsuccessful online language students and investigate the relationships between OLLS use, affection in online learning and online English learning outcomes. The participants included 346 university students completing a…
Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat; Wichadee, Saovapa
The concept of learner autonomy is now playing an important role in the language learning field. An emphasis is put on the new form of learning which enables learners to direct their own learning. This study aimed to examine how undergraduate students believed about autonomous language learning in a university setting and to find out whether some…
Full Text Available Anxiety and inadequate motivation due to misapplication of some language teaching methodologies and learning materials have been shown to affect the Willingness to Communicate of students in EFL programs. This study used a Project-Based Language Learning to improve learning motivation and content relevance. Students were grouped into pairs to conduct fieldwork activities on their chosen topics and learned the English language that was suitable for describing their activities and outcomes. They interacted with content and peers through Web 2.0 environments. In the classroom, they engaged in communicative tasks in a jigsaw format and presented their projects where their peers used an online rubric and forum to give feedback. They also participated in a speech contest with peers outside their class or from another university in order to broaden their confidence. Findings from this study show that students were able to develop the language and evaluation skills for presentation. Additionally, they indicated a reduction in communication anxiety.
Lyon, C.E.; Nehaniv, C. L.; Saunders, Joe
Co-development of action, conceptualization and social interaction mutually scaffold and support each other within a virtuous feedback cycle in the development of human language in children. Within this framework, the purpose of this article is to bring together diverse but complementary accounts...... of research methods that jointly contribute to our understanding of cognitive development and in particular, language acquisition in robots. Thus, we include research pertaining to developmental robotics, cognitive science, psychology, linguistics and neuroscience, as well as practical computer science...... the humanoid robot iCub are reported, while human learning relevant to developmental robotics has also contributed useful results. Disparate approaches are brought together via common underlying design principles. Without claiming to model human language acquisition directly, we are nonetheless inspired...
Vandeventer Faltin, Anne
Full Text Available This paper illustrates the usefulness of natural language processing (NLP tools for computer assisted language learning (CALL through the presentation of three NLP tools integrated within a CALL software for French. These tools are (i a sentence structure viewer; (ii an error diagnosis system; and (iii a conjugation tool. The sentence structure viewer helps language learners grasp the structure of a sentence, by providing lexical and grammatical information. This information is derived from a deep syntactic analysis. Two different outputs are presented. The error diagnosis system is composed of a spell checker, a grammar checker, and a coherence checker. The spell checker makes use of alpha-codes, phonological reinterpretation, and some ad hoc rules to provide correction proposals. The grammar checker employs constraint relaxation and phonological reinterpretation as diagnosis techniques. The coherence checker compares the underlying "semantic" structures of a stored answer and of the learners' input to detect semantic discrepancies. The conjugation tool is a resource with enhanced capabilities when put on an electronic format, enabling searches from inflected and ambiguous verb forms.
Diego Muñoz Campos
Full Text Available The Chilean education system requires English language teachers to be equipped with non-conventional teaching strategies that can foster meaningful learning and assure successful learners’ performances in diverse and complex settings. This exploratory, descriptive, research study aimed at discovering the perceptions of 54 pre-service teachers about the impact of a problem-based learning activity in the development of key competencies, including higher order thinking skills and reflective, research, knowledge transfer/integration, social, and self-management skills. Groups of participants chose a made-up, ill-structured problem which combined language teaching and socio-cultural issues, and devised holistic solutions. Findings suggest a comprehensive impact on the first four skills, but a limited impact on social and self-management skills.
Given the emerging focus on the intercultural dimension in language teaching and learning, language educators have been exploring the use of information and communications technology ICT-mediated language learning environments to link learners in intercultural language learning communities around the globe. Despite the potential promise of…
Natalia Alexandrovna Kameneva
Full Text Available This article analyzes the use of information technologies in the context of a blended technology approach to learning foreign languages in higher education institutions. Distance learning tools can be categorized as being synchronous (webinar, video conferencing, case-technology, chat, ICQ, Skype, interactive whiteboards or asynchronous (blogs, forums, Twitter, video and audio podcasts, wikis, on-line testing. Sociological and psychological aspects of their application in the educational process are also considered.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-41
Hasegawa, Masashi; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki
Simple Summary For humans and dogs to live together amiably, dog training is required, and a lack of obedience training is significantly related to the prevalence of certain behavioral problems. To train efficiently, it is important that the trainer/owner ascertains the learning level of the dog. Understanding the dog’s body language helps humans understand the animal’s emotions. This study evaluated the posture of certain dog body parts during operant conditioning. Our findings suggest that ...
Leticia Macedo Penna
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hearing loss may impair the development of a child. The rehabilitation process for individuals with hearing loss depends on effective interventions.OBJECTIVE: To describe the linguistic profile and the hearing skills of children using hearing aids, to characterize the rehabilitation process and to analyze its association with the children's degree of hearing loss.METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic sample of 110 children using hearing aids (6-10 years of age for mild to profound hearing loss. Tests of language, speech perception, phonemic discrimination, and school performance were performed. The associations were verified by the following tests: chi-squared for linear trend and Kruskal-Wallis.RESULTS: About 65% of the children had altered vocabulary, whereas 89% and 94% had altered phonology and inferior school performance, respectively. The degree of hearing loss was associated with differences in the median age of diagnosis; the age at which the hearing aids were adapted and at which speech therapy was started; and the performance on auditory tests and the type of communication used.CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of hearing loss and the clinical interventions occurred late, contributing to impairments in auditory and language development.
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of language teachers' time management and creativity skills on their burnout levels. The sample consisted of 213 Iranian language teachers. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Creative Behavior Inventory (CBI) and Time Management Skills Questionnaire (TMSQ) were employed for data collection. By…
This article discusses the importance of graduates' language skills and their European Regional Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS) experiences. The purpose of the research is to establish whether the potential benefits of ERASMUS participation for employability, particularly with regard to language skills, mean that…
Bouquet, C A; Gardette, B; Gortan, C; Abraini, J H
Psychomotor deficits are a prominent feature in subjects exposed to hypoxia. Eight subjects exposed to chronic hypoxia during a simulated climb to 8848 m (Everest-Comex 97) were investigated using both a simple psychomotor task (Purdue pegboard) and two complex psychomotor tasks including a recognition task of either a color stimulus (high semantic level) or an abstract sign (low semantic level). Exposure to hypoxic stress mainly produced psychomotor skills learning deficits compared to control study, with greater deficits in the complex psychomotor task. The pattern of results suggests disruptions of motor strategic process. Our data further suggest that the relative strength of implicit or automatic memory processes associated with semantic information processing may increase when disturbances occur in brain functions.
Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of early language abilities in the development of math skills among Chinese K-3 students. About 2000 children in China, who were on average aged 6 years, were assessed for both informal math (e.g., basic number concepts such as counting objects and formal math (calculations including addition and subtraction skills, language abilities and nonverbal intelligence.Correlation analysis showed that language abilities were more strongly associated with informal than formal math skills, and regression analyses revealed that children's language abilities could uniquely predict both informal and formal math skills with age, gender, and nonverbal intelligence controlled. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationship between children's language abilities and formal math skills was partially mediated by informal math skills.The current findings indicate 1 Children's language abilities are of strong predictive values for both informal and formal math skills; 2 Language abilities impacts formal math skills partially through the mediation of informal math skills.
Sparks, R; Ganschow, L; Pohlman, J; Skinner, S; Artzer, M
Research findings suggest that most students who have foreign language learning problems have language-based difficulties and, in particular, phonological processing problems. Authors of the present study examined pre- and posttest scores on native language and foreign language aptitude tests of three groups of at-risk high school students enrolled in special, self-contained sections of first-year Spanish. Two groups were instructed using a multisensory structured language (MSL) approach. One of the groups was taught in both English and Spanish (MSL/ES), the other only in Spanish (MSL/S). The third group (NO-MSL) was instructed using more traditional second language teaching methodologies. Significant gains were made by the MSL-ES group on measures of native language phonology, vocabulary, and verbal memory and on a test of foreign language aptitude; the MSL/S group made significant gains on the test of foreign language aptitude. No significant gains on the native language or foreign language aptitude measures were made by the NO-MSL group. Implications for foreign language classroom instruction of at-risk students are discussed.
I. B. Tampel
Full Text Available The article deals with the various ways of application for automatic speech recognition, Text-to-Speech technology, pronunciation and communication skills training, vocabulary check of the taught person, audition skills training in computer aided language learning (CALL-system. In spite of some constraints such technologies application is effective both for education problems simplification and for comfort growth of the system application.
Ellefsen, Kai Olav; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff
A long-standing goal in artificial intelligence is creating agents that can learn a variety of different skills for different problems. In the artificial intelligence subfield of neural networks, a barrier to that goal is that when agents learn a new skill they typically do so by losing previously acquired skills, a problem called catastrophic forgetting. That occurs because, to learn the new task, neural learning algorithms change connections that encode previously acquired skills. How networks are organized critically affects their learning dynamics. In this paper, we test whether catastrophic forgetting can be reduced by evolving modular neural networks. Modularity intuitively should reduce learning interference between tasks by separating functionality into physically distinct modules in which learning can be selectively turned on or off. Modularity can further improve learning by having a reinforcement learning module separate from sensory processing modules, allowing learning to happen only in response to a positive or negative reward. In this paper, learning takes place via neuromodulation, which allows agents to selectively change the rate of learning for each neural connection based on environmental stimuli (e.g. to alter learning in specific locations based on the task at hand). To produce modularity, we evolve neural networks with a cost for neural connections. We show that this connection cost technique causes modularity, confirming a previous result, and that such sparsely connected, modular networks have higher overall performance because they learn new skills faster while retaining old skills more and because they have a separate reinforcement learning module. Our results suggest (1) that encouraging modularity in neural networks may help us overcome the long-standing barrier of networks that cannot learn new skills without forgetting old ones, and (2) that one benefit of the modularity ubiquitous in the brains of natural animals might be to
Kai Olav Ellefsen
Full Text Available A long-standing goal in artificial intelligence is creating agents that can learn a variety of different skills for different problems. In the artificial intelligence subfield of neural networks, a barrier to that goal is that when agents learn a new skill they typically do so by losing previously acquired skills, a problem called catastrophic forgetting. That occurs because, to learn the new task, neural learning algorithms change connections that encode previously acquired skills. How networks are organized critically affects their learning dynamics. In this paper, we test whether catastrophic forgetting can be reduced by evolving modular neural networks. Modularity intuitively should reduce learning interference between tasks by separating functionality into physically distinct modules in which learning can be selectively turned on or off. Modularity can further improve learning by having a reinforcement learning module separate from sensory processing modules, allowing learning to happen only in response to a positive or negative reward. In this paper, learning takes place via neuromodulation, which allows agents to selectively change the rate of learning for each neural connection based on environmental stimuli (e.g. to alter learning in specific locations based on the task at hand. To produce modularity, we evolve neural networks with a cost for neural connections. We show that this connection cost technique causes modularity, confirming a previous result, and that such sparsely connected, modular networks have higher overall performance because they learn new skills faster while retaining old skills more and because they have a separate reinforcement learning module. Our results suggest (1 that encouraging modularity in neural networks may help us overcome the long-standing barrier of networks that cannot learn new skills without forgetting old ones, and (2 that one benefit of the modularity ubiquitous in the brains of natural animals
Ellefsen, Kai Olav; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff
A long-standing goal in artificial intelligence is creating agents that can learn a variety of different skills for different problems. In the artificial intelligence subfield of neural networks, a barrier to that goal is that when agents learn a new skill they typically do so by losing previously acquired skills, a problem called catastrophic forgetting. That occurs because, to learn the new task, neural learning algorithms change connections that encode previously acquired skills. How networks are organized critically affects their learning dynamics. In this paper, we test whether catastrophic forgetting can be reduced by evolving modular neural networks. Modularity intuitively should reduce learning interference between tasks by separating functionality into physically distinct modules in which learning can be selectively turned on or off. Modularity can further improve learning by having a reinforcement learning module separate from sensory processing modules, allowing learning to happen only in response to a positive or negative reward. In this paper, learning takes place via neuromodulation, which allows agents to selectively change the rate of learning for each neural connection based on environmental stimuli (e.g. to alter learning in specific locations based on the task at hand). To produce modularity, we evolve neural networks with a cost for neural connections. We show that this connection cost technique causes modularity, confirming a previous result, and that such sparsely connected, modular networks have higher overall performance because they learn new skills faster while retaining old skills more and because they have a separate reinforcement learning module. Our results suggest (1) that encouraging modularity in neural networks may help us overcome the long-standing barrier of networks that cannot learn new skills without forgetting old ones, and (2) that one benefit of the modularity ubiquitous in the brains of natural animals might be to
Ettlinger, Marc; Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Wong, Patrick C M
Artificial language learning (ALL) experiments have become an important tool in exploring principles of language and language learning. A persistent question in all of this work, however, is whether ALL engages the linguistic system and whether ALL studies are ecologically valid assessments of natural language ability. In the present study, we considered these questions by examining the relationship between performance in an ALL task and second language learning ability. Participants enrolled in a Spanish language class were evaluated using a number of different measures of Spanish ability and classroom performance, which was compared to IQ and a number of different measures of ALL performance. The results show that success in ALL experiments, particularly more complex artificial languages, correlates positively with indices of L2 learning even after controlling for IQ. These findings provide a key link between studies involving ALL and our understanding of second language learning in the classroom. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Skinner, Kay Lesley; Hyde, Sarah J.; McPherson, Kerstin B. A.; Simpson, Maree D.
Health professional students must be equipped with the skills necessary to interact with patients. Effective interpersonal skills are difficult to both learn and teach, requiring development, practise and evaluation in both educational and clinical settings. In professions such as physiotherapy, traditional approaches to teaching these skills have…
Scott, Jessica; Hinton, Christina
The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or countries, are more successful than others at teaching languages. The book comprises chapters by different authors on the subject of language learning. There are chapters on the role of motivation; the way that languages, cultures and identities are interc
TAN KHYE CHUIN; SARJIT KAUR
This study investigated the types of language learning strategies used by 73 English majors from the School of Humanities in Universiti Sains Malaysia. Using questionnaires adopted from Oxford’s (1990) Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) and focus group interviews, the study also examined the English major students’ perceptions of using language learning strategies while learning English. The results revealed that the English majors were generally high users of all six types of lan...
This work is focused on cooperative learning in foreign language teaching. It brings knowledge about cooperative learning, about methods of didactics in foreign language and their suitability for using cooperative learning. It deals with the news that appeared in cooperative learning in a foreign language teaching. The research that is part of this work was qualitative and it was completed by quantitative research, too. The aim of the research was to understand the teachers' point of view and...
Merriman, W J; Barnett, B E
This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between language skills and gross-motor skills of 28 preschool children from two private preschools in New York City. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated for language (revised Preschool Language Scale) and gross motor (Test of Gross Motor Development) scores. Locomotor skills were significantly related to both auditory comprehension and verbal ability while object control scores did not correlate significantly with either language score. These results were discussed in terms of previous research and with reference to dynamical systems theory. Suggestions for research were made.
Haebig, Eileen; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan
Word learning is an important component of language development that influences child outcomes across multiple domains. Despite the importance of word knowledge, word-learning mechanisms are poorly understood in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined underlying mechanisms of word learning, specifically, statistical learning and fast-mapping, in school-aged children with typical and atypical development. Statistical learning was assessed through a word segmentation task and fast-mapping was examined in an object-label association task. We also examined children's ability to map meaning onto newly segmented words in a third task that combined exposure to an artificial language and a fast-mapping task. Children with SLI had poorer performance on the word segmentation and fast-mapping tasks relative to the typically developing and ASD groups, who did not differ from one another. However, when children with SLI were exposed to an artificial language with phonemes used in the subsequent fast-mapping task, they successfully learned more words than in the isolated fast-mapping task. There was some evidence that word segmentation abilities are associated with word learning in school-aged children with typical development and ASD, but not SLI. Follow-up analyses also examined performance in children with ASD who did and did not have a language impairment. Children with ASD with language impairment evidenced intact statistical learning abilities, but subtle weaknesses in fast-mapping abilities. As the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) predicts, children with SLI have impairments in statistical learning. However, children with SLI also have impairments in fast-mapping. Nonetheless, they are able to take advantage of additional phonological exposure to boost subsequent word-learning performance. In contrast to the PDH, children with ASD appear to have intact statistical learning, regardless of
Ayyildiz, Yildizay; Tarhan, Leman
The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable scale for assessing high school students' self-directed learning skills. Based on a literature review and data obtained from similar instruments, all skills related to self-directed learning were identified. Next, an item pool was prepared and administered to 255 students from various…
Baklashova, Tatiana A.; Galishnikova, Elena M.; Khafizova, Liliya A.
The relevance of the topic is due to the enhancing role of emotional intelligence in second language learning. The article aims to substantiate that emotional intelligence (EI) strengthens training quality of future professionals, gives it an emotional color, and thereby increases a variety of intellectual skills. The leading methodical approaches…
Umunnakwe, Ngozi; Sello, Queen
The study investigates the effective utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by first year undergraduates of the University of Botswana (UB) in their reading and writing skills. The first year students are not first language (L1) learners of English. They have not utilized computers for learning reading and writing in their…
Fonseca-Greber, Bonnie; Reagan, Timothy
In light of the ongoing attention to standards-based education in U.S. schools and the concern over how to effectively develop literacy skills in a first, let alone a second, language, this article reports on the drafting of the K-16 Student Standards for Learning Esperanto in the United States. Esperanto is ideally suited to aid children in the…
Griva, Eleni; Sivropoulou, Rena
The purpose of present paper was twofold. Firstly, it aimed at outlining the rationale for and the process of introducing an English language learning intervention to kindergarten children in a playful and supportive environment. It focused on developing children's oral skills through participating in creative child-appropriate activities and…
Bédi, Branislav; Arnbjörnsdóttir, Birna; Vilhjálmsson, Hannes Högni; Helgadóttir, Hafdís Erla; Ólafsson, Stefán; Björgvinsson, Elías
This paper describes how beginners of Icelandic as a foreign and second language responded to playing the first scene in Virtual Reykjavik, a video game-like environment where learners interact with virtual characters--Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs). This game enables learners to practice speaking and listening skills, to learn about the…
Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.
With the increase in research on multiliteracies comes greater interest in exploring multiple pathways of learning for deaf children. Educational media have been increasingly examined as a tool for facilitating the development of deaf children's language and literacy skills. The authors investigated whether preschool deaf children (N = 31)…
This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several…
Full Text Available The present study aimed at presenting the historical background of the emergence of culture in language learning and how it can be correlated with the language learners. In fact, by providing various definitions of culture and the role it might play in the process of language learning, whether directly or indirectly, this research provides a clear-cut overview of culture and its application among the people as well as their communication in the society. Moreover, the relationship between culture and language learning is also taken into account. To this end, basic definitions of culture in different research studies are investigated moving toward finding a path to make a connection between language and culture. Therefore, a review of studies on the relationship between language learning and culture is provided to account for the possible effectiveness of benefiting from culture in the language learning process in that the learning context (i.e. foreign or second language can be affected by the culture of the teachers as well as the learners. This demands that both teachers and learners should be aware of cultural issues surrounding the language and the fact that it can be beneficial for the process of language learning. If learner are consciously involved in the culture of the language they are learning, they certainly can have better performance and understand the language more tangibly.
In the editorial of "The Language Learning Journal" of July 2011, readers' attention is drawn to the decline in language teaching and learning in British schools and universities, and to the attempt of the British Academy to promote language teaching against this decline. The British Academy paper makes seven recommendations of which the…
Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu
Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…
Gokaydin, Beria; Baglama, Basak; Uzunboylu, Huseyin
This study aims to carry out a content analysis of the studies on language learning of gifted individuals and determine the trends in this field. Articles on language learning of gifted individuals published in the Scopus database were examined based on certain criteria including type of publication, year of publication, language, research…
Bekleyen, Nilüfer; Selimoglu, Figen
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the learners' behaviors and perceptions about autonomous language learning at the university level in Turkey. It attempts to reveal what type of perceptions learners held regarding teachers' and their own responsibilities in the language learning process. Their autonomous language learning…
Simon, Charlann S.
This participant observer report reviews research on how dyslexia complicates learning a second language, a description of how dyslexia has affected educational experiences, personal experiences learning a foreign language, and recommendations to individuals with dyslexia who are faced with fulfilling a foreign language requirement and their…
Jones, Alexander Harris
This paper critiques discourse surrounding language learning strategies within Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) and argues for the creation of new definitions of language learning strategies that are rooted in the socio-political and socio-economic contexts of the marginalized. Section one of this paper describes linguistic…
Sadat, Jasmin; Pureza, Rita; Alario, F.-Xavier
Can an early learned second language influence speech production after living many years in an exclusively monolingual environment? To address this issue, we investigated the consequences of discontinued early bilingualism in heritage speakers who moved abroad and switched language dominance from the second to the primary learned language. We used…
The present paper is a review of literature in relation to formulaic sequences and the implications for second language learning. The formulaic sequence is a significant part of our language, and plays an essential role in both first and second language learning. The paper first introduces the definition, classifications, and major features of…
In this paper I propose an agenda for researching language learning motivation "through a small lens", to counteract our tendency in the second language (L2) motivation field to engage with language learning and teaching processes at a rather general level. I argue that by adopting a more sharply focused or contextualized angle of…
Gökçe DİŞLEN DAĞGÖL
Full Text Available Language learning has become an essential need in today’s world. From academic to social settings, humans need to communicate in a different language to survive in their community. However, despite this increasing importance of language, it is difficult to say we have attained successful language learning on a large scale since there are a lot of factors in language learning process. Language attitudes, one of these factors, influence this process both positively and negatively, depending on how we view learning a foreign language. Therefore, this study deals with the issue of language attitudes to uncover learners’ language conceptions and probable effects on their learning. Moreover, this study aims to reveal the potential role of past learning experiences on the development of language beliefs positively or negatively. Thus, 35 university students in their 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th years constitute the participants of the study. Based on mixed research design, the study is comprised of both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were gathered through Attitude Scale towards English Course, and the analyses were performed with Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS 17.0 version for Windows. The qualitative data were collected from students’ reports of their own autobiographies regarding their previous language learning experiences in elementary, secondary, high school and university years, and were subjected to the content analysis. The study showed language attitudes from behavioural, cognitive and affective perspectives and found out different factors in shaping their learning conceptions.
Full Text Available It is imperative to continue thinking about and reinventing education because mobile technologies and the Web are redefining where, when and from whom we learn. Authors from different study fields have recognised the multiple possibilities of video games for language learning and for interdisciplinary use. Education can benefit from the potential of these artefacts if properly integrated into the educational process. This article describes a language learning experience based on electronic games – of the ARCADE type. This research has been carried out in order to study the learning of vocabulary, grammar and other school curriculum in Portuguese and French classes, both in Elementary and Vocational Education. The results show that video games have a positive impact on motivation for learning and cognitive development. Students’ perceptions show that ARCADE games were helpful in improving vocabulary and language skills. Interest in these games was the same for boys and girls, however further studies are needed.
The biases of individual language learners act to determine the learnability and cultural stability of languages: learners come to the language learning task with biases which make certain linguistic systems easier to acquire than others. These biases are repeatedly applied during the process of language transmission, and consequently should effect the types of languages we see in human populations. Understanding the cultural evolutionary consequences of particular learning biases is therefore central to understanding the link between language learning in individuals and language universals, common structural properties shared by all the world’s languages. This paper reviews a range of models and experimental studies which show that weak biases in individual learners can have strong effects on the structure of socially learned systems such as language, suggesting that strong universal tendencies in language structure do not require us to postulate strong underlying biases or constraints on language learning. Furthermore, understanding the relationship between learner biases and language design has implications for theories of the evolution of those learning biases: models of gene-culture coevolution suggest that, in situations where a cultural dynamic mediates between properties of individual learners and properties of language in this way, biological evolution is unlikely to lead to the emergence of strong constraints on learning.
Norbahira Mohamad Nor
Full Text Available This paper reviews three main theoretical perspectives on language learning and acquisition in an attempt to elucidate how people acquire their first language (L1 and learn their second language (L2. Behaviorist, Innatist and Interactionist offer different perspectives on language learning and acquisition which influence the acceptance of how an L2 should be taught and learned. This paper also explicates the relationship between L1 and L2, and elaborates on the similarities and differences between the two. This paper concludes that there is no one solid linguistic theory which can provide the ultimate explanation of L1 acquisition and L2 learning as there are many interrelated factors that influence the success of language acquisition or language learning. The implication is that teachers should base their classroom management practices and pedagogical techniques on several theories rather than a single theory as learners learn and acquire language differently. It is hoped that this paper provides useful insights into the complex process involved in language acquisition and learning, and contributes to the increased awareness of the process among the stakeholders in the field of language education. Keywords: behaviorist, innatist, interactionist, language acquisition, second language learning
Gong, Tao; Lam, Yau W; Shuai, Lan
Psychological experiments have revealed that in normal visual perception of humans, color cues are more salient than shape cues, which are more salient than textural patterns. We carried out an artificial language learning experiment to study whether such perceptual saliency hierarchy (color > shape > texture) influences the learning of orders regulating adjectives of involved visual features in a manner either congruent (expressing a salient feature in a salient part of the form) or incongruent (expressing a salient feature in a less salient part of the form) with that hierarchy. Results showed that within a few rounds of learning participants could learn the compositional segments encoding the visual features and the order between them, generalize the learned knowledge to unseen instances with the same or different orders, and show learning biases for orders that are congruent with the perceptual saliency hierarchy. Although the learning performances for both the biased and unbiased orders became similar given more learning trials, our study confirms that this type of individual perceptual constraint could contribute to the structural configuration of language, and points out that such constraint, as well as other factors, could collectively affect the structural diversity in languages.
Gong, Tao; Lam, Yau W.; Shuai, Lan
Psychological experiments have revealed that in normal visual perception of humans, color cues are more salient than shape cues, which are more salient than textural patterns. We carried out an artificial language learning experiment to study whether such perceptual saliency hierarchy (color > shape > texture) influences the learning of orders regulating adjectives of involved visual features in a manner either congruent (expressing a salient feature in a salient part of the form) or incongruent (expressing a salient feature in a less salient part of the form) with that hierarchy. Results showed that within a few rounds of learning participants could learn the compositional segments encoding the visual features and the order between them, generalize the learned knowledge to unseen instances with the same or different orders, and show learning biases for orders that are congruent with the perceptual saliency hierarchy. Although the learning performances for both the biased and unbiased orders became similar given more learning trials, our study confirms that this type of individual perceptual constraint could contribute to the structural configuration of language, and points out that such constraint, as well as other factors, could collectively affect the structural diversity in languages. PMID:28066281
Pascual y Cabo, Diego; Prada, Josh; Lowther Pereira, Kelly
This study examined the effects of participation in a community service-learning experience on Spanish heritage language learners' attitudes toward their heritage language and culture. Quantitative and qualitative data from heritage language learners demonstrated that engagement in community service-learning activities as part of the Spanish…
Hamrick, Phillip; Lum, Jarrad A G; Ullman, Michael T
Do the mechanisms underlying language in fact serve general-purpose functions that preexist this uniquely human capacity? To address this contentious and empirically challenging issue, we systematically tested the predictions of a well-studied neurocognitive theory of language motivated by evolutionary principles. Multiple metaanalyses were performed to examine predicted links between language and two general-purpose learning systems, declarative and procedural memory. The results tied lexical abilities to learning only in declarative memory, while grammar was linked to learning in both systems in both child first language and adult second language, in specific ways. In second language learners, grammar was associated with only declarative memory at lower language experience, but with only procedural memory at higher experience. The findings yielded large effect sizes and held consistently across languages, language families, linguistic structures, and tasks, underscoring their reliability and validity. The results, which met the predicted pattern, provide comprehensive evidence that language is tied to general-purpose systems both in children acquiring their native language and adults learning an additional language. Crucially, if language learning relies on these systems, then our extensive knowledge of the systems from animal and human studies may also apply to this domain, leading to predictions that might be unwarranted in the more circumscribed study of language. Thus, by demonstrating a role for these systems in language, the findings simultaneously lay a foundation for potentially important advances in the study of this critical domain.
Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recent studies showed that children with learning disabilities present significant difficulties in learning as well as in social skills (Siperstein, 2009.Therefore, it was observed how it is difficult for these children to establish adequate relationships, especially to advise coping strategies to face interpersonal conflicts (Oliva & LaGreca, 1988. Accordingly to this argument and with reference to Agaliotis e Kalyva (2004, 2009, this study examines the preferences for strategies to solve an hypothetical conflict on a sample of children with LD in comparison to typical developing peers. They used the method of social story to conduct this research. In fact, researchers asked to the children, after they have listened a short story describing an interpersonal conflict interaction between adult and peers, which strategies they would have chosen if they were in the same situation and the strategies that would be most appropriate to resolve a conflict. Results obtained from the experiment corroborated literature data and demonstrated that children with LD, in comparison to typical developing peers, use and prefer dysfunctional coping strategies, aggressive or passive, also in relation to the partner interaction (adult or peers to face interpersonal conflict.
Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.
Many students arrive at middle school without the academic language skills they need to read sophisticated texts with comprehension. In particular, English language learners and students from low-income backgrounds attending underresourced, urban middle schools lack opportunities to learn the thousands of academic words they need to succeed. To…
May, Richard J.; Downs, Rachel; Marchant, Amanda; Dymond, Simon
We evaluated the emergence of untaught second-language skills following directly taught listener and intraverbal responses. Three preschool children were taught first-language (English) listener responses (e.g., "Point to the horse") and second-language (Welsh) intraverbal responses (e.g., "What is horse in Welsh?" [ceffyl]).…
India is a multilingual country. English is the second most important language in the country after the national language Hindi since it is taught as a compulsory subject in all the Indian schools. In the educational system of a multilingual country, it becomes imperative to improve the English Language teaching skills of the school teachers who come from various linguistic backgrounds. The school teacher plays a vital role in the development of linguistic skills of the students. What childre...
Scott, Katrinda Wills; Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R. Steve
The authors investigated the relation of foreign language attitudes and perceptions to reading and spelling skills for 278 English-speaking college students enrolled in 100- and 200- level foreign language classes, using the Foreign Language Attitudes and Perceptions Survey (R. Sparks & L. Ganschow, 1993b), the Test of Dyslexia-Rapid…
Introduction. The use of three-five languages is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. Aim of the paper is to analyze the synergy between language acquisition and language learning. Materials and Methods. The search for the synergy between language acquisition and language…
Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others
Papers include: (1) "Language Acquisitional Universals: L1, L2, Pidgins, and FLT" (Henning Wode); (2) "Language Acquisition, Language Learning and the School Curriculum" (Norman F. Davies); (3) "Language Teaching and Acquisition of Communication" (Kari Sajavaara, Jaakko Lehtonen); (4) "On the Distinction between…
Akoglu, Gözde; Yagmur, Kutlay
The interdependence between the first and second language of bilingual immigrant children has not received sufficient attention in research. Most studies concentrate on mainstream language skills of immigrant pupils. In some studies, the gaps in the language development of immigrant children are documented by comparing mainstream pupils with…
Akoglu, Gözde; Yagmur, Kutlay
The interdependence between the first and second language of bilingual immigrant children has not received sufficient attention in research. Most studies concentrate on mainstream language skills of immigrant pupils. In some studies, the gaps in the language development of immigrant children are
Conner, Julie; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Ryalls, Brigette; Friehe, Mary
The purpose of this study was to develop an intervention for 2-year-old children to enhance play and language skills. The intervention was implemented over a 4-week period and included components of reading, modeling, and positive reinforcement of language and play. Specifically, children were read a story and played with a matching toy set.…
Seabrook, Roberta; Valdes, Berardo
A study of the attitudes and practices in multinational corporations concerning second language and intercultural skills as criteria for employment of international managers consisted of three elements: (1) a survey of corporations; (2) followup interviews with respondents and with commercial language schools and cross-cultural training…
Méndez López Mariza G.
Full Text Available The present article reports on a study that explores the effects of the emotional experiences of Mexican language learners on their motivation to learn English. In this qualitative research we present how emotions impact the motivation of university language learners in south Mexico. Results suggest that emotions, both negative and positive, contribute to enhancing and diminishing motivation. Althoughnegative emotions may be considered detrimental to foreign language learning, the findings of this study show that negative emotions serve as learning enhancers. Results also evidence that Mexican language learners perceive negative emotions as positive for their language learning process.En este artículo se presenta una investigación en la que se exploran los efectos que causan las experiencias emocionales en la motivación de estudiantes mexicanos al aprender inglés. Con base en un estudio cualitativo se presenta cómo las emociones inciden en la motivación de estudiantes universitarios en el sur de México. Los resultados sugieren que las emociones, tanto positivas como negativas, contribuyen a potenciar y disminuir su motivación. Se encontró que a pesar de que las emociones negativas pueden afectar el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera, estas actúan incluso como potenciadoras del aprendizaje. Los resultados también indican que los estudiantes mexicanos perciben las emociones negativas como positivas en su proceso de aprendizaje.
This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test takers'…
Hasegawa, Masashi; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki
Simple Summary For humans and dogs to live together amiably, dog training is required, and a lack of obedience training is significantly related to the prevalence of certain behavioral problems. To train efficiently, it is important that the trainer/owner ascertains the learning level of the dog. Understanding the dog’s body language helps humans understand the animal’s emotions. This study evaluated the posture of certain dog body parts during operant conditioning. Our findings suggest that certain postures were related to the dog’s learning level during operant conditioning. Being aware of these postures could be helpful to understand canine emotion during learning. Abstract The facial expressions and body postures of dogs can give helpful information about their moods and emotional states. People can more effectively obedience train their dogs if we can identify the mannerisms associated with learning in dogs. The aim of this study was to clarify the dog’s body language during operant conditioning to predict achievement in the test that followed by measuring the duration of behaviors. Forty-six untrained dogs (17 males and 26 females) of various breeds were used. Each session consisted of 5 minutes of training with a treat reward followed by 3 minutes of rest and finally an operant conditioning test that consisted of 20 “hand motion” cues. The operant tests were conducted a total of nine times over three consecutive days, and the success numbers were counted. The duration of the dog’s behavior, focusing on the dog’s eyes, mouth, ears, tail and tail-wagging, was recorded during the operant conditioning sessions before the test. Particular behaviors, including wide-eyes, closed mouth, erect ears, and forward and high tail carriage, without wagging or with short and quick wagging, related to high achievement results. It is concluded that dogs' body language during operant conditioning was related to their success rate. PMID:26479883
West, Leo H. T.; Kellett, Natalie C.
Tests the applicability of Ausubel's theory to the meaningful learning of intellectual skills. Results of three studies of high school students indicate that advance organizers enhance learning of skills related to solubility product problems. This effect was removed if prior teaching in relevant background knowledge was included. (Author/WB)
Salmon, Karen; O'Kearney, Richard; Reese, Elaine; Fortune, Clare-Ann
In this narrative review, we suggest that children's language skill should be targeted in clinical interventions for children with emotional and behavioral difficulties in the preschool years. We propose that language skill predicts childhood emotional and behavioral problems and this relationship may be mediated by children's self-regulation and emotion understanding skills. In the first sections, we review recent high-quality longitudinal studies which together demonstrate that that children's early language skill predicts: (1) emotional and behavioral problems, and this relationship is stronger than the reverse pattern; (2) self-regulation skill; this pattern may be stronger than the reverse pattern but moderated by child age. Findings also suggest that self-regulation skill mediates the relation between early language skill and children's emotional and behavioral problems. There is insufficient evidence regarding the mediating role of emotion understanding. In subsequent sections, we review evidence demonstrating that: (1) particular kinds of developmentally targeted parent-child conversations play a vital role in the development of language skill, and (2) some current clinical interventions, directly or indirectly, have a beneficial impact on children's vocabulary and narrative skills, but most approaches are ad hoc. Targeting language via parent-child conversation has the potential to improve the outcomes of current clinical interventions in the preschool years.
McCauley, Stewart M; Christiansen, Morten H
Second-language learners rarely arrive at native proficiency in a number of linguistic domains, including morphological and syntactic processing. Previous approaches to understanding the different outcomes of first- versus second-language learning have focused on cognitive and neural factors. In contrast, we explore the possibility that children and adults may rely on different linguistic units throughout the course of language learning, with specific focus on the granularity of those units. Following recent psycholinguistic evidence for the role of multiword chunks in online language processing, we explore the hypothesis that children rely more heavily on multiword units in language learning than do adults learning a second language. To this end, we take an initial step toward using large-scale, corpus-based computational modeling as a tool for exploring the granularity of speakers' linguistic units. Employing a computational model of language learning, the Chunk-Based Learner, we compare the usefulness of chunk-based knowledge in accounting for the speech of second-language learners versus children and adults speaking their first language. Our findings suggest that while multiword units are likely to play a role in second-language learning, adults may learn less useful chunks, rely on them to a lesser extent, and arrive at them through different means than children learning a first language. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Novia Tri Febriani
Full Text Available Language learning belief and language learning strategies are two essential predictors that have significant effect toward students’ language proficiency. Learners’ belief is dealing with what comes from inside the learners in learning the language, such as foreign language aptitude; difficulty of language learning; nature of language learning; learning and communication strategies; and motivation. Meanwhile, language learning strategies are learners’ plan in achieving certain goals or mastering the target language. A preliminary research was conducted in order to find what strategy mostly used by the learners. It turned out that the strategy mostly used by them was metacognitive strategies. Thus, this study aims to investigate about the correlation between metacognitive strategies and certain belief’ variables in students’ language learning which are foreign language aptitude and motivation. Moreover, twenty postgraduate students of English education department participated in this study. This study used correlational research, in which the BALLI (Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory and SILL (Strategies Inventory for Language Learners questionnaires were adopted as the instruments in collecting the data. The findings of this study indicated that there is negative linear correlation between metacognitive strategy and foreign language aptitude (rXY = -0,049 while there is significant positive linear correlation between metacognitive and motivation (rXY =+0,79 in students’ language learning. Furthermore, this study also provide some recommendations, which is it is expected that there will be more researches use studies using different respondents with various contexts. Secondly, the further research will use both of quantitative and qualitative data relating to this issue in order to make a more accurate data.
Nuclear English is a new course designed for English language learners working in the nuclear industry and in other fields of nuclear science and technology. The textbook is composed of 12 units, each covering a different aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle or a relevant topic such as non-proliferation, safety and the use of radioisotopes in medicine. Nuclear English offers a flexible approach, allowing learners to: Study the units in any order according to professional need or interest; Focus on listening, grammar and pronunciation tasks, which are clearly signposted; Work independently or with other students in a classroom. The other main features of the course are: A audio CD containing authentic interviews with industry specialists. The course covers various accents, including British, American, Australian, South African and Indian; Transcripts of the listening materials; A language orientation test, which learners can take at the start of the course to identify their grammar weaknesses; Teacher-led exercises for working in pairs or groups; A glossary of key terms; An answer key; a downloadable teacher's guide to help teachers maximize the learning potential of the materials (available at: www.world-nuclear-university.org)
Nuclear English is a new course designed for English language learners working in the nuclear industry and in other fields of nuclear science and technology. The textbook is composed of 12 units, each covering a different aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle or a relevant topic such as non-proliferation, safety and the use of radioisotopes in medicine. Nuclear English offers a flexible approach, allowing learners to: Study the units in any order according to professional need or interest; Focus on listening, grammar and pronunciation tasks, which are clearly signposted; Work independently or with other students in a classroom. The other main features of the course are: A audio CD containing authentic interviews with industry specialists. The course covers various accents, including British, American, Australian, South African and Indian; Transcripts of the listening materials; A language orientation test, which learners can take at the start of the course to identify their grammar weaknesses; Teacher-led exercises for working in pairs or groups; A glossary of key terms; An answer key; a downloadable teacher's guide to help teachers maximize the learning potential of the materials (available at: www.world-nuclear-university.org)
Metzen, Jan H.; Kirchner, Frank
Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite for embodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced with different tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agent can learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period, i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided. Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental and self-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discovery approach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learns specific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms that determine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. We evaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuous domains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skill learning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch. Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and how efficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period. PMID:23898265
Full Text Available Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation where the real world becomes a part of the educational experience and necessitates the use of an authentic language by the learners. This article describes a video project carried out by Russian language learners at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS. It examines how the work on the project created and supported authenticity of the learning experience. Though the article focuses on the video project done in the context of language learning and teaching this activity could be successfully implemented in teaching various subjects at both secondary and tertiary levels.
Stockwell, Glenn, Ed.
Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning languages that uses computers and other technologies to present, reinforce, and assess material to be learned, or to create environments where teachers and learners can interact with one another and the outside world. This book provides a much-needed overview of the…
Darmi, Ramiza; Albion, Peter
Mobile learning (m-learning) is gradually being introduced in language classrooms. All forms of mobile technology represent portability with smarter features. Studies have proven the concomitant role of technology beneficial for language learning. Various features in the technology have been exploited and researched for acquiring and learning…
Maizatulliza, M.; Kiely, R.
In the field of English language teaching and learning, there is a long history of investigating students' performance while they are undergoing specific learning programmes. This research study, however, focused on students' evaluation of their English language learning experience after they have completed their programme. The data were gathered…
Yunus, Melor Md; Sulaiman, Nur Ainil; Embi, Mohammed Amin
Many studies have been done on language learning strategies employed by different type of learners and in various contexts. However, very little studies have been done on gifted students regarding language learning. Gifted students have unique characteristics and have different ways of thinking and learning. These characteristics affect how they…
Paper shows that Wittgenstein, in discussing ostensive definition, understanding, and the private language argument, attacks Saint Augustine's notion of learning. Recently, the Augustinian conception has been resurrected in cognitive theories postulating an innate language of thought, making Wittgenstein's claims that this conception of learning…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early language delay is a high-prevalence condition of concern to parents and professionals. It may result in lifelong deficits not only in language function, but also in social, emotional/behavioural, academic and economic well-being. Such delays can lead to considerable costs to the individual, the family and to society more widely. The Language for Learning trial tests a population-based intervention in 4 year olds with measured language delay, to determine (1 if it improves language and associated outcomes at ages 5 and 6 years and (2 its cost-effectiveness for families and the health care system. Methods/Design A large-scale randomised trial of a year-long intervention targeting preschoolers with language delay, nested within a well-documented, prospective, population-based cohort of 1464 children in Melbourne, Australia. All children received a 1.25-1.5 hour formal language assessment at their 4th birthday. The 200 children with expressive and/or receptive language scores more than 1.25 standard deviations below the mean were randomised into intervention or ‘usual care’ control arms. The 20-session intervention program comprises 18 one-hour home-based therapeutic sessions in three 6-week blocks, an outcome assessment, and a final feed-back/forward planning session. The therapy utilises a ‘step up-step down’ therapeutic approach depending on the child’s language profile, severity and progress, with standardised, manualised activities covering the four language development domains of: vocabulary and grammar; narrative skills; comprehension monitoring; and phonological awareness/pre-literacy skills. Blinded follow-up assessments at ages 5 and 6 years measure the primary outcome of receptive and expressive language, and secondary outcomes of vocabulary, narrative, and phonological skills. Discussion A key strength of this robust study is the implementation of a therapeutic framework that provides a standardised
Berns, Anke; Isla-Montes, José-Luis; Palomo-Duarte, Manuel; Dodero, Juan-Manuel
In the context of European Higher Education students face an increasing focus on independent, individual learning-at the expense of face-to-face interaction. Hence learners are, all too often, not provided with enough opportunities to negotiate in the target language. The current case study aims to address this reality by going beyond conventional approaches to provide students with a hybrid game-based app, combining individual and collaborative learning opportunities. The 4-week study was carried out with 104 German language students (A1.2 CEFR) who had previously been enrolled in a first-semester A1.1 level course at a Spanish university. The VocabTrainerA1 app-designed specifically for this study-harnesses the synergy of combining individual learning tasks and a collaborative murder mystery game in a hybrid level-based architecture. By doing so, the app provides learners with opportunities to apply their language skills to real-life-like communication. The purpose of the study was twofold: on one hand we aimed to measure learner motivation, perceived usefulness and added value of hybrid game-based apps; on the other, we sought to determine their impact on language learning. To this end, we conducted focus group interviews and an anonymous Technology Acceptance Model survey (TAM). In addition, students took a pre-test and a post-test. Scores from both tests were compared with the results obtained in first-semester conventional writing tasks, with a view to measure learning outcomes. The study provides qualitative and quantitative data supporting our initial hypotheses. Our findings suggest that hybrid game-based apps like VocabTrainerA1-which seamlessly combine individual and collaborative learning tasks-motivate learners, stimulate perceived usefulness and added value, and better meet the language learning needs of today's digital natives. In terms of acceptance, outcomes and sustainability, the data indicate that hybrid game-based apps significantly improve
Esther Nieto Moreno de Diezmas
Full Text Available The development of independent and self-learning strategies for Foreign Language Learning is of special interest in Higher Education. In particular, these strategies are essential in the Foreign Language Learning area (EFL, since students need to practise and strengthen their exposure to language so as to develop receptive and productive skills. The goal of this paper is to show how independent and virtual learning are developed by means of ICT. To this end, a group of tasks and activities have been designed, distributed and implemented by means of Moodle in the setting of a teaching innovation project in which different campuses and faculties of Education of the University of Castilla-La Mancha where English I is studied have taken part. Additionally, the initial results in terms of students’ perceptions about their independent and virtual learning are shown. Therefore, this paper focuses on a case study at Higher Education in which valid conclusions may be drawn for other similar settings where language learning and virtual learning need to be combined. Initial results suggest the students have responded positively in terms of their perception and participation. This validates the tasks and procedures carried out in the implementation of virtual foreign language learning.
Full Text Available The objectives of the research were (1 to investigate the most dominant language learning strategies (LLS used by sixth semester students of English Department of Tarbiyah Faculty at UIN Alauddin Makassar and (2 to find out the differences of using LLS between high achieving students and low achieving students. The result of the quantitative data through questionnaire showed that (1 metacognitive strategies was the most dominant LLS used, and (2 the high achieving students used metacognitive strategies with the highest preference and low achieving students used compensation strategies with the highest preference. The result of the qualitative data through think aloud showed that (1 the most dominant LLS employed by students were listening music, utilizing time for practicing and self-evaluating, (2 the most dominant LLS used by high achieving students were utilizing time for practicing, practicing English together and self-evaluating, whereas the most dominant LLS used by low achieving students were listening music, asking friend and selecting topic. The data were collected through documentation used to classify high achieving students and low achieving students based on their grade point average. It is concluded that the most dominant language learning strategies employed by students was metacognitive strategies. High achieving students employed different strategy than low achieving students. High achieving students used learning strategies more frequently than low achieving students.
Full Text Available Reading is very important to access knowledge. Reading skills starts during preschool level no matter of the types of languages. At present, there are many preschool children who are still unable to recognize letters or even words. This leads to the difficulties in reading. Therefore, there is a need of intervention in reading to overcome such problems. Thus, technologies were adapted in enhancing learning skills, especially in learning to read among the preschool children. Phonological is one of the factors to be considered to ensure a smooth of transition into reading. Phonological concept enables the first learner to easily learn reading such to learn reading Malay language. The medium of learning to read Malay language can be assisted via the supportive of multimedia technology to enhance the preschool children learning. Thus, an interactive system is proposed via a development of interactive reading Malay language learning system, which is called as I-ReaMaLLS. As a part of the development of I-ReaMaLLS, this paper focus on the development of conceptual framework in developing interactive reading Malay language learning system (I-ReaMaLLS. I-ReaMaLLS is voice based system that facilitates the preschool learner in learning reading Malay language. The conceptual framework of developing I-ReaMaLLS is conceptualized based on the initial study conducted via methods of literature review and observation with the preschool children, aged 5 – 6 years. As the result of the initial study, research objectives have been affirmed that finally contributes to the design of conceptual framework for the development of I-ReaMaLLS.