WorldWideScience

Sample records for learn effective surface

  1. Thalamocortical dynamics of the McCollough effect: boundary-surface alignment through perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Hwang, Seungwoo; Mingolla, Ennio

    2002-05-01

    This article further develops the FACADE neural model of 3-D vision and figure-ground perception to quantitatively explain properties of the McCollough effect (ME). The model proposes that many ME data result from visual system mechanisms whose primary function is to adaptively align, through learning, boundary and surface representations that are positionally shifted due to the process of binocular fusion. For example, binocular boundary representations are shifted by binocular fusion relative to monocular surface representations, yet the boundaries must become positionally aligned with the surfaces to control binocular surface capture and filling-in. The model also includes perceptual reset mechanisms that use habituative transmitters in opponent processing circuits. Thus the model shows how ME data may arise from a combination of mechanisms that have a clear functional role in biological vision. Simulation results with a single set of parameters quantitatively fit data from 13 experiments that probe the nature of achromatic/chromatic and monocular/binocular interactions during induction of the ME. The model proposes how perceptual learning, opponent processing, and habituation at both monocular and binocular surface representations are involved, including early thalamocortical sites. In particular, it explains the anomalous ME utilizing these multiple processing sites. Alternative models of the ME are also summarized and compared with the present model.

  2. The surface learned from nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H.; Kim, W. D.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, I would like to introduce the emerging surface of nature. The surface in nature, has the multi and optimized function with well organized structure. There are so many examples that we learn and apply to technology. First example is self-cleaning surface. Some plants (such as lotus leaf, taro leaf) and the wings of many large-winged insects (such as moth, butterfly, dragonfly) remain their surface clean in the very dirty environment. This self cleaning effect is accomplished by the superhydrophobic surfaces which exhibit the water contact angle of more than 150° with low sliding angle. Generally, the superhydrophobic surface is made up the two factors. One is the surface composition having the low surface tension energy. The other is the surface morphology of hierarchical structure of micro and nano size. Because almost nature surface have the hierarchical structures range from macro to nano size, their topography strength their function to adjust the life in nature environment. The other example is the surface to use for drag reduction. The skin friction drag causes eruptions of air or water resulting in greater drag as the speed is increased. This drag requires more energy to overcome. The shark skin having the fine sharp-edged grooves about 0.1 mm wide known riblet reduces in skin friction drag by being far away the vortex. Among a lot of fuctional surface, the most exciting surface the back of stenocara a kind of desert beetles. Stenocara use the micrometre-sized patterns of hydrophobic, wax-coated and hydrophilic, non-waxy regions on their backs to capture water from fog. This fog-collecting structure improves the water collection of fog-capture film, condenser, engine, and future building. Here, the efforts to realize these emerging functional surfaces in nature on technology are reported with the fabrication method and their properties, especially for the control of surface wettability.

  3. Deep and surface learning in problem-based learning: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmans, Diana H J M; Loyens, Sofie M M; Marcq, Hélène; Gijbels, David

    2016-12-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), implemented worldwide, students learn by discussing professionally relevant problems enhancing application and integration of knowledge, which is assumed to encourage students towards a deep learning approach in which students are intrinsically interested and try to understand what is being studied. This review investigates: (1) the effects of PBL on students' deep and surface approaches to learning, (2) whether and why these effects do differ across (a) the context of the learning environment (single vs. curriculum wide implementation), and (b) study quality. Studies were searched dealing with PBL and students' approaches to learning. Twenty-one studies were included. The results indicate that PBL does enhance deep learning with a small positive average effect size of .11 and a positive effect in eleven of the 21 studies. Four studies show a decrease in deep learning and six studies show no effect. PBL does not seem to have an effect on surface learning as indicated by a very small average effect size (.08) and eleven studies showing no increase in the surface approach. Six studies demonstrate a decrease and four an increase in surface learning. It is concluded that PBL does seem to enhance deep learning and has little effect on surface learning, although more longitudinal research using high quality measurement instruments is needed to support this conclusion with stronger evidence. Differences cannot be explained by the study quality but a curriculum wide implementation of PBL has a more positive impact on the deep approach (effect size .18) compared to an implementation within a single course (effect size of -.05). PBL is assumed to enhance active learning and students' intrinsic motivation, which enhances deep learning. A high perceived workload and assessment that is perceived as not rewarding deep learning are assumed to enhance surface learning.

  4. Learning Effectiveness of a Strategic Learning Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Melinda S.; Swerdzewski, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of a postsecondary strategic learning course for improving metacognitive awareness and regulation was evaluated through systematic program assessment. The course emphasized students' awareness of personal learning through the study of learning theory and through practical application of specific learning strategies. Students…

  5. Surface Effects in Magnetic Nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorani, Dino

    2005-01-01

    This volume is a collection of articles on different approaches to the investigation of surface effects on nanosized magnetic materials, with special emphasis on magnetic nanoparticles. The book aims to provide an overview of progress in the understanding of surface properties and surface driven effects in magnetic nanoparticles through recent results of different modeling, simulation, and experimental investigations.

  6. Effects of Cooperative E-Learning on Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shang-Pao; Fu, Hsin-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the effects of E-Learning and cooperative learning on learning outcomes. E-Learning covers the dimensions of Interpersonal communication, abundant resources, Dynamic instruction, and Learning community; and, cooperative learning contains three dimensions of Cooperative motive, Social interaction, and Cognition…

  7. Towards effective learning strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, Anouk Simone

    2015-01-01

    To become self-regulative in learning, students should be able to deploy various learning strategies in a flexible way. For this, they require specific knowledge and skills, referred to as metacognition. Metacognition is a complex concept that is difficult for teachers to teach to their students.

  8. Learning surface molecular structures via machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziatdinov, Maxim; Maksov, Artem; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2017-08-01

    Recent advances in high resolution scanning transmission electron and scanning probe microscopies have allowed researchers to perform measurements of materials structural parameters and functional properties in real space with a picometre precision. In many technologically relevant atomic and/or molecular systems, however, the information of interest is distributed spatially in a non-uniform manner and may have a complex multi-dimensional nature. One of the critical issues, therefore, lies in being able to accurately identify (`read out') all the individual building blocks in different atomic/molecular architectures, as well as more complex patterns that these blocks may form, on a scale of hundreds and thousands of individual atomic/molecular units. Here we employ machine vision to read and recognize complex molecular assemblies on surfaces. Specifically, we combine Markov random field model and convolutional neural networks to classify structural and rotational states of all individual building blocks in molecular assembly on the metallic surface visualized in high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. We show how the obtained full decoding of the system allows us to directly construct a pair density function—a centerpiece in analysis of disorder-property relationship paradigm—as well as to analyze spatial correlations between multiple order parameters at the nanoscale, and elucidate reaction pathway involving molecular conformation changes. The method represents a significant shift in our way of analyzing atomic and/or molecular resolved microscopic images and can be applied to variety of other microscopic measurements of structural, electronic, and magnetic orders in different condensed matter systems.

  9. Web-Based Instruction, Learning Effectiveness and Learning Behavior: The Impact of Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Chich-Jen; Liao, Ying; Hu, Ridong

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the effects of Web-based Instruction and Learning Behavior on Learning Effectiveness. Web-based Instruction contains the dimensions of Active Learning, Simulation-based Learning, Interactive Learning, and Accumulative Learning; and, Learning Behavior covers Learning Approach, Learning Habit, and Learning Attitude. The…

  10. A Novel Extreme Learning Control Framework of Unmanned Surface Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Sun, Jing-Chao; Er, Meng Joo; Liu, Yan-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an extreme learning control (ELC) framework using the single-hidden-layer feedforward network (SLFN) with random hidden nodes for tracking an unmanned surface vehicle suffering from unknown dynamics and external disturbances is proposed. By combining tracking errors with derivatives, an error surface and transformed states are defined to encapsulate unknown dynamics and disturbances into a lumped vector field of transformed states. The lumped nonlinearity is further identified accurately by an extreme-learning-machine-based SLFN approximator which does not require a priori system knowledge nor tuning input weights. Only output weights of the SLFN need to be updated by adaptive projection-based laws derived from the Lyapunov approach. Moreover, an error compensator is incorporated to suppress approximation residuals, and thereby contributing to the robustness and global asymptotic stability of the closed-loop ELC system. Simulation studies and comprehensive comparisons demonstrate that the ELC framework achieves high accuracy in both tracking and approximation.

  11. Exploring Collaborative Learning Effect in Blended Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Liu, R.; Luo, L.; Wu, M.; Shi, C.

    2017-01-01

    The use of new technology encouraged exploration of the effectiveness and difference of collaborative learning in blended learning environments. This study investigated the social interactive network of students, level of knowledge building and perception level on usefulness in online and mobile collaborative learning environments in higher…

  12. The Effect of Situated Learning on Students Vocational English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özüdogru, Melike; Özüdogru, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    The current study aimed to find out the effect of situated learning on students' Vocational English learning. This research employed a mixed method research design. In the quantitative part of the study, pre-tests and post-tests were implemented to investigate the differences in students' vocational English learning between the experimental and…

  13. Can "YouTube" help students in learning surface anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2012-07-01

    In a problem-based learning curriculum, most medical students research the Internet for information for their "learning issues." Internet sites such as "YouTube" have become a useful resource for information. This study aimed at assessing YouTube videos covering surface anatomy. A search of YouTube was conducted from November 8 to 30, 2010 using research terms "surface anatomy," "anatomy body painting," "living anatomy," "bone landmarks," and "dermatomes" for surface anatomy-related videos. Only relevant video clips in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each videotape the following information were collected: title, authors, duration, number of viewers, posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. The data were statistically analyzed and videos were grouped into educationally useful and non-useful videos on the basis of major and minor criteria covering technical, content, authority, and pedagogy parameters. A total of 235 YouTube videos were screened and 57 were found to have relevant information to surface anatomy. Analysis revealed that 15 (27%) of the videos provided useful information on surface anatomy. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.0 ± 0.7) and mainly covered surface anatomy of the shoulder, knee, muscles of the back, leg, and ankle, carotid artery, dermatomes, and anatomical positions. The other 42 (73%) videos were not useful educationally, scoring (mean ± SD, 7.4 ± 1.8). The total viewers of all videos were 1,058,634. Useful videos were viewed by 497,925 (47% of total viewers). The total viewership per day was 750 for useful videos and 652 for non-useful videos. No video clips covering surface anatomy of the head and neck, blood vessels and nerves of upper and lower limbs, chest and abdominal organs/structures were found. Currently, YouTube is an inadequate source of information for learning surface anatomy. More work is needed from medical schools and educators to add useful videos on You

  14. Learning More Effectively from Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Fazey

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing the capacity for individuals to learn effectively from their experiences is an important part of building the knowledge and skills in organizations to do good adaptive management. This paper reviews some of the research from cognitive psychology and phenomenography to present a way of thinking about learning to assist individuals to make better use of their personal experiences to develop understanding of environmental systems. We suggest that adaptive expertise (an individual's ability to deal flexibly with new situations is particularly relevant for environmental researchers and practitioners. To develop adaptive expertise, individuals need to: (1 vary and reflect on their experiences and become adept at seeking out and taking different perspectives; and (2 become proficient at making balanced judgements about how or if an experience will change their current perspective or working representation of a social, economic, and biophysical system by applying principles of "good thinking." Such principles include those that assist individuals to be open to the possibility of changing their current way of thinking (e.g., the disposition to be adventurous and those that reduce the likelihood of making erroneous interpretations (e.g., the disposition to be intellectually careful. An example of applying some of the principles to assist individuals develop their understanding of a dynamically complex wetland system (the Macquarie Marshes in Australia is provided. The broader implications of individual learning are also discussed in relation to organizational learning, the role of experiential knowledge for conservation, and for achieving greater awareness of the need for ecologically sustainable activity.

  15. Interference effects with surface plasmons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmin, Nikolay Victorovich

    2008-01-01

    A surface plasmon is a purely two-dimensional electromagnetic excitation bound to the interface between metal and dielectric and quickly decaying away from it. A surface plasmon is able to concentrate light on sub-wavelength scales – a feature that is attractive for nano-photonics and integrated

  16. Effect of Demographic Factors on E-Learning Effectiveness in a Higher Learning Institution in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Aminul; Rahim, Noor Asliza Abdul; Liang, Tan Chee; Momtaz, Hasina

    2011-01-01

    This research attempted to find out the effect of demographic factors on the effectiveness of the e-learning system in a higher learning Institution. The students from this institution were randomly selected in order to evaluate the effectiveness of learning system in student's learning process. The primary data source is the questionnaires that…

  17. Teaching for more effective learning: Seven maxims for practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the assumption that deep learning, which seeks lasting mastery over a subject, is more desirable in professional education than shallow learning, which is merely designed to pass academic assessments, this paper suggests ways in which teachers in higher education can encourage the former. Noting that students tend to adopt either a shallow or deep approach in response to their experiences in the classroom and their understanding of what the assessment regime requires, it argues that, as a consequence, it ought to be possible to prompt more students to adopt deep learning approaches by manipulating teaching and assessment strategies. The literature on teaching and learning is explored in order to derive maxims of good practice which, if followed, can reasonably be expected to promote deep learning and discourage surface learning. It is argued that this will lead to more effective preparation for the real world of professional practice

  18. Affective Underpinnings of Surface Approaches to Learning and Their Relationship with Sensation Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter M.

    2018-01-01

    Surface approaches to learning materials and tasks are a commonplace challenge to teachers, and they prove difficult to shift, even among students who are otherwise talented or motivated to learn. The present study investigates a theory that surface approaches are triggered by a suboptimal, aversive response to learning stimuli, which overrides…

  19. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Esther M; Sieben, Judith M; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B H; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and function in a living human being. A recent development in teaching methods for surface anatomy is body painting, which several studies suggest increases both student motivation and knowledge acquisition. This article focuses on a teaching approach and is a translational contribution to existing literature. In line with best evidence medical education, the aim of this article is twofold: to briefly inform teachers about constructivist learning theory and elaborate on the principles of constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning; and to provide teachers with an example of how to implement these learning principles to change the approach to teaching surface anatomy. Student evaluations of this new approach demonstrate that the application of these learning principles leads to higher student satisfaction. However, research suggests that even better results could be achieved by further adjustments in the application of contextual and self-directed learning principles. Successful implementation and guidance of peer physical examination is crucial for the described approach, but research shows that other options, like using life models, seem to work equally well. Future research on surface anatomy should focus on increasing the students' ability to apply anatomical knowledge and defining the setting in which certain teaching methods and approaches have a positive effect. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Negative Effects of Learning Spreadsheet Management on Learning Database Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vágner, Anikó; Zsakó, László

    2015-01-01

    A lot of students learn spreadsheet management before database management. Their similarities can cause a lot of negative effects when learning database management. In this article, we consider these similarities and explain what can cause problems. First, we analyse the basic concepts such as table, database, row, cell, reference, etc. Then, we…

  1. Problematic Smartphone Use, Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning, and Social Media Use in Lectures †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozgonjuk, Dmitri; Saal, Kristiina

    2018-01-01

    Several studies have shown that problematic smartphone use (PSU) is related to detrimental outcomes, such as worse psychological well-being, higher cognitive distraction, and poorer academic outcomes. In addition, many studies have shown that PSU is strongly related to social media use. Despite this, the relationships between PSU, as well as the frequency of social media use in lectures, and different approaches to learning have not been previously studied. In our study, we hypothesized that both PSU and the frequency of social media use in lectures are negatively correlated with a deep approach to learning (defined as learning for understanding) and positively correlated with a surface approach to learning (defined as superficial learning). The study participants were 415 Estonian university students aged 19–46 years (78.8% females; age M = 23.37, SD = 4.19); the effective sample comprised 405 participants aged 19–46 years (79.0% females; age M = 23.33, SD = 4.21). In addition to basic socio-demographics, participants were asked about the frequency of their social media use in lectures, and they filled out the Estonian Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale and the Estonian Revised Study Process Questionnaire. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that PSU and the frequency of social media use in lectures were negatively correlated with a deep approach to learning and positively correlated with a surface approach to learning. Mediation analysis showed that social media use in lectures completely mediates the relationship between PSU and approaches to learning. These results indicate that the frequency of social media use in lectures might explain the relationships between poorer academic outcomes and PSU. PMID:29316697

  2. Problematic Smartphone Use, Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning, and Social Media Use in Lectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Rozgonjuk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that problematic smartphone use (PSU is related to detrimental outcomes, such as worse psychological well-being, higher cognitive distraction, and poorer academic outcomes. In addition, many studies have shown that PSU is strongly related to social media use. Despite this, the relationships between PSU, as well as the frequency of social media use in lectures, and different approaches to learning have not been previously studied. In our study, we hypothesized that both PSU and the frequency of social media use in lectures are negatively correlated with a deep approach to learning (defined as learning for understanding and positively correlated with a surface approach to learning (defined as superficial learning. The study participants were 415 Estonian university students aged 19–46 years (78.8% females; age M = 23.37, SD = 4.19; the effective sample comprised 405 participants aged 19–46 years (79.0% females; age M = 23.33, SD = 4.21. In addition to basic socio-demographics, participants were asked about the frequency of their social media use in lectures, and they filled out the Estonian Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale and the Estonian Revised Study Process Questionnaire. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that PSU and the frequency of social media use in lectures were negatively correlated with a deep approach to learning and positively correlated with a surface approach to learning. Mediation analysis showed that social media use in lectures completely mediates the relationship between PSU and approaches to learning. These results indicate that the frequency of social media use in lectures might explain the relationships between poorer academic outcomes and PSU.

  3. Problematic Smartphone Use, Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning, and Social Media Use in Lectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozgonjuk, Dmitri; Saal, Kristiina; Täht, Karin

    2018-01-08

    Several studies have shown that problematic smartphone use (PSU) is related to detrimental outcomes, such as worse psychological well-being, higher cognitive distraction, and poorer academic outcomes. In addition, many studies have shown that PSU is strongly related to social media use. Despite this, the relationships between PSU, as well as the frequency of social media use in lectures, and different approaches to learning have not been previously studied. In our study, we hypothesized that both PSU and the frequency of social media use in lectures are negatively correlated with a deep approach to learning (defined as learning for understanding) and positively correlated with a surface approach to learning (defined as superficial learning). The study participants were 415 Estonian university students aged 19-46 years (78.8% females; age M = 23.37, SD = 4.19); the effective sample comprised 405 participants aged 19-46 years (79.0% females; age M = 23.33, SD = 4.21). In addition to basic socio-demographics, participants were asked about the frequency of their social media use in lectures, and they filled out the Estonian Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale and the Estonian Revised Study Process Questionnaire. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that PSU and the frequency of social media use in lectures were negatively correlated with a deep approach to learning and positively correlated with a surface approach to learning. Mediation analysis showed that social media use in lectures completely mediates the relationship between PSU and approaches to learning. These results indicate that the frequency of social media use in lectures might explain the relationships between poorer academic outcomes and PSU.

  4. Effective Strategies for Sustaining Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Patricia R.

    2010-01-01

    Professional Learning Communities (PLCs), in which educators work collaboratively to improve learning for students, need effective strategies to sustain them. PLCs promote continuous improvement in student learning and build academic success with increased teacher expertise. Grounded in organizational systems theory, participative leadership…

  5. Effective Team Learning in the Cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Howard; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; Van de Vrie, Evert

    2018-01-01

    Learning in the cloud can be a lonely activity for self-directing and self-organizing learners. Lack of sustained learner motivation can lead to less effective, less bond-creating learning experiences. By providing collaborative project-based learning opportunities these shortcomings can be

  6. The effectiveness of e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack; Ørngreen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    A structured search of library databases revealed that research examining the effectiveness of e-Learning has heavily increased within the last five years. After taking a closer look at the search results, the authors discovered that previous researchers defined and investigated effectiveness....... The paper answers the following research questions: How is the effectiveness of e-Learning defined? How is the effectiveness of e-Learning measured? What makes e-Learning solutions effective? The authors discovered 19 distinct ways to define effectiveness, the most common of which is ‘learning outcome...... to the findings of the literature study. The study suggests that it is difficult to use e-Learning to improve teaching performance, as participating teachers can apply several strategies to avoid substantially changing their work-related practices. Furthermore, the study shows that only using the fulfilment...

  7. Learning Time and Educational Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    1980-01-01

    To explore the relationship between time and school learning, this paper defines the three kinds of learning time identified by researchers--allocated time, time-on-task, and academic learning time--and relates them to curriculum development. The author cites evidence that time-on-task is related to student achievement and describes two…

  8. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  9. Scheduling projects with multiskill learning effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Hong; Zhang, Lianying

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the project scheduling problem with multiskill learning effect. A new model is proposed to deal with the problem, where both autonomous and induced learning are considered. In order to obtain the optimal solution, a genetic algorithm with specific encoding and decoding schemes is introduced. A numerical example is used to illustrate the proposed model. The computational results show that the learning effect cannot be neglected in project scheduling. By means of determining the level of induced learning, the project manager can balance the project makespan with total cost.

  10. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  11. Spin Hall effect by surface roughness

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lingjun; Grigoryan, Vahram L.; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Wang, Xuhui; Xiao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.

  12. Effectiveness of e-learning in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuo, Yinghsiang; Liu, Chuangchun; Tsai, Chunghung

    2015-01-01

    Because medical personnel share different work shifts (i.e., three work shifts) and do not have a fixed work schedule, implementing timely, flexible, and quick e-learning methods for their continued education is imperative. Hospitals are currently focusing on developing e-learning. This study aims to explore the key factors that influence the effectiveness of e-learning in medical personnel. This study recruited medical personnel as the study participants and collected sample data by using the questionnaire survey method. This study is based on the information systems success model (IS success model), a significant model in MIS research. This study found that the factors (i.e., information quality, service quality, convenience, and learning climate) influence the e-learning satisfaction and in turn influence effectiveness in medical personnel. This study provided recommendations to medical institutions according to the derived findings, which can be used as a reference when establishing e-learning systems in the future.

  13. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model and Kolb Learning Styles on Learning Result of the Basics of Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to determine the effect of cooperative learning model and learning styles on learning result. This quasi-experimental study employed a 2x2 treatment by level, involved independent variables, i.e. cooperative learning model and learning styles, and learning result as the dependent variable. Findings signify that: (1)…

  14. Spin Hall effect by surface roughness

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lingjun

    2015-01-08

    The spin Hall and its inverse effects, driven by the spin orbit interaction, provide an interconversion mechanism between spin and charge currents. Since the spin Hall effect generates and manipulates spin current electrically, to achieve a large effect is becoming an important topic in both academia and industries. So far, materials with heavy elements carrying a strong spin orbit interaction, provide the only option. We propose here a new mechanism, using the surface roughness in ultrathin films, to enhance the spin Hall effect without heavy elements. Our analysis based on Cu and Al thin films suggests that surface roughness is capable of driving a spin Hall angle that is comparable to that in bulk Au. We also demonstrate that the spin Hall effect induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.

  15. Effects of ion sputtering on semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    Ion beam sputtering has been combined with Auger spectroscopy to study the effects of ion beams on semiconductor surfaces. Observations on the mass dependence of ion selective sputtering of two component systems are presented. The effects of ion implantation are explained in terms of atomic dilution. Experimental data are presented that illustrate the super-position of selective sputtering and implantation effects on the surface composition. Sample reduction from electron and ion beam interaction is illustrated. Apparent sample changes which one might observe from the effects of residual gas contamination and electric fields are also discussed. (Auth.)

  16. The use of deep and surface learning strategies among students learning English as a foreign language in an Internet environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Noa

    2006-12-01

    The learning context is learning English in an Internet environment. The examination of this learning process was based on the Biggs and Moore's teaching-learning model (Biggs & Moore, 1993). The research aims to explore the use of the deep and surface strategies in an Internet environment among EFL students who come from different socio-economic backgrounds. The results of the research may add an additional level to the understanding of students' functioning in the Internet environment. One hundred fourty-eight Israeli junior and high school students participated in this research. The methodology was based on special computer software: Screen Cam, which recorded the students' learning process. In addition, expert judges completed a questionnaire which examined and categorized the students' learning strategies. The research findings show a clear preference of participants from all socio-economic backgrounds towards the surface learning strategy. The findings also showed that students from the medium to high socio-economic background used both learning strategies more frequently than low socio-economic students. The results reflect the habits that students acquire during their adjustment process throughout their education careers. A brief encounter with the Internet learning environment apparently cannot change norms or habits, which were acquired in the non-Internet learning environment.

  17. Comparative Effectiveness of Conventional Rote Learning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relative effectiveness of Mnemonics technique (MNIT) and conventional rote learning technique (CRL) on the teaching-learning of physical features (Geography). A pre-test and post-test control group design was adopted for the study. A sample of ninety SS I students was randomly selected out of ...

  18. Effect of viscosity on learned satiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, M.; Hogenkamp, P.S.; Gosses, A.M.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, C.de

    2009-01-01

    A higher viscosity of a food leads to a longer orosensory stimulation. This may facilitate the learned association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. In the current study we investigated the effect of viscosity on learned satiation. In two intervention groups a low viscosity (LV)

  19. Effects of surfaces on resistor percolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenull, O; Janssen, H K; Oerding, K

    2001-05-01

    We study the effects of surfaces on resistor percolation at the instance of a semi-infinite geometry. Particularly we are interested in the average resistance between two connected ports located on the surface. Based on general grounds as symmetries and relevance we introduce a field theoretic Hamiltonian for semi-infinite random resistor networks. We show that the surface contributes to the average resistance only in terms of corrections to scaling. These corrections are governed by surface resistance exponents. We carry out renormalization-group improved perturbation calculations for the special and the ordinary transition. We calculate the surface resistance exponents phiS and phiS(infinity) for the special and the ordinary transition, respectively, to one-loop order.

  20. Learning Environments Designed According to Learning Styles and Its Effects on Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özerem, Aysen; Akkoyunlu, Buket

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: While designing a learning environment it is vital to think about learner characteristics (learning styles, approaches, motivation, interests… etc.) in order to promote effective learning. The learning environment and learning process should be designed not to enable students to learn in the same manner and at the same level,…

  1. Effects of Collaborative Learning Styles on Performance of Students in a Ubiquitous Collaborative Mobile Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakomogbon, Michael Ayodele; Bolaji, Hameed Olalekan

    2017-01-01

    Collaborative learning is an approach employed by instructors to facilitate learning and improve learner's performance. Mobile learning can accommodate a variety of learning approaches. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of collaborative learning styles on performance of students in a mobile learning environment. The specific purposes…

  2. Surface effects in controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.

    1975-08-01

    During the operation of large size plasma facilities and future controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors the surfaces of such major components as container walls, beam limiters, diverter walls and beam-dump walls of the injector region will be exposed to particle and photon bombardment from primary plasma radiations and from secondary radiations. Such radiations can cause, for example, physical and chemical sputtering, blistering, particle- and photon-impact induced desorption, secondary electron and x-ray emission, backscattering, nuclear reactions, photo-decomposition of surface compounds, photocatalysis, and vaporization. Such effects in turn can (a) seriously damage and erode the bombarded surface and (b) release major quantities of impurities which will contaminate the plasma. The effects of some of the major surface phenomena on the operation of plasma facilities and future fusion reactors are discussed

  3. Vibration of Piezoelectric Nanowires Including Surface Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ansari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, surface and piezoelectric effects on the vibration behavior of nanowires (NWs are investigated by using a Timoshenko beam model. The electric field equations and the governing equations of motion for the piezoelectric NWs are derived with the consideration of surface effects. By the exact solution of the governing equations, an expression for the natural frequencies of NWs with simply-supported boundary conditions is obtained. The effects of piezoelectricity and surface effects on the vibrational behavior of Timoshenko NWs are graphically illustrated. A comparison is also made between the predictions of Timoshenko beam model and those of its Euler-Bernoulli counterpart. Additionally, the present results are validated through comparison with the available data in the literature.

  4. Advances in surface treatments: Technology, applications, effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niku-Lari, A.

    1987-01-01

    An international handbook has been produced to include all aspects of residual stresses, including the theoretical background, effects of residual stresses, measurement and calculation and quantitative assessment of residual stress effects. Techniques for altering residual stresses, particularly surface treatments, are discussed. Up to date information on the state of the art is presented. (UK)

  5. Surface and interface effects in VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1985-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 10: Surface and Interface Effects in VLSI provides the advances made in the science of semiconductor surface and interface as they relate to electronics. This volume aims to provide a better understanding and control of surface and interface related properties. The book begins with an introductory chapter on the intimate link between interfaces and devices. The book is then divided into two parts. The first part covers the chemical and geometric structures of prototypical VLSI interfaces. Subjects detailed include, the technologically most import

  6. Effect of impact surface in equestrian falls

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, J. Michio; Post, Andrew; Connor, Thomas A.; Hoshizaki, Thomas Blaine; Gilchrist, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effect of impact surface on head kinematic response and maximum principal strain (MPS) for equestrian falls. A helmeted Hybrid III headform was dropped unrestrained onto three impact surfaces of different stiffness (steel, turf and sand) and three locations. Peak resultant linear acceleration, rotational acceleration and duration of the impact events were measured. A finite element brain model was used to calculate MPS. The results revealed that drops onto steel produc...

  7. Material and surface - Course synergy as a channel towards a more encompassing view of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Nuutinen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The course Material and Surface is a combination of four minor courses: Experiential Textile Design, Dyeing, Textile Printing and Embroidery. The course combination is offered to first-year textile teacher students. Through combining courses, the aim has been to support integrated learning and transform fragmented education into a thematically coherent whole. The four courses form an intertwined and progressive structure in which each course is based on the knowledge learned from the previous course. The creative basis of the Experiential Textile Design course applies David Kolb’s theory (1984. The creative ideas are then applied to assignments in Dyeing, Textile Printing and Embroidery. Following the courses, students collect assignments in a learning portfolio. They organize their assignments in a progressive order to self-assess personal development, the creative process and changes in learning and thinking. The aims of this research were to find out 1 how the course combination reinforced students’ understanding of their own learning, 2 in which ways students’ own experiences strengthened their personal development and 3 what effect the collaboration had on teachers and their working. Data collected during the years 2008–2013 consisted of students’ portfolios (N=152, teachers' self-reflections as notes and diary remarks and notes from the final critiques. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results indicate that the learning portfolio serves as feedback for the teachers. During the courses, the students worked in groups and shared experiences which strengthened collective values and meanings. Mutual sharing built the group’s cohesion, which was observable in students’ vivid and increasing discussions: they shared more of their ideas, they encouraged and inspired each other.  Diversity appeared to be the most important feature that arose from the data – all experiences were evaluated equally true and

  8. Deep and surface learning in problem-based learning: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie); Marcq, H. (Hélène); D. Gijbels (David)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn problem-based learning (PBL), implemented worldwide, students learn by discussing professionally relevant problems enhancing application and integration of knowledge, which is assumed to encourage students towards a deep learning approach in which students are intrinsically interested

  9. Deep and surface learning in problem-based learning: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie); H. Marcq (Hélène); D. Gijbels (David)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn problem-based learning (PBL), implemented worldwide, students learn by discussing professionally relevant problems enhancing application and integration of knowledge, which is assumed to encourage students towards a deep learning approach in which students are intrinsically interested

  10. Effects of Jigsaw Learning Method on Students’ Self-Efficacy and Motivation to Learn

    OpenAIRE

    Dwi Nur Rachmah

    2017-01-01

    Jigsaw learning as a cooperative learning method, according to the results of some studies, can improve academic skills, social competence, behavior in learning, and motivation to learn. However, in some other studies, there are different findings regarding the effect of jigsaw learning method on self-efficacy. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of jigsaw learning method on self-efficacy and motivation to learn in psychology students at the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas La...

  11. Biofilm Surface Density Determines Biocide Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High resistance of biofilms for chemical challenges is a serious industrial and medical problem. In this work a gradient of surface covered with biofilm has been produced and correlated to the effectiveness of different commercially available oxidative biocides. The results for thin Escherichia coli biofilms grown in rich media supplemented with glucose or lactose on glass or poly methyl methacrylate surfaces indicate that the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide or chlorine dioxide and quaternary ammonium compounds is inversely proportional to the fraction of the surface covered with the biofilm. In areas where biofilm covered more than 90% of the available surface the biocide treatment was inefficient after 60 min of incubation. The combined effect of oxidant and surfactant increased the effectiveness of the biocide. On the other hand, the increased biofilm viscoelasticity reduced biocide effectiveness. The results emphasize differential biocide effectiveness depending on the fraction of the attached bacterial cells. The results suggest that biofilm biocide resistance is an acquired property that increases with biofilm maturation. The more dense sessile structures present lower log reductions compared to less dense ones.

  12. The Effect of Flipped Learning (Revised Learning) on Iranian Students' Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Malahat; Salimi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the flipped (revised) learning had effect on student learning outcome. Lage et al (2000) describes the flipped classroom as " Inverting the classroom means that events that have traditionally take place inside the classroom now take place outside the class and vice versa" (p.32). The…

  13. Surface effects on the red giant branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, W. H.; Themeßl, N.; Hekker, S.

    2018-05-01

    Individual mode frequencies have been detected in thousands of individual solar-like oscillators on the red giant branch (RGB). Fitting stellar models to these mode frequencies, however, is more difficult than in main-sequence stars. This is partly because of the uncertain magnitude of the surface effect: the systematic difference between observed and modelled frequencies caused by poor modelling of the near-surface layers. We aim to study the magnitude of the surface effect in RGB stars. Surface effect corrections used for main-sequence targets are potentially large enough to put the non-radial mixed modes in RGB stars out of order, which is unphysical. Unless this can be circumvented, model-fitting of evolved RGB stars is restricted to the radial modes, which reduces the number of available modes. Here, we present a method to suppress gravity modes (g-modes) in the cores of our stellar models, so that they have only pure pressure modes (p-modes). We show that the method gives unbiased results and apply it to three RGB solar-like oscillators in double-lined eclipsing binaries: KIC 8410637, KIC 9540226 and KIC 5640750. In all three stars, the surface effect decreases the model frequencies consistently by about 0.1-0.3 μHz at the frequency of maximum oscillation power νmax, which agrees with existing predictions from three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. Though our method in essence discards information about the stellar cores, it provides a useful step forward in understanding the surface effect in RGB stars.

  14. Surface layer effects on waste glass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.

    1993-01-01

    Water contact subjects waste glass to chemical attack that results in the formation of surface alteration layers. Two principal hypotheses have been advanced concerning the effect of surface alteration layers on continued glass corrosion: (1) they act as a mass transport barrier and (2) they influence the chemical affinity of the glass reaction. In general, transport barrier effects have been found to be less important than affinity effects in the corrosion of most high-level nuclear waste glasses. However, they can be important under some circumstances, for example, in a very alkaline solution, in leachants containing Mg ions, or under conditions where the matrix dissolution rate is very low. The latter suggests that physical barrier effect may affect the long-term glass dissolution rate. Surface layers influence glass reaction affinity through the effects of the altered glass and secondary phases on the solution chemistry. The reaction affinity may be controlled by various precipitates and crystalline phases, amorphous silica phases, gel layer, or all the components of the glass. The surface alteration layers influence radionuclide release mainly through colloid formation, crystalline phase incorporation, and gel layer retention. This paper reviews current understanding and uncertainties

  15. 3D surface parameterization using manifold learning for medial shape representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Aaron D.; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2007-03-01

    The choice of 3D shape representation for anatomical structures determines the effectiveness with which segmentation, visualization, deformation, and shape statistics are performed. Medial axis-based shape representations have attracted considerable attention due to their inherent ability to encode information about the natural geometry of parts of the anatomy. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, based on nonlinear manifold learning, to the parameterization of medial sheets and object surfaces based on the results of skeletonization. For each single-sheet figure in an anatomical structure, we skeletonize the figure, and classify its surface points according to whether they lie on the upper or lower surface, based on their relationship to the skeleton points. We then perform nonlinear dimensionality reduction on the skeleton, upper, and lower surface points, to find the intrinsic 2D coordinate system of each. We then center a planar mesh over each of the low-dimensional representations of the points, and map the meshes back to 3D using the mappings obtained by manifold learning. Correspondence between mesh vertices, established in their intrinsic 2D coordinate spaces, is used in order to compute the thickness vectors emanating from the medial sheet. We show results of our algorithm on real brain and musculoskeletal structures extracted from MRI, as well as an artificial multi-sheet example. The main advantages to this method are its relative simplicity and noniterative nature, and its ability to correctly compute nonintersecting thickness vectors for a medial sheet regardless of both the amount of coincident bending and thickness in the object, and of the incidence of local concavities and convexities in the object's surface.

  16. Machine learning and pattern recognition from surface molecular architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksov, Artem; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Fujii, Shintaro; Sumpter, Bobby; Kalinin, Sergei

    The ability to utilize molecular assemblies as data storage devices requires capability to identify individual molecular states on a scale of thousands of molecules. We present a novel method of applying machine learning techniques for extraction of positional and rotational information from ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images and apply it to self-assembled monolayer of π-bowl sumanene molecules on gold. From density functional theory (DFT) simulations, we assume existence of distinct polar and multiple azimuthal rotational states. We use DFT-generated templates in conjunction with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler and noise modeling to create synthetic images representative of our model. We extract positional information of each molecule and use nearest neighbor criteria to construct a graph input to Markov Random Field (MRF) model to identify polar rotational states. We train a convolutional Neural Network (cNN) on a synthetic dataset and combine it with MRF model to classify molecules based on their azimuthal rotational state. We demonstrate effectiveness of such approach compared to other methods. Finally, we apply our approach to experimental images and achieve complete rotational class information extraction. This research was sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE.

  17. Spatial Learning: Conditions and Basic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria D. Chamizo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that the spatial and the temporal domains seem to share the same or similar conditions, basic effects, and mechanisms. The blocking, unblocking and overshadowing experiments (and also those of latent inhibition and perceptual learning reviewed by Prados and Redhead in this issue show that to exclude associative learning as a basic mechanism responsible for spatial learning is quite inappropriate. All these results, especially those obtained with strictly spatial tasks, seem inconsistent with O’Keefe and Nadel’s account of true spatial learning or locale learning. Their theory claims that this kind of learning is fundamentally different and develops with total independence from other ways of learning (like classical and instrumental conditioning -taxon learning. In fact, the results reviewed can be explained appealing on to a sophisticated guidance system, like for example the one proposed by Leonard and McNaughton (1990; see also McNaughton and cols, 1996. Such a system would allow that an animal generates new space information: given the distance and address from of A to B and from A to C, being able to infer the distance and the address from B to C, even when C is invisible from B (see Chapuis and Varlet, 1987 -the contribution by McLaren in this issue constitutes a good example of a sophisticated guidance system.

  18. Flipped classrooms and student learning: not just surface gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Sarah; Attardi, Stefanie M; Faden, Lisa; Goldszmidt, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The flipped classroom is a relatively new approach to undergraduate teaching in science. This approach repurposes class time to focus on application and discussion; the acquisition of basic concepts and principles is done on the students' own time before class. While current flipped classroom research has focused on student preferences and comparative learning outcomes, there remains a lack of understanding regarding its impact on students' approaches to learning. Focusing on a new flipped classroom-based course for basic medical sciences students, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate students' adjustments to the flipped classroom, their time on task compared with traditional lectures, and their deep and active learning strategies. Students in this course worked through interactive online learning modules before in-class sessions. Class time focused on knowledge application of online learning module content through active learning methods. Students completed surveys and optional prequiz questions throughout the term to provide data regarding their learning approaches. Our results showed that the majority of students completed their prework in one sitting just before class. Students reported performing less multitasking behavior in the flipped classroom compared with lecture-based courses. Students valued opportunities for peer-peer and peer-instructor interactions and also valued having multiple modes of assessment. Overall, this work suggests that there is the potential for greater educational gains from the flipped classroom than the modest improvements in grades previously demonstrated in the literature; in this implementation of the flipped classroom, students reported that they developed independent learning strategies, spent more time on task, and engaged in deep and active learning. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  19. Learning hatching for pen-and-ink illustration of surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kalogerakis, Evangelos; Nowrouzezahrai, Derek; Breslav, Simon; Hertzmann, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an algorithm for learning hatching styles from line drawings. An artist draws a single hatching illustration of a 3D object. Her strokes are analyzed to extract the following per-pixel properties: hatching level (hatching

  20. Total pollution effect of urban surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongbing; Luo, Lin; Huang, Gu; Liu, Ping; Li, Jingxian; Hu, Sheng; Wang, Fuxiang; Xu, Rui; Huang, Xiaoxue

    2009-01-01

    For pollution research with regard to urban surface runoff, most sampling strategies to date have focused on differences in land usage. With single land-use sampling, total surface runoff pollution effect cannot be evaluated unless every land usage spot is monitored. Through a new sampling strategy known as mixed stormwater sampling for a street community at discharge outlet adjacent to river, this study assessed the total urban surface runoff pollution effect caused by a variety of land uses and the pollutants washed off from the rain pipe system in the Futian River watershed in Shenzhen City of China. The water quality monitoring indices were COD (chemical oxygen demand), TSS (total suspend solid), TP (total phosphorus), TN (total nitrogen) and BOD (biochemical oxygen demand). The sums of total pollution loads discharged into the river for the four indices of COD, TSS, TN, and TP over all seven rainfall events were very different. The mathematical model for simulating total pollution loads was established from discharge outlet mixed stormwater sampling of total pollution loads on the basis of four parameters: rainfall intensity, total land area, impervious land area, and pervious land area. In order to treat surface runoff pollution, the values of MFF30 (mass first flush ratio) and FF30 (first 30% of runoff volume) can be considered as split-flow control criteria to obtain more effective and economical design of structural BMPs (best management practices) facilities.

  1. Preferences for Deep-Surface Learning: A Vocational Education Case Study Using a Multimedia Assessment Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Simon; Robertson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This research tests the proposition that the integration of a multimedia assessment activity into a Diploma of Events Management program promotes a deep learning approach. Firstly, learners' preferences for deep or surface learning were evaluated using the revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire. Secondly, after completion of an assessment…

  2. Intergenerational learning in organizations : An effective way to stimulate older employee learning and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Donald Ropes

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – To illustrate the possibilities of implementing intergenerational learning as a strategy for promoting older worker learning and development. Design/methodology/approach – Review of literature. Findings – Intergenerational learning is theoretically a natural and effective way for

  3. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL): Using Internet for Effective Language Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremenska, Anelly

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Kremenska, A. (2006). Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL): Using Internet for Effective Language Learning. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia,

  4. Personalised Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning System for Supporting Effective English Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Li, Yi-Lun

    2010-01-01

    Because learning English is extremely popular in non-native English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning schemes that facilitate effective English learning is a critical issue in English-language education. Vocabulary learning is vital within English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building blocks of English…

  5. Effects of Situated Mobile Learning Approach on Learning Motivation and Performance of EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chester S. J.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Su, Addison Y. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a 5-step vocabulary learning (FSVL) strategy and a mobile learning tool in a situational English vocabulary learning environment and assessed their effects on the learning motivation and performance of English as a foreign language (EFL) students in a situational English vocabulary learning environment. Overall, 80 EFL…

  6. Surface effects on converse piezoelectricity of crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molayem, Mohammad; Springborg, Michael; Kirtman, Bernard

    2017-09-20

    The contribution of surface units to bulk properties are often neglected in theoretical and computational studies of crystalline systems. We demonstrate that this assumption has to be made with caution in the case of (electric field) polarization. As a generalization of an earlier work on quasi-one-dimensional systems [Springborg, et al., Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys., 2010, 82, 165442], it is shown that the polarization for 2D and 3D systems contains a surface contribution that can, in principle, take any value (within physical limits) and has consequences for converse piezoelectric responses. Subsequently, we determine the surface effects quantitatively for a group of ferroelectric perovskite structures. Our results indicate that such contributions can be substantial.

  7. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  8. EDUCATION REFORMS TOWARDS 21ST CENTURY SKILLS: TRANSFORMING STUDENTS' LEARNING EXPERIENCES THROUGH EFFECTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Harriet Wambui Njui

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on learning environments with a view to making recommendations on how teachers could create effective and high-quality learning environments that provide learners with transformative learning experiences as they go through the process of education. An effective learning environment is critical because quality education, which is essential to real learning and human development, is influenced by factors both inside and outside the classroom. Learning institutions ...

  9. Learning to trust : network effects through time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrera, D.; Bunt, G. van de

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of information originating from social networks on the development of interpersonal trust relations in the context of a dialysis department of a Dutch medium-sized hospital. Hypotheses on learning effects are developed from existing theories and tested using

  10. Learning to trust: network effects through time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrera, D.; van de Bunt, G

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of information originating from social networks on the development of interpersonal trust relations in the context of a dialysis department of a Dutch medium-sized hospital. Hypotheses on learning effects are developed from existing theories and tested using

  11. Learning hatching for pen-and-ink illustration of surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kalogerakis, Evangelos

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an algorithm for learning hatching styles from line drawings. An artist draws a single hatching illustration of a 3D object. Her strokes are analyzed to extract the following per-pixel properties: hatching level (hatching, cross-hatching, or no strokes), stroke orientation, spacing, intensity, length, and thickness. A mapping is learned from input geometric, contextual, and shading features of the 3D object to these hatching properties, using classification, regression, and clustering techniques. Then, a new illustration can be generated in the artist\\'s style, as follows. First, given a new view of a 3D object, the learned mapping is applied to synthesize target stroke properties for each pixel. A new illustration is then generated by synthesizing hatching strokes according to the target properties. © 2012 ACM.

  12. Understanding Digital Learning and Its Variable Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, B.

    2016-12-01

    An increasing proportion of undergraduate courses use an online or blended learning format. This trend signals major changes in the kind of instruction students receive in their STEM courses, yet evidence about the effectiveness of these new approaches is sparse. Existing syntheses and meta-analyses summarize outcomes from experimental or quasi-experimental studies of online and blended courses and document how few studies incorporate proper controls for differences in student characteristics, instructor behaviors, and other course conditions. The evidence that is available suggests that on average blended courses are equal to or better than traditional face-to-face courses and that online courses are equivalent in terms of learning outcomes. But these averages conceal a tremendous underlying variability. Results vary markedly from course to course, even when the same technology is used in both. Some research suggests that online instruction puts lower-achieving students at a disadvantage. It is clear that introducing digital learning per se is no guarantee that student engagement and learning will be enhanced. Getting more consistently positive impacts out of learning technologies is going to require systematic characterization of the features of learning technologies and associated instructional practices as well as attention to context and student characteristics. This presentation will present a framework for characterizing essential features of digital learning resources, implementation practices, and conditions. It will also summarize the research evidence with respect to the learning impacts of specific technology features including spaced practice, immediate feedback, mastery learning based pacing, visualizations and simulations, gaming features, prompts for explanations and reflection, and tools for online collaboration.

  13. Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Guney, Ali; Al, Selda

    2012-01-01

    There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just a few studies about how physical environment is related to learning process. Many researchers generally consider teaching and learning issues as if independent from physical environment, whereas p...

  14. Deep and Surface Learning in Problem-Based Learning: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Marcq, Hélène; Gijbels, David

    2016-01-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), implemented worldwide, students learn by discussing professionally relevant problems enhancing application and integration of knowledge, which is assumed to encourage students towards a deep learning approach in which students are intrinsically interested and try to understand what is being studied. This review…

  15. The effect of discovery learning and problem-based learning on middle school students’ self-regulated learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miatun, A.; Muntazhimah

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of learning models on mathematics achievement viewed from student’s self-regulated learning. The learning model compared were discovery learning and problem-based learning. The population was all students at the grade VIII of Junior High School in Boyolali regency. The samples were students of SMPN 4 Boyolali, SMPN 6 Boyolali, and SMPN 4 Mojosongo. The instruments used were mathematics achievement tests and self-regulated learning questionnaire. The data were analyzed using unbalanced two-ways Anova. The conclusion was as follows: (1) discovery learning gives better achievement than problem-based learning. (2) Achievement of students who have high self-regulated learning was better than students who have medium and low self-regulated learning. (3) For discovery learning, achievement of students who have high self-regulated learning was better than students who have medium and low self-regulated learning. For problem-based learning, students who have high and medium self-regulated learning have the same achievement. (4) For students who have high self-regulated learning, discovery learning gives better achievement than problem-based learning. Students who have medium and low self-regulated learning, both learning models give the same achievement.

  16. Agoras: Towards Collaborative Game-Based Learning Experiences on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catala, Alejandro; Garcia-Sanjuan, Fernando; Pons, Patricia; Jaen, Javier; Mocholi, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    Children nowadays consume and manage lots of interactive digital software. This makes it more interesting and powerful to use digital technologies and videogames supporting learning experiences. However, in general, current digital proposals lack of in-situ social interaction supporting natural exchange and discussion of ideas in the course of…

  17. Effects of prior knowledge on learning from different compositions of representations in a mobile learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.-C. Liu (Tzu-Chien); Y.-C. Lin (Yi-Chun); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractTwo experiments examined the effects of prior knowledge on learning from different compositions of multiple representations in a mobile learning environment on plant leaf morphology for primary school students. Experiment 1 compared the learning effects of a mobile learning environment

  18. Radioactivity in surface waters and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeber, I.

    1987-01-01

    In consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl, the State Office for Water and Waste Disposal of North-Rhine Westphalia implemented immediate programmes for monitoring radioactivity in surface waters, including their sediments and organisms. Of the initially-measured radionuclides, only cesium-137, with its long half-life of 30 years, is of interest. Only trace amounts of the almost equally long-lived strontium 90 (half-life 28 years) were present in rainfall. Cs-137 is a non-natural-radionuclide, occurring solely as a by-product of nuclear installations and atomic bomb tests. Following the ban on surface testing of nuclear weapons, the Cs-137 content of surface waters had fallen significantly up to April 1986. The load due to the reactor disaster is of the same order of magnitude as that produced by atomic testing at the end of the nineteen-sixties. The paper surveys radioactive pollution of surface waters in North-Rhine Westphalia and its effects on water use, especially in regard to potable water supplies and the fish population. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Ion bombardment effect on surface state of metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaulin, E.P.; Georgieva, N.E.; Martynenko, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of slow argon ion bombardment on the surface microstructure of polycrystalline copper as well as the effect of surface state on sputtering of D-16 polycrystalline alloy are experimentally studied. Reduction of copper surface roughness is observed. It is shown that the D-16 alloy sputtering coefficient is sensitive to the surface state within the limits of the destructed surface layer

  20. Effective Learning Environments in Relation to Different Learning Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.; Al, S.

    2012-01-01

    There are diverse learning theories which explain learning processes which are discussed within this paper, through cognitive structure of learning process. Learning environments are usually described in terms of pedagogical philosophy, curriculum design and social climate. There have been only just

  1. Effects of Teacher Training in Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund; Wahlgren, Bjarne

    This paper tries to shed light over two questions raised in the workshop: ‘Effects of Teacher Training' at the ASEM conference June 2009 on Teachers and Trainers in Adult Education and Lifelong Learning Professional Development in Asia and Europe. At first it is asked what do we already know abou...... training? This will be illustrated by describing a research design in progress at the National Centre of  Competence Development, Denmark, regarding a program where teachers are taught teaching Cooperative Learning as a pedagogical and didactical method.......This paper tries to shed light over two questions raised in the workshop: ‘Effects of Teacher Training' at the ASEM conference June 2009 on Teachers and Trainers in Adult Education and Lifelong Learning Professional Development in Asia and Europe. At first it is asked what do we already know about...

  2. The Effect of Perceptual Learning on L2 Vocabulary Learning and Retention

    OpenAIRE

    BEDİR, Gülay; BEKTAŞ BEDİR, Sevgi

    2018-01-01

    It is thought that learning styles have an effecton learning foreign language. This study aims to determine effects ofperceptual learning styles on L2 vocabulary learning and retention. Learningstyle preferences were assessed in the current study through the section ofCohen et al.’s Learning Style Survey (LSS) corresponding to the perceptualmodalities and achievement tests developed by the researcher was used to assessvocabulary learning and retention. And an open-ended question is tried toan...

  3. Learning Networks: connecting people, organizations, autonomous agents and learning resources to establish the emergence of effective lifelong learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob; Sloep, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Koper, E.J.R., Sloep, P.B. (2002) Learning Networks connecting people, organizations, autonomous agents and learning resources to establish the emergence of effective lifelong learning. RTD Programma into Learning Technologies 2003-2008. More is different… Heerlen, Nederland: Open Universiteit

  4. Temperature effect on surface oxidation of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaquilla, I.; Barco, J.L. del; Ferron, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the first stages of the superficial oxidation of polycrystalline titanium was studied using both Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and emission shreshold (AEAPS). The number of compounds present on the surface was determined by application of the factor analysis technique. Reaction evolution was followed through the relative variation of Auger LMM and LMV transitions which are characteristic of titanium. Also the evolution of the chemical shift was determined by AEAPS. The amount of oxygen on the surface was quantified using transition KLL of oxygen. It was found that superficial oxidation depends on temperature. As much as three different compounds were determined according to substrate temperature and our exposure ranges. (Author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  5. Longitudinal surface curvature effect in magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodas, N.G.

    1975-01-01

    The two-dimensional motion of an incompressible and electrically conducting fluid past an electrically insulated body surface (having curvature) is studied for a given O(1) basic flow and magnetic field, when (i) the applied magnetic field is aligned with the velocity in the basic flow, and (ii) the applied magnetic field is within the body surface. 01 and 0(Re sup(1/2)) mean the first and second order approximations respectively in an exansion scheme in powers of Resup(-1/2), Re being the Reynolds number). The technique of matched asymptotic expansions is used to solve the problem. The governing partial differential equations to 0(Resup(-1/2)) boundary layer approximation are found to give similarity solutions for a family of surface curvature and pressure gradient distributions in case (i), and for uniform basic flow with analytic surface curvature distributions in case (ii). The equations are solved numerically. In case (i) it is seen that the effect of the magnetic field on the skin-friction- correction due to the curvature is very small. Also the magnetic field at the wall is reduced by the curvature on the convex side. In case (ii) the magnetic field significantly increases the skin-friction-correction due to the curvature. The effect of the magnetic field on the O(1) and O(Resup(-1/2)) skin friction coefficients increases with the increase of the electrical conductivity of the fluid. Also, at higher values of the magnetic pressure, moderate changes in the electrical conductivity do not influence the correction to the skin-friction significantly. (Auth.)

  6. The Effectiveness of Blended Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    The object of this experimental study is to measure the effectiveness of a blended learning environment which is laid out on the basis of features for face to face and online environments. The study was applied to 110 students who attend to Atilim University, Ankara, Turkey and take Introduction to Computers Course. During the application,…

  7. Some Factors Effected Student's Calculus Learning Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagukguk, Wamington

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the factors effected calculus learning outcome of the student. This study was conducted with 176 respondents, which were selected randomly. The data were obtained by questionnaire, and then analyzed by using multiple regressions, and correlation, at level of a = 0.05. The findings showed there is the…

  8. The effectiveness of E- learning in learning: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousazadeh Somayeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Entry to the information age and effective life in information-oriented society requires an understanding of its characteristics. One of the social institutions that will undergo extensive changes at this age is general and higher education and training institutions. The aim of this review study is to evaluate the effectiveness of e learning in learning. This paper is a review study carried out using Medline and CINAHL databases and Google search engine. The studies used include review articles and English meta-analysis of language.Of the retrieved results,38 documents including articles, books and web sites were investigated and classified. At first, the background of e learning was studied history and in the next section its effectiveness in learning was briefly examined. The overall benefits of e-learning include the promotion of learning, independence and individual satisfaction, learning at anytime, anywhere and with any background, learning without the same prerequisites, speed and process of learning due to individual needs, individual learning along with cooperative learning, saving time and costs significantly, the possibility of teaching and learning for all people, mutual teaching and learning, getting quick results in learning, learning more by using multimedia and maintaining resources and reducing environmental and audio pollution. The results of studies suggest positive effects of e-learning on learning thus it is suggested that this approach be used more in education, which requires building the required grounds.

  9. Characterizing water-metal interfaces and machine learning potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryczko, Kevin

    In this thesis, we first discuss the fundamentals of ab initio electronic structure theory and density functional theory (DFT). We also discuss statistics related to computing thermodynamic averages of molecular dynamics (MD). We then use this theory to analyze and compare the structural, dynamical, and electronic properties of liquid water next to prototypical metals including platinum, graphite, and graphene. Our results are built on Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) generated using density functional theory (DFT) which explicitly include van der Waals (vdW) interactions within a first principles approach. All calculations reported use large simulation cells, allowing for an accurate treatment of the water-electrode interfaces. We have included vdW interactions through the use of the optB86b-vdW exchange correlation functional. Comparisons with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange correlation functional are also shown. We find an initial peak, due to chemisorption, in the density profile of the liquid water-Pt interface not seen in the liquid water-graphite interface, liquid watergraphene interface, nor interfaces studied previously. To further investigate this chemisorption peak, we also report differences in the electronic structure of single water molecules on both Pt and graphite surfaces. We find that a covalent bond forms between the single water molecule and the platinum surface, but not between the single water molecule and the graphite surface. We also discuss the effects that defects and dopants in the graphite and graphene surfaces have on the structure and dynamics of liquid water. Lastly, we introduce artificial neural networks (ANNs), and demonstrate how they can be used to machine learn electronic structure calculations. As a proof of principle, we show the success of an ANN potential energy surfaces for a dimer molecule with a Lennard-Jones potential.

  10. Determining the Effects of LMS Learning Behaviors on Academic Achievement in a Learning Analytic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet FIRAT

    2016-01-01

    Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students’ learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS), which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users’ behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of undergraduate students’ LMS learning behaviors on their academic achievements. In line with this pur...

  11. Surface roughness effects on turbulent Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Mo; Lee, Jae Hwa

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation of a turbulent Couette flow with two-dimensional (2-D) rod roughness is performed to examine the effects of the surface roughness. The Reynolds number based on the channel centerline laminar velocity (Uco) and channel half height (h) is Re =7200. The 2-D rods are periodically arranged with a streamwise pitch of λ = 8 k on the bottom wall, and the roughness height is k = 0.12 h. It is shown that the wall-normal extent for the logarithmic layer is significantly shortened in the rough-wall turbulent Couette flow, compared to a turbulent Couette flow with smooth wall. Although the Reynolds stresses are increased in a turbulent channel flow with surface roughness in the outer layer due to large-scale ejection motions produced by the 2-D rods, those of the rough-wall Couette flow are decreased. Isosurfaces of the u-structures averaged in time suggest that the decrease of the turbulent activity near the centerline is associated with weakened large-scale counter-rotating roll modes by the surface roughness. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1A09000537) and the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2017R1A5A1015311).

  12. Learning strategies during clerkships and their effects on clinical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lohuizen, M T; Kuks, J B M; van Hell, E A; Raat, A N; Cohen-Schotanus, J

    2009-11-01

    Previous research revealed relationships between learning strategies and knowledge acquisition. During clerkships, however, students' focus widens beyond mere knowledge acquisition as they further develop overall competence. This shift in focus can influence learning strategy use. We explored which learning strategies were used during clerkships and their relationship to clinical performance. Participants were 113 (78%) clerks at the university hospital or one of six affiliated hospitals. Learning strategies were assessed using the 'Approaches to Learning at Work Questionnaire' (deep, surface-rational and surface-disorganised learning). Clinical performance was calculated by taking the mean of clinical assessment marks. The relationship between learning strategies and clinical performance was explored using regression analysis. Most students (89%) did not clearly prefer a single learning strategy. No relationship was found between learning strategies and clinical performance. Since overall competence comprises integration of knowledge, skills and professional behaviour, we assume that students without a clear preference use more than one learning strategy. Finding no relationship between learning strategies and clinical performance reflects the complexity of clinical learning. Depending on circumstances it may be important to obtain relevant information quickly (surface-rational) or understand material thoroughly (deep). In future research we will examine when and why students use different learning strategies.

  13. On the Stress Transfer of Nanoscale Interlayer with Surface Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved shear-lag model is proposed to investigate the mechanism through which the surface effect influences the stress transfer of multilayered structures. The surface effect of the interlayer is characterized in terms of interfacial stress and surface elasticity by using Gurtin–Murdoch elasticity theory. Our calculation result shows that the surface effect influences the efficiency of stress transfer. The surface effect is enhanced with decreasing interlayer thickness and elastic modulus. Nonuniform and large residual surface stress distribution amplifies the influence of the surface effect on stress concentration.

  14. Lack of spacing effects during piano learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wiseheart, Melody; D?Souza, Annalise A.; Chae, Jacey

    2017-01-01

    Spacing effects during retention of verbal information are easily obtained, and the effect size is large. Relatively little evidence exists on whether motor skill retention benefits from distributed practice, with even less evidence on complex motor skills. We taught a 17-note musical sequence on a piano to individuals without prior formal training. There were five lags between learning episodes: 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-min. After a 5-min retention interval, participants' performance was meas...

  15. A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE DISTANCE LEARNING IN HIGHER A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE DISTANCE LEARNING IN HIGHER A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR EFFECTIVE DISTANCE LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran FARAJOLLAHI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims at presenting a conceptual model for effective distance learning in higher education. Findings of this research shows that an understanding of the technological capabilities and learning theories especially constructive theory and independent learning theory and communicative and interaction theory in Distance learning is an efficient factor in the planning of effective Distance learning in higher education. Considering the theoretical foundations of the present research, in the effective distance learning model, the learner is situated at the center of learning environment. For this purpose, the learner needs to be ready for successful learning and the teacher has to be ready to design the teaching- learning activities when they initially enter the environment. In the present model, group and individual active teaching-learning approach, timely feedback, using IT and eight types of interactions have been designed with respect to theoretical foundations and current university missions. From among the issues emphasized in this model, one can refer to the Initial, Formative and Summative evaluations. In an effective distance learning environment, evaluation should be part of the learning process and the feedback resulting from it should be used to improve learning. For validating the specified features, the opinions of Distance learning experts in Payame Noor, Shiraz, Science and Technology and Amirkabir Universities have been used which verified a high percentage of the statistical sample of the above mentioned features.

  16. Learning in Complex Environments: The Effects of Background Speech on Early Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Brianna T. M.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2016-01-01

    Although most studies of language learning take place in quiet laboratory settings, everyday language learning occurs under noisy conditions. The current research investigated the effects of background speech on word learning. Both younger (22- to 24-month-olds; n = 40) and older (28- to 30-month-olds; n = 40) toddlers successfully learned novel…

  17. The Effects of Integrating Social Learning Environment with Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopovic, Miroslava; Cvetanovic, Svetlana; Medan, Ivana; Ljubojevic, Danijela

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the learning and teaching styles using the Social Learning Environment (SLE), which was developed based on the computer supported collaborative learning approach. To avoid burdening learners with multiple platforms and tools, SLE was designed and developed in order to integrate existing systems, institutional…

  18. Correlation Between Blended Learning Model With The Perspective Of Learning Effectiveness For Nursing Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susila Sumartiningsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The learning model is one of the enabling factors that influence the achievement of students. That students have a good learning outcomes the lecturer must choose appropriate learning models. But in fact not all lecturers choose the most appropriate learning model with the demands of learning outcomes and student characteristics.The study design was descriptive quantitative correlation. Total population of 785 the number of samples are 202 were taken by purposive sampling. Techniques of data collection is done by cross-sectional and then processed through the Spearman test. The results showed no significant relationship between classroom lecture method in the context of blended learning models to study the effectiveness perspective the p value of 0.001. There is a significant relationship between e-learning methods in the context of blended learning models with perspective of activities study of nursing students the p value of 0.028. There is a significant relationship between learning model of blended learning with the perspective of nursing students learning effectiveness p value 0.167. Researchers recommend to future researchers conduct more research on the comparison between the effectiveness of the learning model based on student learning centers with the e-learning models and its impact on student achievement of learning competencies as well as to the implications for other dimensions of learning outcomes and others.

  19. [Verification of Learning Effects by Team-based Learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Shin-Ichi; Ito, Yoshihisa; Ishige, Kumiko; Inokuchi, Norio; Kosuge, Yasuhiro; Asami, Satoru; Izumisawa, Megumi; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takashi; Kishikawa, Yukinaga; Hata, Harumi; Kose, Eiji; Tabata, Kei-Ichi

    2017-11-01

     It has been recommended that active learning methods, such as team-based learning (TBL) and problem-based learning (PBL), be introduced into university classes by the Central Council for Education. As such, for the past 3 years, we have implemented TBL in a medical therapeutics course for 4-year students. Based upon our experience, TBL is characterized as follows: TBL needs fewer teachers than PBL to conduct a TBL module. TBL enables both students and teachers to recognize and confirm the learning results from preparation and reviewing. TBL grows students' responsibility for themselves and their teams, and likely facilitates learning activities through peer assessment.

  20. Automated discovery and construction of surface phase diagrams using machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulissi, Zachary W.; Singh, Aayush R.; Tsai, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Surface phase diagrams are necessary for understanding surface chemistry in electrochemical catalysis, where a range of adsorbates and coverages exist at varying applied potentials. These diagrams are typically constructed using intuition, which risks missing complex coverages and configurations at potentials of interest. More accurate cluster expansion methods are often difficult to implement quickly for new surfaces. We adopt a machine learning approach to rectify both issues. Using a Gaussian process regression model, the free energy of all possible adsorbate coverages for surfaces is predicted for a finite number of adsorption sites. Our result demonstrates a rational, simple, and systematic approach for generating accurate free-energy diagrams with reduced computational resources. Finally, the Pourbaix diagram for the IrO_2(110) surface (with nine coverages from fully hydrogenated to fully oxygenated surfaces) is reconstructed using just 20 electronic structure relaxations, compared to approximately 90 using typical search methods. Similar efficiency is demonstrated for the MoS_2 surface.

  1. An examination of online learning effectiveness using data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukor, N.B.A.; Tasir, Z.; Meijden, H.A.T. van der

    2015-01-01

    Online learning has become increasingly popular due to technology advancement that allows discussion to occur at distance. Most studies report on students' learning achievement as a result of effective online learning while assessment on the learning process is also necessary. It is possible by

  2. Surface Effects on Nanoscale Gas Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskok, Ali; Barisik, Murat

    2010-11-01

    3D MD simulations of linear Couette flow of argon gas confined within nano-scale channels are performed in the slip, transition and free molecular flow regimes. The velocity and density profiles show deviations from the kinetic theory based predictions in the near wall region that typically extends three molecular diameters (s) from each surface. Utilizing the Irwin-Kirkwood theorem, stress tensor components for argon gas confined in nano-channels are investigated. Outside the 3s region, three normal stress components are identical, and equal to pressure predicted using the ideal gas law, while the shear stress is a constant. Within the 3s region, the normal stresses become anisotropic and the shear stress shows deviations from its bulk value due to the surface virial effects. Utilizing the kinetic theory and MD predicted shear stress values, the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient for argon gas interacting with FCC structured walls (100) plane facing the fluid is calculated to be 0.75; this value is independent of the Knudsen number. Results show emergence of the 3s region as an additional characteristic length scale in nano-confined gas flows.

  3. The effect of testing on skills learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Charles B; Jensen, Morten L; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In addition to the extrinsic effects of assessment and examinations on students' study habits, testing can have an intrinsic effect on the memory of studied material. Whether this testing effect also applies to skills learning is not known. However, this is especially interesting...... a prospective, controlled, randomised, single-blind, post-test-only intervention study, preceded by a similar pre- and post-test pilot study in order to make a power calculation. A total of 140 medical students participating in a mandatory 4-hour in-hospital resuscitation course in the seventh semester were...

  4. Experience Effect in E-Learning Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Xu, WenXia; Ge, Jun

    This study is a productivity review on the literature gleaned from SSCI, SCIE databases concerning experience in E-Learning research. The result indicates that the number of literature productions on experience effect in ELearning research is still growing from 2005. The main research development country is Croatia, and from the analysis of the publication year, the number of papers is increasing to the peaking in 2010. And the main source title is British Journal of Educational Technology. In addition the subject area concentrated on Education & Educational Research. Moreover the research focuses on are mainly survey research and empirical research, in order to explore experience effect in E-Learning research. Also the limitations and future research of these research were discussed, so that the direction for further research work can be exploited

  5. Effects of cooperative learning strategy on undergraduate kinesiology students' learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwsen, Harry J; King, George A; Pederson, Rockie

    2005-10-01

    A growing body of research supports cooperative learning as an effective teaching strategy. A specific cooperative learning strategy, Team-based Learning, was applied to a convenience sample of four undergraduate sophomore-level motor behavior courses over four semesters from Fall 2002 to Spring 2004 to examine whether this strategy would affect students' learning styles. The data from the Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Style Scales indicated that this teaching strategy was associated with a significant decrease in the negative Avoidant and Dependent learning styles and an improvement in the positive Participant learning style.

  6. Surface effects in metal oxide-based nanodevices

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Der Hsien

    2015-10-29

    As devices shrink to the nanoscale, surface-to-volume ratio increases and the surface-environment interaction becomes a major factor for affecting device performance. The variation of electronic properties, including the surface band bending, gas chemisorption or photodesorption, native surface defects, and surface roughness, is called "surface effects". Such effects are ambiguous because they can be either negative or beneficial effects, depending on the environmental conditions and device application. This review provides an introduction to the surface effects on different types of nanodevices, offering the solutions to respond to their benefits and negative effects and provides an outlook on further applications regarding the surface effect. This review is beneficial for designing nano-enabled photodetectors, harsh electronics, memories, sensors and transistors via surface engineering.

  7. Surface effects in metal oxide-based nanodevices

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Der Hsien; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Ke, Jr Jian; Kang, Chen Fang; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    As devices shrink to the nanoscale, surface-to-volume ratio increases and the surface-environment interaction becomes a major factor for affecting device performance. The variation of electronic properties, including the surface band bending, gas chemisorption or photodesorption, native surface defects, and surface roughness, is called "surface effects". Such effects are ambiguous because they can be either negative or beneficial effects, depending on the environmental conditions and device application. This review provides an introduction to the surface effects on different types of nanodevices, offering the solutions to respond to their benefits and negative effects and provides an outlook on further applications regarding the surface effect. This review is beneficial for designing nano-enabled photodetectors, harsh electronics, memories, sensors and transistors via surface engineering.

  8. Effect of Surface Treatment on the Surface Characteristics of AISI 316L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Steve; Selvaduray, Guna

    2005-01-01

    The ability of 316L stainless steel to maintain biocompatibility, which is dependent upon the surface characteristics, is critical to its effectiveness as an implant material. The surfaces of mechanically polished (MP), electropolished (EP) and plasma treated 316L stainless steel coupons were characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) for chemical composition, Atomic Force Microscopy for surface roughness, and contact angle measurements for critical surface tension. All surfaces had a Ni concentration that was significantly lower than the bulk concentration of -43%. The Cr content of the surface was increased significantly by electropolishing. The surface roughness was also improved significantly by electropolishing. Plasma treatment had the reverse effect - the surface Cr content was decreased. It was also found that the Cr and Fe in the surface exist in both the oxide and hydroxide states, with the ratios varying according to surface treatment.

  9. Lack of spacing effects during piano learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody Wiseheart

    Full Text Available Spacing effects during retention of verbal information are easily obtained, and the effect size is large. Relatively little evidence exists on whether motor skill retention benefits from distributed practice, with even less evidence on complex motor skills. We taught a 17-note musical sequence on a piano to individuals without prior formal training. There were five lags between learning episodes: 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-min. After a 5-min retention interval, participants' performance was measured using three criteria: accuracy of note playing, consistency in pressure applied to the keys, and consistency in timing. No spacing effect was found, suggesting that the effect may not always be demonstrable for complex motor skills or non-verbal abilities (timing and motor skills. Additionally, we taught short phrases from five songs, using the same set of lags and retention interval, and did not find any spacing effect for accuracy of song reproduction. Our findings indicate that although the spacing effect is one of the most robust phenomena in the memory literature (as demonstrated by verbal learning studies, the effect may vary when considered in the novel realm of complex motor skills such as piano performance.

  10. Lack of spacing effects during piano learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseheart, Melody; D'Souza, Annalise A; Chae, Jacey

    2017-01-01

    Spacing effects during retention of verbal information are easily obtained, and the effect size is large. Relatively little evidence exists on whether motor skill retention benefits from distributed practice, with even less evidence on complex motor skills. We taught a 17-note musical sequence on a piano to individuals without prior formal training. There were five lags between learning episodes: 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-min. After a 5-min retention interval, participants' performance was measured using three criteria: accuracy of note playing, consistency in pressure applied to the keys, and consistency in timing. No spacing effect was found, suggesting that the effect may not always be demonstrable for complex motor skills or non-verbal abilities (timing and motor skills). Additionally, we taught short phrases from five songs, using the same set of lags and retention interval, and did not find any spacing effect for accuracy of song reproduction. Our findings indicate that although the spacing effect is one of the most robust phenomena in the memory literature (as demonstrated by verbal learning studies), the effect may vary when considered in the novel realm of complex motor skills such as piano performance.

  11. All-(111) surface silicon nanowire field effect transistor devices: Effects of surface preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masood, M.N.; Carlen, Edwin; van den Berg, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Etching/hydrogen termination of All-(111) surface silicon nanowire field effect (SiNW-FET) devices developed by conventional photolithography and plane dependent wet etchings is studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and

  12. Learning Declarative and Procedural Knowledge via Video Lectures: Cognitive Load and Learning Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jianzhong; Pi, Zhongling; Yang, Jiumin

    2018-01-01

    Video lectures are being widely used in online and blended learning classes worldwide, and their learning effectiveness is becoming a focus of many educators and researchers. This study examined the cognitive load and learning effectiveness of video lectures in terms of the type of knowledge being taught (declarative or procedural) and instructor…

  13. The effects of autonomous learning on cognitive load and learning results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Chantal; Kester, Liesbeth; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Martens, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Gorissen, C. J. J., Kester, L., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Martens, R. L. (2011, August). The Effects of Autonomous Learning on Cognitive Load and Learning Results. Presentation at the EARLI conference. Exeter, UK.

  14. Enabling Highly Effective Boiling from Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Taylor P.; Weibel, Justin A.; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2018-04-01

    A variety of industrial applications such as power generation, water distillation, and high-density cooling rely on heat transfer processes involving boiling. Enhancements to the boiling process can improve the energy efficiency and performance across multiple industries. Highly wetting textured surfaces have shown promise in boiling applications since capillary wicking increases the maximum heat flux that can be dissipated. Conversely, highly nonwetting textured (superhydrophobic) surfaces have been largely dismissed for these applications as they have been shown to promote formation of an insulating vapor film that greatly diminishes heat transfer efficiency. The current Letter shows that boiling from a superhydrophobic surface in an initial Wenzel state, in which the surface texture is infiltrated with liquid, results in remarkably low surface superheat with nucleate boiling sustained up to a critical heat flux typical of hydrophilic wetting surfaces, and thus upends this conventional wisdom. Two distinct boiling behaviors are demonstrated on both micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces based on the initial wetting state. For an initial surface condition in which vapor occupies the interstices of the surface texture (Cassie-Baxter state), premature film boiling occurs, as has been commonly observed in the literature. However, if the surface texture is infiltrated with liquid (Wenzel state) prior to boiling, drastically improved thermal performance is observed; in this wetting state, the three-phase contact line is pinned during vapor bubble growth, which prevents the development of a vapor film over the surface and maintains efficient nucleate boiling behavior.

  15. Surface effect theory in binary alloys: surfaces with cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Silva, C.E.T.G. da; Moran-Lopez, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A surface effect theory in binary alloys which ore ordered with surfaces with cut-off is presented. This theory is based in a model of pair interaction between first neighbours and includes long and short range effects. The (120) surface with sup(-) (110) monoatomic cut-off and terrace in the (110) planes of an alloy with body centered cubic structure is presented as example. Results for the concentrations in all the different surface sites are given. (L.C.) [pt

  16. The Effectiveness of Collaborative Academic Online Based Learning through Students’ Self-Regulated Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Priyambodo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays, learning through e-learning is going rapidly, including the application BeSmart UNY. This application is providing collaborative method in teaching and learning. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Collaborative Academic Online Based Learning method in teaching and learning toward students’ Self-Regulated Learning (SRL on Vocational School Chemistry courses. This study was quasi-experimental research method with one group pretest posttest design. Instruments used in this study were lesson plan and questionnaire of students’ SRL. This questionnaire is filled by students through BeSmart UNY.  In determining the differences SRL before and after teaching and learning processes, the data was analized by stastitical method.  The results showed that the implementation of the Collaborative Academic Online Based Learning method in teaching and learning was effective for improving students’ SRL.

  17. Project- Based Learning and Problem-Based Learning: Are They Effective to Improve Student's Thinking Skills?

    OpenAIRE

    Anazifa, R. D; Djukri, D

    2017-01-01

    The study aims at finding (1) the effect of project-based learning and problem-based learning on student's creativity and critical thinking and (2) the difference effect of project-based learning and problem-based learning on student's creativity and critical thinking. This study is quasi experiment using non-equivalent control-group design. Research population of this study was all classes in eleventh grade of mathematics and natural science program of SMA N 1 Temanggung. The participants we...

  18. Effect of Kolb's Learning Styles under Inductive Guided-Inquiry Learning on Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudria, Ida Bagus Nyoman; Redhana, I. Wayan; Kirna, I. Made; Aini, Diah

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of Kolb's learning styles on chemical learning activities and achievement of reaction rate taught by inductive guided inquiry learning. The population was eleventh grade Science students of a senior secondary school having relatively good academic input based on national testing results in Bali, Indonesia.…

  19. Focusing on first year assessment: Surface or deep approaches to learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharn Donnison

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the assessment and learning approaches that some first year students employ to assist them in their transition into their first year of study and extends our previous work on first year student engagement and timely academic support (Penn-Edwards & Donnison, 2011. It is situated within the First Year transition and student engagement literature and specifically speaks to concepts of learning within that body of literature. In this paper we argue that while students are in the transitional period of their studies, the use of assessment as a motivator for learning (surface approach is valid first year pedagogy and forms an initial learning stage in the student’s progress towards being lifelong learners. 

  20. Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor C. X.

    2010-01-01

    As adult learners and educators pioneer the use of technology in the new century, attention has been focused on developing strategic approaches to effectively integrate adult learning and technology in different learning environments. "Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches" provides innovative…

  1. The Effects of Self-Paced Blended Learning of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balentyne, Phoebe; Varga, Mary Alice

    2016-01-01

    As online and blended learning gain more popularity in education, it becomes more important to understand their effects on student learning. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of self-paced blended learning of mathematics on the attitudes and achievement of 26 high ability middle school students, and investigate the relationship…

  2. The Effect of Professor's Attractiveness on Distance Learning Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jeanny; Tomasi, Stella D.

    2015-01-01

    Technology enabled learning is becoming more popular and pervasive in education. While the effectiveness of distance learning versus traditional classroom education is strongly debated, human factors such as students' perception of their professors can influence their desire to learn. This research examines the perceptual effect of attractive…

  3. Surface blemish detection from passive imagery using learned fuzzy set concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbuz, S.; Carver, A.; Schalkoff, R.

    1997-12-01

    An image analysis method for real-time surface blemish detection using passive imagery and fuzzy set concepts is described. The method develops an internal knowledge representation for surface blemish characteristics on the basis of experience, thus facilitating autonomous learning based upon positive and negative exemplars. The method incorporates fuzzy set concepts in the learning subsystem and image segmentation algorithms, thereby mimicking human visual perception. This enables a generic solution for color image segmentation. This method has been applied in the development of ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), designed to inspect DOE warehouse waste storage drums for rust. In this project, the ARIES vision system is used to acquire drum surface images under controlled conditions and subsequently perform visual inspection leading to the classification of the drum as acceptable or suspect

  4. Learned Helplessness as a Schedule-Shift Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, William T.

    1980-01-01

    The essentials of learned helplessness theory are described and supporting evidence surveyed. The explanation Seligman and Maier give for these findings is critically analyzed. A schedule-shift discrimination theory of learned helplessness effects is also discussed. (Author)

  5. The Effectiveness of the Gesture-Based Learning System (GBLS and Its Impact on Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moamer Ali Shakroum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies and experiments have been conducted in recent years to examine the value and the advantage of using the Gesture-Based Learning System (GBLS.The investigation of the influence of the GBLS mode on the learning outcomes is still scarce. Most previous studies did not address more than one category of learning outcomes (cognitive, affective outcomes, etc. at the same time when used to understand the impact of GBLS. Moreover, none of these studies considered the difference in students’ characteristics such as learning styles and spatial abilities. Therefore, a comprehensive empirical research on the impact of the GBLS mode on learning outcomes is needed. The purpose of this paper is to fill in the gap and to investigate the effectiveness of the GBLS mode on learning using Technology Mediated Learning (TML models. This study revealed that the GBLS mode has greater positive impact on students’ learning outcomes (cognitive and affective outcomes when compared with other two learning modes that are classified as Computer Simulation Software Learning (CSSL mode and conventional learning mode. In addition, this study also found that the GBLS mode is capable of serving all students with different learning styles and spatial ability levels. The results of this study revealed that the GBLS mode outperformed the existing learning methods by providing a unique learning experience that considers the differences between students. The results have also shown that the Kinect user interface can create an interactive and an enjoyable learning experience.

  6. Blended learning as an effective pedagogical paradigm for biomedical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Hartfield

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning combines face-to-face class based and online teaching and learning delivery in order to increase flexibility in how, when, and where students study and learn. The development, integration, and promotion of blended learning in frameworks of curriculum design can optimize the opportunities afforded by information and communication technologies and, concomitantly, accommodate a broad range of student learning styles. This study critically reviews the potential benefits of blended learning as a progressive educative paradigm for the teaching of biomedical science and evaluates the opportunities that blended learning offers for the delivery of accessible, flexible and sustainable teaching and learning experiences. A central tenet of biomedical science education at the tertiary level is the development of comprehensive hands-on practical competencies and technical skills (many of which require laboratory-based learning environments, and it is advanced that a blended learning model, which combines face-to-face synchronous teaching and learning activities with asynchronous online teaching and learning activities, effectively creates an authentic, enriching, and student-centred learning environment for biomedical science. Lastly, a blending learning design for introductory biochemistry will be described as an effective example of integrating face-to-face and online teaching, learning and assessment activities within the teaching domain of biomedical science.   DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v3i4.169

  7. Academic Self-Concept and Learning Strategies: Direction of Effect on Student Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…

  8. The e-Learning Effectiveness Versus Traditional Learning on a Health Informatics Laboratory Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogas, Spyros; Kolokathi, Aikaterini; Birbas, Konstantinos; Chondrocoukis, Gregory; Mantas, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between e-Learning and traditional learning methods of a University course on Health Informatics domain. A pilot research took place among University students who divided on two learning groups, the e-learners and the traditional learners. A comparison of the examinations' marks for the two groups of students was conducted in order to find differences on students' performance. The study results reveal that the students scored almost the same marks independently of the learning procedure. Based on that, it can be assumed that the e-learning courses have the same effectiveness as the in-classroom learning sessions.

  9. Effectiveness of E-learning in pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Sandra M; Karia, Ajay; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2014-05-15

    Over the past 2 decades, e-learning has evolved as a new pedagogy within pharmacy education. As learners and teachers increasingly seek e-learning opportunities for an array of educational and individual benefits, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. This systematic review of the literature examines the quality of e-learning effectiveness studies in pharmacy, describes effectiveness measures, and synthesizes the evidence for each measure. E-learning in pharmacy education effectively increases knowledge and is a highly acceptable instructional format for pharmacists and pharmacy students. However, there is limited evidence that e-learning effectively improves skills or professional practice. There is also no evidence that e-learning is effective at increasing knowledge long term; thus, long-term follow-up studies are required. Translational research is also needed to evaluate the benefits of e-learning at patient and organizational levels.

  10. Effectiveness of E-learning in Pharmacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karia, Ajay; Sanfilippo, Frank M.; Clifford, Rhonda M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, e-learning has evolved as a new pedagogy within pharmacy education. As learners and teachers increasingly seek e-learning opportunities for an array of educational and individual benefits, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. This systematic review of the literature examines the quality of e-learning effectiveness studies in pharmacy, describes effectiveness measures, and synthesizes the evidence for each measure. E-learning in pharmacy education effectively increases knowledge and is a highly acceptable instructional format for pharmacists and pharmacy students. However, there is limited evidence that e-learning effectively improves skills or professional practice. There is also no evidence that e-learning is effective at increasing knowledge long term; thus, long-term follow-up studies are required. Translational research is also needed to evaluate the benefits of e-learning at patient and organizational levels. PMID:24850945

  11. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF E-LEARNING: Academic and Business Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Ayham FAYYOUMI

    2009-01-01

    Countries’ success in the knowledge economy increasingly rely on highly-skilled and qualified people, which in turn, requires rapid, effective, and less expensive education and training. In this context, e-Learning has emerged; e-Learning is scalable, less expensive than traditional learning, and clearly advantageous for learners to access educational information and content anywhere and anytime. However, for evaluating the effectiveness of e-learning programs, a definition of ‘effectiveness’...

  12. Can Cooperative Learning Maximize the Effectiveness of WebQuest Used in Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitah Spian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether cooperative learning can maximize the effectiveness of webQuest used as a medium in teaching and learning in Islamic education. The present study also examined the perception of students towards WebQuest and cooperative learning method. Muslim students were selected from a rural school in Penang, Malaysia. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used in this study. The results showed that WebQuest used in teaching and learning in Islamic education had positive impact on students’ learning'. However, cooperative learning method did not influence the students’ learning outcome. Nevertheless, students were interested in the medium of instruction used. Integration of ICT in class lesson in Islamic subject enables the creation of interactive and fun learning among students. Therefore, the application of WebQuest in lessons is suitable and should be applied by all teachers in their learning activities to increase students’ interest and performance in Islamic education.

  13. Photoelectric effect in surface-barrier structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononenko, V.K.; Tupenevich, P.A.

    1985-08-01

    Deviations from the Fowler law were observed when investigating photoelectric emission in p-type ZnTe surface-barrier structures. The revealed peculiarities of the structure photosensitivity spectrum are explained by the electron transitions involving surface states at the metal-semiconductor interface. (author)

  14. Indicative Surfaces for Crystal Optical Effects

    OpenAIRE

    R.Vlokh,; O.Mys; O.Vlokh

    2005-01-01

    This paper has mainly a pedagogical meaning. Our aim is to demonstrate a correct general approach for constructing indicative surfaces of higher-rank tensors. We reconstruct the surfaces of piezo-optic tensor for beta-BaB2O4 and LiNbO3 crystals, which have been incorrectly presented in our recent papers.

  15. Antibacterial effect of surface pretreatment techniques against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial surface pretreatment methods against Streptococcus mutans within the infected dentin surface using a tooth cavity model. Material and Methods: Seventy-two cavities were prepared on caries-free third molars (n = 8). After sterilization, teeth were inoculated ...

  16. The Effect of Animation in Multimedia Computer-Based Learning and Learning Style to the Learning Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad RUSLI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a learning depends on four main elements, they are content, desired learning outcome, instructional method and the delivery media. The integration of those four elements can be manifested into a learning modul which is called multimedia learning or learning by using multimedia. In learning context by using computer-based multimedia, there are two main things that need to be noticed so that the learning process can run effectively: how the content is presented, and what the learner’s chosen way in accepting and processing the information into a meaningful knowledge. First it is related with the way to visualize the content and how people learn. The second one is related with the learning style of the learner. This research aims to investigate the effect of the type of visualization—static vs animated—on a multimedia computer-based learning, and learning styles—visual vs verbal, towards the students’ capability in applying the concepts, procedures, principles of Java programming. Visualization type act as independent variables, and learning styles of the students act as a moderator variable. Moreover, the instructional strategies followed the Component Display Theory of Merril, and the format of presentation of multimedia followed the Seven Principles of Multimedia Learning of Mayer and Moreno. Learning with the multimedia computer-based learning has been done in the classroom. The subject of this research was the student of STMIK-STIKOM Bali in odd semester 2016-2017 which followed the course of Java programming. The Design experiments used multivariate analysis of variance, MANOVA 2 x 2, with a large sample of 138 students in 4 classes. Based on the results of the analysis, it can be concluded that the animation in multimedia interactive learning gave a positive effect in improving students’ learning outcomes, particularly in the applying the concepts, procedures, and principles of Java programming. The

  17. Effects of Learning Analytics Dashboard: Analyzing the Relations among Dashboard Utilization, Satisfaction, and Learning Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Jo, Il-Hyun; Park, Yeonjeong

    2016-01-01

    The learning analytics dashboard (LAD) is a newly developed learning support tool for virtual classrooms that is believed to allow students to review their online learning behavior patterns intuitively through the provision of visual information. The purpose of this study was to empirically validate the effects of LAD. An experimental study was…

  18. e-Learning Continuance Intention: Moderating Effects of User e-Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kan-Min

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the determinants of the e-learning continuance intention of users with different levels of e-learning experience and examines the moderating effects of e-learning experience on the relationships among the determinants. The research hypotheses are empirically validated using the responses received from a survey of 256 users. The…

  19. Effect of Worksheet Scaffolds on Student Learning in Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Serene S. Y.; Rotgans, Jerome I.; Yew, Elaine H. J.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of worksheets as a scaffolding tool on students' learning achievement in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. Seventeen PBL classes (N = 241) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups--one with a worksheet provided and the other without. Students' learning of the topic at hand…

  20. Effects of External Learning Aids on Learning with Ill-Structured Hypertext.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astleitner, Hermann

    1997-01-01

    Describes three experiments with high school and college students concerning learning with ill-structured hypertext; in each study, one different kind of external learning aid (memo pads, learning time, and teaching objectives) was manipulated and examined for its effect on intentional and incidental knowledge acquisition. Findings are discussed…

  1. The Cooperative Learning Effects on English Reading Comprehension and Learning Motivation of EFL Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ching-Ying; Wu, Hui-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study aims to investigate the effects of using cooperative learning to enhance the English reading comprehension and learning motivation of EFL freshmen by comparing the cooperative learning instruction and traditional lecture instruction. This experiment was implemented in a Freshman English Reading course, a two credit course,…

  2. Deep learning for galaxy surface brightness profile fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccillo, D.; Huertas-Company, M.; Decencière, E.; Velasco-Forero, S.; Domínguez Sánchez, H.; Dimauro, P.

    2018-03-01

    Numerous ongoing and future large area surveys (e.g. Dark Energy Survey, EUCLID, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope) will increase by several orders of magnitude the volume of data that can be exploited for galaxy morphology studies. The full potential of these surveys can be unlocked only with the development of automated, fast, and reliable analysis methods. In this paper, we present DeepLeGATo, a new method for 2-D photometric galaxy profile modelling, based on convolutional neural networks. Our code is trained and validated on analytic profiles (HST/CANDELS F160W filter) and it is able to retrieve the full set of parameters of one-component Sérsic models: total magnitude, effective radius, Sérsic index, and axis ratio. We show detailed comparisons between our code and GALFIT. On simulated data, our method is more accurate than GALFIT and ˜3000 time faster on GPU (˜50 times when running on the same CPU). On real data, DeepLeGATo trained on simulations behaves similarly to GALFIT on isolated galaxies. With a fast domain adaptation step made with the 0.1-0.8 per cent the size of the training set, our code is easily capable to reproduce the results obtained with GALFIT even on crowded regions. DeepLeGATo does not require any human intervention beyond the training step, rendering it much automated than traditional profiling methods. The development of this method for more complex models (two-component galaxies, variable point spread function, dense sky regions) could constitute a fundamental tool in the era of big data in astronomy.

  3. Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water quality at ring road, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... parameters showed increased concentrations over those from control sites. ... Keywords: Landfill, groundwater, surface-water, pollution.

  4. Effect of nanocrystalline surface of substrate on microstructure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    surface layers or bulk nanocrystalline metals and alloys more effectively. ... severe plastic deformation on surface layers of bulk met- als at high strains and strain rates. .... scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (Zeiss, model: Sigma. VP), energy ...

  5. Tribological effects of polymer surface modification through plastic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tribological effects of polymer surface modification through plastic deformation. K O Low K J Wong ... In this regard, a surface modification technique through plastic deformation has been implemented. ... Bulletin of Materials Science | News.

  6. Upscaling of Surface Soil Moisture Using a Deep Learning Model with VIIRS RDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongying Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In current upscaling of in situ surface soil moisture practices, commonly used novel statistical or machine learning-based regression models combined with remote sensing data show some advantages in accurately capturing the satellite footprint scale of specific local or regional surface soil moisture. However, the performance of most models is largely determined by the size of the training data and the limited generalization ability to accomplish correlation extraction in regression models, which are unsuitable for larger scale practices. In this paper, a deep learning model was proposed to estimate soil moisture on a national scale. The deep learning model has the advantage of representing nonlinearities and modeling complex relationships from large-scale data. To illustrate the deep learning model for soil moisture estimation, the croplands of China were selected as the study area, and four years of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS raw data records (RDR were used as input parameters, then the models were trained and soil moisture estimates were obtained. Results demonstrate that the estimated models captured the complex relationship between the remote sensing variables and in situ surface soil moisture with an adjusted coefficient of determination of R ¯ 2 = 0.9875 and a root mean square error (RMSE of 0.0084 in China. These results were more accurate than the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP active radar soil moisture products and the Global Land data assimilation system (GLDAS 0–10 cm depth soil moisture data. Our study suggests that deep learning model have potential for operational applications of upscaling in situ surface soil moisture data at the national scale.

  7. Study the Postbuckling of Hexagonal Piezoelectric Nanowires with Surface Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Rahmani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric nanobeams having circular, rectangular and hexagonal cross-sections are synthesized and used in various Nano structures; however, piezoelectric nanobeams with hexagonal cross-sections have not been studied in detail. In particular, the physical mechanisms of the surface effect and the role of surface stress, surface elasticity and surface piezoelectricity have not been discussed thoroughly. The present study investigated post-buckling behavior of piezoelectric nanobeams by examining surface effects. The energy method was applied to post-buckling of hexagonal nanobeams and the critical buckling voltage and amplitude are derived analytically from bulk and surface material properties and geometric factors.

  8. Formal and informal facilitators of learning capability: the moderating effect of learning climate

    OpenAIRE

    ELENA REVILLA

    2006-01-01

    Organizations need to put in practice the most favourable conditions to facilitate learning capability. The different ways of thinking about learning in organizations distinguish two kinds of learning facilitators: formal and informal facilitators. In this paper, we suggest that organizations undertake both types of learning facilitators, but considering that informal facilitators may act as potential moderators of the effects of formal ones. We have focused on one comprehensive informal faci...

  9. Effects of Jigsaw Learning Method on Students’ Self-Efficacy and Motivation to Learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Nur Rachmah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Jigsaw learning as a cooperative learning method, according to the results of some studies, can improve academic skills, social competence, behavior in learning, and motivation to learn. However, in some other studies, there are different findings regarding the effect of jigsaw learning method on self-efficacy. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of jigsaw learning method on self-efficacy and motivation to learn in psychology students at the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat. The method used in the study is the experimental method using one group pre-test and post-test design. The results of the measurements before and after the use of jigsaw learning method were compared using paired samples t-test. The results showed that there is a difference in students’ self-efficacy and motivation to learn before and after subjected to the treatments; therefore, it can be said that jigsaw learning method had significant effects on self-efficacy and motivation to learn. The application of jigsaw learning model in a classroom with large number of students was the discussion of this study.

  10. Antibacterial Effect of Surface Pretreatment Techniques against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... 2018 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer ... Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial surface .... glass ionomer cement. ..... resin containing antibacterial monomer MDPB.

  11. The Effectiveness of Guided Inquiry Learning for Comparison Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnidar; Khabibah, S.; Sulaiman, R.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims at producing a good quality learning device using guided inquiry for comparison topics and describing the effectiveness of guided inquiry learning for comparison topics. This research is a developmental research using 4-D model. The result is learning device consisting of lesson plan, student’s worksheet, and achievement test. The subjects of the study were class VII students, each of which has 46 students. Based on the result in the experimental class, the learning device using guided inquiry for comparison topics has good quality. The learning device has met the valid, practical, and effective aspects. The result, especially in the implementation class, showed that the learning process with guided inquiry has fulfilled the effectiveness indicators. The ability of the teacher to manage the learning process has fulfilled the criteria good. In addition, the students’ activity has fulfilled the criteria of, at least, good. Moreover, the students’ responses to the learning device and the learning activities were positive, and the students were able to complete the classical learning. Based on the result of this research, it is expected that the learning device resulted can be used as an alternative learning device for teachers in implementing mathematic learning for comparison topics.

  12. Effect of surface energy on powder compactibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, Frauke; Mahlin, Denny; Welch, Ken; Gaisford, Simon; Alderborn, Göran

    2008-12-01

    The influence of surface energy on the compactibility of lactose particles has been investigated. Three powders were prepared by spray drying lactose solutions without or with low proportions of the surfactant polysorbate 80. Various powder and tablet characterisation procedures were applied. The surface energy of the powders was characterized by Inverse Gas Chromatography and the compressibility of the powders was described by the relationship between tablet porosity and compression pressure. The compactibility of the powders was analyzed by studying the evolution of tablet tensile strength with increasing compaction pressure and porosity. All powders were amorphous and similar in particle size, shape, and surface area. The compressibility of the powders and the microstructure of the formed tablets were equal. However, the compactibility and dispersive surface energy was dependent of the composition of the powders. The decrease in tablet strength correlated to the decrease in powder surface energy at constant tablet porosities. This supports the idea that tablet strength is controlled by formation of intermolecular forces over the areas of contact between the particles and that the strength of these bonding forces is controlled by surface energy which, in turn, can be altered by the presence of surfactants.

  13. Personal Coaching: Reflection on a Model for Effective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kerryn

    2015-01-01

    The article "Personal Coaching: A Model for Effective Learning" (Griffiths, 2006) appeared in the "Journal of Learning Design" Volume 1, Issue 2 in 2006. Almost ten years on, Kerryn Griffiths reflects upon her original article. Specifically, Griffiths looks back at the combined coaching-learning model she suggested in her…

  14. Explaining University Students' Effective Use of E-Learning Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Valter; Cavazotte, Flavia; Alves, Isabela

    2017-01-01

    Students' success in e-learning programs depends on how they adopt and embed technology into their learning activities. Drawing on the Technology Acceptance Model, we propose a framework to explain students' intention to use e-learning platforms effectively, that is, their intention to fully exploit system's functionalities in leaning processes,…

  15. Quantum Hall effect on Riemann surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero Prieto, Carlos

    2009-06-01

    We study the family of Landau Hamiltonians compatible with a magnetic field on a Riemann surface S by means of Fourier-Mukai and Nahm transforms. Starting from the geometric formulation of adiabatic charge transport on Riemann surfaces, we prove that Hall conductivity is proportional to the intersection product on the first homology group of S and therefore it is quantized. Finally, by using the theory of determinant bundles developed by Bismut, Gillet and Soul, we compute the adiabatic curvature of the spectral bundles defined by the holomorphic Landau levels. We prove that it is given by the polarization of the jacobian variety of the Riemann surface, plus a term depending on the relative analytic torsion.

  16. Quantum Hall effect on Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero Prieto, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    We study the family of Landau Hamiltonians compatible with a magnetic field on a Riemann surface S by means of Fourier-Mukai and Nahm transforms. Starting from the geometric formulation of adiabatic charge transport on Riemann surfaces, we prove that Hall conductivity is proportional to the intersection product on the first homology group of S and therefore it is quantized. Finally, by using the theory of determinant bundles developed by Bismut, Gillet and Soul, we compute the adiabatic curvature of the spectral bundles defined by the holomorphic Landau levels. We prove that it is given by the polarization of the jacobian variety of the Riemann surface, plus a term depending on the relative analytic torsion.

  17. Effective e-Learning by Thoughtful Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Joyes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an insight into an e-learning design approach that has been used by the author in a wide range of contexts in Higher Education as part of an ongoing enquiry into transforming online teaching and learning within sustainable 'real' courses. A key driver has been the need to engage learners in Higher Education in moving from consumers to producers of knowledge and to engage in communities of practice through the use of online tools for learning. These developments use an analytic framework to support thoughtful e-learning design and insights into the way his framework has been applied are presented through a number of case studies. This work is shaping Web2.0 technologies to match a learning rather than a social agenda by casting them in particular learning activities within specific contexts for particular learning purposes.Keywords: e-learning, activity theory

  18. Auto-Encoder based Deep Learning for Surface Electromyography Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Farouk Ibrahim Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction is taking a very vital and essential part of bio-signal processing. We need to choose one of two paths to identify and select features in any system. The most popular track is engineering handcrafted, which mainly depends on the user experience and the field of application. While the other path is feature learning, which depends on training the system on recognising and picking the best features that match the application. The main concept of feature learning is to create a model that is expected to be able to learn the best features without any human intervention instead of recourse the traditional methods for feature extraction or reduction and avoid dealing with feature extraction that depends on researcher experience. In this paper, Auto-Encoder will be utilised as a feature learning algorithm to practice the recommended model to excerpt the useful features from the surface electromyography signal. Deep learning method will be suggested by using Auto-Encoder to learn features. Wavelet Packet, Spectrogram, and Wavelet will be employed to represent the surface electromyography signal in our recommended model. Then, the newly represented bio-signal will be fed to stacked autoencoder (2 stages to learn features and finally, the behaviour of the proposed algorithm will be estimated by hiring different classifiers such as Extreme Learning Machine, Support Vector Machine, and SoftMax Layer. The Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU will be created as an activation function for extreme learning machine classifier besides existing functions such as sigmoid and radial basis function. ReLU will show a better classification ability than sigmoid and Radial basis function (RBF for wavelet, Wavelet scale 5 and wavelet packet signal representations implemented techniques. ReLU will illustrate better classification ability, as an activation function, than sigmoid and poorer than RBF for spectrogram signal representation. Both confidence interval and

  19. Effects of Learning Design Patterns in Service Learning Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerholz, Karl-Heinz; Liszt, Verena; Klingsieck, Katrin B.

    2018-01-01

    Students participate during service learning courses in a service project, which fits to a community need and has a link to curricular content. Students have a chance while engaged in the service project to apply curricular content in community practice, where they gain insights into civic engagement activities. Empirical studies revealed the…

  20. Characterizing the effects of regolith surface roughness on photoemission from surfaces in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, A.; Horanyi, M.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Surfaces of airless bodies and spacecraft in space are exposed to a variety of charging environments. A balance of currents due to plasma bombardment, photoemission, electron and ion emission and collection, and secondary electron emission determines the surface's charge. Photoelectron emission is the dominant charging process on sunlit surfaces in the inner solar system due to the intense solar UV radiation. This can result in a net positive surface potential, with a cloud of photoelectrons immediately above the surface, called the photoelectron sheath. Conversely, the unlit side of the body will charge negatively due the collection of the fast-moving solar wind electrons. The interaction of charged dust grains with these positively and negatively charged surfaces, and within the photoelectron and plasma sheaths may explain the occurrence of dust lofting, levitation and transport above the lunar surface. The surface potential of exposed objects is also dependent on the material properties of their surfaces. Composition and particle size primarily affect the quantum efficiency of photoelectron generation; however, surface roughness can also control the charging process. In order to characterize these effects, we have conducted laboratory experiments to examine the role of surface roughness in generating photoelectrons in dedicated laboratory experiments using solid and dusty surfaces of the same composition (CeO2), and initial comparisons with JSC-1 lunar simulant. Using Langmuir probe measurements, we explore the measured potentials above insulating surfaces exposed to UV and an electric field, and we show that the photoemission current from a dusty surface is largely reduced due to its higher surface roughness, which causes a significant fraction of the emitted photoelectrons to be re-absorbed within the surface. We will discuss these results in context of similar situations on planetary surfaces.

  1. Effects on energetic impact of atomic clusters with surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popok, V.N.; Vuchkovich, S.; Abdela, A.; Campbell, E.E.B.

    2007-01-01

    A brief state-of-the-art review in the field of cluster ion interaction with surface is presented. Cluster beams are efficient tools for manipulating agglomerates of atoms providing control over the synthesis as well as modification of surfaces on the nm-scale. The application of cluster beams for technological purposes requires knowledge of the physics of cluster-surface impact. This has some significant differences compared to monomer ion - surface interactions. The main effects of cluster-surface collisions are discussed. Recent results obtained in experiments on silicon surface nanostructuring using keV-energy implantation of inert gas cluster ions are presented and compared with molecular dynamics simulations. (authors)

  2. Surface effects in metallic iron nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Linderoth, Søren

    1994-01-01

    Nanoparticles of metallic iron on carbon supports have been studied in situ by use of Mossbauer spectroscopy. The magnetic anisotropy energy constant increases with decreasing particle size, presumably because of the influence of surface anisotropy. Chemisorption of oxygen results in formation...

  3. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Fojan, Peter; Gurevich, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    -life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition...... of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types...

  4. The effect of early administration of glucocorticoids on learning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been observed that steroids administered postnatally may have transient retarding effect on learning and memory functions, and that animal age and sex may modify such effects. This study aims to illustrate the effect of early administration of glucocorticoids on learning and spatial memory. Wistar rat pups were ...

  5. Increasing Effectiveness of Strategic Planning Seminars through Learning Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Nail

    2010-01-01

    This research tests the effectiveness of taking learning style variables from the Kolb learning model in designing strategic planning seminars. We observe in our research that the participants in the seminar--school principals--positively judge the effectiveness of the seminar. The research also tests the seminar's effectiveness in terms of the…

  6. LEARNING GAMES OR LEARNING STIMULATING GAMES: AN INDIRECT APPROACH TO LEARNING STIMULATING EFFECTS FROM OFF-THE-SHELF GAMES

    OpenAIRE

    Mats Wiklund; Peter Mozelius

    2014-01-01

    Playing games to support learning is a classic concept that is seeing a revival today in the widespread use of computer games. Inserting educational content into various types of computer games is a strong trend that some researchers have described as a mad rush. The aim of this article is to discuss possible learning stimulating effects of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) games in a long-term perspective. We argue that COTS game players’ attitudes towards learning m...

  7. Effects of team-based learning on self-regulated online learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Alice A

    2015-04-10

    Online learning requires higher levels of self-regulation in order to achieve optimal learning outcomes. As nursing education moves further into the blended and online learning venue, new teaching/learning strategies will be required to develop and enhance self-regulated learning skills in nursing students. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of team-based learning (TBL) with traditional instructor-led (IL) learning, on self-regulated online learning outcomes, in a blended undergraduate research and evidence-based practice course. The nonrandomized sample consisted of 98 students enrolled in the IL control group and 86 students enrolled in the TBL intervention group. The percentage of total possible online viewing time was used as the measure of self-regulated online learning activity. The TBL group demonstrated a significantly higher percentage (p learning activities than the IL control group. The TBL group scored significantly higher on the course examinations (p = 0.003). The findings indicate that TBL is an effective instructional strategy that can be used to achieve the essential outcomes of baccalaureate nursing education by increasing self-regulated learning capabilities in nursing students.

  8. Effects of Multimodal Information on Learning Performance and Judgment of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gongxiang; Fu, Xiaolan

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of multimodal information on learning performance and judgment of learning (JOL). Experiment 1 examined the effects of representation type (word-only versus word-plus-picture) and presentation channel (visual-only versus visual-plus-auditory) on recall and immediate-JOL in fixed-rate…

  9. Surface effects in black hole physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, T.

    1982-01-01

    This contribution reviews briefly the various analogies which have been drawn between black holes and ordinary physical objects. It is shown how, by concentrating on the properties of the surface of a black hole, it is possible to set up a sequence of tight analogies allowing one to conclude that a black hole is, qualitatively and quantitatively, similar to a fluid bubble possessing a negative surface tension and endowed with finite values of the electrical conductivity and of the shear and bulk viscosities. These analogies are valid simultaneously at the levels of electromagnetic, mechanical and thermodynamical laws. Explicit applications of this framework are worked out (eddy currents, tidal drag). The thermostatic equilibrium of a black hole electrically interacting with its surroundings is discussed, as well as the validity of a minimum entropy production principle in black hole physics. (Auth.)

  10. Surface effects in the Potts ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.; Sarmento, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    Within a real space renormalisation group framework, the phase diagram of a semi-infinite cubic-lattice q-state Potts ferromagnet is studied, in which the free surface coupling constant J sub(S) = (1+Δ)J sub(B) might be different from the bulk one J sub(B). The starting value Δ sub(c) (q) is calculated above which surface order is possible even if bulk order is absent. Our results can be alternatively seen as approximate for the simple cubic lattice (as a matter of fact, the Ising value Δ sub(c) (2) obtained approaches the series result better than any other theory known consequently Δ sub(c) (q) is expected to be quite satisfactory even for q not= 2) or as exact for a well defined diamond-like hierarchical lattice. In the q →0 limit, Δ sub(c) diverges as 1/√q. (Author) [pt

  11. Surface effects in quantum spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, J B

    2004-01-01

    Chains of quantum spins with open ends and isotropic Heisenberg exchange are studied. By diagonalizing the Hamiltonian for chains of finite length N and obtaining all the energy eigenvalues, the magnetic susceptibility χ, the specific heat C v , and the partition function Z can be calculated exactly for these chains. The high-temperature series expansions of these are then evaluated. For χ and C v it is found that the terms in the series consist of three parts. One is the normal high-T series already known in great detail for the N → infinity ring(chain with periodic boundary conditions). The other two consist of a 'surface' term and a correction term of order (1/T) N . The surface term is found as a series up to and including (1/T) 8 for spin S = 1/2 and 1. Simple Pade approximant formulae are given to extend the range of validity below T = 1

  12. Surface Effects in Segmented Silicon Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Kopsalis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Silicon detectors in Photon Science and Particle Physics require silicon sensors with very demanding specifications. New accelerators like the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (EuXFEL) and the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), pose new challenges for silicon sensors, especially with respect to radiation hardness. High radiation doses and fluences damage the silicon crystal and the SiO2 layers at the surface, thus changing the sensor properties and limiting their...

  13. Using Learning Strategies to Inhibit the Nocebo Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Veronica F; Colagiuri, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Learning is a key mechanism underpinning the development of the nocebo effect. The learning literature has cataloged and explored numerous ways in which the environment can be manipulated to prevent, reduce, or eradicate learning. Knowledge of these processes could be used to both inhibit the development of nocebo effects and reduce already established nocebo learning. This review describes the available evidence on how such learning strategies have, or could be, applied to reduce the nocebo effect in both healthy participants and patients to date. These learning strategies include overshadowing, latent inhibition, extinction, and contingency degradation. These strategies represent important new avenues for investigation and should be used by researchers to design and test interventions to reduce nocebo effects. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of surface treatments on the translucency, opalescence, and surface texture of dental monolithic zirconia ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Ha, Seung-Ryong

    2016-06-01

    Surface polishing or glazing may increase the appearance of depth of monolithic zirconia restorations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of surface treatments on the translucency, opalescence, and surface texture of dental monolithic zirconia ceramics. Forty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (16.3×16.4×2.0 mm) were divided into groups I to V, according to the number of colorings each received. Each group was then divided into 3 subgroups (n=3) according to the surface treatment: N=no treatment; P=polished; and G=glazed. CIElab color coordinates were obtained relative to D65 on a reflection spectrophotometer. The translucency parameter (TP) and opalescence parameter (OP) were calculated. One specimen per subgroups I and V was selected for evaluation of surface roughness (Ra) and was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and pairwise comparisons (α=.05). Statistical powers were verified to evaluate results (α=.05). The interaction effects of surface treatments combined with the number of colorings were significant for TP, OP, and Ra (P.05), whereas glazing significantly decreased OP and Ra in most groups. SEM images demonstrated that surface treatments affected the surface texture of monolithic zirconia ceramics. Surface treatments combined with coloring strongly affect the surface texture of dental monolithic zirconia ceramics. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Learning Based on Technology Model and Assessment Technique toward Thermodynamic Learning Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makahinda, T.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out the effect of learning model based on technology and assessment technique toward thermodynamic achievement by controlling students intelligence. This research is an experimental research. The sample is taken through cluster random sampling with the total respondent of 80 students. The result of the research shows that the result of learning of thermodynamics of students who taught the learning model of environmental utilization is higher than the learning result of student thermodynamics taught by simulation animation, after controlling student intelligence. There is influence of student interaction, and the subject between models of technology-based learning with assessment technique to student learning result of Thermodynamics, after controlling student intelligence. Based on the finding in the lecture then should be used a thermodynamic model of the learning environment with the use of project assessment technique.

  16. Effects of Elicited Reflections combined with Tutor or Peer Feedback on Self-Regulated Learning and Learning Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Boom, Gerard; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Van den Boom, G., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2007). Effects of elicited reflections combined with tutor or peer feedback on self-regulated learning and learning outcomes. Learning and Instruction, 17, 532-548.

  17. Effects of surface treatments on microstructure in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabuchi, Yasuhiro; Tamako, Hiroaki; Kaneda, Junya; Yamashita, Norimichi; Miyakawa, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    It is revealed that Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) on the surface of the L-grade stainless steels in Nuclear Power Plants is caused by heavily cold work of the materials. The microstructure, hardness and residual stress on the surface of the material are factors for SCC initiation. There are surface treatment methods that is effective reduction on SCC such as Flap Wheel (FW) polishing, Clean N Strip (CNS) polishing, Water Jet Peening (WJP) and Shot Peening (SP). In this paper, the characteristics of the surface cold worked layer of the L-grade stainless steels conducted by above-mentioned surface treatments are analyzed, and effects of the surface treatments on the surface layer are discussed. (author)

  18. Biomimicking micropatterned surfaces and their effect on marine biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Agata M; Parra-Velandia, Fernando J; Quintana, Robert; Xiaoying, Zhu; Lee, Serina S C; Chin-Sing, Lim; Jańczewski, Dominik; Teo, Serena L-M; Vancso, Julius G

    2014-08-05

    When synthetic materials are submerged in marine environments, dissolved matter and marine organisms attach to their surfaces by a process known as marine fouling. This phenomenon may lead to diminished material performance with detrimental consequences. Bioinspired surface patterning and chemical surface modifications present promising approaches to the design of novel functional surfaces that can prevent biofouling phenomena. In this study, we report the synergistic effects of surface patterns, inspired by the marine decapod crab Myomenippe hardwickii in combination with chemical surface modifications toward suppressing marine fouling. M. hardwickii is known to maintain a relatively clean carapace although the species occurs in biofouling communities of tropical shallow subtidal coastal waters. Following the surface analysis of selected specimens, we designed hierarchical surface microtopographies that replicate the critical features observed on the crustacean surface. The micropatterned surfaces were modified with zwitterionic polymer brushes or with layer-by-layer deposited polyelectrolyte multilayers to enhance their antifouling and/or fouling-release potential. Chemically modified and unmodified micropatterned surfaces were subjected to extensive fouling tests, including laboratory assays against barnacle settlement and algae adhesion, and field static immersion tests. The results show a statistically significant reduction in settlement on the micropatterned surfaces as well as a synergistic effect when the microtopographies are combined with grafted polymer chains.

  19. Effect of surface conditions on blast wave propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Seung Ho; Li, Yi Bao; Lee, Chang Hoon; Choi, Jung Il

    2016-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of blast wave propagations on surfaces by solving axisymmetric two-dimensional Euler equations. Assuming the initial stage of fireball at the breakaway point after an explosion, we investigated the effect of surface conditions considering surface convex or concave elements and thermal conditions on blast wave propagations near the ground surface. Parametric studies were performed by varying the geometrical factors of the surface element as well as thermal layer characteristics. We found that the peak overpressure near the ground zero was increased due to the surface elements, while modulations of the blast wave propagations were limited within a region for the surface elements. Because of the thermal layer, the precursor was formed in the propagations, which led to the attenuation of the peak overpressure on the ground surface

  20. Surface effects in segmented silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsalis, Ioannis

    2017-05-15

    Silicon detectors in Photon Science and Particle Physics require silicon sensors with very demanding specifications. New accelerators like the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (EuXFEL) and the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), pose new challenges for silicon sensors, especially with respect to radiation hardness. High radiation doses and fluences damage the silicon crystal and the SiO{sub 2} layers at the surface, thus changing the sensor properties and limiting their life time. Non-Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) of incident particles causes silicon crystal damage. Ionizing Energy Loss (IEL) of incident particles increases the densities of oxide charge and interface traps in the SiO{sub 2} and at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface. In this thesis the surface radiation damage of the Si-SiO{sub 2} system on high-ohmic Si has been investigated using circular MOSFETs biased in accumulation and inversion at an electric field in the SiO{sub 2} of about 500 kV/cm. The MOSFETs have been irradiated by X-rays from an X-ray tube to a dose of about 17 kGy(SiO{sub 2}) in different irradiation steps. Before and after each irradiation step, the gate voltage has been cycled from inversion to accumulation conditions and back. From the dependence of the drain-source current on gate voltage the threshold voltage of the MOSFET and the hole and electron mobility at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface were determined. In addition, from the measured drain-source current the change of the oxide charge density during irradiation has been determined. The interface trap density and the oxide charge has been determined separately using the subthreshold current technique based on the Brews charge sheet model which has been applied for first time on MOSFETs built on high-ohmic Si. The results show a significant field-direction dependence of the surface radiation parameters. The extracted parameters and the acquired knowledge can be used to improve simulations of the surface

  1. Surface effects in segmented silicon sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsalis, Ioannis

    2017-05-01

    Silicon detectors in Photon Science and Particle Physics require silicon sensors with very demanding specifications. New accelerators like the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (EuXFEL) and the High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), pose new challenges for silicon sensors, especially with respect to radiation hardness. High radiation doses and fluences damage the silicon crystal and the SiO 2 layers at the surface, thus changing the sensor properties and limiting their life time. Non-Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) of incident particles causes silicon crystal damage. Ionizing Energy Loss (IEL) of incident particles increases the densities of oxide charge and interface traps in the SiO 2 and at the Si-SiO 2 interface. In this thesis the surface radiation damage of the Si-SiO 2 system on high-ohmic Si has been investigated using circular MOSFETs biased in accumulation and inversion at an electric field in the SiO 2 of about 500 kV/cm. The MOSFETs have been irradiated by X-rays from an X-ray tube to a dose of about 17 kGy(SiO 2 ) in different irradiation steps. Before and after each irradiation step, the gate voltage has been cycled from inversion to accumulation conditions and back. From the dependence of the drain-source current on gate voltage the threshold voltage of the MOSFET and the hole and electron mobility at the Si-SiO 2 interface were determined. In addition, from the measured drain-source current the change of the oxide charge density during irradiation has been determined. The interface trap density and the oxide charge has been determined separately using the subthreshold current technique based on the Brews charge sheet model which has been applied for first time on MOSFETs built on high-ohmic Si. The results show a significant field-direction dependence of the surface radiation parameters. The extracted parameters and the acquired knowledge can be used to improve simulations of the surface radiation damage of silicon sensors.

  2. Deriving global parameter estimates for the Noah land surface model using FLUXNET and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Nathaniel W.; Herman, Jonathan D.; Ek, Michael B.; Wood, Eric F.

    2016-11-01

    With their origins in numerical weather prediction and climate modeling, land surface models aim to accurately partition the surface energy balance. An overlooked challenge in these schemes is the role of model parameter uncertainty, particularly at unmonitored sites. This study provides global parameter estimates for the Noah land surface model using 85 eddy covariance sites in the global FLUXNET network. The at-site parameters are first calibrated using a Latin Hypercube-based ensemble of the most sensitive parameters, determined by the Sobol method, to be the minimum stomatal resistance (rs,min), the Zilitinkevich empirical constant (Czil), and the bare soil evaporation exponent (fxexp). Calibration leads to an increase in the mean Kling-Gupta Efficiency performance metric from 0.54 to 0.71. These calibrated parameter sets are then related to local environmental characteristics using the Extra-Trees machine learning algorithm. The fitted Extra-Trees model is used to map the optimal parameter sets over the globe at a 5 km spatial resolution. The leave-one-out cross validation of the mapped parameters using the Noah land surface model suggests that there is the potential to skillfully relate calibrated model parameter sets to local environmental characteristics. The results demonstrate the potential to use FLUXNET to tune the parameterizations of surface fluxes in land surface models and to provide improved parameter estimates over the globe.

  3. Instructed fear learning, extinction, and recall: additive effects of cognitive information on emotional learning of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, Arash; Duval, Elizabeth R; Cisneros, Maria E; Taylor, Stephan F; Kessler, Daniel; Liberzon, Israel

    2017-08-01

    The effects of instruction on learning of fear and safety are rarely studied. We aimed to examine the effects of cognitive information and experience on fear learning. Fourty healthy participants, randomly assigned to three groups, went through fear conditioning, extinction learning, and extinction recall with two conditioned stimuli (CS+). Information was presented about the presence or absence of conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) contingency at different stages of the experiment. Information about the CS-US contingency prior to fear conditioning enhanced fear response and reduced extinction recall. Information about the absence of CS-US contingency promoted extinction learning and recall, while omission of this information prior to recall resulted in fear renewal. These findings indicate that contingency information can facilitate fear expression during fear learning, and can facilitate extinction learning and recall. Information seems to function as an element of the larger context in which conditioning occurs.

  4. Numerical Investigation of Effect of Surface Roughness in a Microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Myung Seob; Byun, Sung Jun; Yoon, Joon Yong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, lattice Boltzmann method(LBM) results for a laminar flow in a microchannel with rough surface are presented. The surface roughness is modeled as an array of rectangular modules placed on the top and bottom surface of a parallel-plate channel. The effects of relative surface roughness, roughness distribution, and roughness size are presented in terms of the Poiseuille number. The roughness distribution characterized by the ratio of the roughness height to the spacing between the modules has a negligible effect on the flow and friction factors. Finally, a significant increase in the Poiseuille number is observed when the surface roughness is considered, and the effects of roughness on the microflow field mainly depend on the surface roughness.

  5. To have or to learn? The effects of materialism on British and Chinese children's learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lisbeth; Dittmar, Helga; Banerjee, Robin

    2014-05-01

    This article presents a systematic attempt to examine the associations of materialism with learning in 9- to 11-year-old children in 2 countries of similar economic development but different cultural heritage. Using cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental methods, we test a theoretically driven model of associations among materialism, learning motivations, and learning outcomes. Convergent findings suggest that a materialist orientation in elementary school children lowers intrinsic learning motivations, fosters extrinsic learning motivations, and leads to poorer learning outcomes. Materialism was linked directly to lower exam performance, and this link was mediated by lower mastery and heightened performance goals, with patterns not differing between British and Hong Kong Chinese children (Study 1). A follow-up showed that initial materialism predicted worse exam grades 1 year later, suggesting a detrimental long-term effect on Chinese children's school performance (Study 2). We then tested relationships between materialism and learning experimentally, by priming a momentary (state) orientation toward materialism. Writing about material possessions and money affected Chinese children's learning motivations, so that they endorsed lower mastery and higher performance goals (Study 3). A video-diary materialism prime had significant effects on actual learning behaviors, leading British children to (a) choose a performance-oriented learning task over a mastery-oriented task and (b) give up on the task more quickly (Study 4). This research has important implications for personality psychology, educational policy, and future research.

  6. Surface roughness effects on heat transfer in Couette flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elia, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    A cell theory for viscous flow with rough surfaces is applied to two basic illustrative heat transfer problems which occur in Couette flow. Couette flow between one adiabatic surface and one isothermal surface exhibits roughness effects on the adiabatic wall temperature. Two types of rough cell adiabatic surfaces are studied: (1) perfectly insulating (the temperature gradient vanishes at the boundary of each cell); (2) average insulating (each cell may gain or lose heat but the total heat flow at the wall is zero). The results for the roughness on a surface in motion are postulated to occur because of fluid entrainment in the asperities on the moving surface. The symmetry of the roughness effects on thermal-viscous dissipation is discussed in detail. Explicit effects of the roughness on each surface, including combinations of roughness values, are presented to enable the case where the two surfaces may be from different materials to be studied. The fluid bulk temperature rise is also calculated for Couette flow with two ideal adiabatic surfaces. The effect of roughness on thermal-viscous dissipation concurs with the viscous hydrodynamic effect. The results are illustrated by an application to lubrication. (Auth.)

  7. The Effects of Smartphone Use on Organic Chemical Compound Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Nuray

    2015-01-01

    As a result of rapid technological advances, smartphones have recently enjoyed widespread use. The basic purpose of this study is to examine the effects of smartphones when they are used as educational tools in learning environments. To assess the effects of smartphone use on learning, this study uses smartphones as educational tools in a…

  8. Unanticipated Effects of Children with Learning Disabilities on Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Lily

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the unanticipated effects that children with learning disabilities have on the life of their families. Eleven parents of students aged 8 to 16 years old participated in two separate focus group interviews. Findings showed that children with learning disabilities had a range of effects on their families. These included family…

  9. The Effectiveness of Three Serious Games Measuring Generic Learning Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhuys Roozeboom, Maartje; Visschedijk, Gillian; Oprins, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Although serious games are more and more used for learning goals, high-quality empirical studies to prove the effectiveness of serious games are relatively scarce. In this paper, three empirical studies are presented that investigate the effectiveness of serious games as opposed to traditional classroom instruction on learning features as well as…

  10. Effectiveness of Collaborative Learning with 3D Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Hoan; Lim, Kenneth Y. T.

    2017-01-01

    Virtual worlds have affordances to enhance collaborative learning in authentic contexts. Despite the potential of collaborative learning with a virtual world, few studies investigated whether it is more effective in student achievements than teacher-directed instruction. This study investigated the effectiveness of collaborative problem solving…

  11. The Perceptual Basis of the Modality Effect in Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummer, Ralf; Schweppe, Judith; Furstenberg, Anne; Scheiter, Katharina; Zindler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated an advantage of auditory over visual text modality when learning with texts and pictures. To explain this modality effect, two complementary assumptions are proposed by cognitive theories of multimedia learning: first, the visuospatial load hypothesis, which explains the modality effect in terms of visuospatial…

  12. Chromatic Perceptual Learning but No Category Effects without Linguistic Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandison, Alexandra; Sowden, Paul T; Drivonikou, Vicky G; Notman, Leslie A; Alexander, Iona; Davies, Ian R L

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual learning involves an improvement in perceptual judgment with practice, which is often specific to stimulus or task factors. Perceptual learning has been shown on a range of visual tasks but very little research has explored chromatic perceptual learning. Here, we use two low level perceptual threshold tasks and a supra-threshold target detection task to assess chromatic perceptual learning and category effects. Experiment 1 investigates whether chromatic thresholds reduce as a result of training and at what level of analysis learning effects occur. Experiment 2 explores the effect of category training on chromatic thresholds, whether training of this nature is category specific and whether it can induce categorical responding. Experiment 3 investigates the effect of category training on a higher level, lateralized target detection task, previously found to be sensitive to category effects. The findings indicate that performance on a perceptual threshold task improves following training but improvements do not transfer across retinal location or hue. Therefore, chromatic perceptual learning is category specific and can occur at relatively early stages of visual analysis. Additionally, category training does not induce category effects on a low level perceptual threshold task, as indicated by comparable discrimination thresholds at the newly learned hue boundary and adjacent test points. However, category training does induce emerging category effects on a supra-threshold target detection task. Whilst chromatic perceptual learning is possible, learnt category effects appear to be a product of left hemisphere processing, and may require the input of higher level linguistic coding processes in order to manifest.

  13. The "Mozart Effect II" and Other Communication/Learning Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Victor; Selman, Ruth Corey; Selman, Jerry; Selman, Elsie

    2007-01-01

    While exploring the development of Communication and Learning Aids in all venues, particularly the effect of music on learning, several different tracks were followed. The therapeutic use of music is for relaxation and stress reduction, which apparently helps the body to access and discharge deeply locked-in material. The Mozart Effect track which…

  14. Getting Inside Knowledge: The Application of Entwistle's Model of Surface/Deep Processing in Producing Open Learning Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara; Honour, Leslie

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a study that required student teachers training in business education to produce open learning materials on intercultural communication. Analysis of stages and responses to this assignment revealed a distinction between "deep" and "surface" learning. Includes charts delineating the characteristics of these two types…

  15. On the Role of Discipline-Related Self-Concept in Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platow, Michael J.; Mavor, Kenneth I.; Grace, Diana M.

    2013-01-01

    The current research examined the role that students' discipline-related self-concepts may play in their deep and surface approaches to learning, their overall learning outcomes, and continued engagement in the discipline itself. Using a cross-lagged panel design of first-year university psychology students, a causal path was observed in which…

  16. Using an In-Class Simulation in the First Accounting Class: Moving from Surface to Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary E.; Graeff, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    As students often find the first accounting class to be abstract and difficult to understand, the authors designed an in-class simulation as an intervention to move students toward deep learning and away from surface learning. The simulation consists of buying and selling merchandise and accounting for transactions. The simulation is an effective…

  17. Effect of Methods of Learning and Self Regulated Learning toward Outcomes of Learning Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjalla, Awaluddin; Sofiah, Evi

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to reveal the influence of learning methods and self-regulated learning on students learning scores for Social Studies object. The research was done in Islamic Junior High School (MTs Manba'ul Ulum), Batuceper City Tangerang using quasi-experimental method. The research employed simple random technique to 28 students. Data were…

  18. Radiation effects on lead silicate glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.W.; Zhang, L.P.; Borgen, N.; Pannell, K.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation-induced changes in the microstructure of lead silicate glass were investigated in situ under Mg K α irradiation in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Lead-oxygen bond breaking resulting in the formation of pure lead was observed. The segregation, growth kinetics and the structural relaxation of the lead, with corresponding changes in the oxygen and silicon on the glass surfaces were studied by measuring the time-dependent changes in concentration, binding energy shifts, and the full width at half maximum. A bimodal distribution of the oxygen XPS signal, caused by bridging and non-bridging oxygens, was found during the relaxation process. All experimental data indicate a reduction of the oxygen concentration, a phase separation of the lead from the glass matrix, and the metallization of the lead occurred during and after the X-ray irradiation. (author)

  19. Effective and efficient optics inspection approach using machine learning algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulla, G.; Kegelmeyer, L.; Liao, Z.; Carr, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Final Optics Damage Inspection (FODI) system automatically acquires and utilizes the Optics Inspection (OI) system to analyze images of the final optics at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). During each inspection cycle up to 1000 images acquired by FODI are examined by OI to identify and track damage sites on the optics. The process of tracking growing damage sites on the surface of an optic can be made more effective by identifying and removing signals associated with debris or reflections. The manual process to filter these false sites is daunting and time consuming. In this paper we discuss the use of machine learning tools and data mining techniques to help with this task. We describe the process to prepare a data set that can be used for training and identifying hardware reflections in the image data. In order to collect training data, the images are first automatically acquired and analyzed with existing software and then relevant features such as spatial, physical and luminosity measures are extracted for each site. A subset of these sites is 'truthed' or manually assigned a class to create training data. A supervised classification algorithm is used to test if the features can predict the class membership of new sites. A suite of self-configuring machine learning tools called 'Avatar Tools' is applied to classify all sites. To verify, we used 10-fold cross correlation and found the accuracy was above 99%. This substantially reduces the number of false alarms that would otherwise be sent for more extensive investigation.

  20. Anomalous water dynamics at surfaces and interfaces: synergistic effects of confinement and surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rajib; Bagchi, Biman

    2018-01-01

    In nature, water is often found in contact with surfaces that are extended on the scale of molecule size but small on a macroscopic scale. Examples include lipid bilayers and reverse micelles as well as biomolecules like proteins, DNA and zeolites, to name a few. While the presence of surfaces and interfaces interrupts the continuous hydrogen bond network of liquid water, confinement on a mesoscopic scale introduces new features. Even when extended on a molecular scale, natural and biological surfaces often have features (like charge, hydrophobicity) that vary on the scale of the molecular diameter of water. As a result, many new and exotic features, which are not seen in the bulk, appear in the dynamics of water close to the surface. These different behaviors bear the signature of both water-surface interactions and of confinement. In other words, the altered properties are the result of the synergistic effects of surface-water interactions and confinement. Ultrafast spectroscopy, theoretical modeling and computer simulations together form powerful synergistic approaches towards an understanding of the properties of confined water in such systems as nanocavities, reverse micelles (RMs), water inside and outside biomolecules like proteins and DNA, and also between two hydrophobic walls. We shall review the experimental results and place them in the context of theory and simulations. For water confined within RMs, we discuss the possible interference effects propagating from opposite surfaces. Similar interference is found to give rise to an effective attractive force between two hydrophobic surfaces immersed and kept fixed at a separation of d, with the force showing an exponential dependence on this distance. For protein and DNA hydration, we shall examine a multitude of timescales that arise from frustration effects due to the inherent heterogeneity of these surfaces. We pay particular attention to the role of orientational correlations and modification of the

  1. Learning-based 3D surface optimization from medical image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mingqiang; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xianglin; Wu, Huisi; Xie, Haoran; Wang, Fu Lee; Qin, Jing

    2018-04-01

    Mesh optimization has been studied from the graphical point of view: It often focuses on 3D surfaces obtained by optical and laser scanners. This is despite the fact that isosurfaced meshes of medical image reconstruction suffer from both staircases and noise: Isotropic filters lead to shape distortion, while anisotropic ones maintain pseudo-features. We present a data-driven method for automatically removing these medical artifacts while not introducing additional ones. We consider mesh optimization as a combination of vertex filtering and facet filtering in two stages: Offline training and runtime optimization. In specific, we first detect staircases based on the scanning direction of CT/MRI scanners, and design a staircase-sensitive Laplacian filter (vertex-based) to remove them; and then design a unilateral filtered facet normal descriptor (uFND) for measuring the geometry features around each facet of a given mesh, and learn the regression functions from a set of medical meshes and their high-resolution reference counterparts for mapping the uFNDs to the facet normals of the reference meshes (facet-based). At runtime, we first perform staircase-sensitive Laplacian filter on an input MC (Marching Cubes) mesh, and then filter the mesh facet normal field using the learned regression functions, and finally deform it to match the new normal field for obtaining a compact approximation of the high-resolution reference model. Tests show that our algorithm achieves higher quality results than previous approaches regarding surface smoothness and surface accuracy.

  2. Learning in fully recurrent neural networks by approaching tangent planes to constraint surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, P; Zhou, E; Lee, C W

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we present a new variant of the online real time recurrent learning algorithm proposed by Williams and Zipser (1989). Whilst the original algorithm utilises gradient information to guide the search towards the minimum training error, it is very slow in most applications and often gets stuck in local minima of the search space. It is also sensitive to the choice of learning rate and requires careful tuning. The new variant adjusts weights by moving to the tangent planes to constraint surfaces. It is simple to implement and requires no parameters to be set manually. Experimental results show that this new algorithm gives significantly faster convergence whilst avoiding problems like local minima. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Computational Sensing of Staphylococcus aureus on Contact Lenses Using 3D Imaging of Curved Surfaces and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veli, Muhammed; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2018-03-27

    We present a cost-effective and portable platform based on contact lenses for noninvasively detecting Staphylococcus aureus, which is part of the human ocular microbiome and resides on the cornea and conjunctiva. Using S. aureus-specific antibodies and a surface chemistry protocol that is compatible with human tears, contact lenses are designed to specifically capture S. aureus. After the bacteria capture on the lens and right before its imaging, the captured bacteria are tagged with surface-functionalized polystyrene microparticles. These microbeads provide sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for the quantification of the captured bacteria on the contact lens, without any fluorescent labels, by 3D imaging of the curved surface of each lens using only one hologram taken with a lens-free on-chip microscope. After the 3D surface of the contact lens is computationally reconstructed using rotational field transformations and holographic digital focusing, a machine learning algorithm is employed to automatically count the number of beads on the lens surface, revealing the count of the captured bacteria. To demonstrate its proof-of-concept, we created a field-portable and cost-effective holographic microscope, which weighs 77 g, controlled by a laptop. Using daily contact lenses that are spiked with bacteria, we demonstrated that this computational sensing platform provides a detection limit of ∼16 bacteria/μL. This contact-lens-based wearable sensor can be broadly applicable to detect various bacteria, viruses, and analytes in tears using a cost-effective and portable computational imager that might be used even at home by consumers.

  4. The Effect of Cooperative Learning: University Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombak, Busra; Altun, Sertel

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Motivation is a significant component of success in education, and it is best achieved by constructivist learning methods, especially cooperative Learning (CL). CL is a popular method among primary and secondary schools, but it is rarely used in higher education due to the large numbers of students and time restrictions. The…

  5. Effects of Mental Health on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLind, Ren

    2017-01-01

    Learning can be hindered by students' mental health. Given the increased reports of mental health concerns among college students, it is imperative that we understand how best to provide supports to this population to help them learn and succeed. This is particularly significant given the body of research that demonstrates how mental illness may…

  6. Learning and Organizational Effectiveness: A Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The challenge for leaders today is to create and develop the capability of their organization. Leaders must perceive and manage their organization as a dynamic, open system where learning is the core competence underlying innovation, growth, and sustainability. Creating a culture of learning is the first work of leadership. This article presents a…

  7. Cultures of Learning in Effective High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Harrison, Christopher; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Research indicates that a culture of learning is a key factor in building high schools that foster academic achievement in all students. Yet less is known about which elements of a culture of learning differentiate schools with higher levels of academic performance. To fill this gap, this comparative case study examined the cultures of…

  8. Bonding of radioactive contamination. IV. Effect of surface finish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms by which radioactive contamination would be bonded to a DWPF canister are being investigated. Previous investigations in this series have examined the effects of temperature, oxidation before contamination, and atmosphere composition control on the bonding of contamination. This memorandum describes the results of tests to determine the effect of special surface finishes on the bonding of contamination to waste glass canisters. Surface pretreatments which produce smoother canister surfaces actually cause radioactive contamination to be more tightly bonded to the metal surface than on an untreated surface. Based on the results of these tests it is recommended that the canister surface finish be specified as having a bright cold rolled mill finish equivalent to ASTM No. 2B. 7 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  9. Lessons learned from surface wipe sampling for lead in three workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucham, Catherine; Ceballos, Diana; King, Bradley

    2017-08-01

    Surface wipe sampling in the occupational environment is a technique widely used by industrial hygienists. Although several organizations have promulgated standards for sampling lead and other metals, uncertainty still exists when trying to determine an appropriate wipe sampling strategy and how to interpret sampling results. Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health Hazard Evaluation Program have used surface wipe sampling as part of their exposure assessment sampling strategies in a wide range of workplaces. This article discusses wipe sampling for measuring lead on surfaces in three facilities: (1) a battery recycling facility; (2) a firing range and gun store; and (3) an electronic scrap recycling facility. We summarize our findings from the facilities and what we learned by integrating wipe sampling into our sampling plan. Wiping sampling demonstrated lead in non-production surfaces in all three workplaces and that the potential that employees were taking lead home to their families existed. We also found that the presence of metals such as tin can interfere with the colorimetric results. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of colorimetric analysis of surface wipe samples and the challenges we faced when interpreting wipe sampling results.

  10. Erratum to: The blocking effect in associative learning involves learned biases in rapid attentional capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Luque, D., Vadillo, M, A., Gutiérrez-Cobo, M, J., Le Pelley, M, E. (2018). The blocking effect in associative learning involves learned biases in rapid attentional capture. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 522-544. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2016.1262435. The above article is part of the Special Issue on Associative Learning (in honour of Nick Mackintosh) and was inadvertently published in the February 2018 issue of Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. After publication of the Special Issue, an online collection on Associative Learning will be created on SAGE Journals and this paper will be included in that collection. The Publisher apologises for this error.

  11. The Influence of Multigenerational Workforce in Effective Informal Team Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Marsaulina Sibarani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of this research arises from the convergence of two dynamics that are transforming the workplace and impacting organization performance. The first is multigenerational workforce work side by side in the same organization even in the same team. The second is informal learning, a major mode of learning in an organization. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the influence of generational background of Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y in relation to informal team learning in the Indonesian business environment. Both, qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted with 21 interviewees and 184 survey respondents representing a total of 191 multigenerational teams participating in this research. The findings suggest that generational background influence informal learner and effective informal team learning, but have no direct impact on team climate. Understanding generational differences will enable individuals to learn informally and create a conducive team climate that will lead to effective informal team learning.

  12. Distributional learning has immediate and long-lasting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Williams, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Evidence of distributional learning, a statistical learning mechanism centered on relative frequency of exposure to different tokens, has mainly come from short-term learning and therefore does not ostensibly address the development of important learning processes. The present longitudinal study examines both short- and long-term effects of distributional learning of phonetic categories on non-native sound discrimination over a 12-month period. Two groups of listeners were exposed to a two-minute distribution of auditory stimuli in which the most frequently presented tokens either approximated or exaggerated the natural production of the speech sounds, whereas a control group listened to a piece of classical music for the same length of time. Discrimination by listeners in the two distribution groups improved immediately after the short exposure, replicating previous results. Crucially, this improvement was maintained after six and 12 months, demonstrating that distributional learning has long-lasting effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Grasping the Dynamic Complexity of Team Learning: An Integrative Model for Effective Team Learning in Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Stefan; Dochy, Filip; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present an integrative model of team learning. Literature shows that effective team learning requires the establishment of a dialogical space amongst team members, in which communicative behaviours such as "sharing", "co-construction" and "constructive conflict" are balanced. However, finding this balance is not enough.…

  14. The Effects of Different Learning Environments on Students' Motivation for Learning and Their Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research in higher education on the effects of student-centred versus lecture-based learning environments generally does not take into account the psychological need support provided in these learning environments. From a self-determination theory perspective, need support is important to study because it has been associated with…

  15. The Effects of Digital Learning Material on Students' Mathematics Learning in Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Diana P.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.; Noroozi, Omid; Goei, Sui Lin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of Digital Learning Material (DLM) including instructional clips, online guidance, structuring of content, and a collaboration tool on students' mathematics learning in Dutch vocational education. A pretest-posttest design was used. Apprenticeship students were asked to complete assignments and to discuss them…

  16. Effective Trust-Aware E-learning Recommender System Based on Learning Styles and Knowledge Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Pragya; Bharadwaj, Kamal K.

    2013-01-01

    In the age of information explosion, e-learning recommender systems (ELRSs) have emerged as the most essential tool to deliver personalized learning resources to learners. Due to enormous amount of information on the web, learner faces problem in searching right information. ELRSs deal with the problem of information overload effectively and…

  17. Effect of worksheet scaffolds on student learning in problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S.Y. Choo (Serene); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); E.H.J. Yew (Elaine); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of worksheets as a scaffolding tool on students' learning achievement in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. Seventeen PBL classes (N = 241) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups-one with a worksheet provided and

  18. The Effect of Formative Testing and Self-Directed Learning on Mathematics Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Mohamad Syarif; Satriani, Retni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of formative testing and self-directed learning on mathematics learning outcomes. The research was conducted at an elementary school in central Jakarta during the 2014/2015 school year. Seventy-two fourth-grade students who were selected using random sampling participated in this study. Data…

  19. The effects of learning style and gender consciousness on novices’ learning from playing educational games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Puu Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of novices’ learning style and gender consciousness on learning of programming concepts from game-based learning activities. Four classes of eighth graders with 59 males and 63 females participated in this study. Participants were identified as the diverger group and the converger group based on their stronger learning styles. Game-play activities were implemented to support participants’ learning of programming concepts. The results revealed that (a for the programming comprehension performance, the convergers outperformed the divergers; (b participants’ learning style and gender consciousness significantly affected their project performance; (c for the high gender consciousness learners, the convergers performed better at abstract conceptualization and active experimentation than the divergers did; (d for the divergers, the low gender consciousness learners possessed lower stereotype and were willing to challenge and performed better than the high gender consciousness learners; and (e all the participants revealed positive intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.

  20. THE EFFECT OF LEARNING INQUIRY TRAINING MODEL ON STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES ON MEASUREMENT MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felisa Irawani Hutabarat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the effect of learning model of inquiry learning results students training material measurement. This type of research is quasi experiment. Sampling done by cluster random sampling by taking 2 classes from grade 9 i.e. class X SCIENCE experiments as a class-B that add up to 35 people and class X SCIENCE-C as control classes that add up to 35 people. The instruments used to find out the results of student learning is the learning outcomes tests have been validated in multiple choice form numbered 15 reserved and activity sheets students. The results of the value obtained 37.71 pretes and postest 70.11. The t-test analysis retrieved thitung greater than ttabel so that it can be concluded no difference due to the influence of the learning model of inquiry learning results students training material measurement.

  1. Antibacterial effect of silver nanofilm modified stainless steel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, F.; Kennedy, J.; Dhillon, M.; Flint, S.

    2015-03-01

    Bacteria can attach to stainless steel surfaces, resulting in the colonization of the surface known as biofilms. The release of bacteria from biofilms can cause contamination of food such as dairy products in manufacturing plants. This study aimed to modify stainless steel surfaces with silver nanofilms and to examine the antibacterial effectiveness of the modified surface. Ion implantation was applied to produce silver nanofilms on stainless steel surfaces. 35 keV Ag ions were implanted with various fluences of 1 × 1015 to 1 × 1017 ions•cm-2 at room temperature. Representative atomic force microscopy characterizations of the modified stainless steel are presented. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry spectra revealed the implanted atoms were located in the near-surface region. Both unmodified and modified stainless steel coupons were then exposed to two types of bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus thermophilus, to determine the effect of the surface modification on bacterial attachment and biofilm development. The silver modified coupon surface fluoresced red over most of the surface area implying that most bacteria on coupon surface were dead. This study indicates that the silver nanofilm fabricated by the ion implantation method is a promising way of reducing the attachment of bacteria and delay biofilm formation.

  2. The effect of learning models and emotional intelligence toward students learning outcomes on reaction rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiani, Ani; Silitonga, Mei Y.

    2017-08-01

    This research focused on the effect of learning models and emotional intelligence in students' chemistry learning outcomes on reaction rate teaching topic. In order to achieve the objectives of the research, with 2x2 factorial research design was used. There were two factors tested, namely: the learning models (factor A), and emotional intelligence (factor B) factors. Then, two learning models were used; problem-based learning/PBL (A1), and project-based learning/PjBL (A2). While, the emotional intelligence was divided into higher and lower types. The number of population was six classes containing 243 grade X students of SMAN 10 Medan, Indonesia. There were 15 students of each class were chosen as the sample of the research by applying purposive sampling technique. The data were analyzed by applying two-ways analysis of variance (2X2) at the level of significant α = 0.05. Based on hypothesis testing, there was the interaction between learning models and emotional intelligence in students' chemistry learning outcomes. Then, the finding of the research showed that students' learning outcomes in reaction rate taught by using PBL with higher emotional intelligence is higher than those who were taught by using PjBL. There was no significant effect between students with lower emotional intelligence taught by using both PBL and PjBL in reaction rate topic. Based on the finding, the students with lower emotional intelligence were quite hard to get in touch with other students in group discussion.

  3. Exploring a potential energy surface by machine learning for characterizing atomic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Kenta; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Honda, Junya; Hattori, Kazuki; Seko, Atsuto; Karasuyama, Masayuki; Shitara, Kazuki; Shiga, Motoki; Kuwabara, Akihide; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2018-03-01

    We propose a machine-learning method for evaluating the potential barrier governing atomic transport based on the preferential selection of dominant points for atomic transport. The proposed method generates numerous random samples of the entire potential energy surface (PES) from a probabilistic Gaussian process model of the PES, which enables defining the likelihood of the dominant points. The robustness and efficiency of the method are demonstrated on a dozen model cases for proton diffusion in oxides, in comparison with a conventional nudge elastic band method.

  4. Age of acquisition effects in vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Shekeila D; Havelka, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) of a concept influences the speed at which native English speakers are able to name pictures using a newly acquired second language (L2) vocabulary. In Experiment 1, participants were taught L2 words associated with pictures. In Experiment 2 a second group of participants were taught the same words associated with L1 translations. Following training both groups performed a picture naming task in which they were asked to name pictures using the newly acquired words. Significant AoA effects were observed only in Experiment 1, in that participants were faster at naming pictures representing early acquired relative to late acquired concepts. The results suggest that the AoA of a concept can exert influence over processing which is independent of the AoA of the word form. The results also indicate that different training methods may lead to qualitative differences in the nature of the links formed between words and concepts during the earliest stages of second language learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. FACTORS INFLUENCING VICARIOUS LEARNING MECHANISM EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    JOHN R. VOIT; COLIN G. DRURY

    2013-01-01

    As organizations become larger it becomes increasingly difficult to share lessons-learned across their disconnected units allowing individuals to learn vicariously from each other's experiences. This lesson-learned information is often unsolicited by the recipient group or individual and required an individual or group to react to the information to yield benefits for the organization. Data was collected using 39 interviews and 582 survey responses that proved the effects of information usefu...

  6. THE POSITIVE EFFECTS OF COGNITIVE LEARNING STYLES IN ELT CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Yagcioglu

    2016-01-01

    In the EFL, ESL, ESP and in the ELT classes, students are taught their courses with different kinds of methods and approaches. Cognitive learning styles are the most essential styles in foreign language education. In this paper, the positive effects of cognitive learning styles will be handled. The benefits of these styles will be highlighted. Games on cognitive learning styles will be explained. Sample classroom activities will be shared. Useful books, videos and websites on cognitive learni...

  7. Strain gradient effects in surface roughening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Ulrik; Fleck, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    evidence for strain gradient effects. Numerical analyses of a bicrystal undergoing in-plane tensile deformation are also studied using a strain gradient crystal plasticity theory and also by using a strain gradient plasticity theory for an isotropic solid. Both theories include an internal material length...

  8. Nonlinear free vibration of piezoelectric nanobeams incorporating surface effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini-Hashemi, Shahrokh; Nahas, Iman; Fakher, Mahmood; Nazemnezhad, Reza

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the nonlinear free vibration of piezoelectric nanobeams incorporating surface effects (surface elasticity, surface tension, and surface density) is studied. The governing equation of the piezoelectric nanobeam is derived within the framework of Euler–Bernoulli beam theory with the von Kármán geometric nonlinearity. In order to satisfy the balance conditions between the nanobeam bulk and its surfaces, the component of the bulk stress, σ zz , is assumed to vary linearly through the nanobeam thickness. An exact solution is obtained for the natural frequencies of a simply supported piezoelectric nanobeam in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions using the free vibration mode shape of the corresponding linear problem. Then, the influences of the surface effects and the piezoelectric field on the nonlinear free vibration of nanobeams made of aluminum and silicon with positive and negative surface elasticity, respectively, have been studied for various properties of the piezoelectric field, various nanobeam sizes and amplitude ratios. It is observed that if the Young’s modulus of a nanobeam is lower, the effect of the piezoelectric field on the frequency ratios (FRs) of the nanobeam will be greater. In addition, it is seen that by increasing the nanobeam length so that the nanobeam cross section is set to be constant, the surface effects and the piezoelectric field with negative voltage values increases the FRs, whereas it is the other way around when the nanobeam cross section is assumed to be dependent on the length of the nanobeam. (paper)

  9. Effect of impurities in description of surface nanobubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Surface nanobubbles emerging at solid-liquid interfaces of submerged hydrophobic surfaces show extreme stability and very small (gas-side) contact angles. In a recent paper Ducker [ W. A. Ducker Langmuir 25 8907 (2009)]. conjectured that these effects may arise from the presence of impurities at the

  10. Surface roughness and morphologic changes of zirconia: Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4-6 W/20 Hz presented significantly effect in surface roughness changes of zirconia than other surface treatments. Key words:Erbium, chromium: Yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser, scanning electron .... ZrO2, (f) After sintering ZrO2 in letter “e”, (g) 2 W laser irridiation pre-sintered ZrO2, (h) After ..... Acta Odontol Scand.

  11. The Effect of Multimedia Based Learning in Chemistry Teaching and Learning on Students’ Self-Regulated Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Priyambodo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the uses of Multimedia Based Learning (MBL in classroom instruction increased widely. Overall, this implementation aims to improve students’ motivation and also their learning outcomes. This study was answering the effect of MBL toward students’ Self-Regulated Learning (SRL in chemistry teaching and learning. The experiment was conducted in class XI of senior high school in Yogyakarta. Researchers create some computer based media for chemistry materials and continued with expert judgement of the media. Students’ data SRL were measured using validated questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of three components, i.e. metacognitive, motivation and behavior. The results showed that there was significant differences in SRL of students before and after participating in chemistry teaching and learning which applying MBL.

  12. Learning Effectiveness of the NASA Digital Learning Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hix, Billy

    2005-01-01

    Student participation in actual investigations which develop inquiry and intellectual skills has long been regarded as an essential component of science instructions (Schwab, 1962; White, 1999). Such investigations give students an opportunity to appreciate the spirit of science and promote an understanding of the nature of science. However, classroom research conducted over the past 20 years describes science teaching as primarily teacher centered. Typical instruction consists of whole class, noninteractive activities in which individual seatwork has constituted the bulk of classroom interactions (Tobin and Gallagher, 1997). Students typically learn science from textbooks and lectures. Their main motivation is to do reasonably well on tests and examinations (Layman, 1999). During the past five years, infrastructure constraints have reduced to the point that many schools systems can now afford low cost, high quality video conferencing equipment (International Society for Technology in Education, 2003). This study investigates the use of interactive video conferencing vs. face to face interaction with hands-on, inquiry based activities. Some basic questions to be addressed are: How does the delivery method impact the students understanding of the goals of the experiment? Are students explanation of the strategies of experimentation different based on the method of instruction that was provided. Do students engaged in a workshop with the instructor in the room vs. an instructor over video conferencing have different perception of the understanding of the subject materials?

  13. Otitis Media: Effect on a Child's Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdowski, Becky S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews the relationship between otitis media, auditory processing, language, and learning development. Suggestions are provided for identifying and managing students with suspected histories of the condition. (CL)

  14. Surface effects on the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zixing; Zhang Cungang; Liu Qiang; Yang Zhenyu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, surface effects on the mechanical behaviour of nanoporous materials are investigated using the theory of surface elasticity and Timoshenko beam theory based on the tetrakaidecahedron (or Kelvin) open-cell foam model. Meanwhile, the influence of surface elasticity and residual surface stress on the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials is discussed. In addition, the results derived from the theory of Euler-Bernoulli beam model are also provided for comparison. Theoretical results show that the effective Young's modulus of the nanoporous materials increases as the diameter of the strut decreases, but in contrast Poisson's ratio and the brittle collapse strength decrease with the diameter of the strut. The contribution of shear deformation to surface effects on elastic properties is more significant, while the surface effects on brittle collapse strength are not sensitive to shear deformation, and it can even be neglected. As the strut size increases, the present results can be reduced to the cases without considering surface effects, which verifies the efficiency of the present model to a certain extent.

  15. Effect of reinforcement learning on coordination of multiangent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukkapatnam, Satish T. S.; Gao, Greg

    2000-12-01

    For effective coordination of distributed environments involving multiagent systems, learning ability of each agent in the environment plays a crucial role. In this paper, we develop a simple group learning method based on reinforcement, and study its effect on coordination through application to a supply chain procurement scenario involving a computer manufacturer. Here, all parties are represented by self-interested, autonomous agents, each capable of performing specific simple tasks. They negotiate with each other to perform complex tasks and thus coordinate supply chain procurement. Reinforcement learning is intended to enable each agent to reach a best negotiable price within a shortest possible time. Our simulations of the application scenario under different learning strategies reveals the positive effects of reinforcement learning on an agent's as well as the system's performance.

  16. Surface zwitterionization: Effective method for preventing oral bacterial biofilm formation on hydroxyapatite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoungjin; Kim, Heejin; Seo, Jiae; Kang, Minji; Kang, Sunah; Jang, Joomyung; Lee, Yan; Seo, Ji-Hun

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we conducted surface zwitterionization of hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces by immersing them in the zwitterionic polymer solutions to provide anti-bacterial properties to the HA surface. Three different monomers containing various zwitterionic groups, i.e., phosphorylcholine (PC), sulfobetaine (SB), and carboxybetaine (CB), were copolymerized with the methacrylic monomer containing a Ca2+-binding moiety, using the free radical polymerization method. As a control, functionalization of the copolymer containing the Ca2+-binding moiety was synthesized using a hydroxy group. The stable immobilization of the zwitterionic functional groups was confirmed by water contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement conducted after the sonication process. The zwitterionized HA surface showed significantly decreased protein adsorption, whereas the hydroxyl group-coated HA surface showed limited efficacy. The anti-bacterial adhesion property was confirmed by conducting Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adhesion tests for 6 h and 24 h. When furanone C-30, a representative anti-quorum sensing molecule for S. mutans, was used, only a small amount of bacteria adhered after 6 h and the population did not increase after 24 h. In contrast, zwitterionized HA surfaces showed almost no bacterial adhesion after 6 h and the effect was retained for 24 h, resulting in the lowest level of oral bacterial adhesion. These results confirm that surface zwitterionization is a promising method to effectively prevent oral bacterial adhesion on HA-based materials.

  17. Surface effects in solid mechanics models, simulations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2013-01-01

    This book reviews current understanding, and future trends, of surface effects in solid mechanics. Covers elasticity, plasticity and viscoelasticity, modeling based on continuum theories and molecular modeling and applications of different modeling approaches.

  18. Individual learning effects on knowledge transfer in international joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li Thuy; Napier, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines micro (individual-level) aspects of knowledge transfer and learning in international joint ventures in an emerging economy context. Learning by expatriate and local managers appears far more complex, mutually dependent, and significant to the knowledge transfer process than...... suggested in existing literature. Building upon conceptualizations of individual learning and cognitive – behavioural effects in an organisational context while drawing evidence from two cases of Danish – Vietnamese joint ventures, we propose a model of individual-level knowledge transfer and learning...

  19. Incorporating Wiki Technology in a Traditional Biostatistics Course: Effects on University Students’ Collaborative Learning, Approaches to Learning and Course Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley S.M. Fong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of incorporating wiki technology in an under-graduate biostatistics course for improving university students’ collaborative learning, approaches to learning, and course performance. Methodology: During a three year longitudinal study, twenty-one and twenty-four undergraduate students were recruited by convenience sampling and assigned to a wiki group (2014-2015 and a control group (2013-2014 and 2015-2016, respectively. The students in the wiki group attended face-to-face lectures and used a wiki (PBworks weekly for online- group discussion, and the students in the control group had no access to the wiki and interacted face-to-face only. The students’ collaborative learning, approaches to learning, and course performance were evaluated using the Group Process Questionnaire (GPQ, Revised Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F and course results, respectively, after testing. Findings: Multivariate analysis of variance results revealed that the R-SPQ-2F surface approach score, surface motive and strategy subscores were lower in the wiki group than in the control group (p < 0.05. The GPQ individual accountability and equal opportunity scores (components of collaboration were higher in the wiki group than in the control group (p < 0.001. No significant between-groups differences were found in any of the other outcome variables (i.e., overall course result, R-SPQ-2F deep approach score and subscores, GPQ positive interdependence score, social skills score, and composite score. Looking at the Wiki Questionnaire results, the subscale and composite scores we obtained were 31.5% to 37.7% lower than the norm. The wiki was used at a frequency of about 0.7 times per week per student. Recommendations for Practitioners: Using wiki technology in conjunction with the traditional face-to-face teaching method in a biostatistics course can enhance some aspects of undergraduate students’ collaborative learning

  20. Impact of E-Learning on Teacher Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh M.; Krishna Kumar, R.

    2010-01-01

    Technology offers tremendous opportunities for increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of education. Students, faculty and administrators now use technology extensively in their daily activities and have become technologically literate. The trend of using e-learning as learning and teaching tool is now rapidly expanding into education. Many…

  1. Reduction of the Misinformation Effect by Arousal Induced after Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Shaun M.; Nielson, Kristy A.

    2010-01-01

    Misinformation introduced after events have already occurred causes errors in later retrieval. Based on literature showing that arousal induced after learning enhances delayed retrieval, we investigated whether post-learning arousal can reduce the misinformation effect. 251 participants viewed four short film clips, each followed by a retention…

  2. Adult Learning Principles for Effective Teaching in Radiology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Adult learning processes of acquisition of new knowledge, behaviours, skills, values or preferences generally occur as part of personal professional development. There is need for radiology residency trainers to understand the basic adult learning principles for effective teaching processes. OBJECTIVE: To ...

  3. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Computer Applications in Developing English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, James Todd

    2016-01-01

    I examined the effectiveness of self-directed learning and English learning with computer applications on college students in Bangkok, Thailand, in a control-group experimental-group pretest-posttest design. The hypothesis was tested using a t test: two-sample assuming unequal variances to establish the significance of mean scores between the two…

  4. The Positive Effects of Cognitive Learning Styles in ELT Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagcioglu, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    In the EFL, ESL, ESP and in the ELT classes, students are taught their courses with different kinds of methods and approaches. Cognitive learning styles are the most essential styles in foreign language education. In this paper, the positive effects of cognitive learning styles will be handled. The benefits of these styles will be highlighted.…

  5. Beyond Access: Effective Digital Learning for a Globalized World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Jane; Dunlap, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Digital learning, supporters say, has the power to help prepare students for the workforce, improve student learning and educator effectiveness, and bring high-quality education to those who can't otherwise access it. However, great variability exists among schools and districts in terms of level of development and needs. This policy brief serves…

  6. An Imagination Effect in Learning from Scientific Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Claudia; Mayer, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Asking students to imagine the spatial arrangement of the elements in a scientific text constitutes a learning strategy intended to foster deep processing of the instructional material. Two experiments investigated the effects of mental imagery prompts on learning from scientific text. Students read a computer-based text on the human respiratory…

  7. Age and time effects on implicit and explicit learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verneau, M.; Kamp, J. van der; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Looze, M.P. de

    2014-01-01

    Study Context: It has been proposed that effects of aging are more pronounced for explicit than for implicit motor learning. The authors evaluated this claim by comparing the efficacy of explicit and implicit learning of a movement sequence in young and older adults, and by testing the resilience

  8. Age and Time Effects on Implicit and Explicit Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verneau, M.M.N.; van der Kamp, J.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; de Looze, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Study Context: It has been proposed that effects of aging are more pronounced for explicit than for implicit motor learning. The authors evaluated this claim by comparing the efficacy of explicit and implicit learning of a movement sequence in young and older adults, and by testing the resilience

  9. The effect of retrieval practice in primary school vocabulary learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Nicole; Camp, Gino; Verkoeijen, Peter; Tabbers, Huib

    2018-01-01

    The testing effect refers to the finding that retrieval practice leads to better long-term retention than additional study of course material. In the present study, we examined whether this finding generalizes to primary school vocabulary learning. We also manipulated the word learning context.

  10. Effectiveness of problem-based learning among student nurses: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this review is to analyze available literature from 2005 to 2012 on the effectiveness of problem based learning among the nursing students. Twenty articles that discussed problem based learning among nurses and those that discussed nursing with other allied health were included as meeting the criteria for ...

  11. The Effects of Foreign Language Learning on Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Showqi, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the possible influence of foreign language learning on individuals' divergent thinking abilities. Unlike the large body of research devoted to unfolding the effect of bilingualism on cognitive functions, foreign language learning has gained little attention. This study aimed at bringing into attention the distinctive…

  12. FORMATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT ON CERAMIC TILE SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk ÖZCAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biocidal antimicrobial molecular barrier (BAMB solutions are known to provide antimicrobial effect on the surfaces in industrial applications. However, there has been a lack of scientific reports about the subject in the literature. In this study, in order to impart an antimicrobial surface property on ceramic surfaces, a BAMB solution was applied on gloss fired ceramic wall tile substrates and the surface antimicrobial activity results were compared with that of plain wall tiles (without BAMB application. The ceramic surfaces were cleaned, and stove dried at120°C prior to spray coating with a BAMB solution. The coated substrates were dried in the ambient. The intactness of the coatings was checked with the bromophenol blue test. The microstructural and molecular characterization of the BAMB coated surfaces were carried out with SEM imaging and surface FTIR, respectively. The antimicrobial activity tests of the surfaces were conducted according to ASTM E2180-07 (Standard Test Method for Determining the Activity of Incorporated Antimicrobial Agent in Polymeric or Hydrophobic Materials. The microorganisms used were Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442 bacteria. The BAMB coated surfaces showed less flocculent bacterial growth in comparison to uncoated ceramic surfaces leading to the conclusion that the BAMB improved the antimicrobial property.

  13. The effect of lizardite surface characteristics on pyrite flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Bo; Feng Qiming; Lu Yiping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two kinds of lizardite samples have different effect on the flotation of pyrite. ► Acid leaching changed the surface characteristics of lizardite mineral. ► The leached lizardite has less magnesium on its surface. ► The electro-kinetic behavior of lizardite aqueous suspensions is mainly a function of the Mg/Si atomic ratio on mineral surface. - Abstract: The effect of lizardite surface characteristics on pyrite flotation has been investigated through flotation tests, adsorption tests, zeta potential measurements, FTIR study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and sedimentation tests. The flotation results show that at pH value 9, where flotation of nickel sulfide ores is routinely performed, two kinds of lizardite samples (native lizardite and leached lizardite) have different effects on the flotation of pyrite. The native lizardite adheres to the surface of pyrite and reduces pyrite flotation recovery while the leached lizardite does not interfere with pyrite flotation. Infrared analyses and XPS tests illustrate that acid leaching changed the surface characteristics of lizardite mineral and the leached lizardite has less magnesium on its surface. It has been determined that the electro-kinetic behavior of lizardite aqueous suspensions is mainly a function of the Mg/Si atomic ratio on lizardite surface. So, the low isoelectric point observed in the leached sample has been linked to values of this ratio lower than that of the native lizardite.

  14. Inclusion, Learning Goals in Didactics and Education - Effects and Findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Mette; Braüner, Ninna

    Abstract NERA 2017 Inclusion, Learning Goals in Didactics and Education – Effects and Findings Ninna V. Braüner, M.Ed general pedagogy, University College Sjælland, nvb@ucsj.dk Mette Bruun, M.Ed.in general pedagogy, University College Sjælland, meb@ucsj.dk During the last 5-10 years teaching...... with centralized learning goals in didactics and education together with inclusion of children with special needs have been focus areas both nationally and internationally. Educators, directors of education etc. find inspiration in works by John Hattie and James Nottingham and visit schools in Ontario. Many Danish...... learning goals have of inclusion? How can practice be developed within these frames? We have both observed how students in complicated learning situations participate in education without learning goals and how the same students participate when the teacher has planned the education with learning goals. We...

  15. Wavelet-based unsupervised learning method for electrocardiogram suppression in surface electromyograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niegowski, Maciej; Zivanovic, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel approach aimed at removing electrocardiogram (ECG) perturbation from single-channel surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings by means of unsupervised learning of wavelet-based intensity images. The general idea is to combine the suitability of certain wavelet decomposition bases which provide sparse electrocardiogram time-frequency representations, with the capacity of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for extracting patterns from images. In order to overcome convergence problems which often arise in NMF-related applications, we design a novel robust initialization strategy which ensures proper signal decomposition in a wide range of ECG contamination levels. Moreover, the method can be readily used because no a priori knowledge or parameter adjustment is needed. The proposed method was evaluated on real surface EMG signals against two state-of-the-art unsupervised learning algorithms and a singular spectrum analysis based method. The results, expressed in terms of high-to-low energy ratio, normalized median frequency, spectral power difference and normalized average rectified value, suggest that the proposed method enables better ECG-EMG separation quality than the reference methods. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of strain on surface diffusion and nucleation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brune, Harald; Bromann, Karsten; Röder, Holger

    1995-01-01

    The influence of strain on diffusion and nucleation has been studied by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and effective-medium theory for Ag self-diffusion on strained and unstrained (111) surfaces. Experimentally, the diffusion barrier is observed to be substantially lower on a pseudomorphic...... effect on surface diffusion and nucleation in heteroepitaxy and are thus of significance for the film morphology in the kinetic growth regime....

  17. Effects of mass transfer between Martian satellites on surface geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-21

    suspected. Published by Elsevier Inc.1. Introduction Several features about the surface geology on the moons of Mars remain poorly understood. The grooves on...Deimos may have an effect on Phobos’ geology ; we shall attempt to estimate the magnitude of that effect in Section 4. For impacts with Mars, Phobos or...global surface geology , particularly in the 100+ Ma since the last Voltaire-sized impact. Therefore we believe it unlikely that the red veneer of

  18. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, M., E-mail: mar@sbi.aau.dk [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark); Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4, DK-9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Afshari, A. [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Successful surface modification procedures on aluminium samples were performed involving formation of the layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. • The groups of surfaces with hydrophobic behavior were found to follow the Wenzel model. • A transition from Cassie–Baxter's to Wenzel's regime was observed due to changing of the surface roughness upon mechanical polishing in aluminium samples. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie–Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface

  19. Effects of aging on strategic-based visuomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso Uresti-Cabrera, Luis; Vaca-Palomares, Israel; Diaz, Rosalinda; Beltran-Parrazal, Luis; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2015-08-27

    There are different kinds of visuomotor learnings. One of the most studied is error-based learning where the information about the sign and magnitude of the error is used to update the motor commands. However, there are other instances where subjects show visuomotor learning even if the use of error sign and magnitude information is precluded. In those instances subjects could be using strategic instead of procedural adaptation mechanisms. Here, we present the results of the effect of aging on visuomotor strategic learning under a reversed error feedback condition, and its contrast with procedural visuomotor learning within the same participants. A number of measures were obtained from a task consisting of throwing clay balls to a target before, during and after wearing lateral displacing or reversing prisms. The displacing prism results show an age dependent decrease on the learning rate that corroborates previous findings. The reversing prism results also show significant adaptation impairment in the aged population. However, decreased reversing learning in the older group was the result of an increase in the number of subjects that could not adapt to the reversing prism, and not on a reduction of the learning capacity of all the individuals of the group. These results suggest a significant deleterious effect of aging on visuomotor strategic learning implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. EFFECT OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING IN COMPARISION WITH LECTURE BASED LEARNING IN FORENSIC MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmakumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Problem based learning (PBL is an approach to learning and instruction in which students tackle problems in small groups under the supervision of a teacher. This style of learning assumed to foster increased retention of knowledge, improve student’s gene ral problem solving skills, enhance integration of basic science concepts in to clinical problems, foster the development of self - directed learning skills and strengthen student’s intrinsic motivation. AIM: The study was conducted to compare the effect of Problem based learning in comparison with lecture based learning. SETTING: A cross - sectional study was conducted among 2nd year MBBS students of Jubilee Mission Medical College and Research Institute, Thrissur during the period of December 2014 to March 20 15. METHODOLOGY: The batch is divided into two groups (A & B, 45 in each group. By using PBL method, blunt force injuries were taught to Group - A and sharp weapon injuries to group - B. By using lecture based learning (LBL method blunt force injuries were t aught to Group - B and sharp weapon injuries to group - A. At the end of the session a test in the form of MCQ was conducted on the students to evaluate their learning outcome. OBSERVATION AND RESU LTS: In session I, the average test score of LBL group was 8.16 and PBL group was 12. The difference was statistically significant. In session - II also 45 students has participated each in LBL and PBL classes. The average of test score of LBL group was 7.267 and PBL was 11.289, which was highly significant statistical ly . CONCLUSION: Study has proven that problem based learning is an effective teaching learning method when compared to conventional lecture based learning.

  1. The Effects of Case-Based Team Learning on Students’ Learning, Self Regulation and Self Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Rita; Mosalanejad, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The application of the best approaches to teach adults in medical education is important in the process of training learners to become and remain effective health care providers. This research aims at designing and integrating two approaches, namely team teaching and case study and tries to examine the consequences of these approaches on learning, self regulation and self direction of nursing students. Material & Methods: This is aquasi experimental study of 40 students who were taking a course on mental health. The lessons were designed by using two educational techniques: short case based study and team based learning. Data gathering was based on two valid and reliablequestionnaires: Self-Directed Readiness Scale (SDLRS) and the self-regulating questionnaire. Open ended questions were also designed for the evaluation of students’with points of view on educational methods. Results: The Results showed an increase in the students’ self directed learning based on their performance on the post-test. The results showed that the students’ self-directed learning increased after the intervention. The mean difference before and after intervention self management was statistically significant (p=0.0001). Also, self-regulated learning increased with the mean difference after intervention (p=0.001). Other results suggested that case based team learning can have significant effects on increasing students’ learning (p=0.003). Conclusion: This article may be of value to medical educators who wish to replace traditional learning with informal learning (student-centered-active learning), so as to enhance not only the students’ ’knowledge, but also the advancement of long- life learning skills. PMID:25946918

  2. The effects of case-based team learning on students' learning, self regulation and self direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Rita; Mosalanejad, Leili

    2015-01-26

    The application of the best approaches to teach adults in medical education is important in the process of training learners to become and remain effective health care providers. This research aims at designing and integrating two approaches, namely team teaching and case study and tries to examine the consequences of these approaches on learning, self regulation and self direction of nursing students. This is a quasi experimental study of 40 students who were taking a course on mental health. The lessons were designed by using two educational techniques: short case based study and team based learning. Data gathering was based on two valid and reliable questionnaires: Self-Directed Readiness Scale (SDLRS) and the self-regulating questionnaire. Open ended questions were also designed for the evaluation of students' with points of view on educational methods. The Results showed an increase in the students' self directed learning based on their performance on the post-test. The results showed that the students' self-directed learning increased after the intervention. The mean difference before and after intervention self management was statistically significant (p=0.0001). Also, self-regulated learning increased with the mean difference after intervention (p=0.001). Other results suggested that case based team learning can have significant effects on increasing students' learning (p=0.003). This article may be of value to medical educators who wish to replace traditional learning with informal learning (student-centered-active learning), so as to enhance not only the students' knowledge, but also the advancement of long- life learning skills.

  3. Bidirectional extreme learning machine for regression problem and its learning effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yimin; Wang, Yaonan; Yuan, Xiaofang

    2012-09-01

    It is clear that the learning effectiveness and learning speed of neural networks are in general far slower than required, which has been a major bottleneck for many applications. Recently, a simple and efficient learning method, referred to as extreme learning machine (ELM), was proposed by Huang , which has shown that, compared to some conventional methods, the training time of neural networks can be reduced by a thousand times. However, one of the open problems in ELM research is whether the number of hidden nodes can be further reduced without affecting learning effectiveness. This brief proposes a new learning algorithm, called bidirectional extreme learning machine (B-ELM), in which some hidden nodes are not randomly selected. In theory, this algorithm tends to reduce network output error to 0 at an extremely early learning stage. Furthermore, we find a relationship between the network output error and the network output weights in the proposed B-ELM. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can be tens to hundreds of times faster than other incremental ELM algorithms.

  4. The Effect of Cooperative Learning on the Learning Approaches of Students with Different Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Esma

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: For this study, a cooperative learning process was designed in which students with different learning styles could help each other in heterogeneous groups to perform teamwork-based activities. One aspect deemed important in this context was whether the instructional environment designed to reach students with different learning…

  5. A Study of the Effects of Digital Learning on Learning Motivation and Learning Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Hung; Chen, Huang-Cheng; Liu, Kuang-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    In the modern society when intelligent mobile devices become popular, the Internet breaks through the restrictions on time and space and becomes a ubiquitous learning tool. Designing teaching activity for digital learning and flexibly applying technology tools are the key issues for current information technology integrated education. In this…

  6. Problem-Based Learning: Exploiting Knowledge of How People Learn to Promote Effective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    There is much information from educational psychology studies on how people learn. The thesis of this paper is that we should use this information to guide the ways in which we teach rather than blindly using our traditional methods. In this context, problem-based learning (PBL), as a method of teaching widely used in medical schools but…

  7. The Cost of Learning: Interference Effects in Memory Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Kevin P.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning often affects future learning and memory for previously learned information by exerting either facilitation or interference effects. Several theoretical accounts of interference effects have been proposed, each making different developmental predictions. This research examines interference effects across development, with the goal of better understanding mechanisms of interference and of memory development. Preschool-aged children and adults participated in a three-phased associative learning paradigm containing stimuli that were either unique or repeated across phases. Both age groups demonstrated interference effects, but only for repeated items. Whereas proactive interference effects were comparable across age groups, retroactive interference reached catastrophic-like levels in children. Additionally, retroactive interference increased in adults when contextual differences between phases were minimized (Experiment 2), and decreased in adults who were more successful at encoding repeated pairs of stimuli during a training phase (Experiment 3). These results are discussed with respect to theories of memory and memory development. PMID:25688907

  8. Effect of surface wettability caused by radiation induced surface activation on leidenfrost condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, T.; Hazuku, T.; Tamura, N.; Okamoto, K.; Mishima, K.; Furuya, M.

    2003-01-01

    Improving the limit of boiling heat transfer or critical heat flux requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. From this basis, we investigated surface wettability and Leidenfrost condition using metal oxides irradiated by γ-rays. In our previous study, contact angle, an indicator of macroscopic wettability, of a water droplet on metal oxide at room temperature was measured by image processing of the images obtained by a CCD video camera. The results showed that the surface wettability on metal oxide pieces of titanium, Zircaloy No. 4, SUS-304, and copper was improved significantly by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) on heat transferring phenomena, the Leidenfrost condition and quenching of metal oxides irradiated by γ-rays were investigated. In the Leidenfrost experiment, when the temperature of the heating surface reached the wetting limit temperature, water-solid contact vanished because a stable vapor film existed between the droplet and the metal surface; i.e., a Leidenfrost condition obtained. The wetting limit temperature increased with integrated irradiation dose. After irradiation, the wet length and the duration of contact increased, and the contact angle decreased. In the quenching test, high surface wettability, or a highly hydrophilic condition, of a simulated fuel rod made of SUS was achieved, and the quenching velocities were increased up to 20-30% after 300 kGy 60Co γ-ray irradiation

  9. Effect of surface wettability caused by radiation induced surface activation on leidenfrost condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamasa, T.; Hazuku, T.; Tamura, N.; Okamoto, K. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Mishima, K. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Furuya, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Improving the limit of boiling heat transfer or critical heat flux requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. From this basis, we investigated surface wettability and Leidenfrost condition using metal oxides irradiated by {gamma}-rays. In our previous study, contact angle, an indicator of macroscopic wettability, of a water droplet on metal oxide at room temperature was measured by image processing of the images obtained by a CCD video camera. The results showed that the surface wettability on metal oxide pieces of titanium, Zircaloy No. 4, SUS-304, and copper was improved significantly by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) on heat transferring phenomena, the Leidenfrost condition and quenching of metal oxides irradiated by {gamma}-rays were investigated. In the Leidenfrost experiment, when the temperature of the heating surface reached the wetting limit temperature, water-solid contact vanished because a stable vapor film existed between the droplet and the metal surface; i.e., a Leidenfrost condition obtained. The wetting limit temperature increased with integrated irradiation dose. After irradiation, the wet length and the duration of contact increased, and the contact angle decreased. In the quenching test, high surface wettability, or a highly hydrophilic condition, of a simulated fuel rod made of SUS was achieved, and the quenching velocities were increased up to 20-30% after 300 kGy 60Co {gamma}-ray irradiation.

  10. Early markers of ongoing action-effect learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes eRuge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring knowledge about the relationship between stimulus conditions, one’s own actions, and the resulting consequences or effects, is one prerequisite for intentional action. Previous studies have shown that such contextualized associations between actions and their effects (S-R-E associations can be picked up very quickly. The present study examined how such weakly practiced associations might affect overt behavior during the process of initial learning and during subsequent retrieval, and how these two measures are inter-related. We examined incidental (S-R-E learning in the context of trial-and-error S-R learning and in the context of instruction-based S-R learning. Furthermore, as a control condition, common outcome (CO learning blocks were included in which all responses produced one common sound effect, hence precluding differential (S-R-E learning. Post-learning retrieval of R-E associations was tested by re-using previously produced sound effects as novel imperative stimuli combined with actions that were either compatible or incompatible with the previously encountered R-E mapping. The central result was that the size of the compatibility effect could be predicted by the size of relative response slowing during ongoing learning in the preceding acquisition phase, both in trial-and-error learning and in instruction-based learning. Importantly, this correlation was absent for the common outcome control condition, precluding accounts based on unspecific factors. Instead, the results suggest that differential outcomes are ‘actively’ integrated into action planning and that this takes additional planning time. We speculate that this might be especially true for weakly practiced (S-R-E associations before an initial goal-directed action mode transitions into a more stimulus-based action mode.

  11. The effect of substrate modification on microbial growth on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Angela Ann

    1998-01-01

    The principle aim of the program was to produce a novel, non-leaching antimicrobial surface for commercial development and future use in the liquid food packaging industry. Antimicrobial surfaces which exist presently have been produced to combat the growth of prokaryotic organisms and usually function as slow release systems. A system which could inhibit eukaryotic growth without contaminating the surrounding 'environment' with the inhibitor was considered of great commercial importance. The remit of this study was concerned with creating a surface which could control the growth of eukaryotic organisms found in fruit juice with particular interest in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Putative antimicrobial surfaces were created by the chemical modification of the test substrate polymers; nylon and ethylvinyl alcohol (EVOH). Surfaces were chemically modified by the covalent coupling of antimicrobial agents known to be active against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as ascertained by the screening process determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of agents in the desired test medium. During the study it was found that a number of surfaces did appear to inhibit yeast growth in fruit juice, however on further investigation the apparent inhibitory effect was discovered to be the result of un-bound material free in the test medium. On removing the possibility of any un-bound material present on the test surface, by a series of surface washings, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth was eliminated. Of the agents tested only one appeared to have an inhibitory effect which could be attributed to a true antimicrobial surface effect, Amical 48. As there is little known about this agent in the literature, its affect on yeast growth was examined and in particular a proposal for the mode of action on yeast is discussed, providing a plausible explanation for the inhibitory effect observed when this agent is covalently immobilised onto nylon. (author)

  12. Nature vs Nurture: Effects of Learning on Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagrani, Nagina

    In the field of Evolutionary Robotics, the design, development and application of artificial neural networks as controllers have derived their inspiration from biology. Biologists and artificial intelligence researchers are trying to understand the effects of neural network learning during the lifetime of the individuals on evolution of these individuals by qualitative and quantitative analyses. The conclusion of these analyses can help develop optimized artificial neural networks to perform any given task. The purpose of this thesis is to study the effects of learning on evolution. This has been done by applying Temporal Difference Reinforcement Learning methods to the evolution of Artificial Neural Tissue controller. The controller has been assigned the task to collect resources in a designated area in a simulated environment. The performance of the individuals is measured by the amount of resources collected. A comparison has been made between the results obtained by incorporating learning in evolution and evolution alone. The effects of learning parameters: learning rate, training period, discount rate, and policy on evolution have also been studied. It was observed that learning delays the performance of the evolving individuals over the generations. However, the non zero learning rate throughout the evolution process signifies natural selection preferring individuals possessing plasticity.

  13. Effectiveness of discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiana, Yunita; Wahyudin, Sispiyati, Ririn

    2017-08-01

    This research is aimed to describe the effectiveness of discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving. This research investigate the students' problem solving competency before and after learned by using discovery learning model. The population used in this research was student in grade VII in one of junior high school in West Bandung Regency. From nine classes, class VII B were randomly selected as the sample of experiment class, and class VII C as control class, which consist of 35 students every class. The method in this research was quasi experiment. The instrument in this research is pre-test, worksheet and post-test about problem solving of mathematics. Based on the research, it can be conclude that the qualification of problem solving competency of students who gets discovery learning model on level 80%, including in medium category and it show that discovery learning model effective to improve mathematical problem solving.

  14. The Effectiveness of Project Based Learning in Trigonometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhana, M. T. C.; Mardiyana, M.; Pramudya, I.

    2017-09-01

    This research aimed to explore the effectiveness of Project-Based Learning (PjBL) with scientific approach viewed from interpersonal intelligence toward students’ achievement learning in mathematics. This research employed quasi experimental research. The subjects of this research were grade X MIPA students in Sleman Yogyakarta. The result of the research showed that project-based learning model is more effective to generate students’ mathematics learning achievement that classical model with scientific approach. This is because in PjBL model students are more able to think actively and creatively. Students are faced with a pleasant atmosphere to solve a problem in everyday life. The use of project-based learning model is expected to be the choice of teachers to improve mathematics education.

  15. Effect of Superhydrophobic Surface of Titanium on Staphylococcus aureus Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifu Tang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the systemic antibiotics prophylaxis, orthopedic implants still remain highly susceptible to bacterial adhesion and resulting in device-associated infection. Surface modification is an effective way to decrease bacterial adhesion. In this study, we prepared surfaces with different wettability on titanium surface based on TiO2 nanotube to examine the effect of bacterial adhesion. Firstly, titanium plates were calcined to form hydrophilic TiO2 nanotube films of anatase phase. Subsequently, the nanotube films and inoxidized titaniums were treated with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl-triethoxysilane (PTES, forming superhydrophobic and hydrophobic surfaces. Observed by SEM and contact angle measurements, the different surfaces have different characteristics. Staphylococcus aureus (SA adhesion on different surfaces was evaluated. Our experiment results show that the superhydrophobic surface has contact angles of water greater than 150∘ and also shows high resistance to bacterial contamination. It is indicated that superhydrophobic surface may be a factor to reduce device-associated infection and could be used in clinical practice.

  16. Determining the Effects of LMS Learning Behaviors on Academic Achievement in a Learning Analytic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet FIRAT

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students’ learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS, which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users’ behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of undergraduate students’ LMS learning behaviors on their academic achievements. In line with this purpose, the participating students’ online learning behaviors in LMS were examined by using learning analytics for 14 weeks, and the relationship between students’ behaviors and their academic achievements was analyzed, followed by an analysis of their views about the influence of LMS on their academic achievement. The present study, in which quantitative and qualitative data were collected, was carried out with the explanatory mixed method. A total of 71 undergraduate students participated in the study. The results revealed that the students used LMSs as a support to face-to-face education more intensively on course days (at the beginning of the related lessons and at nights on course days and that they activated the content elements the most. Lastly, almost all the students agreed that LMSs helped increase their academic achievement only when LMSs included such features as effectiveness, interaction, reinforcement, attractive design, social media support, and accessibility.

  17. Learners’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Spaced Learning Schedule in L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Lotfolahi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The spacing effect is a ubiquitous phenomenon, whereby memory is enhanced for the information that is learned across different points in time rather than being learned at once. A considerable amount of research has focused on the nature of the spacing effect, and there is general acceptance that spacing learning events out in time promotes learning. However, fewer studies have been conducted in educational settings. The aim of this study is to explore learners’ perceptions of different spacing schedules (massed vs. spaced. To achieve the purpose of the study, we taught 30 children 24 English–Farsi word pairs utilizing different spacing schedules. Later, we administered a questionnaire to explore leaarners’ perceptions of both massed and spaced schedules. The results revealed that the children percieved spaced practice to be more effective than massed practice.

  18. Exploring the Peer Interaction Effects on Learning Achievement in a Social Learning Platform Based on Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Tzu; Chen, Ming-Puu; Chang, Chia-Hu; Chang, Pu-Chen

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of social learning have been recognized by existing research. To explore knowledge distribution in social learning and its effects on learning achievement, we developed a social learning platform and explored students' behaviors of peer interactions by the proposed algorithms based on social network analysis. An empirical study was…

  19. Design and Implementation of a Cooperative Learning System for Digital Content Design Curriculum: Investigation on Learning Effectiveness and Social Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Shang; Hsiao, Wei-Hung; Chang, Tsung-Sheng; Hu, Mei-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the learning effectiveness of cooperative learning system based on social presence theory. We develop a web-based cooperative learning system which contains personal module, admin module, course module, communication module, and learning records module to support the implementation of cooperative…

  20. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model of Teams Games Tournament (TGT) and Students' Motivation toward Physics Learning Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadrah; Tolla, Ismail; Ali, Muhammad Sidin; Muris

    2017-01-01

    This research aims at describing the effect of cooperative learning model of Teams Games Tournament (TGT) and motivation toward physics learning outcome. This research was a quasi-experimental research with a factorial design conducted at SMAN 2 Makassar. Independent variables were learning models. They were cooperative learning model of TGT and…

  1. Atmospheric Water Harvesting: Role of Surface Wettability and Edge Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Yong

    2017-06-23

    Atmospheric water is emerging as an important potable water source. The present work experimentally and theoretically investigates water condensation and collection on flat surfaces with contrasting contact angles and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) to elucidate their roles on water mass collection efficiency. The experimental results indicate that a hydrophilic surface promotes nucleation and individual droplets growth, and a surface with a low CAH tends to let a smaller droplet to slide down, but the overall water mass collection efficiency is independent of both surface contact angle and CAH. The experimental results agree well with our theoretical calculations. During water condensation, a balance has to be struck between single droplet growth and droplet density on a surface so as to maintain a constant water droplet surface coverage ratio, which renders the role of both surface wettability and hysteresis insignificant to the ultimate water mass collection. Moreover, water droplets on the edges of a surface grow much faster than those on the non-edge areas and thus dominate the contribution to the water mass collection by the entire surface, directly pointing out the very important role of edge effect on water condensation and collection.

  2. Surface States and Effective Surface Area on Photoluminescent P-Type Porous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, S. Z.; Porras, A. Ramirez; Resto, O.; Goldstein, Y.; Many, A.; Savir, E.

    1997-01-01

    The present study is motivated by the possibility of utilizing porous silicon for spectral sensors. Pulse measurements on the porous-Si/electrolyte system are employed to determine the surface effective area and the surface-state density at various stages of the anodization process used to produce the porous material. Such measurements were combined with studies of the photoluminescence spectra. These spectra were found to shift progressively to the blue as a function of anodization time. The luminescence intensity increases initially with anodization time, reaches a maximum and then decreases with further anodization. The surface state density, on the other hand, increases with anodization time from an initial value of about 2 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm surface to about 1013 sq cm for the anodized surface. This value is attained already after -2 min anodization and upon further anodization remains fairly constant. In parallel, the effective surface area increases by a factor of 10-30. This behavior is markedly different from the one observed previously for n-type porous Si.

  3. The equivalence of learning paths in early science instruction: effect of direct instruction and discovery learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, David; Nigam, Milena

    2004-10-01

    In a study with 112 third- and fourth-grade children, we measured the relative effectiveness of discovery learning and direct instruction at two points in the learning process: (a) during the initial acquisition of the basic cognitive objective (a procedure for designing and interpreting simple, unconfounded experiments) and (b) during the subsequent transfer and application of this basic skill to more diffuse and authentic reasoning associated with the evaluation of science-fair posters. We found not only that many more children learned from direct instruction than from discovery learning, but also that when asked to make broader, richer scientific judgments, the many children who learned about experimental design from direct instruction performed as well as those few children who discovered the method on their own. These results challenge predictions derived from the presumed superiority of discovery approaches in teaching young children basic procedures for early scientific investigations.

  4. Twelve tips for implementing effective service learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playford, Denese; Bailey, Susan; Fisher, Colleen; Stasinska, Ania; Marshall, Lewis; Gawlinski, Michele; Young, Susan

    2017-11-24

    Service learning is an educational methodology that facilitates transformation of students' knowledge, attitudes and attitudes around holistic care through work with community organizations. To implement academically, defensible service learning requires faculty endorsement, consideration of course credit, an enthusiastic champion able to negotiate agreements with organizations, organizations' identification of their own projects so they are willing to both fund and supervise them, curricular underpinning that imparts the project skills necessary for success, embedding at a time when students' clinical identity is being formed, small packets of curriculum elements delivered "just in time" as students engage with their project, flexible online platform/s, assessment that is organically related to the project, providing cross cultural up-skilling, and focused on the students' responsibility for their own product. The result is a learning experience that is engaging for medical students, links the university to the community, and encourages altruism which is otherwise reported to decline through medical school.

  5. Elastic layer under axisymmetric indentation and surface energy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarit, Pong-in; Senjuntichai, Teerapong; Rungamornrat, Jaroon

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a continuum-based approach is adopted to investigate the contact problem of an elastic layer with finite thickness and rigid base subjected to axisymmetric indentation with the consideration of surface energy effects. A complete Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity is employed to consider the influence of surface stresses. The indentation problem of a rigid frictionless punch with arbitrary axisymmetric profiles is formulated by employing the displacement Green's functions, derived with the aid of Hankel integral transform technique. The problem is solved by assuming the contact pressure distribution in terms of a linear combination of admissible functions and undetermined coefficients. Those coefficients are then obtained by employing a collocation technique and an efficient numerical quadrature scheme. The accuracy of proposed solution technique is verified by comparing with existing solutions for rigid indentation on an elastic half-space. Selected numerical results for the indenters with flat-ended cylindrical and paraboloidal punch profiles are presented to portray the influence of surface energy effects on elastic fields of the finite layer. It is found that the presence of surface stresses renders the layer stiffer, and the size-dependent behavior of elastic fields is observed in the present solutions. In addition, the surface energy effects become more pronounced with smaller contact area; thus, the influence of surface energy cannot be ignored in the analysis of indentation problem especially when the indenter size is very small such as in the case of nanoindentation.

  6. The effects of surface treatments on rapid chloride permeability tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2012-08-01

    Surface treatments are commonly applied to improve the chloride resistance of concrete structures exposed to saline environments. Information on chloride ingress to surface-treated concrete is mostly provided by application of the rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT); this test is short in duration and provides rapid results. This study presents a numerical formulation, based on the extended Nernst-Plank/Poisson (NPP) equation, to model the effect of the surface treatment on a sample tested by RCPT. Predictions of the model are compared to experimental measurements. The simulations show that the results from RCPT, in terms of ionic profiles and measurement of the electric field, are dependent on the effectiveness of surface treatments. During RCPT, highly effective surface treatments cause both cations and anions to flocculate at the interface between the surface treatment and the concrete, creating a local electric field. Our numerical model includes these phenomena and presents a methodology to obtain more accurate diffusivities of the surface-treated- concrete from RCPT. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of surface treatments on rapid chloride permeability tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon; Oh, Sang-gyun; Ha, Juyoung; Monteiro, Paulo M.

    2012-01-01

    Surface treatments are commonly applied to improve the chloride resistance of concrete structures exposed to saline environments. Information on chloride ingress to surface-treated concrete is mostly provided by application of the rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT); this test is short in duration and provides rapid results. This study presents a numerical formulation, based on the extended Nernst-Plank/Poisson (NPP) equation, to model the effect of the surface treatment on a sample tested by RCPT. Predictions of the model are compared to experimental measurements. The simulations show that the results from RCPT, in terms of ionic profiles and measurement of the electric field, are dependent on the effectiveness of surface treatments. During RCPT, highly effective surface treatments cause both cations and anions to flocculate at the interface between the surface treatment and the concrete, creating a local electric field. Our numerical model includes these phenomena and presents a methodology to obtain more accurate diffusivities of the surface-treated- concrete from RCPT. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Can Music Foster LearningEffects of Different Text Modalities on Learning and Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina A. M. Lehmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the possibilities of fostering learning based on differences in recall and comprehension after learning with texts which were presented in one of three modalities: either in a spoken, written, or sung version. All three texts differ regarding their processing, especially when considering working memory. Overall, we assume the best recall performance after learning with the written text and the best comprehension performance after learning with the sung text, respectively, compared to both other text modalities. We also analyzed whether the melody of the sung material functions as a mnemonic aid for the learners in the sung text condition. If melody and text of the sung version are closely linked, presentation of the melody during the post-test phase could foster text retrieval. 108 students either learned from a sung text performed by a professional singer, a printed text, or the same text read out loud. Half of the participants worked on the post-test while listening to the melody used for the musical learning material and the other half did not listen to a melody. The written learning modality led to significantly better recall than with the spoken (d = 0.97 or sung text (d = 0.78. However, comprehension after learning with the sung modality was significantly superior compared to when learning with the written learning modality (d = 0.40. Reading leads to more focus on details, which is required to answer recall questions, while listening fosters a general understanding of the text, leading to higher levels of comprehension. Listening to the melody during the post-test phase negatively affected comprehension, irrespective of the modality during the learning phase. This can be explained by the seductive detail effect, as listening to the melody during the post-test phase may distract learners from their main task. In closing, theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  9. Can Music Foster Learning - Effects of Different Text Modalities on Learning and Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Janina A M; Seufert, Tina

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the possibilities of fostering learning based on differences in recall and comprehension after learning with texts which were presented in one of three modalities: either in a spoken, written, or sung version. All three texts differ regarding their processing, especially when considering working memory. Overall, we assume the best recall performance after learning with the written text and the best comprehension performance after learning with the sung text, respectively, compared to both other text modalities. We also analyzed whether the melody of the sung material functions as a mnemonic aid for the learners in the sung text condition. If melody and text of the sung version are closely linked, presentation of the melody during the post-test phase could foster text retrieval. 108 students either learned from a sung text performed by a professional singer, a printed text, or the same text read out loud. Half of the participants worked on the post-test while listening to the melody used for the musical learning material and the other half did not listen to a melody. The written learning modality led to significantly better recall than with the spoken ( d = 0.97) or sung text ( d = 0.78). However, comprehension after learning with the sung modality was significantly superior compared to when learning with the written learning modality ( d = 0.40). Reading leads to more focus on details, which is required to answer recall questions, while listening fosters a general understanding of the text, leading to higher levels of comprehension. Listening to the melody during the post-test phase negatively affected comprehension, irrespective of the modality during the learning phase. This can be explained by the seductive detail effect, as listening to the melody during the post-test phase may distract learners from their main task. In closing, theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  10. Timing of quizzes during learning: Effects on motivation and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Alice F; Jones, Matt; Lalchandani, Lakshmi A; Tack, Lindsay Anderson

    2017-06-01

    This article investigates how the timing of quizzes given during learning impacts retention of studied material. We investigated the hypothesis that interspersing quizzes among study blocks increases student engagement, thus improving learning. Participants learned 8 artificial facts about each of 8 plant categories, with the categories blocked during learning. Quizzes about 4 of the 8 facts from each category occurred either immediately after studying the facts for that category (standard) or after studying the facts from all 8 categories (postponed). In Experiment 1, participants were given tests shortly after learning and several days later, including both the initially quizzed and unquizzed facts. Test performance was better in the standard than in the postponed condition, especially for categories learned later in the sequence. This result held even for the facts not quizzed during learning, suggesting that the advantage cannot be due to any direct testing effects. Instead the results support the hypothesis that interrupting learning with quiz questions is beneficial because it can enhance learner engagement. Experiment 2 provided further support for this hypothesis, based on participants' retrospective ratings of their task engagement during the learning phase. These findings have practical implications for when to introduce quizzes in the classroom. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Effects of Cognitive Behaviour and Social Learning Therapies On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and Social Learning ... After exposure to intervention therapies, the results showed that there was significant difference in the post-test aggression scores of participants.

  12. Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Student Learning Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Hadiwijaya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Effect of Emotional Intelligence Against Student Achievement aims to determine the effect of emotional intelligence which consists of self awareness, self management, Motivation, social awareness, relationship management partially and simultaneously on learning achievement. Respondents are students of SMP Negeri 4 Lalan Bumi Agung  Vilage Musi Banyuasin Regency to be 135 people. Methods of data analysis using regression analysis techniques. Partial assay results (t-test showed emotional intelligence consists of Self awareness, self management, Motivation, social awareness, relationship management positive and significant effect on learning achievement. Simultaneous Test Results (Test-F emotional intelligence consists of Self awareness, self management, motivation, social awareness, relationship management and significant positive effect on learning achievement. Social awareness is more dominant influence on learning achievement.

  13. Interference effects in learning similar sequences of discrete movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijker, J.M.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Beek, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine proactive and retroactive interference effects in learning two similar sequences of discrete movements. In each experiment, the participants in the experimental group practiced two movement sequences on consecutive days (1 on each day, order

  14. Multiresolution molecular mechanics: Surface effects in nanoscale materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qingcheng, E-mail: qiy9@pitt.edu; To, Albert C., E-mail: albertto@pitt.edu

    2017-05-01

    Surface effects have been observed to contribute significantly to the mechanical response of nanoscale structures. The newly proposed energy-based coarse-grained atomistic method Multiresolution Molecular Mechanics (MMM) (Yang, To (2015), ) is applied to capture surface effect for nanosized structures by designing a surface summation rule SR{sup S} within the framework of MMM. Combined with previously proposed bulk summation rule SR{sup B}, the MMM summation rule SR{sup MMM} is completed. SR{sup S} and SR{sup B} are consistently formed within SR{sup MMM} for general finite element shape functions. Analogous to quadrature rules in finite element method (FEM), the key idea to the good performance of SR{sup MMM} lies in that the order or distribution of energy for coarse-grained atomistic model is mathematically derived such that the number, position and weight of quadrature-type (sampling) atoms can be determined. Mathematically, the derived energy distribution of surface area is different from that of bulk region. Physically, the difference is due to the fact that surface atoms lack neighboring bonding. As such, SR{sup S} and SR{sup B} are employed for surface and bulk domains, respectively. Two- and three-dimensional numerical examples using the respective 4-node bilinear quadrilateral, 8-node quadratic quadrilateral and 8-node hexahedral meshes are employed to verify and validate the proposed approach. It is shown that MMM with SR{sup MMM} accurately captures corner, edge and surface effects with less 0.3% degrees of freedom of the original atomistic system, compared against full atomistic simulation. The effectiveness of SR{sup MMM} with respect to high order element is also demonstrated by employing the 8-node quadratic quadrilateral to solve a beam bending problem considering surface effect. In addition, the introduced sampling error with SR{sup MMM} that is analogous to numerical integration error with quadrature rule in FEM is very small. - Highlights:

  15. Assessing team effectiveness and affective learning in a datathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piza, Felipe Maia de Toledo; Celi, Leo Anthony; Deliberato, Rodrigo Octavio; Bulgarelli, Lucas; de Carvalho, Fabricio Rodrigues Torres; Filho, Roberto Rabello; de La Hoz, Miguel Angel Armengol; Kesselheim, Jennifer Cohn

    2018-04-01

    Datathons are increasingly organized in the healthcare field. The goal is to assemble people with different backgrounds to work together as a team and engage in clinically relevant research or develop algorithms using health-related datasets. Criteria to assess the return of investment on such events have traditionally included publications produced, patents for prediction, classification, image recognition and other types of software, and start-up companies around the application of machine learning in healthcare. Previous studies have not evaluated whether a datathon can promote affective learning and effective teamwork. Fifty participants of a health datathon event in São Paulo, Brazil at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE) were divided into 8 groups. A survey with 25 questions, using the Affective Learning Scale and Team-Review Questionnaire, was administered to assess team effectiveness and affective learning during the event. Multivariate regression models and Pearson's correlation tests were performed to evaluate the effect of affective learning on teamwork. Majority of the participants were male 76% (37/49); 32% (16/49) were physicians. The mean score for learning (scale from 1 to 10) was 8.38, while that for relevance of the perceived teamwork was 1.20 (scale from 1 to 5; "1" means most relevant). Pearson's correlation between the learning score and perception of teamwork showed moderate association (r = 0.36, p = 0.009). Five learning and 10 teamwork variables were on average positively graded in the event. The final regression model includes all learning and teamwork variables. Effective leadership was strongly correlated with affective learning (β = -0.27, p Effective leadership, team accomplishment, criticism, individual development and creativity were the variables significantly associated with higher levels of affective learning. It is feasible to enhance affective knowledge and the skill to work in a team during a datathon. We

  16. Effects of Surface Treatment of Activated Carbon on Its Surface and Cr(VI) Adsorption Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Jin; Jang, Yu Sin [Advanced Materials Division., Korea Research Institute of Chimical Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In this work, the effect of surface treatments on activated carbons (ACs) has been studied in the context of gas and liquid adsorption behaviors. The chemical solutions used in this experiment were 35% sodium hydroxide, and these were used for the acidic and basic treatments, respectively. The surface properties have been determined by pH, acid-base values, and FT-IR. The adsorption isotherms of Cr(VI) ion on activated carbons have been studied with the 5 mg/l concentration at ambient temperature. N{sub 2} adsorption isotherm characteristics, which include the specific surface area, micro pore volume, and microporosity, were determined by BET and Boer's-plot methods. In case of the acidic treatment of activated carbons, it was observed that the adsorption of Cr(VI) ion was more effective due to the increase acid value (or acidic functional group) of activated carbon surfaces. However, the basic treatment on activated carbons was caused no significant effects, probably due to the decreased specific surface area and total pore volume. 27 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Surface roughness effects on blister formation in polycrystalline molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Sone, Kazuho; Yamada, Rayji; Ohtsuka, Hidewo; Murakami, Yoshio

    1977-07-01

    Polycrystalline molybdenum targets with electropolished and roughened surfaces were bombarded with 100 keV He + and 200 keV H 2 + ions at room temperature. It has been demonstrated that the blister formation is largely or completely suppressed by roughening the electropolished surface with emery paper of No. 1200, No. 400 and No. 100. Up to a He + fluence of 1.0 x 10 19 particles/cm 2 , no blisters are observed in the targets with the two roughest surfaces, while on the smooth surface blisters begin to occur at a fluence of 7.5 x 10 17 particles/cm 2 . The surface roughness effect on blister suppression is discussed in relation to the projected range of incident particles. (auth.)

  18. Remote sensing of land surface temperature: The directional viewing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.A.; Schmugge, T.J.; Ballard, J.R. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is an important parameter in understanding global environmental change because it controls many of the underlying processes in the energy budget at the surface and heat and water transport between the surface and the atmosphere. The measurement of LST at a variety of spatial and temporal scales and extension to global coverage requires remote sensing means to achieve these goals. Land surface temperature and emissivity products are currently being derived from satellite and aircraft remote sensing data using a variety of techniques to correct for atmospheric effects. Implicit in the commonly employed approaches is the assumption of isotropy in directional thermal infrared exitance. The theoretical analyses indicate angular variations in apparent infrared temperature will typically yield land surface temperature errors ranging from 1 to 4 C unless corrective measures are applied

  19. Students' Pressure, Time Management and Effective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hechuan; Yang, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to survey the status quo of the student pressure and the relationship between their daily time management and their learning outcomes in three different types of higher secondary schools at Shenyang, the capital city of Liaoning Province in mainland China. Design/methodology/approach: An investigation was carried out in 14…

  20. Suggestology as an Effective Language Learning Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MaCoy, Katherine W.

    The methods used and the results obtained by means of the accelerated language learning techniques developed by Georgi Lozanov, Director of the Institute of Suggestology in Bulgaria, are discussed. The following topics are included: (1) discussion of hypermnesia, "super memory," and the reasons foreign languages were chosen for purposes…

  1. Effective field theories for superconducting systems with multiple Fermi surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, P.R., E-mail: pedro.rangel.braga@gmail.com [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, UERJ - Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-013 Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Granado, D.R., E-mail: diegorochagrana@uerj.br [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, UERJ - Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-013 Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S9, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Guimaraes, M.S., E-mail: msguimaraes@uerj.br [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, UERJ - Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-013 Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Wotzasek, C., E-mail: clovis@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    In this work we investigate the description of superconducting systems with multiple Fermi surfaces. For the case of one Fermi surface we re-obtain the result that the superconductor is more precisely described as a topological state of matter. Studying the case of more than one Fermi surface, we obtain the effective theory describing a time reversal symmetric topological superconductor. These results are obtained by employing a general procedure to construct effective low energy actions describing states of electromagnetic systems interacting with charges and defects. The procedure consists in taking into account the proliferation or dilution of these charges and defects and its consequences for the low energy description of the electromagnetic response of the system. We find that the main ingredient entering the low energy characterization of the system with more than one Fermi surface is a non-conservation of the canonical supercurrent triggered by particular vortex configurations.

  2. Antibacterial effect of doxycycline-coated dental abutment surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Rui; Tiainen, Hanna; Shabestari, Maziar; Lyngstadaas, Ståle P; Haugen, Håvard J; Witsø, Ingun L; Lönn-Stensrud, Jessica; Jugowiec, Dawid

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation on dental abutment may lead to peri-implant mucositis and subsequent peri-implantitis. These cases are clinically treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline (Doxy). Here we used an electrochemical method of cathodic polarization to coat Doxy onto the outer surface of a dental abutment material. The Doxy-coated surface showed a burst release in phosphate-buffered saline during the first 24 h. However, a significant amount of Doxy remained on the surface for at least 2 weeks especially on a 5 mA–3 h sample with a higher Doxy amount, suggesting both an initial and a long-term bacteriostatic potential of the coated surface. Surface chemistry was analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Surface topography was evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and blue-light profilometry. Longer polarization time from 1 h to 5 h and higher current density from 1 to 15 mA cm −2 resulted in a higher amount of Doxy on the surface. The surface was covered by a layer of Doxy less than 100 nm without significant changes in surface topography. The antibacterial property of the Doxy-coated surface was analyzed by biofilm and planktonic growth assays using Staphylococcus epidermidis. Doxy-coated samples reduced both biofilm accumulation and planktonic growth in broth culture, and also inhibited bacterial growth on agar plates. The antibacterial effect was stronger for samples of 5 mA–3 h coated with a higher amount of Doxy compared to that of 1 mA–1 h. Accordingly, an abutment surface coated with Doxy has potential for preventing bacterial colonization when exposed to the oral cavity. Doxy-coating could be a viable way to control peri-implant mucositis and prevent its progression into peri-implantitis. (paper)

  3. Modeling of surface tension effects in venturi scrubbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Robert M.; Wu, Tatsu K. L.; Crowder, Jerry W.

    A modified model of venturi scrubber performance has been developed that addresses two effects of liquid surface tension: its effect on droplet size and its effect on particle penetration into the droplet. The predictions of the model indicate that, in general, collection efficiency increases with a decrease in liquid surface tension, but the range over which this increase is significant depends on the particle size and on the scrubber operating parameters. The predictions further indicate that the increases in collection efficiency are almost totally due to the effect of liquid surface tension on the mean droplet size, and that the collection efficiency is not significantly affected by the ability of the particle to penetrate the droplet.

  4. Surface-environment effects in spin crossover solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudyma, Iu., E-mail: yugudyma@gmail.com; Maksymov, A.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The spin-crossover nanocrystals were described by modified Ising-like model. • The ligand field on the surface is a function of external fluctuations. • The thermal hysteresis with surface and bulk interactions of the lattice was studied. • The system behavior with fluctuating ligand field on the surface was examined. • The fluctuations enlarge the hysteresis, but smaller surface interaction narrows it. - Abstract: The impact of surface effects on thermal induced spin crossover phenomenon is a subject of a broad and current interest. Using the modified Ising-like model of spin crossover solids with the ligand field as function of the molecule’ positions and random component on surface by means of Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm the thermal spin transition curves were calculated. The analysis of spin configuration during transition gives a general idea about contribution of molecules from the surface and inside the lattice into resulting magnetization of the systems. The behavior of hysteresis loop for various surface coupling and fluctuations strength has been described.

  5. Screening effect on the polaron by surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoying; Xu, Xiaoshan; Seal, Katyayani; Guo, Hangwen; Shen, Jian; Low Dimensional Materials Physics, Oak Ridge National Lab Team; University of Tennessee Team; Physics Department, Fudan University Team

    2011-03-01

    Surface plasmons occur when the conduction electrons at a metal/dielectric interface resonantly interact with external electromagnetic fields. While surface plasmons in vicinity of a polaron in the dielectric material, a strong screening effect on polaron characteristics is introduced. In this work, we observed the reduction of polarons in multiferroic LuFe2O4, which is mainly contributed by surface plasmons. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy.

  6. Effects of capillary condensation in adhesion between rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizeng; Qian, Jin; Gao, Huajian

    2009-10-06

    Experiments on the effects of humidity in adhesion between rough surfaces have shown that the adhesion energy remains constant below a critical relative humidity (RHcr) and then abruptly jumps to a higher value at RHcr before approaching its upper limit at 100% relative humidity. A model based on a hierarchical rough surface topography is proposed, which quantitatively explains the experimental observations and predicts two threshold RH values, RHcr and RHdry, which define three adhesion regimes: (1) RHRHcr, water menisci freely form and spread along the interface between the rough surfaces.

  7. On surface clustering and Pauli principle effects in alpha decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holan, S.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of the correct description of nuclear surface region in alpha decay calculations is pointed out. A model is proposed takinq into account explicitly surface clustering and Pauli principle effects which are essential in this region. A method for solving the main integrodifferential equation of the model by using the oscillator shell basis and the Collatz method is worked out. The first numerical results are obtained for nonlocal potential of the atpha particle-daughter nucleus interaction

  8. Investigation of the Si(111) surface in uhv: oxidation and the effect of surface phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tom, H.W.K.; Zhu, X.D.; Shen, Y.R.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1984-06-01

    We have studied the initial stages of oxidation, the segregation of phosphorus, and the effect of phosphorus on oxidation of the Si(111) 7 x 7 surface using optical second-harmonic generation. We have also observed a (√3 x √3)R30 0 LEED pattern for P on Si

  9. The effect of surface modification on initial ice formation on aluminum surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Afshari, Alireza; Fojan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    material of heat exchanger fins is aluminum, this paper focuses on the effect of aluminum wettability on the initial stages of ice formation. The ice growth was studied on bare as well as hydrophilically and hydrophobically modified surfaces of aluminum (8011A) sheets, commonly used in heat exchangers...

  10. Effect of various tooth whitening modalities on microhardness, surface roughness and surface morphology of the enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, So Ran; Kurti, Steven R; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Li, Yiming

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of four whitening modalities on surface enamel as assessed with microhardness tester, profilometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Whitening was performed according to manufacturer's directions for over-the-counter (OTC), dentist dispensed for home use (HW) and in-office (OW) whitening. Do-it-yourself (DIY) whitening consisted of a strawberry and baking soda mix. Additionally, negative and positive controls were used. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for microhardness testing at baseline and post-whitening. Following microhardness testing specimens were prepared for SEM observations. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for surface roughness testing at baseline and post-whitening (n = 20 per group). Rank-based Analysis of Covariance was performed to compare microhardness and surface roughness changes. Tests of hypotheses were two-sided with α = 0.05. There was a significant difference in Knoop hardness changes (ΔKHN) among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p whitening modalities-DIY, OTC, HW and OW induced minimal surface morphology changes when observed with SEM. It can be concluded that none of the four whitening modalities adversely affected enamel surface morphology. However, caution should be advised when using a DIY regimen as it may affect enamel microhardness and an OTC product as it has the potential to increase surface roughness.

  11. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface planarization effect of siloxane derivatives in organic semiconductor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakanoue, Kei [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Harada, Hironobu; Ando, Kento [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yahiro, Masayuki [Institute of Systems, Information Technologies and Nanotechnologies, 2-1-22, Sawara-ku, Fukuoka 814-0001 (Japan); Fukai, Jun, E-mail: jfukai@chem-eng.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    The ability of siloxane surface control additives (SCAs) to planarize organic semiconductor films with a thickness of tens of nanometers printed on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces with stripe-patterned bank structures using a liquid-phase method is demonstrated. Three types of SCAs with different molecular structures are examined in organic solutions of toluene, anisole and tetralin containing N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine as a solute and typical organic semiconductor. While there is an optimum SCA and concentration for each solution, one type of SCA is comprehensively effective for all solutions. This SCA increased contact angle, which is contrary to the typical behavior of SCAs. Scanning electron microscope images of the thin films near the banks reveal that this SCA did not change the contact area between the film and substrate surface, which is related to the effectiveness of the SCA. SCAs did not affect the current–voltage characteristics of green organic light-emitting diodes, but did increase external quantum efficiencies, suggesting that SCAs can be used to improve the quality of solution-deposited films for use in optical devices. - Highlights: • Surface control additives planarize organic semiconductor films coated on surfaces. • The most effective additive increases the contact angle of solutions during drying. • The effect of additives is deduced from solutal Marangoni forces. • Additives have little effect on organic light-emitting diode performance.

  13. Surface planarization effect of siloxane derivatives in organic semiconductor layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Kei; Harada, Hironobu; Ando, Kento; Yahiro, Masayuki; Fukai, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The ability of siloxane surface control additives (SCAs) to planarize organic semiconductor films with a thickness of tens of nanometers printed on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces with stripe-patterned bank structures using a liquid-phase method is demonstrated. Three types of SCAs with different molecular structures are examined in organic solutions of toluene, anisole and tetralin containing N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine as a solute and typical organic semiconductor. While there is an optimum SCA and concentration for each solution, one type of SCA is comprehensively effective for all solutions. This SCA increased contact angle, which is contrary to the typical behavior of SCAs. Scanning electron microscope images of the thin films near the banks reveal that this SCA did not change the contact area between the film and substrate surface, which is related to the effectiveness of the SCA. SCAs did not affect the current–voltage characteristics of green organic light-emitting diodes, but did increase external quantum efficiencies, suggesting that SCAs can be used to improve the quality of solution-deposited films for use in optical devices. - Highlights: • Surface control additives planarize organic semiconductor films coated on surfaces. • The most effective additive increases the contact angle of solutions during drying. • The effect of additives is deduced from solutal Marangoni forces. • Additives have little effect on organic light-emitting diode performance.

  14. A Comprehensive Probabilistic Framework to Learn Air Data from Surface Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of probabilistic techniques has been demonstrated to learn air data parameters from surface pressure measurements. Integration of numerical models with wind tunnel data and sequential experiment design of wind tunnel runs has been demonstrated in the calibration of a flush air data sensing anemometer system. Development and implementation of a metamodeling method, Sequential Function Approximation (SFA, are presented which lies at the core of the discussed probabilistic framework. SFA is presented as a tool capable of nonlinear statistical inference, uncertainty reduction by fusion of data with physical models of variable fidelity, and sequential experiment design. This work presents the development and application of these tools in the calibration of FADS for a Runway Assisted Landing Site (RALS control tower. However, the multidisciplinary nature of this work is general in nature and is potentially applicable to a variety of mechanical and aerospace engineering problems.

  15. Student perceptions and effectiveness of an innovative learning tool: Anatomy Glove Learning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisk, Kristina; McKee, Pat; Baskwill, Amanda; Agur, Anne M R

    2015-01-01

    A trend in anatomical education is the development of alternative pedagogical approaches to replace or complement experiences in a cadaver laboratory; however, empirical evidence on their effectiveness is often not reported. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Anatomy Glove Learning System (AGLS), which enables students to learn the relationship between hand structure and function by drawing the structures onto a worn glove with imprinted bones. Massage therapy students (n = 73) were allocated into two groups and drew muscles onto either: (1) the glove using AGLS instructional videos (3D group); or (2) paper with palmar/dorsal views of hand bones during an instructor-guided activity (2D group). A self-confidence measure and knowledge test were completed before, immediately after, and one-week following the learning conditions. Self-confidence of hand anatomy in the 3D group gradually increased (3.2/10, 4.7/10, and 4.8/10), whereas self-confidence in the 2D group began to decline one-week later (3.2/10, 4.4/10, and 3.9/10). Knowledge of hand anatomy improved in both groups immediately after learning, (P learning tool (mean = 8.6 ± 2.2). This study provides evidence demonstrating that AGLS and the traditional 2D learning approach are equally effective in promoting students' self-confidence and knowledge of hand anatomy. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Effects of problem-based learning by learning style in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Su-Jin

    2012-12-01

    Although problem-based learning (PBL) has been popularized in many colleges, few studies have analyzed the relationship between individual differences and PBL. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between learning style and the perception on the effects of PBL. Grasha-Riechmann Student Learning Style Scales was used to assess the learning styles of 38 students at Ajou University School of Medicine who were enrolled in a respiratory system course in 2011. The data were analyzed by regression analysis and Spearman correlation analysis. By regression analysis, dependent beta=0.478) and avoidant styles (beta=-0.815) influenced the learner's satisfaction with PBL. By Spearman correlation analysis, there was significant link between independent, dependent, and avoidant styles and the perception of the effect of PBL. There are few significant relationships between learning style and the perception of the effects of PBL. We must determine how to teach students with different learning styles and the factors that influence PBL.

  17. Immobilization of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis onto polymeric membrane surfaces: effect of surface characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güleç, Hacı Ali

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of surface characteristics of plain and plasma modified cellulose acetate (CA) membranes on the immobilization yield of β-galactosidases from Kluyveromyces lactis (KLG) and its galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) yield, respectively. Low pressure plasma treatments involving oxygen plasma activation, plasma polymerization (PlsP) of ethylenediamine (EDA) and PlsP of 2-mercaptoethanol were used to modify plain CA membrane surfaces. KLG enzyme was immobilized onto plain and oxygen plasma treated membrane surfaces by simple adsorption. Oxygen plasma activation increased the hydrophylicity of CA membrane surfaces and it improved the immobilization yield of the enzyme by 42%. KLG enzyme was also immobilized onto CA membrane surfaces through amino groups created by PlsP of EDA via covalent binding. Plasma action at 60W plasma power and 15 min. exposure time improved the amount of membrane bounded enzyme by 3.5-fold. The enrichment of the amount of amino groups via polyethyleneimine (PEI) addition enhanced this increase from 3.5-fold to 4.5-fold. Although high enzyme loading was achived (65-83%), both of the methods dramatically decreased the enzyme activity (11-12%) and GOS yield due to probably negative effects of active amino groups. KLG enzyme was more effectively immobilized onto thiolated CA membrane surface created by PlsP of 2-mercaptoethanol with high immobilization yield (70%) and especially high enzyme activity (46%). Immobilized enzymes on the CA membranes treated by PlsP were successively reutilized for 5-8 cycles at 25°C and enzymatic derivatives retained approximately 75-80% of their initial activites at the end of the reactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of water table dynamics on land surface hydrologic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S.

    2010-11-01

    The representation of groundwater dynamics in land surface models has received considerable attention in recent years. Most studies have found that soil moisture increases after adding a groundwater component because of the additional supply of water to the root zone. However, the effect of groundwater on land surface hydrologic memory (persistence) has not been explored thoroughly. In this study we investigate the effect of water table dynamics on National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model hydrologic simulations in terms of land surface hydrologic memory. Unlike soil water or evapotranspiration, results show that land surface hydrologic memory does not always increase after adding a groundwater component. In regions where the water table level is intermediate, land surface hydrologic memory can even decrease, which occurs when soil moisture and capillary rise from groundwater are not in phase with each other. Further, we explore the hypothesis that in addition to atmospheric forcing, groundwater variations may also play an important role in affecting land surface hydrologic memory. Analyses show that feedbacks of groundwater on land surface hydrologic memory can be positive, negative, or neutral, depending on water table dynamics. In regions where the water table is shallow, the damping process of soil moisture variations by groundwater is not significant, and soil moisture variations are mostly controlled by random noise from atmospheric forcing. In contrast, in regions where the water table is very deep, capillary fluxes from groundwater are small, having limited potential to affect soil moisture variations. Therefore, a positive feedback of groundwater to land surface hydrologic memory is observed in a transition zone between deep and shallow water tables, where capillary fluxes act as a buffer by reducing high-frequency soil moisture variations resulting in longer land surface hydrologic memory.

  19. Implementation of a Surface Electromyography-Based Upper Extremity Exoskeleton Controller Using Learning from Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Ana M.; Sun, Tingxiao

    2018-01-01

    Upper-extremity exoskeletons have demonstrated potential as augmentative, assistive, and rehabilitative devices. Typical control of upper-extremity exoskeletons have relied on switches, force/torque sensors, and surface electromyography (sEMG), but these systems are usually reactionary, and/or rely on entirely hand-tuned parameters. sEMG-based systems may be able to provide anticipatory control, since they interface directly with muscle signals, but typically require expert placement of sensors on muscle bodies. We present an implementation of an adaptive sEMG-based exoskeleton controller that learns a mapping between muscle activation and the desired system state during interaction with a user, generating a personalized sEMG feature classifier to allow for anticipatory control. This system is robust to novice placement of sEMG sensors, as well as subdermal muscle shifts. We validate this method with 18 subjects using a thumb exoskeleton to complete a book-placement task. This learning-from-demonstration system for exoskeleton control allows for very short training times, as well as the potential for improvement in intent recognition over time, and adaptation to physiological changes in the user, such as those due to fatigue. PMID:29401754

  20. Implementation of a Surface Electromyography-Based Upper Extremity Exoskeleton Controller Using Learning from Demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chit Siu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Upper-extremity exoskeletons have demonstrated potential as augmentative, assistive, and rehabilitative devices. Typical control of upper-extremity exoskeletons have relied on switches, force/torque sensors, and surface electromyography (sEMG, but these systems are usually reactionary, and/or rely on entirely hand-tuned parameters. sEMG-based systems may be able to provide anticipatory control, since they interface directly with muscle signals, but typically require expert placement of sensors on muscle bodies. We present an implementation of an adaptive sEMG-based exoskeleton controller that learns a mapping between muscle activation and the desired system state during interaction with a user, generating a personalized sEMG feature classifier to allow for anticipatory control. This system is robust to novice placement of sEMG sensors, as well as subdermal muscle shifts. We validate this method with 18 subjects using a thumb exoskeleton to complete a book-placement task. This learning-from-demonstration system for exoskeleton control allows for very short training times, as well as the potential for improvement in intent recognition over time, and adaptation to physiological changes in the user, such as those due to fatigue.

  1. Exploring Machine Learning to Correct Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Saux Picart

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning techniques are attractive tools to establish statistical models with a high degree of non linearity. They require a large amount of data to be trained and are therefore particularly suited to analysing remote sensing data. This work is an attempt at using advanced statistical methods of machine learning to predict the bias between Sea Surface Temperature (SST derived from infrared remote sensing and ground “truth” from drifting buoy measurements. A large dataset of collocation between satellite SST and in situ SST is explored. Four regression models are used: Simple multi-linear regression, Least Square Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO, Generalised Additive Model (GAM and random forest. In the case of geostationary satellites for which a large number of collocations is available, results show that the random forest model is the best model to predict the systematic errors and it is computationally fast, making it a good candidate for operational processing. It is able to explain nearly 31% of the total variance of the bias (in comparison to about 24% for the multi-linear regression model.

  2. Self-organizing adaptive map: autonomous learning of curves and surfaces from point samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piastra, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Competitive Hebbian Learning (CHL) (Martinetz, 1993) is a simple and elegant method for estimating the topology of a manifold from point samples. The method has been adopted in a number of self-organizing networks described in the literature and has given rise to related studies in the fields of geometry and computational topology. Recent results from these fields have shown that a faithful reconstruction can be obtained using the CHL method only for curves and surfaces. Within these limitations, these findings constitute a basis for defining a CHL-based, growing self-organizing network that produces a faithful reconstruction of an input manifold. The SOAM (Self-Organizing Adaptive Map) algorithm adapts its local structure autonomously in such a way that it can match the features of the manifold being learned. The adaptation process is driven by the defects arising when the network structure is inadequate, which cause a growth in the density of units. Regions of the network undergo a phase transition and change their behavior whenever a simple, local condition of topological regularity is met. The phase transition is eventually completed across the entire structure and the adaptation process terminates. In specific conditions, the structure thus obtained is homeomorphic to the input manifold. During the adaptation process, the network also has the capability to focus on the acquisition of input point samples in critical regions, with a substantial increase in efficiency. The behavior of the network has been assessed experimentally with typical data sets for surface reconstruction, including suboptimal conditions, e.g. with undersampling and noise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Instructor Attractiveness on Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Richard; Millar, Murray; Walsh, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Although a considerable body of research has examined the impact of student attractiveness on instructors, little attention has been given to the influence of instructor attractiveness on students. This study tested the hypothesis that persons would perform significantly better on a learning task when they perceived their instructor to be high in physical attractiveness. To test the hypothesis, participants listened to an audio lecture while viewing a photograph of instructor. The photograph depicted either a physically attractive instructor or a less attractive instructor. Following the lecture, participants completed a forced choice recognition task covering material from the lecture. Consistent with the predictions; attractive instructors were associated with more learning. Finally, we replicated previous findings demonstrating the role attractiveness plays in person perception.

  4. Context effects on second-language learning of tonal contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Charles B; Bowles, Anita R

    2015-12-01

    Studies of lexical tone  learning generally focus on monosyllabic contexts, while reports of phonetic learning benefits associated with input variability are based largely on experienced learners. This study trained inexperienced learners on Mandarin tonal contrasts to test two hypotheses regarding the influence of context and variability on tone  learning. The first hypothesis was that increased phonetic variability of tones in disyllabic contexts makes initial tone  learning more challenging in disyllabic than monosyllabic words. The second hypothesis was that the learnability of a given tone varies across contexts due to differences in tonal variability. Results of a word learning experiment supported both hypotheses: tones were acquired less successfully in disyllables than in monosyllables, and the relative difficulty of disyllables was closely related to contextual tonal variability. These results indicate limited relevance of monosyllable-based data on Mandarin learning for the disyllabic majority of the Mandarin lexicon. Furthermore, in the short term, variability can diminish learning; its effects are not necessarily beneficial but dependent on acquisition stage and other learner characteristics. These findings thus highlight the importance of considering contextual variability and the interaction between variability and type of learner in the design, interpretation, and application of research on phonetic learning.

  5. Surface effects on the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Re; Li Xide; Feng Xiqiao; Qin Qinghua; Liu Jianlin

    2011-01-01

    Using the theory of surface elasticity, we investigate the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials. The classical theory of porous materials is modified to account for surface effects, which become increasingly important as the characteristic sizes of microstructures shrink to nanometers. First, a refined Timoshenko beam model is presented to predict the effective elastic modulus of nanoporous materials. Then the surface effects on the elastic microstructural buckling behavior of nanoporous materials are examined. In particular, nanoporous gold is taken as an example to illustrate the application of the proposed model. The results reveal that both the elastic modulus and the critical buckling behavior of nanoporous materials exhibit a distinct dependence on the characteristic sizes of microstructures, e.g. the average ligament width.

  6. Surface effects on the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Re [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Li Xide; Feng Xiqiao [AML, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qin Qinghua [School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Liu Jianlin, E-mail: fengxq@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266555 (China)

    2011-07-01

    Using the theory of surface elasticity, we investigate the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials. The classical theory of porous materials is modified to account for surface effects, which become increasingly important as the characteristic sizes of microstructures shrink to nanometers. First, a refined Timoshenko beam model is presented to predict the effective elastic modulus of nanoporous materials. Then the surface effects on the elastic microstructural buckling behavior of nanoporous materials are examined. In particular, nanoporous gold is taken as an example to illustrate the application of the proposed model. The results reveal that both the elastic modulus and the critical buckling behavior of nanoporous materials exhibit a distinct dependence on the characteristic sizes of microstructures, e.g. the average ligament width.

  7. The effects of different learning environments on students' motivation for learning and their achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien

    2013-09-01

    Research in higher education on the effects of student-centred versus lecture-based learning environments generally does not take into account the psychological need support provided in these learning environments. From a self-determination theory perspective, need support is important to study because it has been associated with benefits such as autonomous motivation and achievement. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of different learning environments on students' motivation for learning and achievement, while taking into account the perceived need support. First-year student teachers (N= 1,098) studying a child development course completed questionnaires assessing motivation and perceived need support. In addition, a prior knowledge test and case-based assessment were administered. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design was set up consisting of four learning environments: (1) lectures, (2) case-based learning (CBL), (3) alternation of lectures and CBL, and (4) gradual implementation with lectures making way for CBL. Autonomous motivation and achievement were higher in the gradually implemented CBL environment, compared to the CBL environment. Concerning achievement, two additional effects were found; students in the lecture-based learning environment scored higher than students in the CBL environment, and students in the gradually implemented CBL environment scored higher than students in the alternated learning environment. Additionally, perceived need support was positively related to autonomous motivation, and negatively to controlled motivation. The study shows the importance of gradually introducing students to CBL, in terms of their autonomous motivation and achievement. Moreover, the study emphasizes the importance of perceived need support for students' motivation. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  8. The Effect of Group Investigation Learning Model with Brainstroming Technique on Students Learning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astiti Kade kAyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of group investigation (GI learning model with brainstorming technique on student physics learning outcomes (PLO compared to jigsaw learning model with brainstroming technique. The learning outcome in this research are the results of learning in the cognitive domain. The method used in this research is experiment with Randomised Postest Only Control Group Design. Population in this research is all students of class XI IPA SMA Negeri 9 Kupang year lesson 2015/2016. The selected sample are 40 students of class XI IPA 1 as the experimental class and 38 students of class XI IPA 2 as the control class using simple random sampling technique. The instrument used is 13 items description test. The first hypothesis was tested by using two tailed t-test. From that, it is obtained that H0 rejected which means there are differences of students physics learning outcome. The second hypothesis was tested using one tailed t-test. It is obtained that H0 rejected which means the students PLO in experiment class were higher than control class. Based on the results of this study, researchers recommend the use of GI learning models with brainstorming techniques to improve PLO, especially in the cognitive domain.

  9. The Influence of Experience, Ability and Interest on e-Learning Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverila, Matti; Barkhi, Reza

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a research conducted to evaluate the effect of learning preconceptions, prior e-learning experience, ability and interest of students on their perceptions regarding the process of e-learning. We study the effectiveness of e-learning as it relates to the level of e-learning experience. The…

  10. Effects of a Cooperative Learning Strategy on the Effectiveness of Physical Fitness Teaching and Constraining Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui-Er Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cooperative learning and traditional learning on the effectiveness and constraining factors of physical fitness teaching under various teaching conditions were studied. Sixty female students in Grades 7–8 were sampled to evaluate their learning of health and physical education (PE according to the curriculum for Grades 1–9 in Taiwan. The data were quantitatively and qualitatively collected and analyzed. The overall physical fitness of the cooperative learning group exhibited substantial progress between the pretest and posttest, in which the differences in the sit-and-reach and bent-knee sit-up exercises achieved statistical significance. The performance of the cooperative learning group in the bent-knee sit-up and 800 m running exercises far exceeded that of the traditional learning group. Our qualitative data indicated that the number of people grouped before a cooperative learning session, effective administrative support, comprehensive teaching preparation, media reinforcement, constant feedback and introspection regarding cooperative learning strategies, and heterogeneous grouping are constraining factors for teaching PE by using cooperative learning strategies. Cooperative learning is considered an effective route for attaining physical fitness among students. PE teachers should consider providing extrinsic motivation for developing learning effectiveness.

  11. The effects of sleep deprivation on dissociable prototype learning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, W Todd; Glass, Brian D; Zeithamova, Dagmar; Savarie, Zachary R; Bowen, Christopher; Matthews, Michael D; Schnyer, David M

    2011-03-01

    The cognitive neural underpinnings of prototype learning are becoming clear. Evidence points to 2 different neural systems, depending on the learning parameters. A/not-A (AN) prototype learning is mediated by posterior brain regions that are involved in early perceptual learning, whereas A/B (AB) is mediated by frontal and medial temporal lobe regions. To investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on AN and AB prototype learning and to use established prototype models to provide insights into the cognitive-processing locus of sleep-deprivation deficits. Participants performed an AN and an AB prototype learning task twice, separated by a 24-hour period, with or without sleep between testing sessions. Eighteen West Point cadets participated in the sleep-deprivation group, and 17 West Point cadets participated in a control group. Sleep deprivation led to an AN, but not an AB, performance deficit. Prototype model analyses indicated that the AN deficit was due to changes in attentional focus and a decrease in confidence that is reflected in an increased bias to respond non-A. The findings suggest that AN, but not AB, prototype learning is affected by sleep deprivation. Prototype model analyses support the notion that the effect of sleep deprivation on AN is consistent with lapses in attentional focus that are more detrimental to AN than to AB. This finding adds to a growing body of work that suggests that different performance changes associated with sleep deprivation can be attributed to a common mechanism of changes in simple attention and vigilance.

  12. The effectiveness of a learning strategies program for university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roces Montero, Cristina; Sierra Y Arizmendiarrieta, Beatriz

    2017-11-01

    University lecturers often complain about their students’ lack of learning strategies, but not many universities in Spain offer specific courses in this area. Studies on their effectiveness are also rare. This study presents the results of a Learning Strategies Course implemented at the School of Teacher Training and Education, University of Oviedo, Spain. A quasi-experimental design was used with an experi-mental (n = 60) and a control group (n = 57) of students on the Educational Psychology course. A Spanish adaptation of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ): the CEAMR2 was used as a pre and post-test measure. Group A (EG) received training in learning strategies, while group B (CG) received no training. Post-test measures showed significant differences in five out of the ten learning strategies assessed: elaboration, organization, repetition, self-questioning and study space, and also an improvement in one out of the six motivational scales: control of learning beliefs. The results suggest that learning strategies courses with proven effectiveness should be offered to university students.

  13. Cohesion and coordination effects on transition metal surface energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvireta, Judit; Vega, Lorena; Viñes, Francesc

    2017-10-01

    Here we explore the accuracy of Stefan equation and broken-bond model semiempirical approaches to obtain surface energies on transition metals. Cohesive factors are accounted for either via the vaporization enthalpies, as proposed in Stefan equation, or via cohesive energies, as employed in the broken-bond model. Coordination effects are considered including the saturation degree, as suggested in Stefan equation, employing Coordination Numbers (CN), or as the ratio of broken bonds, according to the bond-cutting model, considering as well the square root dependency of the bond strength on CN. Further, generalized coordination numbers CN bar are contemplated as well, exploring a total number of 12 semiempirical formulations on the three most densely packed surfaces of 3d, 4d, and 5d Transition Metals (TMs) displaying face-centered cubic (fcc), body-centered cubic (bcc), or hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystallographic structures. Estimates are compared to available experimental surface energies obtained extrapolated to zero temperature. Results reveal that Stefan formula cohesive and coordination dependencies are only qualitative suited, but unadvised for quantitative discussion, as surface energies are highly overestimated, favoring in addition the stability of under-coordinated surfaces. Broken-bond cohesion and coordination dependencies are a suited basis for quantitative comparison, where square-root dependencies on CN to account for bond weakening are sensibly worse. An analysis using Wulff shaped averaged surface energies suggests the employment of broken-bond model using CN to gain surface energies for TMs, likely applicable to other metals.

  14. The development of the effective learning environment by creating an effective teaching in the classroom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchia Janita Prameswari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The changes in learning management typically involve the introduction of various alternative learning methods. The development of an effective learning experience requires the modification of conventional learning. Teaching and learning constructively synchronize instructions and assessment toward the desired learning outcomes. Notwithstanding the vast literature on the creation of effective learning, the lack of explanation on how the relationship between effective teaching and effective classroom would likely leave practitioners and academia without a clear guidance on how to operationalize the creation of effective learning in real life. A systematic literature review procedure was conducted upon published papers between 2007 and 2015 in outstanding education journals. This paper contributes to the literature by amassing the knowledge on pedagogical practices in effective learning creation. In addition, to obtain a granular elaboration about the matter, a framework to operationalize the creation of effective learning is suggested. Three aspects compose the framework namely teachers' intrinsic capabilities, educational institution support, and student’s participative involvement. The roles of each party were extracted from the knowledge contained in the reviewed literature.   This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

  15. Electrochemical Approach for Effective Antifouling and Antimicrobial Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaw, Sheng Long; Sarkar, Sujoy; Nir, Sivan; Schnell, Yafit; Mandler, Daniel; Xu, Zhichuan J; Lee, Pooi See; Reches, Meital

    2017-08-09

    Biofouling, the adsorption of organisms to a surface, is a major problem today in many areas of our lives. This includes: (i) health, as biofouling on medical device leads to hospital-acquired infections, (ii) water, since the accumulation of organisms on membranes and pipes in desalination systems harms the function of the system, and (iii) energy, due to the heavy load of the organic layer that accumulates on marine vessels and causes a larger consumption of fuel. This paper presents an effective electrochemical approach for generating antifouling and antimicrobial surfaces. Distinct from previously reported antifouling or antimicrobial electrochemical studies, we demonstrate the formation of a hydrogen gas bubble layer through the application of a low-voltage square-waveform pulses to the conductive surface. This electrochemically generated gas bubble layer serves as a separation barrier between the surroundings and the target surface where the adhesion of bacteria can be deterred. Our results indicate that this barrier could effectively reduce the adsorption of bacteria to the surface by 99.5%. We propose that the antimicrobial mechanism correlates with the fundamental of hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). HER leads to an arid environment that does not allow the existence of live bacteria. In addition, we show that this drought condition kills the preadhered bacteria on the surface due to water stress. This work serves as the basis for the exploration of future self-sustainable antifouling techniques such as incorporating it with photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical reactions.

  16. Effect of cathodic polarization on coating doxycycline on titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geißler, Sebastian; Tiainen, Hanna; Haugen, Håvard J., E-mail: h.j.haugen@odont.uio.no

    2016-06-01

    Cathodic polarization has been reported to enhance the ability of titanium based implant materials to interact with biomolecules by forming titanium hydride at the outermost surface layer. Although this hydride layer has recently been suggested to allow the immobilization of the broad spectrum antibiotic doxycycline on titanium surfaces, the involvement of hydride in binding the biomolecule onto titanium remains poorly understood. To gain better understanding of the influence this immobilization process has on titanium surfaces, mirror-polished commercially pure titanium surfaces were cathodically polarized in the presence of doxycycline and the modified surfaces were thoroughly characterized using atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and angle-resolved X-ray spectroscopy. We demonstrated that no hydride was created during the polarization process. Doxycycline was found to be attached to an oxide layer that was modified during the electrochemical process. A bacterial assay using bioluminescent Staphylococcus epidermidis Xen43 showed the ability of the coating to reduce bacterial colonization and planktonic bacterial growth. - Highlights: • Titanium hydride was found not to be involved in immobilization of doxycycline. • Doxycycline coating was strongly bound to a modified surface oxide layer. • Effect of coatings tested using a dynamic bacteria assay based on bioluminescence. • Topmost layer of adsorbed doxycycline was shown to have strong antibacterial effect.

  17. Effect of non-equilibrium flow chemistry and surface catalysis on surface heating to AFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.; Henline, William D.; Chen, Yih-Kanq

    1991-01-01

    The effect of nonequilibrium flow chemistry on the surface temperature distribution over the forebody heat shield on the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle was investigated using a reacting boundary-layer code. Computations were performed by using boundary-layer-edge properties determined from global iterations between the boundary-layer code and flow field solutions from a viscous shock layer (VSL) and a full Navier-Stokes solution. Surface temperature distribution over the AFE heat shield was calculated for two flight conditions during a nominal AFE trajectory. This study indicates that the surface temperature distribution is sensitive to the nonequilibrium chemistry in the shock layer. Heating distributions over the AFE forebody calculated using nonequilibrium edge properties were similar to values calculated using the VSL program.

  18. Doing Philosophy Effectively: Student Learning in Classroom Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienstra, Natascha; Imants, Jeroen; Karskens, Machiel; van der Heijden, Peter G M

    2015-01-01

    An important aim of teaching philosophy in Dutch secondary schools is to learn about philosophy (i.e., the great philosophers) by doing philosophy. We examined doing philosophy and focused specifically on the relationship between student learning activities and teacher behavior; in doing so, a qualitative cross-case analysis of eight philosophy lessons was performed. The effectiveness of doing philosophy was operationalized into five learning activities comprising rationalizing, analyzing, testing, producing criticism, and reflecting, and scored by means of qualitative graphical time registration. Using CA we find a quantitative one-dimensional scale for the lessons that contrasts lessons that are more and less effective in terms of learning and teaching. A relationship was found between teaching by teachers and doing philosophy by students. In particular we found students to produce a higher level of doing philosophy with teachers who chose to organize a philosophical discussion with shared guidance by the teacher together with the students.

  19. High fidelity simulation effectiveness in nursing students' transfer of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Tera R

    2013-07-13

    Members of nursing faculty are utilizing interactive teaching tools to improve nursing student's clinical judgment; one method that has been found to be potentially effective is high fidelity simulation (HFS). The purpose of this time series design study was to determine whether undergraduate nursing students were able to transfer knowledge and skills learned from classroom lecture and a HFS clinical to the traditional clinical setting. Students (n=42) were observed and rated on their ability to perform a respiratory assessment. The observations and ratings took place at the bedside, prior to a respiratory lecture, following the respiratory lecture, and following simulation clinical. The findings indicated that there was a significant difference (p=0.000) in transfer of learning demonstrated over time. Transfer of learning was demonstrated and the use of HFS was found to be an effective learning and teaching method. Implications of results are discussed.

  20. The effects of sea surface temperature gradients on surface turbulent fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, John

    A positive correlation between sea surface temperature (SST) and wind stress perturbation near strong SST gradients (DeltaSST) has been observed in different parts of the world ocean, such as the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic and the Kuroshio Extension east of Japan. These changes in winds and SSTs can modify near-surface stability, surface stress, and latent and sensible heat fluxes. In general, these small scale processes are poorly modeled in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and climate models. Failure to account for these air--sea interactions produces inaccurate values of turbulent fluxes, and therefore a misrepresentation of the energy, moisture, and momentum budgets. Our goal is to determine the change in these surface turbulent fluxes due to overlooking the correlated variability in winds, SSTs, and related variables. To model these air--sea interactions, a flux model was forced with and without SST--induced changes to the surface wind fields. The SST modification to the wind fields is based on a baroclinic argument as implemented by the University of Washington Planetary Boundary-Layer (UWPBL) model. Other input parameters include 2-m air temperature, 2-m dew point temperature, surface pressure (all from ERA--interim), and Reynolds Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST). Flux model runs are performed every 6 hours starting in December 2002 and ending in November 2003. From these model outputs, seasonal, monthly, and daily means of the difference between DeltaSST and no DeltaSST effects on sensible heat flux (SHF), latent heat flux (LHF), and surface stress are calculated. Since the greatest impacts occur during the winter season, six additional December-January-February (DJF) seasons were analyzed for 1987--1990 and 1999--2002. The greatest differences in surface turbulent fluxes are concentrated near strong SST fronts associated with the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Extension. On average, 2002---2003 DJF seasonal differences in SHF

  1. The powerful pulsed electron beam effect on the metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Yuferov, V.B.; Kosik, N.A.; Druj, O.S.; Skibenko, E.I.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental results of the influence of powerful pulsed electron beams on the surface structure,hardness and corrosion resistance of the Cr18ni10ti steel are presented. The experiments were carried out in the powerful electron accelerators of directional effect VGIK-1 and DIN-2K with an energy up to approx 300 KeV and a power density of 10 9 - 10 11 W/cm 2 for micro- and nanosecond range. The essential influence of the irradiation power density on the material structure was established. Pulsed powerful beam action on metallic surface leads to surface melting,modification of the structure and structure-dependent material properties. The gas emission and mass-spectrometer analysis of the beam-surface interaction were defined

  2. Semiconductor surface diffusion: Nonthermal effects of photon illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditchfield, R.; Llera-Rodriguez, D.; Seebauer, E. G.

    2000-01-01

    Nonthermal influences of photon illumination on surface diffusion at high temperatures have been measured experimentally. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors for diffusion of germanium, indium, and antimony on silicon change by up to 0.3 eV and two orders of magnitude, respectively, in response to illumination by photons having energies greater than the substrate band gap. The parameters decrease for n-type material and increase for p-type material. Aided by results from photoreflectance spectroscopy, we suggest that motion of the surface quasi-Fermi-level for minority carriers accounts for much of the effect by changing the charge states of surface vacancies. An additional adatom-vacancy complexation mechanism appears to operate on p-type substrates. The results have significant implications for aspects of microelectronics fabrication by rapid thermal processing that are governed by surface mobility. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  3. Internationalization's effect on marketing learning: a study of Syrian firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ibeh, Kevin; Kasem, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to understand the effects of international expansion on firms’ acquisition of marketing learning. This study’s focus on marketing learning complements previous research on the impact of internationalization on the development of foreign-market and technological knowledge. The research finds that the scope of a firm’s international activities, perception of gaps in marketing knowledge, and external social capital positively influence firms’ acquisition of market...

  4. Deposition of silver nanoparticles on titanium surface for antibacterial effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Juan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Liao Juan1, Zhu Zhimin3, Mo Anchun1,2, Li Lei1, Zhang Jingchao11State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, PR China; 2Department of Dental Implant, West China Stomatology Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, PR China; 3Department of Prosthodontics, West China Stomatology Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, PR ChinaAbstract: Microbial colonization on implanted devices and biofilm formation is a recurrent complication in implant surgery and may result in loss of implants. The aim of this study was to deposit silver nanoparticles on a titanium surface to obtain antibacterial properties. In the present study, we prepared a silver nanoparticle-modified titanium (Ti-nAg surface using silanization method. The morphology and chemical components of the Ti-nAg surface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Two species of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, were utilized to test the antibacterial effect of the Ti-nAg treated surface. The SEM examination revealed that a small quantity of silver nanoparticles was sparsely deposited on the titanium surface. The diameter of these nanoparticles ranged from ten to several hundred nm. EDS analyses revealed that there was 4.26% of Ag present on the surface. After a 24-hour incubation, 94% of Staphylococcus aureus and over 95% of Escherichia coli had been killed on the Ti-nAg surface, and the SEM examination of anti-adhesive efficacy test showed that there were less bacteria attached to Ti-nAg surface than to a control surface of untreated Titanium. These data suggest that silver nanoparticle-modified titanium is a promising material with an antibacterial property that may be used as an implantable biomaterial.Keywords: nano-silver, titanium, antibacterial activity, silanization method

  5. Effect of Macrogeometry on the Surface Topography of Dental Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, Marina Melo; Menezes, Helder Henrique Machado; Magalhães, Denildo; Ferreira, Jessica Afonso; Ribeiro, Sara Ferreira; de Mello, José Daniel Biasoli; Costa, Henara Lillian

    2015-01-01

    Because the microtopography of titanium implants influences the biomaterial-tissue interaction, surface microtexturing treatments are frequently used for dental implants. However, surface treatment alone may not determine the final microtopography of a dental implant, which can also be influenced by the implant macrogeometry. This work analyzed the effects on surface roughness parameters of the same treatment applied by the same manufacturer to implants with differing macro-designs. Three groups of titanium implants with different macro-designs were investigated using laser interferometry and scanning electron microscopy. Relevant surface roughness parameters were calculated for different regions of each implant. Two flat disks (treated and untreated) were also investigated for comparison. The tops of the threads and the nonthreaded regions of all implants had very similar roughness parameters, independent of the geometry of the implant, which were also very similar to those of flat disks treated with the same process. In contrast, the flanks and valleys of the threads presented larger irregularities (Sa) with higher slopes (Sdq) and larger developed surface areas (Sdr) on all implants, particularly for implants with threads with smaller heights. The flanks and valleys displayed stronger textures (Str), particularly on the implants with threads with larger internal angles. Parameters associated with the height of the irregularities (Sa), the slope of the asperities (Sdq), the presence of a surface texture (Str), and the developed surface area of the irregularities (Sdr) were significantly affected by the macrogeometry of the implants. Flat disks subjected to the same surface treatment as dental implants reproduced only the surface topography of the flat regions of the implants.

  6. Surface correlation effects in two-band strongly correlated slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, D Nasr; Covaci, L; Peeters, F M

    2014-02-19

    Using an extension of the Gutzwiller approximation for an inhomogeneous system, we study the two-band Hubbard model with unequal band widths for a slab geometry. The aim is to investigate the mutual effect of individual bands on the spatial distribution of quasi-particle weight and charge density, especially near the surface of the slab. The main effect of the difference in band width is the presence of two different length scales corresponding to the quasi-particle profile of each band. This is enhanced in the vicinity of the critical interaction of the narrow band where an orbitally selective Mott transition occurs and a surface dead layer forms for the narrow band. For the doped case, two different regimes of charge transfer between the surface and the bulk of the slab are revealed. The charge transfer from surface/center to center/surface depends on both the doping level and the average relative charge accumulated in each band. Such effects could also be of importance when describing the accumulation of charges at the interface between structures made of multi-band strongly correlated materials.

  7. Effects of XPS operational parameters on investigated sample surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrad, O.; Ismail, I.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we studied the effects of the operating conditions of the xray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis technique (XPS) on the investigated samples. Firstly, the performances of the whole system have been verified as well as the accuracy of the analysis. Afterwards, the problem of the analysis of insulating samples caused by the charge buildup on the surface has been studied. The use of low-energy electron beam (<100 eV) to compensate the surface charge has been applied. The effect of X-ray on the samples have been assessed and was found to be nondestructive within the analysis time. The effect of low- and high-energy electron beams on the sample surface have been investigated. Highenergy electrons were found to have destructive effect on organic samples. The sample heating procedure has been tested and its effect on the chemical stat of the surface was followed. Finally, the ion source was used to determine the elements distribution and the chemical stat of different depths of the sample. A method has been proposed to determine these depths (author).

  8. Turbulent lubrication theory considering the surface roughness effects, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Hiromu; Wada, Sanae; Kobayashi, Toshinobu.

    1990-01-01

    This second paper describes an application of the generalized turbulent lubrication theory considering the surface roughness effects, which is developed in the previous paper, to the finite-width journal bearings. In the numerical analysis, the nonlinear equations for the modified turbulence coefficients are simplified to save a computation time within a satisfactory accuracy under the assumption that the shear flow is superior to the pressure flow in the turbulent lubrication films. The numerical results of pressure distribution, Sommerfeld number, attitude angle, friction coefficient and flow rate for the Reynolds number of Re=2000, 5000 and 10000 are indicated in graphic form for various values of relative roughness, and the effects of surface roughness on these static performance characteristics are discussed. Moreover, the eccentricity ratio and attitude angle of the journal bearings with homogeneous rough surface are obtained experimentally for a wide range of Sommerfeld number, and the experimental results are compared with theoretical results. (author)

  9. Modality effects in implicit artificial grammar learning: An EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana; Folia, Vasiliki; Inácio, Filomena; Castro, São Luís; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2018-05-15

    Recently, it has been proposed that sequence learning engages a combination of modality-specific operating networks and modality-independent computational principles. In the present study, we compared the behavioural and EEG outcomes of implicit artificial grammar learning in the visual vs. auditory modality. We controlled for the influence of surface characteristics of sequences (Associative Chunk Strength), thus focusing on the strictly structural aspects of sequence learning, and we adapted the paradigms to compensate for known frailties of the visual modality compared to audition (temporal presentation, fast presentation rate). The behavioural outcomes were similar across modalities. Favouring the idea of modality-specificity, ERPs in response to grammar violations differed in topography and latency (earlier and more anterior component in the visual modality), and ERPs in response to surface features emerged only in the auditory modality. In favour of modality-independence, we observed three common functional properties in the late ERPs of the two grammars: both were free of interactions between structural and surface influences, both were more extended in a grammaticality classification test than in a preference classification test, and both correlated positively and strongly with theta event-related-synchronization during baseline testing. Our findings support the idea of modality-specificity combined with modality-independence, and suggest that memory for visual vs. auditory sequences may largely contribute to cross-modal differences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Operator learning effects in teleoperated rendezvous & docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, M.; Harder, J.; Purschke, R.

    Teleoperation of spacecraft proximity operations and docking requires delicate timing and coordination of spacecraft maneuvers. Experience has shown that human operators show large performance fluctuations in these areas, which are a major factor to be addressed in operator training. In order to allow the quantification of the impact of these human fluctuations on control system performance and the human perception of this performance, a learning curve study was conducted with teleoperated final approach and docking scenarios. Over a period of ten experiment days, three test participants were tasked with repeatedly completing a set of three training scenarios. The scenarios were designed to contain different combinations of the major elements of any final approach and docking situation, and to feature an increasing difficulty level. The individual difficulty levels for the three operators furthermore differed in the level of operator support functions available in their human-machine interfaces. Operator performance in the test scenarios were evaluated in the fields approach success and precision, docking safety, and approach efficiency by a combination of recorded maneuver data and questionnaires. The results show that operator experience and the associated learning curves increase operator performance substantially, regardless of the support system used. The paper also shows that the fluctuations in operator performance and self-perception are substantial between as well as within experiment days, and must be reckoned with in teleoperation system design and mission planning.

  11. The effect of negative performance stereotypes on learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Robert J; Rydell, Michael T; Boucher, Kathryn L

    2010-12-01

    Stereotype threat (ST) research has focused exclusively on how negative group stereotypes reduce performance. The present work examines if pejorative stereotypes about women in math inhibit their ability to learn the mathematical rules and operations necessary to solve math problems. In Experiment 1, women experiencing ST had difficulty encoding math-related information into memory and, therefore, learned fewer mathematical rules and showed poorer math performance than did controls. In Experiment 2, women experiencing ST while learning modular arithmetic (MA) performed more poorly than did controls on easy MA problems; this effect was due to reduced learning of the mathematical operations underlying MA. In Experiment 3, ST reduced women's, but not men's, ability to learn abstract mathematical rules and to transfer these rules to a second, isomorphic task. This work provides the first evidence that negative stereotypes about women in math reduce their level of mathematical learning and demonstrates that reduced learning due to stereotype threat can lead to poorer performance in negatively stereotyped domains. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Effects of regular aerobic exercise on visual perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Charlotte J W; Thompson, Benjamin; Green, Hayden; Sullivan, Rachel K; Gant, Nicholas

    2017-12-02

    This study investigated the influence of five days of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on the acquisition and consolidation of visual perceptual learning using a motion direction discrimination (MDD) task. The timing of exercise relative to learning was manipulated by administering exercise either before or after perceptual training. Within a matched-subjects design, twenty-seven healthy participants (n = 9 per group) completed five consecutive days of perceptual training on a MDD task under one of three interventions: no exercise, exercise before the MDD task, or exercise after the MDD task. MDD task accuracy improved in all groups over the five-day period, but there was a trend for impaired learning when exercise was performed before visual perceptual training. MDD task accuracy (mean ± SD) increased in exercise before by 4.5 ± 6.5%; exercise after by 11.8 ± 6.4%; and no exercise by 11.3 ± 7.2%. All intervention groups displayed similar MDD threshold reductions for the trained and untrained motion axes after training. These findings suggest that moderate daily exercise does not enhance the rate of visual perceptual learning for an MDD task or the transfer of learning to an untrained motion axis. Furthermore, exercise performed immediately prior to a visual perceptual learning task may impair learning. Further research with larger groups is required in order to better understand these effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. “GENIT” AS EFFECTIVE DESIGN OF LEARNING MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriadi Mardiki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two main approaches to using media in schools: students can learn "from" Media and technology, and they can learn "with" media and technology. The basis for The use of media and technology as a "tutor" in schools is "educational communication," that is the deliberate act of communicating content (teaching content for students by assuming that they will learn something "from" this communication, so communication is not again free but controlled and conditioned for educational purposes. Findings on the impact of technologybased instruction in education can be concluded that technology as a tutor has a positive effect on learning, one of them is the student can complete a set of educational goals in less time than necessary in a traditional approach. However, these two approaches only make the task become easier but do not activate and facilitate them to think critical and higher learning. “Media Genit” uses a new approach as an approach that can optimize perspective-based cognitive processes, constructivism, which constitutes an environment in which the student as a designer thinks creative about content combined with real-world tasks, student learning content, enjoy the learning process, and recognize that they have created something that is valuable.

  14. Surface effects on the propagation of sound in Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, K.; Woelfle, P.

    1981-01-01

    The propagation of sound in a resonator is discussed in both the normal and superfluid Fermi liquids. A set of model hydrodynamic equations is developed for describing the transition from the hydrodynamic regime to the collisionless regime. Surface effects are incorporated by using a slip boundary condition. The resonance condition for the sound propagation in a cylindrical resonator is derived

  15. Effects of rational surface density on resistive g turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beklemishev, A.D.; Sugama, H.; Horton, W.

    1993-01-01

    The Beklemishev-Horton theory states that the anomalous transport coefficient is proportional to the density of rational surfaces provided that the interaction between the modes localized around different rational surfaces is weak compared with modes of the same helicity. The authors examine the effects of the density of states ρ using resistive g turbulence in 2D (single-helicity) and 3D (multi-helicity) simulations. They find that the modes with different helicities do not equipartition the available energy, but rather the coalescence or inverse cascade effect is strong so that a few low order mode rational surfaces receive most of the energy. The quasilinear flattening at the surfaces is a strong effect and they use bifurcation theory to derive that the effective diffusivity increases as χ eff = χ 0 ρ/(1 - Cρ) where C is a constant determined by interaction integrals. For a sufficiently high density of states Cρ ≤ 1, the higher order nonlinear interaction must be taken into account

  16. Surface effects in the acetylation of granular potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Woortman, A.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of surface effects in the acetylation of granular potato starch with acetic anhydride to degrees of substitution 0.04-0.2 was studied by two different approaches. The first approach involved the fractionation of granular starch acetates into five different size classes and analysis of

  17. Surface and temperature effects in isovector giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipparini, E.; Stringari, S.

    1988-01-01

    Using the liquid droplet model (LDM) we investigate three different sum rules for the isovector dipole and monopole excitations. Analytical formulae are derived for the excitation energies of these resonances and the predictions are compared with experiments. The role of the surface and the effects of temperature are explicitly discussed. (orig.)

  18. The effect of surface albedo and grain size distribution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sand dams are very useful in arid and semi arid lands (ASALs) as facilities for water storage and conservation. Soils in ASALs are mainly sandy and major water loss is by evaporation and infiltration. This study investigated the effect of sand media characteristics, specifically surface albedo, grain size and stratification on ...

  19. The effect of stability treatmetn on the surface energetics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of stability treatmetn on the surface energetics of inhalation grade lactose. IP Okoye. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Physics Vol. 14 (1) 2008 pp.85-88. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. Effectiveness of hearing conservation program at a large surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study conducted to determine the effectiveness of a Hearing Conservation Programme (HcP) was conducted in a surface gold mining Company in Ghana. The procedure adopted included a retrospective review and comparison of individual Audiograms from 1999-2003. The analysis of data was based on 200 workers at ...

  1. Surface effects in adhesion, friction, wear, and lubrication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buckley, Donald H

    1981-01-01

    ... for carbon bodies to improve their wear resistance in high altitude aircraft generator applications. Basic researchers found that moisture in the carbon was critical t o its lubrication. Therefore, the presence of moisture o n the surface of the carbon was important. With it present, the carbon lubricated very effectively and very low wear was ...

  2. Effects of soil surface management practices on soil and tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects on soil, leaf and fruit element concentrations of organic (compost, straw mulch and hand weeding) and integrated (inorganic fertilisers and herbicide usage; IP) soil surface management practices in the tree rows, in combination with weed covers, cover crops and straw mulch in the work rows, were investigated in a ...

  3. Effectiveness of hearing conservation program at a large surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    African Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 14, Numbers 1-2, January-June 2007. 49. Effectiveness ... Programme (HcP) was conducted in a surface gold mining Company in Ghana. The ... The analysis of data was based on 200 workers at ..... Industry. New York Raven Press 1982. 9. Franks JR, Davis RR and Kreig EF jr.

  4. Depletion region surface effects in electron beam induced current measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Paul M.; Zhitenev, Nikolai B. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Yoon, Heayoung P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Gaury, Benoit [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Electron beam induced current (EBIC) is a powerful characterization technique which offers the high spatial resolution needed to study polycrystalline solar cells. Current models of EBIC assume that excitations in the p-n junction depletion region result in perfect charge collection efficiency. However, we find that in CdTe and Si samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, there is a reduced and nonuniform EBIC lineshape for excitations in the depletion region. Motivated by this, we present a model of the EBIC response for excitations in the depletion region which includes the effects of surface recombination from both charge-neutral and charged surfaces. For neutral surfaces, we present a simple analytical formula which describes the numerical data well, while the charged surface response depends qualitatively on the location of the surface Fermi level relative to the bulk Fermi level. We find that the experimental data on FIB-prepared Si solar cells are most consistent with a charged surface and discuss the implications for EBIC experiments on polycrystalline materials.

  5. EFFECT OF SURFACE CONDTIONINGON BOND STRENGTH TO ENAMEL AND DENTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M MOUSAVINASAB

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Compoglass is a trade mark of dental compomers and because of its partially resinus structure, surface conditioning of dental surfaces is needed for a better bonding process. In this study, the effect of enamel and dentin conditioning procedure on shear bond strength (SBS of compoglass to tooth surfaces was studied. Methods. four groups each one including 11 sound premolars were chosen and their surfaces were prepared as following groups: group1, unconitioned dentin; group 2, dentin conditioning with phosphoric acid 35%; group 3, dentin conditioning with polyacrylic acid 20% group 4, unconditioning enamel; group 5, enamel conditioning with phosphoric acid 35%; and group 6, enamel conditioning with polyacrylic acid 20%. Compoglass was bonded to prepared surfaces and after fixation of the samples in acrylic molds, all samples were tested under shear force of instron testing machine at a rate of 1 mm/min speed. Results. The mean SBS obtained in these 6 groups were 6.207, 8.057, 10.146, 25.939 and 11.827 mpa. the mode of fracture also studied using a streomicroscope. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the maximum SBS obtained in group 5 and the lowest SBS about 6.207 mpa obtained in group 1. Despite increase in SBS group 2 and 3, there was no statistical differncies between group 1, 2 and 3. Discussion. Based on results of this study, conditioning of enamel and dentin surface due to improve SBS is recommeneded.

  6. Simulations of surface stress effects in nanoscale single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadin, V.; Veske, M.; Vigonski, S.; Jansson, V.; Muszinsky, J.; Parviainen, S.; Aabloo, A.; Djurabekova, F.

    2018-04-01

    Onset of vacuum arcing near a metal surface is often associated with nanoscale asperities, which may dynamically appear due to different processes ongoing in the surface and subsurface layers in the presence of high electric fields. Thermally activated processes, as well as plastic deformation caused by tensile stress due to an applied electric field, are usually not accessible by atomistic simulations because of the long time needed for these processes to occur. On the other hand, finite element methods, able to describe the process of plastic deformations in materials at realistic stresses, do not include surface properties. The latter are particularly important for the problems where the surface plays crucial role in the studied process, as for instance, in the case of plastic deformations at a nanovoid. In the current study by means of molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element simulations we analyse the stress distribution in single crystal copper containing a nanovoid buried deep under the surface. We have developed a methodology to incorporate the surface effects into the solid mechanics framework by utilizing elastic properties of crystals, pre-calculated using MD simulations. The method leads to computationally efficient stress calculations and can be easily implemented in commercially available finite element software, making it an attractive analysis tool.

  7. Analysis of Surface Heterogeneity Effects with Mesoscale Terrestrial Modeling Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmer, C.

    2015-12-01

    An improved understanding of the full variability in the weather and climate system is crucial for reducing the uncertainty in weather forecasting and climate prediction, and to aid policy makers to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies. A yet unknown part of uncertainty in the predictions from the numerical models is caused by the negligence of non-resolved land surface heterogeneity and the sub-surface dynamics and their potential impact on the state of the atmosphere. At the same time, mesoscale numerical models using finer horizontal grid resolution [O(1)km] can suffer from inconsistencies and neglected scale-dependencies in ABL parameterizations and non-resolved effects of integrated surface-subsurface lateral flow at this scale. Our present knowledge suggests large-eddy-simulation (LES) as an eventual solution to overcome the inadequacy of the physical parameterizations in the atmosphere in this transition scale, yet we are constrained by the computational resources, memory management, big-data, when using LES for regional domains. For the present, there is a need for scale-aware parameterizations not only in the atmosphere but also in the land surface and subsurface model components. In this study, we use the recently developed Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform (TerrSysMP) as a numerical tool to analyze the uncertainty in the simulation of surface exchange fluxes and boundary layer circulations at grid resolutions of the order of 1km, and explore the sensitivity of the atmospheric boundary layer evolution and convective rainfall processes on land surface heterogeneity.

  8. Tunnel flexibility effect on the ground surface acceleration response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziar, Mohammad Hassan; Moghadam, Masoud Rabeti; Choo, Yun Wook; Kim, Dong-Soo

    2016-09-01

    Flexibility of underground structures relative to the surrounding medium, referred to as the flexibility ratio, is an important factor that influences their dynamic interaction. This study investigates the flexibility effect of a box-shaped subway tunnel, resting directly on bedrock, on the ground surface acceleration response using a numerical model verified against dynamic centrifuge test results. A comparison of the ground surface acceleration response for tunnel models with different flexibility ratios revealed that the tunnels with different flexibility ratios influence the acceleration response at the ground surface in different ways. Tunnels with lower flexibility ratios have higher acceleration responses at short periods, whereas tunnels with higher flexibility ratios have higher acceleration responses at longer periods. The effect of the flexibility ratio on ground surface acceleration is more prominent in the high range of frequencies. Furthermore, as the flexibility ratio of the tunnel system increases, the acceleration response moves away from the free field response and shifts towards the longer periods. Therefore, the flexibility ratio of the underground tunnels influences the peak ground acceleration (PGA) at the ground surface, and may need to be considered in the seismic zonation of urban areas.

  9. Effects of surface tension on tray point efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G.X.; Afacan, A.; Chuang, K.T. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada))

    1994-08-01

    Sieve tray efficiencies for the distillation of methanol/water, acetic acid/water, and cyclohexane/n-heptane mixtures were measured as a function of composition under fixed vapor and liquid rates in a 0.15 m diameter distillation column. The three binary distillation systems used in the study had a wide range of surface tensions measured as a function of composition. From the efficiencies measured, the number of vapor- and liquid-phase transfer units (Ng and Nl) was determined and the effects of surface tension on Ng and Nl were identified. To further verify the results obtained from the distillation column, bubble sizes in froths for air/water, air/methanol, and air/(water + surfactant) systems with different surface tensions were measured. The results show that surface tension has a significant effect on tray efficiency and the number of transfer units. Bubble sizes in the tray froths were mainly determined by surface tension, and bubble breakup and coalescence occur in the froths. 45 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Learning from Feedback: Spacing and the Delay-Retention Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Troy A.; Kimball, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Most modern research on the effects of feedback during learning has assumed that feedback is an error correction mechanism. Recent studies of feedback-timing effects have suggested that feedback might also strengthen initially correct responses. In an experiment involving cued recall of trivia facts, we directly tested several theories of…

  11. Learning in manufacturing organizations : what factors predict effectiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shipton, H.; Dawson, J.; West, M.A.; Patterson, M.G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues that it is possible to identify factors which pre-dispose organizations to adopt effective learning strategies and processes. It is hypothesized that effective OL is associated with: profitability, environmental uncertainty, structure, approach to HRM and quality orientation. The

  12. The effect of adventure-based experiential learning on personal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of Adventure-based Experiential Learning (AEL) in developing the personal effectiveness of adolescents. Twenty three adolescents, currently enrolled in a post-matriculation development centre were studied. The study consisted of an experimental (n=12) and ...

  13. Effects of Cooperative and Individualistic Learning Strategies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-02

    Oct 2, 2016 ... It was also found that numerical ability had a significant main effect on the ... are indispensable tools for geographers at different levels. .... analysis of the “Effect of face-to-face cooperative learning: Do recent studies falsify or.

  14. Broad Learning System: An Effective and Efficient Incremental Learning System Without the Need for Deep Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C L Philip; Liu, Zhulin

    2018-01-01

    Broad Learning System (BLS) that aims to offer an alternative way of learning in deep structure is proposed in this paper. Deep structure and learning suffer from a time-consuming training process because of a large number of connecting parameters in filters and layers. Moreover, it encounters a complete retraining process if the structure is not sufficient to model the system. The BLS is established in the form of a flat network, where the original inputs are transferred and placed as "mapped features" in feature nodes and the structure is expanded in wide sense in the "enhancement nodes." The incremental learning algorithms are developed for fast remodeling in broad expansion without a retraining process if the network deems to be expanded. Two incremental learning algorithms are given for both the increment of the feature nodes (or filters in deep structure) and the increment of the enhancement nodes. The designed model and algorithms are very versatile for selecting a model rapidly. In addition, another incremental learning is developed for a system that has been modeled encounters a new incoming input. Specifically, the system can be remodeled in an incremental way without the entire retraining from the beginning. Satisfactory result for model reduction using singular value decomposition is conducted to simplify the final structure. Compared with existing deep neural networks, experimental results on the Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology database and NYU NORB object recognition dataset benchmark data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed BLS.

  15. Integrative Student Learning: An Effective Team Learning Activity in a Learner-Centered Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karimi, RPh, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An Integrative Student Learning (ISL activity was developed with the intent to enhance the dynamic of student teamwork and enhance student learning by fostering critical-thinking skills, self-directed learning skills, and active learning. Case Study: The ISL activity consists of three portions: teambuilding, teamwork, and a facilitator driven “closing the loop” feedback discussion. For teambuilding, a set of clue sheets or manufacturer‘s drug containers were distributed among student pairs who applied their pharmaceutical knowledge to identify two more student pairs with similar clues or drugs, thus building a team of six. For teamwork, each team completed online exams, composed of integrated pharmaceutical science questions with clinical correlates, using only selected online library resources. For the feedback discussion, facilitators evaluated student impressions, opened a discussion about the ISL activity, and provided feedback to teams’ impressions and questions. This study describes three different ISL activities developed and implemented over three days with first year pharmacy students. Facilitators’ interactions with students and three surveys indicated a majority of students preferred ISL over traditional team activities and over 90% agreed ISL activities promoted active learning, critical-thinking, self-directed learning, teamwork, and student confidence in online library searches. Conclusions: The ISL activity has proven to be an effective learning activity that promotes teamwork and integration of didactic pharmaceutical sciences to enhance student learning of didactic materials and confidence in searching online library resources. It was found that all of this can be accomplished in a short amount of class time with a very reasonable amount of preparation.

  16. Integrative Student Learning: An Effective Team Learning Activity in a Learner-Centered Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An Integrative Student Learning (ISL activity was developed with the intent to enhance the dynamic of student teamwork and enhance student learning by fostering critical-thinking skills, self-directed learning skills, and active learning. Case Study: The ISL activity consists of three portions: teambuilding, teamwork, and a facilitator driven "closing the loop" feedback discussion. For teambuilding, a set of clue sheets or manufacturer's drug containers were distributed among student pairs who applied their pharmaceutical knowledge to identify two more student pairs with similar clues or drugs, thus building a team of six. For teamwork, each team completed online exams, composed of integrated pharmaceutical science questions with clinical correlates, using only selected online library resources. For the feedback discussion, facilitators evaluated student impressions, opened a discussion about the ISL activity, and provided feedback to teams' impressions and questions. This study describes three different ISL activities developed and implemented over three days with first year pharmacy students. Facilitators' interactions with students and three surveys indicated a majority of students preferred ISL over traditional team activities and over 90% agreed ISL activities promoted active learning, critical-thinking, self-directed learning, teamwork, and student confidence in online library searches. Conclusions: The ISL activity has proven to be an effective learning activity that promotes teamwork and integration of didactic pharmaceutical sciences to enhance student learning of didactic materials and confidence in searching online library resources. It was found that all of this can be accomplished in a short amount of class time with a very reasonable amount of preparation.   Type: Case Study

  17. Interfering effects of retrieval in learning new information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Bridgid; Roediger, Henry L

    2013-11-01

    In 7 experiments, we explored the role of retrieval in associative updating, that is, in incorporating new information into an associative memory. We tested the hypothesis that retrieval would facilitate incorporating a new contextual detail into a learned association. Participants learned 3 pieces of information-a person's face, name, and profession (in Experiments 1-5). In the 1st phase, participants in all conditions learned faces and names. In the 2nd phase, participants either restudied the face-name pair (the restudy condition) or were given the face and asked to retrieve the name (the test condition). In the 3rd phase, professions were presented for study just after restudy or testing. Our prediction was that the new information (the profession) would be more readily learned following retrieval of the face-name association compared to restudy of the face-name association. However, we found that the act of retrieval generally undermined acquisition of new associations rather than facilitating them. This detrimental effect emerged on both immediate and delayed tests. Further, the effect was not due to selective attention to feedback because we found impairment whether or not feedback was provided after the Phase 2 test. The data are novel in showing that the act of retrieving information can inhibit the ability to learn new information shortly thereafter. The results are difficult to accommodate within current theories that mostly emphasize benefits of retrieval for learning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacological effects of cannabinoids on learning and memory in Lymnaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takayuki; Hatakeyama, Dai; Lee, Sangmin; Forest, Jeremy; Sakakibara, Manabu; Ito, Etsuro; Lukowiak, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Cannabinoids are hypothesized to play an important role in modulating learning and memory formation. Here, we identified mRNAs expressed in Lymnaea stagnalis central nervous system that encode two G-protein-coupled receptors ( Lymnaea CBr-like 1 and 2) that structurally resemble mammalian cannabinoid receptors (CBrs). We found that injection of a mammalian CBr agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN 55) into the snail before operant conditioning obstructed learning and memory formation. This effect of WIN 55 injection persisted for at least 4 days following its injection. A similar obstruction of learning and memory occurred when a severe traumatic stimulus was delivered to L. stagnalis In contrast, injection of a mammalian CBr antagonist AM 251 enhanced long-term memory formation in snails and reduced the duration of the effects of the severe traumatic stressor on learning and memory. Neither WIN 55 nor AM 251 altered normal homeostatic aerial respiratory behaviour elicited in hypoxic conditions. Our results suggest that putative cannabinoid receptors mediate stressful stimuli that alter learning and memory formation in Lymnaea This is also the first demonstration that putative CBrs are present in Lymnaea and play a key role in learning and memory formation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Bacterial resistance of self-assembled surfaces using PPOm-b-PSBMAn zwitterionic copolymer - concomitant effects of surface topography and surface chemistry on attachment of live bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Sheng-Wen; Venault, Antoine; Yang, Hui-Shan; Chang, Yung

    2014-06-01

    Three well-defined diblock copolymers made of poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (poly(SBMA)) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) groups were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. They were physically adsorbed onto three types of surfaces having different topography, including smooth flat surface, convex surface, and indented surface. Chemical state of surfaces was characterized by XPS while the various topographies were examined by SEM and AFM. Hydrophilicity of surfaces was dependent on both the surface chemistry and the surface topography, suggesting that orientation of copolymer brushes can be tuned in the design of surfaces aimed at resisting bacterial attachment. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans and Escherichia coli with green fluorescent protein (E. coli GFP) were used in bacterial tests to assess the resistance to bacterial attachment of poly(SBMA)-covered surfaces. Results highlighted a drastic improvement of resistance to bacterial adhesion with the increasing of poly(SBMA) to PPO ratio, as well as an important effect of surface topography. The chemical effect was directly related to the length of the hydrophilic moieties. When longer, more water could be entrapped, leading to improved anti-bacterial properties. The physical effect impacted on the orientation of the copolymer brushes, as well as on the surface contact area available. Convex surfaces as well as indented surfaces wafer presented the best resistance to bacterial adhesion. Indeed, bacterial attachment was more importantly reduced on these surfaces compared with smooth surfaces. It was explained by the non-orthogonal orientation of copolymer brushes, resulting in a more efficient surface coverage of zwitterionic molecules. This work suggests that not only the control of surface chemistry is essential in the preparation of surfaces resisting bacterial attachment, but also the control of surface topography and orientation of antifouling

  20. Inverse design of nanostructured surfaces for color effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Johansen, Villads Egede; Friis, Kasper Storgaard

    2014-01-01

    We propose an inverse design methodology for systematic design of nanostructured surfaces for color effects. The methodology is based on a 2D topology optimization formulation based on frequency-domain finite element simulations for E and/or H polarized waves. The goal of the optimization...... is to maximize color intensity in prescribed direction(s) for a prescribed color (RGB) vector. Results indicate that nanostructured surfaces with any desirable color vector can be generated; that complex structures can generate more intense colors than simple layerings; that angle independent colorings can...

  1. Numerical study of aerodynamic effects on road vehicles lifting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernat, Mihail Victor; Cernat Bobonea, Andreea

    2017-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance analysis of road vehicles depends on the study of engine intake and cooling flow, internal ventilation, tire cooling, and overall external flow as the motion of air around a moving vehicle affects all of its components in one form or another. Due to the complex geometry of these, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flow and lifting surface shapes. The present study, however focuses on the effects of external aerodynamics only, and in particular on the flow over the lifting surfaces of a common compact car, designed especially for this study.

  2. Effects of ocean acidification on learning in coral reef fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud C O Ferrari

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification has the potential to cause dramatic changes in marine ecosystems. Larval damselfish exposed to concentrations of CO(2 predicted to occur in the mid- to late-century show maladaptive responses to predator cues. However, there is considerable variation both within and between species in CO(2 effects, whereby some individuals are unaffected at particular CO(2 concentrations while others show maladaptive responses to predator odour. Our goal was to test whether learning via chemical or visual information would be impaired by ocean acidification and ultimately, whether learning can mitigate the effects of ocean acidification by restoring the appropriate responses of prey to predators. Using two highly efficient and widespread mechanisms for predator learning, we compared the behaviour of pre-settlement damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis that were exposed to 440 µatm CO(2 (current day levels or 850 µatm CO(2, a concentration predicted to occur in the ocean before the end of this century. We found that, regardless of the method of learning, damselfish exposed to elevated CO(2 failed to learn to respond appropriately to a common predator, the dottyback, Pseudochromis fuscus. To determine whether the lack of response was due to a failure in learning or rather a short-term shift in trade-offs preventing the fish from displaying overt antipredator responses, we conditioned 440 or 700 µatm-CO(2 fish to learn to recognize a dottyback as a predator using injured conspecific cues, as in Experiment 1. When tested one day post-conditioning, CO(2 exposed fish failed to respond to predator odour. When tested 5 days post-conditioning, CO(2 exposed fish still failed to show an antipredator response to the dottyback odour, despite the fact that both control and CO(2-treated fish responded to a general risk cue (injured conspecific cues. These results indicate that exposure to CO(2 may alter the cognitive ability of juvenile fish and render

  3. Adaptive memory: animacy effects persist in paired-associate learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanArsdall, Joshua E; Nairne, James S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S; Cogdill, Mindi

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that animate stimuli are remembered better than matched inanimate stimuli. Two experiments tested whether this animacy effect persists in paired-associate learning of foreign words. Experiment 1 randomly paired Swahili words with matched animate and inanimate English words. Participants were told simply to learn the English "translations" for a later test. Replicating earlier findings using free recall, a strong animacy advantage was found in this cued-recall task. Concerned that the effect might be due to enhanced accessibility of the individual responses (e.g., animates represent a more accessible category), Experiment 2 selected animate and inanimate English words from two more constrained categories (four-legged animals and furniture). Once again, an advantage was found for pairs using animate targets. These results argue against organisational accounts of the animacy effect and potentially have implications for foreign language vocabulary learning.

  4. Effectiveness of Discovery Learning-Based Transformation Geometry Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriana, R.; Haryono, Y.; Yusri, R.

    2017-09-01

    Development of transformation geometry module is conducted because the students got difficulties to understand the existing book. The purpose of the research was to find out the effectiveness of discovery learning-based transformation geometry module toward student’s activity. Model of the development was Plomp model consisting preliminary research, prototyping phase and assessment phase. The research was focused on assessment phase where it was to observe the designed product effectiveness. The instrument was observation sheet. The observed activities were visual activities, oral activities, listening activities, mental activities, emotional activities and motor activities. Based on the result of the research, it is found that visual activities, learning activities, writing activities, the student’s activity is in the criteria very effective. It can be concluded that the use of discovery learning-based transformation geometry module use can increase the positive student’s activity and decrease the negative activity.

  5. Effects of a blended learning module on self-reported learning performances in baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Ling; Hsieh, Suh-Ing

    2011-11-01

    This article is a report of a quasi-experimental study of the effects of blended modules on nursing students' learning of ethics course content. There is yet to be an empirically supported mix of strategies on which a working blended learning model can be built for nursing education. This was a two-group pretest and post-test quasi-experimental study in 2008 involving a total of 233 students. Two of the five clusters were designated the experimental group to experience a blended learning model, and the rest were designated the control group to be given classroom lectures only. The Case Analysis Attitude Scale, Case Analysis Self-Evaluation Scale, Blended Learning Satisfaction Scale, and Metacognition Scale were used in pretests and post-tests for the students to rate their own performance. In this study, the experimental group did not register significantly higher mean scores on the Case Analysis Attitude Scale at post-test and higher mean ranks on the Case Analysis Self-Evaluation Scale, the Blended Learning Satisfaction Scale, and the Metacognition Scale at post-test than the control group. Moreover, the experimental group registered significant progress in the mean ranks on the Case Analysis Self-Evaluation Scale and the Metacognition Scale from pretest to post-test. No between-subjects effects of four scales at post-test were found. Newly developed course modules, be it blended learning or a combination of traditional and innovative components, should be tested repeatedly for effectiveness and popularity for the purpose of facilitating the ultimate creation of a most effective course module for nursing education. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Route-Learning and the Mozart Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Catherine S.; Tlauka, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The "Mozart effect" refers to an increase in spatial reasoning performance following exposure to music composed by Mozart. Empirical tests of the effect have resulted in an inconsistent pattern of findings with some studies producing the effect and others failing to do so. The majority of the investigations have relied on paper-and-pencil tests.…

  7. A theoretical model on surface electronic behavior: Strain effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, W.G.; Shaw, D.

    2009-01-01

    Deformation from mechanical loading can affect surface electronic behavior. Surface deformation and electronic behavior can be quantitatively expressed using strain and work function, respectively, and their experimental relationship can be readily determined using the Kelvin probing technique. However, the theoretical correlation between work function and strain has been unclear. This study reports our theoretical exploration, for the first time, of the effect of strain on work function. We propose a simple electrostatic action model by considering the effect of a dislocation on work function of a one-dimensional lattice and further extend this model to the complex conditions for the effect of dislocation density. Based on this model, we established successfully a theoretical correlation between work function and strain.

  8. Effect of surface topography upon micro-impact dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadpour, M; Morris, N J; Leighton, M; Rahnejat, H

    2016-01-01

    Often the effect of interactions at nano-scale determines the tribological performance of load bearing contacts. This is particularly the case for lightly loaded conjunctions where a plethora of short range kinetic interactions occur. It is also true of larger load bearing conjunctions where boundary interactions become dominant. At the diminutive scale of fairly smooth surface topography the cumulative discrete interactions give rise to the dominance of boundary effects rather than the bulk micro-scale phenomena, based on continuum mechanics. The integration of the manifold localized discrete interactions into a continuum is the pre-requisite to the understanding of characteristic boundary effects, which transcend the physical length scales and affect the key observed system attributes. These are energy efficiency and vibration refinement. This paper strives to present such an approach. It is shown that boundary and near boundary interactions can be adequately described by surface topographical measures, as well the thermodynamic conditions. (paper)

  9. Simulation of patient encounters using a virtual patient in periodontology instruction of dental students: design, usability, and learning effects in history-taking skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janda, M.S.; Mattheos, N.; Nattestad, A.

    2004-01-01

    computer-assisted learning, effectiveness of learning, health education, patient simulation, virtual patient......computer-assisted learning, effectiveness of learning, health education, patient simulation, virtual patient...

  10. Movement sonification: Effects on motor learning beyond rhythmic adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Oliver Effenberg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities, but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicate an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation there is nearly no evidence about enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports.Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error feedback in motor learning settings we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting participants were asked to

  11. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberg, Alfred O; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation, there is almost no evidence for enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap, movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports. Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system, we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training, synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error-feedback in motor learning settings, we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting, participants were asked to learn a closed

  12. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberg, Alfred O.; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation, there is almost no evidence for enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap, movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports. Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system, we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training, synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error-feedback in motor learning settings, we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting, participants were asked to learn a closed

  13. The Effect of Using Cooperative Learning Method on Tenth Grade Students' Learning Achievement and Attitude towards Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabgay, Tshewang

    2018-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of using cooperative learning method on tenth grade students' learning achievement in biology and their attitude towards the subject in a Higher Secondary School in Bhutan. The study used a mixed method approach. The quantitative component included an experimental design where cooperative learning was the…

  14. The Effect of Key-Words Video Captions on Vocabulary Learning through Mobile-Assisted Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Hassan Saleh

    2017-01-01

    Video captioning is a useful tool for vocabulary learning. In the literature, video captioning has been investigated by many studies, and the results indicated that video captioning is useful to foster vocabulary learning. However, most of the previous studies have investigated the effect of full captions on vocabulary learning. In addition, most…

  15. Ion beam effects on the surface and near-surface composition of TaSi2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeri, S.; Di Bona, A.; Ottaviani, G.; Procop, M.

    1991-01-01

    Low-energy (0.7-4.5 keV) ion bombardment effects on polycrystalline TaSi 2 at sputter steady state and in various intermediate steps have been investigated, in the temperature range up to 550degC, to determine the time and temperature dependence of the altered layer formation. This in turn enables a better knowledge of the synergistic effects of the processes mentioned above. At low temperatures (T≤410degC) the surface is silicon depleted, and the depletion is even more severe in the subsurface region up to a depth of several tens of angstroems; silicon preferential sputtering and radiation-enhanced segregation assisted by the displacement mixing-induced motion of atoms are assumed to be responsible for this composition profile, while thermally activated diffusion processes become operative above 410degC, reducing progressively the concentration gradient between the surface and the subsurface zone. The composition at different depths has been determined from Auger peaks for different kinetic energies, by varying the take-off angle and finally by sputter profiling at low in energy the high energy processed surfaces. Quantitative analysis has been performed by XPS and AES by using the elemental standard method. (orig.)

  16. Effect of remote clouds on surface UV irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deguenther, M.; Meerkoetter, R. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    2000-06-01

    Clouds affect local surface UV irradiance, even if the horizontal distance from the radiation observation site amounts to several kilometers. In order to investigate this effect, which we call remote clouds effect, a 3-dimensional radiative transfer model is applied. Assuming the atmosphere is subdivided into a quadratic based sector and its surrounding, we quantify the influence of changing cloud coverage within this surrounding from 0% to 100% on surface UV irradiance at the sector center. To work out this remote clouds influence as a function of sector base size, we made some calculations for different sizes between 10 km x 10 km and 100 km x 100 km. It appears that in the case of small sectors (base size {<=}20 km x 20 km) the remote clouds effect is highly variable: Depending on cloud structure, solar zenith angle and wavelength, the surface UV irradiance may be enhanced up to 15% as well as reduced by more than 50%. In contrast, for larger sectors it is always the case that enhancements become smaller by 5% if sector base size exceeds 60 km x 60 km. However, these values are upper estimates of the remote cloud effects and they are found only for special cloud structures. Since these structures might occur but cannot be regarded as typical, different satellite observed cloud formations (horizontal resolution about 1 km x 1 km) have also been investigated. For these more common cloud distributions we find remote cloud effects to be distinctly smaller than the corresponding upper estimates, e.g., for a sector with base size of 25 km x 25 km the surface UV irradiance error due to ignoring the actual remote clouds and replacing their influence with periodic horizontal boundary conditions is less than 3%, whereas the upper estimate of remote clouds effect would suggest an error close to 10%. (orig.)

  17. SURFACE DENSITY EFFECTS IN QUENCHING: CAUSE OR EFFECT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-12-10

    There are very strong observed correlations between the specific star formation rates (sSFRs) of galaxies and their mean surface mass densities, Σ, as well as other aspects of their internal structure. These strong correlations have often been taken to argue that the internal structure of a galaxy must play a major physical role, directly or indirectly, in the control of star formation. In this paper we show by means of a very simple toy model that these correlations can arise naturally without any such physical role once the observed evolution of the size–mass relation for star-forming galaxies is taken into account. In particular, the model reproduces the sharp threshold in Σ between galaxies that are star-forming and those that are quenched and the evolution of this threshold with redshift. Similarly, it produces iso-quenched-fraction contours in the f {sub Q}( m , R {sub e}) plane that are almost exactly parallel to lines of constant Σ for centrals and shallower for satellites. It does so without any dependence on quenching on size or Σ and without invoking any differences between centrals and satellites, beyond the different mass dependences of their quenching laws. The toy model also reproduces several other observations, including the sSFR gradients within galaxies and the appearance of inside-out build-up of passive galaxies. Finally, it is shown that curvature in the main-sequence sSFR–mass relation can produce curvature in the apparent B / T ratios with mass. Our analysis therefore suggests that many of the strong correlations that are observed between galaxy structure and sSFR may well be a consequence of things unrelated to quenching and should not be taken as evidence of the physical processes that drive quenching.

  18. Effects of sulfate ligand on uranyl carbonato surface species on ferrihydrite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yuji; Fuller, C C

    2012-01-01

    Understanding uranium (U) sorption processes in permeable reactive barriers (PRB) are critical in modeling reactive transport for evaluating PRB performance at the Fry Canyon demonstration site in Utah, USA. To gain insight into the U sequestration mechanism in the amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide (AFO)-coated gravel PRB, U(VI) sorption processes on ferrihydrite surfaces were studied in 0.01 M Na(2)SO(4) solutions to simulate the major chemical composition of U-contaminated groundwater (i.e., [SO(4)(2-)] ~13 mM L(-1)) at the site. Uranyl sorption was greater at pH 7.5 than that at pH 4 in both air- and 2% pCO(2)-equilibrated systems. While there were negligible effects of sulfate ligands on the pH-dependent U(VI) sorption (carbonato U(VI) ternary surface species became more important. At 2% pCO(2), there was no contribution of sulfate ligands on the U(VI) ternary surface species. Instead, a mixture of bis-carbonato inner-sphere (38%) and tris-carbonato outer-sphere U(VI) ternary surface species (62%) was found at pH 7.62. The study suggests that the competitive ligand (bicarbonate and sulfate) coordination on U(VI) surface species might be important in evaluating the U solid-state speciation in the AFO PRB at the study site where pCO(2) fluctuates between 1 and 2 pCO(2)%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Semantic Web Based Learning on Pre-Service Teachers' ICT Learning Achievement and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalar, Halit; Korucu, Agah Tugrul

    2016-01-01

    Although the Semantic Web offers many opportunities for learners, effects of it in the classroom is not well known. Therefore, in this study explanations have been stated as how the learning objects defined by means of using the terminology in a developed ontology and kept in objects repository should be presented to learners with the aim of…

  20. An Exploration of the Attitude and Learning Effectiveness of Business College Students towards Game Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiung-Sui; Huang, Ya-Ping; Chien, Fei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitude and learning effectiveness in game based simulations from college students' perspective. The participants included 189 business college students in Taiwan. The main instrument employed in this study was McDonald's video game. Additionally, participant selection, data collection and analysis, and results…

  1. Effects of observational learning on students' use of and attitude towards reading and learning strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kniep, J.; Janssen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that observation can be effective for learning in various domains, for instance writing, reading and creative art work. By observing models at work, students may develop strategic knowledge and they may also change their conception of what the modeled skill involves. The

  2. Developing an instrument to measure effective factors on Clinical Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadgaran, Ideh; Shirazi, Mandana; Mohammadi, Aeen; Ravari, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Although nursing students spend a large part of their learning period in the clinical environment, clinical learning has not been perceived by its nature yet. To develop an instrument to measure effective factors on clinical learning in nursing students. This is a mixed methods study performed in 2 steps. First, the researchers defined "clinical learning" in nursing students through qualitative content analysis and designed items of the questionnaire based on semi-structured individual interviews with nursing students. Then, as the second step, psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated using the face validity, content validity, construct validity, and internal consistency evaluated on 227 students from fourth or higher semesters. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed, and then, they were analyzed using Max Qualitative Data Analysis and all of qualitative data were analyzed using SPSS 14. To do the study, we constructed the preliminary questionnaire containing 102 expressions. After determination of face and content validities by qualitative and quantitative approaches, the expressions of the questionnaire were reduced to 45. To determine the construct validity, exploratory factor analysis was applied. The results indicated that the maximum variance percentage (40.55%) was defined by the first 3 factors while the rest of the total variance percentage (59.45%) was determined by the other 42 factors. Results of exploratory factor analysis of this questionnaire indicated the presence of 3 instructor-staff, students, and educational related factors. Finally, 41 expressions were kept in 3 factor groups. The α-Cronbach coefficient (0.93) confirmed the high internal consistency of the questionnaire. Results indicated that the prepared questionnaire was an efficient instrument in the study of the effective factors on clinical learning as viewed by nursing students since it involves 41 expressions and properties such as instrument design based

  3. Drinking songs: alcohol effects on learned song of zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Olson

    Full Text Available Speech impairment is one of the most intriguing and least understood effects of alcohol on cognitive function, largely due to the lack of data on alcohol effects on vocalizations in the context of an appropriate experimental model organism. Zebra finches, a representative songbird and a premier model for understanding the neurobiology of vocal production and learning, learn song in a manner analogous to how humans learn speech. Here we show that when allowed access, finches readily drink alcohol, increase their blood ethanol concentrations (BEC significantly, and sing a song with altered acoustic structure. The most pronounced effects were decreased amplitude and increased entropy, the latter likely reflecting a disruption in the birds' ability to maintain the spectral structure of song under alcohol. Furthermore, specific syllables, which have distinct acoustic structures, were differentially influenced by alcohol, likely reflecting a diversity in the neural mechanisms required for their production. Remarkably, these effects on vocalizations occurred without overt effects on general behavioral measures, and importantly, they occurred within a range of BEC that can be considered risky for humans. Our results suggest that the variable effects of alcohol on finch song reflect differential alcohol sensitivity of the brain circuitry elements that control different aspects of song production. They also point to finches as an informative model for understanding how alcohol affects the neuronal circuits that control the production of learned motor behaviors.

  4. Theory of inelastic effects in resonant atom-surface scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    The progress of theoretical and experimental developments in atom-surface scattering is briefly reviewed. The formal theory of atom-surface resonant scattering is reviewed and expanded, with both S and T matrix approaches being explained. The two-potential formalism is shown to be useful for dealing with the problem in question. A detailed theory based on the S-matrix and the two-potential formalism is presented. This theory takes account of interactions between the incident atoms and the surface phonons, with resonant effects being displayed explicitly. The Debye-Waller attenuation is also studied. The case in which the atom-surface potential is divided into an attractive part V/sub a/ and a repulsive part V/sub r/ is considered at length. Several techniques are presented for handling the scattering due to V/sub r/, for the case in which V/sub r/ is taken to be the hard corrugated surface potential. The theory is used to calculate the scattered intensities for the system 4 He/LiF(001). A detailed comparison with experiment is made, with polar scans, azimuthal scans, and time-of-flight measurements being considered. The theory is seen to explain the location and signature of resonant features, and to provide reasonable overall agreement with the experimental results

  5. Effect of Royal Jelly on Improving Passive Avoidance Learning and Spatial Learning and Memory in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Alaei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have proposed that royal jelly(RJ has various biological activities in different cells and tissues. Since it has been demonstrated that RJ contains compounds having desirable effects on central neurons system and neural functions, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of royal jelly on learning and memory in rats. Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into two groups, the royal jelly and the control. In the RJ group, the rats received a food that contained 3% RJ instead of regular food for 10 days. Then learning and memory were investigated in these animals through both passive avoidance learning test(1 day and 1 week after receiving electrical shock and Morris water maze test(1 day and 1 week after a 4-day learning period. Results: The study results indicated that the food containing RJ in the RJ group significantly increased the time of the first entrance to the dark room one week after the electrical shock in passive avoidance learning test. In other words, the findings suggest an improvement of learning and memory in RJ group. In the acquisition phase of Morris water maze test, rats receiving RJ found the underwater escape plate during less time and distance comparing with the control group. Furthermore, one week after the acquisition phase, in the retention phase, rats spent more time in the quadrant in which the escape plate was previously located. Conclusion: The present study findings propose that Royal Jelly can improve cognitive processes through positive effects on neural functions and probably has a significant influence on prevention and therapy of some neuronal disorders.

  6. Is the Mobile Based Learning Can Be Effective in Academic Learning? A Study to Check if Mobile-Based Learning Is Desirable in Presenting Educational Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosalanejad, Leili; Najafipour, Sedighe; Dastpak, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Mobile technology has made the effective possibility of using technology to support education and learning in universities and colleges in a way that it makes better chance of e-learning. While mobile devices are becoming increasingly utilized, many researchers and practitioners have incorporated m- learning into educational environments. The aim…

  7. The Effect of Blended Learning and Social Media-Supported Learning on the Students' Attitude and Self-Directed Learning Skills in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgunduz, Devrim; Akinoglu, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of blended learning and social media supported learning on the students' attitude and self-directed learning skills in Science Education. This research took place with the 7th grade 74 students attending to a primary school in Kadikoy, Istanbul and carried out "Our Body Systems"…

  8. Job-demand for learning and job-related learning: the mediating effect of job performance improvement initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, M; Bartram, T

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether job-performance-improvementinitiatives mediate the relationship between individuals’ job-demand for learning and job-related learning. Data were obtained from 115 full-time\\ud employees in a diverse range of occupations. A partial least squares analysis revealed that job-performance-improvement-initiatives mediate partially the effects of job-demand for learning on job-related learning. Several implications\\ud for future research and policy are drawn from the findi...

  9. The other-race effect in face learning: Using naturalistic images to investigate face ethnicity effects in a learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, William G; Favelle, Simone K; Oxner, Matt; Chu, Ming Hon; Lam, Sze Man

    2017-05-01

    The other-race effect in face identification has been reported in many situations and by many different ethnicities, yet it remains poorly understood. One reason for this lack of clarity may be a limitation in the methodologies that have been used to test it. Experiments typically use an old-new recognition task to demonstrate the existence of the other-race effect, but such tasks are susceptible to different social and perceptual influences, particularly in terms of the extent to which all faces are equally individuated at study. In this paper we report an experiment in which we used a face learning methodology to measure the other-race effect. We obtained naturalistic photographs of Chinese and Caucasian individuals, which allowed us to test the ability of participants to generalize their learning to new ecologically valid exemplars of a face identity. We show a strong own-race advantage in face learning, such that participants required many fewer trials to learn names of own-race individuals than those of other-race individuals and were better able to identify learned own-race individuals in novel naturalistic stimuli. Since our methodology requires individuation of all faces, and generalization over large image changes, our finding of an other-race effect can be attributed to a specific deficit in the sensitivity of perceptual and memory processes to other-race faces.

  10. Is an Illustration Always Worth Ten Thousand Words? Effects of Prior Knowledge, Learning Style and Multimedia Illustrations on Text Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerenshaw, Alison; Aidman, Eugene; Kidd, Garry

    1997-01-01

    This study examined comprehension in four groups of undergraduates under text only, multimedia, and two diagram conditions of text supplementation. Results indicated that effects of text supplementation are mediated by prior knowledge and learning style: multimedia appears more beneficial to surface learners with little prior knowledge and makes…

  11. Designing effective eLearning for healthcare professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delf, P.

    2013-01-01

    Overview: eLearning has been identified as a versatile, economic method of delivering education, adopted by many education providers. Yet, little research has been undertaken into its impact as a sole method of delivery and effectiveness for imparting new knowledge or skills. This may have particular implications for busy healthcare practitioners wishing to access an educational programme to maintain, or extend their knowledge base in response to service needs. Aims and methodology: Following an action research approach and using an instructional design methodology, a discrete eLearning resource was devised and constructed to prepare non-medical healthcare practitioners to report radionuclide bone scans. Volunteers were recruited from across the UK to assess and establish the feasibility and efficacy of the module. Results: In terms of versatility, access, design and content, the module achieved resonance, with knowledge gains and transferability demonstrated, particularly amongst less experienced volunteers, suggesting a positive influence of the eLearning approach. Conclusions: Owing to the small-scale nature of the study, the capability of eLearning, as a sole educational medium to establish emergent skills, can only be cautiously expressed. However, as a tool for blended learning, continuing professional development, or audit purposes, it demonstrated its potential, confirming the place for this type of resource within the professional learning arena

  12. Effects of intrinsic motivation on feedback processing during learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasque, Samantha; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Learning commonly requires feedback about the consequences of one's actions, which can drive learners to modify their behavior. Motivation may determine how sensitive an individual might be to such feedback, particularly in educational contexts where some students value academic achievement more than others. Thus, motivation for a task might influence the value placed on performance feedback and how effectively it is used to improve learning. To investigate the interplay between intrinsic motivation and feedback processing, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during feedback-based learning before and after a novel manipulation based on motivational interviewing, a technique for enhancing treatment motivation in mental health settings. Because of its role in the reinforcement learning system, the striatum is situated to play a significant role in the modulation of learning based on motivation. Consistent with this idea, motivation levels during the task were associated with sensitivity to positive versus negative feedback in the striatum. Additionally, heightened motivation following a brief motivational interview was associated with increases in feedback sensitivity in the left medial temporal lobe. Our results suggest that motivation modulates neural responses to performance-related feedback, and furthermore that changes in motivation facilitate processing in areas that support learning and memory. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. [Contract learning: effects of professionalization on the student nurse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubin, Patricia

    2013-03-01

    The reengineering of nurse training implies the implementation of self-development, empowering tools and a reshaping of the function of accompaniment during training which becomes a shared function. This work is part of a psycho-socio-educational approach of the accompaniment to self-directed learning and also in the field of practices of health and social work. This study contributes to the identification of the conditions of efficiency of contracting between student nurses, tutors and instructors. It aims to explore the interest of a triangular steering of the learning contract centered on the student's individual project and also the interest of meetings during training as triggers to a process of self-construction of competences. Moreover, the study aims to identify the effects of contract on professionalization. Our study reverts to the basic question of learning by contract as a pillar for the self-directed learning in an alternating training context. The empirical approach takes into account a qualitative study carried out with 15 people (tutors, managers, student nurses and instructors) in 3 health care structures and a quantitative study based on 78 first year students, 106 second year students, and 47 third year students at the same nursing education institute. The study shows that learning by contract is empowering and professionalizing, if the student is placed in favorable conditions of learning and contractual relationship.

  14. Effects of Intrinsic Motivation on Feedback Processing During Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasque, Samantha; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Learning commonly requires feedback about the consequences of one’s actions, which can drive learners to modify their behavior. Motivation may determine how sensitive an individual might be to such feedback, particularly in educational contexts where some students value academic achievement more than others. Thus, motivation for a task might influence the value placed on performance feedback and how effectively it is used to improve learning. To investigate the interplay between intrinsic motivation and feedback processing, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during feedback-based learning before and after a novel manipulation based on motivational interviewing, a technique for enhancing treatment motivation in mental health settings. Because of its role in the reinforcement learning system, the striatum is situated to play a significant role in the modulation of learning based on motivation. Consistent with this idea, motivation levels during the task were associated with sensitivity to positive versus negative feedback in the striatum. Additionally, heightened motivation following a brief motivational interview was associated with increases in feedback sensitivity in the left medial temporal lobe. Our results suggest that motivation modulates neural responses to performance-related feedback, and furthermore that changes in motivation facilitates processing in areas that support learning and memory. PMID:26112370

  15. Effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, K. J., E-mail: gd130056@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Wahab, M. A. A., E-mail: cd110006@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Mahmod, S., E-mail: cd110201@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Idris, M. I., E-mail: izwana@uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Alkali and heat treatments were first introduced by Kim et al. to prepare a bioactive surface on titanium. This method has been proven very effective and widely used in other studies to promote titanium osteointegration. This study aims to investigate further the effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of high purity titanium. High purity titanium foils were immersed in NaOH aqueous solutions of 0.5 M, 5 M and 15 M at 60°C and 80 °C for 1, 3 and 7 days. The surface morphology was examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The obtained phases were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the spectra range of 4000-600 cm{sup −1} at 4 cm{sup −1} resolution and 50 scans. At the same soaking temperature and soaking time, a thicker porous network was observed with increasing concentration of NaOH. At the same soaking temperature, a much porous structure was observed with increasing soaking time. At constant alkali concentration, more homogenously distributed porous surface structure was observed with increasing soaking temperature.

  16. Horizon effects with surface waves on moving water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseaux, Germain; Maissa, Philippe; Mathis, Christian; Coullet, Pierre [Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Laboratoire J-A Dieudonne, UMR CNRS-UNS 6621, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 02 (France); Philbin, Thomas G; Leonhardt, Ulf, E-mail: Germain.Rousseaux@unice.f [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    Surface waves on a stationary flow of water are considered in a linear model that includes the surface tension of the fluid. The resulting gravity-capillary waves experience a rich array of horizon effects when propagating against the flow. In some cases, three horizons (points where the group velocity of the wave reverses) exist for waves with a single laboratory frequency. Some of these effects are familiar in fluid mechanics under the name of wave blocking, but other aspects, in particular waves with negative co-moving frequency and the Hawking effect, were overlooked until surface waves were investigated as examples of analogue gravity (Schuetzhold R and Unruh W G 2002 Phys. Rev. D 66 044019). A comprehensive presentation of the various horizon effects for gravity-capillary waves is given, with emphasis on the deep water/ short wavelength case kh>>1, where many analytical results can be derived. A similarity of the state space of the waves to that of a thermodynamic system is pointed out.

  17. A Generic Deep-Learning-Based Approach for Automated Surface Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ruoxu; Hung, Terence; Tan, Kay Chen

    2018-03-01

    Automated surface inspection (ASI) is a challenging task in industry, as collecting training dataset is usually costly and related methods are highly dataset-dependent. In this paper, a generic approach that requires small training data for ASI is proposed. First, this approach builds classifier on the features of image patches, where the features are transferred from a pretrained deep learning network. Next, pixel-wise prediction is obtained by convolving the trained classifier over input image. An experiment on three public and one industrial data set is carried out. The experiment involves two tasks: 1) image classification and 2) defect segmentation. The results of proposed algorithm are compared against several best benchmarks in literature. In the classification tasks, the proposed method improves accuracy by 0.66%-25.50%. In the segmentation tasks, the proposed method reduces error escape rates by 6.00%-19.00% in three defect types and improves accuracies by 2.29%-9.86% in all seven defect types. In addition, the proposed method achieves 0.0% error escape rate in the segmentation task of industrial data.

  18. Effective slip lengths for flows over surfaces with nanobubbles: the effects of finite slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendy, S C; Lund, N J

    2009-01-01

    We consider effective slip lengths for flows of simple liquids over surfaces contaminated by gaseous nanobubbles. In particular, we examine whether the effects of finite slip over the liquid-bubble interface are important in limiting effective slip lengths over such surfaces. Using an expression that interpolates between the perfect slip and finite slip regimes for flow over bubbles, we conclude that for the bubble dimensions and coverages typically reported in the literature the effects of finite slip are secondary, reducing effective slip lengths by only 10%. Further, we find that nanobubbles do not significantly increase slip lengths beyond those reported for bare hydrophobic surfaces.

  19. Effects of noise on convergent game-learning dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, James B T; Galla, Tobias; Shapiro, Jonathan L

    2012-01-01

    We study stochastic effects on the lagging anchor dynamics, a reinforcement learning algorithm used to learn successful strategies in iterated games, which is known to converge to Nash points in the absence of noise. The dynamics is stochastic when players only have limited information about their opponents’ strategic propensities. The effects of this noise are studied analytically in the case where it is small but finite, and we show that the statistics and correlation properties of fluctuations can be computed to a high accuracy. We find that the system can exhibit quasicycles, driven by intrinsic noise. If players are asymmetric and use different parameters for their learning, a net payoff advantage can be achieved due to these stochastic oscillations around the deterministic equilibrium. (paper)

  20. Perceptual learning effect on decision and confidence thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovey, Guillermo; Shalom, Diego; Pérez-Schuster, Verónica; Sigman, Mariano

    2016-10-01

    Practice can enhance of perceptual sensitivity, a well-known phenomenon called perceptual learning. However, the effect of practice on subjective perception has received little attention. We approach this problem from a visual psychophysics and computational modeling perspective. In a sequence of visual search experiments, subjects significantly increased the ability to detect a "trained target". Before and after training, subjects performed two psychophysical protocols that parametrically vary the visibility of the "trained target": an attentional blink and a visual masking task. We found that confidence increased after learning only in the attentional blink task. Despite large differences in some observables and task settings, we identify common mechanisms for decision-making and confidence. Specifically, our behavioral results and computational model suggest that perceptual ability is independent of processing time, indicating that changes in early cortical representations are effective, and learning changes decision criteria to convey choice and confidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Research Notes ~ Elements of Effective e-Learning Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Brown

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Preparing and developing e-learning materials is a costly and time consuming enterprise. This paper highlights the elements of effective design that we consider assist in the development of high quality materials in a cost efficient way. We introduce six elements of design and discuss each in some detail. These elements focus on paying attention to the provision of a rich learning activity, situating this activity within an interesting story line, providing meaningful opportunities for student reflection and third party criticism, considering appropriate technologies for delivery, ensuring that the design is suitable for the context in which it will be used, and bearing in mind the personal, social, and environmental impact of the designed activities. Along the way, we describe how these design elements can be effectively utilized by contextualizing them with examples from an e-learning initiative.

  2. The Effect of Aquaplast on Surface Dose of Photon Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Do Hoon; Bae, Hoon Sik

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate the effect on surface dose due to Aquaplast used for immobilizing the patients with head and neck cancers in photon beam radiotherapy. Materials and Methods : To assess surface and buildup region dose for 6MV X-ray from linear accelerator(Siemens Mevatron 6740), we measured percent ionization value with the Markus chamber model 30-329 manufactured by PTW Frieburg and Capintec electrometer, model WK92. For measurement of surface ionization value, the chamber was embedded in 25 X 25 X 3 cm 3 acrylic phantom and set on 25 X 25 X 5 cm 3 , polystyrene phantom to allow adequate scattering. The measurements of percent depth ionization were made by placing the polystyrene layers of appropriate thickness over the chamber. The measurements were taken at 10 cm SSD for 5 X 5 cm 2 , 10 X 10 cm 2 , and 15 X 15 cm 2 field sizes, respectively. Placing the layer of Aquaplast over the chamber, the same procedures were repeated. We evaluated two types o Aquaplast: 1.6mm layer of original Aquaplast(manufactured by WFR Aquaplast Corp.) and transformed Aquaplast similar to moulded one for immobilizing the patients practically. We also measured surface ionization values with blocking tray in presence or absence of transformed Aquaplast. In calculating percent depth dose, we used the formula suggested by Gerbi and khan to correct over response of the Markus chamber. Results : The surface doses for open fields of 5 X 5 cm 2 , 10 X 10 cm 2 , 15 X 15 cm 2 were 7.9%, 13.6%, and 18.7% respectively. He original Aquaplast increased the surface doses upto 38.4%, 43.6% and 47.4% respectively. There were little differences in percent depth dose values beyond the depth of Dmax. Increasing field size, the blocking tray caused increase of the surface dose by 0.2%, 1.7%, 3.0% without Aquaplast, 0.2%, 1.9%, 3.7% with transformed Aquaplast, respectively. Conclusion : The original and transformed Aquaplast increased the surface dose moderately. The percent depth doses beyond Dmax

  3. The Effectiveness of Learning Instruments of Speaking Containing Character Values toward Speaking Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisudariani N. M. R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This development research aimed at describing the effectiveness of learning instruments of speaking that were contained in character values. The objects of the study were a syllabus, lesson plan, textbook, and assessment. The subjects of the study were the lecturers of Speaking and the 2nd-semester students of IIA, IIB, and IIC in the academic year of 2015/2016. The data was collected through observation, questionnaire, and test. The data was analyzed by administering descriptive qualitative technique and descriptive statistics. The results of the study showed that the learning instruments was effective to be used in the teaching and learning process, to improve students understanding on the materials, to improve students speaking skill, and to shape characters such as religious, polite, communicative, open, democratic, respectful, responsible, curious, discipline, confident, cooperative, appreciate achievement, logic, critic, creative and innovative, and love reading. The results of the study indicated that the learning instruments of speaking contained of character values were effective so that it was feasible to be used by both lecturers and students of Indonesian Language and Literature Department, Language and Art Faculty of Ganesha University of Education.

  4. The virtual asthma guideline e-learning program: learning effectiveness and user satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Yoon; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kwon, Yong-Eun; Kim, Tae-Bum; Park, Hye-Kyung; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Jee, Young-Koo; Moon, Hee-Bom; Min, Kyung-Up; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2018-05-01

    Effective educational tools are important for increasing adherence to asthma guidelines and clinical improvement of asthma patients. We developed a computer-based interactive education program for asthma guideline named the Virtual Learning Center for Asthma Management (VLCAM). We evaluated the usefulness of program in terms of its effects on user awareness of asthma guideline and level of satisfaction. Physicians-in-training at tertiary hospitals in Korea were enrolled in a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The e-learning program on asthma guideline was conducted over a 2-week period. We investigated changes in the awareness of asthma guideline using 35-item self-administered questionnaire aiming at assessing physicians' knowledge, attitude, and practice. Satisfaction with the program was scored on 4-point Likert scales. A total of 158 physicians-in-training at six tertiary hospitals completed the survey. Compared with baseline, the overall awareness obtained from the scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice was improved significantly. Participants were satisfied with the VLCAM program in the following aspects: helpfulness, convenience, motivation, effectiveness, physicians' confidence, improvement of asthma management, and willingness to recommend. All items in user satisfaction questionnaires received high scores over 3 points. Moreover, the problem-based learning with a virtual patient received the highest user satisfaction among all parts of the program. Our computer-based e-learning program is useful for improving awareness of asthma management. It could improve adherence to asthma guidelines and enhance the quality of asthma care.

  5. SMALL GROUP LEARNING METHODS AND THEIR EFFECT ON LEARNERS’ RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Borůvková

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Building relationships in the classroom is an essential part of any teacher's career. Having healthy teacher-to-learner and learner-to-learner relationships is an effective way to help prevent pedagogical failure, social conflict and quarrelsome behavior. Many strategies are available that can be used to achieve good long-lasting relationships in the classroom setting. Successful teachers’ pedagogical work in the classroom requires detailed knowledge of learners’ relationships. Good understanding of the relationships is necessary, especially in the case of teenagers’ class. This sensitive period of adolescence demands attention of all teachers who should deal with the problems of their learners. Special care should be focused on children that are out of their classmates’ interest (so called isolated learners or isolates in such class and on possibilities to integrate them into the class. Natural idea how to do it is that of using some modern non-traditional teaching/learning methods, especially the methods based on work in small groups involving learners’ cooperation. Small group education (especially problem-based learning, project-based learning, cooperative learning, collaborative learning or inquire-based learning as one of these methods involves a high degree of interaction. The effectiveness of learning groups is determined by the extent to which the interaction enables members to clarify their own understanding, build upon each other's contributions, sift out meanings, ask and answer questions. An influence of this kind of methods (especially cooperative learning (CL on learners’ relationships was a subject of the further described research. Within the small group education, students work with their classmates to solve complex and authentic problems that help develop content knowledge as well as problem-solving, reasoning, communication, and self-assessment skills. The aim of the research was to answer the question: Can the

  6. The Effectiveness of Language Used in E-Learning Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przygoda Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of language in e-Learning is still not very clear from a technical as well as semantic point of view. In the era of Information Technology, it is more and more important to unify the principles of language used and its semantic meaning to be more simple and precise when taking into consideration online educational courses. During the last years, e-Learning courses have begun to be popular around the world as during an internet era, we tend to find consolidated information sources on internet rather than in traditional courses which require our physical presence. The crucial issue which makes an e- Learning course function is the language used to transmit all the information to the students in a clear and effective manner. For such language to be considered effective, it is necessary to adjust it to the general standards adopted in an international environment. The notion of a language used in e-Learning also faces some problems as it should be so concise as to be accessible for everybody regardless of gender, nationality, and intellectual level. It is hard to standardise its principles, thus over the years many scientists have tried to unify the top requirements a perfect e-Learning course should have. Nowadays, most of the population should stop considering e-Learning as an alternative form of education and focus on developing new models and structures for education and learning that fully exploit the opportunities of today’s digital revolution. With a laptop, a mobile device and Wi-Fi, you can manage your own e-Learning course, and take courses yourself, at any time and place, in any language. A typical model of an e-Learning course is based on guided self-study with a linear progression through modules consisting of recorded lectures, course literature, written assignments and multiple-choice self-tests. Technology has got an even better solution which consists of standardising the learning process and adopting it to a commonly

  7. Surface effects on the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Peng; Zhang, Rui-Qin

    2018-03-01

    Thermal transport in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) has recently attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications in energy harvesting and generation and thermal management. The adjustment of the thermal conductivity of SiNWs through surface effects is a topic worthy of focus. In this paper, we briefly review the recent progress made in this field through theoretical calculations and experiments. We come to the conclusion that surface engineering methods are feasible and effective methods for adjusting nanoscale thermal transport and may foster further advancements in this field. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation ofChina (Grant No. 11504418), China Scholarship Council (Grant No. 201706425053), Basic Research Program in Shenzhen, China (Grant No. JCYJ20160229165210666), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 2015XKMS075).

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of potentiometric sensor response: the effect of biomolecules, surface morphology and surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B M; Skylaris, C-K; Green, N G; Shibuta, Y; Sakata, T

    2018-05-10

    The silica-water interface is critical to many modern technologies in chemical engineering and biosensing. One technology used commonly in biosensors, the potentiometric sensor, operates by measuring the changes in electric potential due to changes in the interfacial electric field. Predictive modelling of this response caused by surface binding of biomolecules remains highly challenging. In this work, through the most extensive molecular dynamics simulation of the silica-water interfacial potential and electric field to date, we report a novel prediction and explanation of the effects of nano-morphology on sensor response. Amorphous silica demonstrated a larger potentiometric response than an equivalent crystalline silica model due to increased sodium adsorption, in agreement with experiments showing improved sensor response with nano-texturing. We provide proof-of-concept that molecular dynamics can be used as a complementary tool for potentiometric biosensor response prediction. Effects that are conventionally neglected, such as surface morphology, water polarisation, biomolecule dynamics and finite-size effects, are explicitly modelled.

  9. Creating Effective Collaborative Learning Groups in an Online Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E. Brindley

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative learning in an online classroom can take the form of discussion among the whole class or within smaller groups. This paper addresses the latter, examining first whether assessment makes a difference to the level of learner participation and then considering other factors involved in creating effective collaborative learning groups. Data collected over a three year period (15 cohorts from the Foundations course in the Master of Distance Education (MDE program offered jointly by University of Maryland University College (UMUC and the University of Oldenburg does not support the authors’ original hypothesis that assessment makes a significant difference to learner participation levels in small group learning projects and leads them to question how much emphasis should be placed on grading work completed in study groups to the exclusion of other strategies. Drawing on observations of two MDE courses, including the Foundations course, their extensive online teaching experience, and a review of the literature, the authors identify factors other than grading that contribute positively to the effectiveness of small collaborative learning groups in the online environment. In particular, the paper focuses on specific instructional strategies that facilitate learner participation in small group projects, which result in an enhanced sense of community, increased skill acquisition, and better learning outcomes.

  10. Magnetic Nanoparticles: Surface Effects and Properties Related to Biomedicine Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Issa, Bashar; Obaidat, Ihab M.; Albiss, Borhan A.; Haik, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Due to finite size effects, such as the high surface-to-volume ratio and different crystal structures, magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties than those found in their corresponding bulk materials. These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways (e.g., chemical and physical) with controllable sizes enabling their comparison to biological organisms from cells (10–100 μm), viruses, genes, down to proteins (3–50 nm). The opti...

  11. Nanotopography effects on astrocyte attachment to nanoporous gold surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulus, Ozge; Seker, Erkin

    2012-01-01

    Nanoporous gold, synthesized by a self-assembly process, is a new biomaterial with desirable attributes, including tunable nanotopography, drug delivery potential, electrical conductivity, and compatibility with conventional microfabrication techniques. This study reports on the effect of nanotopography in guiding cellular attachment on nanoporous gold surfaces. While the changes in topography do not affect adherent cell density, average cell area displays a non-monotonic dependence on nanotopography.

  12. Effect of nanofillers' size on surface properties after toothbrush abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Larissa M; Masouras, Konstantinos; Watts, David C; Pimenta, Luiz A; Silikas, Nick

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the effect of filler-particle size of experimental and commercial resin composites, undergoing toothbrush abrasion, on three surface properties: surface roughness (SR), surface gloss (G) and color stability (CS). Four model (Ivoclar/Vivadent) and one commercial resin composite (Tokuyama) with varying filler-size from 100-1000 nm were examined. Six discs (10 mm x 2 mm) from each product were prepared and mechanically polished. The samples were then submitted to 20,000 brushing strokes in a toothbrush abrasion machine. SR parameters (Ra, Rt and RSm), G, and CS were measured before and after toothbrush abrasion. Changes in SR and G were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, with Bonferroni post hoc test. CS values were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test (alpha=0.05). Initial G values ranged between 73-87 gloss units (GU) and were reduced after toothbrush abrasion to a range of 8-64 GU. Toothbrush abrasion resulted in significant modifications in SR and G amongst the materials tested, attributed to filler sizes. There was statistically significant difference in color (delta E* ranged from 0.38-0.88). Filler size did not affect color stability. Toothbrush abrasion resulted in rougher and matte surfaces for all materials tested. Although the individual differences in surface roughness among filler sizes were not always significant, the correlation showed a trend that larger filler sizes resulted in higher surface roughness after abrasion for the SR parameters Ra and Rt (r = 0.95; r = 0.93, respectively). RSm showed an increase after toothbrush abrasion for all resin composites, however no significant correlation was detected (r = 0.21).There was a significant correlation between G and Ra ratios (r = - 0.95).

  13. Friction Surface Treatment Selection: Aggregate Properties, Surface Characteristics, Alternative Treatments, and Safety Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the long term performance of the selected surface friction treatments, including high friction surface treatment (HFST) using calcined bauxite and steel slag, and conventional friction surfacing, in particular pavement pr...

  14. Final state effects in photoemission studies of Fermi surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, Richard L; Browne, Dana A; Mankey, Gary J

    2007-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is one of the most important methods for extracting information about the Fermi surface (FS) of materials. An electron photoexcited from the FS is emitted from the crystal conserving the parallel momentum, k parallel , while the perpendicular momentum k perpendicular is reduced due to the surface potential barrier. A simple interpretation of the process assumes the final state is free-electron-like allowing one to 'map' the detected photoelectron back to its initial k momentum. There are multiple final state effects that can complicate the interpretation of photoelectron data and these effects are reviewed here. These can involve both energy and k broadening, which can give rise to shadow or ghost FS contours, scattering and final state diffraction effects that modify intensities, and matrix element effects which reflect the symmetries of the states involved and can be highly dependent on photon polarization. These matrix elements result in contours of photoelectron intensity that follow the dispersion in k-space of the initial state, the FS, and the final state. Locations where intensities go to zero due to matrix element and symmetry effects can result in gaps where FS contours 'disappear'. Recognition that these effects can play a significant role in determining the measured angular distributions is crucial in developing an informed model of where the FS contours actually lie in relation to measured intensity contours

  15. The effect of surface electrical stimulation on vocal fold position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Ianessa A; Poletto, Christopher J; Saxon, Keith G; Kearney, Pamela R; Ludlow, Christy L

    2008-01-01

    Closure of the true and false vocal folds is a normal part of airway protection during swallowing. Individuals with reduced or delayed true vocal fold closure can be at risk for aspiration and may benefit from intervention to ameliorate the problem. Surface electrical stimulation is currently used during therapy for dysphagia, despite limited knowledge of its physiological effects. Prospective single effects study. The immediate physiological effect of surface stimulation on true vocal fold angle was examined at rest in 27 healthy adults using 10 different electrode placements on the submental and neck regions. Fiberoptic nasolaryngoscopic recordings during passive inspiration were used to measure change in true vocal fold angle with stimulation. Vocal fold angles changed only to a small extent during two electrode placements (P vocal fold abduction was 2.4 degrees; while horizontal placements of electrodes in the submental region produced a mean adduction of 2.8 degrees (P = .03). Surface electrical stimulation to the submental and neck regions does not produce immediate true vocal fold adduction adequate for airway protection during swallowing, and one position may produce a slight increase in true vocal fold opening.

  16. Surface wave propagation effects on buried segmented pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Shi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with surface wave propagation (WP effects on buried segmented pipelines. Both simplified analytical model and finite element (FE model are developed for estimating the axial joint pullout movement of jointed concrete cylinder pipelines (JCCPs of which the joints have a brittle tensile failure mode under the surface WP effects. The models account for the effects of peak ground velocity (PGV, WP velocity, predominant period of seismic excitation, shear transfer between soil and pipelines, axial stiffness of pipelines, joint characteristics, and cracking strain of concrete mortar. FE simulation of the JCCP interaction with surface waves recorded during the 1985 Michoacan earthquake results in joint pullout movement, which is consistent with the field observations. The models are expanded to estimate the joint axial pullout movement of cast iron (CI pipelines of which the joints have a ductile tensile failure mode. Simplified analytical equation and FE model are developed for estimating the joint pullout movement of CI pipelines. The joint pullout movement of the CI pipelines is mainly affected by the variability of the joint tensile capacity and accumulates at local weak joints in the pipeline.

  17. Effectiveness of Dysphagia Training for Adult Learning Disabilities Support Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…

  18. Understanding and Utilizing the Effectiveness of e‐Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack; Ørngreen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    , the research brings valuable input to the discussion of the validity of self-assessments suggesting that participants are able to report on their own practices provided certain qualitative survey approaches. Understanding the many ways to define effectiveness can help learning and development professionals...

  19. Effects of learning styles on career preferences of senior secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research investigated the effects of learning styles on career preferences of senior secondary school students in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A total of six hundred students, three hundred and sixty male, and two hundred and forty female were randomly selected from ten senior secondary schools across the state for the study ...

  20. Effect of group conselling on learning and remembering strategies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Study investigated the effect of group counseling on learning and remembering strategies of diploma students in University of Maiduguri and its implications for examination malpractices. Two objectives and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The population consisted of all the diploma students in ...

  1. The effect of student learning strategies on performance and carrier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored the learning strategies of 500 undergraduate students in higher education in the Wa Campus of the University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana and the effect on their performance and carrier aspirations. Twenty lecturers and managers of three development organisations that receive students ...

  2. Improving the Effectiveness of Peer Feedback for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Sarah; Peeters, Elien; Dochy, Filip; Onghena, Patrick; Struyven, Katrien

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of (a) peer feedback for learning, more specifically of certain characteristics of the content and style of the provided feedback, and (b) a particular instructional intervention to support the use of the feedback. A quasi-experimental repeated measures design was adopted. Writing assignments of 43…

  3. Challenges of Effective English Language Learning in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors that influence the students. effective learning of the English Language as second language learners, the attitude of students towards the study of the English language, the nature of teacher/student interaction, the methods of teaching and the availability of teaching aids in Nigeria secondary schools are looked ...

  4. Effects of Information Capitalism and Globalization on Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeoye, Blessing F., Ed.; Tomei, Lawrence, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    As computers and Internet connections become widely available in schools and classrooms, it is critical to examine cross-cultural issues in the utilization of information and communication technologies. "Effects of Information Capitalism and Globalization on Teaching and Learning" examines issues concerning emerging multimedia…

  5. The Effects of Learned Helplessness on Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Nora E.; Lisman, Stephen A.

    Widely held cultural beliefs assert that alcohol can offer both an ameliorative and preventive solution to the problem of depression. This study attempted to assess the effects of learned helplessness--a possible laboratory analog to reactive depression--on alcohol consumption. Thirty-eight female undergraduates were randomly assigned (within…

  6. Learned Helplessness: The Effect of Failure on Test-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael; Hwang, Chi-En; Copella, Margaret; Clark, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    This study examined learned helplessness and its effect on test taking. Students were given one of two tests; the first began with extremely difficult questions and the other started with easy questions. The researchers hypothesized that those who took the test beginning with difficult questions would become easily frustrated and possibly doubt…

  7. The Pretesting Effect: Do Unsuccessful Retrieval Attempts Enhance Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E.; Kornell, Nate; Kao, Liche Sean

    2009-01-01

    Testing previously studied information enhances long-term memory, particularly when the information is successfully retrieved from memory. The authors examined the effect of unsuccessful retrieval attempts on learning. Participants in 5 experiments read an essay about vision. In the test condition, they were asked about embedded concepts before…

  8. Measuring Effects of Reflection on Learning – A Physiological Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Wen; Verpoorten, Dominique; Westera, Wim

    2014-01-01

    As an economical and feasible intervention, reflection demands learners using critical thinking to examine presented information, questioning its validity, and drawing conclusions based on the resulting ideas during a learning process. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the effects

  9. Measuring Effects of Reflectionon Learning: A Physiological Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Wen

    2014-01-01

    As an economical and feasible intervention, reflection demands learners using critical thinking to examine presented information, questioning its validity, and drawing conclusions based on the resulting ideas during a learning process. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the effects of

  10. Effects of Game Technology on Elementary Student Learning in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Namsoo; Sutherland, LeeAnn M.; Norris, Cathleen A.; Soloway, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of game technology on student learning in mathematics as investigated in two data sets collected from slightly different subjects. In the first, 41 second graders (7 or 8 years old) from two classes used either a technology-based game or a paper-based game for 5 weeks. For the next 13 weeks, both classes used a…

  11. Differential Effects of Learning Games on Mathematics Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mido; Evans, Michael A.; Kim, Sunha; Norton, Anderson; Samur, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a learning game, [The Math App] on the mathematics proficiency of middle school students. For the study, researchers recruited 306 students, Grades 6-8, from two schools in rural southwest Virginia. Over a nine-week period, [The Math App] was deployed as an intervention for investigation. Students were assigned…

  12. The Effect of Self-Explaining on Robust Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Robert G. M.; VanLehn, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Self-explaining is a domain-independent learning strategy that generally leads to a robust understanding of the domain material. However, there are two potential explanations for its effectiveness. First, self-explanation generates additional "content" that does not exist in the instructional materials. Second, when compared to…

  13. The Effects of Framing Grades on Student Learning and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bies-Hernandez, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether framing effects, in terms of losses and gains, can be extended to student learning and grading preferences. In Experiment 1, participants rated psychology course syllabi to investigate preferences for differently framed grading systems: a loss versus gain grading system. The results showed a clear framing effect…

  14. The effects of control versus autonomy in hypermedia learning environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Chantal; Kester, Liesbeth; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Martens, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Gorissen, C. J. J., Kester, L., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Martens, R. L. (2010, 13-16 May). The effects of control versus autonomy in hypermedia learning environments. Poster presented at the 4th International Self-Determination Theory Conference, Ghent, Belgium: Kennisnet.

  15. Learning about the effectiveness of teacher education: A Chilean study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article reviews some of the problems faced by teacher education in general and in Chile specifically, and on this basis, presents the results of a study focused on the effects of six teacher education programmes on future primary level teachers' learning of mathematics and mathematics pedagogy. The study describes ...

  16. Effects of Different Student Response Modes on Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Lee Sze; Chen, Chwen Jen

    2017-01-01

    Student response systems (SRSs) are wireless answering devices that enable students to provide simple real-time feedback to instructors. This study aims to evaluate the effects of different SRS interaction modes on elementary school students' science learning. Three interaction modes which include SRS Individual, SRS Collaborative, and Classroom…

  17. Distinctiveness and Bidirectional Effects in Input Enhancement for Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcroft, Joe

    2003-01-01

    This study examined input enhancement and second language (L2) vocabulary learning while exploring the role of "distinctiveness," the degree to which an item in the input diverges from the form in which other items in the input are presented, with regard to the nature and direction of the effects of enhancement. In this study,…

  18. Factors That Develop Effective Professional Learning Communities in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiying; Lee, Che-Di; Lin, Hongda; Zhang, Chun-Xi

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the key factors of developing effective professional learning communities (PLCs) within the Taiwanese context. Four constructs--supportive and shared leadership, shared visions, collegial trust, and shared practices--were adopted and developed into an instrument for measuring PLC function. A stratified random…

  19. The Effects of Online Interactive Games on High School Students' Achievement and Motivation in History Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Cheng; Wei, Yu Che; Hung, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate that Digital Game Based Learning (DGBL) can foster learning effect. The purpose of this study is to survey whether the online game in junior high school students can encourage learning effect in Taiwan's History. So, the research applied Interactive Game-based Learning System (IGLS) to junior high history teaching as an…

  20. The Effects of Mood, Cognitive Style, and Cognitive Ability on Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretz, Jean E.; Totz, Kathryn Sentman; Kaufman, Scott Barry

    2010-01-01

    In an experiment with 109 undergraduates, we examined the effect of mood, cognitive style, and cognitive ability on implicit learning in the Artificial Grammar (AG) and Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks. Negative mood facilitated AG learning, but had no significant effect on SRT learning. Rational cognitive style predicted greater learning on both…

  1. Strategies for Effective Faculty Involvement in Online Activities Aimed at Promoting Critical Thinking and Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Razzak, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Highly-traditional education systems that mainly offer what is known as "direct instruction" usually result in graduates with a surface approach to learning rather than a deep one. What is meant by deep-learning is learning that involves critical analysis, the linking of ideas and concepts, creative problem solving, and application…

  2. Titan's methane cycle and its effect on surface geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R. M.; Peckyno, R. S.; Le Gall, A. A.; Wye, L.; Stofan, E. R.; Radebaugh, J.; Hayes, A. G.; Aharonson, O.; Wall, S. D.; Janssen, M. A.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2010-12-01

    units and conclude that aeolian and fluvial/pluvial/lacustrine processes - all products of the methane cycle - are the most recent, while tectonic processes that led to the formation of mountainous terrains and Xanadu are likely the most ancient. Mountainous terrains, which along with Xanadu may have at least in part a tectonic origin, are radar-bright and radiometrically distinct from most other areas. They may have been washed clean of organic particulates by methane rains. Radiometric data from the Sinlap ejecta blanket reveals fresh water ice, indicating that the crater is relatively young. Preliminary correlations between geologic units and surface properties derived from the radiometry measurements (brightness temperature, effective dielectric constant, and degree of volume scattering) will also be presented.

  3. Effect of surface fouling on the output of PV panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zele

    2018-04-01

    Surface fouling on the photovoltaic system caused by the output of a certain impact, therefore, it is very important to explore the effect of fouling on its contribution. Through the use of photovoltaic panels to collect Baoding area under different weather output data, and the collected data for comparative analysis, obtained under different environments on the impact of its contribution. It is concluded that the output of the photovoltaic cells will decrease, and the power drop rate will stabilize after three or four days. The effect of fouling on the fog haze and low temperature is more obvious.

  4. Opposing effects of humidity on rhodochrosite surface oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Chongzheng; Tang, Yuanzhi; Wang, Haitao; Martin, Scot T

    2015-03-03

    Rhodochrosite (MnCO3) is a model mineral representing carbonate aerosol particles containing redox-active elements that can influence particle surface reconstruction in humid air, thereby affecting the heterogeneous transformation of important atmospheric constituents such as nitric oxides, sulfur dioxides, and organic acids. Using in situ atomic force microscopy, we show that the surface reconstruction of rhodochrosite in humid oxygen leads to the formation and growth of oxide nanostructures. The oxidative reconstruction consists of two consecutive processes with distinctive time scales, including a long waiting period corresponding to slow nucleation and a rapid expansion phase corresponding to fast growth. By varying the relative humidity from 55 to 78%, we further show that increasing humidity has opposing effects on the two processes, accelerating nucleation from 2.8(±0.2) × 10(-3) to 3.0(±0.2) × 10(-2) h(-1) but decelerating growth from 7.5(±0.3) × 10(-3) to 3.1(±0.1) × 10(-3) μm(2) h(-1). Through quantitative analysis, we propose that nanostructure nucleation is controlled by rhodochrosite surface dissolution, similar to the dissolution-precipitation mechanism proposed for carbonate mineral surface reconstruction in aqueous solution. To explain nanostructure growth in humid oxygen, a new Cabrera-Mott mechanism involving electron tunneling and solid-state diffusion is proposed.

  5. Effect of Surface Chemistry on the Fluorescence of Detonation Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineck, Philipp; Lau, Desmond W M; Wilson, Emma R; Fox, Kate; Field, Matthew R; Deeleepojananan, Cholaphan; Mochalin, Vadym N; Gibson, Brant C

    2017-11-28

    Detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) have unique physical and chemical properties that make them invaluable in many applications. However, DNDs are generally assumed to show weak fluorescence, if any, unless chemically modified with organic molecules. We demonstrate that detonation nanodiamonds exhibit significant and excitation-wavelength-dependent fluorescence from the visible to the near-infrared spectral region above 800 nm, even without the engraftment of organic molecules to their surfaces. We show that this fluorescence depends on the surface functionality of the DND particles. The investigated functionalized DNDs, produced from the same purified DND as well as the as-received polyfunctional starting material, are hydrogen, hydroxyl, carboxyl, ethylenediamine, and octadecylamine-terminated. All DNDs are investigated in solution and on a silicon wafer substrate and compared to fluorescent high-pressure high-temperature nanodiamonds. The brightest fluorescence is observed from octadecylamine-functionalized particles and is more than 100 times brighter than the least fluorescent particles, carboxylated DNDs. The majority of photons emitted by all particle types likely originates from non-diamond carbon. However, we locally find bright and photostable fluorescence from nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond in hydrogenated, hydroxylated, and carboxylated detonation nanodiamonds. Our results contribute to understanding the effects of surface chemistry on the fluorescence of DNDs and enable the exploration of the fluorescent properties of DNDs for applications in theranostics as nontoxic fluorescent labels, sensors, nanoscale tracers, and many others where chemically stable and brightly fluorescent nanoparticles with tailorable surface chemistry are needed.

  6. Fluid Surface Deformation by Objects in the Cheerios Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khoi; Miller, Michael; Mandre, Shreyas; Mandre Lab Team

    2012-11-01

    Small objects floating on a fluid/air interface deform of the surface depending on material surface properties, density, and geometry. These objects attract each other through capillary interactions, a phenomenon dubbed the ``cheerios effect.'' The attractive force and torque exerted on these objects by the interface can be estimated if the meniscus deformation is known. In addition, the floating objects can also rotate due to such an interaction. We present a series of experiments focused on visualizing the the motions of the floating objects and the deformation of the interface. The experiments involve thin laser-cut acrylic pieces attracting each other on water in a large glass petri dish and a camera set-up to capture the process. Furthermore, optical distortion of a grid pattern is used to visualize the water surface deformation near the edge of the objects. This study of the deformation of the water surface around a floating object, of the attractive/repulsive forces, and of post-contact rotational dynamics are potentially instrumental in the study of colloidal self-assembly.

  7. Influence of surface effects on subsecond processes in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, S.I.; Vorob'ev, V.S.; Khishchenko, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: We discuss a problem of experimental-data interpretation during subsecond measurements of thermophysical properties of matter at high temperatures and pressures. Peculiarity of these measurements is optical opaqueness of matter under interesting conditions (T∼1 eV, ρ∼10 4 kg m -3 ), so only at assuming of bulk specimen uniformity one can obtain a temperature dependencies of the specific properties of matter. Changing circuit current and changing sample geometry we can avoid a development of hydromagnetic instability and decrease a nonuniform heating due to skin effect. As temperature of wire surface reaches the boiling temperature under normal pressure so part of internal energy is lost because of evaporation and surface radiation at high temperature. So one can register a surface temperature and ascribe it to the whole sample bulk. Computer simulation of wire explosion taking into account surface radiation losses was carried out. Typical phase tracks for matter were obtained in both case as in consideration of radiation losses as without it. Comparison of the results with data concerning to isobaric-expansion experiments and semi-empirical multi-phase equation of state were carried out. It was proposed uniformity criterion for investigation of thermophysical properties of liquid metal by subsecond wire explosion. (author)

  8. Side Flow Effect on Surface Generation in Nano Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    The side flow of material in nano cutting is one of the most important factors that deteriorate the machined surface quality. The effects of the crystallographic orientation, feed, and the cutting tool geometry, including tool edge radius, rake angle and inclination angle, on the side flow are investigated employing molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the stagnation region is formed in front of tool edge and it is characterized by the stagnation radius R s and stagnation height h s . The side flow is formed because the material at or under the stagnation region is extruded by the tool edge to flow to the side of the tool edge. Higher stagnation height would increase the size of the side flow. The anisotropic nature of the material which partly determines the stagnation region also influences the side flow due to the different deformation mechanism under the action of the tool edge. At different cutting directions, the size of the side flow has a great difference which would finally affect the machined surface quality. The cutting directions of {100} , {110} , and {110}  are beneficial to obtain a better surface quality with small side flow. Besides that, the side flow could be suppressed by reducing the feed and optimizing the cutting tool geometry. Cutting tool with small edge radius, large positive rake angle, and inclination angle would decrease the side flow and consequently improve the machined surface quality.

  9. EFFECTS OF INQUIRY TRAINING LEARNING MODEL BASED MULTIMEDIA AND MOTIVATION OF PHYSICS STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    Hayati .; Retno Dwi Suyanti

    2013-01-01

    The objective in this research: (1) Determine a better learning model to improve learning outcomes physics students among learning model Inquiry Training based multimedia and Inquiry Training learning model. (2) Determine the level of motivation to learn in affects physics student learning outcomes. (3) Knowing the interactions between the model of learning and motivation in influencing student learning outcomes. This research is a quasi experimental. The population in this research was all s...

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF LEARNING PROCESS USING “WEB TECHNOLOGY” IN THE DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj KILLEDAR

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Web is a globally distributed, still highly personalized media for cost-effective delivery of multimedia information and services. Web is expected to have a strong impact on almost every aspect of how we learn. ‘Total Quality’ is the totality of features, as perceived by the customers of the product or service. Totality of features includes stated as well as implied needs and expectations of all types of customers. No quality improvement is possible without its unambiguous measurement. But, ‘Total Quality’ of the learning experience in ‘Open and Distance Education System’ cannot be measured unless it is expressed in measurable clear terms which include complete spectrum of student support and educational services. A model for ‘Total Quality’ of an open and distance education system was used to measure impact of the “Web Technology” on the ‘Total Quality’ of the learning experience in ‘Open and Distance Education System’. Evidence indicates that application of the proposed model for ‘Total Quality’ and ‘Web Technology’ can simultaneously optimize quality, access and cost. Thus, a better learning experience can be provided even in open and distance education system, which can be comparable with the best. This study found that it was difficult for the subjects to decide the clear cut superiority regarding the effectiveness of ‘Traditional Classroom’ or ‘Virtual Classroom’.

  11. The Effectiveness of Storytelling on Adult Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminotti, Enzo; Gray, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As two doctoral students and adult learners, the authors strongly believe that story telling can be a great tool for educators working with adult learners. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of how effective storytelling can be for adult learners. Design/methodology/approach: The approach of this paper is one of gathering…

  12. Learning effect and test-retest variability of pulsar perimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetat, Maria Letizia; Zeppieri, Marco; Parisi, Lucia; Johnson, Chris A; Sampaolesi, Roberto; Brusini, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    To assess Pulsar Perimetry learning effect and test-retest variability (TRV) in normal (NORM), ocular hypertension (OHT), glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON), and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes. This multicenter prospective study included 43 NORM, 38 OHT, 33 GON, and 36 POAG patients. All patients underwent standard automated perimetry and Pulsar Contrast Perimetry using white stimuli modulated in phase and counterphase at 30 Hz (CP-T30W test). The learning effect and TRV for Pulsar Perimetry were assessed for 3 consecutive visual fields (VFs). The learning effect were evaluated by comparing results from the first session with the other 2. TRV was assessed by calculating the mean of the differences (in absolute value) between retests for each combination of single tests. TRV was calculated for Mean Sensitivity, Mean Defect, and single Mean Sensitivity for each 66 test locations. Influence of age, VF eccentricity, and loss severity on TRV were assessed using linear regression analysis and analysis of variance. The learning effect was not significant in any group (analysis of variance, P>0.05). TRV for Mean Sensitivity and Mean Defect was significantly lower in NORM and OHT (0.6 ± 0.5 spatial resolution contrast units) than in GON and POAG (0.9 ± 0.5 and 1.0 ± 0.8 spatial resolution contrast units, respectively) (Kruskal-Wallis test, P=0.04); however, the differences in NORM among age groups was not significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, P>0.05). Slight significant differences were found for the single Mean Sensitivity TRV among single locations (Duncan test, PPulsar Perimetry CP-T30W test did not show significant learning effect in patients with standard automated perimetry experience. TRV for global indices was generally low, and was not related to patient age; it was only slightly affected by VF defect eccentricity, and significantly influenced by VF loss severity.

  13. Psychological theory and pedagogical effectiveness: the learning promotion potential framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Peter

    2008-12-01

    After a century of educational psychology, eminent commentators are still lamenting problems besetting the appropriate relating of psychological insights to teaching design, a situation not helped by the persistence of crude assumptions concerning the nature of pedagogical effectiveness. To propose an analytical or meta-theoretical framework based on the concept of learning promotion potential (LPP) as a basis for understanding the basic relationship between psychological insights and teaching strategies, and to draw out implications for psychology-based pedagogical design, development and research. This is a theoretical and meta-theoretical paper relying mainly on conceptual analysis, though also calling on psychological theory and research. Since teaching consists essentially in activity designed to promote learning, it follows that a teaching strategy has the potential in principle to achieve particular kinds of learning gains (LPP) to the extent that it embodies or stimulates the relevant learning processes on the part of learners and enables the teacher's functions of on-line monitoring and assistance for such learning processes. Whether a teaching strategy actually does realize its LPP by way of achieving its intended learning goals depends also on the quality of its implementation, in conjunction with other factors in the situated interaction that teaching always involves. The core role of psychology is to provide well-grounded indication of the nature of such learning processes and the teaching functions that support them, rather than to directly generate particular ways of teaching. A critically eclectic stance towards potential sources of psychological insight is argued for. Applying this framework, the paper proposes five kinds of issue to be attended to in the design and evaluation of psychology-based pedagogy. Other work proposing comparable ideas is briefly reviewed, with particular attention to similarities and a key difference with the ideas of Oser

  14. The Effect of Learning Type and Avatar Similarity on Learning Outcomes in Educational Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa L.

    2009-01-01

    Two theories guide two very different ideas about learning. Social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1977, 1989) places the greater emphasis on observational learning, or learning by watching a model produce a behavior before doing it oneself. Other researchers purport that experiential learning, or learning by doing, results in stronger learning (Kolb,…

  15. The effect of nurses' use of the principles of learning organization on organizational effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seok Hee; Lee, Taewha; Kim, In Sook; Lee, Myung Ha; Kim, Mi Ja

    2007-04-01

    This paper is a report of a study to describe the effect on organizational effectiveness of nurses' use of the principles of learning organization. Since Senge proposed the learning organization model in 1990, the principles of learning organization have been considered as a new organizational vision. However, there is little empirical evidence that shows how nurses' use of the principles of learning organization affects organizational effectiveness in healthcare settings. A cross-sectional survey was used and the data were collected in 2003. Participants were 629 professional nurses who had worked full-time for more than 1 year in the general units of nine tertiary medical hospitals in South Korea. A questionnaire was distributed to nurse managers of nine hospitals, who distributed it to 665 nurses, 635 of whom responded (response rate 95.5%). Six returns were discarded due to incomplete responses, leaving 629 for data analysis. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between nurses' use of the principles of learning organization and organizational effectiveness. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that the concept explained an additional 24.9% of organizational commitment and a further 22.6% of job satisfaction. The learning organization principles of shared vision and team learning were statistically significant predictors for organizational effectiveness. Individual nurses can use the principles of learning organization to enhance organizational effectiveness. Intervention programmes that integrate and strengthen shared vision and team learning may be useful to enhance organizational effectiveness. Further research is required to identify other factors related to the principles of learning organization.

  16. Designing An Effective Mobile-learning Model By Integrating Student Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Mohamad; Abdalla AlAmeen

    2014-01-01

    Mobile learning is a good technology because it allows communication, collaboration, and sharing information or resources among all of learning members. Mobile learning can be used as perfect solutions to support the learning process. Thither are many concepts and factors influencing effective learning results through creativity, collaboration, and communication. However, culture is an unaccounted factor which should be appended to the existing M-learning model. Culture may improve the learni...

  17. Effects of surface and interface scattering on anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pd multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing

    2012-09-27

    In this paper, we report the results of surface and interface scattering on anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The surface scattering effect has been extracted from the total anomalous Hall effect. By scaling surface scattering contribution with ρAHs∼ργss, the exponent γ has been found to decrease with the increase of surface scattering resistivity, which could account for the thickness-dependent anomalous Hall effect. Interface diffusion induced by rapid thermal annealing modifies not only the magnetization and longitudinal resistivity but also the anomalous Hall effect; a large exponent γ ∼ 5.7 has been attributed to interface scattering-dominated anomalous Hall effect.

  18. The Effects of Students' Learning Anxiety and Motivation on the Learning Achievement in the Activity Theory Based Gamified Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The advancement of mobile game-based learning has encouraged many related studies, which has enabled students to learn more and faster. To enhance the clinical path of cardiac catheterization learning, this paper has developed a mobile 3D-CCGBLS (3D Cardiac Catheterization Game-Based Learning System) with a learning assessment for cardiac…

  19. Meet The Simpsons: top-down effects in face learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Lesley; Burton, A Mike; Jenkins, Rob; McNeill, Allan; Vicki, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    We examined whether prior knowledge of a person affects the visual processes involved in learning a face. In two experiments, subjects were taught to associate human faces with characters they knew (from the TV show The Simpsons) or characters they did not (novel names). In each experiment, knowledge of the character predicted performance in a recognition memory test, relying only on old/new confidence ratings. In experiment 1, we established the technique and showed that there is a face-learning advantage for known people, even when face items are counterbalanced for familiarity across the experiment. In experiment 2 we replicated the effect in a setting which discouraged subjects from attending more to known than unknown people, and eliminated any visual association between face stimuli and a character from The Simpsons. We conclude that prior knowledge about a person can enhance learning of a new face.

  20. Rarefaction effects in gas flows over curved surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongari, Nishanth; White, Craig; Scanlon, Thomas J.; Zhang, Yonghao; Reese, Jason M.

    2012-11-01

    The fundamental test case of gas flow between two concentric rotating cylinders is considered in order to investigate rarefaction effects associated with the Knudsen layers over curved surfaces. We carry out direct simulation Monte Carlo simulations covering a wide range of Knudsen numbers and accommodation coefficients, and for various outer-to-inner cylinder radius ratios. Numerical data is compared with classical slip flow theory and a new power-law (PL) wall scaling model. The PL model incorporates Knudsen layer effects in near-wall regions by taking into account the boundary limiting effects on the molecular free paths. The limitations of both theoretical models are explored with respect to rarefaction and curvature effects. Torque and velocity profile comparisons also convey that mere prediction of integral flow parameters does not guarantee the accuracy of a theoretical model, and that it is important to ensure that prediction of the local flowfield is in agreement with simulation data.

  1. Motor Learning in Lucid Dreams: Prevalence, Induction, and Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Stumbrys, Tadas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to explore the potentials for motor learning in a special state of consciousness – so called lucid dreams (dreams in which the dreamers are aware that they are dreaming): its prevalence among athletes, facilitating methods and effectiveness. The contents of this dissertation are structured in the following way. The first chapter introduces the concept of mental practice in sports, reviews the evidence for its effectiveness and presents main theorie...

  2. Radiotherapy high energy surface dose measurements: effects of chamber polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, Wollongong, NSW

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The effects of chamber polarity have been investigated for the measurement of 6MV and 18MV x-ray surface dose using a parallel plate ionization chamber. Results have shown that a significant difference in measured ionization is recorded between to polarities at 6MV and 18MV at the phantom surface. A polarity ratio ranging from 1 062 to 1 005 is seen for 6MV x-rays at the phantom surface for field sizes 5cm x 5cm to 40cm x 40cm when comparing positive to negative polarity. These ratios range from 1.024 to 1.004 for 18MV x-rays with the same field sizes. When these charge reading are compared to the D max readings of the same polarity it is found that these polarity effects are minimal for the calculation of percentage dose results with variations being less than 1% of maximum. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  3. Thermal Desorption Analysis of Effective Specific Soil Surface Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagin, A. V.; Bashina, A. S.; Klyueva, V. V.; Kubareva, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    A new method of assessing the effective specific surface area based on the successive thermal desorption of water vapor at different temperature stages of sample drying is analyzed in comparison with the conventional static adsorption method using a representative set of soil samples of different genesis and degree of dispersion. The theory of the method uses the fundamental relationship between the thermodynamic water potential (Ψ) and the absolute temperature of drying ( T): Ψ = Q - aT, where Q is the specific heat of vaporization, and a is the physically based parameter related to the initial temperature and relative humidity of the air in the external thermodynamic reservoir (laboratory). From gravimetric data on the mass fraction of water ( W) and the Ψ value, Polyanyi potential curves ( W(Ψ)) for the studied samples are plotted. Water sorption isotherms are then calculated, from which the capacity of monolayer and the target effective specific surface area are determined using the BET theory. Comparative analysis shows that the new method well agrees with the conventional estimation of the degree of dispersion by the BET and Kutilek methods in a wide range of specific surface area values between 10 and 250 m2/g.

  4. The effects of neurologic assessment E-learning in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji Yeon; Issenberg, S Barry; Roh, Young Sook

    2017-10-01

    A firm understanding of the preliminary assessment of a patient with neurological disorders is needed for ensuring optimal patient outcomes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of using e-learning on neurologic assessment knowledge, ability, and self-confidence among nurses. This study used a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Nurses working in the neurology and neurosurgery wards, Republic of Korea PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 50 nurses was assigned to either the experimental group (n=24) or the control group (n=26). The experimental group participated in the self-directed e-learning program related to neurologic assessment, and control group underwent self-directed learning with handout. Knowledge, ability, and self-confidence were measured at pretest and posttest. There were no significant differences in knowledge (U=270, p=0.399) and self-confidence (U=241.5, p=0.171) between the two groups. Nurses in the experimental group showed higher neurologic assessment ability compared with those in the control group (U=199, p=0.028). Self-directed neurologic assessment e-learning induced improvement in the neurologic assessment ability among nurses. Self-directed e-learning can be applied for improving competencies in neurologic assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effective, Active Learning Strategies for the Oceanography Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, J. E.; Marinov, I.

    2014-12-01

    A decline in enrollment in STEM fields at the university level has prompted extensive research on alternative ways of teaching and learning science. Inquiry-based learning as well as the related "flipped" or "active" lectures, and similar teaching methods and philosophies have been proposed as more effective ways to disseminate knowledge in science classes than the traditional lecture. We will provide a synopsis of our experiences in implementing some of these practices into our Introductory Oceanography, Global Climate Change, and Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics undergraduate courses at the University of Pennsylvania, with both smaller and larger enrollments. By implementing tools such as at-home modules; computer labs; incorporation of current research; pre- and post-lecture quizzes; reflective, qualitative writing assignments; peer review; and a variety of in-class learning strategies, we aim to increase the science literacy of the student population and help students gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the topic, enhance their critical thinking skills, and correct misconceptions. While implementing these teaching techniques with college students is not without complications, we argue that a blended class that flexibly and creatively accounts for class size and science level improves the learning experience and the acquired knowledge. We will present examples of student assignments and activities as well as describe the lessons we have learned, and propose ideas for moving forward to best utilize innovative teaching tools in order to increase science literacy in oceanography and other climate-related courses.

  6. Practice makes imperfect: restorative effects of sleep on motor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavin R Sheth

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that sleep plays a key role in procedural learning, particularly in the continued development of motor skill learning following initial acquisition. We argue that a detailed examination of the time course of performance across sleep on the finger-tapping task, established as the paradigm for studying the effect of sleep on motor learning, will help distinguish a restorative role of sleep in motor skill learning from a proactive one. Healthy subjects rehearsed for 12 trials and, following a night of sleep, were tested. Early training rapidly improved speed as well as accuracy on pre-sleep training. Additional rehearsal caused a marked slow-down in further improvement or partial reversal in performance to observed levels below theoretical upper limits derived on the basis of early pre-sleep rehearsal. This decrement in learning efficacy does not occur always, but if and only if it does, overnight sleep has an effect in fully or partly restoring the efficacy and actual performance to the optimal theoretically achieveable level. Our findings re-interpret the sleep-dependent memory enhancement in motor learning reported in the literature as a restoration of fatigued circuitry specialized for the skill. In providing restitution to the fatigued brain, sleep eliminates the rehearsal-induced synaptic fatigue of the circuitry specialized for the task and restores the benefit of early pre-sleep rehearsal. The present findings lend support to the notion that latent sleep-dependent enhancement of performance is a behavioral expression of the brain's restitution in sleep.

  7. The effect of radiosterilization on surface properties of polyurethane film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the effect of sterilization method by gamma-ray on structure and cytotoxicity of polyurethane film surface has been investigated. For this purpose reactive urethan prepolymer was synthesized by the reaction between Tdi with a mixture of Peg and castro oil (50/50, w/w). The cured prepolymer films were prepared due to the reaction of reactive prepolymer with air moister under ambient conditions. The polyurethane films were sterilized by gamma-ray (25 kGy). The surface of sterilized polyurethane film was observed by Sem and compared to that of the unsterilized film. Also, the in vitro interaction of fibroblast L 929 cells and sterilized polyurethane film was evaluated. Results showed no signs of cell toxicity

  8. Comparison of the effectiveness of different antimicrobial surface technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhl Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk of infection via microbiologically contaminated surfaces has already been demonstrated by other publications. In this work two different antibacterial surface technologies transition metalloacids (AMiSTec and TiO2/AgNO3 (Health Complete were compared regarding feasibility as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The examination of the antimicrobial activity was assessed according to the JIS Z 2801. We could demonstrate that all of our tested samples showed a strong antimicrobial activity (>log 3 germ reduction in the JIS experiments. Furthermore this strong antibacterial effect could be shown already after <30min incubation and at low light intensity (approx. 300 Lux for the TiO2/AgNO3 samples. Both technologies provide a high potential for an improved infection control for example in a high risk environment like operation rooms or intensive care units.

  9. Electromagnetic controllable surfaces based on trapped-mode effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dmitriev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present some recent results of our theoretical investigations of electromagnetically controllable surfaces. These surfaces are designed on the basis of periodic arrays made of metallic inclusions of special form which are placed on a thin substrate of active material (magnetized ferrite or optically active semiconductor. The main peculiarity of the studied structures is their capability to support the trapped-mode resonance which is a result of the antiphase current oscillations in the elements of a periodic cell. Several effects, namely: tuning the position of passband and the linear and nonlinear (bistable transmission switching are considered when an external static magnetic field or optical excitation are applied. Our numerical calculations are fulfilled in both microwave and optical regions.

  10. Surface smoothening effects on growth of diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshi, Bilal Ahmad; Kumar, Shyam; Kartha, Moses J.; Varma, Raghava

    2018-04-01

    We have carried out a detailed study of the growth dynamics of the diamond film during initial time on diamond substrates. The diamond films are deposited using Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPCVD) method for different times. Surface morphology and its correlation with the number of hours of growth of thin films was invested using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Diamond films have smooth interface with average roughness of 48.6873nm. The initial growth dynamics of the thin film is investigated. Interestingly, it is found that there is a decrease in the surface roughness of the film. Thus a smoothening effect is observed in the grown films. The film enters into the growth regime in the later times. Our results also find application in building diamond detector.

  11. Investigations of surface-tension effects due to small-scale complex boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiansheng

    In this Ph.D. dissertation, we have investigated some important surface-tension phenomena including capillarity, wetting, and wicking. We mainly focus on the geometric aspects of these problems, and to learn about how structures affect properties. . In the first project (Chapter 2), we used numerical simulations and experiments to study the meniscus of a fluid confined in capillaries with complicated cross-sectional geometries. In the simulations, we computed the three-dimensional shapes of the menisci formed in polygonal and star-shaped capillaries with sharp or rounded corners. Height variations across the menisci were used to quantify the effect of surface tension. Analytical solutions were derived for all the cases where the cross-sectional geometry was a regular polygon or a regular star-shape. Power indices that characterize the effects of corner rounding were extracted from simulation results. These findings can serve as guide for fabrications of unconventional three-dimensional structures in Capillary Force Lithography experiments. Experimental demonstrations of the working principle was also performed. Although quantitative matching between simulation and experimental results was not achieved due to the limitation of material properties, clear qualitative trends were observed and interesting three-dimensional nano-structures were produced. A second project (Chapter 3) focused on developing techniques to produce three-dimensional hierarchically structured superhydrophobic surfaces with high aspect ratios. We experimented with two different high-throughput electron-beam-lithography processes featuring single and dual electron-beam exposures. After a surface modification procedure with a hydrophobic silane, the structured surfaces exhibited two distinct superhydrophobic behaviors---high and low adhesion. While both types of superhydrophobic surfaces exhibited very high (approximately 160° water advancing contact angles, the water receding contact angles on

  12. Constraining the surface properties of effective Skyrme interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodon, R.; Bender, M.; Bennaceur, K.; Meyer, J.

    2016-08-01

    Background: Deformation energy surfaces map how the total binding energy of a nuclear system depends on the geometrical properties of intrinsic configurations, thereby providing a powerful tool to interpret nuclear spectroscopy and large-amplitude collective-motion phenomena such as fission. The global behavior of the deformation energy is known to be directly connected to the surface properties of the effective interaction used for its calculation. Purpose: The precise control of surface properties during the parameter adjustment of an effective interaction is key to obtain a reliable and predictive description of nuclear properties. The most relevant indicator is the surface-energy coefficient asurf. There are several possibilities for its definition and estimation, which are not fully equivalent and require a computational effort that can differ by orders of magnitude. The purpose of this study is threefold: first, to identify a scheme for the determination of asurf that offers the best compromise between robustness, precision, and numerical efficiency; second, to analyze the correlation between values for asurf and the characteristic energies of the fission barrier of 240Pu; and third, to lay out an efficient and robust procedure for how the deformation properties of the Skyrme energy density functional (EDF) can be constrained during the parameter fit. Methods: There are several frequently used possibilities to define and calculate the surface energy coefficient asurf of effective interactions built for the purpose of self-consistent mean-field calculations. The most direct access is provided by the model system of semi-infinite nuclear matter, but asurf can also be extracted from the systematics of binding energies of finite nuclei. Calculations can be carried out either self-consistently [Hartree-Fock (HF)], which incorporates quantal shell effects, or in one of the semiclassical extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) or modified Thomas-Fermi (MTF) approximations. The

  13. Size effect of the elastic modulus of rectangular nanobeams: Surface elasticity effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hai-Yan; Fan Wen-Liang; Yun Guo-Hong

    2013-01-01

    The size-dependent elastic property of rectangular nanobeams (nanowires or nanoplates) induced by the surface elasticity effect is investigated by using a developed modified core-shell model. The effect of surface elasticity on the elastic modulus of nanobeams can be characterized by two surface related parameters, i.e., inhomogeneous degree constant and surface layer thickness. The analytical results show that the elastic modulus of the rectangular nanobeam exhibits a distinct size effect when its characteristic size reduces below 100 nm. It is also found that the theoretical results calculated by a modified core-shell model have more obvious advantages than those by other models (core-shell model and core-surface model) by comparing them with relevant experimental measurements and computational results, especially when the dimensions of nanostructures reduce to a few tens of nanometers. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF LEARNING PROCESS USING “WEB TECHNOLOGY” IN THE DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj KILLEDAR

    2008-01-01

    Web is a globally distributed, still highly personalized media for cost-effective delivery of multimedia information and services. Web is expected to have a strong impact on almost every aspect of how we learn. ‘Total Quality’ is the totality of features, as perceived by the customers of the product or service. Totality of features includes stated as well as implied needs and expectations of all types of customers. No quality improvement is possible without its unambiguous measurement. But, ‘...

  15. Test Plan to Assess Fire Effects on the Function of an Engineered Surface Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Berlin, Gregory T.; Cammann, Jerry W.; Leary, Kevin D.; Link, Steven O.

    2008-09-29

    Wildfire is a frequent perturbation in shrub steppe ecosystems, altering the flora, fauna, atmosphere, and soil of these systems. Research on the fire effects has focused mostly on natural ecosystems with essentially no attention on engineered systems like surface barriers. The scope of the project is to use a simulated wildfire to induce changes in an engineered surface barrier and document the effects on barrier performance. The main objective is to quantify the effects of burning and the resulting post-fire conditions on alterations in soil physical properties; hydrologic response, particularly the water balance; geochemical properties; and biological properties. A secondary objective is to use the lessons learned to maximize fire protection in the design of long-term monitoring systems based on electronic sensors. A simulated wildfire will be initiated, controlled and monitored at the 200-BP-1 barrier in collaboration with the Hanford Fire Department during the fall of 2008. The north half of the barrier will be divided into nine 12 x 12 m plots, each of which will be randomly assigned a fuel load of 2 kg m-2 or 4 kg m-2. Each plot will be ignited around the perimeter and flames allowed to carry to the centre. Any remaining unburned vegetation will be manually burned off using a drip torch. Progress of the fire and its effects will be monitored using point measurements of thermal, hydrologic, and biotic variables. Three measures of fire intensity will be used to characterize fire behavior: (1) flame height, (2) the maximum temperature at three vertical profile levels, and (3) total duration of elevated temperature at these levels. Pre-burn plant information, including species diversity, plant height, and canopy diameter will be measured on shrubs from the plots to be burned and from control plots at the McGee ranch. General assessments of shrub survival, recovery, and recruitment will be made after the fire. Near-surface soil samples will be collected pre- and

  16. Test Plan to Assess Fire Effects on the Function of an Engineered Surface Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Berlin, Gregory T.; Cammann, Jerry W.; Leary, Kevin D.; Link, Steven O.

    2008-01-01

    Wildfire is a frequent perturbation in shrub steppe ecosystems, altering the flora, fauna, atmosphere, and soil of these systems. Research on the fire effects has focused mostly on natural ecosystems with essentially no attention on engineered systems like surface barriers. The scope of the project is to use a simulated wildfire to induce changes in an engineered surface barrier and document the effects on barrier performance. The main objective is to quantify the effects of burning and the resulting post-fire conditions on alterations in soil physical properties; hydrologic response, particularly the water balance; geochemical properties; and biological properties. A secondary objective is to use the lessons learned to maximize fire protection in the design of long-term monitoring systems based on electronic sensors. A simulated wildfire will be initiated, controlled and monitored at the 200-BP-1 barrier in collaboration with the Hanford Fire Department during the fall of 2008. The north half of the barrier will be divided into nine 12 x 12 m plots, each of which will be randomly assigned a fuel load of 2 kg m-2 or 4 kg m-2. Each plot will be ignited around the perimeter and flames allowed to carry to the centre. Any remaining unburned vegetation will be manually burned off using a drip torch. Progress of the fire and its effects will be monitored using point measurements of thermal, hydrologic, and biotic variables. Three measures of fire intensity will be used to characterize fire behavior: (1) flame height, (2) the maximum temperature at three vertical profile levels, and (3) total duration of elevated temperature at these levels. Pre-burn plant information, including species diversity, plant height, and canopy diameter will be measured on shrubs from the plots to be burned and from control plots at the McGee ranch. General assessments of shrub survival, recovery, and recruitment will be made after the fire. Near-surface soil samples will be collected pre- and

  17. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2014-05-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin-Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  18. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin–Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  19. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal, E-mail: ghavanloo@shirazu.ac.ir [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71963-16548 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71963-16548 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafii-Tabar, Hashem [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Research Center for Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Computational Physical Sciences Research Laboratory, School of Nano-Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin–Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  20. The Relative Effect of Team-Based Learning on Motivation and Learning: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeno, Lucas M.; Raaheim, Arild; Kristensen, Sara Madeleine; Kristensen, Kjell Daniel; Hole, Torstein Nielsen; Haugland, Mildrid J.; Mæland, Silje

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effects of team-based learning (TBL) on motivation and learning in a quasi-experimental study. The study employs a self-determination theory perspective to investigate the motivational effects of implementing TBL in a physiotherapy course in higher education. We adopted a one-group pretest-posttest design. The results show that…