José Manuel Freixo Nunes
Full Text Available Computational thinking can be thought of as an approach to problem solving which has been applied to different areas of learning and which has become an important field of investigation in the area of educational research. [continue
José Manuel Freixo Nunes; Teresa Margarida Loureiro Cardoso
Computational thinking can be thought of as an approach to problem solving which has been applied to different areas of learning and which has become an important field of investigation in the area of educational research. [continue
Evgeniy K. Khenner
Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the research is to draw attention of the educational community to the phenomenon of computational thinking which actively discussed in the last decade in the foreign scientific and educational literature, to substantiate of its importance, practical utility and the right on affirmation in Russian education.Methods. The research is based on the analysis of foreign studies of the phenomenon of computational thinking and the ways of its formation in the process of education; on comparing the notion of «computational thinking» with related concepts used in the Russian scientific and pedagogical literature.Results. The concept «computational thinking» is analyzed from the point of view of intuitive understanding and scientific and applied aspects. It is shown as computational thinking has evolved in the process of development of computers hardware and software. The practice-oriented interpretation of computational thinking which dominant among educators is described along with some ways of its formation. It is shown that computational thinking is a metasubject result of general education as well as its tool. From the point of view of the author, purposeful development of computational thinking should be one of the tasks of the Russian education.Scientific novelty. The author gives a theoretical justification of the role of computational thinking schemes as metasubject results of learning. The dynamics of the development of this concept is described. This process is connected with the evolution of computer and information technologies as well as increase of number of the tasks for effective solutions of which computational thinking is required. Author substantiated the affirmation that including «computational thinking » in the set of pedagogical concepts which are used in the national education system fills an existing gap.Practical significance. New metasubject result of education associated with
Lu, J.J.; Fletcher, G.H.L.; Fitzgerald, S.; Guzdial, M.; Lewandowski, G.; Wolfman, S.A.
Jeannette Wing's call for teaching Computational Thinking (CT) as a formative skill on par with reading, writing, and arithmetic places computer science in the category of basic knowledge. Just as proficiency in basic language arts helps us to effectively communicate and in basic math helps us to
Full Text Available Computational Thinking has recently become a focus of many teaching and research domains; it encapsulates those thinking skills integral to solving complex problems using a computer, thus being widely applicable in our society. It is influencing research across many disciplines and also coming into the limelight of education, mostly thanks to public initiatives such as the Hour of Code. In this paper we present our arguments for promoting Computational Thinking in education through the Human-centred paradigm of Tangible End-User Development, namely by exploiting objects whose interactions with the physical environment are mapped to digital actions performed on the system.
Sanford, John F.; Naidu, Jaideep T.
The paper argues that mathematical modeling is the essence of computational thinking. Learning a computer language is a valuable assistance in learning logical thinking but of less assistance when learning problem-solving skills. The paper is third in a series and presents some examples of mathematical modeling using spreadsheets at an advanced…
Tsai, Chia-Wen; Shen, Pei-Di; Tsai, Meng-Chuan; Chen, Wen-Yu
Much application software education in Taiwan can hardly be regarded as practical. The researchers in this study provided a flexible means of ubiquitous learning (u-learning) with a mobile app for students to access the learning material. In addition, the authors also adopted computational thinking (CT) to help students develop practical computing…
Full Text Available This study investigates a Computer Assisted Learning System (CALS according to the several factors that promote flow wherestudents are fully involved into the learning activities for history of civilization lessons. The designed CALS supported bymeta – cognitive (cognitive maps and multimedia tools (movies, flash cards and quiz applications that help students to reacha flow state in learning by actively by engaging students’ critical thinking and providing an environment for active participation.The research data was collected using focus group surveys from a randomly selected 54 students enrolled in history ofcivilization at Bahcesehir University in Istanbul, Turkey. Results showed that 53.7% of students can be in flow via implementedCALS. Also according to the results, the flow has significant predictors in the course enjoyment, perceived competence ofcourse, value–usefulness and the challenge–learning style match according to nature of course in such a CALS.
Musaeus, Peter; Tatar, Deborah Gail; Rosen, Michael A.
Computational thinking (CT) in medicine means deliberating when to pursue computer-mediated solutions to medical problems and evaluating when such solutions are worth pursuing in order to assist in medical decision making. Teaching computational thinking (CT) at medical school should be aligned...
Jarnawi Afgani Dahlan; Yaya Sukjaya Kusumah; Mr Heri Sutarno
The focus of this research is on the development of mathematics teaching and learning activity which is based on the application of computer software. The aim of research is as follows : 1) to identify some mathematics topics which feasible to be presented by computer-based e-learning, 2) design, develop, and implement computer-based e-learning on mathematics, and 3) analyze the impact of computer-based e-learning in the enhancement of SMA students’ high order mathematical thinking. All activ...
Kazimoglu, Cagin; Kiernan, Mary; Bacon, Liz; MacKinnon, Lachlan
This paper outlines an innovative game-based approach to learning introductory programming that is grounded in the development of computational thinking at an abstract conceptual level, but also provides a direct contextual relationship between game-play and learning traditional introductory programming. The paper proposes a possible model for,…
Nugraha, Muhamad Gina; Kaniawati, Ida; Rusdiana, Dadi; Kirana, Kartika Hajar
Among the purposes of physics learning at high school is to master the physics concepts and cultivate scientific attitude (including critical attitude), develop inductive and deductive reasoning skills. According to Ennis et al., inductive and deductive reasoning skills are part of critical thinking. Based on preliminary studies, both of the competence are lack achieved, it is seen from student learning outcomes is low and learning processes that are not conducive to cultivate critical thinking (teacher-centered learning). One of learning model that predicted can increase mastery concepts and train CTS is inquiry learning model aided computer simulations. In this model, students were given the opportunity to be actively involved in the experiment and also get a good explanation with the computer simulations. From research with randomized control group pretest-posttest design, we found that the inquiry learning model aided computer simulations can significantly improve students' mastery concepts than the conventional (teacher-centered) method. With inquiry learning model aided computer simulations, 20% of students have high CTS, 63.3% were medium and 16.7% were low. CTS greatly contribute to the students' mastery concept with a correlation coefficient of 0.697 and quite contribute to the enhancement mastery concept with a correlation coefficient of 0.603.
Tatar, Deborah Gail; Harrison, Steve; Stewart, Michael
. Utilizing university students in co-development activities with teachers, the current study located and implemented opportunities for integrated computational thinking in middle school in a large, suburban, mixed-socioeconomic standing (SES) , mixed-race district. The co-development strategy resulted...
Pedersen, B. K. M. K.; Andersen, K. E.; J⊘rgensen, A.
Educational Robotics has proven a feasible way of supporting and exemplifying Computational Thinking. With this paper, we describe the user-centered iterative and incremental development of a new educational robotic system, BRICKO, to support tangible, social and playful interaction while educating...... children in 1st–3rd grade in Computational Thinking. We develop the system through seven main iterations including a total of 108 participant pupils and their teachers. The methodology is a mixture of observation and interviews using Wizard of OZ testing with the early pilot prototypes as well as usability...... categories of command-bricks. We discuss the methodologies used for assuring a playful and social educational robotic system and conclude that we achieved a useful prototype for supporting education in Computational Thinking....
Weintrop, David; Holbert, Nathan; Horn, Michael S.; Wilensky, Uri
Video games offer an exciting opportunity for learners to engage in computational thinking in informal contexts. This paper describes a genre of learning environments called constructionist video games that are especially well suited for developing learners' computational thinking skills. These games blend features of conventional video games with…
Jaipal-Jamani, Kamini; Angeli, Charoula
The current impetus for increasing STEM in K-12 education calls for an examination of how preservice teachers are being prepared to teach STEM. This paper reports on a study that examined elementary preservice teachers' (n = 21) self-efficacy, understanding of science concepts, and computational thinking as they engaged with robotics in a science…
Yadav, A.; Good, J.; Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Mulder, M.
Computational thinking is a problem-solving skill set, which includes problem decomposition, algorithmic thinking, abstraction, and automation. Even though computational thinking draws upon concepts fundamental to computer science (CS), it has broad application to all disciplines. It has been
Basawapatna, Ashok Ram
Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction. One aim of the NSF is to integrate these and other computational thinking concepts into the classroom. End-user programming tools offer a unique opportunity to accomplish this goal. An end-user programming tool that allows students with little or no prior experience the ability to create simulations based on phenomena they see in-class could be a first step towards meeting most, if not all, of the above computational thinking goals. This thesis describes the creation, implementation and initial testing of a programming tool, called the Simulation Creation Toolkit, with which users apply high-level agent interactions called Computational Thinking Patterns (CTPs) to create simulations. Employing Computational Thinking Patterns obviates lower behavior-level programming and allows users to directly create agent interactions in a simulation by making an analogy with real world phenomena they are trying to represent. Data collected from 21 sixth grade students with no prior programming experience and 45 seventh grade students with minimal programming experience indicates that this is an effective first step towards enabling students to create simulations in the classroom environment. Furthermore, an analogical reasoning study that looked at how users might apply patterns to create simulations from high- level descriptions with little guidance shows promising results. These initial results indicate that the high level strategy employed by the Simulation Creation Toolkit is a promising strategy towards incorporating Computational Thinking concepts in the classroom environment.
Kim, Nam Ju
This multiple paper dissertation addressed several issues in Problem-based learning (PBL) through conceptual analysis, meta-analysis, and empirical research. PBL is characterized by ill-structured tasks, self-directed learning process, and a combination of individual and cooperative learning activities. Students who lack content knowledge and problem-solving skills may struggle to address associated tasks that are beyond their current ability levels in PBL. This dissertation addressed a) scaf...
Kim, Nam Ju
This multiple paper dissertation addressed several issues in Problem-based learning (PBL) through conceptual analysis, meta-analysis, and empirical research. PBL is characterized by ill-structured tasks, self-directed learning process, and a combination of individual and cooperative learning activities. Students who lack content knowledge and problem-solving skills may struggle to address associated tasks that are beyond their current ability levels in PBL. This dissertation addressed a) scaffolding characteristics (i.e., scaffolding types, delivery method, customization) and their effects on students' perception of optimal challenge in PBL, b) the possibility of virtual learning environments for PBL, and c) the importance of information literacy for successful PBL learning. Specifically, this dissertation demonstrated the effectiveness of scaffolding customization (i.e., fading, adding, and fading/adding) to enhance students' self-directed learning in PBL. Moreover, the effectiveness of scaffolding was greatest when scaffolding customization is self-selected than based on fixed-time interval and their performance. This suggests that it might be important for students to take responsibility for their learning in PBL and individualized and just-in-time scaffolding can be one of the solutions to address K-12 students' difficulties in improving problem-solving skills and adjusting to PBL.
Strategic thinking focuses on issues that directly affect the ability of a family planning program to attract and retain clients. This issue of "The Family Planning Manager" outlines the five steps of strategic thinking in family planning administration: 1) define the organization's mission and strategic goals; 2) identify opportunities for improving quality, expanding access, and increasing demand; 3) evaluate each option in terms of its compatibility with the organization's goals; 4) select an option; and 5) transform strategies into action. Also included in this issue is a 20-question test designed to permit readers to assess their "strategic thinking quotient" and a list of sample questions to guide a strategic analysis.
Caplan, B.; Morrison, A.; Moore, J. C.; Berkowitz, A. R.
Understanding water is central to understanding environmental challenges. Scientists use `big data' and computational models to develop knowledge about the structure and function of complex systems, and to make predictions about changes in climate, weather, hydrology, and ecology. Large environmental systems-related data sets and simulation models are difficult for high school teachers and students to access and make sense of. Comp Hydro, a collaboration across four states and multiple school districts, integrates computational thinking and data-related science practices into water systems instruction to enhance development of scientific model-based reasoning, through curriculum, assessment and teacher professional development. Comp Hydro addresses the need for 1) teaching materials for using data and physical models of hydrological phenomena, 2) building teachers' and students' comfort or familiarity with data analysis and modeling, and 3) infusing the computational knowledge and practices necessary to model and visualize hydrologic processes into instruction. Comp Hydro teams in Baltimore, MD and Fort Collins, CO are integrating teaching about surface water systems into high school courses focusing on flooding (MD) and surface water reservoirs (CO). This interactive session will highlight the successes and challenges of our physical and simulation models in helping teachers and students develop proficiency with computational thinking about surface water. We also will share insights from comparing teacher-led vs. project-led development of curriculum and our simulations.
Voogt, Joke; Fisser, Petra; Good, Jon; Mishra, Punya; Yadav, Aman
Computational Thinking is considered a universal competence, which should be added to every child's analytical ability as a vital ingredient of their school learning. In this article we further elaborate on what Computational Thinking is and present examples of what needs to be taught and how. First we position Computational Thinking in Papert's…
Mardia Hi. Rahman
Full Text Available Creative thinking ability development is needed to be implemented by every educator including lecturers to their students. Therefore, they need to seriously act and design their learning process. One of the ways to develop student’s creative thinking is using discovery learning model. This research is conducted in physics education study program in 2016 with students who took learning and teaching class as research subject. From the research analysis result and discussion, it can be concluded that discovery learning model can encourage students’ creative thinking ability in learning and teaching strategy subject.
Spangsberg, Thomas Hvid; Brynskov, Martin
Computational Thinking has gained popularity in recent years within educational and political discourses. It is more than ever crucial to discuss the term itself and what it means. In June 2017, Denning articulated that computational thinking can be viewed as either “traditional” or “new”. New...
Gu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Huawen; Mason, Jon
Numerous studies have recognized collaboration as an effective way of learning. When collaboration involves students from different cultural backgrounds, a question arises: "Will cultural differences influence the manner in which roles are adopted within collaborative learning?" In this study, a correlation analysis was used to explore…
Mardia Hi. Rahman
Creative thinking ability development is needed to be implemented by every educator including lecturers to their students. Therefore, they need to seriously act and design their learning process. One of the ways to develop student’s creative thinking is using discovery learning model. This research is conducted in physics education study program in 2016 with students who took learning and teaching class as research subject. From the research analysis result and discussion, it can be concluded...
Korucu, Agah Tugrul; Gencturk, Abdullah Tarik; Gundogdu, Mustafa Mucahit
Computational thinking is generally considered as a kind of analytical way of thinking. According to Wings (2008) it shares with mathematical thinking, engineering thinking and scientific thinking in the general ways in which we may use for solving a problem, designing and evaluating complex systems or understanding computability and intelligence…
Mannila, Linda; Dagiene, Valentina; Demo, Barbara; Grgurina, Natasa; Mirolo, Claudio; Rolandsson, Lennart; Settle, Amber
In this report we consider the current status of the coverage of computer science in education at the lowest levels of education in multiple countries. Our focus is on computational thinking (CT), a term meant to encompass a set of concepts and thought processes that aid in formulating problems and
Gad, Christopher; Douglas-Jones, Rachel
slippage within the computational thinking concept, as it moves between the descriptive and promotional modes described above. We consider the implications of this slippage through various conceptual apparatuses available within STS – since these approaches are already critical of distinctions between......Proponents of computational thinking use the concept to account for what they perceive as important generalizable aspects of human thought (Wing 2011, National Research Council USA 2010, 2011). Simultaneously, the concept is employed to designate an ambitious pedagogical programme, in which...... computational thinking can be taught as a skill for the digitally literate 21st century (ibid.). As such, CT is seen both as an innate human capacity and a programme for developing future oriented skills - both for individuals and for populations at large. This paper explores what we perceive as conceptual...
Gadanidis, George; Clements, Erin; Yiu, Chris
In this article, we investigate the artistic puzzle of designing mathematics experiences (MEs) to engage young children with ideas of group theory, using a combination of hands-on and computational thinking (CT) tools. We elaborate on: (1) group theory and why we chose it as a context for young mathematicians' experiences with symmetry and…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI), computational thinking (CT), and mathematics education (ME) for young students (K-8). Specifically, it focuses on three key elements that are common to AI, CT and ME: agency, modeling of phenomena and abstracting concepts beyond specific instances.…
Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Good, J.; Mishra, P.; Yadav, A.
Computational Thinking is considered a universal competence, which should be added to every child’s analytical ability as a vital ingredient of their school learning. In this article we further elaborate on what Computational Thinking is and present examples of what needs to be taught and how. First
Lockwood, James; Mooney, Aidan
Computational Thinking has been described as an essential skill which everyone should learn and can therefore include in their skill set. Seymour Papert (Papert, 1980) is credited as concretising Computational Thinking in 1980 but Jeanette Wing (Wing, 2006) popularised the term in 2006 and brought it to the international community's attention.…
Full Text Available We join the increasing call to take computational education of life science students a step further, beyond teaching mere programming and employing existing software tools. We describe a new course, focusing on enriching the curriculum of life science students with abstract, algorithmic, and logical thinking, and exposing them to the computational "culture." The design, structure, and content of our course are influenced by recent efforts in this area, collaborations with life scientists, and our own instructional experience. Specifically, we suggest that an effective course of this nature should: (1 devote time to explicitly reflect upon computational thinking processes, resisting the temptation to drift to purely practical instruction, (2 focus on discrete notions, rather than on continuous ones, and (3 have basic programming as a prerequisite, so students need not be preoccupied with elementary programming issues. We strongly recommend that the mere use of existing bioinformatics tools and packages should not replace hands-on programming. Yet, we suggest that programming will mostly serve as a means to practice computational thinking processes. This paper deals with the challenges and considerations of such computational education for life science students. It also describes a concrete implementation of the course and encourages its use by others.
Rubinstein, Amir; Chor, Benny
We join the increasing call to take computational education of life science students a step further, beyond teaching mere programming and employing existing software tools. We describe a new course, focusing on enriching the curriculum of life science students with abstract, algorithmic, and logical thinking, and exposing them to the computational "culture." The design, structure, and content of our course are influenced by recent efforts in this area, collaborations with life scientists, and our own instructional experience. Specifically, we suggest that an effective course of this nature should: (1) devote time to explicitly reflect upon computational thinking processes, resisting the temptation to drift to purely practical instruction, (2) focus on discrete notions, rather than on continuous ones, and (3) have basic programming as a prerequisite, so students need not be preoccupied with elementary programming issues. We strongly recommend that the mere use of existing bioinformatics tools and packages should not replace hands-on programming. Yet, we suggest that programming will mostly serve as a means to practice computational thinking processes. This paper deals with the challenges and considerations of such computational education for life science students. It also describes a concrete implementation of the course and encourages its use by others.
Dunn, Louise; Musolino, Gina M
Facilitation of reflective practice is critical for the ongoing demands of health care practitioners. Reflective thinking concepts, grounded in the work of Dewey and Schön, emphasize critical reflection to promote transformation in beliefs and learning necessary for reflective practice. The Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (QRT) and Revised Study Process Questionnaire (RSPQ-2F) assess skill aspects of professional reasoning, with promise for measuring changes over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and responsiveness and the model validity of reflective thinking and approaches to learning measures for U.S. health professions students enrolled in entry-level occupational (MOT) and physical therapy (DPT) programs. This measurement study addressed reliability and responsiveness of two measures, the QRT and RSPQ-2F, for graduate health professionals. A convenience sample of 125 MOT and DPT students participated in the two-measure, test-retest investigation, with electronic data collection. Outcomes support the stability of the four-scale QRT (ICC 0.63 to 0.82) and the two-scale RSPQ-2F (ICC 0.91 and 0.87). Descriptive data supporting responsiveness are presented. With noted limitations, the results support the use of the QRT and RSPQ-2F measures to assess changes in reflective thinking and approaches to learning. Measurement of these learning outcomes furthers our understanding and knowledge about instructional strategies, development of professional reasoning, and fostering of self-directed learning within MOT and DPT programs.
Anderson, Nicole D.
Computational thinking is an approach to problem solving that is typically employed by computer programmers. The advantage of this approach is that solutions can be generated through algorithms that can be implemented as computer code. Although computational thinking has historically been a skill that is exclusively taught within computer science,…
Seddon, John; Caulkin, Simon
Systems thinking underpins "lean" management and is best understood through action-learning as the ideas are counter-intuitive. The Toyota Production System is just that--a system; the failure to appreciate that starting-place and the advocacy of "tools" leads many to fail to grasp what is, without doubt, a significant…
Halpern, Diane F.; Millis, Keith; Graesser, Arthur C.; Butler, Heather; Forsyth, Carol; Cai, Zhiqiang
Operation ARA (Acquiring Research Acumen) is a computerized learning game that teaches critical thinking and scientific reasoning. It is a valuable learning tool that utilizes principles from the science of learning and serious computer games. Students learn the skills of scientific reasoning by engaging in interactive dialogs with avatars. They…
Buitrago Flórez, Francisco; Casallas, Rubby; Hernández, Marcela; Reyes, Alejandro; Restrepo, Silvia; Danies, Giovanna
Computational thinking (CT) uses concepts that are essential to computing and information science to solve problems, design and evaluate complex systems, and understand human reasoning and behavior. This way of thinking has important implications in computer sciences as well as in almost every other field. Therefore, we contend that CT should be…
Yanuarta, Lidya; Gofur, Abdul; Indriwati, Sri Endah
Critical thinking is a complex reflection process that helps individuals become more analytical in their thinking. Empower critical thinking in students need to be done so that students can resolve the problems that exist in their life and are able to apply alternative solutions to problems in a different situations. Therefore, Think Talk Write (TTW) combined Problem Based Learning (PBL) were needed to empowered the critical thinking skills so that students were able to face the challenges of...
Cheng, Yin Cheong
Purpose: Based on a typology of contextualized multiple thinking, this paper aims to elaborate how the levels of thinking (data, information, knowledge, and intelligence), and the types of thinking as a whole, can be used to profile the characteristics of multiple thinking in organizational learning, re-conceptualize the nature of creativity in…
Buraphadeja, Vasa; Dawson, Kara
This article reviews content analysis studies aimed to assess critical thinking in computer-mediated communication. It also discusses theories and content analysis models that encourage critical thinking skills in asynchronous learning environments and reviews theories and factors that may foster critical thinking skills and new knowledge…
Kusnendar, J.; Prabawa, H. W.
Increasingly human interaction with technology and the increasingly complex development of digital technology world make the theme of computer science education interesting to study. Previous studies on Computer Literacy and Competency reveal that Indonesian teachers in general have fairly high computational skill, but their skill utilization are limited to some applications. This engenders limited and minimum computer-related learning for the students. On the other hand, computer science education is considered unrelated to real-world solutions. This paper attempts to address the utilization of NCLab- Karel in shaping the computational thinking in students. This computational thinking is believed to be able to making learn students about technology. Implementation of Karel utilization provides information that Karel is able to increase student interest in studying computational material, especially algorithm. Observations made during the learning process also indicate the growth and development of computing mindset in students.
Madoff, R. D.; Putkonen, J.
While computational thinking and reasoning are not necessarily the same as computer programming, programs such as MATLAB can provide the medium through which the logical and computational thinking at the foundation of science can be taught, learned, and experienced. And while math and computer anxiety are often discussed as critical obstacles to students' progress in their geoscience curriculum, it is here suggested that an unfamiliarity with the computational and logical reasoning is what poses a first stumbling block, in addition to the hurdle of expending the effort to learn how to translate a computational problem into the appropriate computer syntax in order to achieve the intended results. Because computational thinking is so vital for all fields, there is a need to initiate many and to build support in the curriculum for it. This presentation focuses on elements to bring into the teaching of computational thinking that are intended as additions to learning MATLAB programming as a basic tool. Such elements include: highlighting a key concept, discussing a basic geoscience problem where the concept would show up, having the student draw or outline a sketch of what they think an operation needs to do in order to perform a desired result, and then finding the relevant syntax to work with. This iterative pedagogy simulates what someone with more experience in programming does, so it discloses the thinking process in the black box of a result. Intended as only a very early stage introduction, advanced applications would need to be developed as students go through an academic program. The objective would be to expose and introduce computational thinking to majors and non-majors and to alleviate some of the math and computer anxiety so that students would choose to advance on with programming or modeling, whether it is built into a 4-year curriculum or not.
Wu, Min Lun
This qualitative case study reports descriptive findings of digital game-based learning involving 15 Taiwanese middle school students' use of computational thinking skills elicited through programmed activities in a game design workshop. Situated learning theory is utilized as framework to evaluate novice game designers' individual advancement in…
Pugnali, Alex; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi
Aim/Purpose: Over the past few years, new approaches to introducing young children to computational thinking have grown in popularity. This paper examines the role that user interfaces have on children's mastery of computational thinking concepts and positive interpersonal behaviors. Background: There is a growing pressure to begin teaching…
Lee, Victor R.; Recker, Mimi
In this paper, we propose that paper circuitry provides a productive space for exploring aspects of computational thinking, an increasingly critical 21st century skills for all students. We argue that the creation and operation of paper circuits involve learning about computational concepts such as rule-based constraints, operations, and defined…
Full Text Available Computational thinking sits at the core of every engineering and computing related discipline. It has increasingly emerged as its own subject in all levels of education. It is a powerful cornerstone for cognitive development, creative problem solving, algorithmic thinking and designs, and programming. How to effectively teach computational thinking skills poses real challenges and creates opportunities. Targeting entering computer science and engineering undergraduates, we resourcefully integrate elements from artificial intelligence (AI into introductory computing courses. In addition to comprehension of the essence of computational thinking, practical exercises in AI enable inspirations of collaborative problem solving beyond abstraction, logical reasoning, critical and analytical thinking. Problems in machine intelligence systems intrinsically connect students to algorithmic oriented computing and essential mathematical foundations. Beyond knowledge representation, AI fosters a gentle introduction to data structures and algorithms. Focused on engaging mental tool, a computer is never a necessity. Neither coding nor programming is ever required. Instead, students enjoy constructivist classrooms designed to always be active, flexible, and highly dynamic. Learning to learn and reflecting on cognitive experiences, they rigorously construct knowledge from collectively solving exciting puzzles, competing in strategic games, and participating in intellectual discussions.
Turchi, T; Malizia, A
Computational Thinking has recently returned into the limelight as an essential skill to have for both the general public and disciplines outside Computer Science. It encapsulates those thinking skills integral to solving complex problems using a computer, thus widely applicable in our technological society. Several public initiatives such as the Hour of Code successfully introduced it to millions of people of different ages and backgrounds, mostly using Blocks Programming Environments like S...
Agah Tugrul Korucu
Full Text Available Computational thinking is generally considered as a kind of analytical way of thinking. According to Wings (2008 it shares with mathematical thinking, engineering thinking and scientific thinking in the general ways in which we may use for solving a problem, designing and evaluating complex systems or understanding computability and intelligence as well as the mind and human behaviour. It is generally accepted important that like high order thinking skills the analytical way of thinking should be taught to the children at very early ages. The aim of this study is to investigate the computational thinking skills of secondary school students in terms of different variables. The study group of the research is 160 secondary school students who continue their education at different levels in Konya. The “Computational Thinking Skills Scale” which has been developed by Korkmaz, Çakır and Özden (2015 used for data collection. The scale includes 22 items and it is a 5 point likert type scale. The Cronbach Alpha reliability of the scale has been calculated as 0.80 and it has been found to be valid to measure the computational skills levels of the secondary school students as a result of the analysis. As a result of this research, the computational thinking skill levels of participants differ meaningfully in terms of their class levels, do not differ meaningfully in terms of their genders, do not differ meaningfully in terms of their weekly internet usage durations, do not differ meaningfully in terms of their mobile device usage competence situations, differ meaningfully in terms of their mobile Technologies possession durations.
Czerkawski, Betul C.; Lyman, Eugene W., III
The term computational thinking (CT) has been in academic discourse for decades, but gained new currency in 2006, when Jeanette Wing used it to describe a set of thinking skills that students in all fields may require in order to succeed. Wing's initial article and subsequent writings on CT have been broadly influential; experts in…
Full Text Available When seeking solutions to current problems in the field of computer science – and other fields – we encounter situations where traditional approaches no longer bring the desired results. Our cognitive skills also limit the implementation of reliable mental simulation within the basic set of relations. The world around us is becoming more complex and mutually interdependent, and this is reflected in the demands on computer support. Thus, in today’s education and science in the field of computer science and all other disciplines and areas of life need to address the issue of the paradigm shift, which is generally accepted by experts. The goal of the paper is to present the systems thinking that facilitates and extends the understanding of the world through relations and linkages. Moreover, the paper introduces the essence of systems thinking and the possibilities to achieve mental a shift toward systems thinking skills. At the same time, the link between systems thinking and functional literacy is presented. We adopted the “Bathtub Test” from the variety of systems thinking tests that allow people to assess the understanding of basic systemic concepts, in order to assess the level of systems thinking. University students (potential information managers were the examined subjects of the examination of systems thinking that was conducted over a longer time period and whose aim was to determine the status of systems thinking. . The paper demonstrates that some pedagogical concepts and activities, in our case the subject of System Dynamics that leads to the appropriate integration of systems thinking in education. There is some evidence that basic knowledge of system dynamics and systems thinking principles will affect students, and their thinking will contribute to an improved approach to solving problems of computer science both in theory and practice.
Planinsic, G.; Gregorcic, B.; Etkina, E.
This paper introduces the readers to simple inquiry-based activities (experiments with supporting questions) that one can do with a computer scanner to help students learn and apply the concepts of relative motion in 1 and 2D, vibrational motion and the Doppler effect. We also show how to use these activities to help students think like…
Tilchin, Oleg; Raiyn, Jamal
Solving complicated problems in a contemporary knowledge-based society requires higher-order thinking (HOT). The most productive way to encourage development of HOT in students is through use of the Problem-based Learning (PBL) model. This model organizes learning by solving corresponding problems relative to study courses. Students are directed…
Garneli, Varvara; Chorianopoulos, Konstantinos
Various aspects of computational thinking (CT) could be supported by educational contexts such as simulations and video-games construction. In this field study, potential differences in student motivation and learning were empirically examined through students' code. For this purpose, we performed a teaching intervention that took place over five…
Trouille, Laura; Beheshti, E.; Horn, M.; Jona, K.; Kalogera, V.; Weintrop, D.; Wilensky, U.; University CT-STEM Project, Northwestern; University CenterTalent Development, Northwestern
Computational thinking (for example, the thought processes involved in developing algorithmic solutions to problems that can then be automated for computation) has revolutionized the way we do science. The Next Generation Science Standards require that teachers support their students’ development of computational thinking and computational modeling skills. As a result, there is a very high demand among teachers for quality materials. Astronomy provides an abundance of opportunities to support student development of computational thinking skills. Our group has taken advantage of this to create a series of astronomy-based computational thinking lesson plans for use in typical physics, astronomy, and math high school classrooms. This project is funded by the NSF Computing Education for the 21st Century grant and is jointly led by Northwestern University’s Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), the Computer Science department, the Learning Sciences department, and the Office of STEM Education Partnerships (OSEP). I will also briefly present the online ‘Astro Adventures’ courses for middle and high school students I have developed through NU’s Center for Talent Development. The online courses take advantage of many of the amazing online astronomy enrichment materials available to the public, including a range of hands-on activities and the ability to take images with the Global Telescope Network. The course culminates with an independent computational research project.
Burte, Heather; Gardony, Aaron L; Hutton, Allyson; Taylor, Holly A
Spatial thinking skills positively relate to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) outcomes, but spatial training is largely absent in elementary school. Elementary school is a time when children develop foundational cognitive skills that will support STEM learning throughout their education. Spatial thinking should be considered a foundational cognitive skill. The present research examined the impact of an embodied spatial training program on elementary students' spatial and mathematical thinking. Students in rural elementary schools completed spatial and math assessments prior to and after participating in an origami and pop-up paper engineering-based program, called Think3d!. Think3d! uses embodied tasks, such as folding and cutting paper, to train two-dimensional to three-dimensional spatial thinking. Analyses explored spatial thinking gains, mathematics gains - specifically for problem types expected to show gains from spatial training - and factors predicting mathematics gains. Results showed spatial thinking gains in two assessments. Using a math categorization to target problems more and less likely to be impacted by spatial training, we found that all students improved on real-world math problems and older students improved on visual and spatial math problems. Further, the results are suggestive of developmental time points for implementing embodied spatial training related to applying spatial thinking to math. Finally, the spatial thinking assessment that was most highly related to training activities also predicted math performance gains. Future research should explore developmental issues related to how embodied spatial training might support STEM learning and outcomes.
Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert
This study developed an interview-based critical spatial thinking oral test and used the test to investigate the effects of Geographic Information System (GIS) learning on three components of critical spatial thinking: evaluating data reliability, exercising spatial reasoning, and assessing problem-solving validity. Thirty-two students at a large…
Pfannkuch, Maxine; Budgett, Stephanie; Fewster, Rachel; Fitch, Marie; Pattenwise, Simeon; Wild, Chris; Ziedins, Ilze
Because new learning technologies are enabling students to build and explore probability models, we believe that there is a need to determine the big enduring ideas that underpin probabilistic thinking and modeling. By uncovering the elements of the thinking modes of expert users of probability models we aim to provide a base for the setting of…
Hartman, Hope J.
This paper describes a teacher preparation instructional unit on the "Structure of Knowledge" that was designed to help students learn to think like Jerome Bruner and David Ausubel rather than merely acquire knowledge about them, while simultaneously improving students' thinking skills. The unit used Sternberg's triarchic theory to…
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Over the past few years, new approaches to introducing young children to computational thinking have grown in popularity. This paper examines the role that user interfaces have on children’s mastery of computational thinking concepts and positive interpersonal behaviors. Background: There is a growing pressure to begin teaching computational thinking at a young age. This study explores the affordances of two very different programming interfaces for teaching computational thinking: a graphical coding application on the iPad (ScratchJr and tangible programmable robotics kit (KIBO. Methodology\t: This study used a mixed-method approach to explore the learning experiences that young children have with tangible and graphical coding interfaces. A sample of children ages four to seven (N = 28 participated. Findings: Results suggest that type of user interface does have an impact on children’s learning, but is only one of many factors that affect positive academic and socio-emotional experiences. Tangible and graphical interfaces each have qualities that foster different types of learning
The paper will present the relation between students’ beliefs and their behaviours observed in the process of learning critical thinking skills. In the first place some consideration concerning the fundamental epistemological concepts used in the research and about the particular critical thinking skills are to be sketched. Then the testing- learning procedure will be shortly summarized. Thirdly the evaluation of beliefs, their relations with knowledge and the associated behaviors are present...
Full Text Available This paper discusses the level of critical thinking skills adapted from The Cornell Critical Thinking Test Level X (CCTTX by Ennis and Milan (1985 among final year diploma students from the Faculty of Business Management, UiTM Melaka taking the course of Office Administration and Introduction to Critical Thinking. This paper aims to encourage students to become critical thinkers and to provide lecturers with the best approach to develop students’ critical thinking skills at tertiary level. Findings have shown that their critical thinking ability ranged from low to moderate level. Thus, strategies of teaching and learning which stresses on student-centered learning must be adopted to stimulate student’s thinking by encouraging critical and creative thinking and the construction of new knowledge. 61 students taking Diploma in Office Management and Technology were chosen as samples of this study. The data was collected through observation and classroom based activities namely debates, discussions, article analysis, problem-solving situations and case studies.
Benakli, Nadia; Kostadinov, Boyan; Satyanarayana, Ashwin; Singh, Satyanand
The goal of this paper is to promote computational thinking among mathematics, engineering, science and technology students, through hands-on computer experiments. These activities have the potential to empower students to learn, create and invent with technology, and they engage computational thinking through simulations, visualizations and data analysis. We present nine computer experiments and suggest a few more, with applications to calculus, probability and data analysis, which engage computational thinking through simulations, visualizations and data analysis. We are using the free (open-source) statistical programming language R. Our goal is to give a taste of what R offers rather than to present a comprehensive tutorial on the R language. In our experience, these kinds of interactive computer activities can be easily integrated into a smart classroom. Furthermore, these activities do tend to keep students motivated and actively engaged in the process of learning, problem solving and developing a better intuition for understanding complex mathematical concepts.
reflective, self-critical, constructive) and its aspirations (interdisciplinarity, ... evaluative thinking within their research organizations and to become aware of ... concepts, practices, methods and tools that are conducive to the development of an.
Mohammad Ahmad Abdelaziz Al-Zu'bi; Mohd Sofian Omar-Fauzee; Amrita Kaur
The investigation of the level of creative thinking and motivation to learn creative thinking, and the relationship between both of them, in Jordan is still insufficient due to lack of interest and research among researchers and scholars. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between creative thinking and motivation to learn creative thinking among pre-school children in Jordan. A total of 102 students from one kindergarten was examined. Parental consent was obtained before the stud...
Wagner, Elissa A
This article reports the outcomes of a kinesthetic learning strategy used during a cardiac lecture to engage students and to improve the use of classroom-acquired knowledge in today's challenging clinical settings. Nurse educators are constantly faced with finding new ways to engage students, stimulate critical thinking, and improve clinical application in a rapidly changing and complex health care system. Educators who deviate from the traditional pedagogy of didactic, content-driven teaching to a concept-based, student-centered approach using active and kinesthetic learning activities can enhance engagement and improve clinical problem solving, communication skills, and critical thinking to provide graduates with the tools necessary to be successful. The goals of this learning activity were to decrease the well-known classroom-clinical gap by enhancing engagement, providing deeper understanding of cardiac function and disorders, enhancing critical thinking, and improving clinical application. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Computational Thinking (CT) is being promoted as "a fundamental skill used by everyone in the world by the middle of the 21st Century" (Wing, 2006). CT has been effectively integrated into history, ELA, mathematics, art, and science courses (Settle, et al., 2012). However, there has been no analogous effort to integrate CT into…
Full Text Available Game and creation are activities which have good potential for computational thinking skills. In this paper we present T-Maze, an economical tangible programming tool for children aged 5–9 to build computer programs in maze games by placing wooden blocks. Through the use of computer vision technology, T-Maze provides a live programming interface with real-time graphical and voice feedback. We conducted a user study with 7 children using T-Maze to play two levels of maze-escape games and create their own mazes. The results show that T-Maze is not only easy to use, but also has the potential to help children cultivate computational thinking like abstraction, problem decomposition, and creativity.
Wang, Danli; Liu, Zhen
Game and creation are activities which have good potential for computational thinking skills. In this paper we present T-Maze, an economical tangible programming tool for children aged 5–9 to build computer programs in maze games by placing wooden blocks. Through the use of computer vision technology, T-Maze provides a live programming interface with real-time graphical and voice feedback. We conducted a user study with 7 children using T-Maze to play two levels of maze-escape games and create their own mazes. The results show that T-Maze is not only easy to use, but also has the potential to help children cultivate computational thinking like abstraction, problem decomposition, and creativity. PMID:24719575
Interpersonal contact between the lecturers and students improves the development of critical thinking skills. The process is hampered by the geographical distance between the lecturers and the students in the case of distance education and learning. In many cases distance learning is, however, the only option.
A growing number of professionals-notably in oil and mineral exploration, plasma research, medicine, VLSI circuit design, drug design and robotics-are beginning to use computerised expert systems. A computer program uses knowledge and inference procedures to solve problems which are sufficiently difficult to require significant human expertise for their solution. The facts constitute a body of information that is widely shared, publicly available and generally agreed upon by experts in the field. The heuristics are mostly private, and little discussed, rules of good judgement (rules of plausible reasoning, rules of good guessing, etc.) that characterise expert-level decision making in the field.
Ross, David R.
This essay describes my progress bringing the core ideas of economics into conversations with noneconomists about important public policy issues within my faith community, through local politics, and through interdisciplinary conversations in academia. Thinking like an economist is essential to conducting research and performing careful analysis…
Full Text Available Critical thinking skills should be owned by students. Therefore, schools should be responsible to develop and evaluate critical thinking skills through teaching and learning process in schools. This study aims to identify the effects of mathematical learning modules based on problem-based learning to critical thinking skills at secondary school students in District of Bone. Assessment of critical thinking skills in mathematical problem solving non-routine includes three parts; the identification and interpretation of information, information analysis, and evaluate of evidence and arguments. This study involved a total of 68 students grade 12 science state secondary school (SMAN in Bone District of South Sulawesi, Indonesia in academic year 2014-2015. The sample consists of 38 students in the city and 30 rural students. The design of the study was quasi experimental one group pretest-posttest. The data was analysed using the inferential t-test with SPSS 20.0 for windows. The study found that there are effects of the use of mathematical learning module based PBL to enhance the ability of critical thinking skills in mathematics students in all three components, namely, identifying and interpreting information, information analysis, and evaluate of evidence and argument.
Lau, Kung Wong
Learning Design Thinking Online: Studying Students' Learning Experience in Shared Virtual Reality My study attempts to deepen understanding about the learning experiences of design students in undertaking design-thinking exercises in a shared virtual reality. This study has identified the areas of an appropriate pedagogy for E-Learning and the use of a shared virtual environment for students in tertiary design education. Specific questions arising ji"Om this research are: (1...
Anazifa, R. D; Djukri, D
The study aims at finding (1) the effect of project-based learning and problem-based learning on student's creativity and critical thinking and (2) the difference effect of project-based learning and problem-based learning on student's creativity and critical thinking. This study is quasi experiment using non-equivalent control-group design. Research population of this study was all classes in eleventh grade of mathematics and natural science program of SMA N 1 Temanggung. The participants we...
This article views the temporal dimensions of e-learning through a psychoanalytic lens, and asks the reader to consider links between online learning and psychoanalysis. It argues that time and its associated philosophical puzzles impinge on both psychoanalytic theory and on e-learning at two specific points. The first is in the distinction…
Anit Pranita Devi
Full Text Available This study investigates how cooperative learning facilitates students in learning critical thinking in reading and to find out the benefits and challenges during the implementation of cooperative learning in one vocational school in Cimahi. A case study is utilized by using instruments of classroom observations, questionnaires, semi structured interview and students’ written tests. The findings show that the implementation of cooperative learning facilitates students develop their critical thinking and enhance critical thinking dispositions in reading. Three features which contribute to the development of students’ critical thinking in reading are: the encouragement of student-student interaction; the provision of group purposes; and the provision of stimulus to the students’ development of thought and ideas. The aforementioned features promote benefits which involved higher motivation and involvement, increased opportunity for language use, and developed interpersonal relationship. Nevertheless, these benefits are constrained by the availability of time, students’ English proficiency, and students’ contribution to the groupwork. It is recommended that further researchers conduct the similar study in a longer period to make sure that the key elements of cooperative learning are well-structured.
Nammungkhun, Wisanugorn; Satchukorn, Sureerat; Saenpuk, Nudchanard; Yuenyong, Chokchai; Chantharanuwong, Warawun
This paper aimed to clarify teachers' learning about research for enhancing students' thinking skills in science learning. The study applied the lens of sociocultural view of learning to discuss teachers' learning about research. Participants included teachers who participated in the project of thinking research schools: research for enhancing students' thinking skills. The project of thinking research schools provided participants chance to learn knowledge about research and thinking research, doing research and publication, and participate in the international conference. Methodology regarded ethnographic research. The tools of interpretation included participant observation, interview, and document analysis. The researchers as participants of the research project of thinking research schools tried to clarify what they learned about research from their way of seeing the view of research about enhancing students' thinking skills through participant observation. The findings revealed what and how teachers as apprenticeship learn about research through legitimate peripheral participation in the research project community of practice. The paper clarified teachers' conceptualization about research for enhancing students' thinking through the workshop, doing research, writing up research article with supported by experts, presenting research in the international conference, editing their research article on the way of publishing, and so on.
human, which means that it is not only the human and the discursive possessing empowerment in relation to learning; the non-human also is woven into - and makes constitutive difference to - human learning processes. An excerpt from a field note will be used to illustrate these mutual shaping processes...
Ronald A. Styron, Jr.
Full Text Available In numerous studies relative to collaboration and critical thinking, an instructional strategy called Team- Based Learning has proven to be an effective approach to teaching and learning. Team-Based Learning utilizes a specific sequence of individual work, group work and immediate feedback to create a motivational framework in which students increasingly hold each other accountable for coming to class prepared and contributing to discussion. Using an action research conceptual model diffusion of innovation theory, the process of P-20 quality enhancement using Team-Based Learning is examined.
Navaneedhan, Cittoor Girija; Kamalanabhan, T. J.
Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, research, or simply through auto didacticism, Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts. The…
Abdyrova, Aitzhan; Galiyev, Temir; Yessekeshova, Maral; Aldabergenova, Saule; Alshynbayeva, Zhuldyz
The article focuses on the issue of shaping learners' systems thinking skills in the context of traditional education using specially elaborated system methods that are implemented based on the standard textbook. Applying these methods naturally complements the existing learning process and contributes to an efficient development of learners'…
Habron, Geoffrey; Goralnik, Lissy; Thorp, Laurie
Purpose: Michigan State University developed an undergraduate, academic specialization in sustainability based on the learning paradigm. The purpose of this paper is to share initial findings on assessment of systems thinking competency. Design/methodology/approach: The 15-week course served 14 mostly third and fourth-year students. Assessment of…
Transformative learning may involve gentle perspective widening or something more traumatic. This paper explores the impact of a transformative pedagogy in a course that challenges learners to "think like a planet". Among six sources of intellectual anxiety, learners worry about: why Gaia Theory is neglected by their other courses; the…
Brodin, Eva M.
Critical and creative thinking constitute important learning outcomes at doctoral level across the world. While the literature on doctoral education illuminates this matter through the lens of experienced senior researchers, the doctoral students' own perspective is missing. Based upon interviews with 14 doctoral students from four disciplines at…
Infusing creative thinking competence through the design process of authentic projects requires not only changing the teaching methods and learning environment, but also adopting new assessment methods, such as portfolio assessment. The participants in this study were 128 high school pupils who have studied MECHATRONICS from 10th to 12th grades…
Kobayashi, Sofie; Grout, Brian W.; Rump, Camilla Østerberg
Research into doctoral supervision has increased rapidly over the last decades, yet our understanding of how doctoral students learn scientific thinking from supervision is limited. Most studies are based on interviews with little work being reported that is based on observation of actual supervision. While joint supervision has become widely…
Roberts, Eric S
Concentrating on the practical value of recursion, this text, the first of its kind, is essential to computer science students' education. In this text, students will learn the concept and programming applications of recursive thinking. This will ultimately prepare students for advanced topics in computer science such as compiler construction, formal language theory, and the mathematical foundations of computer science.
Andreou, Christos; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Merkouris, Anastasios
Critical thinking is a desirable competency for contemporary nurses although there are growing concerns supporting a disturbing paucity in its achievement. Learning styles reflect habitual behaviors which determine distinct preferences within learning situations. Evidence suggests that critical thinking could evolve through learning processes. Variances in critical thinking achievement by nursing students might therefore be influenced by individual learning preferences. The concepts "learning styles" and "critical thinking" have been independently examined in the nursing literature. No reviews were found however exploring their association in nursing education. To identify the potential relationships between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. Systematic review. Eleven electronic databases were utilized without geographical and time publishing filters. Hand-searching journals and scanning references from retrieved studies were also performed. Databases were searched for descriptive correlational studies which considered the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. The authors independently progressed three stage screening. Retrieved articles were reviewed at title, abstract and full text levels according to predetermined criteria. All included studies were quality appraised using a rating tool for descriptive studies. Six studies were finally included. Findings were grouped under four key themes: predominant learning styles, critical thinking scoring, critical thinking evolution across academic progress and learning styles-critical thinking correlations. Learning styles' diversities, weak critical thinking and inconsistent evolution through academic progress were revealed across studies. Critical thinking differed significantly between learning styles. Commonly accepted models in nursing education were lacking in both learning styles and critical thinking. Within studies
Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of whether computer mediated communication (CMC can develop critical thinking in language classrooms. The research was conducted at a university branch campus in Malaysia over a period of 12 weeks. It involved three groups of learners in which each group was exposed to different discussion modes. The first group was exposed to a CMC discussion mode, the second group was exposed to a mixed mode of CMC and face-to-face (F2F discussions and the third group had only the face-to-face mode of discussion. The critical thinking development in these three conditions was evaluated based on the content analysis method used by Newman, Johnson, Cochrane and Webb (1995. This research reports the findings which hopefully will give some insight to other teaching practitioners who are interested in incorporating IT in their classrooms
Salmon, Angela K.
Coupled with reflection, play leads to the development of thinking dispositions and promotes deep learning and understanding. The twenty-first century world demands that children learn how to learn by becoming reflective, self-regulating inquirers capable of metacognition (thinking about thinking). This manuscript aims to analyse how young minds…
Full Text Available The paper will present the relation between students’ beliefs and their behaviours observed in the process of learning critical thinking skills. In the first place some consideration concerning the fundamental epistemological concepts used in the research and about the particular critical thinking skills are to be sketched. Then the testing- learning procedure will be shortly summarized. Thirdly the evaluation of beliefs, their relations with knowledge and the associated behaviors are presented. The results of the periodic testing procedures that were taking place according to the established methodology are to be discussed. Finally, some general considerations concerning the relations between beliefs, behaviors and knowledge that have emerged in the process of learning are going to be presented.
Lake, Brenden M; Ullman, Tomer D; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Gershman, Samuel J
Recent progress in artificial intelligence has renewed interest in building systems that learn and think like people. Many advances have come from using deep neural networks trained end-to-end in tasks such as object recognition, video games, and board games, achieving performance that equals or even beats that of humans in some respects. Despite their biological inspiration and performance achievements, these systems differ from human intelligence in crucial ways. We review progress in cognitive science suggesting that truly human-like learning and thinking machines will have to reach beyond current engineering trends in both what they learn and how they learn it. Specifically, we argue that these machines should (1) build causal models of the world that support explanation and understanding, rather than merely solving pattern recognition problems; (2) ground learning in intuitive theories of physics and psychology to support and enrich the knowledge that is learned; and (3) harness compositionality and learning-to-learn to rapidly acquire and generalize knowledge to new tasks and situations. We suggest concrete challenges and promising routes toward these goals that can combine the strengths of recent neural network advances with more structured cognitive models.
Marin, Catalina; Hargis, Jace; Cavanaugh, Cathy
In order to maximize college English language students' learning, product development, 21st Century skills and engagement with real world meaningful challenges, a course was designed to integrate Challenge Based Learning (CBL) and iPad mobile learning technology. This article describes the course design, which was grounded in design thinking, and…
Full Text Available Architecture is a complex process involving the divergent resolution of a multitude of factors- social, ecological, technical, economic, functional, ethical and aesthetic. Despite this diversity all architectural problem solving processes share one common factor- they must be resolved spatially. This paper sets out to explore how best to develop these spatial thinking skills in young architects through addressing their learning styles in education. The primary hypothesis tested is twofold. First using the Solomon & Felder (2007 definition of learning styles and their Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire the average profile of a study group from the freshmen and sophomore architectural student body at the Architectural Engineering Program of the American University in Cairo is mapped and compared to that of a control group from the general population of the university from a cross-section of majors. Secondly, using the Spatial Ability test by Newton & Bristoll (2009, the spatial ability of both the control and study groups are measured and compared. The analysis of these results tests the assumption that the majority of architectural students will be visual, rather than verbal; and active, rather than reflective, learners; as well as exhibiting higher spatial abilities, as compared to the control group. The performance of students in these tests are then correlated against their learning styles profile using the following sets- low spatial ability against both reflective and verbal learning; moderate spatial ability against neutral learning styles; and high spatial ability against both active and visual learning. The results show a particular corroboration between high spatial ability and active learning in the entire group of students- both study, and control- as well as a strong corroboration between high spatial ability and visual learning- with a higher correlation in architecture students, reaching 100% in some classes. It is hoped that by
Supurwoko; Cari; Sarwanto; Sukarmin; Fauzi, Ahmad; Faradilla, Lisa; Summa Dewi, Tiarasita
The process of learning and teaching in Physics is often confronted with abstract concepts. It makes difficulty for students to understand and teachers to teach the concept. One of the materials that has an abstract concept is Compton Effect. The purpose of this research is to evaluate computer simulation model on Compton Effect material which is used to improve high thinking ability of Physics teacher candidate students. This research is a case study. The subject is students at physics educations who have attended Modern Physics lectures. Data were obtained through essay test for measuring students’ high-order thinking skills and quisioners for measuring students’ responses. The results obtained indicate that computer simulation model can be used to improve students’ high order thinking skill and can be used to improve students’ responses. With this result it is suggested that the audiences use the simulation media in learning
Kobayashi, Sofie; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Rump, Camilla Østerberg
Research into doctoral supervision has increased rapidly over the last decades, yet our understanding of how doctoral students learn scientific thinking from supervision is limited. Most studies are based on interviews with little work being reported that is based on observation of actual...... supervision. While joint supervision has become widely used, its learning dynamics remains under-researched and this paper aims to address these gaps in research by exploring learning opportunities in doctoral supervision with two supervisors. The study explores how the tensions in scientific discussion...... between supervisors can become learning opportunities. We combine two different theoretical perspectives, using participation and positioning theory as a sociocultural perspective and variation theory as an individual constructivist perspective on learning. Based on our analysis of a complex episode we...
Full Text Available Historical learning has not reached optimal in the learning process. It is caused by the history teachers’ learning model has not used the innovative learning models. Furthermore, it supported by the perception of students to the history subject because it does not become final exam (UN subject so it makes less improvement and builds less critical thinking in students’ daily learning. This is due to the lack of awareness of historical events and the availability of history books for students and teachers in the library are still lacking. Discovery learning with scientific approach encourages students to solve problems actively and able to improve students' critical thinking skills with scientific approach so student can build scientific thinking include observing, asking, reasoning, trying, and networking Keywords: discovery learning, scientific, critical thinking
Zhang, Huan; Lambert, Vickie
Although considerable information exists regarding the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of nursing students from Western countries, limited comparable information exists within China. The purposes of this study were to assess the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students and to identify the relationships among the learning styles, critical thinking dispositions, and demographics. The sample consisted of 100 Chinese baccalaureate nursing students enrolled at two universities. The data were obtained through a Demographic Data Questionnaire, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and the Index of Learning Styles. The primary learning style dimensions were found to be reflective, sensing, visual, and global, while the critically thinking abilities was found to be weak. A number of positive and negative correlations were found among the demographics, learning styles, and critical thinking dispositions. These findings suggest further examination on how to increase nursing students' critical thinking skills based upon their preferred learning styles.
Lake, Brenden M.; Ullman, Tomer David; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Gershman, Samuel J
Recent progress in artificial intelligence (AI) has renewed interest in building systems that learn and think like people. Many advances have come from using deep neural networks trained end-to-end in tasks such as object recognition, video games, and board games, achieving performance that equals or even beats humans in some respects. Despite their biological inspiration and performance achievements, these systems differ from human intelligence in crucial ways. We review progress in cognitiv...
Shinohara, Ayumi; Miyano, Satoru
This paper considers computationai learning from the viewpoint of teaching. We introduce a notion of teachability with which we establish a relationship between the learnability and teachability. We also discuss the complexity issues of a teacher in relation to learning.
Bastos, Ascensão; Ramos, Altina
A project is being conducted in English as a foreign language (EFL), involving eleventh graders in formal and non-formal learning contexts, in a Portuguese high school. The goal of this study is to examine the impact of cognitive tools and higher-order thinking processes on the learning of EFL and achievement of larger processes oriented to action, involving problem solving, decision-making and creation of new products. YouTube videos emerge as cognitive tools in the process. Final results sh...
Muhlisin, Ahmad; Susilo, Herawati; Amin, Mohamad; Rohman, Fatchur
The purposes of this study were to: 1) Examine the effect of RMS learning model towards critical thinking skills. 2) Examine the effect of different academic abilities against critical thinking skills. 3) Examine the effect of the interaction between RMS learning model and different academic abilities against critical thinking skills. The research…
Bushey, Dean E.
of this study suggest a need to examine how critical-thinking abilities are learned in the undergraduate computer science curriculum and the need to foster these abilities in order to produce the high-level, critical-thinking professionals necessary to fill the growing need for these experts. Due to the fact that current measures of academic performance do not adequately depict students' cognitive abilities, assessment of these skills must be incorporated into existing curricula.
Hendriana, H.; Hidayat, W.; Ristiana, M. G.
This study was designed in the form of experiments with control group design and post-test only which aimed to examine the role of metaphorical thinking learning in the mathematical questioning ability of student teachers based on the level of mathematical courage. The population of this study was student teachers of mathematics education study program in West Java Province, while the sample of this study was 152 student teachers which were set purposively and then randomly to be included in the experimental class and control class. Based on the results and discussion, it was concluded that: (a) the mathematical questioning ability of student teachers who received Metaphorical Thinking learning was better than those who received conventional learning seen from mathematical courage level; (b) learning and mathematical courage level factors affected the achievement of student teachers’ mathematical questioning ability. In addition, there was no interaction effect between learning and mathematical courage level (high, medium, and low) simultaneously in developing student teachers’ mathematical questioning ability; (c) achievement of mastering mathematical questioning ability of student teacher was still not well achieved on indicator of problem posing in the form of non-routine question and open question.
Simon, Nicole A.
Virtual laboratory experiments using interactive computer simulations are not being employed as viable alternatives to laboratory science curriculum at extensive enough rates within higher education. Rote traditional lab experiments are currently the norm and are not addressing inquiry, Critical Thinking, and cognition throughout the laboratory experience, linking with educational technologies (Pyatt & Sims, 2007; 2011; Trundle & Bell, 2010). A causal-comparative quantitative study was conducted with 150 learners enrolled at a two-year community college, to determine the effects of simulation laboratory experiments on Higher-Order Learning, Critical Thinking Skills, and Cognitive Load. The treatment population used simulated experiments, while the non-treatment sections performed traditional expository experiments. A comparison was made using the Revised Two-Factor Study Process survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and the Scientific Attitude Inventory survey, using a Repeated Measures ANOVA test for treatment or non-treatment. A main effect of simulated laboratory experiments was found for both Higher-Order Learning, [F (1, 148) = 30.32,p = 0.00, eta2 = 0.12] and Critical Thinking Skills, [F (1, 148) = 14.64,p = 0.00, eta 2 = 0.17] such that simulations showed greater increases than traditional experiments. Post-lab treatment group self-reports indicated increased marginal means (+4.86) in Higher-Order Learning and Critical Thinking Skills, compared to the non-treatment group (+4.71). Simulations also improved the scientific skills and mastery of basic scientific subject matter. It is recommended that additional research recognize that learners' Critical Thinking Skills change due to different instructional methodologies that occur throughout a semester.
Yuen, Timothy T.; Robbins, Kay A.
Critical thinking, problem solving, the use of tools, and the ability to consume and analyze information are important skills for the 21st century workforce. This article presents a qualitative case study that follows five undergraduate biology majors in a computer science course (CS0). This CS0 course teaches programming within a data-driven…
This paper examines to explore how study by using model of Problem Based Learning ( PBL). Basically, this discussion is focussed at model of PBL as an effort in developing cognitive ability, especially critical thinking.Critical thinking including ability think high level (higher order of thinking) representing one of the component in issue intellegence of 21 st century ( Issue of The 21st literacy century). Development of ability of critical thinking in study of science of vital importance b...
Describes instructional uses of computer programs found in David Heiserman's book "Projects in Machine Intelligence for Your Home Computer." The programs feature "creatures" of various colors that move around within a rectangular white border. (JN)
Ulfah, U.; Prabawanto, S.; Jupri, A.
The research aims to investigate the differences in enhancement of students’ mathematical creative thinking ability of those who received problem posing approach assisted by manipulative media and students who received problem posing approach without manipulative media. This study was a quasi experimental research with non-equivalent control group design. Population of this research was third-grade students of a primary school in Bandung city in 2016/2017 academic year. Sample of this research was two classes as experiment class and control class. The instrument used is a test of mathematical creative thinking ability. Based on the results of the research, it is known that the enhancement of the students’ mathematical creative thinking ability of those who received problem posing approach with manipulative media aid is higher than the ability of those who received problem posing approach without manipulative media aid. Students who get learning problem posing learning accustomed in arranging mathematical sentence become matter of story so it can facilitate students to comprehend about story
Whiteson, S.; Wiering, M.; van Otterlo, M.
Algorithms for evolutionary computation, which simulate the process of natural selection to solve optimization problems, are an effective tool for discovering high-performing reinforcement-learning policies. Because they can automatically find good representations, handle continuous action spaces,
Ika Yulianti Siregar
Full Text Available The results of biology learning observation show that there are many constraints during the learning process in the class and consultation meeting between teacher and students. The think-pair-share-write based on hybrid learning was conducted to analyze the effect on metacognitive skills, creative thinking and learning outcomes. The research design was quasi experiment with pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design. The independent variable is think-pair-share-write based on Hybrid learning model, while the dependent variables are metacognitive skills, creative thinking, and cognitive learning outcomes. Metacognitive skills are measured by using metacognitive rubrics. Creative thinking skills and cognitive learning outcomes are measured by using a description test. The data were taken by conducting pretest and posttest. The hypothesis test used was anakova with level of significance 0,05 (P <0,05, as the test result was significant then the test was continued to LSD. Before the anakova test, normality and homogeneity test were performed. The results showed that think-pair-share-write based on Hybrid Learning significantly affecting: 1 the metacognitive skills with F arithmetic of 183,472 and Sig. 0,000; 2 the creative thinking skill with F value of 325,111 and Sig. 0,000; 3 the cognitive learning outcomes with F arithmetic of 175.068 and Sig. 0,000.
The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of think pair share (TPS) instructional strategy on students' conceptual learning and epistemological beliefs on physics and physics learning. The research was conducted with two groups. One of the groups was the experimental group (EG) and the other group was the control group (CG). 35…
Bernstein, A. V.; Burnaev, E. V.
Nowadays, machine learning has become one of the basic technologies used in solving various computer vision tasks such as feature detection, image segmentation, object recognition and tracking. In many applications, various complex systems such as robots are equipped with visual sensors from which they learn state of surrounding environment by solving corresponding computer vision tasks. Solutions of these tasks are used for making decisions about possible future actions. It is not surprising that when solving computer vision tasks we should take into account special aspects of their subsequent application in model-based predictive control. Reinforcement learning is one of modern machine learning technologies in which learning is carried out through interaction with the environment. In recent years, Reinforcement learning has been used both for solving such applied tasks as processing and analysis of visual information, and for solving specific computer vision problems such as filtering, extracting image features, localizing objects in scenes, and many others. The paper describes shortly the Reinforcement learning technology and its use for solving computer vision problems.
Monthienvichienchai, Rachada; Sasse, M. Angela
This paper investigates how computer support for vicarious learning can be implemented by taking a principled approach to selecting and combining different media to capture educational dialogues. The main goal is to create vicarious learning materials of appropriate pedagogic content and production quality, and at the same time minimize the…
Nurhayati, D. M.; Herman, T.; Suhendra, S.
This study aims to determine the difficulties of algebraic thinking ability of students in one of secondary school on quadrilateral subject and to describe Math-Talk Learning Community as the alternative way that can be done to overcome the difficulties of the students’ algebraic thinking ability. Research conducted by using quantitative approach with descriptive method. The population in this research was all students of that school and twenty three students as the sample that was chosen by purposive sampling technique. Data of algebraic thinking were collected through essay test. The results showed the percentage of achievement of students’ algebraic thinking’s indicators on three aspects: a) algebra as generalized arithmetic with the indicators (conceptually based computational strategies and estimation); b) algebra as the language of mathematics (meaning of variables, variable expressions and meaning of solution); c) algebra as a tool for functions and mathematical modelling (representing mathematical ideas using equations, tables, or words and generalizing patterns and rules in real-world contexts) is still low. It is predicted that because the secondary school students was not familiar with the abstract problem and they are still at a semi-concrete stage where the stage of cognitive development is between concrete and abstract. Based on the percentage achievement of each indicators, it can be concluded that the level of achievement of student’s mathematical communication using conventional learning is still low, so students’ algebraic thinking ability need to be improved.
Full Text Available rogramming, or computational thinking, is becoming recognized as a skill that should be taught in primary and secondary schools. One technique for teaching programming is to use robotics, but usually this requires students to program via a PC. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential for using an iPad application and robot that enables children to learn programming skills. This paper describes an application containing puzzles that involve creating a program to guide the physical robot from a start point to a goal. The application sends commands and controls the robots via Bluetooth and runs on the iPad with iOS. An initial experiment performed in a high school in Thailand explores how mobile technology and educational robotics can be applied to computational thinking in schools. The findings showed that the use of mobile technology opens up alternative styles of interaction in the classroom with potential for highly collaborative activities and greater focus on the learning domain.
Full Text Available Abstract. This paper examined a particular online learning activity, embedded within a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL environment incorporated as part of the larger context of participation in a unique national agricultural leadership development program. Process outcomes such as a high level of collaboration and active peer facilitation as well as demonstration by participants of a variety of holistic thinking skills were observed via a transcript analysis of online interactions. This led to speculations that the particular design features embedded within the context of the online collaborative issues analysis project (IAP, were thought to clearly reflect a constructivist approach. Methods to confirm this included evaluating the learning activity in light of nine characteristics of an authentic task in CSCL environments, and using activity theory as a conceptual framework with which to further examine the extent to which the IAP reflected the values and principles of a constructivist online learning environment.
The report contains a description and summary of computer augmented learning devices and systems. The devices are of two general types programed instruction systems based on the teaching machines pioneered by Pressey and developed by Skinner, and the so-called "docile" systems that permit greater user-direction with the computer under student…
If ubiquitous computing becomes a reality and is widely adopted, it will inevitably have an impact on education. This article reviews the background of ubiquitous computing and current research projects done involving educational "ubicomp." Finally it explores how ubicomp may and may not change education in both formal and informal settings and…
Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to investigate the effect of computer games on student’ critical thinking disposition and educational achievement. The research method was descriptive, and its type was casual-comparative. The sample included 270 female high school students in Andimeshk town selected by multistage cluster method. Ricketts questionnaire was used to test critical thinking and the researcher made questionnaires were used to test computer games. T-test and one-way ANOVA were employed to analysis of the data. The findings of the study showed that playing computer games has no significant effect on critical thinking, however, there were a significant effect of playing computer games on students’ educational achievement (P<0/05. Furthermore, the results showed that the type of computer game has no significant effect on students’ disposition to critical thinking and their educational achievement. Keywords: Computer games, disposition to critical thinking, educational achievement, secondary students
The problem-based learning (PBL) approach was implemented as a treatment for higher education visual arts students over one semester to examine its effect on the creative thinking and critical thinking disposition of these students. PBL had a significant effect on creative thinking, but critical thinking disposition was affected to a lesser…
Various concepts have been introduced to improve students' analytical thinking skills based on problem based learning (PBL). This paper introduces a new concept to increase student's analytical thinking skills based on a visual learning strategy. Such a strategy has three fundamental components: a teacher, a student, and a learning process. The…
Kuntze, Sebastian; Aizikovitsh-Udi, Einav; Clarke, David
Stimulating thinking related to mathematical content is the focus of many tasks in the mathematics classroom. Beyond such content-related thinking, promoting forms of higher order thinking is among the goals of mathematics instruction as well. So-called hybrid tasks focus on combining both goals: they aim at fostering mathematical thinking and…
This study investigated the change in critical thinking (CT) skills of baccalaureate nursing students who were educated using a Think-Pair-Share (TPS) or an equivalent Non-Think-Pair-Share (Non-TPS) teaching method. Critical thinking has been an essential outcome of nursing students to prepare them to provide effective and safe quality care for…
Haseski, Halil Ibrahim; Ilic, Ulas; Tugtekin, Ufuk
Computational Thinking is a skill that guides the 21th century individual in the problems experienced during daily life and it has an ever-increasing significance. Multifarious definitions were attempted to explain the concept of Computational Thinking. However, it was determined that there was no consensus on this matter in the literature and…
Ironside, Pamela M
This paper reports a hermeneutic study undertaken to explicate students' experiences in educational courses in which teachers enact Narrative Pedagogy. International interest in developing and implementing discipline-specific pedagogies is becoming commonplace as teachers respond to the challenges of preparing students for contemporary practice. Lifeworld Pedagogy, developed in Scandinavia, and Narrative Pedagogy, developed in the United States of America, Canada and New Zealand, are two approaches developed from nursing research for nursing education that provide teachers with research-based alternatives to conventional pedagogy. Further research is needed, however, that addresses how new pedagogies are experienced in schools of nursing. Teachers and students from 22 schools of nursing in the United States of America were interviewed over a 4-year period between 2002 and 2005. Using interpretive phenomenology as the philosophical background and Heideggerian hermeneutics as the method, accounts from 52 participants were analysed by a research team. The theme Learning and Practising Interpretive Thinking reveals how reform is occurring in schools of nursing that use Narrative Pedagogy. It documents how Narrative Pedagogy helps students challenge their assumptions and think through and interpret situations they encounter from multiple perspectives. Findings suggest that by focusing teachers' and students' attention on thinking and interpreting as communal experiences, interpretive pedagogies such as Narrative Pedagogy engage teachers and students in pooling their wisdom, challenging their preconceptions, envisioning new possibilities for providing care and engaging with others to ensure patient-centred care and safety. By documenting students' experiences in courses in which Narrative Pedagogy is used, this study provides teachers with research-based evidence to guide their pedagogical decisions. It extends international efforts to develop discipline
Cundill, G; Cumming, G S; Biggs, D; Fabricius, C
The success of adaptive management in conservation has been questioned and the objective-based management paradigm on which it is based has been heavily criticized. Soft systems thinking and social-learning theory expose errors in the assumption that complex systems can be dispassionately managed by objective observers and highlight the fact that conservation is a social process in which objectives are contested and learning is context dependent. We used these insights to rethink adaptive management in a way that focuses on the social processes involved in management and decision making. Our approach to adaptive management is based on the following assumptions: action toward a common goal is an emergent property of complex social relationships; the introduction of new knowledge, alternative values, and new ways of understanding the world can become a stimulating force for learning, creativity, and change; learning is contextual and is fundamentally about practice; and defining the goal to be addressed is continuous and in principle never ends. We believe five key activities are crucial to defining the goal that is to be addressed in an adaptive-management context and to determining the objectives that are desirable and feasible to the participants: situate the problem in its social and ecological context; raise awareness about alternative views of a problem and encourage enquiry and deconstruction of frames of reference; undertake collaborative actions; and reflect on learning. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.
Kabeel, Abeer Refaat; Eisa, Sahar Abd El-Mohsen Mosa
Background: Part of the 21st century skills is critical thinking and learning approaches of students. A part of that resurgence can be attributable to several studies on critical thinking, logic, and thinking skills. Health care professionals are challenged by the complexities of the health care environment. The practice of nursing requires…
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Dindler, Christian
We propose computational empowerment as an approach, and a Participatory Design response, to challenges related to digitalization of society and the emerging need for digital literacy in K12 education. Our approach extends the current focus on computational thinking to include contextual, human-c...... technology in education. We argue that PD has the potential to drive a computational empowerment agenda in education, by connecting political PD with contemporary visions for addressing a future digitalized labor market and society.......We propose computational empowerment as an approach, and a Participatory Design response, to challenges related to digitalization of society and the emerging need for digital literacy in K12 education. Our approach extends the current focus on computational thinking to include contextual, human......-centred and societal challenges and impacts involved in students’ creative and critical engagement with digital technology. Our research is based on the FabLab@School project, in which a PD approach to computational empowerment provided opportunities as well as further challenges for the complex agenda of digital...
Full Text Available Due to the increasing growth in available data in recent years, all areas of research and the managements of institutions and organisations, specifically schools and universities, feel the need to give meaning to this availability of data. This article, after a brief reference to the definition of big data, intends to focus attention and reflection on their type to proceed to an extension of their characterisation. One of the hubs to make feasible the use of Big Data in operational contexts is to give a theoretical basis to which to refer. The Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom (DIKW model correlates these four aspects, concluding in Data Science, which in many ways could revolutionise the established pattern of scientific investigation. The Learning Analytics applications on online learning platforms can be tools for evaluating the quality of teaching. And that is where some problems arise. It becomes necessary to handle with care the available data. Finally, a criterion for deciding whether it makes sense to think of an analysis based on Big Data can be to think about the interpretability and relevance in relation to both institutional and personal processes.
Teachers are using computer programs in conjunction with many classroom staples such as art supplies, math manipulatives, and science reference books. Twelve software programs and related activities are described which teach visual and auditory memory and spatial relations, as well as subject areas such as anatomy and geography. (MT)
Full Text Available This study aims to describe enhancement and achievement of mathematical critical thinking skills of students who received the 5E Learning Cycle with Metacognitive technique, the 5E Learning Cycle, and conventional learning. This study use experimental method with pretest-posttest control group design. Population are junior high school students in Indramayu city, Indonesia. Sample are three classes of eighth grade students from high level school and three classes from medium level school. The study reveal that in terms of overall, mathematical critical thinking skills enhancement and achievement of students who received the 5E Learning Cycle with Metacognitive technique is better than students who received the 5E Learning Cycle and conventional learning. Mathematical critical thinking skills of students who received the 5E Learning Cycle is better than students who received conventional learning. There is no interaction effect between learning model and school level toward enhancement and achievement of students’ mathematical critical thinking skills.
Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.; Mohammad, Marwa M. M.
The general secondary stage in Egypt is a vital educational phase since it plays an essential role in developing students' thinking and learning styles to prepare them for life in general and higher education in particular. Accordingly, it has become urgent and persistent to develop secondary-stage students' critical thinking styles while…
Goh, Garrett B. [Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland Washington 99354; Hodas, Nathan O. [Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland Washington 99354; Vishnu, Abhinav [Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland Washington 99354
The rise and fall of artificial neural networks is well documented in the scientific literature of both the fields of computer science and computational chemistry. Yet almost two decades later, we are now seeing a resurgence of interest in deep learning, a machine learning algorithm based on “deep” neural networks. Within the last few years, we have seen the transformative impact of deep learning the computer science domain, notably in speech recognition and computer vision, to the extent that the majority of practitioners in those field are now regularly eschewing prior established models in favor of deep learning models. In this review, we provide an introductory overview into the theory of deep neural networks and their unique properties as compared to traditional machine learning algorithms used in cheminformatics. By providing an overview of the variety of emerging applications of deep neural networks, we highlight its ubiquity and broad applicability to a wide range of challenges in the field, including QSAR, virtual screening, protein structure modeling, QM calculations, materials synthesis and property prediction. In reviewing the performance of deep neural networks, we observed a consistent outperformance against non neural networks state-of-the-art models across disparate research topics, and deep neural network based models often exceeded the “glass ceiling” expectations of their respective tasks. Coupled with the maturity of GPU-accelerated computing for training deep neural networks and the exponential growth of chemical data on which to train these networks on, we anticipate that deep learning algorithms will be a useful tool and may grow into a pivotal role for various challenges in the computational chemistry field.
The field of computational learning theory arose out of the desire to for mally understand the process of learning. As potential applications to artificial intelligence became apparent, the new field grew rapidly. The learning of geo metric objects became a natural area of study. The possibility of using learning techniques to compensate for unsolvability provided an attraction for individ uals with an immediate need to solve such difficult problems. Researchers at the Center for Night Vision were interested in solving the problem of interpreting data produced by a variety of sensors. Current vision techniques, which have a strong geometric component, can be used to extract features. However, these techniques fall short of useful recognition of the sensed objects. One potential solution is to incorporate learning techniques into the geometric manipulation of sensor data. As a first step toward realizing such a solution, the Systems Research Center at the University of Maryland, in conjunction with the C...
Taleyarkhan, Manaz; Dasgupta, Chandan; Garcia, John Mendoza; Magana, Alejandra J.
Engineering design thinking is hard to teach and still harder to learn by novices primarily due to the undetermined nature of engineering problems that often results in multiple solutions. In this paper, we investigate the effect of teaching engineering design thinking to freshmen students by using a computer-aided Design (CAD) simulation software. We present a framework for characterizing different levels of engineering design thinking displayed by students who interacted with the CAD simulation software in the context of a collaborative assignment. This framework describes the presence of four levels of engineering design thinking—beginning designer, adept beginning designer, informed designer, adept informed designer. We present the characteristics associated with each of these four levels as they pertain to four engineering design strategies that students pursued in this study—understanding the design challenge, building knowledge, weighing options and making tradeoffs, and reflecting on the process. Students demonstrated significant improvements in two strategies—understanding the design challenge and building knowledge. We discuss the affordances of the CAD simulation tool along with the learning environment that potentially helped students move towards Adept informed designers while pursuing these design strategies.
Shannon, Li-Jen; Bennett, Judith
A majority of incoming college freshmen and sophomores have not applied their critical thinking skills as part of their learning process. This paper investigates how students acquire their critical thinking skills while facing the copyright, fair use, and internet security challenges in this contemporary digital society. The findings show that 90…
Goh, Garrett B; Hodas, Nathan O; Vishnu, Abhinav
The rise and fall of artificial neural networks is well documented in the scientific literature of both computer science and computational chemistry. Yet almost two decades later, we are now seeing a resurgence of interest in deep learning, a machine learning algorithm based on multilayer neural networks. Within the last few years, we have seen the transformative impact of deep learning in many domains, particularly in speech recognition and computer vision, to the extent that the majority of expert practitioners in those field are now regularly eschewing prior established models in favor of deep learning models. In this review, we provide an introductory overview into the theory of deep neural networks and their unique properties that distinguish them from traditional machine learning algorithms used in cheminformatics. By providing an overview of the variety of emerging applications of deep neural networks, we highlight its ubiquity and broad applicability to a wide range of challenges in the field, including quantitative structure activity relationship, virtual screening, protein structure prediction, quantum chemistry, materials design, and property prediction. In reviewing the performance of deep neural networks, we observed a consistent outperformance against non-neural networks state-of-the-art models across disparate research topics, and deep neural network-based models often exceeded the "glass ceiling" expectations of their respective tasks. Coupled with the maturity of GPU-accelerated computing for training deep neural networks and the exponential growth of chemical data on which to train these networks on, we anticipate that deep learning algorithms will be a valuable tool for computational chemistry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sanchez, Bernice; Lewis, Katie D.
Teacher Preparation Programs must work towards not only preparing preservice teachers to have knowledge of classroom pedagogy but also must expand preservice teachers understanding of content knowledge as well as to develop higher-order thinking which includes thinking critically. This mixed methods study examined how writing shapes thinking and…
Full Text Available Computer programmers must be able to understand programming source code and write programs that execute complex tasks to solve real-world problems. This article is a trans- disciplinary study at the intersection of computer programming, education and psychology. It outlines the role of mental processes in the process of programming and indicates how successful thinking processes can support computer science students in writing correct and well-defined programs. A mixed methods approach was used to better understand the thinking activities and programming processes of participating students. Data collection involved both computer programs and students’ reflective thinking processes recorded in their journals. This enabled analysis of psychological dimensions of participants’ thinking processes and their problem-solving activities as they considered a programming problem. Findings indicate that the cognitive, reflective and psychological processes used by high-performing programmers contributed to their success in solving a complex programming problem. Based on the thinking processes of high performers, we propose a model of integrated thinking processes, which can support computer programming students. Keywords: Computer programming, education, mixed methods research, thinking processes. Disciplines: Computer programming, education, psychology
Schipke, Rae Carrington
This article discusses how cooperative learning as a socioinstructional approach, relates to both socially-based emerging technologies (i.e. Web 2.0) and to critical thinking with respect to co-cognition. It begins with a discussion of the importance of connecting cooperative learning, Web 2.0, and critical thinking. This is followed by the need…
Kaddoura, Mahmoud A.
In today's technologically advanced healthcare world, nursing students should be active learners and think critically to provide safe patient care. A strategy that promotes students' active learning is case-based learning (CBL). The purpose of this study was to examine critical thinking (CT) abilities of nursing students from two different…
Listyawardani, Dwi; Hariastuti, Iswari
Systems thinking is needed due to the growing complexity of the problems faced family planning field workers in the external environment that is constantly changing. System thinking ability could not be separated from efforts to develop learning for the workers, both learning at the individual, group, or organization level. The design of the study…
Heinrich, William F.; Habron, Geoffrey B.; Johnson, Heather L.; Goralnik, Lissy
Today's complex societal problems require both critical thinking and an engaged citizenry. Current practices in higher education, such as service learning, suggest that experiential learning can serve as a vehicle to encourage students to become engaged citizens. However, critical thinking is not necessarily a part of every experiential learning…
Sriwongchai, Arunee; Jantharajit, Nirat; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee
The study purposes were: 1) To study current states and problems of relevant secondary students in developing mathematics learning management model for improving creative thinking, 2) To evaluate the effectiveness of model about: a) efficiency of learning process, b) comparisons of pretest and posttest on creative thinking and achievement of…
Adult learning, critical thinking, and decision-making are fields that receive attention individually, although they are interspersed with elements of each other's theories and philosophies. In addressing adult learning precepts, it is essential to include critical thinking and decision-making. One without the other creates weakness; all must be…
Beatty, Ken; Nunan, David
The study reported here investigates collaborative learning at the computer. Ten pairs of students were presented with a series of comprehension questions about Mary Shelley's novel "Frankenstein or a Modern Prometheus" along with a CD-ROM, "Frankenstein Illuminated," containing the novel and a variety of source material. Five students worked with…
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the responses of learners to learning using a scientific approach in Problem Based Learning integrated with the inculcation of critical thinking, communicative, collaboration; and creative (4C skills in 21st century learning. The design of this study is true experiment by using posttest only control design. The sample of the research is vocational school students selected by using cluster random sampling technique in Surakarta, Indonesia. The techniques of collecting data are using tests whose validity, reliability, level of difficulty, and the discrimination index have been tested. The data obtained are then tested using t test. The result of the research shows that higher order thinking skills of experimental class students learning using scientific approach in Problem Based Learning which is integrated with the inculcation of 4C skills are higher than those of the control class that are learning using scientific approach in Think-Pair-Share which is integrated with the inculcation of 4C skills.
Ross, Muriel D.
The three-dimensional organization of the vestibular macula is under study by computer assisted reconstruction and simulation methods as a model for more complex neural systems. One goal of this research is to transition knowledge of biological neural network architecture and functioning to computer technology, to contribute to the development of thinking computers. Maculas are organized as weighted neural networks for parallel distributed processing of information. The network is characterized by non-linearity of its terminal/receptive fields. Wiring appears to develop through constrained randomness. A further property is the presence of two main circuits, highly channeled and distributed modifying, that are connected through feedforward-feedback collaterals and biasing subcircuit. Computer simulations demonstrate that differences in geometry of the feedback (afferent) collaterals affects the timing and the magnitude of voltage changes delivered to the spike initiation zone. Feedforward (efferent) collaterals act as voltage followers and likely inhibit neurons of the distributed modifying circuit. These results illustrate the importance of feedforward-feedback loops, of timing, and of inhibition in refining neural network output. They also suggest that it is the distributed modifying network that is most involved in adaptation, memory, and learning. Tests of macular adaptation, through hyper- and microgravitational studies, support this hypothesis since synapses in the distributed modifying circuit, but not the channeled circuit, are altered. Transitioning knowledge of biological systems to computer technology, however, remains problematical.
Soldano, Carlotta; Arzarello, Ferdinando
The aim of this paper is to reflect on the importance of the students' game-strategic thinking during the development of mathematical activities. In particular, we hypothesise that this type of thinking helps students in the construction of logical links between concepts during the "argumentation phase" of the proving process. The theoretical background of our study lies in the works of J. Hintikka, a Finnish logician, who developed a new type of logic, based on game theory, called the logic of inquiry. In order to experiment with this new approach to the teaching and learning of mathematics, we have prepared five game-activities based on geometric theorems in which two players play against each other in a multi-touch dynamic geometric environment (DGE). In this paper, we present the design of the first game-activity and the relationship between it and the logic of inquiry. Then, adopting the theoretical framework of the instrumental genesis by Vérillon and Rabardel (EJPE 10: 77-101, 1995), we will present and analyse significant actions and dialogues developed by students while they are solving the game. We focus on the presence of a particular way of playing the game introduced by the students, the "reflected game", and highlight its functions for the development of the task.
Moorman, Margaret; Hensel, Desiree; Decker, Kim A; Busby, Katie
There is a need to develop innovative strategies that cultivate broad cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal skills in nursing curricula. The purpose of this project was to explore transferable skills students gained from Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS). This qualitative descriptive study was conducted with 55 baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in an entry level healthy population course. The students participated in a 1h VTS session led by a trained facilitator. Data came from the group's written responses to a question about how they would use skills learned from VTS in caring for patients and in their nursing practice. Content analysis showed students perceived gaining observational, cognitive, interpersonal, and intrapersonal skills from the VTS session. VTS is a unique teaching strategy that holds the potential to help nursing students develop a broad range of skills. Studies are needed on optimal exposure needed to develop observational, communication, collaboration, and critical thinking skills. Research is also needed on how skills gained in VTS translate to practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Phan, Huy P
This article presents a theoretically grounded model of critical thinking and self-regulation in the context of teaching and learning. Critical thinking, deriving from an educational psychology perspective is a complex process of reflection that helps individuals become more analytical in their thinking and professional development. My conceptualisation in this discussion paper argues that both theoretical orientations (critical thinking and self-regulation) operate in a dynamic interactive system of teaching and learning. My argument, based on existing research evidence, suggests two important points: (i) critical thinking acts as another cognitive strategy of self-regulation that learners use in their learning, and (ii) critical thinking may be a product of various antecedents such as different self-regulatory strategies.
Snyder, Julia J; Wiles, Jason R
This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups.
Thalmeier, Dominik; Uhlmann, Marvin; Kappen, Hilbert J.; Memmesheimer, Raoul-Martin
Providing the neurobiological basis of information processing in higher animals, spiking neural networks must be able to learn a variety of complicated computations, including the generation of appropriate, possibly delayed reactions to inputs and the self-sustained generation of complex activity patterns, e.g. for locomotion. Many such computations require previous building of intrinsic world models. Here we show how spiking neural networks may solve these different tasks. Firstly, we derive constraints under which classes of spiking neural networks lend themselves to substrates of powerful general purpose computing. The networks contain dendritic or synaptic nonlinearities and have a constrained connectivity. We then combine such networks with learning rules for outputs or recurrent connections. We show that this allows to learn even difficult benchmark tasks such as the self-sustained generation of desired low-dimensional chaotic dynamics or memory-dependent computations. Furthermore, we show how spiking networks can build models of external world systems and use the acquired knowledge to control them. PMID:27309381
Full Text Available Ongoing research is being conducted on appropriate course design, practices and teacher interventions for improving the efficiency of computer science and programming courses in K-12 education. The trend is towards a more constructivist problem-based learning approach. Computational thinking, which refers to formulating and solving problems in a form that can be efficiently processed by a computer, raises an important educational challenge. Our research aims to explore possible ways of enriching computer science teaching with a focus on development of computational thinking. We have prepared and evaluated a learning intervention for introducing computer programming to children between 10 and 14 years old; this involves students working in groups to program the behavior of the computer player of a well-known game. The programming process is split into two parts. First, students design a high-level version of their algorithm during an ‘unplugged’ pen & paper phase, and then they encode their solution as an executable program in a visual programming environment. Encouraging evaluation results have been achieved regarding the educational and motivational value of the proposed approach.
The last few years have witnessed fast development on dictionary learning approaches for a set of visual computing tasks, largely due to their utilization in developing new techniques based on sparse representation. Compared with conventional techniques employing manually defined dictionaries, such as Fourier Transform and Wavelet Transform, dictionary learning aims at obtaining a dictionary adaptively from the data so as to support optimal sparse representation of the data. In contrast to conventional clustering algorithms like K-means, where a data point is associated with only one cluster c
Spangsberg, Thomas Hvid
research approach. Computational thinking plays a significant role in computing education but it is still unclear how it should be interpreted to best serve its purpose. Constructionism and Computational Making seems to be promising frameworks to do this. In regards to specific teaching activities...
Hu, Weiping; Jia, Xiaojuan; Plucker, Jonathan A.; Shan, Xinxin
Learning motivation has a significant effect on student learning, which is a key determinant of academic performance and creativity. It is increasingly popular and important to cultivate learning motivation in schools. To consider this trend, a long-term intervention program named "Learn to Think" (LTT) was designed not only to improve…
Cole, S. B.
Critical thinking skills are among the primary learning outcomes of undergraduate education, but they are rarely explicitly taught. Here I present a two-fold study aimed at analyzing undergraduate students' critical thinking and information literacy skills, and explicitly teaching these skills, in an introductory Planetary Science course. The purpose of the research was to examine the students' information-filtering skills and to develop a short series of peer-learning workshops that would enhance these skills in both the students' coursework and their everyday lives. The 4 workshops are designed to be easily adaptable to any college course, with little impact on the instructor's workload. They make use of material related to the course's content, enabling the instructor to complement a pre-existing syllabus while explicitly teaching students skills essential to their academic and non-academic lives. In order to gain an understanding of undergraduates' existing information-filtering skills, I examined the material that they consider to be appropriate sources for a college paper. I analyzed the Essay 1 bibliographies of a writing-based introductory Planetary Science course for non-majors. The 22 essays cited 135 (non-unique) references, only half of which were deemed suitable by their instructors. I divided the sources into several categories and classified them as recommended, recommended with caution, and unsuitable for this course. The unsuitable sources ranged from peer-reviewed journal articles, which these novice students were not equipped to properly interpret, to websites that cannot be relied upon for scientific information (e.g., factoidz.com, answersingenesis.org). The workshops aim to improve the students' information-filtering skills by sequentially teaching them to evaluate search engine results, identify claims made on websites and in news articles, evaluate the evidence presented, and identify specific correlation/causation fallacies in news articles
Mohammad Seifi; Zahra Derikvandi; Saeed Moosavipour; Rouhollah Khodabandelou
The main aim of this research was to investigate the effect of computer games on student’ critical thinking disposition and educational achievement. The research method was descriptive, and its type was casual-comparative. The sample included 270 female high school students in Andimeshk town selected by multistage cluster method. Ricketts questionnaire was used to test critical thinking and the researcher made questionnaires were used to test computer games. T-test and one-way ANOVA were empl...
Adair, Desmond; Jaeger, Martin
Critical thinking extends to all aspects of professional engineering, especially in technical development, and, since the introduction of the ABET 2000 criteria, there has been an increased emphasis in engineering education on the development of critical thinking skills. What is hoped for is that the students obtain critical thinking skills to…
Quinnell, R.; Thompson, R.; LeBard, R. J.
Developing quantitative skills, or being academically numerate, is part of the curriculum agenda in science teaching and learning. For many of our students, being asked to 'do maths' as part of 'doing science' leads to disengagement from learning. Notions of 'I can't do maths' speak of a rigidity of mind, a 'standoff', forming a barrier to learning in science that needs to be addressed if we, as science educators, are to offer solutions to the so-called 'maths problem' and to support students as they move from being novice to expert. Moving from novice to expert is complex and we lean on several theoretical frameworks (thinking dispositions, threshold concepts and mindfulness in learning) to characterize this pathway in science, with a focus on quantitative skills. Fluid thinking and application of numeracy skills are required to manipulate experimental data sets and are integral to our science practice; we need to stop students from seeing them as optional 'maths' or 'statistics' tasks within our discipline. Being explicit about the ways those in the discipline think, how quantitative data is processed, and allowing places for students to address their skills (including their confidence) offer some ways forward.
GHAZIVAKILI, ZOHRE; NOROUZI NIA, ROOHANGIZ; PANAHI, FARIDE; KARIMI, MEHRDAD; GHOLSORKHI, HAYEDE; AHMADI, ZARRIN
Introduction: The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Science. Methods: This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified random sampling. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of pcritical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students’ performance with inferential skill and the total score of critical thinking skills (pcritical thinking had significant difference between different learning styles. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the learning styles, critical thinking and academic performance are significantly associated
Liaw, S T; Marty, J J
To develop and evaluate a strategy to teach skills and issues associated with computers in the consultation. An overview lecture plus a workshop before and a workshop after practice placements, during the 10-week general practice (GP) term in the 5th year of the University of Melbourne medical course. Pre- and post-intervention study using a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods within a strategic evaluation framework. Self-reported attitudes and skills with clinical applications before, during and after the intervention. Most students had significant general computer experience but little in the medical area. They found the workshops relevant, interesting and easy to follow. The role-play approach facilitated students' learning of relevant communication and consulting skills and an appreciation of issues associated with using the information technology tools in simulated clinical situations to augment and complement their consulting skills. The workshops and exposure to GP systems were associated with an increase in the use of clinical software, more realistic expectations of existing clinical and medical record software and an understanding of the barriers to the use of computers in the consultation. The educational intervention assisted students to develop and express an understanding of the importance of consulting and communication skills in teaching and learning about medical informatics tools, hardware and software design, workplace issues and the impact of clinical computer systems on the consultation and patient care.
Hung, Tsui-Mei; Tang, Lee-Chun; Ko, Chen-Ju
Critical thinking has been regarded as one of the most important elements for nurses to improve quality of patient care. The aim of this study was to use problem-based learning (PBL) as a method in a continuing education program to evaluate nurses' critical thinking skills. A quasiexperimental study design was carried out. The "Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory" in Chinese was used for data collection. The results indicated significant improvement after PBL continuous education, notably in the dimensions of systematic analysis and curiosity. Content analysis extracted four themes: (a) changes in linear thinking required, (b) logical and systematic thinking required performance improved, (3) integration of prior knowledge and clinical application, and (4) brainstorming learning strategy. The study supports PBL as a continuing education strategy for mental health nurses, and that systematic analysis and curiosity effectively facilitate the development of critical thinking.
Full Text Available This research aims to find out the application of Think Pair Share (TPS learning method in improving learning motivation and learning achievement in the subject of Introduction to Accounting I of the Accounting Study Program students of Politeknik Harapan Bersama. The Method of data collection in this study used observation method, test method, and documentation method. The research instruments used observation sheet, questionnaire and test question. This research used Class Action Research Design which is an action implementation oriented research, with the aim of improving quality or problem solving in a group by carefully and observing the success rate due to the action. The method of analysis used descriptive qualitative and quantitative analysis method. The results showed that the application of Think Pair Share Learning (TPS Method can improve the Learning Motivation and Achievement. Before the implementation of the action, the obtained score is 67% then in the first cycle increases to 72%, and in the second cycle increasws to 80%. In addition, based on questionnaires distributed to students, it also increases the score of Accounting Learning Motivation where the score in the first cycle of 76% increases to 79%. In addition, in the first cycle, the score of pre test and post test of the students has increased from 68.86 to 76.71 while in the second cycle the score of pre test and post test of students has increased from 79.86 to 84.86.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is influence; the differences in the results between students that learn drawing techniques taught by the Contextual Innovative Model (CIM) and taught by Direct Instructional Model (DIM), the differences in achievement among students of technical drawing that have High Creative Thinking Ability (HCTA) with Low Creative Thinking Ability (LCTA), and the interaction between the learning model with the ability to think creatively to the achievement technical drawing. Quasi-experimental research method. Results of research appoint that: the achievement of students that learned technical drawing by using CIM is higher than the students that learned technical drawing by using DIM, the achievement of students of technical drawings HCTA is higher than the achievement of students who have technical drawing LCTA, and there are interactions between the use of learning models and creative thinking abilities in influencing student achievement technical drawing.
Sannomiya, M; Kawaguchi, A
This is a case study on support for thinking through computer-mediated communication. Two graduate students were supervised in their research using computer-mediated communication, which was asynchronous and written; the supervisor was not present. The students' reports pointed out there was more planning and editing and low interactivity in this approach relative to face-to-face communication. These attributes were confirmed by their supervisor's report. The students also suggested that the latter was effective in support of a production stage of thinking in research, while the former approach was effective in support of examination of thinking. For distance education to be successful, an appropriate combination of communication media must consider students' thinking stages. Finally, transient and permanent effects should be discriminated in computer-mediated communication.
Critical thinking is acclaimed as a valuable asset for graduates from higher education programs. Technology has advanced in quantity and quality; recognized as a requirement of 21st century learners. A mixed methods research study was undertaken, examining undergraduate nursing student engagement with critical thinking instruction, platformed on two technology-enhanced learning environments: a classroom response system face-to-face in-class and an online discussion forum out-of-class. The Community of Inquiry framed the study capturing constructivist collaborative inquiry to support learning, and facilitate critical thinking capability. Inclusion of quantitative and qualitative data sources aimed to gather a comprehensive understanding of students' development of critical thinking and engagement with technology-enhanced learning. The findings from the students' perspectives were positive toward the inclusion of technology-enhanced learning, and use in supporting their development of critical thinking. Students considered the use of two forms of technology beneficial in meeting different needs and preferences, offering varied means to actively participate in learning. They valued critical thinking instruction being intentionally aligned with subject-specific content facilitating understanding, application, and relevance of course material. While the findings are limited to student participants, the instructional strategies and technology-enhanced learning identified as beneficial can inform course design for the development of critical thinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Simulated learning experiences using high-fidelity human patient simulators (HPS) are increasingly being integrated into baccalaureate nursing programs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine relationships among learning style, critical thinking disposition, critical thinking, and clinical judgment during high-fidelity human patient…
Full Text Available In order to better develop and improve students’ music learning, the authors proposed the method of music learning based on computer software. It is still a new field to use computer music software to assist teaching. Hereby, we conducted an in-depth analysis on the computer-enabled music learning and the music learning status in secondary schools, obtaining the specific analytical data. Survey data shows that students have many cognitive problems in the current music classroom, and yet teachers have not found a reasonable countermeasure to them. Against this background, the introduction of computer music software to music learning is a new trial that can not only cultivate the students’ initiatives of music learning, but also enhance their abilities to learn music. Therefore, it is concluded that the computer software based music learning is of great significance to improving the current music learning modes and means.
Parsaoran Damanik, Dede; Bukit, Nurdin
This study was aimed to determine the differences: (1) the difference of critical thinking skills of students' that using Inquiry Training and Direct Instruction. (2) The difference of critical thinking skills among students who at high scientific attitude and students who at low scientific attitude. (3) To see if there is interaction between inquiry learning model of the scientific attitude students' to increase the ability to critical thinking. This is a quasi experimental research. Which s...
Samuel L. Tunstall
Full Text Available Daniel Kahneman. Thinking, Fast and Slow (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux 499 pp. ISBN 978-0374275631. As an expansive review of Kahneman and others' work over the past half-century in understanding human decision-making, Thinking, Fast and Slow provides Numeracy readers much to consider for both pedagogy and research. In this review, we outline Kahneman's core argument—that humans use both rash (emotional System 1 thinking and slow (logical System 2 thinking—then discuss how such systems might be addressed in a quantitative literacy classroom.
Samuel L. Tunstall; Patrick N. Beymer
Daniel Kahneman. Thinking, Fast and Slow (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux) 499 pp. ISBN 978-0374275631. As an expansive review of Kahneman and others' work over the past half-century in understanding human decision-making, Thinking, Fast and Slow provides Numeracy readers much to consider for both pedagogy and research. In this review, we outline Kahneman's core argument—that humans use both rash (emotional) System 1 thinking and slow (logical) System 2 thinking—then discuss how su...
Baihui Yan; Qiao Zhou
In order to better develop and improve students’ music learning, the authors proposed the method of music learning based on computer software. It is still a new field to use computer music software to assist teaching. Hereby, we conducted an in-depth analysis on the computer-enabled music learning and the music learning status in secondary schools, obtaining the specific analytical data. Survey data shows that students have many cognitive problems in the current music classroom, and yet teach...
Fischer, Christopher; Bol, Linda; Pribesh, Shana
This study investigated the extent to which higher-order thinking skills are promoted in social studies classes in high schools that are implementing smaller learning communities (SLCs). Data collection in this mixed-methods study included classroom observations and in-depth interviews. Findings indicated that higher-order thinking was rarely…
Ransdell, Marlo Evelyn
This study examined the creative thinking of interior design graduate students in an online learning community. This study considered potential changes in creative thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration) about design research resulting from peer-led online discussions. It further studied the learner characteristics of…
Saudi scholars have been agitating for education reforms to incorporate critical thinking in education programs. This paper is a qualitative case study undertaken at King Abdul Aziz University and Arab Open University and examines students' perception of learning critical thinking in secondary pre-service teacher education programs in Saudi…
In this article, the author describes a syllabus which he designed in his United States history survey courses to help his students learn to think like historians. It contains important information about the way historians work and think, along with descriptions of the reading materials the student will use to further their practice of history.…
Di Vito-Thomas, Pam
The ability to think critically, improve clinical systems, and decrease errors in clinical judgments are ever the vision of nursing practice. The author describes the thinking processes of nursing students as they make clinical judgments and the most important teaching/learning strategies that help develop their clinical judgment.
Fuad, Nur Miftahul; Zubaidah, Siti; Mahanal, Susriyati; Suarsini, Endang
The aims of this study were (1) to find out the differences in critical thinking skills among students who were given three different learning models: differentiated science inquiry combined with mind map, differentiated science inquiry model, and conventional model, (2) to find out the differences of critical thinking skills among male and female…
Didimus Tanah Boleng
Full Text Available Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Cooperative Script dan Think-Pair-Share terhadap Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis, Sikap Sosial, dan Hasil Belajar Kognitif Biologi Siswa SMA Multietnis Abstract: Biological learning process with multiethnic students requires a learning models which allow students to work independently, to work together in small groups, and to share with other groups. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of learning models, ethnicity, and the interaction of learning model and ethnic on critical thinking skills, social attitudes, and cognitive achievement. This quasi experimental study was conducted in 11th grade of Natural Science Class Highschool students with six ethnicaly and Junior Highschool National score groups consisted of 132 samples. The results of Covarian Analysis showed that the learning models significantly affected the social attitudes and increased the critical thinking skills and cognitive achievement. Ethnicity significantly affected the social attitudes and cognitive achievement. Interaction of learning models and ethnicity significantly affected students social attitudes. Key Words: cooperative script, think-pair-share, critical thinking skills, social attitudes, biology cognitive achievement, multiethnic students Abstrak: Pengelolaan proses pembelajaran biologi pada siswa multietnis memerlukan model pembelajaran yang memungkinkan siswa bekerja mandiri, bekerja sama dalam kelompok kecil, dan berbagi dengan kelompok lain. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh model pembelajaran, etnis, serta interaksi model pembelajaran dan etnis terhadap keterampilan berpikir kritis, sikap sosial, dan hasil belajar kognitif biologi siswa. Penelitian eksperimen semu ini dilakukan di kelas XI IPA SMA dengan sampel sebanyak 132 orang siswa terbagi dalam enam kelas yang homogen berdasarkan etnis dan nilai ujian nasional SMP siswa. Hasil analisis data dengan menggunakan Analisis Kovarian menunjukkan bahwa model
Torres, Carlos Alberto
This article discusses some of the generalized analyses of adult learning education, mostly informed by technocratic thinking, highlighting perceived trends in adult learning education between CONFINTEA V and CONFITEA VI. Those trends could be understood as challenges. Employing a political sociology of adult learning education as a critique of…
Campbell, Cynthia G.; Oswald, Brianna R.
As stated in APA Learning Outcomes 2 and 3, two central goals of higher education instruction are promoting students' critical thinking skills and connecting student learning to real-life applications. To meet these goals, a community-based service-learning experience was designed using task value, interpersonal accountability, cognitive…
Toledo, Santiago; Dubas, Justin M.
An emphasis on higher-order thinking within the curriculum has been a subject of interest in the chemical and STEM literature due to its ability to promote meaningful, transferable learning in students. The systematic use of learning taxonomies could be a practical way to scaffold student learning in order to achieve this goal. This work proposes…
Mohamad Nur Fauzi
Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the effect of learning models with scientific approach, characteristics thinking style, the interaction between learning model with scientific approach and characteristics thinking style toward mathematics achievement. This research was quasi-experimental research with factorial design 2 x 4. The population of research was all students of the seven graders of junior high school in Surakarta city in academic year 2016/2017. The sample of research consists of 190 students. The data in the research was two ways analysis of variance with unequal cells, with the 5% level of significance. The results of the research were as follow: (1 SFEs Learning model gave better mathematics achievement than direct instruction model: (2 Characteristics of Sequential concret (SK, sequential abstract (SA, random concret (AK, and random abstract (AA thinking styles give the same effect on mathematics learning achievement; (3 In each learning model with SK, SA, AK, and AA thinking style characteristics have the same mathematics learning achievement. (4 In each of the SK, SA, AK, and AA thinking styles that are subject to the SFEs learning model and direct learning have the same mathematical learning achievement.
Ziatdinov, Rushan; Musa, Sajid
In this paper, we describe the possibilities of using a rapid mental computation system in elementary education. The system consists of a number of readily memorized operations that allow one to perform arithmetic computations very quickly. These operations are actually simple algorithms which can develop or improve the algorithmic thinking of pupils. Using a rapid mental computation system allows forming the basis for the study of computer science in secondary school.
Chan, Zenobia C Y
To explore students' attitude towards problem-based learning, creativity and critical thinking, and the relevance to nursing education and clinical practice. Critical thinking and creativity are crucial in nursing education. The teaching approach of problem-based learning can help to reduce the difficulties of nurturing problem-solving skills. However, there is little in the literature on how to improve the effectiveness of a problem-based learning lesson by designing appropriate and innovative activities such as composing songs, writing poems and using role plays. Exploratory qualitative study. A sample of 100 students participated in seven semi-structured focus groups, of which two were innovative groups and five were standard groups, adopting three activities in problem-based learning, namely composing songs, writing poems and performing role plays. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. There are three themes extracted from the conversations: 'students' perceptions of problem-based learning', 'students' perceptions of creative thinking' and 'students' perceptions of critical thinking'. Participants generally agreed that critical thinking is more important than creativity in problem-based learning and clinical practice. Participants in the innovative groups perceived a significantly closer relationship between critical thinking and nursing care, and between creativity and nursing care than the standard groups. Both standard and innovative groups agreed that problem-based learning could significantly increase their critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Further, by composing songs, writing poems and using role plays, the innovative groups had significantly increased their awareness of the relationship among critical thinking, creativity and nursing care. Nursing educators should include more types of creative activities than it often does in conventional problem-based learning classes. The results could help nurse educators design an appropriate
Ramsgaard, Michael Breum; Christensen, Marie Ernst
Questions we care about • How do different pedagogical teaching approaches in entrepreneurship education construct learning outcome when comparing the underlying pedagogical models? • Where can unidentified fields and correlations of pedagogical insights between the approaches of lean startup......, design thinking, and experiential learning be identified? • How can new concepts of learning models, taking lean startup, design thinking and experiential learning approaches into account, be developed in entrepreneurship education? Approach This 3e conference paper begins as a conceptual paper...... highlighting the theories and underlying learning models behind three pedagogical approaches within entrepreneurship education, namely lean startup, design thinking and experiential learning. The paper builds this knowledge framework in order to set the design for an empirical investigation of the proposed...
Angeli, C.; Voogt, J.; Fluck, A.; Webb, M.; Cox, M.; Malyn-Smith, J.; Zagami, J.
Adding computer science as a separate school subject to the core K-6 curriculum is a complex issue with educational challenges. The authors herein address two of these challenges: (1) the design of the curriculum based on a generic computational thinking framework, and (2) the knowledge teachers
van der Meulen, Joris; Timmer, Mark
As technological advances in engineering and computer science happen more and more quickly, we must shift focus from teaching specific techniques or programming languages to teaching something more transcending: computational thinking (Wing, 2006). Wing explained this concept later as “the thought
Grgurina, Natasa; van Veen, Klaas; Barendsen, Erik; Zwaneveld, Bert; Suhre, Cor; Gal-Ezer, Judith; Sentance, Sue; Vahrenhold, Jan
Computational Thinking (CT) is gaining a lot of attention in education. We explored how to discern the occurrences of CT in the projects of 12th grade high school students in the computer science (CS) course. Within the projects, they constructed models and ran simulations of phenomena from other
Soldano, Carlotta; Arzarello, Ferdinando
The aim of this paper is to reflect on the importance of the students' game-strategic thinking during the development of mathematical activities. In particular, we hypothesise that this type of thinking helps students in the construction of logical links between concepts during the "argumentation phase" of the proving process. The…
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Dolan, Teresa A.; Courts, Frank J.; Mitchell, Gail S.
Used qualitative research methods to assess the frequency and nature of teaching critical thinking skills in the University of Florida College of Dentistry predoctoral student clinics. Observation of 13 faculty and 44 students in six clinics found critical thinking skills were infrequently taught and teacher-dominated instruction predominated.…
Howes, Loene M.
Fostering critical thinking abilities amongst students is one component of preparing them to navigate uncertain and complex social lives and employment circumstances. One conceptualisation of critical thinking, valuable in higher education, draws from critical theory to promote social justice and redress power inequities. This study explored how…
Thirteen thinking styles of 223 first year students in the Arts (44%), Natural Sciences (44%) and Education (12%) faculties at Stellenbosch University were measured by means of the Sternberg Mental Self-government Thinking Styles Inventory. Responses were entered on a seven-point Lickert scale. Faculty, gender and ...
Ngaewkoodrua, Nophakun; Yuenyong, Chokchai
To improve science teachers to develop the STS lesson plans for enhancing the students' inventive thinking skills, the workshop of improving science teachers to develop the STS lesson plans for enhancing the Inventive thinking skills were organized. The paper aimed to clarify what teachers learn from the workshop. The goal of the activity of the workshop aimed to: 1) improve participants a better understanding of the relationship between the Inquiry based learning with STS approach, 2) understand the meaning and importance of the STS approach and identify the various stages of Yuenyong (2006) STS learning process, 3) discuss what they learned from the examples of Yuenyong (2006) lesson plan, 4) develop some activities for each stage of Yuenyong (2006) STS approach, and 5) ideas of providing STS approach activities for enhancing inventive thinking skills. Participants included 3 science teachers who work in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. Teachers' learning about pedagogy of enhancing the students' inventive thinking skills will be interpreted through participant observation, teachers' tasks, and interview. The finding revealed that all participants could demonstrate their ideas how to generate the STS lesson plans as a way of enhancing inventive thinking skills. Teachers could mention some element of inventive thinking skills which could be generated on their STS learning activities.
Moser, Hubert Anton
This book focuses on systems engineering, systems thinking, and how that thinking can be learned in practice. It describes a novel analytical framework based on activity theory for understanding how systems thinking evolves and how it can be improved to support multidisciplinary teamwork in the context of system development and systems engineering. This method, developed using data collected over four years from three different small space systems engineering organizations, can be applied in a wide variety of work activities in the context of engineering design and beyond in order to monitor and analyze multidisciplinary interactions in working teams over time. In addition, the book presents a practical strategy called WAVES (Work Activity for a Evolution of Systems engineering and thinking), which fosters the practical learning of systems thinking with the aim of improving process development in different industries. The book offers an excellent resource for researchers and practitioners interested in system...
Unita S. Zuliani Nasution
Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to analyze the different between physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model and direct instruction model, the different of physic resolving problem ability between the students that have critical thinking ability upper the average and the students that have critical thinking ability under the average, and the interaction of problem based learning model toward critical thinking ability and students’ physic resolving problem ability. This research was quasy experimental research that use critical thinking ability tests and physic resolving problem ability tests as the instruments. Result of the research showed that the students’ physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model was better than by using direct instruction model, students’ physic resolving problem ability and critical thinking ability upper the average showed better different and result than students’ critical thinking ability under the average, besides there was an interaction between problem based learning model and critical thinking ability in improving students’ physic resolving problem ability.
Full Text Available Introduction: The current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified method. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent T-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson Correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of p<0.05. Results: Our findings indicated the significant difference of mean score in four learning style, suggesting university students with convergent learning style have better performance than other groups. Also learning style had a relationship with age, gender, field of study, semester and job. The results about the critical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant
Khoiriyah, Umatul; Roberts, Chris; Jorm, Christine; Van der Vleuten, C P M
Problem based learning (PBL) is a powerful learning activity but fidelity to intended models may slip and student engagement wane, negatively impacting learning processes, and outcomes. One potential solution to solve this degradation is by encouraging self-assessment in the PBL tutorial. Self-assessment is a central component of the self-regulation of student learning behaviours. There are few measures to investigate self-assessment relevant to PBL processes. We developed a Self-assessment Scale on Active Learning and Critical Thinking (SSACT) to address this gap. We wished to demonstrated evidence of its validity in the context of PBL by exploring its internal structure. We used a mixed methods approach to scale development. We developed scale items from a qualitative investigation, literature review, and consideration of previous existing tools used for study of the PBL process. Expert review panels evaluated its content; a process of validation subsequently reduced the pool of items. We used structural equation modelling to undertake a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the SSACT and coefficient alpha. The 14 item SSACT consisted of two domains "active learning" and "critical thinking." The factorial validity of SSACT was evidenced by all items loading significantly on their expected factors, a good model fit for the data, and good stability across two independent samples. Each subscale had good internal reliability (>0.8) and strongly correlated with each other. The SSACT has sufficient evidence of its validity to support its use in the PBL process to encourage students to self-assess. The implementation of the SSACT may assist students to improve the quality of their learning in achieving PBL goals such as critical thinking and self-directed learning.
Ghazivakili, Zohre; Norouzi Nia, Roohangiz; Panahi, Faride; Karimi, Mehrdad; Gholsorkhi, Hayede; Ahmadi, Zarrin
The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Science. This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified random sampling. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of pstudents with convergent learning style have better performance than other groups. Also learning style had a relationship with age, gender, field of study, semester and job. The results about the critical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students' performance with inferential skill and the total score of critical thinking skills (pskills and deductive reasoning had significant
Oversimplification APPeal to Authority *Eguivocation Rationalization * Appeal to Consentus- Double Standard Mob AppeaI * Snob Appeal Appeal to ignorance F oAppeal to... appealing to such things as broad goals and high standards. They are given to a search for aids to agreement by making statements such as: "Don’t you think
DeVane, Ben; Durga, Shree; Squire, Kurt
Over the past several years, educators have been exploring the potential of immersive interactive simulations, or video games for education, finding that games can support the development of disciplinary knowledge, systemic thinking, the production of complex multimodal digital artifacts, and participation in affinity spaces or sites of collective…
van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Boon, P.; Lange, G.; Paijmans, J.J.; Postma, E.
Until now, computer vision and machine learning techniques barely contributed to the archaeological domain. The use of these techniques can support archaeologists in their assessment and classification of archaeological finds. The paper illustrates the use of computer vision techniques for
Sari, Dwi Ivayana; Hermanto, Didik
This research is a developmental research of probabilistic thinking-oriented learning tools for probability materials at ninth grade students. This study is aimed to produce a good probabilistic thinking-oriented learning tools. The subjects were IX-A students of MTs Model Bangkalan. The stages of this development research used 4-D development model which has been modified into define, design and develop. Teaching learning tools consist of lesson plan, students' worksheet, learning teaching media and students' achievement test. The research instrument used was a sheet of learning tools validation, a sheet of teachers' activities, a sheet of students' activities, students' response questionnaire and students' achievement test. The result of those instruments were analyzed descriptively to answer research objectives. The result was teaching learning tools in which oriented to probabilistic thinking of probability at ninth grade students which has been valid. Since teaching and learning tools have been revised based on validation, and after experiment in class produced that teachers' ability in managing class was effective, students' activities were good, students' responses to the learning tools were positive and the validity, sensitivity and reliability category toward achievement test. In summary, this teaching learning tools can be used by teacher to teach probability for develop students' probabilistic thinking.
Shaffer, David Williamson
This book looks at how particular video and computer games--such as "Digital Zoo", "The Pandora Project", "SodaConstructor", and more--can help teach children and students to think like doctors, lawyers, engineers, urban planners, journalists, and other professionals. In the process, new "smart games" will give them the knowledge and skills they…
Hardianti, D.; Priatna, N.; Priatna, B. A.
This research aims to analysis students’ geometric thinking ability and theoretically examine the process-oriented guided iquiry (POGIL) model. This study uses qualitative approach with descriptive method because this research was done without any treatment on subjects. Data were collected naturally. This study was conducted in one of the State Junior High School in Bandung. The population was second grade students and the sample was 32 students. Data of students’ geometric thinking ability were collected through geometric thinking test. These questions are made based on the characteristics of geometry thinking based on van hiele’s theory. Based on the results of the analysis and discussion, students’ geometric thinking ability is still low so it needs to be improved. Therefore, an effort is needed to overcome the problems related to students’ geometric thinking ability. One of the efforts that can be done by doing the learning that can facilitate the students to construct their own geometry concept, especially quadrilateral’s concepts so that students’ geometric thinking ability can enhance maximally. Based on study of the theory, one of the learning models that can enhance the students’ geometric thinking ability is POGIL model.
Jiang, Jingyang; Ouyang, Jinghui; Liu, Haitao
Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software-Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007-was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) can foster Chinese high school students' English analytic thinking (EAT) through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1) learning English can foster Chinese learners' EAT. Chinese EFL learners' ability of making distinctions, degree of cognitive complexity and degree of thinking activeness have all improved along with the increase of their English proficiency and their age; (2) there exist differences in Chinese EFL learners' EAT and that of English native speakers, i. e. English native speakers are better in the ability of making distinctions and degree of thinking activeness. These findings suggest that the best EFL learners in high schools have gained native-like analytic thinking through six years' English learning and are able to switch their cognitive styles as needed.
Jiang, Jingyang; Ouyang, Jinghui; Liu, Haitao
Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software—Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007—was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) can foster Chinese high school students’ English analytic thinking (EAT) through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1) learning English can foster Chinese learners’ EAT. Chinese EFL learners’ ability of making distinctions, degree of cognitive complexity and degree of thinking activeness have all improved along with the increase of their English proficiency and their age; (2) there exist differences in Chinese EFL learners’ EAT and that of English native speakers, i. e. English native speakers are better in the ability of making distinctions and degree of thinking activeness. These findings suggest that the best EFL learners in high schools have gained native-like analytic thinking through six years’ English learning and are able to switch their cognitive styles as needed. PMID:27741270
Zeynivandnezhad, Fereshteh; Bates, Rachel
The importance of developing students' mathematical thinking is frequently highlighted in literature regarding the teaching and learning of mathematics. Despite this importance, most curricula and instructional activities for undergraduate mathematics fail to bring the learner beyond the mathematics. The purpose of this study was to enhance…
Leonard, Jacqueline; Buss, Alan; Gamboa, Ruben; Mitchell, Monica; Fashola, Olatokunbo S.; Hubert, Tarcia; Almughyirah, Sultan
This paper describes the findings of a pilot study that used robotics and game design to develop middle school students' computational thinking strategies. One hundred and twenty-four students engaged in LEGO® EV3 robotics and created games using Scalable Game Design software. The results of the study revealed students' pre-post self-efficacy scores on the construct of computer use declined significantly, while the constructs of videogaming and computer gaming remained unchanged. When these constructs were analyzed by type of learning environment, self-efficacy on videogaming increased significantly in the combined robotics/gaming environment compared with the gaming-only context. Student attitudes toward STEM, however, did not change significantly as a result of the study. Finally, children's computational thinking (CT) strategies varied by method of instruction as students who participated in holistic game development (i.e., Project First) had higher CT ratings. This study contributes to the STEM education literature on the use of robotics and game design to influence self-efficacy in technology and CT, while informing the research team about the adaptations needed to ensure project fidelity during the remaining years of the study.
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of personality traits, learning styles and metacognition in predicting critical thinking. Instrument & Methods: In this descriptive correlative study, 240 students (130 girls and 110 boys of Ahvaz Shahid Chamran University were selected by multi-stage random sampling method. The instruments for collecting data were NEO Five-Factor Inventory, learning style inventory of Kolb (LSI, metacognitive assessment inventory (MAI of Schraw & Dennison (1994 and California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, stepwise regression analysis and Canonical correlation analysis. Findings: Openness to experiment (b=0.41, conscientiousness (b=0.28, abstract conceptualization (b=0.39, active experimentation (b=0.22, reflective observation (b=0.12, knowledge of cognition (b=0.47 and regulation of cognition (b=0.29 were effective in predicting critical thinking. Openness to experiment and conscientiousness (r2=0.25, active experimentation, abstract conceptualization and reflective observation learning styles (r2=0.21 and knowledge and regulation of cognition metacognitions (r2=0.3 had an important role in explaining critical thinking. The linear combination of critical thinking skills (evaluation, analysis, inference was predictable by a linear combination of dispositional-cognitive factors (openness, conscientiousness, abstract conceptualization, active experimentation, knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. Conclusion: Personality traits, learning styles and metacognition, as dispositional-cognitive factors, play a significant role in students' critical thinking.
Thinking Computers and Virtual Persons: Essays on the Intentionality of Machines explains how computations are meaningful and how computers can be cognitive agents like humans. This book focuses on the concept that cognition is computation.Organized into four parts encompassing 13 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the analogy between intentionality and phlogiston, the 17th-century principle of burning. This text then examines the objection to computationalism that it cannot prevent arbitrary attributions of content to the various data structures and representations involved in a c
Cicchino, Marc I.
Previous research indicates the importance of student discourse in the construction of knowledge and the fostering of critical thinking skills, especially in the field of problem-based learning (PBL). Further, a growing body of research on game-based learning (GBL) draws parallels between playing certain types of games and the solving of…
Santicola, Craig F.
There is a lack of student learning and critical thinking skills in post-secondary macroeconomics courses. The literature indicates that the lack of learning outcomes can be attributed to the reliance on traditional lecture and the failure to adopt innovative instructional techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the student…
Marr, Beth; Hagston, Jan
The use, learning and transfer of workplace numeracy skills, as well as current understandings of the term numeracy, are examined in this study. It also highlights the importance of numeracy as an essential workplace skill. "Thinking Beyond Numbers: Learning Numeracy for the Future Workplace" challenges the training system and training…
Commander, Nannette Evans; Valeri-Gold, Maria; Darnell, Kim
Today, academic assistance efforts are frequently geared to all students, not just the underprepared, with study skills offered in various formats. In this article, the authors describe a learning community model with the theme, "Strategic Thinking and Learning" (STL). Results of data analysis indicate that participants of the STL…
Blanton, Maria; Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Sawrey, Katie; Newman-Owens, Ashley
The study of functions is a critical route into teaching and learning algebra in the elementary grades, yet important questions remain regarding the nature of young children's understanding of functions. This article reports an empirically developed learning trajectory in first-grade children's (6-year-olds') thinking about generalizing functional…
Tandiseru, Selvi Rajuaty
The problem in this research is the lack of creative thinking skills of students. One of the learning models that is expected to enhance student's creative thinking skill is the local culture-based mathematical heuristic-KR learning model (LC-BMHLM). Heuristic-KR is a learning model which was introduced by Krulik and Rudnick (1995) that is the…
Full Text Available Critical thinking skill is the priority in the goals of education. In this case, the critical thinking has the higher process, such as analyzing, synthesizing, evaluating, drawing conclusion and reflecting which enables the individual to make the reasonable assessment both in the classroom and in the daily life. This research is aimed to determine the students’ critical thinking skill in learning Chemistry at senior high school. This research used descriptive method in which the instruments were developed based on the indicators of critical thinking skill. The population of this research was 100 students of tenth, eleventh and twelfth grade from senior high schools in Surakarta which was chosen using cluster random sampling technique. The result of the research shows that the students of tenth, eleventh and twelfth grade have adequate critical thinking skills.
Yuliati, L.; Fauziah, R.; Hidayat, A.
This study aims to determine students’ critical thinking skills in authentic problem based learning, especially on geometric optics. The study was conducted at the vocational school. The study used a quantitative descriptive method with the open question to measure critical thinking skills. The indicators of critical thinking skills measured in this study are: formulating problems, providing simple answers, applying formulas and procedures, analyzing information, making conclusions, and synthesizing ideas. The results showed that there was a positive change in students’ critical thinking skills with the average value of N-Gain test is 0.59 and effect size test is 3.73. The critical thinking skills of students need to be trained more intensively using authentic problems in daily life.
Full Text Available Didactics of autonomous learning changes under the influence of new technologies. Computer technology can cover all the functions that a teacher develops in personal contact with the learner. People organizing distance learning must realize all the possibilities offered by computers. Computers can take over and also combine the functions of many tools and systems, e. g. type writer, video, telephone. This the contents can be offered in form of classic media by means of text, speech, picture, etc. Computers take over data processing and function as study materials. Computer included in a computer network can also function as a medium for interactive communication.
A Computer Movie Simulating Urban Growth in the Detroit Region,” 236. 29 U.S. National Research Council, Learning to Think Spatially: GIS as a... children and spatial language, the article focuses on the use of geospatial information systems (GIS) as a support mechanism for learning to think...Thinking, Cognition, Learning , Geospatial, Operating Environment, Space Perception 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 5E learning cycle instructional model using socioscientific issues (SSI learning context on students’ critical thinking skills of acid-base. This study used quasi-experimental posttest only control group design. The sample consisted of three classes, which were XI MIA-4class (n = 32 that learned using 5E LC model, XI MIA-5 class (n = 33 that learned using 5E LC+SSI, and XI MIA-6 class (n = 32 that learned using conventional method. The samples were choosen by convenience sampling technique. The test instrument consisted of 15 multiple choice items which were valid and reliable (r = 0.806. The data were analyzed using one way ANOVA test and LSD posthoc test. The results of this study indicated that the students who learned using 5E LC+SSI model showed greater levels of critical thinking skills ( = 74,95 than both the student who learned using 5E LC model ( = 74,17 and the student who learned using conventional method ( = 68,96. Based on statistics analysis, there was significant differences on students’ critical thinkings between students taught using conventional method and students taught either using 5E LC+SSI model and 5E LC model. However, there was no significant differences on students’ critical thinking skills between students taught using 5E LC+SSI model and the students taught using 5E LC model.
Mantik, Octavia; Choi, Hee Jun
The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not "Scaffolded Think-Group-Share" learning can have a positive effect on student satisfaction and learning achievement in English classes of an Indonesian elementary school. To achieve this purpose, this study compared the findings from the two dependent variables (i.e., student…
Suardana, I. Nyoman; Redhana, I. Wayan; Sudiatmika, A. A. Istri Agung Rai; Selamat, I. Nyoman
This research aimed at describing the effectiveness of the local culture-based 7E learning cycle model in improving students' critical thinking skills in chemistry learning. It was an experimental research with post-test only control group design. The population was the eleventh-grade students of senior high schools in Singaraja, Indonesia. The…
Reza, M.; Ibrahim, M.; Rahayu, Y. S.
This research aims to develop problem-based learning oriented teaching materials to improve students’ mastery of concept and critical thinking skill. Its procedure was divided into two phases; developmental phase and experimental phase. This developmental research used Four-D Model. However, within this research, the process of development would not involve the last stages, which is disseminate. The teaching learning materials which were developed consist of lesson plan, student handbook, student worksheet, achievement test and critical thinking skill test. The experimental phase employs a research design called one group pretest-posttest design. Results show that the validity of the teaching materials which were developed was good and revealed the enhancement of students’ activities with positive response to the teaching learning process. Furthermore, the learning materials improve the students’ mastery of concept and critical thinking skill.
Thomas D. GRIFFIN
Full Text Available The main goal for the current study was to investigate whether individual differences in domaingeneral thinking dispositions might affect learning from multiple-document inquiry tasks in science.Middle school students were given a set of documents and were tasked with understanding how and why recent patterns in global temperature might be different from what has been observed in the past from those documents. Understanding was assessed with two measures: an essay task and an inference verification task. Domain-general thinking dispositions were assessed with a Commitment to Logic, Evidence, and Reasoning (CLEAR thinking scale. The measures of understanding wereuniquely predicted by both reading skills and CLEAR thinking scores, and these effects were not attributable to prior knowledge or interest. The results suggest independent roles for thinkingdispositions and reading ability when students read to learn from multiple-document inquiry tasks in science.
Full Text Available In what ways might systems thinking be helpful to designers? In the 21st century, the types of project with which designers have become engaged has expanded to include service systems. Service systems are typically composites of mechanisms, organisms, human beings and ecologies. Systems thinking is a perspective with theories, methods and practices that enables transcending disciplinary boundaries. Application of systems thinking in designing a service system can aid in surfacing potential flaws and/or anticipating future breakdowns in functions, structures and/or processes. Designers and systems thinkers should work together to improve the nature of service systems. As a starter set into these conversations, seven conditions are proposed as a starting context. These conditions are presented neither as rigourously defined nor as exhaustive, but as an entry point into future joint engagement.
Read, J.; Hourcade, J.P.; Markopoulos, P.; Iversen, O.S.
The discipline of Child Computer Interaction (CCI) has been steadily growing and it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC (Interaction and Design for Children) conference and its own journal and also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant
Pinasa, Siwa; Siripun, Kulpatsorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai
Creative thinking on applying science and mathematics knowledge is required by the future STEM career. The STEM education should be provided for the required skills of future STEM career. This paper aimed to clarify the developing STEM education learning activities to enhance students' creative thinking. The learning activities were developed for Grade 10 students who will study in the subject of independent study (IS) of Khon Kaen Wittayayon School, Khon Kaen, Thailand. The developing STEM education learning activities for enhancing students' creative thinking was developed regarding on 6 steps including (1) providing of understanding of fundamental STEM education concept, (2) generating creative thinking from prototype, (4) revised ideas, (5) engineering ability, and (6) presentation and discussion. The paper will clarify the 18 weeks activities that will be provided based these 6 steps of developing learning activities. Then, these STEM learning activities will be discussed to provide the chance of enhancing students' creative thinking. The paper may have implication for STEM education in school setting.
Evaluating the nature and extent of the influence of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on the quality of language learning is highly problematic. This is owing to the number and complexity of interacting variables involved in setting the items for teaching and learning languages. This paper identified and ...
Strijbos, J. -W.
Within the (Computer-Supported) Collaborative Learning (CS)CL research community, there has been an extensive dialogue on theories and perspectives on learning from collaboration, approaches to scaffold (script) the collaborative process, and most recently research methodology. In contrast, the issue of assessment of collaborative learning has…
He, Wu; Cernusca, Dan; Abdous, M'hammed
The use of distance courses in learning is growing exponentially. To better support faculty and students for teaching and learning, distance learning programs need to constantly innovate and optimize their IT infrastructures. The new IT paradigm called "cloud computing" has the potential to transform the way that IT resources are utilized and…
Learning, as Aboriginal people have come to know it, is holistic, lifelong, purposeful, experiential, communal, spiritual, and learned within a language and a culture. What guides their learning (beyond family, community, and Elders) is spirit, their own learning spirits who travel with them and guide them along their earth walk, offering them…
Yildiz, Hatice Durak; Yilmaz, Fatma Gizem Karaoglan; Yilmaz, Ramazan
The purpose of this study is to identify whether computational thinking skills among secondary school students differ depending on the type of digital games they play. The participants of this study were 202 secondary school students at 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grades during 2016-2017 academic year. Correlational survey method was used during this…
Seifi, Mohammad; Derikvandi, Zahra; Moosavipour, Saeed; Khodabandelou, Rouhollah
The main aim of this research was to investigate the effect of computer games on student' critical thinking disposition and educational achievement. The research method was descriptive, and its type was casual-comparative. The sample included 270 female high school students in Andimeshk town selected by multistage cluster method. Ricketts…
Julia J Snyder
Full Text Available This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups.
Snyder, Julia J.; Wiles, Jason R.
This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders’ critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders’ perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders’ critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups. PMID:25629311
Bayuningsih, A. S.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.
Critical thinking ability of mathematics students affected by the student’s ability in solving a specific problem. This research aims to determine the level of critical thinking (LCT) students in solving problems of geometry regarding self-regulated learning (SRL) students. This is a qualitative descriptive study with the purpose to analyze the level of Junior High School student’s critical thinking in the Regency of Banyumas. The subject is taken one student from each category SRL (high, medium and low). Data collection is given problem-solving tests to find out the level of critical thinking student, questionnaire, interview and documentation. The result of the research shows that student with SRL high is at the level of critical thinking 2, then a student with SRL medium is at the level of critical thinking 1 and student with SRL low is at the level of critical thinking 0. So students with SRL high, medium or low can solve math problems based on the critical thinking level of each student.
Initial teacher education (ITE) serves as a bridge between prospective teachers exiting the school system to enrol in teacher education faculties, on the one hand and newly qualified teachers (NQTs) who are embarking on a career in schooling on the other. The present paper describes the language and thinking skills student teachers bring to their…
Dede Parsaoran Damanik
Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the differences: (1 the difference of critical thinking skills of students' that using Inquiry Training and Direct Instruction. (2 The difference of critical thinking skills among students who at high scientific attitude and students who at low scientific attitude. (3 To see if there is interaction between inquiry learning model of the scientific attitude students' to increase the ability to critical thinking. This is a quasi experimental research. Which students of private junior high school Two Raya Kahean District Simalungun. Population choose random sample of each class. Instrument used consisted of: (1 test the scientific attitude of students through a questionnaire with 25 statements questionnaire number (2 test the critical thinking skills in the form of descriptions by 9 questions. The data were analyzed according to ANAVA. It showed that: (1 There are differences in students' critical thinking of skills achievement Inquiry Training model and Direct Instruction model, (2 there was a difference of students' critical thinking in scientific attitude at high is better than who thought there is a difference of students' critical thinking in scientific attitude at low. (3 There was no interaction between Inquiry Training model and Direct Instruction with the scientific attitude students' to increase student’s critical thinking of skills.
Full Text Available This paper aims at showing a new methodology to assess student learning in virtual spaces supported by Information and Communications Technology-ICT. The methodology is based on the Conceptual Pedagogy Theory, and is supported both on knowledge instruments (KI and intelectual operations (IO. KI are made up of teaching materials embedded in the virtual environment. The student carries out IO in his/her virtual formation process based on KI. Both instruments of knowledge and intellectual operations can be mathematically modelled by using functions of increasing complexity order. These functions represent the student’s learning change. This paper main contribution is to show that these functions let the student go from a concrete thinking to a formal one in his/her virtual learning process. The research showed that 47% of the students moved from a concrete thinking level to the formal thinking level.
S. R. Manurung
Full Text Available The effectiveness of hypertext media in improving graph interpretation ability is investigated in this paper. In addition, joint ability of the formal thinking to improve the graph ability of prospective students is considered. The research design used is the one-group pretest-posttest experimental design is carried out in the research by taking 36 students on from Physics Education Program in one institute for teacher education in Medan. The test consists of graph interpretation ability test in the topic of kinematics and Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT or formal thinking before learning and graph interpretation ability test after learning. The data are then analysed by using SPSS based two ways Analisys of Variance (ANOVA method. The results show that the ability to interpretate graph is significantly improved by using hypertext media assisted kinematic learning.
Yusepa, B. G. P.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Kartasasmita, B. G.
The aim of this study is to get an in-depth understanding of students’ abstract-thinking ability in mathematics learning. This study was an experimental research with pre-test and post-test control group design. The subject of this study was eighth-grade students from two junior high schools in Bandung. In each schools, two parallel groups were selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was exposed to Cognitive Apprenticeship Instruction (CAI) treatment, whereas the control group was exposed to conventional learning. The results showed that abstract-thinking ability of students in experimental group was better than that of those in control group in which it could be observed from the overall and school level. It could be concluded that CAI could be a good alternative learning model to enhance students’ abstract-thinking ability.
Kristianti, Y.; Prabawanto, S.; Suhendra, S.
This study aims to examine the ability of critical thinking and students who attain learning mathematics with learning model ASSURE assisted Autograph software. The design of this study was experimental group with pre-test and post-test control group. The experimental group obtained a mathematics learning with ASSURE-assisted model Autograph software and the control group acquired the mathematics learning with the conventional model. The data are obtained from the research results through critical thinking skills tests. This research was conducted at junior high school level with research population in one of junior high school student in Subang Regency of Lesson Year 2016/2017 and research sample of class VIII student in one of junior high school in Subang Regency for 2 classes. Analysis of research data is administered quantitatively. Quantitative data analysis was performed on the normalized gain level between the two sample groups using a one-way anova test. The results show that mathematics learning with ASSURE assisted model Autograph software can improve the critical thinking ability of junior high school students. Mathematical learning using ASSURE-assisted model Autograph software is significantly better in improving the critical thinking skills of junior high school students compared with conventional models.
This paper describes the present practical use of computers in two large beginning physics courses at the University of California, Irvine; discusses the versatility and desirability of computers in the field of education; and projects the possible future directions of computer-based learning. The advantages and disadvantages of educational…
Currently not many people would doubt that computers play an essential role in both public and private life in many countries. However, somewhat surprisingly, evidence of computer use is difficult to find in German state schools although other countries have managed to implement computer-based teaching and learning in their schools. This paper…
Albert, Lillie R; Macadino, Vittoria
Combining Vygotskian theory with current teaching and learning practices, this volume focuses on how the co-construction of learning models the interpretation of a mathematical situation, providing educationalists with a valuable practical methodology.
Bolhassan, Norlailatulakma; Taha, Hafsah
The form of cooperative learning known as Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT) in this study favors the use of teams work and learning tools combined with student play and practice to foster students' achievement and critical thinking skills. Using this paradigm, this study incorporates Teams-Games-Tournament and Flash Cards Games Kit during an 8-weeks experimental instruction period that includes 67 Form Four students; 34 students in the experimental group and 33 in the control group. The learning design in experimental group emphasizes scaffolding, guided practices, cooperative learning, and active participation in learning. While the experimental group experienced the TGT approach, the control group encountered the conventional teaching approach of chemistry drills. An achievement chemistry test and Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) were used for the pretest and posttest. The finding indicates that TGT learning was more effective than drills in promoting chemistry performance, and the playful competiveness among students promotes students' critical thinking. In addition, TGT cooperative learning also creates an active learning environment in solving problems and discussions among students and teachers.
Colin Camerer; Teck Ho; Kuan Chong
Noncooperative game theory combines strategic thinking, best-response, and mutual consistency of beliefs and choices (equilibrium). Hundreds of experiments show that in actual behavior these three forces are limited, even when subjects are highly motivated and analytically skilled (Camerer, 2003). The challenge is to create models that are as general, precise, and parsimonious as equilibrium, but which also use cognitive details to explain experimental evidence more accurately and to predict ...
Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. This books provides an up-to date and comprehensive overview of…
Nur Miftahul Fuad
Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to find out the differences in critical thinking skills among students who were given three different learning models: differentiated science inquiry combined with mind map, differentiated science inquiry model, and conventional model, (2 to find out the differences of critical thinking skills among male and female students. This study is a quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design. The population in this research is the seventh grade students of junior high schools in Kediri, Indonesia. The sample of the research is in the number of 96 students distributed in three classes at different schools. The data of critical thinking skills are gained from test scores and then analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics through ANCOVA. The results of research revealed that there are different skills in critical thinking in different models. The highest skills in critical thinking are reached by students who were given differentiated science inquiry model combined with mind map in their learning. There are also differences in critical thinking skills between male and female students.
Full Text Available This study set out to investigate the association among English language learners' Autonomy (AU, Creativity (CR, Critical Thinking (CT, and Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS. The participants of this study were 202 randomly selected male and female undergraduate (English as a Foreign Language EFL learners, between the ages of 19 and 26 (Mage = 22 years. These participants filled out four questionnaires estimating their AU, CR, CT, and VLS. The characteristics of the collected data legitimated running Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. The results suggested that there is a significant and positive relationship between EFL learners' AU and CR, AU and CT, AU and VLS, CR and CT, CR and VLS, as well as their CT and VLS. Considering AU as the predicted variable for this study, it was confirmed that CT is the best predictor of AU. The article concludes with some pedagogical implications and some avenues for future research.
Sukji, Paweena; Wichaidit, Pacharee Rompayom; Wichaidit, Sittichai
The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare learning achievement and analytical thinking ability of Mathayomsuksa 3 students before and after learning through inquiry-based learning activities integrated with the local learning resource, and 2) compare average post-test score of learning achievement and analytical thinking ability to its cutting score. The target of this study was 23 Mathayomsuksa 3 students who were studying in the second semester of 2016 academic year from Banchatfang School, Chainat Province. Research instruments composed of: 1) 6 lesson plans of Environment and Natural Resources, 2) the learning achievement test, and 3) analytical thinking ability test. The results showed that 1) student' learning achievement and analytical thinking ability after learning were higher than that of before at the level of .05 statistical significance, and 2) average posttest score of student' learning achievement and analytical thinking ability were higher than its cutting score at the level of .05 statistical significance. The implication of this research is for science teachers and curriculum developers to design inquiry activities that relate to student's context.
Saputri, A. C.; Sajidan; Rinanto, Y.
Critical thinking is an important and necessary skill to confront the challenges of the 21st century. Critical thinking skills accommodate activities that can improve high-order thinking skills. This study aims to determine senior high school students' critical thinking skills in Biology learning. This research is descriptive research using instruments developed based on the core aspects of critical thinking skills according to Facione which include interpretation, analysis, evaluation, explanation, conclusion, and self-regulation. The subjects in this study were 297 students in grade 12 of a senior high school in Surakarta selected through purposive sampling technique. The results of this study showed that the students' critical thinking skills on evaluation and self-regulation are in good criterion with 78% and 66% acquisition while 52% interpretation, 56% analysis, 52% conclusion and 42% explanation indicate sufficient criteria. The conclusion from this research is that critical thinking skill of the students still was in enough category, so that needed a way to enhance it on some indicators.
Oxstrand, Johanna; Bly, Aaron
In the past year there has been increased interest from the nuclear industry in adopting the use of electronic work packages and computer-based procedures (CBPs) in the field. The goal is to incorporate the use of technology in order to meet the Nuclear Promise requirements of reducing costs and improve efficiency and decrease human error rates of plant operations. Researchers, together with the nuclear industry, have been investigating the benefits an electronic work package system and specifically CBPs would have over current paper-based procedure practices. There are several classifications of CBPs ranging from a straight copy of the paper-based procedure in PDF format to a more intelligent dynamic CBP. A CBP system offers a vast variety of improvements, such as context driven job aids, integrated human performance tools (e.g., placekeeping and correct component verification), and dynamic step presentation. The latter means that the CBP system could only display relevant steps based on operating mode, plant status, and the task at hand. The improvements can lead to reduction of the worker’s workload and human error by allowing the work to focus on the task at hand more. A team of human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory studied and developed design concepts for CBPs for field workers between 2012 and 2016. The focus of the research was to present information in a procedure in a manner that leveraged the dynamic and computational capabilities of a handheld device allowing the worker to focus more on the task at hand than on the administrative processes currently applied when conducting work in the plant. As a part of the research the team identified type of work, instructions, and scenarios where the transition to a dynamic CBP system might not be as beneficial as it would for other types of work in the plant. In most cases the decision to use a dynamic CBP system and utilize the dynamic capabilities gained will be beneficial to the worker
FitzPatrick, Beverly; Hawboldt, John; Doyle, Daniel; Genge, Terri
To determine whether national educational outcomes, course objectives, and classroom assessments for 2 therapeutics courses were aligned for curricular content and cognitive processes, and if they included higher-order thinking. Document analysis and student focus groups were used. Outcomes, objectives, and assessment tasks were matched for specific therapeutics content and cognitive processes. Anderson and Krathwohl's Taxonomy was used to define higher-order thinking. Students discussed whether assessments tested objectives and described their thinking when responding to assessments. There were 7 outcomes, 31 objectives, and 412 assessment tasks. The alignment for content and cognitive processes was not satisfactory. Twelve students participated in the focus groups. Students thought more short-answer questions than multiple choice questions matched the objectives for content and required higher-order thinking. The alignment analysis provided data that could be used to reveal and strengthen the enacted curriculum and improve student learning.
Huber, Leonard N.
Discusses Piaget's pre-operational, concrete operational, and formal operational stages and shows how this information sheds light on how children approach computers and computing, particularly with the LOGO programming language. (JN)
Richard M. Magsino
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine students' perspectives of their learning in marine biology in the collaborative group context of Problem-based Learning (PBL. Students’ higher order thinking skills (HOTS using PBL involves the development of their logical thinking and reasoning abilities which stimulates their curiosity and associative thinking. This study aimed to investigate how critical thinking skills, particularly analysis, synthesis and evaluation were enhanced in a marine biology class through PBL. Qualitative research approach was used to examine student responses in a questionnaire involving 10 open-ended questions that target students’ HOTS on a problem presented in a marine biology class for BS Biology students. Using axial coding as a qualitative data analysis technique by which grounded theory can be performed, the study was able to determine how students manifest their higher reasoning abilities when confronted with a marine biology situation. Results show student responses yielding affirmative remarks on the 10 questions intended to know their level of analysis (e.g., analyzing, classifying, inferring, discriminating and relating or connecting, synthesis (e.g., synthesizing and collaborating, and evaluation (e.g., comparing, criticizing, and convincing of information from the presented marine biology problem. Consequently, students were able to effectively design experiments to address the presented issue through problem-based learning. Results of the study show that PBL is an efficient instructional strategy embedded within a conventional curriculum used to develop or enhance critical thinking in marine biology.
combination with other factors which may enhance or ameliorate the ... form of computer-based learning which carries two important features: .... To take some commonplace examples, a ... photographs, and even full-motion video clips.
Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.
Environmental understanding is highly relevant in today's global society. Social, economic, and political structures are connected to the state of environmental degradation and exploitation, and disproportionately affect those in poor or urban communities (Brulle & Pellow, 2006; Executive Order No. 12898, 1994). Environmental education must challenge the way we live, and our social and ecological quality of life, with the goal of responsible action. The development of a learning progression in environmental thinking, along with a corresponding assessment, could provide a tool that could be used across environmental education programs to help evaluate and guide programmatic decisions. This study sought to determine if a scale could be constructed that allowed individuals to be ordered along a continuum of environmental thinking. First, I developed the Environmental Thinking Learning Progression, a scale of environmental thinking from novice to advanced, based on the current available research and literature. The scale consisted of four subscales, each measuring a different aspect of environmental thinking: place consciousness, human connection, agency, and science concepts. Second, a measurement instrument was developed, so that the data appropriately fit the model using Rasch analysis. A Rasch analysis of the data placed respondents along a continuum, given the range of item difficulty for each subscale. Across three iterations of instrument revision and data collection, findings indicated that the items were ordered in a hierarchical way that corresponded to the construct of environmental thinking. Comparisons between groups showed that the average score of respondents who had participated in environmental education programs was significantly higher than those who had not. A comparison between males and females showed no significant difference in average measure, however, there were varied significant differences between how racial/ethnic groups performed. Overall
Park, Jooyoung; Inoue, Atsushi
As users or consumers are now demanding smarter devices, intelligent systems are revolutionizing by utilizing machine learning. Machine learning as part of intelligent systems is already one of the most critical components in everyday tools ranging from search engines and credit card fraud detection to stock market analysis. You can train machines to perform some things, so that they can automatically detect, diagnose, and solve a variety of problems. The intelligent systems have made rapid progress in developing the state of the art in machine learning based on smart and deep perception. Using machine learning, the intelligent systems make widely applications in automated speech recognition, natural language processing, medical diagnosis, bioinformatics, and robot locomotion. This book aims at introducing how to treat a substantial amount of data, to teach machines and to improve decision making models. And this book specializes in the developments of advanced intelligent systems through machine learning. It...
Wang, Shin-Yun; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Chiang, Horn-Che; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Hui-Ju
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a learner-centered educational method based on the principles of heuristics and collaboration. It has been considered an effective learning method in general and in professional education, especially in medical education. This article analyzes the thinking structure and philosophical background of PBL through the educational ideas of Socrates and the truth conception of Karl Popper. In the different phases of the PBL process, various truth conceptions will help to formulate the thinking framework of PBL --- from Socrates' truth of openness toward the truth of scientific accuracy of our modern age. Meanwhile, Popper's scientific theory of falsifiability further leads us to discuss the relationship between PBL and critical thinking.
Scheer, Andrea; Noweski, Christine; Meinel, Christoph
In an ever changing society of the 21st century, there is a demand to equip students with meta competences going beyond cognitive knowledge. Education, therefore, needs a transition from transferring knowledge to developing individual potentials with the help of constructivist learning. Advantages of constructivist learning, and criteria for its…
Wei, Kunlin; Yan, Xiang; Kong, Gaiqing; Yin, Cong; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Qining; Kording, Konrad Paul
Over the past few decades, one of the most salient lifestyle changes for us has been the use of computers. For many of us, manual interaction with a computer occupies a large portion of our working time. Through neural plasticity, this extensive movement training should change our representation of movements (e.g., [1-3]), just like search engines affect memory . However, how computer use affects motor learning is largely understudied. Additionally, as virtually all participants in studies of perception and actions are computer users, a legitimate question is whether insights from these studies bear the signature of computer-use experience. We compared non-computer users with age- and education-matched computer users in standard motor learning experiments. We found that people learned equally fast but that non-computer users generalized significantly less across space, a difference negated by two weeks of intensive computer training. Our findings suggest that computer-use experience shaped our basic sensorimotor behaviors, and this influence should be considered whenever computer users are recruited as study participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Jong, Anthonius J.M.
The present volume presents the results of an inventory of elements of such a computer learning environment. This inventory was conducted within a DELTA project called SIMULATE. In the project a learning environment that provides intelligent support to learners and that has a simulation as its
Broekens, Douwe Joost
In this thesis we have studied the influence of emotion on learning. We have used computational modelling techniques to do so, more specifically, the reinforcement learning paradigm. Emotion is modelled as artificial affect, a measure that denotes the positiveness versus negativeness of a situation
Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, E. Elvis; Fauzi, Amin
This research aims to develop a student-centered learning model based on local culture and instrument of mathematical higher order thinking of junior high school students in the frame of the 2013-Curriculum in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The subjects of the research are seventh graders which are taken proportionally random consisted of three public…
Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, Elvis
The purpose of this research was to develop student-centered learning model aiming to improve high order mathematical thinking ability of junior high school students of based on curriculum 2013 in North Sumatera, Indonesia. The special purpose of this research was to analyze and to formulate the purpose of mathematics lesson in high order…
This article seeks to address the gap between marketing education and marketing practice by integrating a design-thinking (DT) methodology to the marketing research (MR) framework to achieve learning objectives that will enhance cross-functional, collaborative, conceptual, and technical skills. The mobile application marketing research project…
Health professionals use critical thinking, a key problem solving skill, for clinical reasoning which is defined as the use of knowledge and reflective inquiry to diagnose a clinical problem. Teaching these skills in traditional settings with growing class sizes is challenging, and students increasingly expect learning that is flexible and…
This thesis describes developmental research, aiming at a useful approach for modern secondary ecology education. The research question is: What are the characteristics of a valid, feasible and effective learning and teaching strategy about ecosystem behaviour using modelling and systems thinking in
Juandi, D.; Priatna, N.
The main goal of this study is to improve the mathematical visual thinking ability of high school student through implementation the Discovery Learning Model with Geogebra Assisted. This objective can be achieved through study used quasi-experimental method, with non-random pretest-posttest control design. The sample subject of this research consist of 62 senior school student grade XI in one of school in Bandung district. The required data will be collected through documentation, observation, written tests, interviews, daily journals, and student worksheets. The results of this study are: 1) Improvement students Mathematical Visual Thinking Ability who obtain learning with applied the Discovery Learning Model with Geogebra assisted is significantly higher than students who obtain conventional learning; 2) There is a difference in the improvement of students’ Mathematical Visual Thinking ability between groups based on prior knowledge mathematical abilities (high, medium, and low) who obtained the treatment. 3) The Mathematical Visual Thinking Ability improvement of the high group is significantly higher than in the medium and low groups. 4) The quality of improvement ability of high and low prior knowledge is moderate category, in while the quality of improvement ability in the high category achieved by student with medium prior knowledge.
The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed-methods case study was to investigate the effects of English language learning on creative thinking skills in the domains of fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration as measured with the Alternate Uses Test. Unlike the previous research studies that investigated the links between English…
Demetry, Chrysanthe; Nicoletti, Denise; Mix, Kimberlee; O'Connor, Kerri; Martin, Andrea
Demonstrates how forensic science can be used as a framework for generating student interest and learning in chemistry and promoting critical thinking. The "Who Dunnit?" forensic science workshop was developed by undergraduate students and is one element of a two-week residential summer outreach program that seeks to develop interest in…
Helsdingen, Anne; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen
Helsdingen, A. S., Van Gog, T., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2011). The effects of practice schedule and critical thinking prompts on learning and transfer of complex judgment task. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(2), 383-398. doi:10.1037/a0022370
Junsay, Merle L.
This is a quasi-experimental study that explored the effects of reflective learning on prospective teachers' conceptual understanding, critical thinking, problem solving, and mathematical communication skills and the relationship of these variables. It involved 60 prospective teachers from two basic mathematics classes of an institution of higher…
Smirnov, Eugeny; Bogun, Vitali
New methodologies in science (or mathematics) learning process and scientific thinking in the classroom activity of engineer students with ICT (information and communication technology), including graphic calculator are presented: visual modelling with ICT, action research with graphic calculator, insight in classroom and communications and…
The present thesis research aim was to gain insight in the pedagogical content knowledge for interdisciplinary thinking to enhance student learning across higher education in engineering. In accordance to Boix Mansilla (2010) and Shulman (1987), pedagogical content knowledge was considered in the
Griffin, Thomas D.; Wiley, Jennifer; Britt, M. Anne; Salas, Carlos R.
The main goal for the current study was to investigate whether individual differences in domain-general thinking dispositions might affect learning from multiple-document inquiry tasks in science. Middle school students were given a set of documents and were tasked with understanding how and why recent patterns in global temperature might be…
"What's going on in this picture?" With this one question and a carefully chosen work of art, teachers can start their students down a path toward deeper learning and other skills now encouraged by the Common Core State Standards. The Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) teaching method has been successfully implemented in schools,…
Abed, Mohaned Ghazi
Inculcating positive thinking can act as a valuable tool in enhancing the overall self-concept of children with learning disabilities. The value of positive psychology is recognized as the basis for recent research conducted in the field of strength development. Positive psychology is centered on the view that individual lives can be improved by…
Bower, Matt; Highfield, Kate; Furney, Pam; Mowbray, Lee
This paper explains a development and evaluation project aimed at transforming two pre-service teacher education programmes at Macquarie University to more effectively cultivate students' technology-enabled learning design thinking. The process of transformation was based upon an explicit and sustained focus on developing university academics'…
Lennon, Sean M.
A working paper on how to use common E-Learning platforms to incorporate critical thinking and reflection into traditional and hybrid formatted curriculums. Definitions and conceptual framework of both constructs are discussed and their benefits towards cognitions and reflection are highlighted. Best practices, including examples of previous…
Anggrianto, Desi; Churiyah, Madziatul; Arief, Mohammad
This research was conducted in order to know the effect of Logan Avenue Problem Solving (LAPS)-Heuristic learning model towards critical thinking skills of students of class X Office Administration (APK) in SMK Negeri 1 Ngawi, East Java, Indonesia on material curve and equilibrium of demand and supply, subject Introduction to Economics and…
Duran, Meltem; Dökme, Ilbilge
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of an activity set developed according to the inquiry-based learning (IBL) approach in the unit "Particulate Structure of Matter" on students' critical-thinking skills in science and technology courses. The study was conducted with 90 students from the 6th grade attending four, 6th…
The current study investigates the relationship between critical thinking skills and learning styles of mentally gifted students. The participants were 225 gifted students in Turkey attending Science and Art Centres which are after-school activity centers for mentally gifted students. Participants were 9-15 years old and were attending secondary…
Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui sebagai berikutrespon belajar karena penerapan model Contextual Teaching And Learning dibandingkan dengan Think Pair Share terhadap hasil belajar perawatan PC siswa kelas X TKJ. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen semu (quasi eksperimen. Populasi penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswa kelas X SMK Negeri 3 Malang. Sampel ditentukan kelas X TKJ 3 dengan perlakuan model Contextual Teaching And Learning dan kelas X TKJ 1 dengan perlakuan model pembelajaran Think Pair Share. Instrumen pengukuran hasil belajar meliputi penilaian test, rubrik afektif, dan rubrik psikomotor yang sebelumnya dilakukan uji validasi instrumen. Teknik analisis data menggunakan uji-t berbantuan SPSS 20 yang digunakan untuk mengetahui respon belajar terhadap hasil belajar yaitu regresi linear sederhana untuk mengetahui besar sumbangan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dan analisis data yang dilakukan. Terdapat sumbangan respon belajar penerapan model pembelajaran Contextual Teaching and Learning sebesar 71,5%, sedangkan sumbangan respon belajar penerapan model pembelajaran Think Pair Share sebesar 67,8%. Dari besarnya persentase diketahui bahwa respon belajar siswa terhadap penerapan model Contextual Teaching And Learning lebih tinggi dari pada respon belajar siswa terhadap penerapan model pembelajaran Think Pair Share.
Aldig, Ebru; Arseven, Ayla
This study aims to examine teacher's opinions on the contribution of learning outcomes for listening defined in the Ministry of National Education's Turkish course curriculum for the 6th, 7th and 8th grades to the development of creative thinking skills. Mixed methods research design was adopted in the study. As the quantitative part of the study,…
Nisa, E. K.; Koestiari, T.; Habibbulloh, M.; Jatmiko, Budi
This research aimed to describe the effectiveness of guided inquiry learning model to improve students' critical thinking skills. Subjects in the research were 90 students at three groups of senior high school grade X on Tarik (Indonesia), which follows a physics lesson on static fluid material in academic year 2016/2017. The research was used one group pre-test and post-test design. Before and after being given physics learning with guided discovery learning model, students in the three groups were given the same test (pre-test and post-test). The results of this research showed: 1) there is an increased score of students' critical thinking skills in each group on α = 5%; 2) average N-gain of students' critical thinking skills of each group is a high category; and 3) average N-gain of the three groups did not differ. The conclusion of this research is that learning model of guided inquiry effective to improve students' critical thinking skills.
.... With the goal of achieving robustness, our research at UCR is directed towards learning parameters, feedback, contexts, features, concepts, and strategies of IU algorithms for model-based object recognition...
Schmitz, Birgit; Czauderna, André; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus
Schmitz, B., Czauderna, A., Klemke, R., & Specht, M. (2011). Game based learning for computer science education. In G. van der Veer, P. B. Sloep, & M. van Eekelen (Eds.), Computer Science Education Research Conference (CSERC '11) (pp. 81-86). Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit.
The personal computer is sparking a major historical change in the way people learn, a change that could lead to the disappearance of formal education as we know it. The computer can help resolve many of the difficulties now crippling education by enabling expert teachers and curriculum developers to prepare interactive and individualized…
Su Ting Yong; Ian Harrison; Peter Gates
The aim of this study was to explore how university foundation students perceive the use of digital games in learning mathematics. Data was collected using an online questionnaire and 209 foundation university students participated in this study. The questionnaire was used to explore students’ gaming experience and students’ attitude towards mathematics learning with digital games. It was found that most of the university foundation students liked to play different types of digital games. ...
Berta, Whitney; Cranley, Lisa; Dearing, James W; Dogherty, Elizabeth J; Squires, Janet E; Estabrooks, Carole A
Facilitation is a guided interactional process that has been popularized in health care. Its popularity arises from its potential to support uptake and application of scientific knowledge that stands to improve clinical and managerial decision-making, practice, and ultimately patient outcomes and organizational performance. While this popular concept has garnered attention in health services research, we know that both the content of facilitation and its impact on knowledge implementation vary. The basis of this variation is poorly understood, and understanding is hampered by a lack of conceptual clarity. In this paper, we argue that our understanding of facilitation and its effects is limited in part by a lack of clear theoretical grounding. We propose a theoretical home for facilitation in organizational learning theory. Referring to extant literature on facilitation and drawing on theoretical literature, we discuss the features of facilitation that suggest its role in contributing to learning capacity. We describe how facilitation may contribute to generating knowledge about the application of new scientific knowledge in health-care organizations. Facilitation's promise, we suggest, lies in its potential to stimulate higher-order learning in organizations through experimenting with, generating learning about, and sustaining small-scale adaptations to organizational processes and work routines. The varied effectiveness of facilitation observed in the literature is associated with the presence or absence of factors known to influence organizational learning, since facilitation itself appears to act as a learning mechanism. We offer propositions regarding the relationships between facilitation processes and key organizational learning concepts that have the potential to guide future work to further our understanding of the role that facilitation plays in learning and knowledge generation.
Gordon, Frances; Booth, Karen; Bywater, Helen
E-learning is seen as offering possible solutions to the barriers of large scale interprofessional education. This paper discusses a study that explored the underlying pedagogical thinking employed by lecturers when planning e-learning materials for interprofessional education. The themes uncovered in the data were: "reflective spaces for creativity"; "from logistics to learner autonomy"; "authentic"; "constructivist approaches"; "inter-active learning to promote collaboration" and "bringing the patient/service user into the classroom". Discussions about e-learning can focus on the technological aspects of design and delivery. However the findings of this study revealed that technology was not a consideration for the lecturers who saw e-learning as a vehicle to promote interactive learning. Their prime focus was revealed as the application of learning theory to the design of materials that would support students' acquisition of collaborative skills and the generation of new interprofessional knowledge.
R. Poppy Yaniawati
Full Text Available The role of technology integration on modern learning is essential to optimize the acceleration process in Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS. This research describes how to implement e-learning to improve HOTS of students and students’ attitude toward e-learning of mathematics, pre- learning students knowledge, duration of login in website, and correlation of variables with HOTS. There is a significant correlation between pre-learning knowledge and students’ HOTS, but there is no significant correlation between students’ HOTS and students’ attitude toward e-learning of mathematics. There is a significant correlation between login duration and students attitude toward e-learning of mathematics. No significant correlation is found between login duration and students’ HOTS.
Marshall, Teresa A; Marchini, Leonardo; Cowen, Howard; Hartshorn, Jennifer E; Holloway, Julie A; Straub-Morarend, Cheryl L; Gratton, David; Solow, Catherine M; Colangelo, Nicholas; Johnsen, David C
Critical thinking skills are essential for the successful dentist, yet few explicit skillsets in critical thinking have been developed and published in peer-reviewed literature. The aims of this article are to 1) offer an assessable critical thinking teaching model with the expert's thought process as the outcome, learning guide, and assessment instrument and 2) offer three critical thinking skillsets following this model: for geriatric risk assessment, technology decision making, and situation analysis/reflections. For the objective component, the student demonstrates delivery of each step in the thought process. For the subjective component, the student is judged to have grasped the principles as applied to the patient or case. This article describes the framework and the results of pilot tests in which students in one year at this school used the model in the three areas, earning scores of 90% or above on the assessments. The model was thus judged to be successful for students to demonstrate critical thinking skillsets in the course settings. Students consistently delivered each step of the thought process and were nearly as consistent in grasping the principles behind each step. As more critical thinking skillsets are implemented, a reinforcing network develops.
Chen, Wei James; Krajbich, Ian
Models of reinforcement learning (RL) are prevalent in the decision-making literature, but not all behavior seems to conform to the gradual convergence that is a central feature of RL. In some cases learning seems to happen all at once. Limited prior research on these "epiphanies" has shown evidence of sudden changes in behavior, but it remains unclear how such epiphanies occur. We propose a sequential-sampling model of epiphany learning (EL) and test it using an eye-tracking experiment. In the experiment, subjects repeatedly play a strategic game that has an optimal strategy. Subjects can learn over time from feedback but are also allowed to commit to a strategy at any time, eliminating all other options and opportunities to learn. We find that the EL model is consistent with the choices, eye movements, and pupillary responses of subjects who commit to the optimal strategy (correct epiphany) but not always of those who commit to a suboptimal strategy or who do not commit at all. Our findings suggest that EL is driven by a latent evidence accumulation process that can be revealed with eye-tracking data.
Luna, Melissa Jo
Children naturally use observations and everyday thinking to construct explanations as to why phenomena happen in the world. Science instruction can benefit by starting with these ideas to help children build coherent scientific understandings of how the physical world works. To do so, science teaching must involve attending to students' ideas so that those ideas become the basis for learning. Yet while science education reform requires teachers to pay close attention to their students' ideas, we know little about what teachers think this means in practice. To examine this issue, my dissertation research is two-fold. First, I examine teacher thinking by investigating how teachers understand what it means to pay attention to students' science ideas. Specifically, using new digital technology, three participating teachers captured moments of student thinking in the midst of instruction. Analysis of these moments reveals that teachers capture many different kinds of moments containing students' ideas and think about students' science ideas in different ways at different times. In particular, these three teachers most often think about students' ideas as being (a) from authority, (b) from experience, and (c) under construction. Second, I examine teacher learning through the development of an innovative science teaching video club model. The model differs from previous research on video clubs in several key ways in an attempt to focus teachers on student thinking in a sustained way. I investigate the ways in which this model was effective for engaging teachers in noticing and making sense of their students' science ideas during one implementation. Results indicate that teachers talked about student thinking early, often, and in meaningful ways. Science education leaders have recognized the potential of science teaching video clubs as a form of professional development, and the model presented in this work promotes the conditions for successful teacher learning. This
Norhaslinda Abdul Samad
Full Text Available The young generation of today must be prepared with the knowledge and skills necessary to be able to compete globally thus boosting economic growth and prosperity. Therefore, students should not only be equipped with knowledge but they are in need of the “21st century skills”, which is the top priority and one of the main education agenda goals today. As one of the domains in the 21st century skills, inventive thinking includes elements of flexibility, self-regulation, curiosity, creativity, risk taking, higher order thinking and reasoning. In order to inculcate inventive thinking for students, the EkSTEMiT Learning Module was developed for the topic Electrochemistry; one of the most difficult topics to learn among students. EkSTEMiT Learning Module was developed based on the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics integrated model. Thus, this paper will discuss the conceptual framework underlying the development of EkSTEMiT Learning Module with descriptions of learning activities designed for Electrochemistry.
As the amount of information available in online digital libraries increases exponentially, questions arise concerning the most productive way to use that information to advance learning. Applying the earlier information seeking theories advocated by Kelly (1963), Taylor (1968), and Belkin (1980) to the digital libraries experience, Carol Kuhlthau…
Su Ting Yong
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore how university foundation students perceive the use of digital games in learning mathematics. Data was collected using an online questionnaire and 209 foundation university students participated in this study. The questionnaire was used to explore students’ gaming experience and students’ attitude towards mathematics learning with digital games. It was found that most of the university foundation students liked to play different types of digital games. Males preferred playing digital games in more traditional male genres namely sport, racing, shooter, action adventure, role play and strategy games. As for females, they generally preferred playing puzzle and simulation games. Astonishingly, the foundation students were not very positive towards the use of digital games in learning mathematics, and their attitude was essentially influenced by their mathematics interest. Students with greater interest in mathematics were more likely to support the use of digital games in learning.
Stephens, Ana C.; Fonger, Nicole; Strachota, Susanne; Isler, Isil; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric; Murphy Gardiner, Angela
In this article we advance characterizations of and supports for elementary students' progress in generalizing and representing functional relationships as part of a comprehensive approach to early algebra. Our learning progressions approach to early algebra research involves the coordination of a curricular framework and progression, an…
The article will argue that Charles Sanders Peirce's concepts of the "Dynamics of Belief and Doubt", the "Fixation of Belief" as well as "habits of belief" taken together comprise a theory of learning. The "dynamics of belief and doubt" are Peirce's explanation for the process of changing from one belief to another. Teaching, then, would be an…
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of reading assignment in guided inquiry learning on senior high school students’ critical thinking skills. The research method which was used in this research was quasi-experiment research method with reading task as the treatment. Topic of inquiry process was Kirchhoff law. The instrument was used for this research was 25 multiple choice interpretive exercises with justification. The multiple choice test was divided on 3 categories such as involve basic clarification, the bases for a decision and inference skills. The result of significance test proved the improvement of students’ critical thinking skills of experiment class was significantly higher when compared with the control class, so it could be concluded that reading assignment can improve students’ critical thinking skills.
Autapao, Kanyarat; Minwong, Panthul
Creative thinking was an important learning skill in the 21st Century via learning and innovation to promote students' creative thinking and working with others and to construct innovation. This is one of the important skills that determine the readiness of the participants to step into the complex society. The purposes of this research were 1) to compare the learning achievement of students after using basic character design and animation concepts using the flipped learning and project-based learning and 2) to make a comparison students' creative thinking between pretest and posttest. The populations were 29 students in Multimedia Technology program at Thepsatri Rajabhat University in the 2nd semester of the academic year 2016. The experimental instruments were lesson plans of basic character design and animation concepts using the flipped learning and project based learning. The data collecting instrument was creative thinking test. The data were analyzed by the arithmetic mean, standard deviation and The Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed-Ranks Test. The results of this research were 1) the learning achievement of students were statistically significance of .01 level and 2) the mean score of student's creativity assessment were statistically significance of .05 level. When considering all of 11 KPIs, showed that respondents' post-test mean scores higher than pre-test. And 5 KPIs were statistically significance of .05 level, consist of Originality, Fluency, Elaboration, Resistance to Premature Closure, and Intrinsic Motivation. It's were statistically significance of .042, .004, .049, .024 and .015 respectively. And 6 KPIs were non-statistically significant, include of Flexibility, Tolerance of Ambiguity, Divergent Thinking, Convergent Thinking, Risk Taking, and Extrinsic Motivation. The findings revealed that the flipped learning and project based learning provided students the freedom to simply learn on their own aptitude. When working together with project
Forbus, Kenneth D; Gentner, Dedre
We agree with Lake et al.'s trenchant analysis of deep learning systems, including that they are highly brittle and that they need vastly more examples than do people. We also agree that human cognition relies heavily on structured relational representations. However, we differ in our analysis of human cognitive processing. We argue that (1) analogical comparison processes are central to human cognition; and (2) intuitive physical knowledge is captured by qualitative representations, rather than quantitative simulations.
Grover, Shuchi; Pea, Roy; Cooper, Stephen
The focus of this research was to create and test an introductory computer science course for middle school. Titled "Foundations for Advancing Computational Thinking" (FACT), the course aims to prepare and motivate middle school learners for future engagement with algorithmic problem solving. FACT was also piloted as a seven-week course on Stanford's OpenEdX MOOC platform for blended in-class learning. Unique aspects of FACT include balanced pedagogical designs that address the cognitive, interpersonal, and intrapersonal aspects of "deeper learning"; a focus on pedagogical strategies for mediating and assessing for transfer from block-based to text-based programming; curricular materials for remedying misperceptions of computing; and "systems of assessments" (including formative and summative quizzes and tests, directed as well as open-ended programming assignments, and a transfer test) to get a comprehensive picture of students' deeper computational learning. Empirical investigations, accomplished over two iterations of a design-based research effort with students (aged 11-14 years) in a public school, sought to examine student understanding of algorithmic constructs, and how well students transferred this learning from Scratch to text-based languages. Changes in student perceptions of computing as a discipline were measured. Results and mixed-method analyses revealed that students in both studies (1) achieved substantial learning gains in algorithmic thinking skills, (2) were able to transfer their learning from Scratch to a text-based programming context, and (3) achieved significant growth toward a more mature understanding of computing as a discipline. Factor analyses of prior computing experience, multivariate regression analyses, and qualitative analyses of student projects and artifact-based interviews were conducted to better understand the factors affecting learning outcomes. Prior computing experiences (as measured by a pretest) and math ability were
Online gaming has become a very popular leisure activity among adolescents. Research suggests that a small minority of adolescents may display problematic gaming behaviour and that some of these individuals may be addicted to online games, including those who have learning disabilities. This article begins by examining a case study of a 15-year old adolescent with a learning disability who appeared to be addicted to various computer and internet applications. Despite the potential negative ef...
Caspersen, Michael E.; Nowack, Palle
Internationally, there is a growing awareness on the necessity of providing relevant computing education in schools, particularly high schools. We present a new and generic approach to Computing in Danish High Schools based on a conceptual framework derived from ideas related to computational thi...
Prayogi, S.; Yuanita, L.; Wasis
This study aimed to develop Critical-Inquiry-Based-Learning (CIBL) learning model to promote critical thinking (CT) ability of preservice teachers. The CIBL learning model was developed by meeting the criteria of validity, practicality, and effectiveness. Validation of the model involves 4 expert validators through the mechanism of the focus group discussion (FGD). CIBL learning model declared valid to promote CT ability, with the validity level (Va) of 4.20 and reliability (r) of 90,1% (very reliable). The practicality of the model was evaluated when it was implemented that involving 17 of preservice teachers. The CIBL learning model had been declared practice, its measuring from learning feasibility (LF) with very good criteria (LF-score = 4.75). The effectiveness of the model was evaluated from the improvement CT ability after the implementation of the model. CT ability were evaluated using the scoring technique adapted from Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test. The average score of CT ability on pretest is - 1.53 (uncritical criteria), whereas on posttest is 8.76 (critical criteria), with N-gain score of 0.76 (high criteria). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that developed CIBL learning model is feasible to promote CT ability of preservice teachers.
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh model pembelajaran Learning Cycle-7E Â yang dapat meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa dan menuntaskan hasil belajar siswa SMPN 21 Semarang terhadap matapelajaran IPA. Penelitian PTK ini dilaksanakan dalam dua siklus. Siklus pertama belum menunjukkan peningkatan yang maksimum. Aktivitas bertanya kepada guru, keseriusan melaksanakan tugas, dan persiapan dalam mengikuti pelajaran masih pada kategori sedang. Ketuntasan belajar secara individual dan klasikal belum memenuhi kriteria yang ditetapkan. Oleh sebab itu, aktivitas ini menjadi fokus perbaikan pada siklus berikutnya. Hasil pada siklus ke-dua menunjukkan peningkatan yang signifikan. Kemampuan berpikir kritis telah tumbuh, aktivitas bertanya pada guru dan keseriusan dalam melaksanakan tugas meningkat pada kategori tinggi. Ketuntasan belajar klasikal sebesar 79%, melebihi kriteria keberhasilan tindakan yang ditetapkan pada penelitian ini yaitu sebesar 75%. Hal ini berarti bahwa model pembelajaran Learning Cycle-7E dapat meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa, tanpa mengganggu hasil belajar kognitifnya.Â This research aimed to increase the studentsâ€™ critical thinking by designing Learning Cycle- 7E which is suitable with the criteria set out in SJHS 21 Semarang. Thisclassroom action research was carried out in two cycles. In cycle-I, the studentsâ€™ critical thinking was growing but not maximum, their activity during learning process was in medium category. That is why there were several aspects of studentsâ€™ activity that need to be investigated. They were the studentsâ€™courage to ask the teacher, their seriousness to do the assignments, and their readiness to learn as well as to prepare a question prior learning. The studentsâ€™ average cognitive learning outcomes and the classical learning outcomes were not very satisfied. The result of the cycle-II showed a significant improvements. The students
Sari, P. P.; Budiyono; Slamet, I.
Geometry, a branch of mathematics, has an important role in mathematics learning. This research aims to find out the effect of learning model, emotional intelligence, and the interaction between learning model and emotional intelligence toward students’ mathematics achievement. This research is quasi-experimental research with 2 × 3 factorial design. The sample in this research included 179 Senior High School students on 11th grade in Sukoharjo Regency, Central Java, Indonesia in academic year of 2016/2017. The sample was taken by using stratified cluster random sampling. The results showed that: the student are taught by Thinking Aloud Pairs Problem-Solving using HOTs questions provides better mathematics learning achievement than Make A Match using HOTs questions. High emotional intelligence students have better mathematics learning achievement than moderate and low emotional intelligence students, and moderate emotional intelligence students have better mathematics learning achievement than low emotional intelligence students. There is an interaction between learning model and emotional intelligence, and these affect mathematics learning achievement. We conclude that appropriate learning model can support learning activities become more meaningful and facilitate students to understand material. For further research, we suggest to explore the contribution of other aspects in cooperative learning modification to mathematics achievement.
Full Text Available This research aims to investigate effect of learning using natural product mini project laboratory on students’ critical thinking skills. The research was conducted on sixth semester of 59 students of chemistry and chemistry education program from one of the state universities in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia in 2012/2013. This research revealed class where the student learn using natural product mini project laboratory had more critical thinking skills than those using verification laboratory. The average n-gain of critical thinking skills for experiment class was 0.58 while for the control class was 0.37. The highest n-gain in the experiment class was 0.70 for “deciding on an action (selecting criteria to judge possible solutions indicators”, while the smallest n-gain was 0.47 for “the making and judging value of judgments (balancing, weighing, and deciding indicators. We concluded that the natural product mini project laboratory was better than verification laboratory in improving the students’ critical thinking skills.
Akmam, A.; Anshari, R.; Amir, H.; Jalinus, N.; Amran, A.
Misconception is one of the factors causing students are not suitable in to choose a method for problem solving. Computational Physics course is a major subject in the Department of Physics FMIPA UNP Padang. The problem in Computational Physics learning lately is that students have difficulties in constructing knowledge. The indication of this problem was the student learning outcomes do not achieve mastery learning. The root of the problem is the ability of students to think critically weak. Student critical thinking can be improved using cognitive by conflict learning strategies. The research aims to determine the effect of cognitive conflict learning strategy to student misconception on the subject of Computational Physics Course at the Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Padang. The experimental research design conducted after-before design cycles with a sample of 60 students by cluster random sampling. Data were analyzed using repeated Anova measurements. The cognitive conflict learning strategy has a significant effect on student misconception in the subject of Computational Physics Course.
Eisler, Matthew N
Historians of science and technology have generally ignored the role of power sources in the development of consumer electronics. In this they have followed the predilections of historical actors. Research, development, and manufacturing of batteries has historically occurred at a social and intellectual distance from the research, development, and manufacturing of the devices they power. Nevertheless, power source technoscience should properly be understood as an allied yet estranged field of electronics. The separation between the fields has had important consequences for the design and manufacturing of mobile consumer electronics. This paper explores these dynamics in the co-construction of notebook batteries and computers. In so doing, it challenges assumptions of historians and industrial engineers and planners about the nature of computer systems in particular and the development of technological systems. The co-construction of notebook computers and batteries, and the occasional catastrophic failure of their compatibility, challenges systems thinking more generally.
Looks, Moshe; Herreshoff, Marcello; Hutchins, DeLesley; Norvig, Peter
Neural networks that compute over graph structures are a natural fit for problems in a variety of domains, including natural language (parse trees) and cheminformatics (molecular graphs). However, since the computation graph has a different shape and size for every input, such networks do not directly support batched training or inference. They are also difficult to implement in popular deep learning libraries, which are based on static data-flow graphs. We introduce a technique called dynami...
Hung, David Wei Loong; Chen, Der-Thanq
A framework, termed the RSP, is proposed. It is mainly for analyzing and explaining how learning occurs. This framework is grounded in the social-cultural perspective, in particular, in the thinking of both Vygotsky and Popper. Although the thinking of Popper is generally not referred to as having a social-cultural orientation, mostly due to…
Full Text Available The students in the vocational education of architecture design in Taiwan often face many learning obstacles, such as no problem solving ability and lack of creativity. Therefore, this study used a social learning model as a learning strategy in the architecture design learning process to solve related learning difficulties. Firstly, this study used cognitive development teaching activities and a learning process based on analogical thinking and analogical reasoning to build the social learning model. Secondly, the social learning model of this study was implemented in the teaching of a required course of architecture design for 120 freshmen in China University of Technology. The questionnaire survey results were then statically analyzed and compared to measure the differences in the students’ knowledge about architecture designs before and after the teaching in this study. In this study, the social learning model is proven helpful in inspiring the students’ creativity by converting new knowledge of architecture design into schemas and hence retaining the new knowledge for future application. The social learning model can be applied in the teaching of architecture design in other schools, while more research can be conducted in the future to further confirm its feasibility to promote effective learning.
Harman, Tara; Bertrand, Brenda; Greer, Annette; Pettus, Arianna; Jennings, Jill; Wall-Bassett, Elizabeth; Babatunde, Oyinlola Toyin
The vision of dietetics professions is based on interdependent education, credentialing, and practice. Case-based learning is a method of problem-based learning that is designed to heighten higher-order thinking. Case-based learning can assist students to connect education and specialized practice while developing professional skills for entry-level practice in nutrition and dietetics. This study examined student perspectives of their learning after immersion into case-based learning in nutrition courses. The theoretical frameworks of phenomenology and Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives triangulated the design of this qualitative study. Data were drawn from 426 written responses and three focus group discussions among 85 students from three upper-level undergraduate nutrition courses. Coding served to deconstruct the essence of respondent meaning given to case-based learning as a learning method. The analysis of the coding was the constructive stage that led to configuration of themes and theoretical practice pathways about student learning. Four leading themes emerged. Story or Scenario represents the ways that students described case-based learning, changes in student thought processes to accommodate case-based learning are illustrated in Method of Learning, higher cognitive learning that was achieved from case-based learning is represented in Problem Solving, and Future Practice details how students explained perceived professional competency gains from case-based learning. The skills that students acquired are consistent with those identified as essential to professional practice. In addition, the common concept of Big Picture was iterated throughout the themes and demonstrated that case-based learning prepares students for multifaceted problems that they are likely to encounter in professional practice. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Demirci, Cavide; Düzenli, Halil
Think-Pair-Share (TPS) activities in classrooms provide an opportunity for students to revise, practice and reproduce previously learned knowledge. Teachers also benefit from this active learning strategy by exploiting new learning materials, saving time by minimizing presentations and using it as a formative assessment tool. This article explores…
M. Akhyar Lubis
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze whether the results of science process skills of students. Who are taught by the teaching model scientific inquiry better than conventional learning, to analyze whether the results of science process skills of students? Who can think logically high is better than the students who have the potential to think logically low, analyze whether there is an interaction between scientific inquiry learning model with logical thinking skills to students' science process skills. This research is a quasi-experimental design with the two-group pretest-posttest design. The study population is all students of class X SMA Negeri 4 Padangsidimpuan semester II academic year 2016/2017. The The research instrument consists of two types: science process skills instrument consists of 10 questions in essay form which has been declared valid and reliable, and the instrument ability to think logically in the form of multiple choice is entirely groundless and complements (combination. The resulting data, analyzed by using two path Anava. The results showed that science process skills of students who are taught by the teaching model scientific inquiry better than conventional learning. Science process skills of students who can think logically high are better than the students who can think logically low, and there is an interaction between learning model scientific inquiry and conventional learning with the ability to think logically to improve students' science process skills.
Full Text Available The study was report the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students’ prior mathematical ability to student’s mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from excellent and moderate school level. The research instruments a set of mathematical critical thinking ability test, and the data were analyzed by using two ways ANOVA and t-test. The research found that the problem based learning approach has significant impact to the ability of students’ mathematics critical thinking in terms of school level and students’ prior mathematical abilities. Furthermore. This research also found that there is no interaction between learning approach and school level, and learning approach and students’ prior mathematics ability to students’ mathematics critical thinking ability.
Kustijono, R.; Zuhri, F.
The purpose of this research is to describe the learning process by using Facebook and WhatsApp to train students’ critical thinking skills. The research steps are: 1) analysis; 2) design; 3) development; 4) implementation; 5) evaluation. The research subjects are 40 students of Physics Department of Universitas Negeri Surabaya. This research used descriptive qualitative approach. The study The validation point, practicality, effectiveness, and critical thinking skills of students assessment use Likert scale. Learning process criteria are eligible if ≥ 60% is rated good or excellent. The results are: 1) the use of Facebook and WhatsApp can be implemented in the learning process, and the existing constraints can be overcome; 2) the assessment of students’ critical thinking skills is categorized as good and excellent. These results suggest that learning by using Facebook and WhatsApp can be used to train students’ critical thinking skills.
Adriaans, P.; Adriaans, P.; van Benthem, J.
In the summer of 1956, a number of scientists gathered at the Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. Their goal was to study human intelligence with the help of computers. Their central hypothesis was: "that every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so
Studies of the impact of various types of computer use on the results of learning and student motivation have indicated that the use of computers can increase learning motivation, and that computers can have a positive effect, a negative effect, or no effect at all on learning outcomes. Some results indicate that it is not computer use itself that…
Lukitasari, M.; Handhika, J.; Murtafiah, W.
The purpose of this research is to describe students' higher-order thinking skills through project-based learning using e-portfolio. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative method. The research instruments used were test, unstructured interview, and documentation. Research subjects were students of mathematics, physics and biology education department who take the Basics Physics course. The result shows that through project-based learning using e-portfolio the students’ ability to: analyze (medium category, N-Gain 0.67), evaluate (medium category, N-Gain 0.51), and create (medium Category, N-Gain 0.44) are improved.
Kriswintari, D.; Yuanita, L.; Widodo, W.
The aim of this study was to develop chemistry learning package using Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) cooperative learning technique to foster students’ thinking skills and social attitudes. The chemistry learning package consisting of lesson plan, handout, students’ worksheet, thinking skill test, and observation sheet of social attitude was developed using the Dick and Carey model. Research subject of this study was chemistry learning package using STAD which was tried out on tenth grade students of SMA Trimurti Surabaya. The tryout was conducted using the one-group pre-test post-test design. Data was collected through observation, test, and questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive qualitative analysis. The findings of this study revealed that the developed chemistry learning package using STAD cooperative learning technique was categorized valid, practice and effective to be implemented in the classroom to foster students’ thinking skill and social attitude.
Nuswowati, M.; Purwanti, E.
The research aims is to find out the effectiveness of critical thinking approach in Chemistry learning especially on hydrolysis and buffer materials. The level of its effectiveness was viewed from the students’ learning outcomes including knowledge, attitude and skill domains. The data were collected through validation sheets, questionnaires and tests, which were then analyzed by using descriptive quantitative method. The first step conducted was validating the module that was going to be used in the learning processes. The students’ learning outcome on knowledge domain was very good, viewed from the classical attainment by 88.63% with N-gain 0.718 with high criteria. It was also viewed from the students’ criticality level in solving the given problems. The result of the study revealed that more than 75% of the students obtained critical and very critical criteria in solving the given problems. The students’ attitudes and skills values were viewed through observation sheets during the learning processes. The result of the observation stated that more than 75% of the students showed good and very good attitudes and skills values. Based on the data, it could be concluded that the module with critical thinking approach was effective to be used on hydrolysis and buffer materials.
Rehmat, Abeera Parvaiz
As we progress into the 21st century, higher-order thinking skills and achievement in science and math are essential to meet the educational requirement of STEM careers. Educators need to think of innovative ways to engage and prepare students for current and future challenges while cultivating an interest among students in STEM disciplines. An instructional pedagogy that can capture students' attention, support interdisciplinary STEM practices, and foster higher-order thinking skills is problem-based learning. Problem-based learning embedded in the social constructivist view of teaching and learning (Savery & Duffy, 1995) promotes self-regulated learning that is enhanced through exploration, cooperative social activity, and discourse (Fosnot, 1996). This quasi-experimental mixed methods study was conducted with 98 fourth grade students. The study utilized STEM content assessments, a standardized critical thinking test, STEM attitude survey, PBL questionnaire, and field notes from classroom observations to investigate the impact of problem-based learning on students' content knowledge, critical thinking, and their attitude towards STEM. Subsequently, it explored students' experiences of STEM integration in a PBL environment. The quantitative results revealed a significant difference between groups in regards to their content knowledge, critical thinking skills, and STEM attitude. From the qualitative results, three themes emerged: learning approaches, increased interaction, and design and engineering implementation. From the overall data set, students described the PBL environment to be highly interactive that prompted them to employ multiple approaches, including design and engineering to solve the problem.
The literature highlights key benefits from debate as a teaching-learning strategy for developing critical thinking and analytical skills while fostering teamwork and communication. Authors report that this method of teaching-learning has been implemented successfully in nursing and occupational therapy programs and would benefit other academic programs in the health sciences, particularly in courses that cover controversial issues. Although there are disadvantages to using the debate as a teaching-learning strategy, the benefits far outweigh the disadvantages. In conclusion, debating is an effective pedagogical strategy because of the level of responsibility for learning and active involvement required by all student debaters. Moreover, it provides an experience by which students can develop competencies in researching current issues, preparing logical arguments, actively listening to various perspectives, differentiating between subjective and evidence-based information, asking cogent questions, integrating relevant information, and formulating their own opinions based on evidence. After the debate is over, students also report that the experience is FUN!
Etheridge, Sharon A
One aim of nursing education is to help students learn to be beginning practitioners, which includes making clinical judgments that ensure patient safety. Clinical judgments often determine how quickly nurses detect a life-threatening complication, how soon patients leave the hospital, or how quickly patients learn to take care of themselves. However, current research shows that new graduates do not perform well when making clinical judgments, despite having graduated from accredited schools of nursing and passing the NCLEX examination. This descriptive, qualitative study examined the perceptions of recent nursing graduates about learning to make clinical judgments. Graduates with baccalaureate degrees in nursing were interviewed three times in 9 months to determine their perceptions of how they learned to think like nurses. The results of this study should be useful in identifying strategies to help new graduates make the transition from students to registered nurses.
Elvi, M.; Nurjanah
This research is distributed on the issue of the lack of visual thinking ability is a must-have basic ability of students in learning geometry. The purpose of this research is to investigate and elucide: 1) the enhancement of visual thinking ability of students to acquire learning assisted with geogebra tutorial learning: 2) the increase in visual thinking ability of students who obtained a model of learning assisted with geogebra and students who obtained a regular study of KAM (high, medium, and low). This research population is grade VII in Bandung Junior High School. The instruments used to collect data in this study consisted of instruments of the test and the observation sheet. The data obtained were analyzed using the test average difference i.e. Test-t and ANOVA Test one line to two lines. The results showed that: 1) the attainment and enhancement of visual thinking ability of students to acquire learning assisted geogebra tutorial better than students who acquire learning; 2) there may be differences of visual upgrade thinking students who acquire the learning model assisted with geogebra tutorial earn regular learning of KAM (high, medium and low).
Sudarmin, S.; Mursiti, S.; Asih, A. G.
In this disruption era, students are encouraged to develop critical thinking skills and important cultural conservation characters. Student's thinking skill in chemistry learning has not been developed because learning chemistry in schools still uses teacher-centered, lecture method, is less interesting and does not utilize local culture as a learning resource. The purpose of this research is to know the influence of the application of direct Instruction (DI) model with video learning of ethnoscience on the improvement of students’ critical thinking skills. This study was experimental research. The population was the students from class XI MIPA MA Negeri Gombong with the sample chosen by purposive random sampling. The material of local wisdom as the study of ethnosciences which was the focus of the research was the production of genting, dawet, lanting, and sempor reservoirs which is integrated with colloidal chemical contents. The learning video of ethnoscience before being applied was validated by experts. Students’ critical thinking skills were revealed through the concept of conceptualizing test instruments. The data analysis technique used was the test of proportion and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The results of this study suggested that the experimental class that was treated by scientific direct instruction model with the learning video of ethnoscience shows cognitive learning and critical thinking which were better than the control class. Besides, the students indicated their interest in the application of scientific direct instruction model with ethnoscience learning video.
The present study examines instructional approaches and cognitive factors involved in elementary school children's thinking and learning the Control of Variables Strategy (CVS), a critical aspect of scientific reasoning. Previous research has identified several features related to effective instruction of CVS, including using a guided learning approach, the use of self-reflective questions, and learning in individual and group contexts. The current study examined the roles of procedural and conceptual instruction in learning CVS and investigated the role of executive function in the learning process. Additionally, this study examined how learning to identify variables is a part of the CVS process. In two studies (individual and classroom experiments), 139 third, fourth, and fifth grade students participated in hands-on and paper and pencil CVS learning activities and, in each study, were assigned to either a procedural instruction, conceptual instruction, or control (no instruction) group. Participants also completed a series of executive function tasks. The study was carried out with two parts--Study 1 used an individual context and Study 2 was carried out in a group setting. Results indicated that procedural and conceptual instruction were more effective than no instruction, and the ability to identify variables was identified as a key piece to the CVS process. Executive function predicted ability to identify variables and predicted success on CVS tasks. Developmental differences were present, in that older children outperformed younger children on CVS tasks, and that conceptual instruction was slightly more effective for older children. Some differences between individual and group instruction were found, with those in the individual context showing some advantage over the those in the group setting in learning CVS concepts. Conceptual implications about scientific thinking and practical implications in science education are discussed.
Wahyu, Wawan; Kurnia, Eli, Rohaeni Nur
The aim of this study is to obtain information about the using Problem-based Learning (PBL) to improve students' creative thinking skills on water purification. The research adopted quasi-experimental method with one group pre-test-post-test design, involving 31students of class XI in one SMK in Cimahi as the subjects of study. The students were divided into three groups categories: high, medium, and low based on the average grades of daily tests. The used instruments in this study were essay, observation sheet, questionnaire (Likert scale), and interview sheet Aspects of creative thinking skills are developed including: fluency, flexibility, originality, detailing (elaborative), and judging (evaluative). To identify the improvement of students' creative thinking skills on water purification, "normalized gain" or of the pre-test and post-test scores was calculated. The results showed that PBL can enhance students' creative thinking skills by means high category (percentage of = 70.12%). This nformation can be used as an input to teachers in the school and teacher education programs.
Sung, Woonhee; Ahn, Junghyun; Black, John B.
A science, technology, engineering, and mathematics-influenced classroom requires learning activities that provide hands-on experiences with technological tools to encourage problem-solving skills (Brophy et al. in "J Eng Educ" 97(3):369-387, 2008; Mataric et al. in "AAAI spring symposium on robots and robot venues: resources for AI…
Munahefi, D. N.; Waluya, S. B.; Rochmad
The purpose of this research identified the effectiveness of Problem Based Learning (PBL) models based on Self Regulation Leaning (SRL) on the ability of mathematical creative thinking and analyzed the ability of mathematical creative thinking of high school students in solving mathematical problems. The population of this study was students of grade X SMA N 3 Klaten. The research method used in this research was sequential explanatory. Quantitative stages with simple random sampling technique, where two classes were selected randomly as experimental class was taught with the PBL model based on SRL and control class was taught with expository model. The selection of samples at the qualitative stage was non-probability sampling technique in which each selected 3 students were high, medium, and low academic levels. PBL model with SRL approach effectived to students’ mathematical creative thinking ability. The ability of mathematical creative thinking of low academic level students with PBL model approach of SRL were achieving the aspect of fluency and flexibility. Students of academic level were achieving fluency and flexibility aspects well. But the originality of students at the academic level was not yet well structured. Students of high academic level could reach the aspect of originality.
Gao, Wei; Zhu, Linli
The gradient learning model has been raising great attention in view of its promising perspectives for applications in statistics, data dimensionality reducing, and other specific fields. In this paper, we raise a new gradient learning model for ontology similarity measuring and ontology mapping in multidividing setting. The sample error in this setting is given by virtue of the hypothesis space and the trick of ontology dividing operator. Finally, two experiments presented on plant and humanoid robotics field verify the efficiency of the new computation model for ontology similarity measure and ontology mapping applications in multidividing setting. PMID:25530752
Full Text Available The gradient learning model has been raising great attention in view of its promising perspectives for applications in statistics, data dimensionality reducing, and other specific fields. In this paper, we raise a new gradient learning model for ontology similarity measuring and ontology mapping in multidividing setting. The sample error in this setting is given by virtue of the hypothesis space and the trick of ontology dividing operator. Finally, two experiments presented on plant and humanoid robotics field verify the efficiency of the new computation model for ontology similarity measure and ontology mapping applications in multidividing setting.
Shutimarrungson, Werayut; Pumipuntu, Sangkom; Noirid, Surachet
This research aimed to develop a model of e-learning by using Problem-Based Learning--PBL to develop thinking skills for students in Rajabhat University. The research is divided into three phases through the e-learning model via PBL with Constructivism approach as follows: Phase 1 was to study characteristics and factors through the model to…
Full Text Available Computer applications developed to support learning in the cognitive domains are quite different from commercial transaction processing applications. The unique nature of such applications calls for different methods for evaluating their usability...
Full Text Available This paper was mainly intended to shed light on students‘ response towards the implementation of Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL in Reading and Writing subject, and explore its benefits for enhancing critical thinking skills from students‘perspectives in ELT context. This research was conducted through a qualitative case study approach. Three students of graduate program were purposively selected to be the participants. Data were gathered primarily from observation notes and interviews, and then further analyzed using interractive model analysis as proposed by Miles & Huberman (1994. The findings demonstrate that students have good responses towards the implementation of IBL. Moreover, IBL is beneficial to make students become more self-directed, selfdisciplined, self-monitored thinkers. Through IBL, students develop their critical thinking abilities: 1 raise vital questions and problems; 2 gather and assess relevant information; 3 drawing well-reasoned conclusions; and 4 communicate effectively with others to seek solution to complex problems.
Kreijns, C.J.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.M.G.
There is much positive research on computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments in asynchronous distributed learning groups (DLGs). There is also research that shows that contemporary CSCL environments do not completely fulfil expectations on supporting interactive group learning,
Afthina, H.; Mardiyana; Pramudya, I.
This research aims to determine the impact of mathematics learning applying Think Pair Share (TPS) using Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) viewed from mathematical-logical intelligence in geometry learning. Method that used in this research is quasi experimental research The result of this research shows that (1) mathematics achievement applying TPS using RME approach gives a better result than those applying direct learning model; (2) students with high mathematical-logical intelligence can reach a better mathematics achievement than those with average and low one, whereas students with average mathematical-logical intelligence can reach a better achievement than those with low one; (3) there is no interaction between learning model and the level of students’ mathematical-logical intelligence in giving a mathematics achievement. The impact of this research is that TPS model using RME approach can be applied in mathematics learning so that students can learn more actively and understand the material more, and mathematics learning become more meaningful. On the other hand, internal factors of students must become a consideration toward the success of students’ mathematical achievement particularly in geometry material.
Havsteen, Inger; Christensen, Anders; Nielsen, Jens K
BACKGROUND: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is widely available in emergency rooms to assess acute stroke patients. To standardize readings and educate new readers, we developed a 3-step e-learning tool based on the test-teach-retest methodology in 2 acute stroke scenarios: vascular...... occlusion and "spot sign" in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. We hypothesized that an e-learning program enhances reading skills in physicians of varying experience. METHODS: We developed an HTML-based program with a teaching segment and 2 matching test segments. Tests were taken before and after...... sign correctly 69% before versus 92% after teaching (P = .009) and reported a median self-perceived diagnostic certainty of 50% versus 75% (P = .030). Self-perceived diagnostic certainty revealed no significant increase for vascular occlusion. CONCLUSIONS: The e-learning program is a useful educational...
The study investigated the effects of using the problem of the week in teaching (POWT) on teachers' learning and changes in knowledge and teaching skills, in algebraic thinking and algebra tasks, in the setting of a university mathematics education graduate program. The graduate students participated in learning POWT weekly in a mathematics…
Madsen, Lene Møller; Rump, Camilla Østerberg
be studied. We empirically analyse students’ learning processes and the influences of teaching practice in an introductory course in GIS. We show that students have different strategies for creating their personal instrument for spatial thinking and how teaching interacts with the students’ learning...
Zabit, Mohd Nazir Md
This review forms the background to explore and to gain empirical support among lecturers to improve the students' critical thinking skills in business education courses in Malaysia, in which the main teaching and learning methodology is Problem-Based Learning (PBL). The PBL educational approach is known to have maximum positive impacts in…
Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Wu, Wan-Chi I.
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of Digital storytelling (DST) on the academic achievement, critical thinking, and learning motivation of senior high school students learning English as a foreign language. The one-year study adopted a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design involving 110 10th grade students in two English…
Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei
This study examined whether students studying literature in complementary learning clusters would show more improvement in medical humanities literacy, critical thinking skills, and English proficiency compared to those in conventional learning clusters. Ninety-three students participated in the study (M age = 18.2 years, SD = 0.4; 36 men, 57 women). A quasi-experimental design was used over 16 weeks, with the control group (n = 47) working in conventional learning clusters and the experimental group (n = 46) working in complementary learning clusters. Complementary learning clusters were those in which individuals had complementary strengths enabling them to learn from and offer assistance to other cluster members, hypothetically facilitating the learning process. Measures included the Medical Humanities Literacy Scale, Critical Thinking Disposition Assessment, English proficiency tests, and Analytic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric. The results showed that complementary learning clusters have the potential to improve students' medical humanities literacy, critical thinking skills, and English proficiency. © The Author(s) 2016.
Ching, Hii Sii; Fook, Fong Soon
This study investigated the effects of graphic novels on the critical thinking skills in history learning among 291 Secondary Two students in three secondary schools in Malaysia. This research consisted of two parts, namely, development and evaluation. In the first part, the multimedia learning material entitled "Japanese Occupation of Malaya…
Hendricson, William D; Andrieu, Sandra C; Chadwick, D Gregory; Chmar, Jacqueline E; Cole, James R; George, Mary C; Glickman, Gerald N; Glover, Joel F; Goldberg, Jerold S; Haden, N Karl; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Neumann, Laura; Pyle, Marsha; Tedesco, Lisa A; Valachovic, Richard W; Weaver, Richard G; Winder, Ronald L; Young, Stephen K; Kalkwarf, Kenneth L
This article was developed for the Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education (CCI), established by the American Dental Education Association. CCI was created because numerous organizations within organized dentistry and the educational community have initiated studies or proposed modifications to the process of dental education, often working to achieve positive and desirable goals but without coordination or communication. The fundamental mission of CCI is to serve as a focal meeting place where dental educators and administrators, representatives from organized dentistry, the dental licensure community, the Commission on Dental Accreditation, the ADA Council on Dental Education and Licensure, and the Joint Commission on National Dental Examinations can meet and coordinate efforts to improve dental education and the nation's oral health. One of the objectives of the CCI is to provide guidance to dental schools related to curriculum design. In pursuit of that objective, this article summarizes the evidence related to this question: What are educational best practices for helping dental students acquire the capacity to function as an entry-level general dentist or to be a better candidate to begin advanced studies? Three issues are addressed, with special emphasis on the third: 1) What constitutes expertise, and when does an individual become an expert? 2) What are the differences between novice and expert thinking? and 3) What educational best practices can help our students acquire mental capacities associated with expert function, including critical thinking and self-directed learning? The purpose of this review is to provide a benchmark that faculty and academic planners can use to assess the degree to which their curricula include learning experiences associated with development of problem-solving, critical thinking, self-directed learning, and other cognitive skills necessary for dental school graduates to ultimately become expert performers as
Guy, Richard; Byrne, Bruce; Dobos, Marian
A simple "stop think" approach was developed to encourage the self-assessment of learning. A key element was the requirement for students to rate their feeling of difficulty before [FOD (pre) ] and after [FOD (post) ] completing each of three authentic anatomy and physiology concept map exercises. The cohort was divided into low- (group L) and high-performing (group H) groups (based on final subject marks). Both FOD (pre) (group L) and FOD (post) (groups L and H) were significantly negatively correlated with score for some maps. A comparison of FOD (pre) and FOD (post) showed that students changed their mind about difficulty in 58-70% of the completed maps. Students who changed their estimation were asked to provide explanatory comments, and an increase in difficulty was related to problems with map link generation. For students who found the maps easier, 40% of comments indicated that map generation prompted recall of information from memory. Both difficulty estimations and comments supported the contention that students were self-assessing their interaction with the concept maps. Group H was significantly older than group L, had significantly higher levels of deep strategic and deep motivational learning, and had significantly higher marks in two of three concept map exercises. Notwithstanding these differences, the results from the "stop think" approach were similar between groups, indicating that it may be appropriate for students of varying academic ability. It is suggested that "stop think" may be a useful approach to encourage student self-assessment, an important step in assisting self-regulated learning development. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Melanie I Stefan
Full Text Available The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the ability of biologists to collect large amounts of data. It is therefore vital that research biologists acquire the necessary skills during their training to visualize, analyze, and interpret such data. To begin to meet this need, we have developed a "boot camp" in quantitative methods for biology graduate students at Harvard Medical School. The goal of this short, intensive course is to enable students to use computational tools to visualize and analyze data, to strengthen their computational thinking skills, and to simulate and thus extend their intuition about the behavior of complex biological systems. The boot camp teaches basic programming using biological examples from statistics, image processing, and data analysis. This integrative approach to teaching programming and quantitative reasoning motivates students' engagement by demonstrating the relevance of these skills to their work in life science laboratories. Students also have the opportunity to analyze their own data or explore a topic of interest in more detail. The class is taught with a mixture of short lectures, Socratic discussion, and in-class exercises. Students spend approximately 40% of their class time working through both short and long problems. A high instructor-to-student ratio allows students to get assistance or additional challenges when needed, thus enhancing the experience for students at all levels of mastery. Data collected from end-of-course surveys from the last five offerings of the course (between 2012 and 2014 show that students report high learning gains and feel that the course prepares them for solving quantitative and computational problems they will encounter in their research. We outline our course here which, together with the course materials freely available online under a Creative Commons License, should help to facilitate similar efforts by others.
Stefan, Melanie I; Gutlerner, Johanna L; Born, Richard T; Springer, Michael
The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the ability of biologists to collect large amounts of data. It is therefore vital that research biologists acquire the necessary skills during their training to visualize, analyze, and interpret such data. To begin to meet this need, we have developed a "boot camp" in quantitative methods for biology graduate students at Harvard Medical School. The goal of this short, intensive course is to enable students to use computational tools to visualize and analyze data, to strengthen their computational thinking skills, and to simulate and thus extend their intuition about the behavior of complex biological systems. The boot camp teaches basic programming using biological examples from statistics, image processing, and data analysis. This integrative approach to teaching programming and quantitative reasoning motivates students' engagement by demonstrating the relevance of these skills to their work in life science laboratories. Students also have the opportunity to analyze their own data or explore a topic of interest in more detail. The class is taught with a mixture of short lectures, Socratic discussion, and in-class exercises. Students spend approximately 40% of their class time working through both short and long problems. A high instructor-to-student ratio allows students to get assistance or additional challenges when needed, thus enhancing the experience for students at all levels of mastery. Data collected from end-of-course surveys from the last five offerings of the course (between 2012 and 2014) show that students report high learning gains and feel that the course prepares them for solving quantitative and computational problems they will encounter in their research. We outline our course here which, together with the course materials freely available online under a Creative Commons License, should help to facilitate similar efforts by others.
Soltis, Robert; Verlinden, Nathan; Kruger, Nicholas; Carroll, Ailey; Trumbo, Tiffany
To determine if the process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) teaching strategy improves student performance and engages higher-level thinking skills of first-year pharmacy students in an Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences course. Overall examination scores and scores on questions categorized as requiring either higher-level or lower-level thinking skills were compared in the same course taught over 3 years using traditional lecture methods vs the POGIL strategy. Student perceptions of the latter teaching strategy were also evaluated. Overall mean examination scores increased significantly when POGIL was implemented. Performance on questions requiring higher-level thinking skills was significantly higher, whereas performance on questions requiring lower-level thinking skills was unchanged when the POGIL strategy was used. Student feedback on use of this teaching strategy was positive. The use of the POGIL strategy increased student overall performance on examinations, improved higher-level thinking skills, and provided an interactive class setting.
Hodges, Nicola J; Coppola, Thomas
Despite increased interest in the processes guiding action observation and observational learning, we know little about what people think they learn from watching, how well perceptions of learning marry with actual ability and how ability perceptions develop across multiple observation trials. Based on common coding ideas, we would think that ability and perceptions of ability from watching should be well matched. We conducted two studies to answer these questions that involved repeated observation of a 2-ball juggling task. After each video observation, observers judged if they could perform the skill and gave a confidence score (0-100%). In Experiment 1, an Observe-only group was compared to an Observe + Physical practice and No-practice group. Both observer groups showed a better physical approximation of the juggling action after practice and in retention and their confidence increased in a linear fashion. Confidence showed a small, yet significant relationship to actual success. In Experiment 2, we limited physical practice to 5 attempts (across 50 observation trials). In general, people who had high perceptions of ability following a demonstration were overconfident, whereas those with lower perceptions of ability were accurate in their assessments. Confidence generally increased across practice, particularly for trials following observation rather than physical practice. We conclude that while perceptions of ability and actual ability show congruence across trials and individuals, observational practice increases people's confidence in their ability to perform a skill, even despite physical experiences to the contrary.
Leh, Amy S.C.; Kouba, Barbara; Davis, Dirk
Advanced technology makes 21st century learning, communities and interactions unique and leads people to an era of ubiquitous computing. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the discussion of learning in the 21st century. The paper will review literature on learning community, community learning, interaction, 21st century learning and…
Soyyılmaz, Demet; Griffin, Laura M; Martín, Miguel H; Kucharský, Šimon; Peycheva, Ekaterina D; Vaupotič, Nina; Edelsbrunner, Peter A
Scientific thinking is a predicate for scientific inquiry, and thus important to develop early in psychology students as potential future researchers. The present research is aimed at fathoming the contributions of formal and informal learning experiences to psychology students' development of scientific thinking during their 1st-year of study. We hypothesize that informal experiences are relevant beyond formal experiences. First-year psychology student cohorts from various European countries will be assessed at the beginning and again at the end of the second semester. Assessments of scientific thinking will include scientific reasoning skills, the understanding of basic statistics concepts, and epistemic cognition. Formal learning experiences will include engagement in academic activities which are guided by university authorities. Informal learning experiences will include non-compulsory, self-guided learning experiences. Formal and informal experiences will be assessed with a newly developed survey. As dispositional predictors, students' need for cognition and self-efficacy in psychological science will be assessed. In a structural equation model, students' learning experiences and personal dispositions will be examined as predictors of their development of scientific thinking. Commonalities and differences in predictive weights across universities will be tested. The project is aimed at contributing information for designing university environments to optimize the development of students' scientific thinking.
Soyyılmaz, Demet; Griffin, Laura M.; Martín, Miguel H.; Kucharský, Šimon; Peycheva, Ekaterina D.; Vaupotič, Nina; Edelsbrunner, Peter A.
Scientific thinking is a predicate for scientific inquiry, and thus important to develop early in psychology students as potential future researchers. The present research is aimed at fathoming the contributions of formal and informal learning experiences to psychology students’ development of scientific thinking during their 1st-year of study. We hypothesize that informal experiences are relevant beyond formal experiences. First-year psychology student cohorts from various European countries will be assessed at the beginning and again at the end of the second semester. Assessments of scientific thinking will include scientific reasoning skills, the understanding of basic statistics concepts, and epistemic cognition. Formal learning experiences will include engagement in academic activities which are guided by university authorities. Informal learning experiences will include non-compulsory, self-guided learning experiences. Formal and informal experiences will be assessed with a newly developed survey. As dispositional predictors, students’ need for cognition and self-efficacy in psychological science will be assessed. In a structural equation model, students’ learning experiences and personal dispositions will be examined as predictors of their development of scientific thinking. Commonalities and differences in predictive weights across universities will be tested. The project is aimed at contributing information for designing university environments to optimize the development of students’ scientific thinking. PMID:28239363
Tohir, M.; Abidin, Z.; Dafik; Hobri
Arithmetics is one of the topics in Mathematics, which deals with logic and detailed process upon generalizing formula. Creativity and flexibility are needed in generalizing formula of arithmetics series. This research aimed at analyzing students creative thinking skills in generalizing arithmetic series. The triangulation method and research-based learning was used in this research. The subjects were students of the Master Program of Mathematics Education in Faculty of Teacher Training and Education at Jember University. The data was collected by giving assignments to the students. The data collection was done by giving open problem-solving task and documentation study to the students to arrange generalization pattern based on the dependent function formula i and the function depend on i and j. Then, the students finished the next problem-solving task to construct arithmetic generalization patterns based on the function formula which depends on i and i + n and the sum formula of functions dependent on i and j of the arithmetic compiled. The data analysis techniques operative in this study was Miles and Huberman analysis model. Based on the result of data analysis on task 1, the levels of students creative thinking skill were classified as follows; 22,22% of the students categorized as “not creative” 38.89% of the students categorized as “less creative” category; 22.22% of the students categorized as “sufficiently creative” and 16.67% of the students categorized as “creative”. By contrast, the results of data analysis on task 2 found that the levels of students creative thinking skills were classified as follows; 22.22% of the students categorized as “sufficiently creative”, 44.44% of the students categorized as “creative” and 33.33% of the students categorized as “very creative”. This analysis result can set the basis for teaching references and actualizing a better teaching model in order to increase students creative thinking skills.
A study has been conducted to obtain a depiction of middle school students’ critical thinking skills improvement through the implementation of reading infusion-loaded discovery learning model in science instruction. A quasi-experimental study with the pretest-posttest control group design was used to engage 55 eighth-year middle school students in Tasikmalaya, which was divided into the experimental and control group respectively were 28 and 27 students. Critical thinking skills were measured using a critical thinking skills test in multiple-choice with reason format questions that administered before and after a given instruction. The test was 28 items encompassing three essential concepts, vibration, waves and auditory senses. The critical thinking skills improvement was determined by using the normalized gain score and statistically analyzed by using Mann-Whitney U test.. The findings showed that the average of students’ critical thinking skills normalized gain score of both groups were 59 and 43, respectively for experimental and control group in the medium category. There were significant differences between both group’s improvement. Thus, the implementation of reading infusion-loaded discovery learning model could further improve middle school students’ critical thinking skills than conventional learning.
Carlos Antonio Bruno da Silva
Full Text Available Computer games and mainly videogames have proved to be an important tendency in Brazilian children’s play. They are part of the playful culture, which associates modern technology to traditional play preserving the importance of the latter. Based on Vygotsky and Chadwick’s ideas, this work studies the alternatives in the use of videogame by the occupational therapist, educator or parents, aiming prevention of learning difficulty by means of apprehension of learning strategies. Sixty children were investigated under dialectic, descriptive qualitative/quantitative focus. There was a semi-structured interview, direct observation and focused group applied to this intentional sample. Out of the 60 children playing in 3 videogame rental shops in Fortaleza-CE and Quixadá-CE, 30 aged 4 to 6 years old and the other 30 aged 7 and 8. Results indicate that the determination that the videogame is played in-group favors the apprehension of learning and affective strategies, processing, and meta-cognition. Therefore, videogame can be considered an excellent resource in terms of preventing learning difficulties, enabling children to their reality.
Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Endo, Yutaka; Nishitsuji, Takashi; Takahashi, Takayuki; Nagahama, Yuki; Hasegawa, Satoki; Sano, Marie; Hirayama, Ryuji; Kakue, Takashi; Shiraki, Atsushi; Ito, Tomoyoshi
Computational ghost imaging (CGI) is a single-pixel imaging technique that exploits the correlation between known random patterns and the measured intensity of light transmitted (or reflected) by an object. Although CGI can obtain two- or three-dimensional images with a single or a few bucket detectors, the quality of the reconstructed images is reduced by noise due to the reconstruction of images from random patterns. In this study, we improve the quality of CGI images using deep learning. A deep neural network is used to automatically learn the features of noise-contaminated CGI images. After training, the network is able to predict low-noise images from new noise-contaminated CGI images.
Hou, Huei-Tse; Yu, Tsai-Fang; Wu, Yi-Xuan; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En
The theory of spatial thinking is relevant to the learning and teaching of many academic domains. One promising method to facilitate learners' higher-order thinking is to utilize a web map mind tool to assist learners in applying spatial thinking to cooperative problem solving. In this study, an environment is designed based on the theory of…
Dagez, Hanan Ettaher; Ambarka, Ali Elghali
In recent years we have witnessed an increasingly heightened awareness of the potential benefits of adaptively in e-learning. This has been mainly driven by the realization that the ideal of individualized learning (i.e., learning tailored to the specific requirements and preferences of the individual) cannot be achieved, especially at a “massive” scale, using traditional approaches. In e-learning when the learning style of the student is not compatible with the teaching style of the teacher...
Leonard, Jacqueline; Buss, Alan; Gamboa, Ruben; Mitchell, Monica; Fashola, Olatokunbo S.; Hubert, Tarcia; Almughyirah, Sultan
This paper describes the findings of a pilot study that used robotics and game design to develop middle school students' computational thinking strategies. One hundred and twenty-four students engaged in LEGO® EV3 robotics and created games using Scalable Game Design software. The results of the study revealed students' pre-post self-efficacy…
Full Text Available This study attempted to test whether the use of computer-assisted language learning (CALL and innovative collaborative learning could be more effective than the use of traditional collaborative learning in improving students’ English proficiencies. A true experimental design was used in the study. Four randomly-assigned groups participated in the study: a traditional collaborative learning group (TCLG, 34 students, an innovative collaborative learning group (ICLG, 31 students, a CALL traditional collaborative learning group (CALLTCLG, 32 students, and a CALL innovative collaborative learning group (CALLICLG, 31 students. TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication listening, reading, speaking, and writing pre-test and post-test assessments were given to all students at an interval of sixteen weeks. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA, and analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that students who used CALL had significantly better learning performance than those who did not. Students in innovative collaborative learning had significantly better learning performances than those in traditional collaborative learning. Additionally, students using CALL innovative collaborative learning had better learning performances than those in CALL collaborative learning, those in innovative collaborative learning, and those in traditional collaborative learning.
Widuri, S. Y. S.; Almash, L.; Zuzano, F.
The students activity and responsible in studying mathematic is still lack. It gives an effect for the bad result in studying mathematic. There is one of learning technic to increase students activity in the classroom and the result of studying mathematic with applying a learning technic. It is “Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS)”. The purpose of this research is to recognize the developing of students activity in mathematic subject during applying that technic “TAPPS” in seven grade at SMPN 15 Padang and compare the students proportion in learning mathematic with TAPPS between learning process without it in seven grade at SMPN 15 Padang. Students activity for indicators 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 at each meeting is likely to increase and students activity for indicator 7 at each meeting is likely to decrease. The finding of this research is χ 2 = 9,42 and the value of p is 0,0005 < p < 0,005. Therefore p < 0,05 has means H 0 was rejected and H 1 was accepted. Thus, it was concluded that the activities and result in studying mathematic increased after applying learning technic the TAPPS.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study are: (1 to know the effectiveness of PQ4R learning model in improving the creative thinking skills of the learners; (2 to know the classifications of the learners based on the levels of creative thinking skills; and (3 to describe the misconception which hampers the creative thinking skills at low level in from the learning styles of the learners. The population in this study is the seventh grade students of SMP N 21 Semarang. The method in this study is mixed method research. Quantitative data analysis uses t-test, z-test, and normalized gain test. Analysis of qualitative data using data reduction stages, data presentation, and conclusions. The results show: (1 PQ4R learning model is effective in improving the creative thinking ability of the learners; (2 the classifications of the learners based on the levels of creative thinking ability which have variations the are many of the learners who are different in each level; and (3 misconception which hampers the creative thinking skills at low level with the learning styles: (a visual meets four misconception indicators, (b auditorial meets three misconception indicators, and (c kinesthetic meets six misconception indicators.
This study examined the effects of participation in a 1-week, experiential, hands-on learning program on the critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills of occupational therapy students. A quasi-experimental, nonrandomized pre- and post-test design was used with a sample of 25 students. The students had completed three semesters of didactic lecture coursework in a master's level OT educational program prior to participation in a hands-on therapy program for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Changes in critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills were evaluated using the following dependent measures: Self-Assessment of Clinical Reflection and Reasoning (SACRR) and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). Changes in pretest and posttest scores on the SACRR and the CCTST were statistically significant (p>0.05) following completion of the experiential learning program. This study supports the use of hands-on learning to develop clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills in healthcare students, who face ever more diverse patient populations upon entry-level practice. Further qualitative and quantitative investigations are needed to support the results of this study and determine which components of experiential learning programs are essential for developing clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills in future allied health professionals.
Full Text Available This study aims to implement of Problem Based Learning combined Think Pair Share in order to improve critical thinking and science process skills of students at XI IPA SMA. This research was classroom action research. The subjects were 28 students of classroom XI IPA 1 SMAN 1 Kasiman Bojonegoro 2016/2017. This research was conducted in two cycles. The research data consists of the learning realized by observation, the results of the critical thinking paper and pencil tests, and the science process skills by observation. Data were analyzed by descriptive qualitative technique. The results showed that the combined PBL and TPS learning model can improve the ability of critical thinking, and science process skills students of classroom XI IPA 1 SMAN 1 Kasiman Bojonegoro. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menerapkan Problem Based Learning dipadu Think Pair Share dalam rangka meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis dan keterampilan proses sains siswa kelas XI IPA SMA. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian tindakan kelas. Subjek penelitian adalah siswa kelas XI IPA 1 SMAN 1 Kasiman Bojonegoro tahun pelajaran 2016/2017 dengan jumlah 28 siswa. Penelitian dilaksanakan selama dua siklus. Data penelitian terdiri atas hasil observasi keterlaksanaan pembelajaran, hasil tes tulis kemampuan berpikir kritis, dan hasil observasi keterampilan proses sains. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa model pembelajaran PBL dipadu TPS dapat meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis dan keterampilan proses sains siswa kelas XI IPA 1 SMAN 1 Kasiman Bojonegoro.
Yusmanto, Harry; Soetjipto, Budi Eko; Djatmika, Ery Tri
This Classroom Action Research aims to improve students' HOTS (High Order Thinking Skills) and Social Studies learning outcomes through the application of Carousel Feedback and Round Table cooperative learning methods. This study was based on a model proposed by Elliott and was implemented for three cycles. The subjects were 30 female students of…
Jones, Ann; Issroff, Kim
This paper is concerned with "affective" issues in learning technologies in a collaborative context. Traditionally in learning there has been a division between cognition and affect: where cognition is concerned with skills and processes such as thinking and problem-solving and affect with emotional areas such as motivation, attitudes, feelings.…
Stockwell, Glenn, Ed.
Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning languages that uses computers and other technologies to present, reinforce, and assess material to be learned, or to create environments where teachers and learners can interact with one another and the outside world. This book provides a much-needed overview of the…
Schroeder, Mubina Khan
In science education, the use of digital technology-based learning can help students struggling with difficult concepts such as the movement of molecules. While digital learning tools hold much promise for science education, the question arises as to whether or not such technology can serve as an adequate surrogate for the teacher-student interactions that theorists like Lev Vygotsky (1978) underscored as being critical to learning. In response to such concerns, designers of digital curricula often utilize scaffolds to help students as they learn from such programs. Using a simulation designed to teach students about the concept of diffusion as an example, I examine the effect of including prompting language in the learning sequence of the simulation. The use of prompting language in digital curriculum appears to be successful because it elicits science students to reflect and metacognise about their learning, lending support to Vygotsky's (1978) ideas of teaching and learning involving outer and inner dialog. However, findings from think aloud data continue to underscore the importance of human linguistic exchange as a preferable learning paradigm.
Seyedeh Shohreh Alavi
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Presently, the method of medical teaching has shifted from lecture-based to computer-based. The learning style may play a key role in the attitude toward learning computer. The goal of this study was to study the relationship between the learning style and attitude toward computer among Iranian medical students.Methods: This cross-sectional study included 400 medical students. Barsch learning style inventory and a questionnaire on the attitude toward computer was sent to each student. The enthusiasm, anxiety, and overall attitude toward computer were compared among the different learning styles.Results: The response rate to the questionnaire was 91.8%. The distribution of learning styles in the students was 181 (49.3% visual, 106 (28.9% auditory, 27 (7.4% tactual, and 53 (14.4% overall. Visual learners were less anxious for computer use and showed more positive attitude toward computer. Sex, age, and academic grade were not associated with students’ attitude toward computer.Conclusions: The learning style is an important factor in the students’ attitude toward computer among medical students, which should be considered in planning computer-based learning programs.Keywords: LEARNING STYLE, ATTITUDE, COMPUTER, MEDICAL STUDENT, ANXIETY, ENTHUSIASM
Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard
Computing scientists generally agree that abstract thinking is a crucial component for practicing computer science. We report on a three-year longitudinal study to confirm the hypothesis that general abstraction ability has a positive impact on performance in computing science. Abstraction ability...... is operationalized as stages of cognitive development for which validated tests exist. Performance in computing science is operationalized as grade in the final assessment of ten courses of a bachelor's degree programme in computing science. The validity of the operationalizations is discussed. We have investigated...... the positive impact overall, for two groupings of courses (a content-based grouping and a grouping based on SOLO levels of the courses' intended learning outcome), and for each individual course. Surprisingly, our study shows that there is hardly any correlation between stage of cognitive development...
Nurdyani, F.; Slamet, I.; Sujadi, I.
This research was conducted in order to describe the creative thinking level of students with high capability in relations and functions with Problem Based Learning. The subjects of the research were students with high capability grade VIII at SMPIT Ibnu Abbas Klaten. This research is an qualitative descriptive research. The data were collected using observation, tests and interviews. The result showed that the creative thinking level of students with high capability in relations and functions by Problem Based Learning was at level 4 or very creative because students were able to demonstrate fluency, flexibility, and novelty.
Dewiyanti, Silvia; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Jochems, Wim; Broers, Nick
Dewiyanti, S., Brand-Gruwel, S., Jochems, W., & Broers, N. (2007). Students experiences with collaborative learning in asynchronous computer-supported collaborative learning environments. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 496-514.
McGowan, Anna-Maria; Bakula, Casey; Castner, Raymond
In late 2015, NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an experiment in rapid design and rapid teaming to explore new approaches to solving challenging design problems in aeronautics in an effort to cultivate and foster innovation. This report summarizes several lessons learned from the rapid design portion of the study. This effort entailed learning and applying design thinking, a human-centered design approach, to complete the conceptual design for an open-ended design challenge within six months. The design challenge focused on creating a capability to advance experimental testing of autonomous aeronautics systems, an area of great interest to NASA, the US government as a whole, and an entire ecosystem of users and developers around the globe. A team of nine civil servant researchers from three of NASA's aeronautics field centers with backgrounds in several disciplines was assembled and rapidly trained in design thinking under the guidance of the innovation and design firm IDEO. The design thinking process, while used extensively outside the aerospace industry, is less common and even counter to many practices within the aerospace industry. In this report, several contrasts between common aerospace research and development practices and design thinking are discussed, drawing upon the lessons learned from the NASA rapid design study. The lessons discussed included working towards a design solution without a set of detailed design requirements, which may not be practical or even feasible for management to ascertain for complex, challenging problems. This approach allowed for the possibility of redesigning the original problem statement to better meet the needs of the users. Another lesson learned was to approach problems holistically from the perspective of the needs of individuals that may be affected by advances in topic area instead of purely from a technological feasibility viewpoint. The interdisciplinary nature of the design team also
Clare S. Johnson
Full Text Available The inclusion of online elements in learning environments is becoming commonplace in Post Compulsory Education. A variety of research into the value of such elements is available, and this study aims to add further evidence by looking specifically at the use of collaborative technologies such as online discussion forums and wikis to encourage higher order thinking and self-sufficient learning. In particular, the research examines existing pedagogical models including Salmon’s five-stage model, along with other relevant literature. A case study of adult learners in community-based learning centres forms the basis of the research, and as a result of the findings, an arrow model is suggested as a framework for online collaboration that emphasises the learner, mentions pre-course preparation and then includes three main phases of activity: post, interact and critique. This builds on Salmon’s five-stage model and has the benefit of being flexible and responsive, as well as allowing for further development beyond the model, particularly in a blended learning environment.
Yuan, Haobin; Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Klunklin, Areewan; Williams, Beverly A
A quasi-experimental, two-group pretest-post-test design was conducted to examine the effect of problem-based learning on the critical thinking skills of 46 Year 2 undergraduate nursing students in the People's Republic of China. The California Critical Thinking Skills Test Form A, Chinese-Taiwanese version was used as both a pretest and as a post-test for a semester-long nursing course. There was no significant difference in critical thinking skills at pretest, whereas, significant differences in critical thinking skills existed between the problem-based learning and lecture groups at post-test. The problem-based learning students had a significantly greater improvement on the overall California Critical Thinking Skills Test, analysis, and induction subscale scores compared with the lecture students. Problem-based learning fostered nursing students' critical thinking skills.
As a pedagogical approach, problem-based learning (PBL) has shown success for average and gifted students (HmeloSiver, 2004) and there are numerous incentives for its implementation in online learning environments (Savid-Baden, 2007; Chernobilsky, Nagarajan, & Hmelo-Silver, 2005). However, little research has been conducted regarding the…
Please, cite this publication as: Kremenska, A. (2006). Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL): Using Internet for Effective Language Learning. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia,
Mardiana, Nana; Kuswanto, Heru
The aims of the research concerned here were to reveal (1) the characteristics of Android-assisted PML (physics mobile learning) to improve SMA (sekolah menengah atas, Indonesian senior high school) students' divergent thinking skills and physics HOTS (higher order thinking skills); (2) the feasibility of the Android-assisted PML; and (3) the influence of using the Android-assisted PML on improvement in SMA students' divergent thinking skills and physics HOTS. The7 research was of the R&D (research and development) type, adapted from theBorg-&-Gall development model. The research data were analyzed by means of MANOVA with the significance level of 5%. The results are as follows. (1) The product of the development, a learning media in software form with the android package(apk) format, is named PML (to refer to Physics Mobile Learning), which has such characterictics as being operable with use of Android devicesand being very good in quality in the aspect oflearning, material, software technology, and audiovisual appearance. 2) The developed learning media referred to as PML is appropriate for learning activity according to evaluation by a material expert, a media expert, peer reviewers, and physics teachers as well as according to results of students' tryouts. (3) The use of the Android-assisted PML media product could improve SMA students' divergent thinking skillsand physics HOTS with the respective high-category gain scores of 0.701 and 0.759.
Hong, Zuway-R.; Lin, Huann-shyang; Chen, Hsiang-Ting; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Chia-Jung
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of aesthetic science activities on improving elementary school at-risk families' children's positive thinking, attitudes toward science, and decreasing their anxiety about learning science. Thirty-six 4th-grade children from at-risk families volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group; another 97 typical 4th graders were randomly selected to participant in the assessment and were used as the comparison group. The treatment for experimental group children emphasized scaffolding aesthetic science activities and inquiry strategies. The Elementary School Student Questionnaire was administered to assess all children's positive thinking, attitudes toward science, and anxiety about learning science. In addition, nine target children from the experimental group with the lowest scores on either positive thinking, or attitudes toward science, or with the highest scores on anxiety about learning science in the pre-test were recruited to be interviewed at the end of the intervention and observed weekly. Confirmatory factor analyses, analyses of covariance, and content theme analysis assessed the similarities and differences between groups. It was found that the at-risk families' children were motivated by the treatment and made significant progress on positive thinking and attitudes toward science, and also decreased their anxiety about learning science. The findings from interviews and classroom observations also revealed that the intervention made differences in children's affective perceptions of learning science. Implication and research recommendation are discussed.
Full Text Available Objective: To promote first year (P1 pharmacy students’ awareness of medication error prevention and to support student learning in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences. Innovation: A novel curricular activity was created and referred to as “Medication Errors and Sciences Applications (MESA”. The MESA activity encouraged discussions of patient safety among students and faculty to link medication errors to biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences, which ultimately reinforced student learning in P1 curricular topics. Critical Analysis: Three P1 cohorts implemented the MESA activity and approximately 75% of students from each cohort completed a reliable assessment instrument. Each P1 cohort had at least 14 student teams who generated professional reports analyzing authentic medication errors. The quantitative assessment results indicated that 70-85% of students believed that the MESA activity improved student learning in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences. More than 95% of students agreed that the MESA activity introduced them to medication errors. Approximately 90% of students agreed that the MESA activity integrated the knowledge and skills they developed through the P1 curriculum, promoted active learning and critical thinking, and encouraged students to be self-directed learners. Furthermore, our data indicated that approximately 90% of students stated that the achievement of Bloom’s taxonomy's six learning objectives was promoted by completing the MESA activity. Next Steps: Pharmacy students’ awareness of medication errors is a critical component of pharmacy education, which pharmacy educators can integrate with biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences to enhance student learning in the P1 year. Treatment of Human Subjects: IRB exemption granted Type: Note License: CC BY
Kimberly Bunts-Anderson, PhD
Full Text Available The importance of interacting with others has long been considered a critical component of learning processes in general and from a Social Interactions perspective, of language learning, specifically. This presentation explores these relationships from either side of the classroom door. The discussion centers on the beliefs and experiences of learners’ spoken interactions in their own lives outside the classroom and how students view communication with others as impacting their overall knowledge of the language. The paper also looks at these issues from the perspective of the teachers. Multiple perspectives are illustrated with data collected from two Australian studies. The first study describes a cooperative action research project conducted with 13 foreign ESL students focused on enhancing their language learning through improving their personal out-of-class spoken interactions with others. Individual’s narratives of language learning and communication are presented. Results indicate improved learner efficacy and higher assessments in formal learning contexts. The second study is a phenomenographic investigation of 28 EAP instructors’ reported descriptions of learners’ verbal communications in and outside the classroom. Findings indicate greater awareness of formal interactions and fewer categories of conceptions for informal spoken language. The resulting categories for language appear similar to reports of surface and deeper approaches of learning, knowing and thinking in other subject areas. The researcher provided excerpts of instructors' reports and discusses the significance of developing an awareness of the relationships between these spoken communications and cognition. In conclusion, audience participants were asked to share their own thoughts and experiences with these relationships.
Mustard, John F.
In the fall of 1998, MacMillan Hall opened at Brown University to students. In MacMillan Hall was the new Computer Learning Center, since named the EarthLab which was outfitted with high-end workstations and peripherals primarily focused on the use of remotely sensed and other spatial data in the environmental sciences. The NASA grant we received as part of the "Centers of Excellence in Applications of Remote Sensing to Regional and Global Integrated Environmental Assessments" was the primary source of funds to outfit this learning and research center. Since opening, we have expanded the range of learning and research opportunities and integrated a cross-campus network of disciplines who have come together to learn and use spatial data of all kinds. The EarthLab also forms a core of undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research on environmental problems that draw upon the unique perspective of remotely sensed data. Over the last two years, the Earthlab has been a center for research on the environmental impact of water resource use in and regions, impact of the green revolution on forest cover in India, the design of forest preserves in Vietnam, and detailed assessments of the utility of thermal and hyperspectral data for water quality analysis. It has also been used extensively for local environmental activities, in particular studies on the impact of lead on the health of urban children in Rhode Island. Finally, the EarthLab has also served as a key educational and analysis center for activities related to the Brown University Affiliated Research Center that is devoted to transferring university research to the private sector.
Trausan-Matu, S. (2008). Analysis and Assessment of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Conversations. Workshop presentation at the symposium Learning networks for professional. November, 14, 2008, Heerlen, Nederland: Open Universiteit Nederland.
Introduction of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), specifically in an intercultural learning environment, creates both challenges and benefits. Among the challenges are the coordination of different attitudes, styles of communication, and patterns of behaving. Among the benefits are
Gharib, Mitra; Zolfaghari, Mitra; Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Mohammadi, Aeen; Gharib, Atoosa
Background With the increasing popularity of e-learning programs, educational stakeholders are attempting to promote critical thinking in the virtual education system. This study aimed to explore the experiences of both the instructors and the students about critical thinking promotion within the virtual education system. Methods This qualitative study recruited the instructors and students from four academic disciplines provided by the Virtual School of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran). All programs were master’s degree programs and utilized a blended (combination of e-learning and face to face) training. Semistructured interviews with the participants were used to collect data. Results The participants had a variety of experiences about how to promote critical thinking. These experiences were conceptualized in four main themes, namely, instructional design, educational leadership and management, local evidence, and belief systems. Conclusion The present study clarified the factors affecting critical thinking promotion in e-learning. Not only the instructors but also the educational designers and leaders can benefit from our findings to improve the quality of virtual education programs and promote critical thinking. PMID:27217807
Gharib, Mitra; Zolfaghari, Mitra; Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Mohammadi, Aeen; Gharib, Atoosa
With the increasing popularity of e-learning programs, educational stakeholders are attempting to promote critical thinking in the virtual education system. This study aimed to explore the experiences of both the instructors and the students about critical thinking promotion within the virtual education system. This qualitative study recruited the instructors and students from four academic disciplines provided by the Virtual School of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran). All programs were master's degree programs and utilized a blended (combination of e-learning and face to face) training. Semistructured interviews with the participants were used to collect data. The participants had a variety of experiences about how to promote critical thinking. These experiences were conceptualized in four main themes, namely, instructional design, educational leadership and management, local evidence, and belief systems. The present study clarified the factors affecting critical thinking promotion in e-learning. Not only the instructors but also the educational designers and leaders can benefit from our findings to improve the quality of virtual education programs and promote critical thinking.
Full Text Available While the need to adapt teaching to the needs of a student is generally acknowledged (see Corno and Snow, 1986, for a wide review of the literature, little is known about the impact of individual learner-differences on the quality of learning attained within computer-based learning environments (CBLEs. What evidence there is appears to support the notion that individual differences have implications for the degree of success or failure experienced by students (Ford and Ford, 1992 and by trainee end-users of software packages (Bostrom et al, 1990. The problem is to identify the way in which specific individual characteristics of a student interact with particular features of a CBLE, and how the interaction affects the quality of the resultant learning. Teaching in a CBLE is likely to require a subset of teaching strategies different from that subset appropriate to more traditional environments, and the use of a machine may elicit different behaviours from those normally arising in a classroom context.
Full Text Available Agent-based simulation of people’s behaviors and minds has become increasingly popular in recent years. It provides a research platform to simulate and compare alternative psychological and social theories, as well as to create virtual characters that can interact with people or among each other to provide pedagogical or entertainment effects. In this paper, we investigate computationally modeling people’s coping behaviors and in particular in relation to depression, in decision-theoretic agents. Recent studies have suggested that depression can result from failed emotion regulation under limited cognitive resources. In this work, we demonstrate how reappraisal can fail under high levels of stress and limited cognitive resources using an agent-based simulation. Further, we explored the effectiveness of reappraisal under different conditions. Our experiments suggest that for people who are more likely to recall positive memories, it is more beneficial to think about the recalled events from multiple perspectives. However, for people who are more likely to recall negative memories, the better strategy is to not evaluate the recalled events against multiple goals.
Rodgers, Diane M.; Moraga, Reinaldo J.
Simulation software used for modeling has become as ubiquitous as computers themselves. Despite growing reliance on simulation in educational and workplace settings, users encounter frustration in using simulation software programs. The authors conducted a study with 26 engineering students and interviewed them about their experience learning the…
The recent economic downturn has had global repercussions in all businesses alike. Competition is fierce and a survival of the fittest model is always present; fast delivery times and innovative designs ultimately translate into the enterprises' bottom line. In such market conditions, enterprises have to find ways to develop and train their workforce in a manner that enhances the innovative capabilities of the enterprise. Additionally, if companies are to stay competitive, they have to ensure critical skills in their workforce are transferred from generation to generation. This study builds on recent research on system-thinking development via experiential learning methodologies. First, a conceptual framework model was developed. This conceptual model captures a methodology to construct a system-thinking apprenticeship program suitable for system engineers. Secondly, a survey of system engineering professionals was conducted in order to assess and refine the proposed conceptual model. This dissertation captures the findings of the conceptual model and the implications of the study for enterprises and for system engineering organizations.
Full Text Available Mobile learning (m-learning is a research field that aims to analyze how mobile devices can contribute to learning. The development of software for mobile devices to support learning is essential for an effective implementation of m-learning or mobile learning environments (MLE. Requirements Engineering processes need to include activities that provoke creativity in the stakeholders to conceive MLEs that actually modify and improve the teaching and learning process. In this context, this paper presents a process for requirements elicitation and documentation of mobile learning environments. This process is based on the concepts of the Design Thinking process that provides a methodology to elicit customer needs, producing simple prototypes that eventually converge to innovative solutions. An experiment was conducted to evaluate if the proposed process contributes to create MLEs that present distinctive and interesting characteristics when compared to existing solutions for a specific problem.
Davidson, George S.; Brown, William Michael
Techniques for high throughput determinations of interactomes, together with high resolution protein collocalizations maps within organelles and through membranes will soon create a vast resource. With these data, biological descriptions, akin to the high dimensional phase spaces familiar to physicists, will become possible. These descriptions will capture sufficient information to make possible realistic, system-level models of cells. The descriptions and the computational models they enable will require powerful computing techniques. This report is offered as a call to the computational biology community to begin thinking at this scale and as a challenge to develop the required algorithms and codes to make use of the new data.3
Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.
The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group. Fifty-seven eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (30 boys and 27 girls) volunteered to participate in the assessments and were used as the comparison group. Additionally, 15 experimental students were recruited to be observed and interviewed. Paired t-tests, correlations, and analyses of covariance assessed the similarity and differences between groups. The findings were that the experimental group significantly outperformed its counterpart on positive thinking and emotional perceptions, and all participants' positive thinking scores were significantly related to their emotional perceptions about learning science. Recommendations for integrating science and societal implication for adolescents are provided.
Hananto, R. B.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Riyadi
The research aims to identify the critical thinking process of students in solving geometry problems. The geometry problem selected in this study was the building of flat side room (cube). The critical thinking process was implemented to visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning styles. This research was a descriptive analysis research using qualitative method. The subjects of this research were 3 students selected by purposive sampling consisting of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles. Data collection was done through test, interview, and observation. The results showed that the students' critical thinking process in identifying and defining steps for each learning style were similar in solving problems. The critical thinking differences were seen in enumerate, analyze, list, and self-correct steps. It was also found that critical thinking process of students with kinesthetic learning style was better than visual and auditory learning styles.
Problem solving is an indispensable part of engineering. Improving critical thinking dispositions for solving engineering problems is one of the objectives of engineering education. In this sense, knowing critical thinking and problem solving skills of engineering students is of importance for engineering education. This study aims to determine…
Hosam Farouk El-Sofany
Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new computing model which is based on the grid computing, distributed computing, parallel computing and virtualization technologies define the shape of a new technology. It is the core technology of the next generation of network computing platform, especially in the field of education, cloud computing is the basic environment and platform of the future E-learning. It provides secure data storage, convenient internet services and strong computing power. This article mainly focuses on the research of the application of cloud computing in E-learning environment. The research study shows that the cloud platform is valued for both students and instructors to achieve the course objective. The paper presents the nature, benefits and cloud computing services, as a platform for e-learning environment.
Rothman, Alan H.
This study reports the results of research designed to examine the impact of computer-based science instruction on elementary school level students' science content achievement, their attitude about science learning, their level of critical thinking-inquiry skills, and their level of cognitive and English language development. The study compared these learning outcomes resulting from a computer-based approach compared to the learning outcomes from a traditional, textbook-based approach to science instruction. The computer-based approach was inherent in a curriculum titled The Voyage of the Mimi , published by The Bank Street College Project in Science and Mathematics (1984). The study sample included 209 fifth-grade students enrolled in three schools in a suburban school district. This sample was divided into three groups, each receiving one of the following instructional treatments: (a) Mixed-instruction primarily based on the use of a hardcopy textbook in conjunction with computer-based instructional materials as one component of the science course; (b) Non-Traditional, Technology-Based -instruction fully utilizing computer-based material; and (c) Traditional, Textbook-Based-instruction utilizing only the textbook as the basis for instruction. Pre-test, or pre-treatment, data related to each of the student learning outcomes was collected at the beginning of the school year and post-test data was collected at the end of the school year. Statistical analyses of pre-test data were used as a covariate to account for possible pre-existing differences with regard to the variables examined among the three student groups. This study concluded that non-traditional, computer-based instruction in science significantly improved students' attitudes toward science learning and their level of English language development. Non-significant, positive trends were found for the following student learning outcomes: overall science achievement and development of critical thinking
Cabrera, Derek; Colosi, Laura; Lobdell, Claire
Evaluation is one of many fields where "systems thinking" is popular and is said to hold great promise. However, there is disagreement about what constitutes systems thinking. Its meaning is ambiguous, and systems scholars have made diverse and divergent attempts to describe it. Alternative origins include: von Bertalanffy, Aristotle, Lao Tsu or multiple aperiodic "waves." Some scholars describe it as synonymous with systems sciences (i.e., nonlinear dynamics, complexity, chaos). Others view it as taxonomy-a laundry list of systems approaches. Within so much noise, it is often difficult for evaluators to find the systems thinking signal. Recent work in systems thinking describes it as an emergent property of four simple conceptual patterns (rules). For an evaluator to become a "systems thinker", he or she need not spend years learning many methods or nonlinear sciences. Instead, with some practice, one can learn to apply these four simple rules to existing evaluation knowledge with transformative results.
D'Antoni, Anthony V; Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Olson, Valerie G; Cahill, Terrence F
A learning strategy underutilized in medical education is mind mapping. Mind maps are multi-sensory tools that may help medical students organize, integrate, and retain information. Recent work suggests that using mind mapping as a note-taking strategy facilitates critical thinking. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a relationship existed between mind mapping and critical thinking, as measured by the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT), and whether a relationship existed between mind mapping and recall of domain-based information. In this quasi-experimental study, 131 first-year medical students were randomly assigned to a standard note-taking (SNT) group or mind map (MM) group during orientation. Subjects were given a demographic survey and pre-HSRT. They were then given an unfamiliar text passage, a pre-quiz based upon the passage, and a 30-minute break, during which time subjects in the MM group were given a presentation on mind mapping. After the break, subjects were given the same passage and wrote notes based on their group (SNT or MM) assignment. A post-quiz based upon the passage was administered, followed by a post-HSRT. Differences in mean pre- and post-quiz scores between groups were analyzed using independent samples t-tests, whereas differences in mean pre- and post-HSRT total scores and subscores between groups were analyzed using ANOVA. Mind map depth was assessed using the Mind Map Assessment Rubric (MMAR). There were no significant differences in mean scores on both the pre- and post-quizzes between note-taking groups. And, no significant differences were found between pre- and post-HSRT mean total scores and subscores. Although mind mapping was not found to increase short-term recall of domain-based information or critical thinking compared to SNT, a brief introduction to mind mapping allowed novice MM subjects to perform similarly to SNT subjects. This demonstrates that medical students using mind maps can successfully
Towne, Forrest S.
Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking skills that are necessary to obtain scientific literacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that formal thinking skills can be taught to adolescents, however only 25% of incoming college freshman have these necessary skills. There is some evidence that adolescence (girls aged 11-13, boys aged 12-14) is a critical period where students must learn formal thinking skills, similar to the critical period that exists for young children learning languages. It is not known whether it is more difficult for students to learn formal thinking skills either prior to or following adolescence. The purpose of this quantitative case study is to determine whether adolescence is a critical period for students to learn formal thinking skills. The study also investigates whether a formal thinking skills focused program can improve students' intelligence. In this study 32 students who had not developed any formal thinking skills, ranging in age from 10-16, underwent an intensive four-week, inquiry-based, formal thinking skill intervention program that focused on two formal thinking skills: (1) the ability to control and exclude variables; and (2) the ability to manipulate ratios and proportionalities. The students undergoing the training were matched with control students by age, gender, formal thinking skill ability, and intelligence. The control group attended their traditional science course during the intervention periods. The results of the study showed that the intervention program was successful in developing students' formal thinking skills. The pre-adolescents (males, age 10-11, females, age 10) were unable to learn formal thinking skills
Suprapto, Edy; Fahrizal; Priyono; Basri, K.
This research is to apply and develop a strategy of problem-based learning to increase the ability of higher order thinking skills of senior vocational schools students. The research was done due to a fact that the quality of outputs of the senior vocational schools has not met the competency needed by the stakeholders in the field, that has made…
Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua
Lack of creativity is a problem often plaguing students from design-related departments. Therefore, this study is intended to incorporate analogical thinking in the education of architecture design to enhance students' learning and their future career performance. First, this study explores the three aspects of architecture design curricula,…
Asa Kuntifatin Warda
Full Text Available Type of this study is quantitative. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of SSCS learning model with KNWS strategy towards mathematical creative thinking ability and self confidence of students. The populations of this study was students at grade VIII SMP Muhammadiyah 8 Semarang academic year 2016/2017. The sampling was done by cluster random sampling technique, which were chosen VIIIA as experiment class and VIIIC as control class. Data collection methods used documentation, a test, a questionnaire, and an observation. The result of this study stated that the mathematical creative thinking ability of the experiment class students had reached the classical completeness, percentage of mastery learning on mathematical creative thinking ability of the experiment class students was better than that percentage of the control class students, average of test result on mathematical creative thinking ability of the experiment class students was better than that average of the control class students, average of self confidence score of the experiment class students was better than that average of the control class students, teacher ability and the learning activities at the experiment class students included in good category, response of the experiment class students to joint the learning is positive.
Bahtiar; Rahayu, Y. S.; Wasis
This research aims to produce P3E learning model to improve students’ critical thinking skills. The developed model is named P3E, consisting of 4 (four) stages namely; organization, inquiry, presentation, and evaluation. This development research refers to the development stage by Kemp. The design of the wide scale try-out used pretest-posttest group design. The wide scale try-out was conducted in grade X of 2016/2017 academic year. The analysis of the results of this development research inludes three aspects, namely: validity, practicality, and effectiveness of the model developed. The research results showed; (1) the P3E learning model was valid, according to experts with an average value of 3.7; (2) The completion of the syntax of the learning model developed obtained 98.09% and 94.39% for two schools based on the assessment of the observers. This shows that the developed model is practical to be implemented; (3) the developed model is effective for improving students’ critical thinking skills, although the n-gain of the students’ critical thinking skills was 0.54 with moderate category. Based on the results of the research above, it can be concluded that the developed P3E learning model is suitable to be used to improve students’ critical thinking skills.
Sahoo, Soumendra; Mohammed, Ciraj Ali
This intervention was aimed to analyse the effect of academic writing and journal critiquing as educational approaches in improving critical thinking and collaborative learning among undergraduate medical students. A research proposal writing format was created for the 4th year medical students of Melaka Manipal Medical College, Malaysia during their ophthalmology clinical postings. The students worked in small groups and developed research protocols through an evidence based approach. This was followed by writing reflective summaries in academic portfolios about the activity undertaken. A mixed methods study was designed to explore the possible role of collaborative research proposal writing in enhancing critical thinking and collaborative learning. Analysis of reflections submitted by 188 medical students after the intervention indicate that majority of them found an improvement in their skills of critical thinking and collaborative learning as a result of research protocol writing. All participants agreed that the model helped in applying concepts to new situations in the form of designing their own study, which reflected in enhanced higher order cognitive skills. This study shows that the introduction of a structured module in the core medical curriculum that focuses on research writing skills embedded with collaborative and reflective practices can enhance collaborative learning, critical thinking, and reasoning among medical students.
Widyatiningtyas, Reviandari; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sumarmo, Utari; Sabandar, Jozua
The study reported the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students' prior mathematical ability to student's mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from…
Zetriuslita; Wahyudin; Jarnawi
This research aims to describe and analyze result of applying Problem-Based Learning and Cognitive Conflict Strategy (PBLCCS) in increasing students' Mathematical Critical Thinking (MCT) ability and Mathematical Curiosity Attitude (MCA). Adopting a quasi-experimental method with pretest-posttest control group design and using mixed method with…
Besides focusing on grammar, writing skills, and web-based language learning, researchers in "CALL" and second language acquisition have also argued for the importance of promoting higher-order thinking skills in ESL (English as Second Language) and EFL (English as Foreign Language) classrooms. There is solid evidence supporting the…
Heng, Mary Anne; Sudarshan, Akhila
This paper examines the perceptions and understandings of ten grades 1 and 2 Singapore mathematics teachers as they learned to use clinical interviews (Ginsburg, "Human Development" 52:109-128, 2009) to understand students' mathematical thinking. This study challenged teachers' pedagogical assumptions about what it means to teach for…
Laird, Thomas F. Nelson; Seifert, Tricia A.; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Mayhew, Matthew J.; Blaich, Charles F.
This study estimates the effects of a deep approaches to learning scale and its subscales on measures of students' critical thinking, need for cognition, and positive attitudes toward literacy, controlling for pre-college scores for the outcomes and other covariates. Results suggest reflection is critical to making gains across the outcomes.
This study aimed to determine the effect of mastery learning model supported with reflective thinking activities on the fifth grade medical students' academic achievement. Mixed methods approach was applied in two samples (n = 64 and n = 6). Quantitative part of the study was based on a pre-test-post-test control group design with an experiment…
Bentley, Danielle C.
This paper describes the inaugural success of implementing Inquiry Guided Learning Projects within a college-level human anatomy and physiology course. In this context, scientific inquiry was used as a means of developing skills required for critical thinking among students. The projects were loosely designed using the Information Search Process…
Full Text Available Purpose This intervention was aimed to analyse the effect of academic writing and journal critiquing as educational approaches in improving critical thinking and collaborative learning among undergraduate medical students. Methods A research proposal writing format was created for the 4th year medical students of Melaka Manipal Medical College, Malaysia during their ophthalmology clinical postings. The students worked in small groups and developed research protocols through an evidence based approach. This was followed by writing reflective summaries in academic portfolios about the activity undertaken.A mixed methods study was designed to explore the possible role of collaborative research proposal writing in enhancing critical thinking and collaborative learning. Results Analysis of reflections submitted by 188 medical students after the intervention indicate that majority of them found an improvement in their skills of critical thinking and collaborative learning as a result of research protocol writing. All participants agreed that the model helped in applying concepts to new situations in the form of designing their own study, which reflected in enhanced higher order cognitive skills. Conclusion This study shows that the introduction of a structured module in the core medical curriculum that focuses on research writing skills embedded with collaborative and reflective practices can enhance collaborative learning, critical thinking, and reasoning among medical students.
Full Text Available This research investigates the extent to which creative processes can be fostered through computer gaming. It focuses on creative components in games that have been specifically designed for educational purposes: Digital Game Based Learning (DGBL. A behavior analysis for measuring the creative potential of computer game activities and learning outcomes is described. Creative components were measured by examining task motivation and domain-relevant and creativity-relevant skill factors. The research approach applied heuristic checklists in the field of gameplay to analyze the stage of player activities involved in the performance of the task and to examine player experiences with the Player Experience of Need Satisfaction (PENS survey. Player experiences were influenced by competency, autonomy, intuitive controls, relatedness and presence. This study examines the impact of these activities on the player experience for evaluating learning outcomes through school records. The study is designed to better understand the creative potential of people who are engaged in learning knowledge and skills during the course while playing video games. The findings show the creative potential that occurred to yield levels of creative performance within game play activities to support learning. The anticipated outcome is knowledge on how video games foster creative thinking as an overview of the Creative Potential of Learning Model (CPLN. CPLN clearly describes the interrelationships between principles of learning and creative potential, the interpretation of the results is indispensable.
Dormann, Christian; Demerouti, Eva; Bakker, Arnold; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, O.; Wittum, G.; Dengel, A.
This chapter proposes a model of positive and negative learning (PNL model). We use the term negative learning when stress among students occurs, and when knowledge and abilities are not properly developed. We use the term positive learning if motivation is high and active learning occurs. The PNL
Xie, Danfeng; Zhang, Lei; Bai, Li
Deep learning is a subfield of machine learning, which aims to learn a hierarchy of features from input data. Nowadays, researchers have intensively investigated deep learning algorithms for solving challenging problems in many areas such as image classification, speech recognition, signal processing, and natural language processing. In this study, we not only review typical deep learning algorithms in computer vision and signal processing but also provide detailed information on how to apply...
Forgasz, Helen J.
Equity and computer use for secondary mathematics learning was the focus of a three year study. In 2003, a survey was administered to a large sample of grade 7-10 students. Some of the survey items were aimed at determining home access to and ownership of computers, and students' attitudes to mathematics, computers, and computer use for…
Sorensen, Birgitte Holm
Describes a development project for the use of computer graphics and video in connection with an inservice training course for primary education teachers in Denmark. Topics addressed include research approaches to computers; computer graphics in learning processes; activities relating to computer graphics; the role of the teacher; and student…
Reviewed by Onur DONMEZ
Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have pervaded and changed much of our lives both on individual and societal scales. PCs, notebooks, tablets, cell phones, RSS feeds, emails, podcasts, tweets, social networks are all technologies we are familiar with and we are intensively using them in our daily lives. It is safe to say that our lives are becoming more and more digitized day by day.We have already invented bunch of terms to refer effects of these technologies on our lives. Digital nomads, grasshopper minds, millennium learners, digital natives, information age, knowledge building, knowledge society, network society are all terms invented to refer societal changes motivated by ICTs. New opportunities provided by ICTs are also shaping skill and quality demands of the next age. Individuals have to match these qualities if they want to earn their rightful places in tomorrow‘s world. Education is of course the sole light to guide them in their transformation to tomorrow‘s individual. One question arises however: ―are today‘s educational paradigms and practices ready to confront such a challenge?‖ There is a coherent and strong opinion among educators that the answer is ―NO‖. ―Today‘s students think and process information fundamentally differently from their predecessors‖(Prensky, 2001. And education has to keep pace with these students and their needs. But how? Khine & Saleh managed to gather distinguished colleagues around this question within their book titled ―New Science of Learning: Cognition, Computers and Collaboration‖. The book is composed of 29 chapters within three major topics which are: cognition, computers and collaboration.
Widyaningsih, E.; Waluya, S. B.; Kurniasih, A. W.
This study aims to know mastery learning of students’ critical thinking ability with learning cycle 7E, determine whether the critical thinking ability of the students with learning cycle 7E is better than students’ critical thinking ability with expository model, and describe the students’ critical thinking phases based on the mathematical anxiety level. The method is mixed method with concurrent embedded. The population is VII grade students of SMP Negeri 3 Kebumen academic year 2016/2017. Subjects are determined by purposive sampling, selected two students from each level of mathematical anxiety. Data collection techniques include test, questionnaire, interview, and documentation. Quantitative data analysis techniques include mean test, proportion test, difference test of two means, difference test of two proportions and for qualitative data used Miles and Huberman model. The results show that: (1) students’ critical thinking ability with learning cycle 7E achieve mastery learning; (2) students’ critical thinking ability with learning cycle 7E is better than students’ critical thinking ability with expository model; (3) description of students’ critical thinking phases based on the mathematical anxiety level that is the lower the mathematical anxiety level, the subjects have been able to fulfil all of the indicators of clarification, assessment, inference, and strategies phases.
Alabau, Vicent; González-Rubio, Jésus; Ortíz-Martínez, Daniel
This paper describes a pilot study with a computed-assisted translation workbench aiming at testing the integration of online and active learning features. We investigate the effect of these features on translation productivity, using interactive translation prediction (ITP) as a baseline. User...... activity data were collected from five beta testers using key-logging and eye-tracking. User feedback was also collected at the end of the experiments in the form of retrospective think-aloud protocols. We found that OL performs better than ITP, especially in terms of translation speed. In addition, AL...
E-learning systems usually require many hardware and software resources. There are many educational institutions that cannot afford such investments, and cloud computing is the best solution. This paper presents the impact on using cloud computing for e-learning solutions.
Roberts, Tim, Ed.
"Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning in Higher Education" provides a resource for researchers and practitioners in the area of computer-supported collaborative learning (also known as CSCL); particularly those working within a tertiary education environment. It includes articles of relevance to those interested in both theory and practice in…
Farah Jamal Abed Alrazeq Saeed
Full Text Available The study aimed at investigating the attitudes of Jordanian undergraduate students towards using computer assisted -language learning (CALL and its effectiveness in the process of learning the English language. In order to fulfill the study’s objective, the researchers used a questionnaire to collect data, followed-up with semi-structured interviews to investigate the students’ beliefs towards CALL. Twenty- one of Jordanian BA students majoring in English language and literature were selected according to simple random sampling. The results revealed positive attitudes towards CALL in facilitating the process of writing assignments, gaining information; making learning enjoyable; improving their creativity, productivity, academic achievement, critical thinking skills, and enhancing their knowledge about vocabulary grammar, and culture. Furthermore, they believed that computers can motivate them to learn English language and help them to communicate and interact with their teachers and colleagues. The researchers recommended conducting a research on the same topic, taking into consideration the variables of age, gender, experience in using computers, and computer skills.
... asked questions. Q: I think I want to adopt. Where do I begin? A: Thinking about adoption ... through adoption. Learn more about their How-to-Adopt and Adoption Parenting Network . Q: What are the ...
Full Text Available Based on the findings of previous studies which highlight the role of vocabulary knowledge in English as a Foreign Language/English as a Second Language (EFL/ESL learners’ learning process, this study investigated the relationship among EFL learners’ Critical Thinking (CT, Autonomy (AU, and choice of Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS. To fulfill the purpose of this study, 100 male and female undergraduate EFL learners, between the ages of 18 and 25 (Mage = 21 were randomly selected. These participants, who were receiving formal instruction by means of English as the main language along with learners’ first language, were asked to complete three questionnaires, estimating their CT, AU, and VLS. Analyzing the collected data by Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient revealed significant relationships between participants' AU and CT, CT and VLS, and AU and VLS. Furthermore, a linear regression through the stepwise method revealed that between CT and AU, AU is the best predictor of VLS. The findings of this provide EFL teachers, EFL learners, and syllabus designers with insights into the nature of VLS and the way it can be promoted through other internal factors.
The purpose of this study is to analyze an improvement of students’ mathematical critical thinking (CT) ability in Real Analysis course by using Rigorous Teaching and Learning (RTL) model with informal argument. In addition, this research also attempted to understand students’ CT on their initial mathematical ability (IMA). This study was conducted at a private university in academic year 2015/2016. The study employed the quasi-experimental method with pretest-posttest control group design. The participants of the study were 83 students in which 43 students were in the experimental group and 40 students were in the control group. The finding of the study showed that students in experimental group outperformed students in control group on mathematical CT ability based on their IMA (high, medium, low) in learning Real Analysis. In addition, based on medium IMA the improvement of mathematical CT ability of students who were exposed to RTL model with informal argument was greater than that of students who were exposed to CI (conventional instruction). There was also no effect of interaction between RTL model and CI model with both (high, medium, and low) IMA increased mathematical CT ability. Finally, based on (high, medium, and low) IMA there was a significant improvement in the achievement of all indicators of mathematical CT ability of students who were exposed to RTL model with informal argument than that of students who were exposed to CI.
In the study, the impact of inquiry-based learning on pre-service teachers' critical thinking dispositions was investigated. The sample of the study comprised of 56 pre-service teachers in the science education teacher education programme at the public university in the north of Turkey. In the study, quasi-experimental design with an experimental and a control group were applied to find out the impact of inquiry-based learning on the critical thinking dispositions of the pre-service teachers in the teacher education programme. The results showed that the pre-service teachers in the experimental group did not show statistically significant greater progress in terms of critical thinking dispositions than those in the control group. Teacher educators who are responsible for pedagogical courses in the teacher education programme should consider that the inquiry-based learning could not be effective method to improve pre-service teachers' critical thinking dispositions. The results are discussed in relation to potential impact on science teacher education and implications for future research.
construction, I stress the design of a test theory, namely, a learning algorithm. The learning algorithm is designed under such principles that users experience both 'elaborative rehearsal’ (aspects in receptive and productive learning) and 'expanding rehearsal, (memory-based learning and repetitive act...
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles in the post-transcriptional control of RNAs. Identifying RBP binding sites and characterizing RBP binding preferences are key steps toward understanding the basic mechanisms of the post-transcriptional gene regulation. Though numerous computational methods have been developed for modeling RBP binding preferences, discovering a complete structural representation of the RBP targets by integrating their available structural features in all three dimensions is still a challenging task. In this work, we develop a general and flexible deep learning framework for modeling structural binding preferences and predicting binding sites of RBPs, which takes (predicted) RNA tertiary structural information into account for the first time. Our framework constructs a unified representation that characterizes the structural specificities of RBP targets in all three dimensions, which can be further used to predict novel candidate binding sites and discover potential binding motifs. Through testing on the real CLIP-seq datasets, we have demonstrated that our deep learning framework can automatically extract effective hidden structural features from the encoded raw sequence and structural profiles, and predict accurate RBP binding sites. In addition, we have conducted the first study to show that integrating the additional RNA tertiary structural features can improve the model performance in predicting RBP binding sites, especially for the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), which also provides a new evidence to support the view that RBPs may own specific tertiary structural binding preferences. In particular, the tests on the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) segments yield satisfiable results with experimental support from the literature and further demonstrate the necessity of incorporating RNA tertiary structural information into the prediction model. The source code of our approach can be found in https://github.com/thucombio/deepnet-rbp.
Khoiriyah, U.; Roberts, C.; Jorm, C.; Vleuten, C.P. van der
BACKGROUND: Problem based learning (PBL) is a powerful learning activity but fidelity to intended models may slip and student engagement wane, negatively impacting learning processes, and outcomes. One potential solution to solve this degradation is by encouraging self-assessment in the PBL
Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of life characterised by changes in learning and decision-making. Learning and decision-making do not rely on a unitary system, but instead require the coordination of different cognitive processes that can be mathematically formalised as dissociable computational modules. Here, we aimed to trace the developmental time-course of the computational modules responsible for learning from reward or punishment, and learning from counterfactual feedback. Adolescents and adults carried out a novel reinforcement learning paradigm in which participants learned the association between cues and probabilistic outcomes, where the outcomes differed in valence (reward versus punishment and feedback was either partial or complete (either the outcome of the chosen option only, or the outcomes of both the chosen and unchosen option, were displayed. Computational strategies changed during development: whereas adolescents' behaviour was better explained by a basic reinforcement learning algorithm, adults' behaviour integrated increasingly complex computational features, namely a counterfactual learning module (enabling enhanced performance in the presence of complete feedback and a value contextualisation module (enabling symmetrical reward and punishment learning. Unlike adults, adolescent performance did not benefit from counterfactual (complete feedback. In addition, while adults learned symmetrically from both reward and punishment, adolescents learned from reward but were less likely to learn from punishment. This tendency to rely on rewards and not to consider alternative consequences of actions might contribute to our understanding of decision-making in adolescence.
Shaalan, Khaled F.
This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…
Brown, Sydney E.; Karle, Sarah Thomas; Kelly, Brian
DSGN110 was a multidisciplinary course teaching first year students enrolled in in a variety of majors about design thinking. The course is offered for the majors of architecture, landscape architecture, interior design, community and regional planning, along with computer science and business students. By blending face-to-face and online…
This paper reviews the learning theories, focusing to the strong interest in technology use for language learning. It is important to look at how technology has been used in the field thus far. The goals of this review are to understand how computers have been used in the past years to support foreign language learning, and to explore any research evidence with regards to how computer technology can enhance language skills acquisition
Buscema, Massimo; Sacco, Pier Luigi
We propose an alternative approach to "deep" learning that is based on computational ecologies of structurally diverse artificial neural networks, and on dynamic associative memory responses to stimuli. Rather than focusing on massive computation of many different examples of a single situation, we opt for model-based learning and adaptive flexibility. Cross-fertilization of learning processes across multiple domains is the fundamental feature of human intelligence that must inform "new" artificial intelligence.
Effect of Learning Think-Pair-Share Think through the combined pattern Empowerment Question on Metacognitive Skills, Creative Thinking, Understanding Concepts IPA and retention as well as Social Attitudes Students
Full Text Available Pengaruh Pembelajaran Think-Pair-Share dipadu Pola Pemberdayaan Berpikir melalui Pertanyaan terhadap Keterampilan Metakognitif, Berpikir Kreatif, Pemahaman Konsep IPA dan Retensinya serta Sikap Sosial Siswa Abstract: cooperative learning is a teaching strategy to raise awareness of student thinking, solve problems together by integrating and applying skills and knowledge, empowering metacognitive learning development, a means to teach social skills students need to live and work together. This study aims to determine the effect pattern combined PBMP TPS learning strategy against metacognitive skills, creative thinking skills, understanding of concepts, understanding of the concept of retention, and social attitudes of students. This study used a quasi-experimental approach (quasi experimental to design non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Analysis of data normality test and homogeneity test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. The study population is class VIII SMPN 1 Pasuruan learning year 2012/2013. Samples were selected at random to determine the experimental class and control class. Results of the study are: (1 no influence on the strategy of metacognitive skills, creative thinking skills, understanding of concepts, and social attitudes among the students who were given a learning strategy with the given TPS PBMP multistrategi learning, (2 there is an influence on the retention of understanding of the concept among students TPS given PBMP learning strategy with a given learning multistrategi. The increase occurred in the class and the class multistrategi PBMP TPS. Key Words: TPS, PBMP, metacognitive skills, creative thinking, understanding of concepts, understanding of the concept of retention, social attitudes Abstrak: Strategi pembelajaran kooperatif merupakan pembelajaran untuk menumbuhkan kesadaran berpikir siswa, menyelesaikan masalah secara bersama dengan mengintegrasikan serta mengaplikasikan kemampuan dan pengetahuan
Syahputra, Edi; Surya, Edy
This paper is a summary study of team Postgraduate on 11th grade. The objective of this study is to develop a learning model based on problem solving which can construct high-order thinking on the learning mathematics in SMA/MA. The subject of dissemination consists of Students of 11th grade in SMA/MA in 3 kabupaten/kota in North Sumatera, namely:…
Choi, Eunyoung; Lindquist, Ruth; Song, Yeoungsuk
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a method widely used in nursing education to develop students' critical thinking skills to solve practice problems independently. Although PBL has been used in nursing education in Korea for nearly a decade, few studies have examined its effects on Korean nursing students' learning outcomes, and few Korean studies have examined relationships among these outcomes. The objectives of this study are to examine outcome abilities including critical thinking, problem-solving, and self-directed learning of nursing students receiving PBL vs. traditional lecture, and to examine correlations among these outcome abilities. A quasi-experimental non-equivalent group pretest-posttest design was used. First-year nursing students (N=90) were recruited from two different junior colleges in two cities (GY and GJ) in South Korea. In two selected educational programs, one used traditional lecture methods, while the other used PBL methods. Standardized self-administered questionnaires of critical thinking, problem-solving, and self-directed learning abilities were administered before and at 16weeks (after instruction). Learning outcomes were significantly positively correlated, however outcomes were not statistically different between groups. Students in the PBL group improved across all abilities measured, while student scores in the traditional lecture group decreased in problem-solving and self-directed learning. Critical thinking was positively associated with problem-solving and self-directed learning (r=.71, and r=.50, respectively, plearning (r=.75, pLearning outcomes of PBL were not significantly different from traditional lecture in this small underpowered study, despite positive trends. Larger studies are recommended to study effects of PBL on critical student abilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joanne R. Reid
Full Text Available A quasi-experimental study of a pedagogical treatment in critical thinking was undertaken in a college of business. The quantitative results demonstrated significant improvements in 6 of 7 measures of critical thinking using a validated assessment instrument. This treatment was taught in the college of business for four years. A qualitative/quantitative survey was taken of the graduates of the college who had taken this treatment. Quantitative results were validated by the qualitative responses of the graduates. Graduates were confirmed to use the critical thinking knowledge, skills and strategies they had learned in their personal, academic, and professional lives. Graduates were also shown to be highly satisfied with the effects of the treatment in their personal, academic, and professional lives.
Raymaker, Dora M
Critical systems thinking (CST) and community based participatory research (CBPR) are distinct approaches to inquiry which share a primary commitment to holism and human emancipation, as well as common grounding in critical theory and emancipatory and pragmatic philosophy. This paper explores their intersections and complements on a historical, philosophical, and theoretical level, and then proposes a hybrid approach achieved by applying CBPR's principles and considerations for operationalizing emancipatory practice to traditional systems thinking frameworks and practices. This hybrid approach is illustrated in practice with examples drawn from of the implementation of the learning organization model in an action research setting with the Autistic community. Our experience of being able to actively attend to, and continuously equalize, power relations within an organizational framework that otherwise has great potential for reinforcing power inequity suggests CBPR's principles and considerations for operationalizing emancipatory practice could be useful in CST settings, and CST's vocabulary, methods, and clarity around systems thinking concepts could be valuable to CBPR practioners.
Full Text Available This study aimed at 1 investigating the problems and needs for the enhancement of learning management performances emphasizing the higher order thinking skills for lower secondary Science teachers, 2 developing an effective curriculum to enhance the learning management performances which emphasized the higher order thinking skills for lower secondary Science teachers, and 3 studying the effects of using the curriculum developed for the enhancement of learning management performances emphasizing the higher order thinking skills for lower secondary Science teachers. The research was conducted in 4 phases. Phase 1 of the research was the study of fundamental information regarding problems and needs for the enhancement of learning management performances emphasizing the higher order thinking skills for lower secondary Science teachers. It was carried out by studying the related literature and exploring the needs. The instrument used in Phase 1 study was the needs assessment. The statistics used for data analysis were mean ( , percentage (%, and standard deviation (S.D.. The result of the study revealed that the Science teachers’ prior knowledge was at low level and the need to enhance their performances was at high level. The development of the curriculum was carried out in Phase 2 of the study. The curriculum was constructed and developed in order to enhance the learning management performances which emphasized the higher order thinking skills. The instrument used was the appropriateness the assessment of the curriculum framework. Mean ( , percentage (%, and standard deviation (S.D. were used to analyze the data. The result of the assessment showed that the overall appropriateness of the curriculum was at high level. The main components of the curriculum comprised of curriculum’s problem and necessity, rationale, objective, structure, training activity, training media, training duration, and evaluation and assessment. The curriculum trial was
Full Text Available In the world of eastern thought, narration of exemplary events is common through methods of mythical expression such as fairy tales, stories, myths etc. In these discourses, it is aimed at giving moral advice and thus educating the audience. It is stated in these discourses in which surreal events are told people who stand up against distress and difficulties retain their happiness. In such narrative texts, on one hand hope is being kept alive; on the other hand, such messages as patience, clinging to honesty under harsh times and possessing stamina are conveyed to the audience. Likewise, today, surreal events; namely, mythical fictions are animated in cartoons, animation and computer games. In these games, it is told that the most brutal battles are carried out through the most merciless weapons and only the most powerful one wins. These games, causing youth to grow up as aggressive, merciless and likely to try each way to seize power, should be examined in terms of education as well as that way of thinking. In this article, the form of thinking in the stories in which surreal events in the past were narrated is compared in terms of ethical values with the form of thinking in recent computer games in which surreal events are embedded.
Arburn, Theresa Morkovsky
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether learning thinking strategies within the context of a community college course in Human Anatomy and Physiology would result in increased academic performance and the incidence of critical thinking skills. Included in the study sample were 68 community college students, many of whom would be categorized as "at-risk," who were enrolled in four sections of a Human Anatomy and Physiology class. Two of the class sections served as the experimental group and two sections served as the control group. During the course of one semester, members of the experimental group participated in the use of a student-generated questioning technique in conjunction with lecture presentations, while members of the control group did not. All students were pretested using the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). Posttesting was completed using these same instruments and an end-of-course comprehensive examination. Analysis of data revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control groups with regard to their overall achievement, their ability to process information, or their demonstration of critical thinking. It was interesting to note, however, that members of the experimental group did exhibit a change in their ability to select main ideas, apply deductive reasoning, and use inference. While the use of thinking strategies within the context of the course did not effect a significant change in academic achievement or critical thinking among at-risk community college students, it should be noted that application of a non-lecture method of class participation had no negative impact on student performance. Whether more abstruse changes have occurred with regard to the acquisition of cognitive skills remains to be elucidated.
Drie, J.P. van
Recent technological developments have provided new environments for learning, giving rise to the question of how characteristics of such new learning environments can facilitate the process of learning in specific domains. The focus of this thesis is on computer-supported collaborative learning
Sugiman; Sugiharti, E.; Kurniawati, N. F.
Government and the private parties had also organized of Special School (SS) and Inclusive School. SS requires of math teachers who were professional in the material, but also master the needs of Children with Disabilities (CwD) in teaching-learning process. The problem: How to design the Teaching Aids for CwD through Extra-Curriculum Training (ECT) activities to Joyful Learning? The purposes of this research: (1) To find new ways how to grow the imaginative in mathematical thinking for students of Mathematics Education. (2) To find a Teaching Aids Design that suitable for CwD who studying in SS. (3) In order to create a Teaching Aids for CwD through activities based on ECT to Joyful Learning. The research method was done by qualitative approach. The research subjects were 6 students of Mathematics Education Study Program of FMIPA UNNES who were interested in attending of the training activities based on ECT. The results: (1) ECT can be a place to grow an Imaginative in Mathematical Thinking of students, (2) created the design of the teaching aids for CwD through activities based on ECT to Joyful Learning as a mirror of the imaginative growth in mathematical thinking for students.
Developing countries have a responsibility not merely to provide computers for schools, but also to foster a habit of infusing a variety of ways in which computers can be integrated in teaching-learning amongst the end users of these tools. Earlier researches lacked a systematic study of the manner and the extent of computer-use by teachers. The…
Hall, T.; Bannon, L.
In recent years, novel paradigms of computing have emerged, which enable computational power to be embedded in artefacts and in environments in novel ways. These developments may create new possibilities for using computing to enhance learning. This paper presents the results of a design process that set out to explore interactive techniques,…
Xhafa, Fatos [Polytechnic Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Languages and Informatics Systems; Caballe, Santi; Daradoumis, Thanasis [Open Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Computer Sciences Multimedia and Telecommunications; Abraham, Ajith [Machine Intelligence Research Labs (MIR Labs), Auburn, WA (United States). Scientific Network for Innovation and Research Excellence; Juan Perez, Angel Alejandro (eds.) [Open Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Information Sciences
E-Learning has become one of the most wide spread ways of distance teaching and learning. Technologies such as Web, Grid, and Mobile and Wireless networks are pushing teaching and learning communities to find new and intelligent ways of using these technologies to enhance teaching and learning activities. Indeed, these new technologies can play an important role in increasing the support to teachers and learners, to shorten the time to learning and teaching; yet, it is necessary to use intelligent techniques to take advantage of these new technologies to achieve the desired support to teachers and learners and enhance learners' performance in distributed learning environments. The chapters of this volume bring advances in using intelligent techniques for technology enhanced learning as well as development of e-Learning applications based on such techniques and supported by technology. Such intelligent techniques include clustering and classification for personalization of learning, intelligent context-aware techniques, adaptive learning, data mining techniques and ontologies in e-Learning systems, among others. Academics, scientists, software developers, teachers and tutors and students interested in e-Learning will find this book useful for their academic, research and practice activity. (orig.)
Mayer, Richard E.; Moreno, Roxana
Presents a cognitive theory of multimedia learning that draws on dual coding theory, cognitive load theory, and constructivist learning theory and derives some principles of instructional design for fostering multimedia learning. These include principles of multiple representation, contiguity, coherence, modality, and redundancy. (SLD)
Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Matteucci, Mariagiulia; Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; De Wannemacker, Stefan; Clarebout, Geraldine; De Causmaecker, Patrick
A major goal in computerized learning systems is to optimize learning, while in computerized adaptive tests (CAT) efficient measurement of the proficiency of students is the main focus. There seems to be a common interest to integrate computerized adaptive item selection in learning systems and
Larsen, Lasse Juel; Løfgreen, Lars Bo
In the long-standing tradition for discounting digital technologies as a learning resource within the formal educational setting, computer games have often either been marked as distraction or totally ignored. However, as argued in the paradigmatic text by Shaffer, Squire, Halverson and Gee, Video...... Games and The Future of Learning, computer games do not only offer an interesting perspective on how “learners can understand complex concepts without losing the connection between abstract ideas and the real problems”, but can as well cast “a glimpse into how we might create new and more powerful ways...... to learn in schools, communities, and workplaces – new ways to learn for a new Information Age” . In line with this general approach to seeing computer games as a reservoir of learning strategies and potentials, this paper aims to examine how a specific computer game teach us how to play the game. [1...
Olafenwa , John ,; Olafenwa , Moses
An investigation of the concepts of thoughts, imagination and consciousness in learning machines.; 68 years ago, Alan Turing proposed the question "Can Machines Think" in his seminal paper  titled "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" and he formulated the "Imitation Game" also known as the Turing test as a way to answer this question without referring to a rather ambiguous dictionary definition of the word "Think" We have come a long way to building intelligent machines, in fact, the rat...
Marshall, Teresa A; Straub-Morarend, Cheryl L; Handoo, Nidhi; Solow, Catherine M; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; Finkelstein, Michael W
Introducing critical thinking and evidence-based dentistry (EBD) content into an established dental curriculum can be a difficult and challenging process. Over the past three years, the University of Iowa College of Dentistry has developed and implemented a progressive four-year integrated critical thinking and EBD curriculum. The objective of this article is to describe the development and implementation process to make it available as a model for other dental schools contemplating introduction of critical thinking and EBD into their curricula. The newly designed curriculum built upon an existing problem-based learning foundation, which introduces critical thinking and the scientific literature in the D1 year, in order to expose students to the rationale and resources for practicing EBD in the D2 and D3 years and provide opportunities to practice critical thinking and apply the EBD five-step process in the D2, D3, and D4 years. All curricular content is online, and D3 and D4 EBD activities are integrated within existing clinical responsibilities. The curricular content, student resources, and student activities are described.
Verlinden, Nathan; Kruger, Nicholas; Carroll, Ailey; Trumbo, Tiffany
Objective. To determine if the process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) teaching strategy improves student performance and engages higher-level thinking skills of first-year pharmacy students in an Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences course. Design. Overall examination scores and scores on questions categorized as requiring either higher-level or lower-level thinking skills were compared in the same course taught over 3 years using traditional lecture methods vs the POGIL strategy. Student perceptions of the latter teaching strategy were also evaluated. Assessment. Overall mean examination scores increased significantly when POGIL was implemented. Performance on questions requiring higher-level thinking skills was significantly higher, whereas performance on questions requiring lower-level thinking skills was unchanged when the POGIL strategy was used. Student feedback on use of this teaching strategy was positive. Conclusion. The use of the POGIL strategy increased student overall performance on examinations, improved higher-level thinking skills, and provided an interactive class setting. PMID:25741027
Duo, Sun; Song, Lu Xue
In recent years, e-learning as a learning system is very popular. But the current e-learning systems cannot instruct students effectively since they do not consider the emotional state in the context of instruction. The emergence of the theory about "Affective computing" can solve this question. It can make the computer's intelligence no longer be a pure cognitive one. In this paper, we construct an emotional intelligent e-learning system based on "Affective computing". A dimensional model is put forward to recognize and analyze the student's emotion state and a virtual teacher's avatar is offered to regulate student's learning psychology with consideration of teaching style based on his personality trait. A "man-to-man" learning environment is built to simulate the traditional classroom's pedagogy in the system.
Haridza, R.; E Irving, K.
Traditional methods such as rote learning and memorization in teaching science create passive students in science classrooms. The impact of this continuous action for many decades is inactive learners who cannot develop higher order thinking skills. Based on the performance test, students’ critical thinking skill in Public Middle School 3 Pontianak was in low level although their achievement score were higher than school standards. The purpose of this study is to develop critical thinking skills of middle school students using Problem Based Learning 4 Core Areas (PBL4C). The design of this research is classroom action research with two cycles. Data has been collected using observation checklist, rating scale, self and peer assessment. Research findings reveal that students experience development from 11.11% to 88.45% in identifying the problem correctly, 37.03% to 76.92% for sub skills distinguish knowledge and opinion, 18.51% to 65.38% for sub skills providing possible solution, 22.22% to 69.23% for sub skills making decision, and 11.11% to 69.23% for sub skills identifying the impact of the implementation of their solution. In conclusion, the findings indicate that development of students’ critical thinking skills occurs when PBL4C model applied in science classroom. These findings suggest that teachers should act as facilitator in a classroom as well as should provide meaningful learning resources that can benefit students’ critical thinking skills. On the other hand, students should practice constantly to offer a sharp, accurate and appropriate solution.
Full Text Available Within the mind, there are a myriad of ideas that make sense within the bounds of everyday experience, but are not reflective of how the world actually exists; this is particularly true in the domain of science. Classroom learning with teacher explanation are a bridge through which these naive understandings can be brought in line with scientific reality. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the application of a Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA can work in concert with an existing computational-model to effectively model critical-thinking in the science classroom. An evolutionary algorithm is an algorithm that iteratively optimizes machine learning based computational models. The research question is, does the application of an evolutionary algorithm provide a means to optimize the Student Task and Cognition Model (STAC-M and does the optimized model sufficiently represent and predict teaching and learning outcomes in the science classroom? Within this computational study, the authors outline and simulate the effect of teaching on the ability of a “virtual” student to solve a Piagetian task. Using the Student Task and Cognition Model (STAC-M a computational model of student cognitive processing in science class developed in 2013, the authors complete a computational experiment which examines the role of cognitive retraining on student learning. Comparison of the STAC-M and the STAC-M with inclusion of the Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm shows greater success in solving the Piagetian science-tasks post cognitive retraining with the Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm. This illustrates the potential uses of cognitive and neuropsychological computational modeling in educational research. The authors also outline the limitations and assumptions of computational modeling.
Searing, Lisabeth Meade; Kooken, Wendy Carter
Critical thinking is the foundation for nurses' decision making. One school of nursing used the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) to document improvement in critical thinking dispositions. A retrospective study of 96 nursing students' records examined the relationships between the CCTDI and learning outcomes. Correlational statistics assessed relationships between CCTDI scores and cumulative grade point averages (GPA) and scores on two Health Education Systems Incorporated (HESI) examinations. Ordinal regression assessed predictive relationships between CCTDI scores and science course grades and NCLEX-RN success. First-year CCTDI scores did not predict first-year science grades. Senior-year CCTDI scores did not correlate with cumulative GPA or HESI RN Exit Exam scores, but were weakly correlated with HESI Pharmacology Exam scores. CCTDI scores did not predict NCLEX-RN success. This study did not identify meaningful relationships between critical thinking dispositions, as measured by the CCTDI, and important learning outcomes. The results do not support the efficacy of using the CCTDI in nursing education. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Wahyu Hari Kristiyanto
Full Text Available Old guidelines to use the whiteboard stated that teachers were not allowed to write on the whiteboard while talking, because unethical if speak while back facing students. Findings about thinking process profile in information processing were presented with a whiteboard showed that the assimilation process is going to be supported, and audio-visual stimulants. This paper aims to describe the implementation of the latest strategies to use fixed-whiteboard based on student’s thinking process in learning physics with maximum the optimal thought processes and also maintain cultural ethics. This research was conducted through the use of guideline development assessment implementation fixed-slates based on the findings of the process of thinking and ethical culture in physics learning. The results showed that the latest strategy the use of fixed-whiteboard based on the thought process students and ethical culture in learning physics are (1 the assimilation process so that the display contents whiteboard is a material that is correct and does not cause cognitive conflict, (2 they are mutually reinforcing a combination of visual and audio so that the need to write while spelling, and (3 the thinking process to the stage of internalization that stage of the emergence of good information text / image / formula can be seen intact by all students by writing not cover impressions. The implementation results show the subject has been able to implement the latest strategies use fixed-whiteboard with both categories. The conclusions of this study that the use of the latest strategies fixed-whiteboard can be used for the presentation of information which is more than usual for students according to their thinking process and also maintain cultural ethics. The implication of this research is for Workforce Education Institutions need to equip student teachers with the skills to use the whiteboard based on the latest strategy. How to CiteKristiyanto, W. H
Barto, A G
Since the usual approaches to cooperative computation in networks of neuron-like computating elements do not assume that network components have any "preferences", they do not make substantive contact with game theoretic concepts, despite their use of some of the same terminology. In the approach presented here, however, each network component, or adaptive element, is a self-interested agent that prefers some inputs over others and "works" toward obtaining the most highly preferred inputs. Here we describe an adaptive element that is robust enough to learn to cooperate with other elements like itself in order to further its self-interests. It is argued that some of the longstanding problems concerning adaptation and learning by networks might be solvable by this form of cooperativity, and computer simulation experiments are described that show how networks of self-interested components that are sufficiently robust can solve rather difficult learning problems. We then place the approach in its proper historical and theoretical perspective through comparison with a number of related algorithms. A secondary aim of this article is to suggest that beyond what is explicitly illustrated here, there is a wealth of ideas from game theory and allied disciplines such as mathematical economics that can be of use in thinking about cooperative computation in both nervous systems and man-made systems.
Çetin, Mehmet Çagri
The study was conducted in order to detect critical thinking dispositions and learning styles of the students of school of physical education and sports, to explore whether there was a significant difference in terms of gender variable and academic department variable and, to discover the correlation between critical thinking tendencies and…
Afshar, Hassan Soodmand; Movassagh, Hossein
The study investigated the relationship among critical thinking, strategy use and university achievement. To this end, 76 English major students sat the California Critical Thinking Skills Test and filled out Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning. Participants' Grade Point Averages were regarded as their university achievement. The…
The aim of this study was two-fold. The first aim was to determine the levels of critical thinking disposition and perception of problem-solving ability of pre-service teachers. The second aim was to compare the effects of problem-based learning and traditional teaching methods on the critical thinking dispositions and perceptions of…
Quantum Machine Learning bridges the gap between abstract developments in quantum computing and the applied research on machine learning. Paring down the complexity of the disciplines involved, it focuses on providing a synthesis that explains the most important machine learning algorithms in a quantum framework. Theoretical advances in quantum computing are hard to follow for computer scientists, and sometimes even for researchers involved in the field. The lack of a step-by-step guide hampers the broader understanding of this emergent interdisciplinary body of research. Quantum Machine L
Kurt A. April; Katja M. J. Goebel; Eddie Blass; Jonathan Foster-Pedley
This paper explores the value that computer and video games bring to learning and leadership and explores how games work as learning environments and the impact they have on personal development. The study looks at decisiveness, decision-making ability and styles, and on how this leadership-related skill is learnt through different paradigms. The paper compares the learning from a lecture to the learning from a designed computer game, both of which have the same content through the use of a s...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is determine the effect of search, solve, create, and share (SSCS learning model on critical thinking skills of hydrocarbons and petroleum material. The method used in this study was quasi experimental design, with research design nonequivalent control group design. The sample was taken by purposive sampling and divided into two groups consist of control group and experimental group. The data gathering techniques in this study was through 8 items of essay test instrument which is analyzed by using t-test. The results of t-test data showed that tcount ttable or 16.36 1.980 at significance level 5%, value tcount lies in the region reject H0 and accept Ha. The result shows that there are significant search, solve, create, and share (SSCS learning model on student’s critical thinking skills.
Handhika, J.; Cari, C.; Sunarno, W.; Suparmi, A.; Kurniadi, E.
This research revealed the influence of project-based learning (PjBL) to increasing the level of the conception. The research method used the pre-experimental design with one group pre-test post-test. PjBL applied to students of physics education program of IKIP PGRI Madiun (23 Students). The test used to determine the level of conception is multiple choice tests and index of certainty. Activities on PjBL described. Obtained that the PjBL model can increase the level of conception and Critical thinking skills with the average normalized gain 0.49 and 0.57 (Medium category). It can be concluded that the PjBL could improve the level of conception and critical thinking ability of the students. Implementation of each model phase following learning objectives and needs analysis is the key to improve both.
Branco, B. F.; Fano, E.; Adams, J.; Shon, L.; Zimmermann, A.; Sioux, H.; Gillis, A.
Public schools and youth voices are largely absent from climate resilience planning and projects in New York City. Additionally, research shows that U.S. science teachers' understanding of climate science is lacking, hence there is not only an urgent need to train and support teachers on both the science and pedagogy of climate change, but to link climate literacy, resilience thinking and service learning in K-12 education. However, research on participation of students and teachers in authentic, civic-oriented experiences points to increased engagement and learning outcomes in science. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC) Project will address all these needs through an afterschool program in six coastal Brooklyn schools that engages teachers and urban youth (grades 6-12), in school and community climate resilience assessment and project design. The RiSC climate curriculum, co-designed by New York City school teachers with Brooklyn College, the National Wildlife Federation, New York Sea Grant and the Science and Resilience Institute at Jamaica Bay, will begin by helping students to understand the difference between climate and weather. The curriculum makes extensive use of existing resources such as NOAA's Digital Coast and the Coastal Resilience Mapping Portal. Through a series of four modules over two school years, the six RiSC teams will; 1. explore and understand the human-induced drivers of climate change and, particularly, the significant climate and extreme weather related risks to their schools and surrounding communities; 2. complete a climate vulnerability assessment within the school and the community that is aligned to OneNYC - the city's resilience planning document; 3. design and execute a school-based resilience project; and 4. propose resilience guidelines for NYC Department of Education schools. At the end of each school year, the six RiSC teams will convene a RiSC summit with city officials and resilience practitioners to share ideas and
This article draws heavily on the author's critical autobiography: "Eileen Adams: Agent of Change." It presents evidence of the value of drawing as a medium for learning, particularly in art and design, and argues that drawing is a useful educational tool. The premise is that drawing makes you think. This article explains various…
Ross, Steven M.; McCormick, Deborah
Manipulation of flowcharting was crossed with in-class computer access to examine flowcharting effects in the traditional lecture/laboratory setting and in a classroom setting where online time was replaced with manual simulation. Seventy-two high school students (24 male and 48 female) enrolled in a computer literacy course served as subjects.…
Gretter, Sarah; Yadav, Aman
Developing students' 21st century skills, including creativity, critical thinking, and problem solving, has been a prevailing concern in our globalized and hyper-connected society. One of the key components for students to accomplish this is to take part in today's participatory culture, which involves becoming creators of knowledge rather than…
Welch, Karla Conn; Hieb, Jeffrey; Graham, James
Coursework that instills patterns of rigorous logical thought has long been a hallmark of the engineering curriculum. However, today's engineering students are expected to exhibit a wider range of thinking capabilities both to satisfy ABET requirements and to prepare the students to become successful practitioners. This paper presents the initial…
Full Text Available This paper presents a computing hosting system to provide virtual computing laboratories for learning activities. This system is based on hosting and virtualization technologies. All the components used in its development are free software tools. The computing lab model provided by the system is a more sustainable and scalable alternative than the traditional academic computing lab, and it requires lower costs of installation and operation.
Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to describe the ability of higher order thinking students in solving the problem of the concept of optics after given the learning with problem-based learning model. This research uses a descriptive method with quantitative approach. The subjects of the research are students of the second semester of physics education study program, amounting to 19 people. Data collection techniques used are two tier multiple choice shaped test consisting of eight questions include the level of analyzing, evaluating and creating. Based on the results of data analysis, it is known that the ability of high-level thinking of students in optical learning has enough categories with the following details: (1 The percentage of students who have excellent high-level thinking skills is 15.79%, good category of 31.58%, enough category of 42.11%, and category less than 10.53%; (2 The percentage of student ability in answer about level of analyze equal to 68.42%, student ability in answer about evaluation level 57.89% and equal to 53.51% for student ability in answer level question create. Keywords: higher order thinking, optics, problem-based learning model Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi mahasiswa (higher order thinking dalam menyelesaikan soal konsep optika setelah diberikan pembelajaran dengan model problem based learning. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif dengan pendekatan kuantitatif. Subjek penelitian yaitu mahasiswa semester II program studi pendidikan fisika yang berjumlah 19 orang. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah tes berbentuk two tier multiple choice yang terdiri dari delapan soal meliputi tingkatan menganalisis, mengevaluasi dan mencipta. Berdasarkan hasil analisis data, diketahui bahwa kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi mahasiswa dalam pembelajaran optika memiliki kategori cukup dengan rincian sebagai berikut: (1 Persentase mahasiswa yang
Sulistyani Puteri Ramadhani
Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan pendekatan cooperative learning tipe think, pair, and share terhadap hasil belajar PKn pada siswa kelas V sekolah dasar. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di SDN Kebon Baru 10 Pagi dengan sampel penelitian siswa kelas V pada semester II tahun pelajaran 2016-2017. Sampel penelitian menggunakan teknik Simple Random Sampling. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen. Adapun teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan menggunakan lembar tes yang dilakukan setelah materi pembelajaran diberikan lembar tes untuk mengetahui hasil belajar PKn siswa, yang sebelumnya telah dilakukan pengujian validitas dan reliabilitas dengan justifikasi ahli dan dianalisis dengan uji normalitas dan uji homogenitas baik kelas kontrol maupun kelas eksperimen. Hasil pengujian normalitas menunjukan bahwa kedua kelas berdistribusi normal. Hasil pengujian homogenitas menunjukan bahwa kedua kelas tersebut homogen. Setelah dilakukan uji persyaratan analisis, maka dilakukan uji hipotesis dengan perhitungan uji-t. Berdasarkan hasil perhitungan uji-t maka hipotesis nol (Ho ditolak dan hipotesis kerja (H1 diterima. Dari perhitungan tersebut maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan pendekatan cooperative learning tipe think, pair, and share berpengaruh signifikan terhadap hasil belajar PKn pada siswa kelas V sekolah dasar. Implikasi hasil penelitian ini adalah penggunaan pendekatan cooperative learning tipe think, pair, and share pada pembelajaran PKn dapat diterapkan guru agar dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa.
Full Text Available Applying a Mobile Human Computer Interaction (MHCI) view to the domain of education using Mobile Learning (Mlearning), the research outlines its understanding of the influences and effects of different interactions on the use of mobile technology...
Doulamis, Nikolaos; Doulamis, Anastasios; Protopapadakis, Eftychios
Over the last years deep learning methods have been shown to outperform previous state-of-the-art machine learning techniques in several fields, with computer vision being one of the most prominent cases. This review paper provides a brief overview of some of the most significant deep learning schemes used in computer vision problems, that is, Convolutional Neural Networks, Deep Boltzmann Machines and Deep Belief Networks, and Stacked Denoising Autoencoders. A brief account of their history, structure, advantages, and limitations is given, followed by a description of their applications in various computer vision tasks, such as object detection, face recognition, action and activity recognition, and human pose estimation. Finally, a brief overview is given of future directions in designing deep learning schemes for computer vision problems and the challenges involved therein. PMID:29487619
Valeria V. Gribova
Full Text Available A toolset of a medical computer learning simulator for ophthalmology with virtual reality and its implementation are considered in the paper. The simulator is oriented for professional skills training for students of medical universities.
Full Text Available Over the last years deep learning methods have been shown to outperform previous state-of-the-art machine learning techniques in several fields, with computer vision being one of the most prominent cases. This review paper provides a brief overview of some of the most significant deep learning schemes used in computer vision problems, that is, Convolutional Neural Networks, Deep Boltzmann Machines and Deep Belief Networks, and Stacked Denoising Autoencoders. A brief account of their history, structure, advantages, and limitations is given, followed by a description of their applications in various computer vision tasks, such as object detection, face recognition, action and activity recognition, and human pose estimation. Finally, a brief overview is given of future directions in designing deep learning schemes for computer vision problems and the challenges involved therein.
Voulodimos, Athanasios; Doulamis, Nikolaos; Doulamis, Anastasios; Protopapadakis, Eftychios
Over the last years deep learning methods have been shown to outperform previous state-of-the-art machine learning techniques in several fields, with computer vision being one of the most prominent cases. This review paper provides a brief overview of some of the most significant deep learning schemes used in computer vision problems, that is, Convolutional Neural Networks, Deep Boltzmann Machines and Deep Belief Networks, and Stacked Denoising Autoencoders. A brief account of their history, structure, advantages, and limitations is given, followed by a description of their applications in various computer vision tasks, such as object detection, face recognition, action and activity recognition, and human pose estimation. Finally, a brief overview is given of future directions in designing deep learning schemes for computer vision problems and the challenges involved therein.
Yu, Shimeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Yu, Hongyu; Kang, Jinfeng; Wong, H-S Philip
Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design.
Full Text Available This research was done to observe the difference of learning achievement between student who have been teach by Enhancement Learning Model of Student’s Thinking Ability and Conventional Model. This research was done at SMP Negeri 2 Gebang. Type of this research is quasi experiment. Research population is every student of grade VIII semester 2 SMP Negeri 2 Gebang. Research sample was taken by random sampling around 2 classes as 34 students for experiment class and 34 students for control class. Learning achievement of test objective 20 of multiple choice was done as an instrument. The experiment result of pretest average is 37.94 for experiment class and 36.82 for control class. Treatment was done to each class, post test average score is 73.38 for experiment class and for student who have been teach by conventional learning is 67.05. Hypothetical testing is tcalculate > ttabe i.e 3.459 > 1.66 with significance standard α = 0.05 and dk = 66. It means that Ha was accepted, so it may conclude that there is a difference of learning achievement between Enhancement Learning Model of Student’s Thinking Ability with Conventional Learning Model for Force and Newton Laws on Grade VIII SMP Negeri 2 Gebang Annual Year 2011/2012.
Juana Marlen Tellez Reinoso
Full Text Available To learn the treatment to image, specifically in the application Photoshop Marinates is one of the objectives in the specialty of Degree in Education, Computer Sciencie, guided to guarantee the preparation of the students as future professional, being able to reach in each citizen of our country an Integral General Culture. With that purpose a computer application is suggested, of tutorial type, entitled “Learning Treatment to Image".