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Sample records for lead sulfates

  1. Sulfation in lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherino, Henry A.; Feres, Fred F.; Trinidad, Francisco

    Virtually, all military land vehicle systems use a lead-acid battery to initiate an engine start. The maintainability of these batteries and as a consequence, system readiness, has suffered from a lack of understanding of the reasons for battery failure. Often, the term most commonly heard for explaining the performance degradation of lead-acid batteries is the word, sulfation. Sulfation is a residual term that came into existence during the early days of lead-acid battery development. The usage is part of the legend that persists as a means for interpreting and justifying the eventual performance deterioration and failure of lead-acid batteries. The usage of this term is confined to the greater user community and, over time, has encouraged a myriad of remedies for solving sulfation problems. One can avoid the connotations associated with the all-inclusive word, sulfation by visualizing the general "sulfation" effect in terms of specific mechanistic models. Also, the mechanistic models are essential for properly understanding the operation and making proper use this battery system. It is evident that the better the model, the better the level of understanding.

  2. Secondary effects of anion exchange on chloride, sulfate, and lead release: systems approach to corrosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Hillary; Boyer, Treavor H

    2012-05-01

    Water treatment processes can cause secondary changes in water chemistry that alter finished water quality including chloride, sulfate, natural organic matter (NOM), and metal release. Hence, the goal of this research was to provide an improved understanding of the chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) with regards to chloride and sulfate variations at full-scale water treatment plants and corrosion potential under simulated premise plumbing conditions. Laboratory corrosion studies were conducted using Pb-Sn solder/Cu tubing galvanic cells exposed to model waters with low (approx. 5 mg/L Cl(-) and 10 mg/L SO(4)(2-)) and high (approx. 50 mg/L Cl(-) and 100 mg/L SO(4)(2-)) concentrations of chloride and sulfate at a constant CSMR of ≈ 0.5. The role of NOM during corrosion was also evaluated by changing the type of organic material. In addition, full-scale sampling was conducted to quantify the raw water variability of chloride, sulfate, and NOM concentrations and the changes to these parameters from magnetic ion exchange treatment. Test conditions with higher concentrations of chloride and sulfate released significantly more lead than the lower chloride and sulfate test waters. In addition, the source of NOM was a key factor in the amount of lead released with the model organic compounds yielding significantly less lead release than aquatic NOM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polyaniline–lead sulfate based cell with supercapattery behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsadek A. Alguail

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemically synthesized polyaniline and lead sulfate are investigated as a possible active material of the aqueous based hybrid asymmetric supercapacitors. The electrochemical characteristics of polyaniline (doping-dedoping reactions, as well as electrical characteristics (specific capacitance, capacity, energy, and power of the PbSO4|PANI cell, are determined. Based on the estimated specific energy and power, it is suggested that investigated cell could be classified as “supercapattery” type of electrochemical power sources.

  4. Obtaining of barium sulfate from solution formed after desulfation of the active mass of scrap lead-acid batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kalko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of literature data about processes for solution utilization formed after desulfation of the active mass of scrap lead-acid batteries is performed. Optimal conditions for obtaining of barium sulfate sediment from ammonium sulfate solute and chemically pure Ba(OH2×8H2O и BaCl2×2H2O were found experimentally. In laboratory the commercial barium sulfate from sulfate solutions, that are waste of recycling process of battery scrap, with application of chloride and barium hydroxide was production. The possibility of using this product were discussed.

  5. Development and validation of an alternative titration method for the determination of sulfate ion in indinavir sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno de Carvalho e Silva

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid precipitation titration method was developed and validated to determine sulfate ion content in indinavir sulfate raw material. 0.1 mol L-1 lead nitrate volumetric solution was used as titrant employing potentiometric endpoint determination using a lead-specific electrode. The United States Pharmacopoeia Forum indicates a potentiometric method for sulfate ion quantitation using 0.1 mol L-1 lead perchlorate as titrant. Both methods were validated concerning linearity, precision and accuracy, yielding good results. The sulfate ion content found by the two validated methods was compared by the statistical t-student test, indicating that there was no statistically significant difference between the methods.

  6. Evaluation of feed COD/sulfate ratio as a control criterion for the biological hydrogen sulfide production and lead precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, Antonio; Ramirez, Martha; Volke-Sepulveda, Tania; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Armando; Revah, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce hydrogen sulfide and the high affinity of sulfide to react with divalent metallic cations represent an excellent option to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Different parameters have been proposed to control the hydrogen sulfide production by anaerobic bacteria, such as the organic and sulfate loading rates and the feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio. This work relates the feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio with the hydrogen sulfide production and dissolved lead precipitation, using ethanol as carbon and energy source in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. A maximum dissolved sulfide concentration of 470 ± 7 mg S/L was obtained at a feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 2.5, with sulfate and ethanol conversions of approximately 94 and 87%, respectively. The lowest dissolved sulfide concentration (145 ± 10 mg S/L) was observed with a feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 0.67. Substantial amounts of acetate (510-1730 mg/L) were produced and accumulated in the bioreactor from ethanol oxidation. Although only incomplete oxidation of ethanol to acetate was observed, the consortium was able to remove 99% of the dissolved lead (200 mg/L) with a feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 1.5. It was found that the feed COD/SO 4 2- ratio could be an adequate parameter to control the hydrogen sulfide production and the consequent precipitation of dissolved lead

  7. Acute Exacerbations of COPD Are Associated With Increased Expression of Heparan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate in BAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Eleni; Klagas, Ioannis; Roth, Michael; Tamm, Michael; Stolz, Daiana

    2016-03-01

    Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPDs) are associated with accelerated aggravation of clinical symptoms and deterioration of pulmonary function. The mechanisms by which exacerbations may contribute to airway remodeling and declined lung function are poorly understood. We investigated whether AECOPDs are associated with differential expression of glycosaminoglycans in BAL in a cohort of 97 patients with COPD. Patients with COPD with either stable disease (n = 53) or AECOPD (n = 44) and undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy were matched for demographics and lung function parameters. Levels of heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in BAL were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were significantly increased in BAL of patients during exacerbations. Levels of heparan sulfate were higher in the BAL of patients with microbial infections. Chondroitin sulfate was negatively correlated with FEV1 % predicted but not with diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide % predicted, indicating that chondroitin sulfate is associated with airway remodeling, leading to obstruction rather than to emphysema. Furthermore, heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were significantly correlated with MMP-9, MMP-2, and MMP-12 in BAL, indicating that they were cleaved from their respective proteoglycans by MMPs and subsequently washed out in BAL. During AECOPD, there is increased expression of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in BAL. These molecules are significantly correlated with MMPs in BAL, indicating that they may be associated with airway remodeling and may lead to lung function decline during exacerbations of COPD. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of feed COD/sulfate ratio as a control criterion for the biological hydrogen sulfide production and lead precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, Antonio [Direccion General del Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental-Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: jvelasco@ine.gob.mx; Ramirez, Martha [Direccion General del Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental-Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico); Volke-Sepulveda, Tania [Departamento de Biotecnologia, UAM-Cuajimalpa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Sanchez, Armando [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, UAM-Cuajimalpa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico); Revah, Sergio [Departamento de Procesos y Tecnologia, UAM-Cuajimalpa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa, Mexico 09340, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-03-01

    The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce hydrogen sulfide and the high affinity of sulfide to react with divalent metallic cations represent an excellent option to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Different parameters have been proposed to control the hydrogen sulfide production by anaerobic bacteria, such as the organic and sulfate loading rates and the feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio. This work relates the feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio with the hydrogen sulfide production and dissolved lead precipitation, using ethanol as carbon and energy source in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. A maximum dissolved sulfide concentration of 470 {+-} 7 mg S/L was obtained at a feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio of 2.5, with sulfate and ethanol conversions of approximately 94 and 87%, respectively. The lowest dissolved sulfide concentration (145 {+-} 10 mg S/L) was observed with a feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio of 0.67. Substantial amounts of acetate (510-1730 mg/L) were produced and accumulated in the bioreactor from ethanol oxidation. Although only incomplete oxidation of ethanol to acetate was observed, the consortium was able to remove 99% of the dissolved lead (200 mg/L) with a feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio of 1.5. It was found that the feed COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio could be an adequate parameter to control the hydrogen sulfide production and the consequent precipitation of dissolved lead.

  9. Studies on mathematical modeling of the leaching process in order to efficiently recover lead from the sulfate/oxide lead paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzatu, Traian; Ghica, Gabriel Valeriu; Petrescu, Ionuţ Mircea; Iacob, Gheorghe; Buzatu, Mihai; Niculescu, Florentina

    2017-02-01

    Increasing global lead consumption has been mainly supported by the acid battery manufacturing industry. As the lead demand will continue to grow, to provide the necessary lead will require an efficient approach to recycling lead acid batteries. In this paper was performed a mathematical modeling of the process parameters for lead recovery from spent lead-acid batteries. The results of the mathematical modeling compare well with the experimental data. The experimental method applied consists in the solubilisation of the sulfate/oxide paste with sodium hydroxide solutions followed by electrolytic processing for lead recovery. The parameters taken into considerations were NaOH molarity (4M, 6M and 8M), solid/liquid ratio - S/L (1/10, 1/30 and 1/50) and temperature (40°C, 60°C and 80°C). The optimal conditions resulted by mathematical modeling of the electrolytic process of lead deposition from alkaline solutions have been established by using a second-order orthogonal program, in order to obtain a maximum efficiency of current without exceeding an imposed energy specific consumption. The optimum value for the leaching recovery efficiency, obtained through mathematical modeling, was 89.647%, with an error of δ y =3.623 which leads to a maximum recovery efficiency of 86.024%. The optimum values for each variable that ensure the lead extraction efficiency equal to 89.647% are the following: 3M - NaOH, 1/35 - S/L, 70°C - temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mercury and lead tolerance in hypersaline sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harithsa, S.; Kerkar, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    -sporulating, non-motile rods lacking in desulfoviridin and cytochromes. Examination of these isolates for heavy metal tolerance and response studies in terms of growth and sulfate-reducing activity (SRA) were carried out using HgCl sub(2) and Pb(NO sub(3)) sub(2...

  11. Polarization behavior of new and used lead alloys in acid sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, P.; O' Keefe, T.J. [Univ. of Missouri-Rolla, Materials Research Center and Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Rolla, Missouri (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Polarization and Electrochemical impedance were used to study various lead alloys commercially used to electrowin zinc and copper from acidic sulfate solutions. Anode specimens that had been in service at several electrowinning operations were tested and their electrochemical performance was compared to that obtained from new anode samples. Tests were conducted in sulfuric acid. Cyclic voltammetry was used in a potential range in which both Pb{sup +2} and Pb{sup +4} formed stable phases. Selected polarization tests were also made to study a number of variables, including changes in the concentration of cobalt and manganese in the electrolyte. Results showed that the phases formed on the surface of the anode were critical in defining the electrochemical behavior of the anodes. In particular, certain active phases, which were depolarizing were identified on some of the used anodes. It was possible to duplicate some of these phases in the laboratory. (author)

  12. Chondroitin sulfate effects on neural stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, David R; Brelsford, Natalie R; Lovett, Neil W

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the role chondroitin sulfate has on cell interactions during neural plate formation in the early chick embryo. Using tissue culture isolates from the prospective neural plate, we have measured neural gene expression profiles associated with neural stem cell differentiation. Removal of chondroitin sulfate from stage 4 neural plate tissue leads to altered associations of N-cadherin-positive neural progenitors and causes changes in the normal sequence of neural marker gene expression. Absence of chondroitin sulfate in the neural plate leads to reduced Sox2 expression and is accompanied by an increase in the expression of anterior markers of neural regionalization. Results obtained in this study suggest that the presence of chondroitin sulfate in the anterior chick embryo is instrumental in maintaining cells in the neural precursor state.

  13. A technology for production of a ''Cureless'' paste containing a high concentration of tetrabasic lead sulfate and a low concentration of free lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, David P.; Loosemore, Daniel [Hammond Lead Products, Division of Hammond Group Inc., 6544 Osborn Avenue, Hammond, IN 46320 (United States)

    2007-05-25

    The conventional paste used to produce plates for lead-acid batteries comprises a mixture of leady oxide, water and sulfuric acid. Fibre and other additives, such as expander in negative plates, are added to improve paste properties and battery performance. Following pasting of the plates, they have to be cured to provide the correct chemical composition and crystal morphology, and to oxidize any residual free lead metal to lead monoxide. The desired result of the curing process is a positive plate with a high concentration of uniformly sized tetrabasic lead sulfate (4BS) crystals and with both positive and negative plates having a low concentration of free lead. Curing is a time-consuming and expensive process, which requires large numbers of chambers capable of being heated to 85 C and containing an atmosphere with a relative humidity greater than 95%. This process adds significant cost to the battery. (author)

  14. Modeling of sulfation of potassium chloride by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from critical ash-forming elements released during combustion may lead to severe ash deposition and corrosion problems in biomass-fired boilers. Ferric sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 is an effective additive, which produces sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) to convert KCl to the less...... harmful K2SO4. In the present study the decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a kinetic model is proposed to describe the decomposition process. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from ferric sulfate decomposition are investigated in a laboratory......-scale tube reactor. It is revealed that approximately 40% of the sulfur is released as SO3, the remaining fraction being released as SO2. The proposed decomposition model of ferric sulfate is combined with a detailed gas phase kinetic model of KCl sulfation, and a simplified model of K2SO4 condensation...

  15. Purification and sequence characterization of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate from fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na; Mo, Xiaoli; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) were extracted and purified from skins or bones of salmon (Salmo salar), snakehead (Channa argus), monkfish (Lophius litulon) and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis). Size, structural sequences and sulfate groups of oligosaccharides in the purified CS and DS could be characterized and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with Orbitrap mass spectrometry. CS and DS chain structure varies depending on origin, but motif structure appears consistent. Structures of CS and DS oligosaccharides with different size and sulfate groups were compared between fishes and other animals, and results showed that some minor differences of special structures could be identified by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-liquid chromatography-fourier transform-mass/mass spectrometry (HILIC-LC-FT-MS/MS). For example, data showed that salmon and skipjack CS had a higher percentage content of high-level sulfated oligosaccharides than that porcine CS. In addition, structural information of different origins of CS and DS was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and results showed that CS and DS samples could be differentiated according to their molecular conformation and oligosaccharide fragments information. Understanding CS and DS structure derived from different origins may lead to the production of CS or DS with unique disaccharides or oligosaccharides sequence composition and biological functions.

  16. Podocyte-specific deletion of NDST1, a key enzyme in the sulfation of heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans, leads to abnormalities in podocyte organization in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugar, T.; Wassenhove-McCarthy, D.J.; Esko, J.D.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Holzman, L.; McCarthy, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been shown to modulate podocyte adhesion to--and pedicel organization on--the glomerular basement membrane. Recent studies showed that foot process effacement developed in a mutant mouse model whose podocytes were unable to assemble heparan sulfate

  17. Is Encephalopathy a Mechanism to Renew Sulfate in Autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Lentz-Marino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes two claims: (1 autism can be characterized as a chronic low-grade encephalopathy, associated with excess exposure to nitric oxide, ammonia and glutamate in the central nervous system, which leads to hippocampal pathologies and resulting cognitive impairment, and (2, encephalitis is provoked by a systemic deficiency in sulfate, but associated seizures and fever support sulfate restoration. We argue that impaired synthesis of cholesterol sulfate in the skin and red blood cells, catalyzed by sunlight and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, creates a state of colloidal instability in the blood manifested as a low zeta potential and increased interfacial stress. Encephalitis, while life-threatening, can result in partial renewal of sulfate supply, promoting neuronal survival. Research is cited showing how taurine may not only help protect neurons from hypochlorite exposure, but also provide a source for sulfate renewal. Several environmental factors can synergistically promote the encephalopathy of autism, including the herbicide, glyphosate, aluminum, mercury, lead, nutritional deficiencies in thiamine and zinc, and yeast overgrowth due to excess dietary sugar. Given these facts, dietary and lifestyle changes, including increased sulfur ingestion, organic whole foods, increased sun exposure, and avoidance of toxins such as aluminum, mercury, and lead, may help to alleviate symptoms or, in some instances, to prevent autism altogether.

  18. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo[14C]chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo[14C] chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo[14C]chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent

  19. Remediation of lead contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, W.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    1992-01-01

    Lead contaminated soil in urban area is of major concern because of the potential health risk to children. Many studies have established a direct correlation between lead in soil and elevated blood lead levels in children. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mielke et al. (1983) reported that 50% of the Hmong children with lead poisioning were in areas where soil lead levels were between 500 and 1000 micrograms per gram (ug/g), and 40% of the children suffering from lead poisioning lived in areas where soil lead levels exceeded 1000 ug/g. In urban areas, lead pollution in soil has come from many different sources. The sources include lead paint, lead batteries and automobile exhaust. Olson and Skogerbee (1975) found the following lead compounds in soils where the primary source of pollution was from automobiles: lead sulfate, lead oxide, lead dioxide, lead sulfide, and metallic lead. The primary form of lead found was lead sulfate. Lead sulfate, lead tetraoxide, white lead, and other forms of lead have been used in the manufacture of paints for houses. At present, two remediation techniques, solidification and Bureau of Mines fluosilicic acid leaching, are available for lead-contaminated sites. The objective of the present investigation at the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL), Edison, was to try to solubilize the lead species by appropriate reagents and then recover the contaminants by precipitation as lead sulfate, using environmentally acceptable methods. The apparatus used for mixing was a LabMaster mixer, with variable speed and high-shear impeller. Previous work had used nitric acid for dissolving metallic lead. Owing to the environmental concerns, it was decided to use acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. The theoretical justification for this approach is the favorable redox potential for the reaction between metallic lead, acetic acid, and gaseous oxygen

  20. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H 2 35 SO 4 ) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  1. Post-flame gas-phase sulfation of potassium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bo; Sun, Zhiwei; Li, Zhongshan

    2013-01-01

    The sulfation of KCl during biomass combustion has implications for operation and emissions: it reduces the rates of deposition and corrosion, it increases the formation of aerosols, and it leads to higher concentrations of HCl and lower concentrations of SO2 in the gas phase. Rigorously homogene......The sulfation of KCl during biomass combustion has implications for operation and emissions: it reduces the rates of deposition and corrosion, it increases the formation of aerosols, and it leads to higher concentrations of HCl and lower concentrations of SO2 in the gas phase. Rigorously...

  2. Behaviour of cementitious materials: sulfates and temperature actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarulo, Remi

    2002-09-01

    The research work presented in this Ph.D. thesis is related to the nuclear waste underground repository concept. Concrete could be used in such a repository, and would be subjected to variations of temperature in presence of sulfate, a situation that could induce expansion of concrete. The research was lead in three parts: an experimental study of the possibility of an internal sulfate attack on mortars; an experimental study and modeling of the chemical equilibriums of the CaO-SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -SO 3 -H 2 O system; and a modeling of the mechanisms of internal and external sulfate attacks, and the effect of temperature. The results show that mortars can develop expansions after a steam-cure during hydration, but also when a long steam-cure is applied to one-year-old mortars, which is a new point. Ettringite precipitation can be considered as responsible for these expansions. The experimental study of the CaO-SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -SO 3 -H 2 O system clarified the role of Calcium Silicate Hydrates (C-S-H) on chemical equilibriums of cementitious materials. Sulfate sorption on C-S-H has been studied in detail. The quantity of sulfate bound to the C-S-H mainly depends on the sulfate concentration in solution, on the Ca/Si ratio of the C-S-H and is not significantly influenced by temperature. Aluminium inclusion in the C-S-H seems to be a significant phenomenon. Temperature increases the calcium sulfo-aluminate solubilities and thus increases sulfates concentration in solution. A modeling of the chemical system is proposed. Simulations of external sulfate attack (15 mmol/L of Na 2 SO 4 ) predict ettringite precipitation at 20 and 85±C. Simulation of internal sulfate attack was performed at a local scale (a hydrated cement grain). An initial inhomogeneity can lead, after a thermal curing at 85±C, to ettringite precipitation in zones originally free from ettringite. This new-formed ettringite could be the origin of the expansions. (author) [fr

  3. Different mechanisms for lead acetate, aluminum and cadmium sulfate in rat corpus cavernosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senbel, Amira M.; Saad, Evan I.; Taha, Safaa S.; Mohamed, Hosny F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Some heavy metals show adverse vascular and neurological effects, however, their effect on erection is underestimated. This study aims to investigate the effect of Pb, Cd and Al on erectile function and their potential mechanism of action in rats. Methods: Measurement of intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) changes elicited by electrical stimulation of cavernous nerve in anesthetized rats treated with Pb-acetate, Al-sulfate, or Cd-sulfate acutely, and subacutely for 7 days. Serum creatinine, testosterone, TBARs, GSH levels and metal accumulation in corpus cavernosum were measured. Results: Pb, Al and Cd significantly reduced ICP/MAP in rats after acute (2,10–2,10 and 1,3 mg/kg respectively) and sub-acute (3, 3, and 1 mg/kg/day respectively) treatments. They selectively accumulated in the corpus cavernosum reaching 25.107 ± 2.081 μg/g wet weight for Pb, 1.029 ± 0.193 for Cd, 31.343 ± 1.991 for Al, compared to 7.084 ± 1.517, 0.296 ± 0.067, and 8.86 ± 1.115 as controls respectively. Serum creatinine levels were not altered. Cd and Al significantly reduced testosterone level to 0.483 ± 0.059 and 0.419 ± 0.037 ng/ml respectively compared to 0.927 ± 0.105 ng/ml as control. Aluminum elevated TBARs significantly by 27.843%. The acute anti-erectile action of Pb was blocked by non-selective NOS and GC inhibitors and potassium channel blocker. Lead also masked the potentiatory effect of L-arginine and diazoxide on ICP/MAP. No interaction with muscarinic or nicotinic modulators was observed. Conclusions: Pb, Cd and Al show anti-erectile effect independent on renal injury. They don not modulate cholinergic nor ganglionic transmission in corpus cavernosum. Pb may inhibit NO/cGMP/K + channel pathway. The effect of Cd and Al but not Pb seems to be hormonal dependent.

  4. Modeling the use of sulfate additives for potassium chloride destruction in biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4. In the present study, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate...... of ammonium sulfate addition and ferric sulfation addition compared favorably with the experimental results. However, the model for aluminum sulfate addition under-predicted significantly the high sulfation degree of KCl observed in the experiments, possibly because of an under-estimation of the decomposition...... rate of aluminum. Under the boiler conditions of the present work, the simulation results suggested that the desirable temperature for the ferric sulfate injection was around 950-900oC, whereas for ammonium sulfate the preferable injection temperature was below 800oC....

  5. Sulfate Transporters in Dissimilatory Sulfate Reducing Microorganisms: A Comparative Genomics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Marietou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in the sulfate reduction pathway is the transport of sulfate across the cell membrane. This uptake has a major effect on sulfate reduction rates. Much of the information available on sulfate transport was obtained by studies on assimilatory sulfate reduction, where sulfate transporters were identified among several types of protein families. Despite our growing knowledge on the physiology of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM there are no studies identifying the proteins involved in sulfate uptake in members of this ecologically important group of anaerobes. We surveyed the complete genomes of 44 sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea across six phyla and identified putative sulfate transporter encoding genes from four out of the five surveyed protein families based on homology. We did not find evidence that ABC-type transporters (SulT are involved in the uptake of sulfate in SRM. We speculate that members of the CysP sulfate transporters could play a key role in the uptake of sulfate in thermophilic SRM. Putative CysZ-type sulfate transporters were present in all genomes examined suggesting that this overlooked group of sulfate transporters might play a role in sulfate transport in dissimilatory sulfate reducers alongside SulP. Our in silico analysis highlights several targets for further molecular studies in order to understand this key step in the metabolism of SRMs.

  6. Enhanced sulfate reduction with acidogenic sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Aijie; Ren Nanqi; Wang Xu; Lee Duujong

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate reduction in a continuous flow, acidogenic reactor using molasses wastewater as the carbon source was studied at varying chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO 4 2- ) ratios. At a critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 2.7, neither COD nor sulfate were in excess for extra production of ethanol or acetate in the reactor. An acetic-type microbial metabolism was established with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) significantly consuming hydrogen and volatile fatty acids produced by acidogenic bacteria and hydrogen producing acetogens in degrading COD, thereby yielding sulfate removal rate >94.6%. A low critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 1.6 was also observed with the enriched ASRB population in reactor which overcomes the barrier to the treatment capability of sulfate-laden wastewater treatment with limited COD supply

  7. Reduced sulfation of chondroitin sulfate but not heparan sulfate in kidneys of diabetic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reine, Trine M; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian; Kolset, Svein O

    2013-08-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were reduced from 11% to 6%, with a corresponding increase in unsulfated disaccharides. In contrast, no structural differences were observed in heparan sulfate. Furthermore, no difference was found in the molar amount of glycosaminoglycans, or in the ratio of hyaluronan/heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate. Immunohistochemical staining for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was similar in both types of material but reduced staining of 4-O-sulfated chondroitin and dermatan was observed in kidney sections from diabetic mice. In support of this, using qRT-PCR, a 53.5% decrease in the expression level of Chst-11 (chondroitin 4-O sulfotransferase) was demonstrated in diabetic kidney. These results suggest that changes in the sulfation of chondroitin need to be addressed in future studies on proteoglycans and kidney function in diabetes.

  8. Semi-synthesis of chondroitin sulfate-E from chondroitin sulfate-A

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Chao; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Yang, Bo; Beaudet, Julie M.; Weyer, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.; Zhang, Fuming

    2012-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate-E (chondroitin-4, 6-disulfate) was prepared from chondroitin sulfate-A (chondroitin-4 - sulfate) by regioselective sulfonation, performed using trimethylamine sulfur trioxide in formamide under argon. The structure of semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate-E was analyzed by PAGE, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR and disaccharide analysis and compared with natural chondroitin sulfate-E. Both semi-synthetic and natural chondroitin sulfate-E were each biotinylated and immobilized on BIAco...

  9. Modeling the Use of Sulfate Additives for Potassium Chloride Destruction in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll

    2014-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4 and HCl. In the present study, the rate constants for decomposition of ammonium sulfate and aluminum...... sulfate were obtained from experiments in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from the decomposition were investigated in a tube reactor at 600–900 °C, revealing a constant distribution of about 15% SO2 and 85% SO3 from aluminum sulfate decomposition and a temperature...... fluidized-bed reactor using ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, and ferric sulfate as additives. The simulation results for ammonium sulfate and ferric sulfate addition compared favorably to the experiments. The predictions for aluminum sulfate addition were only partly in agreement with the experimental...

  10. Tyrosine sulfation modulates activity of tick-derived thrombin inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert E.; Liu, Xuyu; Ripoll-Rozada, Jorge; Alonso-García, Noelia; Parker, Benjamin L.; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa; Payne, Richard J.

    2017-09-01

    Madanin-1 and chimadanin are two small cysteine-free thrombin inhibitors that facilitate blood feeding in the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. Here, we report a post-translational modification—tyrosine sulfation—of these two proteins that is critical for potent anti-thrombotic and anticoagulant activity. Inhibitors produced in baculovirus-infected insect cells displayed heterogeneous sulfation of two tyrosine residues within each of the proteins. One-pot ligation-desulfurization chemistry enabled access to homogeneous samples of all possible sulfated variants of the proteins. Tyrosine sulfation of madanin-1 and chimadanin proved crucial for thrombin inhibitory activity, with the doubly sulfated variants three orders of magnitude more potent than the unmodified inhibitors. The three-dimensional structure of madanin-1 in complex with thrombin revealed a unique mode of inhibition, with the sulfated tyrosine residues binding to the basic exosite II of the protease. The importance of tyrosine sulfation within this family of thrombin inhibitors, together with their unique binding mode, paves the way for the development of anti-thrombotic drug leads based on these privileged scaffolds.

  11. Discovery and measurement of an isotopically distinct source of sulfate in Earth's atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Gerardo; Jackson, Terri; Brothers, Lauren; Barnett, Burton; Nguyen, Bryan; Thiemens, Mark H

    2008-09-02

    Sulfate (SO(4)) and its precursors are significant components of the atmosphere, with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Recently, our triple-isotope ((16)O, (17)O, (18)O) measurements of atmospheric sulfate have provided specific insights into the oxidation pathways leading to sulfate, with important implications for models of the sulfur cycle and global climate change. Using similar isotopic measurements of aerosol sulfate in a polluted marine boundary layer (MBL) and primary sulfate (p-SO(4)) sampled directly from a ship stack, we quantify the amount of p-SO(4) found in the atmosphere from ships. We find that ships contribute between 10% and 44% of the non-sea-salt sulfate found in fine [diameter (D) sea salt particles may lead to the rapid removal of SO(2) in the MBL. When combined with the longer residence time of p-SO(4) emissions in the MBL, these findings suggest that the importance of p-SO(4) emissions in marine environments may be underappreciated in global chemical models. Given the expected increase of international shipping in the years to come, these findings have clear implications for public health, air quality, international maritime law, and atmospheric chemistry.

  12. Investigation of the effect of lead on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, M C

    1937-01-01

    Lead pollution, due to the presence of old lead mines has for many years affected the fauna and flora of many of the rivers in Cardiganshire, Great Britain. Experiments were conducted on plants (dwarf green beans) to determine the degree of toxicity of lead sulfate. It was hoped that the experiments would determine whether the direct effect of lead on plants made colonization of the mine dumps impossible or whether the barren nature of the area was due to the physical character of the substratum and its paucity in food material. The lead occurs in the mine dumps in the form of sulfide which is only soluble to the extent of 2.5 ppm of lead, but undergoes slow oxidation to form the more soluble sulfate. A saturated solution of lead sulfate contains 30 ppm of lead. Results indicate that the presence of lead in solution, even up to a concentration of 30 ppm, has a very small toxic effect on the beans in the presence of nutrient salts. From concentrations of 10-30 ppm there seems to be no increased deleterious effect with increasing concentrations of lead, as has been shown by chemical analyses of the plants.

  13. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11

    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no

  14. Sulfate adsorption on goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rietra, R P.J.J.; Hiemstra, T; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1999-10-15

    Recent spectroscopic work has suggested that only one surface species of sulfate is dominant on hematite. Sulfate is therefore a very suitable anion to test and develop adsorption models for variable charge minerals. The authors have studied sulfate adsorption on goethite covering a large range of sulfate concentrations, surface coverages, pH values, and electrolyte concentrations. Four different techniques were used to cover the entire range of conditions. For characterization at low sulfate concentrations, below the detection limit of sulfate with ICP-AES, the authors used proton-sulfate titrations at constant pH. Adsorption isotherms were studied for the intermediate sulfate concentration range. Acid-base titrations in sodium sulfate and electromobility were used for high sulfate concentrations. All the data can be modeled with one adsorbed species if it is assumed that the charge of adsorbed sulfate is spatially distributed in the interface. The charge distribution of sulfate follows directly from modeling the proton-sulfate adsorption stoichoimemtry sine this stoichiometry is independent of the intrinsic affinity constant of sulfate. The charge distribution can be related to the structure of the surface complex by use of the Pauling bond valence concept and is in accordance with the microscopic structure found by spectroscopy. The intrinsic affinity constant follows from the other measurements. Modeling of the proton-ion stoichoimetry with the commonly used 2-pK models, where adsorbed ions are treated as point charges, is possible only if at least two surface species for sulfate are used.

  15. The confused world of sulfate attack on concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neville, Adam

    2004-01-01

    External sulfate attack is not completely understood. Part I identifies the issues involved, pointing out disagreements, and distinguishes between the mere occurrence of chemical reactions of sulfates with hydrated cement paste and the damage or deterioration of concrete; only the latter are taken to represent sulfate attack. Furthermore, sulfate attack is defined as deleterious action involving sulfate ions; if the reaction is physical, then, it is physical sulfate attack that takes place. The discussion of the two forms of sulfate attack leads to a recommendation for distinct nomenclature. Sulfate attack on concrete structures in service is not widespread, and the amount of laboratory-based research seems to be disproportionately large. The mechanisms of attack by different sulfates--sodium, calcium, and magnesium--are discussed, including the issue of topochemical and through-solution reactions. The specific aspects of the action of magnesium sulfate are discussed, and the differences between laboratory conditions and field exposure are pointed out. Part II discusses the progress of sulfate attack and its manifestations. This is followed by a discussion of making sulfate-resisting concrete. One of the measures is to use Type V cement, and this topic is extensively discussed. Likewise, the influence of w/c on sulfate resistance is considered. The two parameters are not independent of one another. Moreover, the cation in the sulfate salt has a strong bearing on the efficiency of the Type V cement. Recent interpretations of the Bureau of Reclamation tests, both long term and accelerated, are evaluated, and it appears that they need reworking. Part III reviews the standards and guides for the classification of the severity of exposure of structures to sulfates and points out the lack of calibration of the various classes of exposure. A particular problem is the classification of soils because much depends on the extraction ratio of sulfate in the soil: there is a

  16. Importance of sulfate radical anion formation and chemistry in heterogeneous OH oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate, the smallest organosulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Kwong, Kai; Chim, Man Mei; Davies, James F.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Nin Chan, Man

    2018-02-01

    organosulfate can lead to the formation of sulfate radical anion and produce inorganic sulfate. Fragmentation processes and sulfate radical anion chemistry play a key role in determining the compositional evolution of sodium methyl sulfate during heterogeneous OH oxidation.

  17. Periodate Oxidation for Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans, with Special Reference to the Position of Extra Sulfate Groups in Chondroitin Polysulfates, Chondroitin Sulfate D and Chondroitin Sulfate K

    OpenAIRE

    Seno, Nobuko; Murakami, Keiko; Shibusawa, Haru

    1981-01-01

    The optimum conditions for periodate oxidation of sulfated disaccharides were investigated to determine the position of extra sulfate groups on the saturated disulfated disaccharides obtained from chondroitin polysulfates, chondroitin sulfates D and K. Under the conditions: 2mM saturated disulfated disaccharide with 20mM sodium periodate at 37°in the dark, the uronic acid residue in the disulfated disaccharide from chondroitin sulfate D was rapidly and completely destroyed, whereas that in th...

  18. Acidity enhancement of niobia by sulfation: An experimental and DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Angela S.; Costa, Gustavo C.; Tamiasso-Martinhon, Priscila; Sousa, Célia; Rocha, Alexandre B.

    2017-01-01

    Acidic solids are used as catalyst at several industrial processes and studies to improve their activities have been developed by different groups. One method well known is sulfating oxide to create new acid sites, but investigations about sulfated niobia are still scarce. This work studied the influence of sulfation on the niobia acidity by using a very simple reaction model, the esterification of acetic acid with ethanol, performed at 60 °C and 1 atm. Niobia and sulfated niobia samples were characterized by N 2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction, FTIR and titration with n-butylamine. To investigate the nature of sulfate groups formed on the surface of niobia, calculations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) have been performed for two models: pure niobia with hydroxylated surface and sulfated niobia where one OH − surface group was replaced by a HSO 4 − . The experimental results indicated that the sulfation treatment leads to an increase in the specific surface area, acidity and, consequently, in the activity of niobia, with small changes in the crystal structure of the solid. The presence of sulfate groups was evidenced by FTIR spectra and calculations have indicated HSO 4 − species bounded to the surface. Density Functional Perturbation Theory (DFPT) was also employed to obtain infrared intensities in the region of sulfate vibration bands. - Highlights: • Sulfation treatment has improved the acidity of niobium oxide. • A sulfate group on niobia (T-Nb 2 O 5 ) was proposed using DFT method. • Niobia and sulfated niobia are used for esterification of acetic acid with ethanol.

  19. Acidity enhancement of niobia by sulfation: An experimental and DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Angela S., E-mail: angela.sanches.rocha@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Costa, Gustavo C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tamiasso-Martinhon, Priscila; Sousa, Célia; Rocha, Alexandre B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Acidic solids are used as catalyst at several industrial processes and studies to improve their activities have been developed by different groups. One method well known is sulfating oxide to create new acid sites, but investigations about sulfated niobia are still scarce. This work studied the influence of sulfation on the niobia acidity by using a very simple reaction model, the esterification of acetic acid with ethanol, performed at 60 °C and 1 atm. Niobia and sulfated niobia samples were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, X-ray diffraction, FTIR and titration with n-butylamine. To investigate the nature of sulfate groups formed on the surface of niobia, calculations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) have been performed for two models: pure niobia with hydroxylated surface and sulfated niobia where one OH{sup −} surface group was replaced by a HSO{sub 4}{sup −}. The experimental results indicated that the sulfation treatment leads to an increase in the specific surface area, acidity and, consequently, in the activity of niobia, with small changes in the crystal structure of the solid. The presence of sulfate groups was evidenced by FTIR spectra and calculations have indicated HSO{sub 4}{sup −} species bounded to the surface. Density Functional Perturbation Theory (DFPT) was also employed to obtain infrared intensities in the region of sulfate vibration bands. - Highlights: • Sulfation treatment has improved the acidity of niobium oxide. • A sulfate group on niobia (T-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was proposed using DFT method. • Niobia and sulfated niobia are used for esterification of acetic acid with ethanol.

  20. Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Wang, Hailong [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Smith, Steven J. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park MD USA; Easter, Richard C. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Rasch, Philip J. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2018-02-08

    Source attributions of Arctic sulfate and its direct radiative effect for 2010–2014 are quantified in this study using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) equipped with an explicit sulfur source-tagging technique. Regions that have high emissions and/or are near/within the Arctic present relatively large contributions to Arctic sulfate burden, with the largest contribution from sources in East Asia (27%). East Asia and South Asia together have the largest contributions to Arctic sulfate concentrations at 9–12 km, whereas sources within or near the Arctic account largely below 2 km. For remote sources with strong emissions, their contributions to Arctic sulfate burden are primarily driven by meteorology, while contributions of sources within or near the Arctic are dominated by their emission strength. The sulfate direct radiative effect (DRE) is –0.080 W m-2 at the Arctic surface, offsetting the net warming effect from the combination of in-snow heating and DRE cooling from black carbon. East Asia, Arctic local and Russia/Belarus/Ukraine sources contribute –0.017, –0.016 and –0.014 W m-2, respectively, to Arctic sulfate DRE. A 20% reduction in anthropogenic SO2 emissions leads to a net increase of +0.013 W m-2 forcing at the Arctic surface. These results indicate that a joint reduction in BC emissions could prevent possible Arctic warming from future reductions in SO2 emissions. Sulfate DRE efficiency calculations suggest that short transport pathways together with meteorology favoring long sulfate lifetimes make certain sources more efficient in influencing the Arctic sulfate DRE.

  1. Significant role of organic sulfur in supporting sedimentary sulfate reduction in low-sulfate environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraee, Mojtaba; Li, Jiying; Katsev, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) is a major carbon mineralization pathway in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater, which regulates the production of hydrogen sulfide and the mobilization rates of biologically important elements such as phosphorus and mercury. It has been widely assumed that water-column sulfate is the main sulfur source to fuel this reaction in sediments. While this assumption may be justified in high-sulfate environments such as modern seawater, we argue that in low-sulfate environments mineralization of organic sulfur compounds can be an important source of sulfate. Using a reaction-transport model, we investigate the production of sulfate from sulfur-containing organic matter for a range of environments. The results show that in low sulfate environments (50%) of sulfate reduction. In well-oxygenated systems, porewater sulfate profiles often exhibit sub-interface peaks so that sulfate fluxes are directed out of the sediment. Our measurements in Lake Superior, the world's largest lake, corroborate this conclusion: offshore sediments act as sources rather than sinks of sulfate for the water column, and sediment DSR is supported entirely by the in-sediment production of sulfate. Sulfate reduction rates are correlated to the depth of oxygen penetration and strongly regulated by the supply of reactive organic matter; rate co-regulation by sulfate availability becomes appreciable below 500 μM level. The results indicate the need to consider the mineralization of organic sulfur in the biogeochemical cycling in low-sulfate environments, including several of the world's largest freshwater bodies, deep subsurface, and possibly the sulfate-poor oceans of the Early Earth.

  2. Importance of sulfate radical anion formation and chemistry in heterogeneous OH oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate, the smallest organosulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Kwong

    2018-02-01

    firstly demonstrate that the heterogeneous OH oxidation of an organosulfate can lead to the formation of sulfate radical anion and produce inorganic sulfate. Fragmentation processes and sulfate radical anion chemistry play a key role in determining the compositional evolution of sodium methyl sulfate during heterogeneous OH oxidation.

  3. Sulfate resistance of nanosilica contained Portland cement mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batilov, Iani B.

    Soils, sea water and ground water high in sulfates are commonly encountered hostile environments that can attack the structure of concrete via chemical and physical mechanisms which can lead to costly repairs or replacement. Sulfate attack is a slow acting deteriorative phenomenon that can result in cracking, spalling, expansion, increased permeability, paste-to-aggregate bond loss, paste softening, strength loss, and ultimately, progressive failure of concrete. In the presented research study, Portland cement (PC) mortars containing 1.5% to 6.0% nanosilica (nS) cement replacement by weight were tested for sulfate resistance through full submersion in sodium sulfate to simulate external sulfate attack. Mortars with comparable levels of cement replacement were also prepared with microsilica (mS). Three cement types were chosen to explore nS' effectiveness to reduce sulfate expansion, when paired with cements of varying tricalcium aluminate (C3A) content and Blaine fineness, and compare it to that of mS. Mortars were also made with combined cement replacement of equal parts nS and mS to identify if they were mutually compatible and beneficial towards sulfate resistance. Besides sulfate attack expansion of mortar bars, the testing program included investigations into transport and microstructure properties via water absorption, sulfate ion permeability, porosimetry, SEM with EDS, laser diffraction, compressive strength, and heat of hydration. Expansion measurements indicated that mS replacement mortars outperformed both powder form nS, and nS/mS combined replacement mixtures. A negative effect of the dry nS powder replacement attributed to agglomeration of its nanoparticles during mixing negated the expected superior filler, paste densification, and pozzolanic activity of the nanomaterial. Agglomerated nS was identified as the root cause behind poor performance of nS in comparison to mS for all cement types, and the control when paired with a low C3A sulfate resistant

  4. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2014-02-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates.

  5. Discovery of a Heparan sulfate 3- o -sulfation specific peeling reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Zong, Chengli; Lin, Cheng; Boons, Geert Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088245489; Zaia, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) 3-O-sulfation determines the binding specificity of HS/heparin for antithrombin III and plays a key role in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. However, the low natural abundance of HS 3-O-sulfation poses a serious challenge for functional studies other than the two cases

  6. p-Cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate in pediatric patients on chronic dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available <b>Purpose:</b> Indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate are important protein-bound uremic retention solutes whose levels can be partially reduced by renal replacement therapy. These solutes originate from intestinal bacterial protein fermentation and are associated with cardiovascular outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. The aims of this study were to investigate the levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate as well as the effect of probiotics on reducing the levels of uremic toxins in pediatric patients on dialysis. <b>Methods:</b> We enrolled 20 pediatric patients undergoing chronic dialysis; 16 patients completed the study. The patients underwent a 12-week regimen of VSL#3, a high-concentration probiotic preparation, and the serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate were measured before treatment and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the regimen by using fluorescence liquid chromatography. To assess the normal range of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate we enrolled the 16 children with normal glomerular filtration rate who had visited an outpatient clinic for asymptomatic microscopic hematuria that had been detected by a school screening in August 2011. <b>Results:</b> The baseline serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate in the patients on chronic dialysis were significantly higher than those in the children with microscopic hematuria. The baseline serum levels of p- cresyl sulfate in the peritoneal dialysis group were significantly higher than those in the hemodialysis group. There were no significant changes in the levels of these uremic solutes after 12-week VSL#3 treatment in the patients on chronic dialysis. <b>Conclusion:</b> The levels of the uremic toxins p- cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate are highly elevated in pediatric patients on dialysis, but there was no significant effect by

  7. Co-existence of Methanogenesis and Sulfate Reduction with Common Substrates in Sulfate-Rich Estuarine Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Sela-Adler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The competition between sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogens over common substrates has been proposed as a critical control for methane production. In this study, we examined the co-existence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction with shared substrates over a large range of sulfate concentrations and rates of sulfate reduction in estuarine systems, where these processes are the key terminal sink for organic carbon. Incubation experiments were carried out with sediment samples from the sulfate-methane transition zone of the Yarqon (Israel estuary with different substrates and inhibitors along a sulfate concentrations gradient from 1 to 10 mM. The results show that methanogenesis and sulfate reduction can co-exist while the microbes share substrates over the tested range of sulfate concentrations and at sulfate reduction rates up to 680 μmol L-1 day-1. Rates of methanogenesis were two orders of magnitude lower than rates of sulfate reduction in incubations with acetate and lactate, suggesting a higher affinity of sulfate reducing bacteria for the available substrates. The co-existence of both processes was also confirmed by the isotopic signatures of δ34S in the residual sulfate and that of δ13C of methane and dissolved inorganic carbon. Copy numbers of dsrA and mcrA genes supported the dominance of sulfate reduction over methanogenesis, while showing also the ability of methanogens to grow under high sulfate concentration and in the presence of active sulfate reduction.

  8. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-05-01

    Sodium cetearyl sulfate is the sodium salt of a mixture of cetyl and stearyl sulfate. The other ingredients in this safety assessment are also alkyl salts, including ammonium coco-sulfate, ammonium myristyl sulfate, magnesium coco-sulfate, sodium cetyl sulfate, sodium coco/hydrogenated tallow sulfate, sodium coco-sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, sodium ethylhexyl sulfate, sodium myristyl sulfate, sodium oleyl sulfate, sodium stearyl sulfate, sodium tallow sulfate, sodium tridecyl sulfate, and zinc coco-sulfate. These ingredients are surfactants used at concentrations from 0.1% to 29%, primarily in soaps and shampoos. Many of these ingredients are not in current use. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel previously completed a safety assessment of sodium and ammonium lauryl sulfate. The data available for sodium lauryl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate provide sufficient basis for concluding that sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates are safe in the practices of use and concentration described in the safety assessment.

  9. Rare earth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  10. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is perhaps the most complex polysaccharide known from animals. The basic repeating disaccharide is extensively modified by sulfation and uronic acid epimerization. Despite this, the fine structure of heparan sulfate is remarkably consistent with a particular cell type. This suggests...... that the synthesis of heparan sulfate is tightly controlled. Although genomics has identified the enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan synthesis in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, the regulation of the process is not understood. Moreover, the localization of the various enzymes in the Golgi apparatus has......-quality resolution of the distribution of enzymes. The EXT2 protein, which when combined as heterodimers with EXT1 comprises the major polymerase in heparan sulfate synthesis, has been studied in depth. All the data are consistent with a cis-Golgi distribution and provide a starting point to establish whether all...

  11. Relations among pH, sulfate, and metals concentrations in anthracite and bituminous coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, III, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Water-quality data for discharges from 140 abandoned mines in the Bituminous and Anthracite Coalfields of Pennsylvania illustrate relations among pH, sulfate, and dissolved metal concentrations. The pH for the 140 samples ranged from 2.7 to 7.3, with two modes at pH 2.5 to 4 (acidic) and 6 to 7 (near neutral). Generally, flow rates were smaller and solute concentrations were greater for low-pH samples; flow rates increased with pH. Although the pH distribution was similar for the bituminous and anthracite subsets, the bituminous discharges had smaller median flow rates, greater concentrations of sulfate, iron, and aluminum, and smaller concentrations of barium and lead than anthracite discharges with the same pH values. The observed relations between the pH and constituent concentrations can be attributed to (1) dilution of acidic water by alkaline ground water; (2) solubility control of aluminum, iron, manganese, barium, and lead by hydroxide, sulfate, and/or carbonate minerals; and (3) aqueous sulfate-complex formation. The formation of AlSO4+ and AlHSO4+2 complexes adds to the total dissolved aluminum concentration at pH of equilibrium with aluminum hydroxide or hydroxysulfate minerals and can account for 10 to 20 times greater concentrations of dissolved aluminum in bituminous discharges compared to anthracite discharges at similar pH. Sulfate complexation also can account for 10 to 30 times greater concentrations of dissolved ferric iron concentrations at equilibrium with ferrihydrite (Fe(OH)3) and/or schwertmannite (Fe8O8(OH)4.5(SO4)1.75) at pH of 3 to 5. In contrast, lower barium and lead concentrations in bituminous than anthracite discharges indicates elevated sulfate concentration could decrease mobility of these metals by the formation of insoluble minerals such as barite (BaSO4) or anglesite (PbSO4). Most samples were saturated with barite, but none were saturated with anglesite. Hence, lead concentrations could be controlled by coprecipitation with

  12. Modeling of ferric sulfate decomposition and sulfation of potassium chloride during grate‐firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Ferric sulfate is used as an additive in biomass combustion to convert the released potassium chloride to the less harmful potassium sulfate. The decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer and a volumetric reaction model is proposed to describe...... the process. The yields of sulfur oxides from ferric sulfate decomposition under boiler conditions are investigated experimentally, revealing a distribution of approximately 40% SO3 and 60% SO2. The ferric sulfate decomposition model is combined with a detailed kinetic model of gas‐phase KCl sulfation...... and a model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results show good agreements with experiments conducted in a biomass grate‐firing reactor. The results indicate that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition is the main contributor to KCl...

  13. Correction: Dermatan sulfate in tunicate phylogeny: Order-specific sulfation pattern and the effect of [→4IdoA(2-Sulfateβ-1→3GalNAc(4-Sulfateβ-1→] motifs in dermatan sulfate on heparin cofactor II activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugahara Kazuyuki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After the publication of the work entitled "Dermatan sulfate in tunicate phylogeny: Order-specific sulfation pattern and the effect of [→4IdoA(2-Sulfateβ-1→3GalNAc(4-Sulfateβ-1→] motifs in dermatan sulfate on heparin cofactor II activity", by Kozlowski et al., BMC Biochemistry 2011, 12:29, we found that the legends to Figures 2 to 5 contain serious mistakes that compromise the comprehension of the work. This correction article contains the correct text of the legends to Figures 2 to 5.

  14. Transformation of thorium sulfate in thorium nitrate by ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure for transforming thorium sulfate into thorium nitrate by means of a strong cationic ion exchanger is presented. The thorium sulfate solution (approximately 15 g/L Th (SO 4 ) 2 ) is percolate through the resin and the column is washed first with water, with a 0,2 M N H 4 OH solution and then with a 0.2 M N H 4 NO 3 solution in order to eliminate sulfate ion. Thorium is eluted with a 2 M solution of (N H 4 ) 2 CO 3 . This eluate is treated with a solution of nitric acid in order to obtain the complete transformation into Th (NO 3 ) 4 . The proposed procedure leads to good quality thorium nitrate with high uranium decontamination. (author)

  15. Modeling of Sulfate Double-Salt in Nuclear Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toghiani, B.; Lindner, J.S.; Weber, C.F.; Hunt, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) continues to adequately predict the solubility of most key chemical systems in the Hanford tank waste. For example, the ESP predictions were in fair agreement with the solubility experiments for the fluoride-phosphate system, although ESP probably underestimates the aqueous amounts. Due to the importance of this system in the formation of pipeline plugs, additional experiments have been made at elevated temperatures, and improvements to the ESP database will be made. ESP encountered problems with sulfate systems because the Public database for ESP does not include anhydrous sodium sulfate in mixed solutions below 32.4 C. This limitation leads to convergence problems and to spurious predictions of solubility near the transition point with sodium sulfate decahydrate when other salts such as sodium nitrate are present. However, ESP was able to make reasonable solubility predictions with a corrected database, demonstrating the need to validate and document the various databases that can be used by ESP. Even though ESP does not include the sulfate-nitrate double salt, this omission does not appear to be a major problem. The solubility predictions with and without the sulfate-nitrate double salt are comparable. In sharp contrast, the sulfate-fluoride double salt is included, but ESP still underestimates solubility in some cases. This problem can misrepresent the ionic strength of the solution, which is an important factor in the formation of pipeline plugs. Solubility tests on the sulfate-fluoride system are planned to provide additional data at higher temperatures and in caustic solutions. These results will be used to improve the range and accuracy of ESP predictions. ESP will continue to provide important predictions for waste processing operations while being evaluated and improved. For example, ESP will be used to determine the amount of water for the saltcake dissolution efforts at Hanford. When ESP underestimates the

  16. Immunotoxicity of copper nanoparticle and copper sulfate in a common Indian earthworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Arunodaya; Ray, Abhishek; Mukherjee, Soumalya; Das, Santanu; Pal, Kunal; Das, Subhadeep; Karmakar, Parimal; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2018-02-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulfate are established contaminants of water and soil. Metaphire posthuma is a common variety of earthworm distributed in moist soil of Indian subcontinent. Comparative toxicity of copper nanoparticles and copper sulfate were investigated with reference to selected immune associated parameters of earthworm. Total count, phagocytic response, generation of cytotoxic molecules (superoxide anion, nitric oxide), activities of enzymes like phenoloxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and total protein of coelomocytes were estimated under the exposures of 100, 500, 1000mg of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulfate per kg of soil for 7 and 14 d. A significant decrease in the total coelomocyte count were recorded with maximum depletion as 15.45 ± 2.2 and 12.5 ± 2 × 10 4 cells/ml under the treatment of 1000mg/kg of copper nanoparticles and copper sulfate for 14 d respectively. A significant decrease in generation of nitric oxide and activity of phenoloxidase were recorded upon exposure of both toxins for 7 and 14 d indicating possible decline in cytotoxic status of the organism. A maximum inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity was recorded as 0.083 ± 0.0039 and 0.055 ± 0.0057 unit/mg protein/minute against 1000mg/kg of copper nanoparticles and copper sulfate treatment for 14 d respectively. Activities of catalase and alkaline phosphatase were inhibited by all experimental concentrations of both toxins in the coelomocytes of earthworm. These toxins were recorded to be modifiers of the major immune associated parameters of M. posthuma. Unrestricted contamination of soil by sulfate and oxide nanoparticles of copper may lead to an undesirable shift in the innate immunological status of earthworm leading to a condition of immune compromisation and shrinkage in population density of this species in its natural habitat. This article is the first time report of immunological toxicity of

  17. Modulation of the expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in stimulated human monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlin-Hansen, L.; Eskeland, T.; Kolset, S.O.

    1989-01-01

    Proteoglycan biosynthesis was studied in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) after exposure to typical activators of the monocyte/macrophage system: interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). By morphological examination, both monocytes and MDM were stimulated by these activators. Treatment with IFN-gamma resulted in a slight decrease in the expression of [35S]chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) in both monocytes and MDM, whereas LPS treatment increased the [35S]CSPG expression 1.8 and 2.2 times, respectively. PMA, in contrast, decreased the CSPG expression 0.4 times in monocytes, whereas MDM were stimulated to increase the biosynthesis 1.9 times. An increase in the sulfate density of the chondroitin sulfate chains was evident following differentiation of monocytes into MDM due to the expression of disulfated disaccharide units of the chondroitin sulfate E type (CS-E). However, monocytes exposed to PMA did also express disaccharides of the chondroitin sulfate E type. Furthermore, the expression of CS-E in MDM was increased 2 times following PMA treatment. An inactive phorbol ester, phorbol 12,13-diacetate, did not affect the expression of CS-E in either monocytes or MDM when compared with control cultures, suggesting that protein kinase C-dependent signal pathways may be involved in the regulation of sulfation of CSPG. Exposure to LPS or IFN-gamma did not lead to any changes in the sulfation of the chondroitin sulfate chains

  18. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2...... and CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...... %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid...

  19. Measurement of chemical leaching potential of sulfate from landfill disposed sulfate containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2015-02-01

    A number of sulfate-containing wastes are disposed in municipal solid wastes (MSW) landfills including residues from coal, wood, and MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, the sulfate can be reduced to hydrogen sulfide which is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, toxicity, and corrosive nature. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate existing protocols for the quantification of total leachable sulfate from solid samples and to compare their effectiveness and efficiency with a new protocol described in this study. Methods compared include two existing acid extraction protocols commonly used in the U.S., a pH neutral protocol that requires multiple changes of the leaching solution, and a new acid extraction method. The new acid extraction method was shown to be simple and effective to measure the leaching potential of sulfate from a range of landfill disposed sulfate-containing wastes. However, the acid extraction methods do not distinguish between sulfate and other forms of sulfur and are thus most useful when sulfate is the only form of sulfur present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B.; Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P.

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, [ 3 H]glucosamine/[ 35 S]sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain

  1. Growth and sedimentation of fine particles produced in aqueous solutions of palladium sulfate and palladium sulfate-silver sulfate induced by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatada, Motoyoshi; Jonah, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    It is known that palladium and palladium-silver fine particles were formed from deaerated aqueous solutions of palladium sulfate and palladium sulfate-silver sulfate induced by gamma-ray irradiation. Changes in particle size and with amount of particles in the solution with time during and after irradiation were studied using dynamic light scattering technique and UV spectrophotometer. The particles formed from palladium sulfate solution are found to be water-filled bulky particles of diameter of 200 nm, which grow by mutual coagulation even after irradiation was terminated. Average density depends on concentration of palladium ion in the solution and dose, and the lowest density was about 2 g/cm 3 for particles of 200 nm obtained from 0.06 mM solution by 2.4 kGy irradiation. The average density of the particles obtained from palladium sulfate-silver sulfate solutions was smaller than those obtained for the corresponding palladium sulfate solutions. Supersonic agitation destroyed coagulated precipitates to form fine particles, but did not form clusters of a few atoms. (author)

  2. Synthesis of sulfates and sulfate derivates of selected metals under harsh conditions; Synthese von Sulfaten und Sulfatderivaten ausgewaehlter Metalle unter drastischen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuschulz, Kai

    2015-03-24

    In the course of this work sulfates und sulfate derivates of selected metals were synthesized under harsh conditions. The obtained compounds, in which the metal ions often reveal unusual oxidation states, have been characterized. Two mixed valent vanadium(IV/V) oxide sulfates (VO){sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 5}, and (VO){sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4} and a vanadium(V) oxide sulfate (VO){sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} as well as a complex anionic vanadium(V) oxide sulfate (NO)[VO(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}] have been obtained starting from vanadium or vanadium(V) oxide and oleum. All vanadium oxide sulfates reveal a similar thermal behavior. The decomposition residues are either pure vanadium(V) oxide or vanadium(IV) oxide or a mixture of both residues in different ratios. It was possible to synthesize binary tantalum(V) sulfate Ta{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 5} for the first time by reaction of pure sulfur(VI) oxide and tantalum(V) oxide at 150 C and to characterize. The complete absence of any oxide ligands at the metal center is of special interest in this compound. The reaction of tin(II) sulfate with oleum lead to the formation of tin(IV) sulfate Sn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}. Using IR spectroscopy, the oxidation state +IV was confirmed for tin, due to the absence of OH-band in the IR-spectra, which would have meant the oxidation state +II. Using methanesulfonic acid as solvent and reactant on different synthetic routes the anhydrous methanesulfonates Mn(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and Fe(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Ga(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 3}, In(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 3}, and Tl(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 3}, as well as VO(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} and SnCl{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} were obtained. For the element thallium it was possible to obtain two mixed anionic compounds with the composition TlX{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) (X = Cl or Br). All methanesulfonates show a similar thermal decomposition behavior forming the metal oxide as decomposition product. The thallium compounds represent

  3. High rates of sulfate reduction in a low-sulfate hot spring microbial mat are driven by a low level of diversity of sulfate-respiring microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillon, Jesse G; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R

    2007-01-01

    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community...... was shown to sustain a highly active sulfur cycle. The highest rates of sulfate respiration were measured close to the surface of the mat late in the day when photosynthetic oxygen production ceased and were associated with a Thermodesulfovibrio-like population. Reduced activity at greater depths...... was correlated with novel populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms, unrelated to characterized species, and most likely due to both sulfate and carbon limitation....

  4. Sulfation of corrosive alkali chlorides by ammonium sulfate in a biomass fired CFB boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brostroem, Markus; Backman, Rainer; Nordin, Anders [Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Kassman, Haakan [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Box 1046, SE-611 29 Nykoeping (Sweden); Helgesson, Anna; Berg, Magnus; Andersson, Christer [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    Biomass and waste derived fuels contain relatively high amounts of alkali and chlorine, but contain very little sulfur. Combustion of such fuels can result in increased deposit formation and superheater corrosion. These problems can be reduced by using a sulfur containing additive, such as ammonium sulfate, which reacts with the alkali chlorides and forms less corrosive sulfates. Ammonium sulfate injection together with a so-called in situ alkali chloride monitor (IACM) is patented and known as ''ChlorOut''. IACM measures the concentrations of alkali chlorides (mainly KCl in biomass combustion) at superheater temperatures. Tests with and without spraying ammonium sulfate into the flue gases have been performed in a 96MW{sub th}/25MW{sub e} circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The boiler was fired mainly with bark and a chlorine containing waste. KCl concentration was reduced from more than 15 ppm to approximately 2 ppm during injection of ammonium sulfate. Corrosion probe measurements indicated that both deposit formation and material loss due to corrosion were decreased using the additive. Analysis of the deposits showed significantly higher concentration of sulfur and almost no chlorine in the case with ammonium sulfate. Results from impactor measurements supported that KCl was sulfated to potassium sulfate by the additive. (author)

  5. Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate sulfatases from mammals and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shumin; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2016-12-01

    Sulfatases that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of the sulfate groups on chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) poly- and oligosaccharides belong to the formylglycine-dependent family of sulfatases and have been widely found in various mammalian and bacterial organisms. However, only a few types of CS/DS sulfatase have been identified so far. Recently, several novel CS/DS sulfatases have been cloned and characterized. Advanced studies have provided significant insight into the biological function and mechanism of action of CS/DS sulfatases. Moreover, further studies will provide powerful tools for structural and functional studies of CS/DS as well as related applications. This article reviews the recent progress in CS/DS sulfatase research and is expected to initiate further research in this field.

  6. Novel processes for anaerobic sulfate production from elemental sulfur by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfate reducers and related organisms which had previously been found to reduce Fe(III) with H2 or organic electron donors oxidized S0 to sulfate when Mn(IV) was provided as an electron acceptor. Organisms catalyzing this reaction in washed cell suspensions included Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomicrobium baculatum. Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and Geobacter metallireducens. These organisms produced little or no sulfate from S0 with Fe(III) as a potential electron acceptor or in the absence of an electron acceptor. In detailed studies with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, the stoichiometry of sulfate and Mn(II) production was consistent with the reaction S0 + 3 MnO2 + 4H+ ???SO42- + 3Mn(II) + 2H2O. None of the organisms evaluated could be grown with S0 as the sole electron donor and Mn(IV) as the electron acceptor. In contrast to the other sulfate reducers evaluated, Desulfobulbus propionicus produced sulfate from S0 in the absence of an electron acceptor and Fe(III) oxide stimulated sulfate production. Sulfide also accumulated in the absence of Mn(IV) or Fe(III). The stoichiometry of sulfate and sulfide production indicated that Desulfobulbus propionicus disproportionates S0 as follows: 4S0 + 4H2O???SO42- + 3HS- + 5 H+. Growth of Desulfobulbus propionicus with S0 as the electron donor and Fe(III) as a sulfide sink and/or electron acceptor was very slow. The S0 oxidation coupled to Mn(IV) reduction described here provides a potential explanation for the Mn(IV)-dependent sulfate production that previous studies have observed in anoxic marine sediments. Desulfobulbus propionicus is the first example of a pure culture known to disproportionate S0.

  7. Heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycan of the cell surface and basement membrane of mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, G.; Van den Berghe, H.

    1985-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate represents approximately 15% of the 35 SO 4 -labeled glycosaminoglycans carried by the proteoglycans of the cell surface and of the basolateral secretions of normal mouse mammary epithelial cells in culture. Evidence is provided that these chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans are hybrid proteoglycans, carrying both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate chains. Complete N-desulfation but limited O-desulfation, by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide, of the proteoglycans decreased the anionic charge of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans to a greater extent than it decreased the charge of their constituent chondroitin sulfate chains. Partial depolymerization of the heparan sulfate residues of the proteoglycans with nitrous acid or with heparin lyase also reduced the effective molecular radius of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans. The effect of heparin lyase on the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans was prevented by treating the proteoglycan fractions with dimethyl sulfoxide, while the effect of nitrous acid on the dimethyl sulfoxide-treated proteoglycans was prevented by acetylation. This occurrence of heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycans suggests that the substitution of core proteins by heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate chains may not solely be determined by the specific routing of these proteins through distinct chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate synthesizing mechanisms. Moreover, regional and temporal changes in pericellular glycosaminoglycan compositions might be due to variable postsynthetic modification of a single gene product

  8. Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.; Freeman, J.J.; Jolliff, B.L.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The martian orbital and landed surface missions, OMEGA on Mar Express and the two Mars Explorations Rovers, respectively, have yielded evidence pointing to the presence of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium sulfates, as well as the hydration states of other Ca- and Fe- sulfates, will be crucial in future landed missions on Mars in order to advance our knowledge of the hydrologic history of Mars as well as the potential for hosting life on Mars. Raman spectroscopy is a technique well-suited for landed missions on the martian surface. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the Raman spectra of the hydrates of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11 distinct hydrates of magnesium sulfates, crystalline and non-crystalline. The unique Raman spectral features along with the general tendency of the shift of the position of the sulfate ??1 band towards higher wavenumbers with a decrease in the degree of hydration allow in situ identification of these hydrated magnesium sulfates from the raw Raman spectra of mixtures. Using these Raman spectral features, we have started the study of the stability field of hydrated magnesium sulfates and the pathways of their transformations at various temperature and relative humidity conditions. In particular we report on the Raman spectrum of an amorphous hydrate of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4??2H2O) that may have specific relevance for the martian surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of iron and aluminum coagulant metal residuals and lead release from drinking water pipe materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Alisha D; Nguyen, Caroline K; Edwards, Marc A; Stoddart, Amina; McIlwain, Brad; Gagnon, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Bench-scale experiments investigated the role of iron and aluminum residuals in lead release in a low alkalinity and high (> 0.5) chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) in water. Lead leaching was examined for two lead-bearing plumbing materials, including harvested lead pipe and new lead: tin solder, after exposure to water with simulated aluminum sulfate, polyaluminum chloride and ferric sulfate coagulation treatments with 1-25-μM levels of iron or aluminum residuals in the water. The release of lead from systems with harvested lead pipe was highly correlated with levels of residual aluminum or iron present in samples (R(2) = 0.66-0.88), consistent with sorption of lead onto the aluminum and iron hydroxides during stagnation. The results indicate that aluminum and iron coagulant residuals, at levels complying with recommended guidelines, can sometimes play a significant role in lead mobilization from premise plumbing.

  10. Analysis of tyrosine-O-sulfation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, J.R.; Sen, J.W.; Johnsen, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Tyrosine O-sulfation was first described about 50 years ago as a post-translational modification of fibrinogen. In the following 30 years it was considered to be a rare modification affecting only a few proteins and peptides. However, in the beginning of the 1980s tyrosine (Tyr) sulfation was shown...... to be a common modification and since then an increasing number of proteins have been identified as sulfated. The target proteins belong to the classes of secretory, plasma membrane, and lysosomal proteins, which reflects the intracellular localization of the enzymes catalyzing Tyr sulfation, the tyrosylprotein...... sulfotransferases (TPSTs).Traditionally, Tyr sulfation has been analyzed by incorporation of radiolabeled sulfate into target cells followed by purification of the target protein. Subsequently, the protein is degraded enzymatically or by alkaline hydrolysis followed by thin-layer electrophoresis to demonstrate...

  11. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J

    1993-01-01

    Histologic preparations of lungs from 1-, 5-, 10-, 18-, and 25-day-old postnatal and adult rats were examined immunohistochemically with antibodies specific against chondroitin sulfate (CS), basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), entactin...

  12. Formation of aqueous-phase sulfate during the haze period in China: Kinetics and atmospheric implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijie; Chen, Shilu; Zhong, Jie; Zhang, Shaowen; Zhang, Yunhong; Zhang, Xiuhui; Li, Zesheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Sulfate is one of the most important components in the aerosol due to its key role in air pollution and global climate change. Recent work has suggested that reactive nitrogen chemistry in aqueous water can explain the missing source of sulfate in the aqueous water. Herein, we have mapped out the energy profile of the oxidization process of SO2 leading from NO2 and two feasible three-step mechanisms have been proposed. For the oxidation of HOSO2- and HSO3- by the dissolved NO2 in weakly acidic and neutral aerosol (pH ≤ 7), the main contribution to the missing sulfate production comes from the oxidation of HOSO2-. The whole process is a self-sustaining process. For the oxidation of SO32- in alkaline aerosol (pH > 7), the third step - decomposition step of H2O or hydrolysis of SO3 step which are two parallel processes are the rate-limiting steps. The present results are of avail to better understand the missing source of sulfate in the aerosol and hence may lead to better science-based solutions for resolving the severe haze problems in China.

  13. Chondroitin Sulfate Perlecan Enhances Collagen Fibril Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, A. J.; Johnson, A. E.; Mörgelin, M.

    2006-01-01

    in collagen type II fibril assembly by perlecan-null chondrocytes. Cartilage perlecan is a heparin sulfate or a mixed heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The latter form binds collagen and accelerates fibril formation in vitro, with more defined fibril morphology and increased fibril diameters...... produced in the presence of perlecan. Interestingly, the enhancement of collagen fibril formation is independent on the core protein and is mimicked by chondroitin sulfate E but neither by chondroitin sulfate D nor dextran sulfate. Furthermore, perlecan chondroitin sulfate contains the 4,6-disulfated...... disaccharides typical for chondroitin sulfate E. Indeed, purified glycosaminoglycans from perlecan-enriched fractions of cartilage extracts contain elevated levels of 4,6-disulfated chondroitin sulfate disaccharides and enhance collagen fibril formation. The effect on collagen assembly is proportional...

  14. Activation and transfer of sulfate in biological systems (1960); Activation biologique du sulfate et son transfert (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeville, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It examines in this review the successive stages of active sulfate formation and its role in biological synthesis of sulfuric esters. The possible role of active sulfate as intermediary in sulfate reduction is also discussed. (author) [French] On examine dans cette etude les stades successifs de la mise en evidence du sulfate actif, son role dans la formation des esters sulfuriques de natures diverses, ainsi que sa participation eventuelle comme intermediaire au cours de la reduction du sulfate. On decrit aussi un procede de preparation du systeme biologique, generateur du sulfate actif et une methode de synthese chimique. (auteur)

  15. Quantitative analysis of glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, heparan sulfate, and keratan sulfate by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osago, Harumi; Shibata, Tomoko; Hara, Nobumasa; Kuwata, Suguru; Kono, Michihaya; Uchio, Yuji; Tsuchiya, Mikako

    2014-12-15

    We developed a method using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) with a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode for simultaneous quantitative analysis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Using one-shot analysis with our MS/MS method, we demonstrated the simultaneous quantification of a total of 23 variously sulfated disaccharides of four GAG classes (8 chondroitin/dermatan sulfates, 1 hyaluronic acid, 12 heparan sulfates, and 2 keratan sulfates) with a sensitivity of less than 0.5 pmol within 20 min. We showed the differences in the composition of GAG classes and the sulfation patterns between porcine articular cartilage and yellow ligament. In addition to the internal disaccharides described above, some saccharides derived from the nonreducing terminal were detected simultaneously. The simultaneous quantification of both internal and nonreducing terminal saccharides could be useful to estimate the chain length of GAGs. This method would help to establish comprehensive "GAGomic" analysis of biological tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Constraining Δ33S signatures of Archean seawater sulfate with carbonate-associated sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Bao, H.; Bekker, A.; Hofmann, A.

    2017-12-01

    Non-mass dependent sulfur isotope deviation of S-bearing phases in Archean sedimentary strata, and expressed as Δ33S, has a consistent pattern, i.e., sulfide (pyrite) predominantly bear positive Δ33S values, while Paleoarchean sulfate (barite) has negative Δ33S values. This pattern was later corroborated by observations of negative Δ33S values in Archean volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits and negative Δ33S values in early diagenetic nodular pyrite with a wide range of δ34S values, which is thought to be due to microbial sulfate reduction. These signatures have provided a set of initial conditions for a mechanistic interpretation at physical chemistry level. Unlike the younger geological times when large bodies of seawater evaporite deposits are common, to expand seawater sulfate records, carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) was utilized as a proxy for ancient seawater sulfate. CAS extracted from the Archean carbonates carries positive Δ33S values. However, CAS could be derived from pyrite oxidation following exposure to modern oxidizing conditions and/or during laboratory extraction procedures. It is, therefore, important for us understanding context of the overall early earth atmospheric condition to empirically confirm whether Archean seawater sulfate was generally characterized by negative Δ33S signatures. Combined δ18O, Δ17O, δ34S, and Δ33S analyses of sequentially extracted water-leachable sulfate (WLS) and acid-leachable sulfate (ALS = CAS) and δ34S and Δ33S analyses of pyrite can help to identify the source of extracted sulfate. We studied drill-core samples of Archean carbonates from the 2.55 Ga Malmani and Campell Rand supgroups, South Africa. Our preliminary results show that 1) neither WLS nor ALS were extracted from samples with extremely low pyrite contents (less than 0.05 wt.%); 2) extractable WLS and ALS is present in samples with relatively high pyrite contents (more than 1 wt.%), and that δ34S and Δ33S values of WLS, ALS, and

  17. Effects of sulfate deprivation on the production of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by cultures of skin fibroblasts from normal and diabetic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silbert, C.K.; Humphries, D.E.; Palmer, M.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Human skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from two normal men, three Type I diabetic men, and one Type I diabetic woman were incubated with [3H]glucosamine in the presence of diminished concentrations of sulfate. Although total synthesis of [3H]chondroitin/dermatan glycosaminoglycans varied somewhat between cell lines, glycosaminoglycan production was not affected within any line when sulfate levels were decreased from 0.3 mM to 0.06 mM to 0.01 mM to 0 added sulfate. Lowering of sulfate concentrations resulted in diminished sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan in a progressive manner, so that overall sulfation dropped to as low as 19% for one of the lines. Sulfation of chondroitin to form chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate was progressively and equally affected by decreasing the sulfate concentration in the culture medium. However, sulfation to form dermatan sulfate was preserved to a greater degree, so that the relative proportion of dermatan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate increased. Essentially all the nonsulfated residues were susceptible to chondroitin AC lyase, indicating that little epimerization of glucuronic acid residues to iduronic acid had occurred in the absence of sulfation. These results confirm the previously described dependency of glucuronic/iduronic epimerization on sulfation, and indicate that sulfation of the iduronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of dermatan can take place with sulfate concentrations lower than those needed for 6-sulfation and 4-sulfation of the glucuronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of chondroitin. There were considerable differences among the six fibroblast lines in susceptibility to low sulfate medium and in the proportion of chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. However, there was no pattern of differences between normals and diabetics

  18. INTRACELLULAR SYNTHESIS OF CHONDROITIN SULFATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewiatkowski, Dominic D.

    1962-01-01

    In autoradiograms of slices of costal cartilage, incubated for 4 hours in a salt solution containing S35-sulfate and then washed extensively and dehydrated, about 85 per cent of the radioactivity was assignable to the chondrocytes. From alkaline extracts of similarly prepared slices of cartilage, 64 to 83 per cent of the total sulfur-35 in the slices was isolated as chondroitin sulfate by chromatography on an anion-exchange resin. In view of the estimate that only about 15 per cent of the radioactivity was in the matrix, the isolation of 64 to 83 per cent of the total sulfur-35 as chondroitin sulfate is a strong argument that the chondrocytes are the loci in which chondroitin sulfate(s) is synthesized. PMID:13888910

  19. Synthesis of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan from methyl oleate with O-sulfate chitosan as edible film material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel; Sihaloho, O.; Saleh, C.; Magdaleni, A. R.

    2018-04-01

    The research on the synthesis of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan through sulfonation reaction on chitosan with ammonium sulfate and followed by amidation reaction using methyl oleate has been done. In this study, chitosan was chemically modified into N-oleyl O-sulfatechitosan as an edible film making material. N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan was synthesized by reaction between methyl oleate and O-sulfate chitosan. Wherein the depleted chitosan of O-sulfate chitosan into O-sulfate chitosan was obtained by reaction of sulfonation between ammonium sulfate and chitosan aldimine. While chitosan aldimine was obtained through reaction between chitosan with acetaldehyde. The structure of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan was characterized by FT-IR analysis which showed vibration uptake of C-H sp3 group, S=O group, and carbonyl group C=O of the ester. The resulting of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan yielded a percentage of 93.52%. Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) test results gave a value of 6.68. In the toxicity test results of N-oleyl O-sulfate chitosan obtained LC50 value of 3738.4732 ppm. In WVTR (Water Vapor Transmission Rate) test results for chitosan film was 407.625 gram/m2/24 hours and N-oleylO-sulfate chitosan film was 201.125 gram/m2/24 hours.

  20. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans: structure, protein interactions and cell signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana L. Dreyfuss

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are ubiquitously found at the cell surface and extracellular matrix in all the animal species. This review will focus on the structural characteristics of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans related to protein interactions leading to cell signaling. The heparan sulfate chains due to their vast structural diversity are able to bind and interact with a wide variety of proteins, such as growth factors, chemokines, morphogens, extracellular matrix components, enzymes, among others. There is a specificity directing the interactions of heparan sulfates and target proteins, regarding both the fine structure of the polysaccharide chain as well precise protein motifs. Heparan sulfates play a role in cellular signaling either as receptor or co-receptor for different ligands, and the activation of downstream pathways is related to phosphorylation of different cytosolic proteins either directly or involving cytoskeleton interactions leading to gene regulation. The role of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans in cellular signaling and endocytic uptake pathways is also discussed.Proteoglicanos de heparam sulfato são encontrados tanto superfície celular quanto na matriz extracelular em todas as espécies animais. Esta revisão tem enfoque nas características estruturais dos proteoglicanos de heparam sulfato e nas interações destes proteoglicanos com proteínas que levam à sinalização celular. As cadeias de heparam sulfato, devido a sua variedade estrutural, são capazes de se ligar e interagir com ampla gama de proteínas, como fatores de crescimento, quimiocinas, morfógenos, componentes da matriz extracelular, enzimas, entreoutros. Existe uma especificidade estrutural que direciona as interações dos heparam sulfatos e proteínas alvo. Esta especificidade está relacionada com a estrutura da cadeia do polissacarídeo e os motivos conservados da cadeia polipeptídica das proteínas envolvidas nesta interação. Os heparam

  1. Surface Corrosion and Microstructure Degradation of Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cement Subjected to Wet-Dry Cycles in Sulfate Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuman Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydration products of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA cement are different from those of Portland cement. The degradation of CSA cement subjected to wet-dry cycles in sulfate solution was studied in this paper. The surface corrosion was recorded and the microstructures were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that SO42-, Na+, Mg2+, and Cl− have an effect on the stability of ettringite. In the initial period of sulfate attack, salt crystallization is the main factor leading to the degradation of CSA cement specimens. The decomposition and the carbonation of ettringite will cause long-term degradation of CSA cement specimens under wet-dry cycles in sulfate solution. The surface spalling and microstructure degradation increase significantly with the increase of wet-dry cycles, sulfate concentration, and water to cement ratio. Magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride reduce the degradation when the concentration of sulfate ions is a constant value.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  3. Heritability and clinical determinants of serum indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, candidate biomarkers of the human microbiome enterotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Viaene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are unique microbial co-metabolites. Both co-metabolites have been involved in the pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular disease and renal disease progression. Available evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate may be considered candidate biomarkers of the human enterotype and may help to explain the link between diet and cardiovascular disease burden. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Information on clinical determinants and heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate serum is non-existing. To clarify this issue, the authors determined serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in 773 individuals, recruited in the frame of the Flemish Study on Environment, Genes and Health Outcomes (FLEMENGHO study. RESULTS: Serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate amounted to 3.1 (2.4-4.3 and 13.0 (7.4-21.5 μM, respectively. Regression analysis identified renal function, age and sex as independent determinants of both co-metabolites. Both serum indoxyl sulfate (h2 = 0.17 and p-cresyl sulfate (h2 = 0.18 concentrations showed moderate but significant heritability after adjustment for covariables, with significant genetic and environmental correlations for both co-metabolites. LIMITATIONS: Family studies cannot provide conclusive evidence for a genetic contribution, as confounding by shared environmental effects can never be excluded. CONCLUSIONS: The heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate is moderate. Besides genetic host factors and environmental factors, also renal function, sex and age influence the serum levels of these co-metabolites.

  4. The electrical and thermal properties of sodium sulfate mixed with lithium sulfate, yttrium sulfate, and silicon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, N.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Adachi, G.; Shiokawa, J.

    1986-01-01

    Sodium sulfate mixed with lithium sulfate, yttrium sulfate, and silicon dioxide was prepared. The thermal and electrical properties of its phases were investigated. The Na 2 SO 4 -Li 2 SO 4 -Y 2 (SO 4 ) 3 SiO 2 samples are similar to the Na 2 SO 4 -I phase (a high temperature phase), which is appreciably effective for Na + ionic conduction. Phase transformation was considerably suppressed by mixing. Electromotive force (EMF) was measured, using Na 2 SO 4 -Li 2 SO 4 -Y 2 (SO 4 ) 3 -SiO 2 as a solid electrolyte, by constructing an SO 2 gas concentration cell. The measured EMF's at 823 and 773 K were in fairly good accordance with the calculated EMF's for inlet SO 2 gas concentration between 30 ppm and 1%, and 500 ppm and 0.5% respectively

  5. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172.822 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely... specifications: (1) It is a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates consisting chiefly of sodium lauryl sulfate [CH2(CH2...

  6. Thermochemical sulfate reduction in deep petroleum reservoirs: a molecular approach; Thermoreduction des sulfates dans les reservoirs petroliers: approche moleculaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanin, S.

    2002-11-01

    The thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) is a set of chemical reactions leading to hydrocarbon oxidation and production of carbon dioxide and sour gas (H{sub 2}S) which is observed in deep petroleum reservoirs enriched in anhydrites (calcium sulfate). Molecular and isotopic studies have been conducted on several crude oil samples to determine which types of compounds could have been produced during TSR. Actually, we have shown that the main molecules formed by TSR were organo-sulfur compounds. Indeed, sulfur isotopic measurements. of alkyl-di-benzothiophenes, di-aryl-disulfides and thia-diamondoids (identified by NMR or synthesis of standards) shows that they are formed during TSR as their value approach that of the sulfur of the anhydrite. Moreover, thia-diamondoids are apparently exclusively formed during this phenomenon and can thus be considered as true molecular markers of TSR. In a second part, we have investigated with laboratory experiments the formation mechanism of the molecules produced during TSR. A first model has shown that sulfur incorporation into the organic matter occurred with mineral sulfur species of low oxidation degree. The use of {sup 34}S allowed to show that the sulfates reduction occurred during these simulations. At least, some experiments on polycyclic hydrocarbons, sulfurized or not, allowed to establish that thia-diamondoids could be formed by acid-catalysed rearrangements at high temperatures in a similar way as the diamondoids. (author)

  7. Aggregation and charging of sulfate and amidine latex particles in the presence of oxyanions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takuya; Cao, Tianchi; Szilagyi, Istvan; Borkovec, Michal; Trefalt, Gregor

    2018-08-15

    Electrophoretic mobility and time resolved light scattering are used to measure the effect on charging and aggregation of amidine and sulfate latex particles of different oxyanions namely, phosphate, arsenate, sulfate, and selenate. In the case of negatively charged sulfate latex particles oxyanions represent the coions, while they represent counterions in the case of the positively charged amidine latex. Repulsive interaction between the sulfate latex surface and the coions results in weak ion specific effects on the charging and aggregation. On the other hand the interaction of oxyanions with the amidine latex surface is highly specific. The monovalent dihydrogen phosphate ion strongly adsorbs to the positively charged surface and reverses the charge of the particle. This charge reversal leads also to the restabilization of the amidine latex suspension at the intermediate phosphate concentrations. In the case of dihydrogen arsenate the adsorption to amidine latex surface is weaker and no charge reversal and restabilization occurs. Similar differences are seen between the sulfate and selenate analogues, where selenate adsorbs more strongly to the surface as compared to the sulfate ion and invokes charge reversal. The present results indicate that ion specificity is much more pronounced in the case of counterions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Isotopic Zonation Within Sulfate Evaporite Mineral Crystals Reveal Quantitative Paleoenvironment Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M.; Rhorssen, M.; Mielke, R. E.

    2008-12-01

    Isotopic variations measured within a single crystal of hydrated magnesium sulfate are greater than 30 permil for delta 2-H, almost 10 permil for δ18O in water of hydration; and greater than 3 permil in sulfate oxygen. These results are interpreted to indicate the relative humidity of the system during evaporation (15 to 20 percent in this test case) and constrain the volume of water involved. The theoretical basis of this system is the isotopic fractionation between the species in solution and those precipitated as evaporite salts. Precipitation preferentially accumulates more of the heavy isotopes of sulfur and oxygen in mineral sulfate, relative to sulfate in solution. During the course of mineral growth this leads to successive depletion of the respective heavier isotopes in the residual brine reflected in a parallel trend in successive precipitates or even in successive zones within a single crystal. The change in isotopic composition at any one time during the process, relative to the initial value, can be described by an isotopic version of the Rayleigh Fractionation equation, depending only on the extent of the completion of the process and the relevant fractionation factor. Evaporation preferentially removes isotopically lighter hydrogen and oxygen leading to successive extents of enrichment in the respective heavier isotopes in the residual water. However, the relative effects on hydrogen and oxygen isotopes differs as function of relative humidity [1]. ALL OF THESE CHANGES ARE PRESERVED IN THE MINERAL ISOTOPE COMPOSITIONS. We precipitated barium sulfate from epsomite or gypsum samples, which was reduced at 1450°C in the presence of graphite and glassy carbon in a Finnigan TC/EA to produce CO for O isotopic analysis in a Finnigan 253 mass spectrometer, while a separate subsample was oxidized to SO2 in a Costech Elemental Analyzer. However, to make progress with this approach we needed to make a large number of measurements of hydration water and so we

  9. Treatment and electricity harvesting from sulfate/sulfide-containing wastewaters using microbial fuel cell with enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Lee, Chin-Yu; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture. ► Sulfate-reducing bacteria and anode-respiring bacteria were enriched in anodic biofilms. ► The MFC effectively remove sulfate to elementary sulfur in the presence of lactate. ► The present device can treat sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting. - Abstract: Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewaters can produce excess sulfide, which is corrosive to pipelines and is toxic to incorporated microorganisms. This work started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture as anodic biofilms and applied the so yielded MFC for treating sulfate or sulfide-laden wastewaters. The sulfate-reducing bacteria in anodic biofilm effectively reduced sulfate to sulfide, which was then used by neighboring anode respiring bacteria (ARB) as electron donor for electricity production. The presence of organic carbons enhanced MFC performance since the biofilm ARB were mixotrophs that need organic carbon to grow. The present device introduces a route for treating sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting.

  10. Treatment and electricity harvesting from sulfate/sulfide-containing wastewaters using microbial fuel cell with enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Duu-Jong, E-mail: cedean@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chin-Yu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Center for Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulfate-reducing bacteria and anode-respiring bacteria were enriched in anodic biofilms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MFC effectively remove sulfate to elementary sulfur in the presence of lactate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The present device can treat sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting. - Abstract: Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewaters can produce excess sulfide, which is corrosive to pipelines and is toxic to incorporated microorganisms. This work started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture as anodic biofilms and applied the so yielded MFC for treating sulfate or sulfide-laden wastewaters. The sulfate-reducing bacteria in anodic biofilm effectively reduced sulfate to sulfide, which was then used by neighboring anode respiring bacteria (ARB) as electron donor for electricity production. The presence of organic carbons enhanced MFC performance since the biofilm ARB were mixotrophs that need organic carbon to grow. The present device introduces a route for treating sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting.

  11. Stable isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction is controlled by reoxidation of intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalo, Muna; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Stichler, Willibald; Einsiedl, Florian

    2007-09-01

    Bacterial sulfate reduction is one of the most important respiration processes in anoxic habitats and is often assessed by analyzing the results of stable isotope fractionation. However, stable isotope fractionation is supposed to be influenced by the reduction rate and other parameters, such as temperature. We studied here the mechanistic basics of observed differences in stable isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction. Batch experiments with four sulfate-reducing strains ( Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfobacca acetoxidans, Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans, and strain TRM1) were performed. These microorganisms metabolize different carbon sources (lactate, acetate, formate, and toluene) and showed broad variations in their sulfur isotope enrichment factors. We performed a series of experiments on isotope exchange of 18O between residual sulfate and ambient water. Batch experiments were conducted with 18O-enriched (δ 18O water = +700‰) and depleted water (δ 18O water = -40‰), respectively, and the stable 18O isotope shift in the residual sulfate was followed. For Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans, which are both characterized by low sulfur isotope fractionation ( ɛS > -13.2‰), δ 18O values in the remaining sulfate increased by only 50‰ during growth when 18O-enriched water was used for the growth medium. In contrast, with Desulfobacca acetoxidans and strain TRM1 ( ɛS factor ( ɛS exchange with water during sulfate reduction. However, this neither takes place in the sulfate itself nor during formation of APS (adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate), but rather in intermediates of the sulfate reduction pathway. These may in turn be partially reoxidized to form sulfate. This reoxidation leads to an incorporation of oxygen from water into the "recycled" sulfate changing the overall 18O isotopic composition of the remaining sulfate fraction. Our study shows that such incorporation of 18O is correlated with the

  12. Interfacial properties of chitosan/sodium dodecyl sulfate complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinković Jelena R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary formulations of cosmetic and pharmaceutical emulsions may be achieved by using combined polymer/surfactant system, which can form complexes with different structure and physicochemical properties. Such complexation can lead to additional stabilization of the emulsion products. For these reasons, the main goal of this study was to investigate the interfacial properties of chitosan/sodium dodecyl sulfate complexes. In order to understand the stabilization mechanism, the interface of the oil/water systems that contained mixtures of chitosan and sodium dodecyl sulfate, was studied by measuring the interfacial tension. Considering the fact that the properties of the oil phase has influence on the adsorption process, three different types of oil were investigated: medium-chain triglycerides (semi-synthetic oil, paraffin oil (mineral oil and natural oil obtained from the grape seed. The surface tension measurements at the oil/water interface, for chitosan water solutions, indicate a poor surface activity of this biopolymer. Addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate to chitosan solution causes a significant decrease in the interfacial tension for all investigated oils. The results of this study are important for understanding the influence of polymer-surfactant interactions on the properties of the solution and stability of dispersed systems. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III46010

  13. SureCure{sup (R)}-A new material to reduces curing time and improve curing reproducibility of lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, David P.; Loosemore, Daniel V.; Botts, G. Dean [Hammond Lead Products Division, Hammond Group Inc., 2323 165th Street, Hammond, IN 46320 (United States)

    2006-08-25

    This paper introduces a technology that considerably reduces the time to cure the positive plates of lead-acid batteries. In each of several full-scale trials at automotive and industrial battery manufacturers, the simple replacement of 1wt.% of leady oxide with finely-divided tetrabasic lead sulfate (SureCure(TM) by Hammond Group Inc.) is shown to accelerate significantly the conversion of tribasic lead sulfate (3BS) to tetrabasic lead sulfate (4BS) in the curing process while improving crystal structure and reproducibility. Shorter curing times result in reduced labour and energy costs, as well as reduced fixed (curing chambers and plant footprint) and working (plate inventory) capital investment. (author)

  14. Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron by lead nitrate in sulfate-rich systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongmei; Gong, Linfeng; Cravotta, Charles A; Yang, Xiaofen; Tuovinen, Olli H; Dong, Hailiang; Fu, Xiang

    2013-01-15

    Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) by Pb(NO(3))(2) was investigated with a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The culture was incubated at 30 °C in ferrous-sulfate medium amended with 0-24.2 mM Pb(II) added as Pb(NO(3))(2). Anglesite (PbSO(4)) precipitated immediately upon Pb addition and was the only solid phase detected in the abiotic controls. Both anglesite and jarosite (KFe(3)(SO(4))(2)(OH)(6)) were detected in inoculated cultures. Precipitation of anglesite maintained dissolved Pb concentrations at 16.9-17.6 μM regardless of the concentrations of Pb(NO(3))(2) added. Fe(II) oxidation was suppressed by 24.2 mM Pb(NO(3))(2) addition even when anglesite was removed before inoculation. Experiments with 0-48 mM KNO(3) demonstrated that bacterial Fe(II) oxidation decreased as nitrate concentration increased. Therefore, inhibition of Fe(II) oxidation at 24.2 mM Pb(NO(3))(2) addition resulted from nitrate toxicity instead of Pb addition. Geochemical modeling that considered the initial precipitation of anglesite to equilibrium followed by progressive oxidation of Fe(II) and the precipitation of jarosite and an amorphous iron hydroxide phase, without allowing plumbojarosite to precipitate were consistent with the experimental time-series data on Fe(II) oxidation under biotic conditions. Anglesite precipitation in mine tailings and other sulfate-rich systems maintains dissolved Pb concentrations below the toxicity threshold of A. ferrooxidans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biological conversion of anglesite (PbSO(4)) and lead waste from spent car batteries to galena (PbS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijma, Jan; De Hoop, Klaas; Bosma, Wobby; Dijkman, Henk

    2002-01-01

    Lead paste, a solid mixture containing PbSO(4), PbO(2), PbO/Pb(OH)(2) precipitate, and elemental Pb, is one of the main waste fractions from spent car batteries. Biological sulfidation represents a new process for recovery of lead from this waste. In this process the lead salts in lead paste are converted to galena (PbS) by sulfate-reducing bacteria. This paper investigates a continuous process for sulfidation of anglesite (PbSO(4)), the main constituent of lead paste, and lead paste, consisting of a laboratory-scale gas-lift bioreactor to which a slurry of anglesite or lead paste was supplied. Sulfate or elemental sulfur was added as an additional sulfur source. Hydrogen gas served as an electron donor for the biological reduction of sulfate and elemental sulfur to sulfide by sulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacteria. Anglesite was almost completely converted to galena at a loading rate of 19 kg of PbSO(4) m(-)(3) day(-)(1), producing a sludge of which the crystalline lead phases consisted of >98% PbS (galena) and 1-2% elemental Pb. With lead paste, stable sulfidation rates of up to 17 kg of lead paste m(-)(3) day(-)(1) were demonstrated, producing a sludge of which the crystalline lead phases consisted of an estimated >96% PbS, 1-2% elemental Pb, and 1-2% PbO(2).

  16. Isolation of a sulfate reducing bacterium and its application in sulfate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the effect of C. freundii in removing sulfate was best when the temperature was 32°C, pH was 7.0, COD/SO42- was 5.0 and the initial SO42- concentration was 1500 mg/L. Also, the SRB was inoculated onto an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) to remove sulfate in actual tannery wastewater.

  17. Divergent Synthesis of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides and Identification of Sulfate Motifs that Inhibit Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Poh, Zhong; Heng Gan, Chin; Lee, Eric J.; Guo, Suxian; Yip, George W.; Lam, Yulin

    2015-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulate many important physiological processes. A pertinent issue to address is whether GAGs encode important functional information via introduction of position specific sulfate groups in the GAG structure. However, procurement of pure, homogenous GAG motifs to probe the “sulfation code” is a challenging task due to isolation difficulty and structural complexity. To this end, we devised a versatile synthetic strategy to obtain all the 16 theoretically possible sulfation patterns in the chondroitin sulfate (CS) repeating unit; these include rare but potentially important sulfated motifs which have not been isolated earlier. Biological evaluation indicated that CS sulfation patterns had differing effects for different breast cancer cell types, and the greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the most aggressive, triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

  18. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Plugge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic Archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter.Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200 μM, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the δ-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life.In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

  19. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob T; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    positive patch test reactions to the coupler 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. METHODS: Patch test results from the Allergen Bank database for eczema patients patch tested with 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS......: A total of 902 dermatitis patients (154 from the dermatology department and 748 from 65 practices) were patch tested with amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. Thirteen (1.4%) patients had a positive patch test reaction. Our results do not indicate irritant reactions....... CONCLUSIONS: 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate is a new but rare contact allergen....

  20. Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor H. Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein.

  1. Simultaneous carbonation and sulfation of CaO in Oxy-Fuel CFB combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C. [School of Energy and Power Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Baoding City, Hebei Province (China); Jia, L.; Tan, Y. [CanmetENERGY, 1 Haanel Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 1M1 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    For anthracites and petroleum cokes, the typical combustion temperature in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) is > 900 C. At CO{sub 2} concentrations of 80-85 % (typical of oxy-fuel CFBC conditions), limestone still calcines. When the ash which includes unreacted CaO cools to the calcination temperature, carbonation of fly ash deposited on cool surfaces may occur. At the same time, indirect and direct sulfation of limestone also will occur, possibly leading to more deposition. In this study, CaO was carbonated and sulfated simultaneously in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) under conditions expected in an oxy-fuel CFBC. It was found that temperature, and concentrations of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and especially H{sub 2}O are important factors in determining the carbonation/sulfation reactions of CaO. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Brain ageing changes proteoglycan sulfation, rendering perineuronal nets more inhibitory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foscarin, Simona; Raha-Chowdhury, Ruma; Fawcett, James W; Kwok, Jessica C F

    2017-06-28

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans in perineuronal nets (PNNs) from the central nervous system (CNS) are involved in the control of plasticity and memory. Removing PNNs reactivates plasticity and restores memory in models of Alzheimer's disease and ageing. Their actions depend on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of CS proteoglycans, which are mainly sulfated in the 4 (C4S) or 6 (C6S) positions. While C4S is inhibitory, C6S is more permissive to axon growth, regeneration and plasticity. C6S decreases during critical period closure. We asked whether there is a late change in CS-GAG sulfation associated with memory loss in aged rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed a progressive increase in C4S and decrease in C6S from 3 to 18 months. GAGs extracted from brain PNNs showed a large reduction in C6S at 12 and 18 months, increasing the C4S/C6S ratio. There was no significant change in mRNA levels of the chondroitin sulfotransferases. PNN GAGs were more inhibitory to axon growth than those from the diffuse extracellular matrix. The 18-month PNN GAGs were more inhibitory than 3-month PNN GAGs. We suggest that the change in PNN GAG sulfation in aged brains renders the PNNs more inhibitory, which lead to a decrease in plasticity and adversely affect memory.

  3. A multi-analytical approach to better assess the keratan sulfate contamination in animal origin chondroitin sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restaino, Odile Francesca, E-mail: odilefrancesca.restaino@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Finamore, Rosario, E-mail: rosario.finamore@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Diana, Paola, E-mail: paola.diana@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Marseglia, Mariacarmela, E-mail: marimars84@hotmail.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Vitiello, Mario, E-mail: mariovitiello.ita@gmail.com [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Casillo, Angela, E-mail: angela.casillo@unina.it [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); Bedini, Emiliano, E-mail: emiliano.bedini@unina.it [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); Parrilli, Michelangelo, E-mail: michelangelo.parrilli@unina.it [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); and others

    2017-03-15

    Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan widely used as active principle of anti-osteoarthritis drugs and nutraceuticals, manufactured by extraction from animal cartilaginous tissues. During the manufacturing procedures, another glycosaminoglycan, the keratan sulfate, might be contemporarily withdrawn, thus eventually constituting a contaminant difficult to be determined because of its structural similarity. Considering the strict regulatory rules on the pureness of pharmaceutical grade chondrotin sulfate there is an urgent need and interest to determine the residual keratan sulfate with specific, sensitive and reliable methods. To pursue this aim, in this paper, for the first time, we set up a multi-analytical and preparative approach based on: i) a newly developed method by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, iii) size exclusion chromatography analyses coupled with triple detector array module and on iv) strong anion exchange chromatography separation. Varied KS percentages, in the range from 0.1 to 19.0% (w/w), were determined in seven pharmacopeia and commercial standards and nine commercial samples of different animal origin and manufacturers. Strong anion exchange chromatography profiles of the samples showed three or four different peaks. These peaks analyzed by high performance anion-exchange with pulsed amperometric detection and size exclusion chromatography with triple detector array, ion chromatography and by mono- or two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a heterogeneous composition of both glycosaminoglycans in terms of sulfation grade and molecular weight. High molecular weight species (>100 KDa) were also present in the samples that counted for chains still partially linked to a proteoglycan core. - Highlights: • A multi-analytical approach was set up, for the first time, for the determination of the residual keratan sulfate

  4. A multi-analytical approach to better assess the keratan sulfate contamination in animal origin chondroitin sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restaino, Odile Francesca; Finamore, Rosario; Diana, Paola; Marseglia, Mariacarmela; Vitiello, Mario; Casillo, Angela; Bedini, Emiliano; Parrilli, Michelangelo

    2017-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan widely used as active principle of anti-osteoarthritis drugs and nutraceuticals, manufactured by extraction from animal cartilaginous tissues. During the manufacturing procedures, another glycosaminoglycan, the keratan sulfate, might be contemporarily withdrawn, thus eventually constituting a contaminant difficult to be determined because of its structural similarity. Considering the strict regulatory rules on the pureness of pharmaceutical grade chondrotin sulfate there is an urgent need and interest to determine the residual keratan sulfate with specific, sensitive and reliable methods. To pursue this aim, in this paper, for the first time, we set up a multi-analytical and preparative approach based on: i) a newly developed method by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, iii) size exclusion chromatography analyses coupled with triple detector array module and on iv) strong anion exchange chromatography separation. Varied KS percentages, in the range from 0.1 to 19.0% (w/w), were determined in seven pharmacopeia and commercial standards and nine commercial samples of different animal origin and manufacturers. Strong anion exchange chromatography profiles of the samples showed three or four different peaks. These peaks analyzed by high performance anion-exchange with pulsed amperometric detection and size exclusion chromatography with triple detector array, ion chromatography and by mono- or two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a heterogeneous composition of both glycosaminoglycans in terms of sulfation grade and molecular weight. High molecular weight species (>100 KDa) were also present in the samples that counted for chains still partially linked to a proteoglycan core. - Highlights: • A multi-analytical approach was set up, for the first time, for the determination of the residual keratan sulfate

  5. Comparison of magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate for removal of water from pesticide extracts of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Frank J; Callery, Patrick; Gannett, Peter M; Daft, Jonathan R; Lehotay, Steven J

    2002-01-01

    Water-miscible solvents, such as acetone and acetonitrile, effectively extract both polar and nonpolar pesticide residues from nonfatty foods. The addition of sodium chloride to the resulting acetonitrile-water or acetone-water extract (salting out) results in the separation of the water from the organic solvent. However, the organic solvent layer (pesticide extract) still contains some residual water, which can adversely affect separation procedures that follow, such as solid-phase extraction and/or gas chromatography. Drying agents, such as sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate, are used to remove the water from the organic extracts. In the present study, we used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the composition of the phases resulting from salting out and to compare the effectiveness of sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate as drying agents. The study showed that considerable amounts of water remained in the organic phase after phase separation. Sodium sulfate was a relatively ineffective drying agent, removing little or no residual water from the organic solvent. Magnesium sulfate proved to be a much more effective drying agent.

  6. Bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shklyar, T F; Anoshina, G M; Blokhin, V Ye; Kisarrev, Ye L; Novikovsa, G M

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the invention is to find a bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria of oil fields in Western Siberia in order to suppress the biocorrosive activity on oil industry equipment. This goal is achieved by using M-nitroacetanylide as the bactericide of sulfate-reducing bacteria. This agent suppresses the activity of a stored culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria that comes from industrial waste waters injection wells of the Smotlor oil field.

  7. Biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells through inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Prinz

    Full Text Available The glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate is a critical component of proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. As such, chondroitin sulfate side chains and the sulfation balance of chondroitin play important roles in the control of signaling pathways, and have a functional importance in human disease. In contrast, very little is known about the roles of chondroitin sulfate molecules and sulfation patterns during mammalian development and cell lineage specification. Here, we report a novel biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in the specification of the cardiac cell lineage during embryonic stem cell differentiation through modulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Lineage marker analysis demonstrates that enzymatic elimination of endogenous chondroitin sulfates leads to defects specifically in cardiac differentiation. This is accompanied by a reduction in the number of beating cardiac foci. Mechanistically, we show that endogenous chondroitin sulfate controls cardiac differentiation in a temporal biphasic manner through inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, a known regulatory pathway for the cardiac lineage. Treatment with a specific exogenous chondroitin sulfate, CS-E, could mimic these biphasic effects on cardiac differentiation and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. These results establish chondroitin sulfate and its sulfation balance as important regulators of cardiac cell lineage decisions through control of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Our work suggests that targeting the chondroitin biosynthesis and sulfation machinery is a novel promising avenue in regenerative strategies after heart injury.

  8. Biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells through inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Robert D; Willis, Catherine M; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Klüppel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate is a critical component of proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. As such, chondroitin sulfate side chains and the sulfation balance of chondroitin play important roles in the control of signaling pathways, and have a functional importance in human disease. In contrast, very little is known about the roles of chondroitin sulfate molecules and sulfation patterns during mammalian development and cell lineage specification. Here, we report a novel biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in the specification of the cardiac cell lineage during embryonic stem cell differentiation through modulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Lineage marker analysis demonstrates that enzymatic elimination of endogenous chondroitin sulfates leads to defects specifically in cardiac differentiation. This is accompanied by a reduction in the number of beating cardiac foci. Mechanistically, we show that endogenous chondroitin sulfate controls cardiac differentiation in a temporal biphasic manner through inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, a known regulatory pathway for the cardiac lineage. Treatment with a specific exogenous chondroitin sulfate, CS-E, could mimic these biphasic effects on cardiac differentiation and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. These results establish chondroitin sulfate and its sulfation balance as important regulators of cardiac cell lineage decisions through control of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Our work suggests that targeting the chondroitin biosynthesis and sulfation machinery is a novel promising avenue in regenerative strategies after heart injury.

  9. Inter vs. intraglycosidic acetal linkages control sulfation pattern in semi-synthetic chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laezza, Antonio; De Castro, Cristina; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Bedini, Emiliano

    2014-11-04

    Microbial-sourced unsulfated chondroitin could be converted into chondroitin sulfate (CS) polysaccharide by a multi-step strategy relying upon benzylidenation and acetylation reactions as key-steps for its regioselective protection. By conducting the two reactions one- or two-pots, CSs with different sulfation patterns could be obtained at the end of the semi-synthesis. In particular, a CS polysaccharide possessing sulfate groups randomly distributed between positions 4 and 6 of N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) units could be obtained through the two-pots route, whereas the one-pot pathway allowed an additional sulfation at position 3 of some glucuronic acid (GlcA) units. This difference was ascribed to the stabilization of a labile interglycosidic benzylidene acetal involving positions O-3 and O-6 of some GlcA and GalNAc, respectively, when the benzylidene-acetylation reactions were conducted in a one-pot fashion. Isolation and characterization of a polysaccharide intermediate showing interglycosidic acetal moieties was accomplished. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-model comparison of the volcanic sulfate deposition from the 1815 eruption of Mt. Tambora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marshall

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Mt. Tambora in 1815 was the largest volcanic eruption of the past 500 years. The eruption had significant climatic impacts, leading to the 1816 year without a summer, and remains a valuable event from which to understand the climatic effects of large stratospheric volcanic sulfur dioxide injections. The eruption also resulted in one of the strongest and most easily identifiable volcanic sulfate signals in polar ice cores, which are widely used to reconstruct the timing and atmospheric sulfate loading of past eruptions. As part of the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP, five state-of-the-art global aerosol models simulated this eruption. We analyse both simulated background (no Tambora and volcanic (with Tambora sulfate deposition to polar regions and compare to ice core records. The models simulate overall similar patterns of background sulfate deposition, although there are differences in regional details and magnitude. However, the volcanic sulfate deposition varies considerably between the models with differences in timing, spatial pattern and magnitude. Mean simulated deposited sulfate on Antarctica ranges from 19 to 264 kg km−2 and on Greenland from 31 to 194 kg km−2, as compared to the mean ice-core-derived estimates of roughly 50 kg km−2 for both Greenland and Antarctica. The ratio of the hemispheric atmospheric sulfate aerosol burden after the eruption to the average ice sheet deposited sulfate varies between models by up to a factor of 15. Sources of this inter-model variability include differences in both the formation and the transport of sulfate aerosol. Our results suggest that deriving relationships between sulfate deposited on ice sheets and atmospheric sulfate burdens from model simulations may be associated with greater uncertainties than previously thought.

  11. Lead-Free Sn-Ce-O Composite Coating on Cu Produced by Pulse Electrodeposition from an Aqueous Acidic Sulfate Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Das, Karabi; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-10-01

    Pulse-electrodeposited Sn-Ce-O composite solder coatings were synthesized on a Cu substrate from an aqueous acidic solution containing stannous sulfate (SnSO4·3H2O), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and Triton X-100 as an additive. The codeposition was achieved by adding nano-cerium oxide powder in varying concentrations from 5 g/L to 20 g/L into the electrolytic bath. Microstructural characterization was carried out using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The XRD analysis showed that the deposits consist mainly of tetragonal β (Sn) with reduced cerium oxide species. The composite coatings thus obtained exhibit a smaller grain size, possess higher microhardness, and a lower melting point than the monolithic Sn coating. The electrical resistivity of the developed composites increases, however, but lies within the permissible limits for current lead-free solder applications. Also, an optimum balance of properties in terms of microhardness, adhesion, melting point and resistivity can be obtained with 0.9 wt.% cerium oxide in the Sn matrix, which enables potential applications in solder joints and packaging.

  12. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. Sulfation pattern of fucose branches affects the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nian; Zhang, Yu; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Ding, Tian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-08-20

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs) are glycosaminoglycans extracted from sea cucumbers, consisting of chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) backbones and sulfated fucose branches. The biological properties of fCSs could be affected by the sulfation pattern of their fucose branches. In the present study, two fCSs were isolated from sea cucumbers Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) and Pearsonothuria graeffei (fCS-Pg). Their monosaccharide compositions of glucuronic acid (GlcA), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), fucose (Fuc) and sulfate were at similar molar ratio with 1.0/0.7/0.9/3.1 for fCS-Ib and 1.0/0.8/1.5/2.6 for fCS-Pg. The two fCSs have different sulfation patterns on their fucose branches, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation while fCS-Ib with 2,4-O-disulfation. Their antihyperlipidemic effects were compared using a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice model. Both fCS-Ib and fCS-Pg had significant effects on lipid profile improvement, liver protection, blood glucose diminution and hepatic glycogen synthesis. Specifically, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation fucose branches was more effective in reduction of blood cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and atherogenic index (AI). Our results indicate that both fCSs, especially fCS-Pg, could be used as a potential anti-hyperlipidemic drug. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a...

  18. Galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity in Morquio syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yutaka, T.; Okada, S.; Kato, T.; Inui, K.; Yabuuhi, H.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have prepared a new substrate, o-β-D-sulfo-galactosyl-(1-4)-β-D-6-sulfo-2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucosyl-(1-4)-D-[1- 3 H]galactitol, from shark cartilage keratan sulfate, for the assay of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity. Using this substrate, they found there was a striking deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, in addition to the known deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase, in the cultured skin fibroblasts of patients with Morquio syndrome. Their results could be explained by the hypothesis that accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in Morquio syndrome is due to a deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase and N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, which are necessary for the degradation of these two mucopolysaccharides. (Auth.)

  19. Galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity in Morquio syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, T.; Okada, S.; Kato, T.; Inui, K.; Yabuuhi, H. (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-07-01

    The authors have prepared a new substrate, o-..beta..-D-sulfo-galactosyl-(1-4)-..beta..-D-6-sulfo-2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucosyl-(1-4)-D-(1-/sup 3/H)galactitol, from shark cartilage keratan sulfate, for the assay of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity. Using this substrate, they found there was a striking deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, in addition to the known deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase, in the cultured skin fibroblasts of patients with Morquio syndrome. Their results could be explained by the hypothesis that accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in Morquio syndrome is due to a deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase and N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, which are necessary for the degradation of these two mucopolysaccharides.

  20. Experimental and numerical study on cement paste degradation under external sulfate attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, X.; Copuroglu, O.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Han, N; Xing, F; Saouma, V.; Bolander, J.; Landis, E.

    2016-01-01

    External sulfate attack is one of the situations that may cause gradual but severe damage in cementitious materials, which may lead to cracking, increased permeability and strength loss. In this paper, thin-walled hollow cement paste cylinders with a wall thickness of 2.5mm were made considering the

  1. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydroxide or potassium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg...

  2. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaromb, Solomon; Lawson, Daniel B.

    1994-01-01

    A process for recovering zinc/rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10.degree. C., separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream.

  3. The ceric sulfate dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbakke, Erling

    1970-01-01

    The process employed for the determination of absorbed dose is the reduction of ceric ions to cerous ions in a solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in 0.8N sulfuric acid: Ce4+→Ce 3+ The absorbed dose is derived from the difference in ceric ion concentration before and after irradiation...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  5. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  6. Heparan sulfate and cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porcionatto M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate is a component of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues which appears during the cytodifferentiation stage of embryonic development. Its structure varies according to the tissue and species of origin and is modified during neoplastic transformation. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that heparan sulfate plays a role in cellular recognition, cellular adhesion and growth control. Heparan sulfate can participate in the process of cell division in two distinct ways, either as a positive or negative modulator of cellular proliferation, or as a response to a mitogenic stimulus.

  7. Sulfate and dissolved sulfide variation under low COD/Sulfate ratio in Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB treating domestic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérvio Túlio Alves Cassini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dynamics of sulfate reduction and dissolved sulfide generation (S2-, HS-, H2Saq in liquid phase was evaluated in an UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater with low COD/Sulfate content. The evaluation in the UASB reactor was performed at three sludge heights (0.25, 1.25, 2.25 taps and effluent of the reactor. Sulfate reduction was verified in the reactor, with an average reduction of 24 % throughout the experiment period. However, the dissolved sulfide concentration in the reactor was not higher than 5.0 mg Sdiss/L. The kinetic model of first order showed good fit to describe the sulfate reduction under different COD/sulfate ratio, with K1app between 2.94x10-5 s-1 and 1.17x10-5 s-1 with correlation coefficients for data over 91%. The maximum rate to sulfate reduction was 18.0 mg SO42-/L.h-1 and small variation in COD/sulfate ratio promotes a significant change both in sulfate and sulfide concentrations.

  8. Setting constraints on the nature and origin of the two major hydrous sulfates on Mars: Monohydrated and polyhydrated sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alian; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Liu, Yang; Connor, Kathryn

    2016-04-01

    Monohydrated Mg sulfate (MgSO4·H2O) and polyhydrated sulfate are the most common and abundant hydrous sulfates observed thus far on Mars. They are widely distributed and coexist in many locations. On the basis of results from two new sets of experiments, in combination with past experimental studies and the subsurface salt mineralogy observed at a saline playa (Dalangtan, DLT) in a terrestrial analogue hyperarid region on the Tibet Plateau, we can now set new constraints on the nature and origin of these two major Martian sulfates. Starkeyite (MgSO4·4H2O) is the best candidate for polyhydrated sulfate. MgSO4·H2O in the form of "LH-1w," generated from dehydration of Mg sulfates with high degrees of hydration, is the most likely mineral form for the majority of Martian monohydrated Mg sulfate. Two critical properties of Mg sulfates are responsible for the coexistence of these two phases that have very different degrees of hydration: (1) the metastability of a substructural unit in starkeyite at relatively low temperatures, and (2) catalytic effects attributed to coprecipitated species (sulfates, chlorides, oxides, and hydroxides) from chemically complex brines that help overcome the metastability of starkeyite. The combination of these two properties controls the coexistence of the LH-1w layer and starkeyite layers at many locations on Mars, which sometimes occur in an interbedded stratigraphy. The structural H2O held by these two broadly distributed sulfates represents a large H2O reservoir at the surface and in the shallow subsurface on current Mars.

  9. Hyperfine interactions and structures of ferrous hydroxide and green rust II in sulfated aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olowe, A.A.; Genin, J.M.R.; Bauer, P.

    1988-01-01

    A sulfated ferrous hydroxide is obtained by mixing NaOH with melanterite depending on the R = [SO 4 -- ]/[OH - ] ratio and leading by oxidation to the green rust II transient compound. Hyperfine parameters are presented. (orig.)

  10. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...... C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... P60, were isolated and characterized as Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii. The temperature response of growth and respiration of strain P60 agreed well with the measured sulfate reduction at 50 degrees-70 degrees C. Bacteria similar to strain P60 could thus be responsible for the measured thermophilic...

  11. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...... P60, were isolated and characterized as Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii. The temperature response of growth and respiration of strain P60 agreed well with the measured sulfate reduction at 50 degrees-70 degrees C. Bacteria similar to strain P60 could thus be responsible for the measured thermophilic...

  12. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-12-31

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 {mu}M. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 {mu}M h{sup -1} while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 {mu}M h{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination

  13. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-01-01

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO 4 2- concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 μM. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 μM h -1 while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 μM h -1 , respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 μg d -1 g -1 ) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 μg d -1 g -1 ) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 μg d -1 g -1 ) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m -2 d -1 , while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m -2 d -1 , respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination paper. 67 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Sulfation and cation effects on the conformational properties of the glycan backbone of chondroitin sulfate disaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Christina E; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-05-21

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is one of several glycosaminoglycans that are major components of proteoglycans. A linear polymer consisting of repeats of the disaccharide -4GlcAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-, CS undergoes differential sulfation resulting in five unique sulfation patterns. Because of the dimer repeat, the CS glycosidic "backbone" has two distinct sets of conformational degrees of freedom defined by pairs of dihedral angles: (ϕ1, ψ1) about the β1-3 glycosidic linkage and (ϕ2, ψ2) about the β1-4 glycosidic linkage. Differential sulfation and the possibility of cation binding, combined with the conformational flexibility and biological diversity of CS, complicate experimental efforts to understand CS three-dimensional structures at atomic resolution. Therefore, all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations with Adaptive Biasing Force sampling of the CS backbone were applied to obtain high-resolution, high-precision free energies of CS disaccharides as a function of all possible backbone geometries. All 10 disaccharides (β1-3 vs β1-4 linkage × five different sulfation patterns) were studied; additionally, ion effects were investigated by considering each disaccharide in the presence of either neutralizing sodium or calcium cations. GlcAβ1-3GalNAc disaccharides have a single, broad, thermodynamically important free-energy minimum, whereas GalNAcβ1-4GlcA disaccharides have two such minima. Calcium cations but not sodium cations bind to the disaccharides, and binding is primarily to the GlcA -COO(-) moiety as opposed to sulfate groups. This binding alters the glycan backbone thermodynamics in instances where a calcium cation bound to -COO(-) can act to bridge and stabilize an interaction with an adjacent sulfate group, whereas, in the absence of this cation, the proximity of a sulfate group to -COO(-) results in two like charges being both desolvated and placed adjacent to each other and is found to be destabilizing. In addition to providing information

  15. The combined therapy with chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine sulfate or chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine hydrochloride does not improve joint damage in an experimental model of knee osteoarthritis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Blas, Jorge A; Mediero, Aránzazu; Tardío, Lidia; Portal-Nuñez, Sergio; Gratal, Paula; Herrero-Beaumont, Gabriel; Largo, Raquel

    2017-01-05

    Osteoarthritis is the most common chronic joint disorder especially during aging. Although with controversies, glucosamine, both in its forms of sulfate and hydrochloride, and chondroitin sulfate are commonly employed to treat osteoarthritis. Due to the modest improve in the symptoms observed in patients treated with these drugs alone, a formulation combining both agents has been considered. The discrepant results achieved for pain control or structural improvement in osteoarthritis patients has been attributed to the quality of chemical formulations or different bias in clinical studies. The current study has been designed to test the effects of two different combined formulations with adequate pharmaceutical grade of these drugs in osteoarthritic joints, and to explore the underlying mechanisms modulated by both formulations in different osteoarthritis target tissues. Knee osteoarthritis was surgically induced in experimental rabbits. Some animals received the combined therapy (CT)1, (chondroitin sulfate 1200mg/day + glucosamine sulfate 1500mg/day), or the CT2 ((chondroitin sulfate 1200mg/day + glucosamine hydrochloride 1500mg/day). Neither CT1 nor CT2 significantly modified the cartilage damage or the synovial inflammation observed in osteoarthritic animals. Treatments were also unable to modify the presence of pro-inflammatory mediators, and the synthesis of metalloproteinases in the cartilage or in the synovium of osteoarthritic animals. Combined therapies did not modify the decrease in the subchondral bone mineral density observed in osteoarthritic rabbits. Therapies of chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine sulfate or chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine hydrochloride failed to improve structural damage or to ameliorate the inflammatory profile of joint tissues during experimental osteoarthritis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Highly sulfated hexasaccharide sequences isolated from chondroitin sulfate of shark fin cartilage: insights into the sugar sequences with bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Shuji; Murakoshi, Saori; Kalayanamitra, Kittiwan; Deepa, Sarama Sathyaseelan; Fukui, Shigeyuki; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Yamada, Shuhei; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2013-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains regulate the development of the central nervous system in vertebrates and are linear polysaccharides consisting of variously sulfated repeating disaccharides, [-4GlcUAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-](n), where GlcUA and GalNAc represent D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, respectively. CS chains containing D-disaccharide units [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)] are involved in the development of cerebellar Purkinje cells and neurite outgrowth-promoting activity through interaction with a neurotrophic factor, pleiotrophin, resulting in the regulation of signaling. In this study, to obtain further structural information on the CS chains containing d-disaccharide units involved in brain development, oligosaccharides containing D-units were isolated from a shark fin cartilage. Seven novel hexasaccharide sequences, ΔO-D-D, ΔA-D-D, ΔC-D-D, ΔE-A-D, ΔD-D-C, ΔE-D-D and ΔA-B-D, in addition to three previously reported sequences, ΔC-A-D, ΔC-D-C and ΔA-D-A, were isolated from a CS preparation of shark fin cartilage after exhaustive digestion with chondroitinase AC-I, which cannot act on the galactosaminidic linkages bound to D-units. The symbol Δ stands for a 4,5-unsaturated bond of uronic acids, whereas A, B, C, D, E and O represent [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(4-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA(2-O-sulfate)-GalNAc(6-O-sulfate)], [GlcUA-GalNAc(4-O-, 6-O-sulfate)] and [GlcUA-GalNAc], respectively. In binding studies using an anti-CS monoclonal antibody, MO-225, the epitopes of which are involved in cerebellar development in mammals, novel epitope structures, ΔA-D-A, ΔA-D-D and ΔA-B-D, were revealed. Hexasaccharides containing two consecutive D-units or a B-unit will be useful for the structural and functional analyses of CS chains particularly in the neuroglycobiological fields.

  17. Functional Requirements for Heparan Sulfate Biosynthesis in Morphogenesis and Nervous System Development in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Cassandra R; Thackeray, Andrea; Perrat, Paola N; Hekimi, Siegfried; Bénard, Claire Y

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of cell migration is essential to animal development and physiology. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans shape the interactions of morphogens and guidance cues with their respective receptors to elicit appropriate cellular responses. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans consist of a protein core with attached heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains, which are synthesized by glycosyltransferases of the exostosin (EXT) family. Abnormal HS chain synthesis results in pleiotropic consequences, including abnormal development and tumor formation. In humans, mutations in either of the exostosin genes EXT1 and EXT2 lead to osteosarcomas or multiple exostoses. Complete loss of any of the exostosin glycosyltransferases in mouse, fish, flies and worms leads to drastic morphogenetic defects and embryonic lethality. Here we identify and study previously unavailable viable hypomorphic mutations in the two C. elegans exostosin glycosyltransferases genes, rib-1 and rib-2. These partial loss-of-function mutations lead to a severe reduction of HS levels and result in profound but specific developmental defects, including abnormal cell and axonal migrations. We find that the expression pattern of the HS copolymerase is dynamic during embryonic and larval morphogenesis, and is sustained throughout life in specific cell types, consistent with HSPGs playing both developmental and post-developmental roles. Cell-type specific expression of the HS copolymerase shows that HS elongation is required in both the migrating neuron and neighboring cells to coordinate migration guidance. Our findings provide insights into general principles underlying HSPG function in development.

  18. Effect of metakaolin on external sulfate attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramlochan, T.; Thomas, M. [Toronto Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The effect of high reactivity metakaolin (HRM) on the sulfate resistance of mortars was studied. Mortar bars with three cements of varying C{sub 3}A content were used for the experiment. After a six month exposure to a 5 per cent solution of sodium sulfate, mortar bars incorporating any level of HRM as a partial replacement for a high-C{sub 3}A was considered 'moderately sulfate resistant'; mortar bars with HRM and a moderate or low C{sub 3}A content as 'high sulfate resistant'. It was also determined that for long term sulfate resistance 15 per cent HRM or more may be required, depending on the C{sub 3}A content. The performance of HRM was found to be significantly influenced by the water-cementitious material ratio, and in turn, by permeability, suggesting that HRM might increase sulfate resistance more by lowering the permeability of the concrete than by any chemical action. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  19. Determination of pyrophosphate and sulfate using polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride-stabilized silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenteva, E A; Apyari, V V; Dmitrienko, S G; Garshev, A V; Volkov, P A; Zolotov, Yu A

    2018-04-01

    Positively charged polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride-stabilized silver nanoparticles (PHMG-AgNPs) were prepared and applied as a colorimetric probe for single-step determination of pyrophosphate and sulfate. The approach is based on the nanoparticles aggregation leading to change in their absorption spectra and color of the solution. Due to both electrostatic and steric stabilization these nanoparticles show decreased sensitivity relatively to many common anions, which allows for simple and rapid direct single-step determination of pyrophosphate and sulfate. Effects of different factors (time of interaction, pH, concentrations of anions and the nanoparticles) on aggregation of PHMG-AgNPs and analytical performance of the procedure were investigated. The method allows for the determination of pyrophosphate and sulfate in the range of 0.16-2μgmL -1 and 20-80μgmL -1 with RSD of 2-5%, respectively. The analysis can be performed using either spectrophotometry or naked-eye detection. Practical application of the method was shown by the example of pyrophosphate determination in baking powder sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation into the Effect of Sulfate and Borate Incorporation on the Structure and Properties of SrFeO3-δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey Jarvis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the successful incorporation of sulfate and borate into SrFeO3-δ, and characterise the effect on the structure and conductivity, with a view to possible utilisation as a cathode material in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. The incorporation of low levels of sulfate/borate is sufficient to cause a change from a tetragonal to a cubic cell. Moreover, whereas heat treatment of undoped SrFeO3-δ under N2 leads to a transformation to brownmillerite Sr2Fe2O5 with oxygen vacancy ordering, the sulfate/borate-doped samples remain cubic under the same conditions. Thus, sulfate/borate doping appears to be successful in introducing oxide ion vacancy disorder in this system.

  1. Coupled mechanical and chemo-transport model for the simulation of cementitious materials subjected to external sulfate attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bary, B.; Le Bescop, P.; Leterrier, N.; Deville, E.

    2012-01-01

    We propose in this study to develop a chemo-transport-mechanical model for the simulation of external sulfate attack in cementitious materials. This degradation mainly consists in the hydrate decalcification/dissolution due to leaching, and in the reaction between the sulfate ions migrating within the material and mono-sulfate initially present to precipitate into ettringite. It may generate macroscopic expansions leading to severe microcracking. The key point in this study is the use of the integration numerical platform ALLIANCES which couples a code solving the chemical equations, the diffusion of ionic species into the porosity and the mechanical problem. The crystallization pressures resulting from the interaction between growing mono-sulfate crystals and the surrounding C-S-H matrix are assumed to cause the observed macroscopic swelling. A macroscopic bulk strain tensor calculated from the volume of formed ettringite is introduced for directly reproducing these expansions. Explicit up-scaling techniques applied on a simplified representation of the materials allow estimating both mechanical and diffusive properties of the evolving microstructure. The calculated macroscopic free expansions are in quite good agreement with experimental data, provided a correct calibration of the parameter involved in the expression of the bulk strain tensor. However, it is asserted that the model would lead to very high stress levels in the structures in the particular case of restrained displacements at its boundaries

  2. Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, David N.; Galvan, Gloria J.; Hundley, Gary L.; Wright, John B.

    1997-01-01

    A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

  3. A potential role for chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate in arm regeneration in Amphiura filiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Dupont, Sam T; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2017-05-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) from various vertebrate and invertebrate sources are known to be involved in diverse cellular mechanisms during repair and regenerative processes. Recently, we have identified CS/DS as the major GAG in the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis, with high proportions of di- and tri-O-sulfated disaccharide units. As this echinoderm is known for its exceptional regeneration capacity, we aimed to explore the role of these GAG chains during A. filiformis arm regeneration. Analysis of CS/DS chains during the regeneration process revealed an increase in the proportion of the tri-O-sulfated disaccharides. Conversely, treatment of A. filiformis with sodium chlorate, a potent inhibitor of sulfation reactions in GAG biosynthesis, resulted in a significant reduction in arm growth rates with total inhibition at concentrations higher than 5 mM. Differentiation was less impacted by sodium chlorate exposure or even slightly increased at 1-2 mM. Based on the structural changes observed during arm regeneration we identified chondroitin synthase, chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2 and dermatan-4-O-sulfotransferase as candidate genes and sought to correlate their expression with the expression of the A. filiformis orthologue of bone morphogenetic factors, AfBMP2/4. Quantitative amplification by real-time PCR indicated increased expression of chondroitin synthase and chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2, with a corresponding increase in AfBMP2/4 during regeneration relative to nonregenerating controls. Our findings suggest that proper sulfation of GAGs is important for A. filiformis arm regeneration and that these molecules may participate in mechanisms controlling cell proliferation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting...... apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage...... conductances, the variation of the rate coefficient for sulfate influx (y) was positively correlated with the rate coefficient for Cl- influx (x), y = 0.035 x - 0.0077 cm/sec (r = 0.9935, n = 15). 5. Addition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to the serosal bath of short...

  5. N-sulfation of heparan sulfate is critical for syndecan-4-mediated podocyte cell-matrix interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugar, T.; Wassenhove-McCarthy, D.J.; Orr, A.W.; Green, J.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; McCarthy, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that podocytes unable to assemble heparan sulfate on cell surface proteoglycan core proteins have compromised cell-matrix interactions. This report further explores the role of N-sulfation of intact heparan chains in podocyte-matrix interactions. For the purposes of this

  6. B_2S_2O_9. A boron sulfate with phyllosilicate topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logemann, Christian; Wickleder, Mathias S.

    2013-01-01

    The condensation of [BO_4] and [SO_4] tetrahedra in the first binary boron sulfate B_2S_2O_9, leads to a structure with typical layered phyllosilicate topology. The compound is obtained from the hydrolysis of B(OH)_3 and HSO_3Cl. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Immobilization of calcium sulfate contained in demolition waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroise, J.; Pera, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study undertaken to examine the treatment of demolition waste containing calcium sulfate by means of calcium sulfoaluminate clinker (CSA). The quantity of CSA necessary to entirely consume calcium sulfate was determined. Using infrared spectrometry analysis and X-ray diffraction, it was shown that calcium sulfate was entirely consumed when the ratio between CSA and calcium sulfate was 4. Standard sand was polluted by 4% calcium sulfate. Two solutions were investigated: ·either global treatment of sand by CSA, ·or immobilization of calcium sulfate by CSA, followed by the introduction of this milled mixture in standard sand. Regardless of the type of treatment, swelling was almost stabilized after 28 days of immersion in water

  8. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  9. Influence of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria on the Corrosion Residual Strength of an AZ91D Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianyong; Liu, Yaohui; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Jiaan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the corrosion residual strength of the AZ91D magnesium alloy in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria is studied. In the experiments, the chemical composition of corrosion film was analyzed by a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In addition, a series of instruments, such as scanning electronic microscope, pH-meter and an AG-10TA materials test machine, were applied to test and record the morphology of the corrosion product, fracture texture and mechanical properties of the AZ91D magnesium alloy. The experiments show that the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) play an important role in the corrosion process of the AZ91D magnesium alloy. Pitting corrosion was enhanced by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Corrosion pits are important defects that could lead to a significant stress concentration in the tensile process. As a result, sulfate-reducing bacteria influence the corrosion residual strength of the AZ91D magnesium alloy by accelerating pitting corrosion. PMID:28788236

  10. Mencegah Pembentukan Kalsium Sulfat pada Desalinasi Air Laut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Resin penukar-anion, Relite MG 1/P, dapat digunakan untuk memisahkan sulfat dalam air laut guna mencegah pembentukan kerak kalsium sulfat pada heat exchanger. Resin tersebut menunjukkan selektivitas sulfat yang tinggi dalam air laut sintetis. Resin yang telah dipakai dapat diregenerasi menggunakan air asin yang dipekatkan dengan asam hingga mencapai pH 4. Untuk waktu pemakaian dan regenerasi yang sama, faktor konsentrasi desalinasi (misalnya 2 hingga 4 menaikkan konsentrasi klorida dalam air asin yang diblowdown. Dengan faktor konsentrasi yang tetap, kenaikan laju alir (pengurangan waktu pemakaian dan regenerasi memperendah efisiensi regenerasi dan menaikkan pemisahan sulfat. Akibat kelarutan kalsium sulfat yang bersifat terbalik tersebut, temperatur air asin yang tinggi memerlukan pemisahan sulfat yang lebih banyak, yang dapat dicapai dengan mengurangi laju alir air laut. Pengurangan laju alir tersebut membutuhkan peralatan yang lebih besar dan resin yang lebih banyak, sehingga biaya modal bertambah. Untuk pabrik desalinasi dengan kapasitas produksi 1 juta gallon per hari dan faktor konsentrasi sebesar 2, biaya pemisahan sulfat meliputi biaya resin dan biaya peralatan. Biaya tersebut bervariasi dari $0.246 hingga $0.356/kgalon (per ribu galon air yang diproduksi karena temperatur maksimum air asin berubah dari 140°C menjadi 180°C. Keywords: desalinasi air laut, ion exchange, kalsium sulfat, kerak; mechanical vapor compression (MVC, pemisahan sulfat, resin penukar-anion basa lemah

  11. EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE (A LAXATIVE) ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use with little success . Magnesium sulfate also known as Epsom salt or bitter salt is a hydrate salt with a chemical name of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate . Chemical formula is MgSO. 7HO and trade name is. Andrews liver salt. Dried magnesium sulfate is an osmotic laxative or a saline laxative that acts by increasing the.

  12. A Solution-Based Approach for Mo-99 Production: Considerations for Nitrate versus Sulfate Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Youker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum-99 is the parent of Technetium-99m, which is used in nearly 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures. The medical community has been plagued by Mo-99 shortages due to aging reactors, such as the NRU (National Research Universal reactor in Canada. There are currently no US producers of Mo-99, and NRU is scheduled for shutdown in 2016, which means that another Mo-99 shortage is imminent unless a potential domestic Mo-99 producer fills the void. Argonne National Laboratory is assisting two potential domestic suppliers of Mo-99 by examining the effects of a uranyl nitrate versus a uranyl sulfate target solution configuration on Mo-99 production. Uranyl nitrate solutions are easier to prepare and do not generate detectable amounts of peroxide upon irradiation, but a high radiation field can lead to a large increase in pH, which can lead to the precipitation of fission products and uranyl hydroxides. Uranyl sulfate solutions are more difficult to prepare, and enough peroxide is generated during irradiation to cause precipitation of uranyl peroxide, but this can be prevented by adding a catalyst to the solution. A titania sorbent can be used to recover Mo-99 from a highly concentrated uranyl nitrate or uranyl sulfate solution; however, different approaches must be taken to prevent precipitation during Mo-99 production.

  13. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E.S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  14. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine; Extraction du sulfate de beryllium par une amine a longue chaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etaix, E S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude de l'extraction de l'acide sulfurique en solution aqueuse par une amine primaire en solution dans le benzene, le diethyl-3,9 amino-6 tridecane (D.E.T.) - autre nom americain 1-3 (ethylpentyl) - 4-ethyloctylamine (E.P.O.) a permis de calculer les constantes de formation du sulfate et de l'hydrogenosulfate d'alkyl-ammonium. La formule du complexe de sulfate de beryllium et d'alkyl-ammonium forme en solution benzenique a ete ensuite determinee pour diverses acidites initiales de la solution aqueuse. Enfin, l'influence de la concentration des ions sulfate de la phase aqueuse sur l'extraction du beryllium a mis en evidence la formation en solution aqueuse de complexes anioniques de sulfate et de beryllium dont la constante de formation a ete evaluee. (auteur)

  15. Expression and activity of sulfate transporters and APS reductase in curly kale in response to sulfate deprivation and re-supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koralewska, Aleksandra; Buchner, Peter; Stuiver, C. Elisabeth E.; Posthumus, Freek S.; Kopriva, Stanislav; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; De Kok, Luit J.

    2009-01-01

    Both activity and expression of sulfate transporters and APS reductase in plants are modulated by the sulfur status of the plant. To examine the regulatory mechanisms in curly kale (Brossica olerracea L.), the sulfate supply was manipulated by the transfer of seedlings to sulfate-deprived

  16. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  17. Heavy metals detoxification in soil performed by sulfate - reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pado, R.; Pawlowska-Cwiek, L.; Szwagrzyk, J.

    1994-01-01

    The process of sulfate reduction carried out by mixed bacteria cultures in the presence of heavy cations (Fe 2+ , Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ ) was investigated. The range of harmful metals concentrations responded to the acceptable levels in soil and their multiplications (10-100 times) in contaminated soil. The results show the possibility of detoxicating these metals, especially lead. In the highest lead concentrations (3950 and 7500 ppm), only after one month of activities conducted by bacteria dissimilating hydrogen sulfide, between about 73 and 81 per cent of lead was converted into practically insoluble PbS. It was found that detoxication process with the presence of bacteria from this group prolonged with the increase of metal concentration (Zn 2+ and Cd 2+ in particular. (author). 30 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Global Distribution of Solid Ammonium Sulfate Aerosols and their Climate Impact Acting as Ice Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C.; Penner, J.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory experiments show that liquid ammonium sulfate particles effloresce when RHw is below 34% to become solid and dissolve when RHw is above 79%. Solid ammonium sulfate aerosols can act as heterogeneous ice nuclei particles (INPs) to form ice particles in deposition mode when the relative humidity over ice is above 120%. In this study we used the coupled IMPACT/CAM5 model to track the efflorescence and deliquescence processes of ammonium sulfate. Results show that about 20% of the total simulated pure sulfate aerosol mass is in the solid state and is mainly distributed in the northern hemisphere (NH) from 50 hPa to 200 hPa. When these solid ammonium sulfate aerosols are allowed to act as ice nuclei particles, they act to increase the ice water path in the NH and reduce ice water path in the tropics. The addition of these particles leads to a positive net radiative effect at the TOA ranging from 0.5-0.9 W/m2 depending on the amounts of other ice nuclei particles (e.g., dust, soot) used in the ice nucleation process. The short-term climate feedback shows that the ITCZ shifts northwards and precipitation increases in the NH. There is also an average warming of 0.05-0.1 K near the surface (at 2 meter) in the NH which is most obvious in the Arctic region.

  19. Chondroitin / dermatan sulfate modification enzymes in zebrafish development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Habicher

    Full Text Available Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS proteoglycans consist of unbranched sulfated polysaccharide chains of repeating GalNAc-GlcA/IdoA disaccharide units, attached to serine residues on specific proteins. The CS/DS proteoglycans are abundant in the extracellular matrix where they have essential functions in tissue development and homeostasis. In this report a phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate genes coding for the enzymes that modify CS/DS is presented. We identify single orthologous genes in the zebrafish genome for the sulfotransferases chst7, chst11, chst13, chst14, chst15 and ust and the epimerase dse. In contrast, two copies were found for mammalian sulfotransferases CHST3 and CHST12 and the epimerase DSEL, named chst3a and chst3b, chst12a and chst12b, dsela and dselb, respectively. Expression of CS/DS modification enzymes is spatially and temporally regulated with a large variation between different genes. We found that CS/DS 4-O-sulfotransferases and 6-O-sulfotransferases as well as CS/DS epimerases show a strong and partly overlapping expression, whereas the expression is restricted for enzymes with ability to synthesize di-sulfated disaccharides. A structural analysis further showed that CS/DS sulfation increases during embryonic development mainly due to synthesis of 4-O-sulfated GalNAc while the proportion of 6-O-sulfated GalNAc increases in later developmental stages. Di-sulfated GalNAc synthesized by Chst15 and 2-O-sulfated GlcA/IdoA synthesized by Ust are rare, in accordance with the restricted expression of these enzymes. We also compared CS/DS composition with that of heparan sulfate (HS. Notably, CS/DS biosynthesis in early zebrafish development is more dynamic than HS biosynthesis. Furthermore, HS contains disaccharides with more than one sulfate group, which are virtually absent in CS/DS.

  20. Effects of sulfate chitosan derivatives on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingming; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentration emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-α in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

  1. Chondroitin-4-sulfation negatively regulates axonal guidance and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; McCann, Thomas E.; Unsworth, Edward; Goldsmith, Paul; Yu, Zu-Xi; Tan, Fei; Santiago, Lizzie; Mills, Edward M.; Wang, Yu; Symes, Aviva J.; Geller, Herbert M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains endow extracellular matrix proteoglycans with diversity and complexity based upon the length, composition, and charge distribution of the polysaccharide chain. Using cultured primary neurons, we show that specific sulfation in the GAG chains of chondroitin sulfate (CS) mediates neuronal guidance cues and axonal growth inhibition. Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS-A), but not chondroitin-6-sulfate (CS-C), exhibits a strong negative guidance cue to mouse cerebellar granule neurons. Enzymatic and gene-based manipulations of 4-sulfation in the GAG side chains alter their ability to direct growing axons. Furthermore, 4-sulfated CS GAG chains are rapidly and significantly increased in regions that do not support axonal regeneration proximal to spinal cord lesions in mice. Thus, our findings provide the evidence showing that specific sulfation along the carbohydrate backbone carries instructions to regulate neuronal function. PMID:18768934

  2. Acidity-Reactivity Relationships in Catalytic Esterification over Ammonium Sulfate-Derived Sulfated Zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah I. M. Rabee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available New insight was gained into the acidity-reactivity relationships of sulfated zirconia (SZ catalysts prepared via (NH42SO4 impregnation of Zr(OH4 for propanoic acid esterification with methanol. A family of systematically related SZs was characterized by bulk and surface analyses including XRD, XPS, TGA-MS, N2 porosimetry, temperature-programmed propylamine decomposition, and FTIR of adsorbed pyridine, as well as methylbutynol (MBOH as a reactive probe molecule. Increasing surface sulfation induces a transition from amphoteric character for the parent zirconia and low S loadings <1.7 wt %, evidenced by MBOH conversion to 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone, methylbutyne and acetone, with higher S loadings resulting in strong Brønsted-Lewis acid pairs upon completion of the sulfate monolayer, which favored MBOH conversion to prenal. Catalytic activity for propanoic acid esterification directly correlated with acid strength determined from propylamine decomposition, coincident with the formation of Brønsted-Lewis acid pairs identified by MBOH reactive titration. Monodispersed bisulfate species are likely responsible for superacidity at intermediate sulfur loadings.

  3. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

  4. Metabolic interactions in methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stams, A J M; Plugge, C M; de Bok, F A M; van Houten, B H G W; Lens, P; Dijkman, H; Weijma, J

    2005-01-01

    In environments where the amount of electron acceptors is insufficient for complete breakdown of organic matter, methane is formed as the major reduced end product. In such methanogenic environments organic acids are degraded by syntrophic consortia of acetogenic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Hydrogen consumption by methanogens is essential for acetogenic bacteria to convert organic acids to acetate and hydrogen. Several syntrophic cocultures growing on propionate and butyrate have been described. These syntrophic fatty acid-degrading consortia are affected by the presence of sulfate. When sulfate is present sulfate-reducing bacteria compete with methanogenic archaea for hydrogen and acetate, and with acetogenic bacteria for propionate and butyrate. Sulfate-reducing bacteria easily outcompete methanogens for hydrogen, but the presence of acetate as carbon source may influence the outcome of the competition. By contrast, acetoclastic methanogens can compete reasonably well with acetate-degrading sulfate reducers. Sulfate-reducing bacteria grow much faster on propionate and butyrate than syntrophic consortia.

  5. Studies of doped negative valve-regulated lead-acid battery electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Micka, Karel; Calábek, M.; Bača, P.; Křivák, P.; Lábus, R.; Bilko, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 191, č. 1 (2009), s. 154-158 ISSN 0378-7753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : lead-acid * negative electrode * sulfation suppression Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.792, year: 2009

  6. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  7. Direct sulfation of limestone based on oxy-fuel combustion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.M.; Zhao, C.S.; Liu, S.T.; Wang, C.B. [North China Electric Power University, Baoding (China)

    2009-10-15

    With limestone as the sorbent, the sulfation reaction can proceed via two different routes depending on whether calcination of the limestone takes place under the given reaction conditions. The direct sulfation reaction is defined as the sulfation reaction between sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and limestone in an uncalcined state. This reaction, based on oxyfuel combustion technology, was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Surface morphologies of the limestone particles after sulfation were examined by a scanning electron microscope. Results show that there are more pores or gaps in the product layer formed by direct sulfation of limestone than by indirect sulfation, which can be attributed to the generation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at a reaction interface. Compared with indirect sulfation, direct sulfation of limestone can yield much higher conversion and has a much higher reaction rate. For direct sulfation, the greater porosity in the product layer greatly reduces the solid-state ion diffusion distance, resulting in a higher reaction rate and higher conversion.

  8. Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, K.J.; Kiser, C.S.; Esko, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in proteoglycan synthesis by radiographic screening for cells unable to incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material. Some mutants did not incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material, whereas others incorporated about 3-fold less radioactivity. HPLC anion exchange chromatographic analysis of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycans isolated from these mutants revealed many are defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Mutants 803 and 677 do not synthesize heparan sulfate, although they produce chondroitin sulfate: strain 803 makes chondroitin sulfate normally, whereas 677 overaccumulates chondroitin sulfate by a factor of three. These mutants fall into the same complementation group, suggesting that the mutations are allelic. A second group of heparan sulfate biosynthetic mutants, consisting of cell lines 625, 668 and 679, produce undersulfated heparan sulfate and normal chondroitin sulfate. Treatment of the chains with nitrous acid should determine the position of the sulfate groups along the chain. These mutants may define a complementation group that is defective in the enzymes which modify the heparan sulfate chain. To increase the authors repertoire of heparan sulfate mutants, they are presently developing an in situ enzyme assay to screen colonies replica plated on filter discs for sulfotransferase defects

  9. Global source attribution of sulfate aerosol and its radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, H.; Smith, S.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P. L.; Qian, Y.; Li, C.; Yu, H.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate is an important aerosol that poses health risks and influences climate. Due to long-range atmospheric transport, local sulfate pollution could result from intercontinental influences, making domestic efforts of improving air quality inefficient. Accurate understanding of source attribution of sulfate and its radiative forcing is important for both regional air quality improvement and global climate mitigation. In this study, for the first time, a sulfur source-tagging capability is implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) to quantify the global source-receptor relationships of sulfate and its direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF). Near-surface sulfate concentrations are mostly contributed by local emissions in regions with high emissions, while over regions with relatively low SO2 emissions, the near-surface sulfate is primarily attributed to non-local sources from long-range transport. The export of SO2 and sulfate from Europe contributes 20% of sulfate concentrations over North Africa, Russia and Central Asia. Sources from the Middle East account for 20% of sulfate over North Africa, Southern Africa and Central Asia in winter and autumn, and 20% over South Asia in spring. East Asia accounts for about 50% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in winter and autumn, 15% over Russia in summer, and 10% over North America in spring. South Asia contributes to 25% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in spring. Lifetime of aerosols, together with regional export, is found to determine regional air quality. The simulated global total sulfate DRF is -0.42 W m-2, with 75% contributed by anthropogenic sulfate and 25% contributed by natural sulfate. In the Southern Hemisphere tropics, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contributes the most to the total DRF. East Asia has the largest contribution of 20-30% over the Northern Hemisphere mid- and high-latitudes. A 20% perturbation of sulfate and its precursor emissions gives a sulfate IRF of -0.44 W m-2. DMS has the

  10. Incorporation of 35S-sulfate and 3H-glucosamine into heparan and chondroitin sulfates during the cell cycle of B16-F10 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, O.C.; Sartorelli, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Changes in glycosaminoglycan composition occurring during the cell cycle were determined in B16-F10 cells sorted flow cytometrically with respect to DNA content. Incorporation of 35 S-sulfate into heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate of unsorted and G1,S, and G2 +M sorted cells was determined following chondroitinase ABC or nitrous acid treatment; the incorporation into surface material was measured as the difference between the radioactivity of control and trypsin-treated cells. Incorporation of 35 S-sulfate and 3 H-glucosamine into cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC)-precipitable material was characterized before and after chondroitinase or nitrous acid treatment by Sephadex G50 chromatography. Long-term (48 h) and short-term (1 h) labeling studies demonstrate that (a) the amount of total cellular chondroitin sulfate is greater than that of heparan sulfate, with larger amounts of unsulfated heparan than chondroitin being present; (b) the rate of turnover of heparan sulfate is greater than that of chondroitin sulfate; (c) greatest short-term incorporation of 3H-glucosamine into CPC-precipitable material occurs during S phase; and (d) the rate of turnover of both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate is decreased in S phase relative to G1 and G2 + M

  11. Effect of sulfation on the surface activity of CaO for N2O decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lingnan; Hu, Xiaoying; Qin, Wu; Dong, Changqing; Yang, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfation of CaO (1 0 0) surface greatly deactivates its surface activity for N 2 O decomposition. • An increase of sulfation degree leads to a decrease of CaO surface activity for N 2 O decomposition. • Sulfation from CaSO 3 into CaSO 4 is the crucial step for deactivating the surface activity for N 2 O decomposition. • The electronic interaction CaO (1 0 0)/CaSO 4 (0 0 1) interface is limited to the bottom layer of CaSO 4 (0 0 1) and the top layer of CaO (1 0 0). • CaSO 4 (0 0 1) and (0 1 0) surfaces show negligible catalytic ability for N 2 O decomposition. - Abstract: Limestone addition to circulating fluidized bed boilers for sulfur removal affects nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission at the same time, but mechanism of how sulfation process influences the surface activity of CaO for N 2 O decomposition remains unclear. In this paper, we investigated the effect of sulfation on the surface properties and catalytic activity of CaO for N 2 O decomposition using density functional theory calculations. Sulfation of CaO (1 0 0) surface by the adsorption of a single gaseous SO 2 or SO 3 molecule forms stable local CaSO 3 or CaSO 4 on the CaO (1 0 0) surface with strong hybridization between the S atom of SO x and the surface O anion. The formed local CaSO 3 increases the barrier energy of N 2 O decomposition from 0.989 eV (on the CaO (1 0 0) surface) to 1.340 eV, and further sulfation into local CaSO 4 remarkably increases the barrier energy to 2.967 eV. Sulfation from CaSO 3 into CaSO 4 is therefore the crucial step for deactivating the surface activity for N 2 O decomposition. Completely sulfated CaSO 4 (0 0 1) and (0 1 0) surfaces further validate the negligible catalytic ability of CaSO 4 for N 2 O decomposition.

  12. Purification, structural characterization and antiproliferative properties of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate from tunisian fish skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krichen, Fatma; Volpi, Nicola; Sila, Assaâd; Maccari, Francesca; Mantovani, Veronica; Galeotti, Fabio; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Bougatef, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate GAGs were extracted and purified from the skins of grey triggerfish (GTSG) and smooth hound (SHSG). The disaccharide composition produced by chondroitinase ABC treatment showed the presence of nonsulfated disaccharide, monosulfated disaccharides ΔDi6S and ΔDi4S, and disulfated disaccharides in different percentages. In particular, the nonsulfated disaccharide ΔDi0S of GTSG and SHSG were 3.5% and 5.5%, respectively, while monosulfated disaccharides ΔDi6S and ΔDi4S were evaluated to be 18.2%, 59% and 14.6%, 47.0%, respectively. Capillary elecrophoresis analysis of GTSG and SHSG contained 99.2% and 95.4% of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate, respectively. PAGE analysis showed a GTSG and SHSG having molecular masses with average values of 41.72KDa and 23.8KDa, respectively. HCT116 cell proliferation was inhibited (p<0.05) by 70.6% and 72.65% at 200μg/mL of GTSG and SHSG respectively. Both GTSG and SHSG demonstrated promising antiproliferative potential, which may be used as a novel, effective agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute and chronic lead poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iosif, C

    1966-02-01

    Three cases of acute plumbism in cows are detailed: one of a six-year-old cow who accidentally ate about 100 gm. of lead (in 1956); the second of a 12-year-old cow who accidentally ate a packet containing about 100 gm. of lead used in painting; and the third of a three-week-old heifer who licked a freshly painted bucket. Route of exposure to lead can be gastrointestinal following deposition of lead fumes (lead oxide, sulfide, and sulfate) on pasturage and in exposed drinking water, or respiratory following the inhalation of such fumes. The presence of CO/sub 2/ in the respiratory tract is thought to provide a favorable situation for the dissolution of lead and the formation of soluble lead complexes. One author has calculated that 12% of respired lead is absorbed into the organism, while only 1-2% of ingested lead is absorbed.

  14. Secondary lead production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, R.G.

    1990-10-16

    This invention is concerned with the efficient recovery of soft lead from the paste component of used automobile lead-acid storage batteries. According to the invention, a scrap which contains lead oxide, lead sulfate, and antimony in an oxidized state is processed in the following steps to recover lead. A refractory lined reaction vessel is continuously charged with the scrap, along with a reductant effective for reducing lead oxide. The charged material is melted and agitated by means of a submerged lance at 900-1150{degree}C whereby some of the lead oxide of the scrap is reduced to form molten lead. A slag layer is then formed above the molten lead, and an amount of lead oxide is maintained in the slag layer. The molten lead, now containing under 0.5 wt % of antimony, is removed, and the antimony oxide in the scrap is concentrated as oxide in the slag layer. Preferred embodiments of the invention result in the production, in a single step, of a soft lead substantially free of antimony. The slag may be subsequently treated to reduce the antimony oxide and produce a valuable antimony-lead product. Further advantages of the process are that a wet battery paste may be used as the feed without prior drying, and the process can be conducted at a temperature 100-150{degree}C lower than in previously known methods. In addition, a smaller reactor can be employed which reduces both capital cost and fuel costs. The process of the invention is illustrated by descriptions of pilot plant tests. 1 fig.

  15. Low levels of H2S may replace sulfate as sulfur source in sulfate-deprived onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, Mark; De Kok, LJ

    2005-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) was exposed to low levels of H2S in order to investigate to what extent H2S could be used as a sulfur source for growth under sulfate-deprived conditions. Sulfate deprivation for a two-week period resulted in a decreased biomass production of the shoot, a subsequently

  16. Sulfates on Mars: TES Observations and Thermal Inertia Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. D.; Mustard, J. F.

    2001-05-01

    The high resolution thermal emission spectra returned by the TES spectrometer on the MGS spacecraft have allowed the mapping of a variety of minerals and rock types by different sets of researchers. Recently, we have used a linear deconvolution approach to compare sulfate-palagonite soil mixtures created in the laboratory with Martian surface spectra. This approach showed that a number of areas on Mars have spectral properties that match those of sulfate-cemented soils (but neither loose powder mixtures of sulfates and soils nor sand-sized grains of disaggregated crusted soils). These features do not appear to be caused by atmospheric or instrumental effects and are thus believed to be related to surface composition and texture. The distribution and physical state of sulfate are important pieces of information for interpreting surface processes on Mars. A number of different mechanisms could have deposited sulfate in surface layers. Some of these include evaporation of standing bodies of water, aerosol deposition of volcanic gases, hydrothermal alteration from groundwater, and in situ interaction between the atmosphere and soil. The areas on Mars with cemented sulfate signatures are spread across a wide range of elevations and are generally large in spatial scale. Some of the areas are associated with volcanic regions, but many are in dark red plains that have previously been interpreted as duricrust deposits. Our current work compares the distribution of sulfate-cemented soils as mapped by the spectral deconvolution approach with thermal inertia maps produced from both Viking and MGS-TES. Duricrust regions, interpreted from intermediate thermal inertia values, are large regions thought to be sulfate-cemented soils similar to coherent, sulfate-rich materials seen at the Viking lander sites. Our observations of apparent regions of cemented sulfate are also large in spatial extent. This scale information is important for evaluating formation mechanisms for the

  17. Development of affinity-based delivery of NGF from a chondroitin sulfate biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Karen Chao; Conovaloff, Aaron W; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is a major component of the extracellular matrix in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Chondroitin sulfate is upregulated at injury, thus methods to promote neurite extension through chondroitin sulfate-rich matrices and synthetic scaffolds are needed. We describe the use of both chondroitin sulfate and a novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide to control the release of nerve growth factor. Interestingly, the novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide enhances the controlled release properties of the chondroitin sulfate gels. While introduction of chondroitin sulfate into a scaffold inhibits primary cortical outgrowth, the combination of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide and nerve growth factor promotes primary cortical neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels.

  18. Surface investigation and tribological mechanism of a sulfate-based lubricant deposited on zinc-coated steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timma, Christian, E-mail: christian.timma@thyssenkrupp.com [ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG, Technology & Innovation, Kaiser-Wilhelm Str. 100, 47166 Duisburg (Germany); University of Duisburg-Essen, Faculty of Chemistry, CENIDE, Universitätsstraße 7, 45141 Essen (Germany); Lostak, Thomas; Janssen, Stella; Flock, Jörg [ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG, Technology & Innovation, Kaiser-Wilhelm Str. 100, 47166 Duisburg (Germany); Mayer, Christian [University of Duisburg-Essen, Faculty of Chemistry, CENIDE, Universitätsstraße 7, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Skin-passed hot-dip galvanized (HDG-) steel sheets were coated with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} in a common roll-coating method. • A formation of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Zn(SO{sub 4}) * xH{sub 2}O was observed and the reaction mainly occurred in the skin-passed areas of the surface. • Sulfate coated samples reveal a superior friction behaviour in oil-like conditions compared non-sulfated specimen. - Abstract: Phosphatation is a well-known technique to improve friction and wear behaviour of zinc coated steel, but has a variety of economic and ecologic limitations. In this study an alternative coating based on ammonium sulfate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) is applied on skin-passed hot-dip galvanized steel sheets in order to investigate its surface chemical and tribological behaviour in a Pin-on-Disk Tribometer. Raman- and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic results revealed a formation of ammonium zinc sulfate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Zn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} * xH{sub 2}O) on the surface, which is primarily located in the skin-passed areas of the steel material. Sulfate coated samples exhibited a superior friction behaviour in Pin-on-Disk Tests using squalane as a model substance for oil-like lubricated conditions and a formation of a thin lubrication film is obtained in the wear track. Squalane acts as a carrier substance for ammonium zinc sulfate, leading to an effective lubrication film in the wear track.

  19. Removal of Sulfate Ion From AN-107 by Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GJ Lumetta; GS Klinger; DE Kurath; RL Sell; LP Darnell; LR Greenwood; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-01-01

    Hanford low-activity waste solutions contain sulfate, which can cause accelerated corrosion of the vitrification melter and unacceptable operating conditions. A method is needed to selectively separate sulfate from the waste. An experiment was conducted to evaluate evaporation for removing sulfate ion from Tank AN-107 low-activity waste. Two evaporation steps were performed. In the first step, the volume was reduced by 55% while in the second step, the liquid volume was reduced another 22%. Analysis of the solids precipitated during these evaporations revealed that large amounts of sodium nitrate and nitrite co-precipitated with sodium sulfate. Many other waste components precipitated as well. It can be concluded that sulfate removal by precipitation is not selective, and thus, evaporation is not a viable option for removing sulfate from the AN-107 liquid

  20. Xyloside-primed Chondroitin Sulfate/Dermatan Sulfate from Breast Carcinoma Cells with a Defined Disaccharide Composition Has Cytotoxic Effects in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Andrea; Tykesson, Emil; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Malmström, Anders; Ellervik, Ulf; Mani, Katrin

    2016-07-08

    We previously reported that the xyloside 2-(6-hydroxynaphthyl) β-d-xylopyranoside (XylNapOH), in contrast to 2-naphthyl β-d-xylopyranoside (XylNap), specifically reduces tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo Although there are indications that this could be mediated by the xyloside-primed glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and that these differ in composition depending on xyloside and cell type, detailed knowledge regarding a structure-function relationship is lacking. In this study we isolated XylNapOH- and XylNap-primed GAGs from a breast carcinoma cell line, HCC70, and a breast fibroblast cell line, CCD-1095Sk, and demonstrated that both XylNapOH- and XylNap-primed chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate GAGs derived from HCC70 cells had a cytotoxic effect on HCC70 cells and CCD-1095Sk cells. The cytotoxic effect appeared to be mediated by induction of apoptosis and was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the XylNap-primed heparan sulfate GAGs. In contrast, neither the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate nor the heparan sulfate derived from CCD-1095Sk cells primed on XylNapOH or XylNap had any effect on the growth of HCC70 cells or CCD-105Sk cells. These observations were related to the disaccharide composition of the XylNapOH- and XylNap-primed GAGs, which differed between the two cell lines but was similar when the GAGs were derived from the same cell line. To our knowledge this is the first report on cytotoxic effects mediated by chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V M; Hillamo, R; Maekinen, M; Virkkula, A; Maekelae, T; Pakkanen, T [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  2. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  3. ROLE OF TYROSINE-SULFATED PROTEINS IN RETINAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanan, Y.; Al-Ubaidi, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a significant role in cellular and retinal health. The study of retinal tyrosine-sulfated proteins is an important first step toward understanding the role of ECM in retinal health and diseases. These secreted proteins are members of the retinal ECM. Tyrosine sulfation was shown to be necessary for the development of proper retinal structure and function. The importance of tyrosine sulfation is further demonstrated by the evolutionary presence of tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases, enzymes that catalyze proteins’ tyrosine sulfation, and the compensatory abilities of these enzymes. Research has identified four tyrosine-sulfated retinal proteins: fibulin 2, vitronectin, complement factor H (CFH), and opticin. Vitronectin and CFH regulate the activation of the complement system and are involved in the etiology of some cases of age-related macular degeneration. Analysis of the role of tyrosine sulfation in fibulin function showed that sulfation influences the protein's ability to regulate growth and migration. Although opticin was recently shown to exhibit anti-angiogenic properties, it is not yet determined what role sulfation plays in that function. Future studies focusing on identifying all of the tyrosine-sulfated retinal proteins would be instrumental in determining the impact of sulfation on retinal protein function in retinal homeostasis and diseases. PMID:25819460

  4. A novel chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conovaloff, Aaron William

    Brachial plexus injuries affect numerous patients every year, with very debilitating results. The majority of these cases are very severe, and involve damage to the nerve roots. To date, repair strategies for these injuries address only gross tissue damage, but do not supply cells with adequate regeneration signals. As a result, functional recovery is often severely lacking. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel that delivers neurotrophic signals to damaged neurons is proposed as a scaffold to support nerve root regeneration. Capillary electrophoresis studies revealed that chondroitin sulfate can physically bind with a variety of neurotrophic factors, and cultures of chick dorsal root ganglia demonstrated robust neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate hydrogels. Outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels was greater than that observed in control gels of hyaluronic acid. Furthermore, the chondroitin sulfate hydrogel's binding activity with nerve growth factor could be enhanced by incorporation of a synthetic bioactive peptide, as revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. This enhanced binding was observed only in chondroitin sulfate gels, and not in hyaluronic acid control gels. This enhanced binding activity resulted in enhanced dorsal root ganglion neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels. Finally, the growth of regenerating dorsal root ganglia in these gels was imaged using label-free coherent anti-Stokes scattering microscopy. This technique generated detailed, high-quality images of live dorsal root ganglion neurites, which were comparable to fixed, F-actin-stained samples. Taken together, these results demonstrate the viability of this chondroitin sulfate hydrogel to serve as an effective implantable scaffold to aid in nerve root regeneration.

  5. Regulation of assimilatory sulfate reduction by cadmium in Zea mays L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaum, S.; Schmutz, D.; Brunold, C.

    1988-01-01

    Plants cultivated with Cd can produce large amounts of phytochelatins. Since these compounds contain much cysteine, these plants should have an increased rate of assimilatory sulfate reduction, the biosynthetic pathway leading to cysteine. To test this prediction, the effect of Cd on growth, sulfate assimilation in vivo and extractable activity of two enzymes of sulfate reduction, ATP-sulfurylase (EC 2.7.7.4) and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase were measured in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. For comparison, nitrate reductase activity was determined. In 9-day-old cultures, the increase in fresh and dry weight was significantly inhibited by 50 micromolar and more Cd in the roots and by 100 and 200 micromolar in the shoots. Seedlings cultivated with 50 micromolar Cd for 5 days incorporated more label from 35 SO 4 2- into higher molecular weight compounds than did controls, indicating that the predicted increase in the rate of assimilatory sulfate reduction took place. Consistent with this finding, an increased level of the extractable activity of both ATP-sulfurylase and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase was measured in the roots of these plants at 50 micromolar Cd and at higher concentrations. This effect was reversible after removal of Cd from the nutrient solution. In the leaves, a significant positive effect of Cd was detected at 5 micromolar for ATP-sulfurylase and at 5 and 20 micromolar for adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate sulfotransferase. At higher Cd concentrations, both enzyme activities were at levels below the control. Nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1) activity decreased at 50 micromolar or more Cd in the roots and was similarly affected at ATP-sulfurylase activity in the primary leaves

  6. Oxygen isotopic fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, N.; Turchyn, A. V.; Lyons, T.; Bruchert, V.; Schrag, D. P.; Wall, J.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is understood to depend on a variety of environmental parameters, such as sulfate concentration, temperature, cell specific sulfate reduction rates, and the carbon substrate. What controls oxygen isotope fractionation during BSR is less well understood. Some studies have suggested that carbon substrate is important, whereas others concluded that there is a stoichiometric relationship between the fractionations of sulfur and oxygen during BSR. Studies of oxygen fractionation are complicated by isotopic equilibration between sulfur intermediates, particularly sulfite, and water. This process can modify the isotopic composition of the extracellular sulfate pool (δ18OSO4 ). Given this, the challenge is to distinguish between this isotopic equilibration and fractionations linked to the kinetic effects of the intercellular enzymes and the incorporation of sulfate into the bacterial cell. The δ18OSO4 , in concert with the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4), could be a powerful tool for understanding the pathways and environmental controls of BSR in natural systems. We will present δ18OSO4 data measured from batch culture growth of 14 different species of sulfate reducing bacteria for which sulfur isotope data were previously published. A general observation is that δ18OSO4 shows little isotopic change (kinetic effect during BSR and/or equilibration between sulfur intermediates and the isotopically light water (~-5‰) of the growth medium. Our present batch culture data do not allow us to convincingly isolate the magnitude and the controlling parameters of the kinetic isotope effect for oxygen. However, ongoing growth of mutant bacteria missing enzymes critical in the different steps of BSR may assist in this mission.

  7. Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecarot-Charrier, B.; Bouchard, F.; Delloye, C.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with [35S] sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I

  8. Pectin of Prunus domestica L. alters sulfated structure of cell-surface heparan sulfate in differentiated Caco-2 cells through stimulation of heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Mitsutaka; Murata, Kazuma; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    Although previous reports have suggested that pectin induces morphological changes of the small intestine in vivo, the molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. As heparan sulfate plays important roles in development of the small intestine, to verify the involvement of heparan sulfate (HS) in the pectin-induced morphological changes of the small intestine, the effects of pectin from Prunus domestica L. on cell-surface HS were investigated using differentiated Caco-2 cells. Disaccharide compositional analysis revealed that sulfated structures of HS were markedly changed by pectin administration. Real-time RT-PCR showed that pectin upregulated human HS 6-O-endosulfatase-2 (HSulf-2) expression and markedly inhibited HSulf-1 expression. Furthermore, inhibition analysis suggested that pretreatment with fibronectin III1C fragment, RGD peptide, and ERK1/2 inhibitor suppressed pectin-induced HSulf-2 expression. These observations indicate that pectin induced the expression of HSulf-2 through the interaction with fibronectin, α5β1 integrin, and ERK1/2, thereby regulating the sulfated structure of HS on differentiated Caco-2 cells.

  9. Potential for Sulfate Reduction in Mangrove Forest Soils: Comparison between Two Dominant Species of the Americas

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike

    2016-11-18

    Avicennia and Rhizophora are globally occurring mangrove genera with different traits that place them in different parts of the intertidal zone. It is generally accepted that the oxidizing capacity of Avicennia roots is larger than that of Rhizophora roots, which initiates more reduced conditions in the soil below the latter genus. We hypothesize that the more reduced conditions beneath Rhizophora stands lead to more active sulfate-reducing microbial communities compared to Avicennia stands. To test this hypothesis, we measured sulfate reduction traits in soil samples collected from neighboring Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle stands at three different locations in southern Florida. The traits measured were sulfate reduction rates (SRR) in flow-through reactors containing undisturbed soil layers in the absence and presence of easily degradable carbon compounds, copy numbers of the dsrB gene, which is specific for sulfate-reducing microorganisms, and numbers of sulfate-reducing cells that are able to grow in liquid medium on a mixture of acetate, propionate and lactate as electron donors. At the tidal locations Port of the Islands and South Hutchinson Islands, steady state SRR, dsrB gene copy numbers and numbers of culturable cells were higher at the A. germinans than at the R. mangle stands, although not significantly for the numbers at Port of the Islands. At the non-tidal location North Hutchinson Island, results are mixed with respect to these sulfate reduction traits. At all locations, the fraction of culturable cells were significantly higher at the R. mangle than at the A. germinans stands. The dynamics of the initial SRR implied a more in situ active sulfate-reducing community at the intertidal R. mangle stands. It was concluded that in agreement with our hypothesis R. mangle stands accommodate a more active sulfate-reducing community than A. germinans stands, but only at the tidal locations. The differences between R. mangle and A. germinans stands

  10. An Exploratory Study on the Pathways of Cr (VI) Reduction in Sulfate-reducing Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Jiang, Feng; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-03-29

    Electroplating wastewater contains both Cr (VI) and sulfate. So Cr (VI) removal under sulfate-rich condition is quite complicated. This study mainly investigates the pathways for Cr (VI) removal under biological sulfate-reducing condition in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor. Two potential pathways are found for the removal of Cr (VI). The first one is the sulfidogenesis-induced Cr (VI) reduction pathway (for 90% Cr (VI) removal), in which Cr (VI) is reduced by sulfide generated from biological reduction of sulfate. The second one leads to direct reduction of Cr (VI) which is utilized by bacteria as the electron acceptor (for 10% Cr (VI) removal). Batch test results confirmed that sulfide was oxidized to elemental sulfur instead of sulfate during Cr (VI) reduction. The produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) provided protection to the microbes, resulting in effective removal of Cr (VI). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera accounted for 11.1% of the total bacterial community; thus they could be the major organisms mediating the sulfidogenesis-induced reduction of Cr (VI). In addition, chromate-utilizing genera (e.g. Microbacterium) were also detected, which were possibly responsible for the direct reduction of Cr (VI) using organics as the electron donor and Cr (VI) as the electron acceptor.

  11. An Exploratory Study on the Pathways of Cr (VI) Reduction in Sulfate-reducing Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Jiang, Feng; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Electroplating wastewater contains both Cr (VI) and sulfate. So Cr (VI) removal under sulfate-rich condition is quite complicated. This study mainly investigates the pathways for Cr (VI) removal under biological sulfate-reducing condition in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor. Two potential pathways are found for the removal of Cr (VI). The first one is the sulfidogenesis-induced Cr (VI) reduction pathway (for 90% Cr (VI) removal), in which Cr (VI) is reduced by sulfide generated from biological reduction of sulfate. The second one leads to direct reduction of Cr (VI) which is utilized by bacteria as the electron acceptor (for 10% Cr (VI) removal). Batch test results confirmed that sulfide was oxidized to elemental sulfur instead of sulfate during Cr (VI) reduction. The produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) provided protection to the microbes, resulting in effective removal of Cr (VI). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera accounted for 11.1% of the total bacterial community; thus they could be the major organisms mediating the sulfidogenesis-induced reduction of Cr (VI). In addition, chromate-utilizing genera (e.g. Microbacterium) were also detected, which were possibly responsible for the direct reduction of Cr (VI) using organics as the electron donor and Cr (VI) as the electron acceptor. PMID:27021522

  12. An Exploratory Study on the Pathways of Cr (VI) Reduction in Sulfate-reducing Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Wei, Li; Liu, Rulong; Jiang, Feng; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-03-01

    Electroplating wastewater contains both Cr (VI) and sulfate. So Cr (VI) removal under sulfate-rich condition is quite complicated. This study mainly investigates the pathways for Cr (VI) removal under biological sulfate-reducing condition in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor. Two potential pathways are found for the removal of Cr (VI). The first one is the sulfidogenesis-induced Cr (VI) reduction pathway (for 90% Cr (VI) removal), in which Cr (VI) is reduced by sulfide generated from biological reduction of sulfate. The second one leads to direct reduction of Cr (VI) which is utilized by bacteria as the electron acceptor (for 10% Cr (VI) removal). Batch test results confirmed that sulfide was oxidized to elemental sulfur instead of sulfate during Cr (VI) reduction. The produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) provided protection to the microbes, resulting in effective removal of Cr (VI). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera accounted for 11.1% of the total bacterial community; thus they could be the major organisms mediating the sulfidogenesis-induced reduction of Cr (VI). In addition, chromate-utilizing genera (e.g. Microbacterium) were also detected, which were possibly responsible for the direct reduction of Cr (VI) using organics as the electron donor and Cr (VI) as the electron acceptor.

  13. Heparan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans Are Targeted by Bleomycin in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiulian; Lan, Ying; He, Yanli; Liu, Yong; Luo, Heng; Yu, Haibo; Song, Ni; Ren, Sumei; Liu, Tianwei; Hao, Cui; Guo, Yunliang; Zhang, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Bleomycin is a clinically used anti-cancer drug that produces DNA breaks once inside of cells. However, bleomycin is a positively charged molecule and cannot get inside of cells by free diffusion. We previously reported that the cell surface negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) may be involved in the cellular uptake of bleomycin. We also observed that a class of positively charged small molecules has Golgi localization once inside of the cells. We therefore hypothesized that bleomycin might perturb Golgi-operated GAG biosynthesis. We used stable isotope labeling coupled with LC/MS analysis of GAG disaccharides simultaneously from bleomycin-treated and non-treated cancer cells. To further understand the cytotoxicity of bleomycin and its relationship to GAGs, we used sodium chlorate to inhibit GAG sulfation and commercially available GAGs to compete for cell surface GAG/bleomycin interactions in seven cell lines including CHO745 defective in both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis. we discovered that heparan sulfate GAG was significantly undersulfated and the quantity and disaccharide compositions of GAGs were changed in bleomycin-treated cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We revealed that bleomycin-induced cytotoxicity was directly related to cell surface GAGs. GAGs were targeted by bleomycin both at cell surface and at Golgi. Thus, GAGs might be the biological relevant molecules that might be related to the bleomycin-induced fibrosis in certain cancer patients, a severe side effect with largely unknown molecular mechanism. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Ferric sulfates on Mars: Surface Explorations and Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.; Ling, Z.; Freeman, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    Recent results from missions to Mars have reinforced the importance of sulfates for Mars science. They are the hosts of water, the sinks of acidity, and maybe the most active species in the past and current surface/near-surface processes on Mars. Fe-sulfate was found frequently by Spirit and Opportunity rovers: jarosite in Meridiani Planum outcrops and a less specific "ferric sulfate" in the salty soils excavated by Spirit at Gusev Crater. Pancam spectral analysis suggests a variety of ferric sulfates in these soils, i.e. ferricopiapite, jarosite, fibroferrite, and rhomboclase. A change in the Pancam spectral features occurred in Tyrone soils after ~ 190 sols of exposure to surface conditions. Dehydration of ferric sulfate is a possible cause. We synthesized eight ferric sulfates and conducted a series of hydration/dehydration experiments. Our goal was to establish the stability fields and phase transition pathways of these ferric sulfates. In our experiments, water activity, temperature, and starting structure are the variables. No redox state change was observed. Acidic, neutral, and basic salts were used. Ferric sulfate sample containers were placed into relative humidity buffer solutions that maintain static relative humidity levels at three temperatures. The five starting phases were ferricopiapite (Fe4.67(SO4)6(OH)2.20H2O), kornelite (Fe2(SO4)3.7H2O), rhomboclase (FeH(SO4)2.4H2O), pentahydrite (Fe2(SO4)3.5H2O), and an amorphous phase (Fe2(SO4)3.5H2O). A total of one hundred fifty experiments have been running for nearly ten months. Thousands of coupled Raman and gravimetric measurements were made at intermediate steps to monitor the phase transitions. The first order discovery from these experiments is the extremely large stability field of ferricopiapite. Ferricopiapite is the major ferric sulfate to precipitate from a Fe3+-S-rich aqueous solution at mid-low temperature, and it has the highest H2O/Fe ratio (~ 4.3). However, unlike the Mg-sulfate with highest

  15. Ferrous Sulfate (Iron)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are allergic to ferrous sulfate, any other medications tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from ...

  16. DEPENDENCY OF SULFATE SOLUBILITY ON MELT COMPOSITION AND MELT POLYMERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.

    2004-01-01

    Sulfate and sulfate salts are not very soluble in borosilicate waste glass. When sulfate is present in excess it can form water soluble secondary phases and/or a molten salt layer (gall) on the melt pool surface which is purported to cause steam explosions in slurry fed melters. Therefore, sulfate can impact glass durability while formation of a molten salt layer on the melt pool can impact processing. Sulfate solubility has been shown to be compositionally dependent in various studies, (e.g. , B2O3, Li2O, CaO, MgO, Na2O, and Fe2O3 were shown to increase sulfate solubility while Al2O3 and SiO2 decreased sulfate solubility). This compositional dependency is shown to be related to the calculated melt viscosity at various temperatures and hence the melt polymerization

  17. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans in human vocal fold lamina propria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Woo Park

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The distribution, concentration and function of glycosaminoglycans in the various vocal fold tissues are still unclear. Objective: To evaluate the distribution and concentration of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in different layers of the human vocal fold according to gender and age. Methods: We used 11 vocal folds obtained from cadavers (7 men and 4 women with no laryngeal lesion, less than 12 h after death, and aged between 35 and 98 years. The folds underwent glycosaminoglycans extraction from the cover and ligament, and post-electrophoresis analysis. Data were compared according to the layer, age and gender. Results: The concentration of dermatan sulfate was significantly higher in all layers. No differences were observed in the total concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in layers studied according to gender. It is significantly lower in the cover of individuals aged below 60 years. Conclusion: Dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate were observed in the human vocal folds cover and ligament of both genders, with the concentration of dermatan sulfate being significantly higher in all layers. Glycosaminoglycans concentration on the cover is significantly lower in individuals below 60 years compared with elderly.

  18. DHEA-sulfate test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DHEA sulfate may be due to: Adrenal gland disorders that produce lower than normal amounts of adrenal hormones, including adrenal insufficiency and Addison disease The pituitary gland not producing normal amounts of its hormones ( hypopituitarism ) ...

  19. Selenium inhibits sulfate-mediated methylmercury production in rice paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Jie; Dang, Fei; Zhao, Jia-Ting; Zhong, Huan

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing interest in understanding factors controlling methylmercury (MeHg) production in mercury-contaminated rice paddy soil. Sulfate has been reported to affect MeHg biogeochemistry under anoxic conditions, and recent studies revealed that selenium (Se) could evidently reduce MeHg production in paddy soil. However, the controls of sulfate and Se on net MeHg production in paddy soil under fluctuating redox conditions remain largely unknown. Microcosm experiments were conducted to explore the effects of sulfate and Se on net MeHg production in rice paddy soil. Soil was added with 0-960 mg/kg sulfate, in the presence or absence of 3.0 mg/kg selenium (selenite or selenate), and incubated under anoxic (40 days) or suboxic conditions (5 days), simulating fluctuating redox conditions in rice paddy field. Sulfate addition moderately affected soil MeHg concentrations under anoxic conditions, while reoxidation resulted in evidently higher (18-40%) MeHg levels in sulfate amended soils than the control. The observed changes in net MeHg production were related to dynamics of sulfate and iron. However, Se could inhibit sulfate-mediated MeHg production in the soils: Se addition largely reduced net MeHg production in the soils (23-86%, compared to the control), despite of sulfate addition. Similarly, results of the pot experiments (i.e., rice cultivation in amended soils) indicated that soil MeHg levels were rather comparable in Se-amended soils during rice growth period, irrespective of added sulfate doses. The more important role of Se than sulfate in controlling MeHg production was explained by the formation of HgSe nanoparticles irrespective of the presence of sulfate, confirmed by TEM-EDX and XANES analysis. Our findings regarding the effects of sulfate and Se on net MeHg production in rice paddy soil together with the mechanistic explanation of the processes advance our understanding of MeHg dynamics and risk in soil-rice systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  20. Extraction of uranyl sulfate with primary amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrnka, M.; Bizek, V.; Nekovar, P.; Cizevska, S.; Schroetterova, D.

    1984-01-01

    PRIMENE JM-T was used for extraction. Its composition was found to approach the general formula C 21 H 43 NH 2 . It was found that the extraction of uranyl sulfate is lower in case of a higher steady-state concentration of sulfuric acid in the aqueous phase. Extraction is accompanied with coextraction of water. The results obtained showed that uranyl sulfate passes into the organic phase by two mechanisms: extraction with amine sulfate and extraction with free amine. A mathematical description of the process was made based on the obtained results. (E.S.)

  1. Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, Martin A; Bartolini, Barbara; Axelsson, Jakob; Gustafsson, Renata; Tykesson, Emil; Pera, Edgar; Oldberg, Åke; Maccarana, Marco; Malmstrom, Anders

    2013-05-01

    The presence of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate changes the properties of the polysaccharides because it generates a more flexible chain with increased binding potentials. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate influences multiple cellular properties, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and the regulation of cytokine/growth factor activities. Under pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation and cancer, iduronic acid has diverse regulatory functions. Iduronic acid is formed by two epimerases (i.e. dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2) that have different tissue distribution and properties. The role of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate is highlighted by the vast changes in connective tissue features in patients with a new type of Ehler-Danlos syndrome: adducted thumb-clubfoot syndrome. Future research aims to understand the roles of the two epimerases and their interplay with the sulfotransferases involved in chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Furthermore, a better definition of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate functions using different knockout models is needed. In this review, we focus on the two enzymes responsible for iduronic acid formation, as well as the role of iduronic acid in health and disease. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  2. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven [ 35 S]-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (IC 50 , ∼40 μM). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation

  3. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  4. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etaix, E.S.

    1968-01-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [fr

  5. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at a freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    The freshwater-seawater interface was studied in a ~9-m thick anaerobic aquifer located in marine sand and gravel with thin peat lenses. Very limited amounts of iron-oxides are present. Consequently, the dominating redox processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, and the groundwater...... is enriched in dissolved sulfide, methane and bicarbonate. Under normal conditions the seawater-freshwater interface is found at a depth of 4 m at the coastline and reaches the bottom of the aquifer 40 m inland. However, occasional flooding of the area occurs, introducing sulfate to the aquifer. Groundwater...... chemistry was studied in a 120 m transect perpendicular to the coast. Cores were taken for radiotracer rate measurements of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. In the saline part of the aquifer 35 m inland, sulfate reduction was the dominant process with rates of 0.1-10 mM/year. In the freshwater part 100...

  6. Studies on sulfate attack: Mechanisms, test methods, and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Manu

    The objective of this research study was to investigate various issues pertaining to the mechanism, testing methods, and modeling of sulfate attack in concrete. The study was divided into the following segments: (1) effect of gypsum formation on the expansion of mortars, (2) attack by the magnesium ion, (3) sulfate attack in the presence of chloride ions---differentiating seawater and groundwater attack, (4) use of admixtures to mitigate sulfate attack---entrained air, sodium citrate, silica fume, and metakaolin, (5) effects of temperature and concentration of the attack solution, (6) development of new test methods using concrete specimens, and (7) modeling of the sulfate attack phenomenon. Mortar specimens using portland cement (PC) and tricalcium silicate (C 3S), with or without mineral admixtures, were prepared and immersed in different sulfate solutions. In addition to this, portland cement concrete specimens were also prepared and subjected to complete and partial immersion in sulfate solutions. Physical measurements, chemical analyses and microstructural studies were performed periodically on the specimens. Gypsum formation was seen to cause expansion of the C3S mortar specimens. Statistical analyses of the data also indicated that the quantity of gypsum was the most significant factor controlling the expansion of mortar bars. The attack by magnesium ion was found to drive the reaction towards the formation of brucite. Decalcification of the C-S-H and its subsequent conversion to the non-cementitious M-S-H was identified as the mechanism of destruction in magnesium sulfate attack. Mineral admixtures were beneficial in combating sodium sulfate attack, while reducing the resistance to magnesium sulfate attack. Air entrainment did not change the measured physical properties, but reduced the visible distress of the mortars. Sodium citrate caused a substantial reduction in the rate of damage of the mortars due to its retarding effect. Temperature and

  7. Euglena mitochondria and chloroplasts form tyrosine-O-sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidha, T.; Hanfstingl, U.; Schiff, J.A. (Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Mitochondria from light-grown wild-type Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris Cori or dark-grown mutant W{sub 10}BSmL incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, or with {sup 14}C-tyrosine, non-radioactive sulfate and ATP accumulate a labeled compound in the medium. Since this compound shows exact coelectrophoresis with tyrosine-O-sulfate (TOS) at pH 2.0, 5.8 or 8.0., yields sulfate and tyrosine on acid hydrolysis, and treatment with aryl sulfatase from Aerobacter aerogenes yields sulfate and tyrosine but no tyrosine methyl ester, it is identified as TOS. No TOS is found outside purified developing chloroplasts incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, but both chloroplasts and mitochondria form to {sup 35}S externally when incubated with adenosine 3{prime} phosphate 5{prime}phospho({sup 35}S) sulfate (PAP{sup 35}S). Since no tyrosine need be added, tyrosine is provided from endogenous sources. Although TOS is found in the free pool of Euglena cells it cannot be detected in proteins of cells or mucus ruling our sulfation of tyrosine of protein or incorporation of TOS into proteins. The system forming TOS is membrane-bound and may be involved in tyrosine transport.

  8. COMPARISON OF UASB AND FLUIDIZED-BED REACTORS FOR SULFATE REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bertolino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reactor hydrodynamics is important for sulfidogenesis because sulfate reduction bacteria (SRB do not granulate easily. In this work, the sulfate reduction performance of two continuous anaerobic bioreactors was investigated: (i an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor and (ii a fluidized bed reactor (FBR. Organic loading, sulfate reduction, and COD removal were the main parameters monitored during lactate and glycerol degradation. The UASB reactor with biomass recirculation showed a specific sulfate reduction rate of 0.089±0.014 g.gSSV-1.d-1 (89% reduction, whereas values twice as high were achieved in the FBR treating either lactate (0.200±0.017 g.gSSV-1.d-1 or glycerol (0.178±0.010 g.gSSV-1.d-1. Sulfate reduction with pure glycerol produced a smaller residual COD (1700 mg.L-1 than that produced with lactate (2500 mg.L-1 at the same COD.sulfate-1 mass ratio. It was estimated that 50% of glycerol degradation was due to sulfate reduction and 50% to fermentation, which was supported by the presence of butyrate in the FBR effluent. The UASB reactor was unable to produce effluents with sulfate concentrations below 250 mg.L-1 due to poor mixing conditions, whereas the FBR consistently ensured residual sulfate concentrations below such a value.

  9. Bis(4-aminopyridinium hexaaquanickel(II bis(sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thameur Sahbani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, (C5H7N22[Ni(H2O6](SO42, the NiII cation is located on an inversion centre and is coordinated by six aqua ligands in a slightly distorted octahedral coordination environment. The [Ni(H2O6]2+ ions are connected through an extensive network of O—H...O hydrogen bonds to sulfate anions, leading to the formation of layers parallel to (001. The 4-aminopyridinium cations are located between these layers and are connected to the anionic framework by N—H...O hydrogen bonds. Weak π–π interactions between the pyridine rings, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.754 (9 Å, provide additional stability to the crystal packing.

  10. On the sulfation of O-desmethyltramadol by human cytosolic sulfotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Mohammed I; Bairam, Ahsan F; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that sulfate conjugation is involved in the metabolism of the active metabolite of tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol (O-DMT). The current study aimed to systematically identify the human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) that are capable of mediating the sulfation of O-DMT. The sulfation of O-DMT under metabolic conditions was demonstrated using HepG2 hepatoma cells and Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells. O-DMT-sulfating activity of thirteen known human SULTs and four human organ specimens was examined using an established sulfotransferase assay. pH-Dependency and kinetic parameters were also analyzed using, respectively, buffers at different pHs and varying O-DMT concentrations in the assays. Of the thirteen human SULTs tested, only SULT1A3 and SULT1C4 were found to display O-DMT-sulfating activity, with different pH-dependency profiles. Kinetic analysis revealed that SULT1C4 was 60 times more catalytically efficient in mediating the sulfation of O-DMT than SULT1A3 at respective optimal pH. Of the four human organ specimens tested, the cytosol prepared from the small intestine showed much higher O-DMT-sulfating activity than cytosols prepared from liver, lung, and kidney. Both cultured HepG2 and Caco-2 cells were shown to be capable of sulfating O-DMT and releasing sulfated O-DMT into cultured media. SULT1A3 and SULT1C4 were the major SULTs responsible for the sulfation of O-DMT. Collectively, the results obtained provided a molecular basis underlying the sulfation of O-DMT and contributed to a better understanding about the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tramadol in humans. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing [ 3 H]glucosamine, [ 35 S]sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but [ 3 H]glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation

  12. Antifouling potential of Nature-inspired sulfated compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joana R.; Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Antunes, Jorge; Pinto, Madalena; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cunha, Isabel

    2017-02-01

    Natural products with a sulfated scaffold have emerged as antifouling agents with low or nontoxic effects to the environment. In this study 13 sulfated polyphenols were synthesized and tested for antifouling potential using the anti-settlement activity of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) plantigrade post-larvae and bacterial growth inhibition towards four biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Results show that some of these Nature-inspired compounds were bioactive, particularly rutin persulfate (2), 3,6-bis(β-D-glucopyranosyl) xanthone persulfate (6), and gallic acid persulfate (12) against the settlement of plantigrades. The chemical precursors of sulfated compounds 2 and 12 were also tested for anti-settlement activity and it was possible to conclude that bioactivity is associated with sulfation. While compound 12 showed the most promising anti-settlement activity (EC50 = 8.95 μg.mL-1), compound 2 also caused the higher level of growth inhibition in bacteria Vibrio harveyi (EC20 = 12.5 μg.mL-1). All the three bioactive compounds 2, 6, and 12 were also found to be nontoxic to the non target species Artemia salina ( 1000 μg.mL-1). This study put forward the relevance of synthesizing non-natural sulfated small molecules to generate new nontoxic antifouling agents.

  13. A multi-analytical approach to better assess the keratan sulfate contamination in animal origin chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restaino, Odile Francesca; Finamore, Rosario; Diana, Paola; Marseglia, Mariacarmela; Vitiello, Mario; Casillo, Angela; Bedini, Emiliano; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Corsaro, Maria Michela; Trifuoggi, Marco; De Rosa, Mario; Schiraldi, Chiara

    2017-03-15

    Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan widely used as active principle of anti-osteoarthritis drugs and nutraceuticals, manufactured by extraction from animal cartilaginous tissues. During the manufacturing procedures, another glycosaminoglycan, the keratan sulfate, might be contemporarily withdrawn, thus eventually constituting a contaminant difficult to be determined because of its structural similarity. Considering the strict regulatory rules on the pureness of pharmaceutical grade chondrotin sulfate there is an urgent need and interest to determine the residual keratan sulfate with specific, sensitive and reliable methods. To pursue this aim, in this paper, for the first time, we set up a multi-analytical and preparative approach based on: i) a newly developed method by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, iii) size exclusion chromatography analyses coupled with triple detector array module and on iv) strong anion exchange chromatography separation. Varied KS percentages, in the range from 0.1 to 19.0% (w/w), were determined in seven pharmacopeia and commercial standards and nine commercial samples of different animal origin and manufacturers. Strong anion exchange chromatography profiles of the samples showed three or four different peaks. These peaks analyzed by high performance anion-exchange with pulsed amperometric detection and size exclusion chromatography with triple detector array, ion chromatography and by mono- or two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a heterogeneous composition of both glycosaminoglycans in terms of sulfation grade and molecular weight. High molecular weight species (>100 KDa) were also present in the samples that counted for chains still partially linked to a proteoglycan core. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Realizing high-rate sulfur reduction under sulfate-rich conditions in a biological sulfide production system to treat metal-laden wastewater deficient in organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rongrong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zefeng; Chen, Guang-Hao; Jiang, Feng

    2017-12-22

    Biological sulfur reduction can theoretically produce sufficient sulfide to effectively remove and recover heavy metals in the treatment of organics-deficient sulfate-rich metal-laden wastewater such as acid mine drainage and metallurgic wastewater, using 75% less organics than biological sulfate reduction. However, it is still unknown whether sulfur reduction can indeed compete with sulfate reduction, particularly under high-strength sulfate conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term feasibility of biological sulfur reduction under high sulfate conditions in a lab-scale sulfur-reducing biological sulfide production (BSP) system with sublimed sulfur added. In the 169-day trial, an average sulfide production rate (SPR) as high as 47 ± 9 mg S/L-h was achieved in the absence of sulfate, and the average SPR under sulfate-rich conditions was similar (53 ± 10 mg S/L-h) when 1300 mg S/L sulfate were fed with the influent. Interestingly, sulfate was barely reduced even at such a high strength and contributed to only 1.5% of total sulfide production. Desulfomicrobium was identified as the predominant sulfidogenic bacterium in the bioreactor. Batch tests further revealed that this sulfidogenic bacteria used elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor instead of the highly bioavailable sulfate, during which polysulfide acted as an intermediate, leading to an even higher bioavailability of sulfur than sulfate. The pathway of sulfur to sulfide conversion via polysulfide in the presence of both sulfur and sulfate was discussed. Collectively, when conditions favor polysulfide formation, sulfur reduction can be a promising and attractive technology to realize a high-rate and low-cost BSP process for treating sulfate-rich metal-laden wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sulfate reduction in an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M.; Janka, K. [Tampella Power, Tampere (Finland); Frederick, W.J.; Littau, M.; Sricharoenchaikul, V.; Jivakanun, N.; Waag, K. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Sulfate reduction and carbon conversion during pyrolysis and gasification of black liquor particles were experimentally studied in a laminar entrained-flow reactor. A model was also developed to simulate an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier. Experimental results were then compared to model calculations. Results indicated that carbon must be present to get a high degree of sulfate reduction during gasification. It is therefore important to balance the rates of carbon conversion and sulfate reduction. High local temperatures in the reactor should be avoided so that carbon does not convert too rapidly, but temperatures of nearly 1000 degrees C are required to achieve good sulfate reduction. It was suggested that a new equation was needed to adequately predict sulfate reduction in an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier. 12 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Study on complexed lead and cadmium ions removal from aqueous solutions by means of ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudzinska, M.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of simultaneous removal of heavy metal ions and organic chelates from waste water has been studied. The experimental work has been preceded by extensive theoretical considerations and calculations of physico-chemical parameters of the process for model and real waste water systems. The negative influence of the presence of sulfate anions on cadmium and lead complexes removal in ion exchange process has been experimentally proved. In the systems free of sulfate anions or when their concentrations were low, the purification process conducted on Amberlite IRA-68 was very effective for cadmium and lead complexes removal. 112 refs, 78 figs, 15 tabs

  17. Development of affinity-based delivery of NGF from a chondroitin sulfate biomaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Butterfield, Karen Chao; Conovaloff, Aaron W.; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is a major component of the extracellular matrix in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Chondroitin sulfate is upregulated at injury, thus methods to promote neurite extension through chondroitin sulfate-rich matrices and synthetic scaffolds are needed. We describe the use of both chondroitin sulfate and a novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide to control the release of nerve growth factor. Interestingly, the novel chondroitin sulfate-binding peptide enhanc...

  18. Localized sulfate-reducing zones in a coastal plain aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Coates, J.D.; Schoonen, M.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of dissolved iron in ground water of coastal plain or alluvial aquifers contribute to the biofouling of public supply wells for which treatment and remediation is costly. Many of these aquifers, however, contain zones in which microbial sulfate reduction and the associated precipitation of iron-sulfide minerals decreases iron mobility. The principal water-bearing aquifer (Magothy Aquifer of Cretaceous age) in Suffolk County, New York, contains localized sulfate-reducing zones in and near lignite deposits, which generally are associated with clay lenses. Microbial analyses of core samples amended with [14C]-acetate indicate that microbial sulfate reduction is the predominant terminal-electron-accepting process (TEAP) in poorly permeable, lignite-rich sediments at shallow depths and near the ground water divide. The sulfate-reducing zones are characterized by abundant lignite and iron-sulfide minerals, low concentrations of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, and by proximity to clay lenses that contain pore water with relatively high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved organic carbon. The low permeability of these zones and, hence, the long residence time of ground water within them, permit the preservation and (or) allow the formation of iron-sulfide minerals, including pyrite and marcasite. Both sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) are present beneath and beyond the shallow sulfate-reducing zones. A unique Fe(III)-reducing organism, MD-612, was found in core sediments from a depth of 187 m near the southern shore of Long Island. The distribution of poorly permeable, lignite-rich, sulfate-reducing zones with decreased iron concentration is varied within the principal aquifer and accounts for the observed distribution of dissolved sulfate, iron, and iron sulfides in the aquifer. Locating such zones for the placement of production wells would be difficult, however, because these zones are of limited aerial extent.

  19. Evolutionary relationships and functional diversity of plant sulfate transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki eTakahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate is an essential nutrient cycled in nature. Ion transporters that specifically facilitate the transport of sulfate across the membranes are found ubiquitously in living organisms. The phylogenetic analysis of known sulfate transporters and their homologous proteins from eukaryotic organisms indicate two evolutionarily distinct groups of sulfate transport systems. One major group named Tribe 1 represents yeast and fungal SUL, plant SULTR and animal SLC26 families. The evolutionary origin of SULTR family members in land plants and green algae is suggested to be common with yeast and fungal sulfate transporters (SUL and animal anion exchangers (SLC26. The lineage of plant SULTR family is expanded into four subfamilies (SULTR1 to SULTR4 in land plant species. By contrast, the putative SULTR homologues from Chlorophyte green algae are in two separate lineages; one with the subfamily of plant tonoplast-localized sulfate transporters (SULTR4, and the other diverged before the appearance of lineages for SUL, SULTR and SLC26. There also was a group of yet undefined members of putative sulfate transporters in yeast and fungi divergent from these major lineages in Tribe 1. The other distinct group is Tribe 2, primarily composed of animal sodium-dependent sulfate/carboxylate transporters (SLC13 and plant tonoplast-localized dicarboxylate transporters (TDT. The putative sulfur-sensing protein (SAC1 and SAC1-like transporters (SLT of Chlorophyte green algae, bryophyte and lycophyte show low degrees of sequence similarities with SLC13 and TDT. However, the phylogenetic relationship between SAC1/SLT and the other two families, SLC13 and TDT in Tribe 2, is not clearly supported. In addition, the SAC1/SLT family is completely absent in the angiosperm species analyzed. The present study suggests distinct evolutionary trajectories of sulfate transport systems for land plants and green algae.

  20. Determination of boron spectrophotometry in thorium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federgrun, L.; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of microquantities of boron in nuclear grade thorium sulfate is described. The method is based on the extraction of BF - 4 ion associated to monomethylthionine (MMT) in 1,2 - dichloroethane. The extraction of the colored BF - 4 -MMT complex does not allow the presence of sulfuric and phosphoric acids; other anions interfere seriously. This fact makes the dissolution of the thorium sulfate impracticable, since it is insoluble in both acids. On the other hand, the quantitative separation of thorium is mandatory, to avoid the precipitation of ThF 4 . To overcome this difficulty, the thorium sulfate is dissolved using a strong cationic ion exchanger, Th 4+ being totally retained into the resin. Boron is then analysed in the effluent. The procedure allows the determination of 0.2 to 10.0 microgramas of B, with a maximum error of 10%. Thorium sulfate samples with contents of 0.2 to 2.0μg B/gTh have being analysed [pt

  1. Sulfated oligosaccharide structures, as determined by NMR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noseda, M.D.; Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Cerezo, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides, produced by red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), that have important biological and physico-chemical properties. Using partial autohydrolysis, we obtained sulfated oligosaccharides from a λ-carrageenan (Noseda and Cerezo, 1993). These oligosaccharides are valuable not only for the study of the structures of the parent carrageenans but also for their possible biological activities. In this work we determined the chemical structure of one of the sulfated oligosaccharides using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. (author)

  2. Sources et marché du sulfate d'ammonium Sources of and Market for Ammonium Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loussouarn C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Engrais azoté le plus utilisé dans le monde jusqu'en 1970, le sulfate d'ammonium ne représente plus aujourd'hui que 4 % de la fertilisation azotée. Avec une teneur en azote de 21 % seulement, il a été peu à peu remplacé comme engrais universel par des produits plus concentrés, notamment l'urée et le nitrate d'ammonium. Obtenu pour plus de 40 % comme sous-produit dans la synthèse de monomères comme le caprolactame, l'acrylonitrile ou le méthacrylate de méthyle, et pour près de 10 % dans le traitement des gaz de cokerie, sa production dépend largement des développements du marché des fibres synthétiques, et, dans une moindre mesure, de la sidérurgie et de la métallurgie. Dans les pays développés, où la production est essentiellement fatale, le volume du marché est et sera plus fonction de la disponibilité du sulfate d'ammonium que de la demande ou de facteurs de marché; sa consommation ne résidera plus que dans des applications spécifiques pour lesquelles il sera bien adapté. Par contre, l'intérêt croissant pour compenser le déficit en soufre de certains sols, et les qualités agronomiques propres du sulfate d'ammonium laissent entrevoir la possibilité d'un essor de son utilisation dans certaines régions en voie de développernent. Ammonium sulfate was the most worldwide nitrogenous fertilizer used up to 1970. Today, it makes up only 4% of nitrogenous fertilization. With a nitrogen content of only 21%, it has gradually been replaced as a universal fertilizer by more concentrated products, particularly urea and ammonium nitrate. More than 40% of the ammonium sulfate is obtained as a by-product from the synthesis of monomers such as caprolactam, acrylonitrile or methyl methacrylate, and nearly 10% from coking gas processing. Its production depends extensively on the development of the market for synthetic fibers and, to a lesser extent, on the steel and metallurgical industries. In the industrialized countries

  3. Tyrosine Sulfation as a Protein Post-Translational Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shyong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of inorganic sulfate into biological molecules plays an important role in biological systems and is directly involved in the instigation of diseases. Protein tyrosine sulfation (PTS is a common post-translational modification that was first reported in the literature fifty years ago. However, the significance of PTS under physiological conditions and its link to diseases have just begun to be appreciated in recent years. PTS is catalyzed by tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST through transfer of an activated sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate to tyrosine in a variety of proteins and peptides. Currently, only a small fraction of sulfated proteins is known and the understanding of the biological sulfation mechanisms is still in progress. In this review, we give an introductory and selective brief review of PTS and then summarize the basic biochemical information including the activity and the preparation of TPST, methods for the determination of PTS, and kinetics and reaction mechanism of TPST. This information is fundamental for the further exploration of the function of PTS that induces protein-protein interactions and the subsequent biochemical and physiological reactions.

  4. Effects of tunneling on groundwater flow and swelling of clay-sulfate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butscher, Christoph; Einstein, Herbert H.; Huggenberger, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Swelling of clay-sulfate rocks is a major threat in tunneling. It is triggered by the transformation of the sulfate mineral anhydrite into gypsum as a result of water inflow in anhydrite-containing layers after tunnel excavation. The present study investigates the hydraulic effects of tunneling on groundwater flow and analyzes how hydraulic changes caused by excavation lead to water inflow into anhydrite-containing layers in the tunnel area. Numerical groundwater models are used to conduct scenario simulations that allow one to relate hydrogeological conditions to rock swelling. The influence of the topographic setting, the excavation-damaged zone around the tunnel, the sealing effect of the tunnel liner, and the geological configuration are analyzed separately. The analysis is performed for synthetic situations and is complemented by a case study from a tunnel in Switzerland. The results illustrate the importance of geological and hydraulic information when assessing the risk of swelling at an actual site.

  5. X-ray diffraction study of lithium hydrazinium sulfate and lithium ammonium sulfate crystals under a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, M.T.; Becker, R.A.; Klapper, H.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray diffraction studies are made on proton-conducting polar lithium hydrazinium sulfate and ferroelectric lithium ammonium sulfate. The X-ray rocking curves recorded with in situ electric field along the polar b axis of lithium hydrazinium sulfate (direction of proton conductivity) show a strong enhancement of the 0k0 diffraction intensity. The corresponding 0k0 X-ray topographs reveal extinction contrast consisting of striations parallel to the polar axis. They disappear when the electric field is switched off. The effect is very strong in 0k0 but invisible in h0l reflections. It is present only if the electric field is parallel to the polar axis b. This unusual X-ray topographic contrast is correlated with the proton conduction. It is supposed that, under electric field, an inhomogeneous charge distribution develops, distorting the crystal lattice. Similar experiments on lithium ammonium sulfate also show contrast variations, but of quite different behaviour than before. In this case they result from changes of the ferroelectric domain configuration under electric field. (orig.)

  6. Sulfate Reduction Remediation of a Metals Plume Through Organic Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory testing and a field-scale demonstration for the sulfate reduction remediation of an acidic/metals/sulfate groundwater plume at the Savannah River Site has been conducted. The laboratory testing consisted of the use of anaerobic microcosms to test the viability of three organic substrates to promote microbially mediated sulfate reduction. Based upon the laboratory testing, soybean oil and sodium lactate were selected for injection during the subsequent field-scale demonstration. The field-scale demonstration is currently ongoing. Approximately 825 gallons (3,123 L) of soybean oil and 225 gallons (852 L) of 60 percent sodium lactate have been injected into an existing well system within the plume. Since the injections, sulfate concentrations in the injection zone have significantly decreased, sulfate-reducing bacteria concentrations have significantly increased, the pH has increased, the Eh has decreased, and the concentrations of many metals have decreased. Microbially mediated sulfate reduction has been successfully promoted for the remediation of the acidic/metals/sulfate plume by the injection of soybean oil and sodium lactate within the plume

  7. Assessing Pyrite-Derived Sulfate in the Mississippi River with Four Years of Sulfur and Triple-Oxygen Isotope Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Bryan A; Bao, Huiming; Kohl, Issaku E

    2018-05-17

    Riverine dissolved sulfate (SO 4 2- ) sulfur and oxygen isotope variations reflect their controls such as SO 4 2- reduction and reoxidation, and source mixing. However, unconstrained temporal variability of riverine SO 4 2- isotope compositions due to short sampling durations may lead to mischaracterization of SO 4 2- sources, particularly for the pyrite-derived sulfate load. We measured the sulfur and triple-oxygen isotopes (δ 34 S, δ 18 O, and Δ' 17 O) of Mississippi River SO 4 2- with biweekly sampling between 2009 and 2013 to test isotopic variability and constrain sources. Sulfate δ 34 S and δ 18 O ranged from -6.3‰ to -0.2‰ and -3.6‰ to +8.8‰, respectively. Our sampling period captured the most severe flooding and drought in the Mississippi River basin since 1927 and 1956, respectively, and a first year of sampling that was unrepresentative of long-term average SO 4 2- . The δ 34 S SO4 data indicate pyrite-derived SO 4 2- sources are 74 ± 10% of the Mississippi River sulfate budget. Furthermore, pyrite oxidation is implicated as the dominant process supplying SO 4 2- to the Mississippi River, whereas the Δ' 17 O SO4 data shows 18 ± 9% of oxygen in this sulfate is sourced from air O 2 .

  8. Using Sulfate-Amended Sediment Slurry Batch Reactors to Evaluate Mercury Methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the methylated form, mercury represents a concern to public health primarily through the consumption of contaminated fish tissue. Research conducted on the methylation of mercury strongly suggests the process is microbial in nature and facilitated principally by sulfate-reducing bacteria. This study addressed the potential for mercury methylation by varying sulfate treatments and wetland-based soil in microbial slurry reactors with available inorganic mercury. Under anoxic laboratory conditions conducive to growth of naturally occurring sulfate-reducing bacteria in the soil, it was possible to evaluate how various sulfate additions influenced the methylation of inorganic mercury added to overlying water. Treatments included sulfate amendments ranging FR-om 25 to 500 mg/L (0.26 to 5.2 mM) above the soil's natural sulfate level. This study also provided an assessment of mercury methylation relative to sulfate-reducing bacterial population growth and subsequent sulfide production. Mercury methylation in sulfate treatments did not exceed that of the non-amended control during a 35-day incubation. However, increases in methylmercury concentration were linked to bacterial growth and sulfate reduction. A time lag in methylation in the highest treatment correlated with an equivalent lag in bacterial growth

  9. Effects of sulfate deposition on pore water dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and microbial enzyme activities in a northern peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Export of dissolved organic carbon from lakes and streams has increased throughout Europe and North America over the past several decades. One possible cause is altered deposition chemistry; specifically, decreasing sulfate inputs leading to changes in ionic strength and dissolve...

  10. A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Ashley J.; Hussain, Rohanah; Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco; Siligardi, Giuliano; Yates, Edwin A.; Rudd, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Zinc–heparan sulfate complex destabilises lysozyme, a model amyloid protein. ► Addition of zinc, without heparan sulfate, stabilises lysozyme. ► Heparan sulfate cation complexes provide alternative protein folding routes. -- Abstract: The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn–heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled β-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased β-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 °C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn–heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins.

  11. Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarana, M.; Kalamajski, S.; Kongsgaard, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Here we report on the generation of DS-epi1-null mice and the resulting alterations in the chondroitin/dermatan polysaccharide chains. The numbers of long blocks...... of adjacent iduronic acids are greatly decreased in skin decorin and biglycan chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, along with a parallel decrease in iduronic-2-O-sulfated-galactosamine-4-O-sulfated structures. Both iduronic acid blocks and iduronic acids surrounded by glucuronic acids are also decreased in versican......-derived chains. DS-epi1-deficient mice are smaller than their wild-type littermates but otherwise have no gross macroscopic alterations. The lack of DS-epi1 affects the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in many proteoglycans, and the consequences for skin collagen structure were initially analyzed. We found...

  12. Recoverable immobilization of transuranic elements in sulfate ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of reversibly immobilizing sulfate ash at least about 20% of which is sulfates of transuranic elements. The ash is mixed with a metal which can be aluminum, cerium, samarium, europium, or a mixture thereof, in amounts sufficient to form an alloy with the transuranic elements, plus an additional amount to reduce the transuranic element sulfates to elemental form. Also added to the ash is a fluxing agent in an amount sufficient to lower the percentage of the transuranic element sulfates to about 1% to about 10%. The mixture of the ash, metal, and fluxing agent is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the fluxing agent and the metal. The mixture is then cooled and the alloy is separated from the remainder of the mixture.

  13. Mechanisms of direct inhibition of the respiratory sulfate-reduction pathway by (per)chlorate and nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Hans K; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Hazra, Amrita B; Justice, Nicholas B; Stoeva, Magdalena K; Sczesnak, Andrew; Mullan, Mark R; Iavarone, Anthony T; Engelbrektson, Anna; Price, Morgan N; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Arkin, Adam P; Coates, John D

    2015-06-01

    We investigated perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) and chlorate (ClO(3)(-)) (collectively (per)chlorate) in comparison with nitrate as potential inhibitors of sulfide (H(2)S) production by mesophilic sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs). We demonstrate the specificity and potency of (per)chlorate as direct SRM inhibitors in both pure cultures and undefined sulfidogenic communities. We demonstrate that (per)chlorate and nitrate are antagonistic inhibitors and resistance is cross-inducible implying that these compounds share at least one common mechanism of resistance. Using tagged-transposon pools we identified genes responsible for sensitivity and resistance in Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20. We found that mutants in Dde_2702 (Rex), a repressor of the central sulfate-reduction pathway were resistant to both (per)chlorate and nitrate. In general, Rex derepresses its regulon in response to increasing intracellular NADH:NAD(+) ratios. In cells in which respiratory sulfate reduction is inhibited, NADH:NAD(+) ratios should increase leading to derepression of the sulfate-reduction pathway. In support of this, in (per)chlorate or nitrate-stressed wild-type G20 we observed higher NADH:NAD(+) ratios, increased transcripts and increased peptide counts for genes in the core Rex regulon. We conclude that one mode of (per)chlorate and nitrate toxicity is as direct inhibitors of the central sulfate-reduction pathway. Our results demonstrate that (per)chlorate are more potent inhibitors than nitrate in both pure cultures and communities, implying that they represent an attractive alternative for controlling sulfidogenesis in industrial ecosystems. Of these, perchlorate offers better application logistics because of its inhibitory potency, solubility, relative chemical stability, low affinity for mineral cations and high mobility in environmental systems.

  14. Effect of sulfation on the surface activity of CaO for N{sub 2}O decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lingnan, E-mail: wulingnan@126.com [School of Energy, Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, 102206 Beijing (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Power Generation Equipment, North China Electric Power University, 102206 Beijing (China); Hu, Xiaoying, E-mail: huxy@ncepu.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Power Generation Equipment, North China Electric Power University, 102206 Beijing (China); Qin, Wu, E-mail: qinwugx@126.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Power Generation Equipment, North China Electric Power University, 102206 Beijing (China); Dong, Changqing, E-mail: cqdong1@163.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Power Generation Equipment, North China Electric Power University, 102206 Beijing (China); Yang, Yongping, E-mail: yypncepu@163.com [School of Energy, Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, 102206 Beijing (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfation of CaO (1 0 0) surface greatly deactivates its surface activity for N{sub 2}O decomposition. • An increase of sulfation degree leads to a decrease of CaO surface activity for N{sub 2}O decomposition. • Sulfation from CaSO{sub 3} into CaSO{sub 4} is the crucial step for deactivating the surface activity for N{sub 2}O decomposition. • The electronic interaction CaO (1 0 0)/CaSO{sub 4} (0 0 1) interface is limited to the bottom layer of CaSO{sub 4} (0 0 1) and the top layer of CaO (1 0 0). • CaSO{sub 4} (0 0 1) and (0 1 0) surfaces show negligible catalytic ability for N{sub 2}O decomposition. - Abstract: Limestone addition to circulating fluidized bed boilers for sulfur removal affects nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emission at the same time, but mechanism of how sulfation process influences the surface activity of CaO for N{sub 2}O decomposition remains unclear. In this paper, we investigated the effect of sulfation on the surface properties and catalytic activity of CaO for N{sub 2}O decomposition using density functional theory calculations. Sulfation of CaO (1 0 0) surface by the adsorption of a single gaseous SO{sub 2} or SO{sub 3} molecule forms stable local CaSO{sub 3} or CaSO{sub 4} on the CaO (1 0 0) surface with strong hybridization between the S atom of SO{sub x} and the surface O anion. The formed local CaSO{sub 3} increases the barrier energy of N{sub 2}O decomposition from 0.989 eV (on the CaO (1 0 0) surface) to 1.340 eV, and further sulfation into local CaSO{sub 4} remarkably increases the barrier energy to 2.967 eV. Sulfation from CaSO{sub 3} into CaSO{sub 4} is therefore the crucial step for deactivating the surface activity for N{sub 2}O decomposition. Completely sulfated CaSO{sub 4} (0 0 1) and (0 1 0) surfaces further validate the negligible catalytic ability of CaSO{sub 4} for N{sub 2}O decomposition.

  15. Chondroitin sulfate synthase-2 is necessary for chain extension of chondroitin sulfate but not critical for skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Hatano, Sonoko; Sugiura, Nobuo; Nagai, Naoko; Sato, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsuji; Kimata, Koji; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Watanabe, Hideto

    2012-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear polysaccharide consisting of repeating disaccharide units of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and D-glucuronic acid residues, modified with sulfated residues at various positions. Based on its structural diversity in chain length and sulfation patterns, CS provides specific biological functions in cell adhesion, morphogenesis, neural network formation, and cell division. To date, six glycosyltransferases are known to be involved in the biosynthesis of chondroitin saccharide chains, and a hetero-oligomer complex of chondroitin sulfate synthase-1 (CSS1)/chondroitin synthase-1 and chondroitin sulfate synthase-2 (CSS2)/chondroitin polymerizing factor is known to have the strongest polymerizing activity. Here, we generated and analyzed CSS2(-/-) mice. Although they were viable and fertile, exhibiting no overt morphological abnormalities or osteoarthritis, their cartilage contained CS chains with a shorter length and at a similar number to wild type. Further analysis using CSS2(-/-) chondrocyte culture systems, together with siRNA of CSS1, revealed the presence of two CS chain species in length, suggesting two steps of CS chain polymerization; i.e., elongation from the linkage region up to Mr ∼10,000, and further extension. There, CSS2 mainly participated in the extension, whereas CSS1 participated in both the extension and the initiation. Our study demonstrates the distinct function of CSS1 and CSS2, providing a clue in the elucidation of the mechanism of CS biosynthesis.

  16. Synthesis of [2,4-3H] 17β-dihydroequilin sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhavnani, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    [2,4- 3 H] 17β-dihydroequilin-3-sulfate ammonium salt suitable for in vivo pharmacokinetic studies was synthesized from [2,4- 3 H] equilin. Sulfation of [2,4- 3 H] equilin with pyridine-chlorosulfonic acid mixture gave in high yields [2,4- 3 H] equilin sulfate, which was then reduced with sodium borohydride to yield [2,4- 3 H] 17β-dihydroequilin sulfate. The reduction was sterospecific and no 17α-reduced products were formed. (author)

  17. Biological sulfate removal from gypsum contaminated construction and demolition debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-12-15

    Construction and demolition debris (CDD) contains high levels of sulfate that can cause detrimental environmental impacts when disposed without adequate treatment. In landfills, sulfate can be converted to hydrogen sulfide under anaerobic conditions. CDD can thus cause health impacts or odor problems to landfill employees and surrounding residents. Reduction of the sulfate content of CDD is an option to overcome these problems. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate removal system to reduce the sulfate content of gypsum contaminated CDD in order to decrease the amount of solid waste, to improve the quality of CDD waste for recycling purposes and to recover sulfur from CDD. The treatment leached out the gypsum contained in CDD by water in a leaching column. The sulfate loaded leachate was then treated in a biological sulfate reducing Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor to convert the sulfate to sulfide. The UASB reactor was operated at 23 ± 3 °C with a hydraulic retention time and upflow velocity of 15.5 h and 0.1 m h(-1), respectively while ethanol was added as electron donor at a final organic loading rate of 3.46 g COD L(-1) reactor d(-1). The CDD leachate had a pH of 8-9 and sulfate dissolution rates of 526.4 and 609.8 mg L(-1) d(-1) were achieved in CDD gypsum and CDD sand, respectively. Besides, it was observed that the gypsum dissolution was the rate limiting step for the biological treatment of CDD. The sulfate removal efficiency of the system stabilized at around 85%, enabling the reuse of the UASB effluent for the leaching step, proving the versatility of the bioreactor for practical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human platelet as an independent unit for sulfate conjugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, B.Y.; Sit, K.H.; Wong, K.P.

    1988-01-01

    The human platelets possess a full complement of enzymes capable of synthesizing N-acetyldopamine (NADA) 35 sulfate from ATP, Mg ++ and sodium 35 sulfate. The pH optimum for this three-step overall sulfate conjugation (comprising of the ATP sulfurylase, APS kinase and phenolsulfotransferase reactions) is 8.6 and the reactions proceeded progressively for several hours. Both ATP and Mg ++ ions, above their respective optimal concentrations of 5 and 7 mM, inhibited the sulfate conjugation of NADA. The apparent Km values for NADA as determined by the phenolsulfotransferase (PST) and overall reactions were similar in magnitude being 2.6 and 4.8 μM, respectively, while that for sodium 35 sulfate was 202 μM. A comparison of these two activities in 62 platelet preparations of normal subjects showed that the rate of the PST reaction was generally higher than the overall reaction even though the PST assay was carried out at suboptimal concentration of PAPS. There was a positive correlation (r=0.82) between the two sets of data, suggesting that the PST reaction probably has some control over the rate of overall sulfate conjugation

  19. Sulfated oligosaccharide structures, as determined by NMR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseda, M.D.; Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. De Bioquimica; Cerezo, A.S. [Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-31

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides, produced by red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), that have important biological and physico-chemical properties. Using partial autohydrolysis, we obtained sulfated oligosaccharides from a {lambda}-carrageenan (Noseda and Cerezo, 1993). These oligosaccharides are valuable not only for the study of the structures of the parent carrageenans but also for their possible biological activities. In this work we determined the chemical structure of one of the sulfated oligosaccharides using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. (author) 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs.

  20. Air pollution and heart rate variability: effect modification by chronic lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Kyun; O'Neill, Marie S; Vokonas, Pantel S; Sparrow, David; Wright, Robert O; Coull, Brent; Nie, Huiling; Hu, Howard; Schwartz, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution and lead exposure can disturb cardiac autonomic function, but the effects of both these exposures together have not been studied. We examined whether higher cumulative lead exposures, as measured by bone lead, modified cross-sectional associations between air pollution and heart rate variability among 384 elderly men from the Normative Aging Study. We used linear regression, controlling for clinical, demographic, and environmental covariates. We found graded, significant reductions in both high-frequency and low-frequency powers of heart rate variability in relation to ozone and sulfate across the quartiles of tibia lead. Interquartile range increases in ozone and sulfate were associated respectively, with 38% decrease (95% confidence interval = -54.6% to -14.9%) and 22% decrease (-40.4% to 1.6%) in high frequency, and 38% decrease (-51.9% to -20.4%) and 12% decrease (-28.6% to 9.3%) in low frequency, in the highest quartile of tibia lead after controlling for potential confounders. We observed similar but weaker effect modification by tibia lead adjusted for education and cumulative traffic (residuals of the regression of tibia lead on education and cumulative traffic). Patella lead modified only the ozone effect on heart rate variability. People with long-term exposure to higher levels of lead may be more sensitive to cardiac autonomic dysfunction on high air pollution days. Efforts to understand how environmental exposures affect the health of an aging population should consider both current levels of pollution and history of lead exposure as susceptibility factors.

  1. Potential for beneficial application of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfate containing domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    The activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is often considered as a problem due to H2S formation and potential related odour and corrosion of materials. However, when controlled well, these bacteria can be effectively used in a positive manner for the treatment of wastewater. The main advantages of using SRB in wastewater treatment are: (1) minimal sludge production, (2) reduction of potential pathogens presence, (3) removal of heavy metals and (4) as pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. These advantages are accessory to efficient and stable COD removal by SRB. Though only a few studies have been conducted on SRB treatment of domestic wastewater, the many studies performed on industrial wastewater provide information on the potential of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. A key-parameter analyses literature study comprising pH, organic substrates, sulfate, salt, temperature and oxygen revealed that the conditions are well suited for the application of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. Since the application of SRB in WWTP has environmental benefits its application is worth considering for wastewater treatment, when sulfate is present in the influent.

  2. Cell-associated proteoheparan sulfate from bovine arterial smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.; Buddecke, E.

    1988-01-01

    Cell-associated proteoheparan sulfate has been isolated from bovine arterial smooth muscle cells preincubated with [ 35 S]sulfate or a combination of [ 3 H]glucosamine and [ 35 S]methionine. The purified proteoheparan sulfate had an apparent M r of 200,000 on calibrated Sepharose CL-2B columns. The glycosaminoglycan component (M r ∼30,000) was identified as heparan sulfate by its susceptibility to specific enzymatic and chemical degradation. After degradation of the proteoheparan sulfate by microbial heparitinase the resulting protein core had an apparent M r of 92,000 on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Its mobility was similar in the absence and presence of reducing agents indicating that the protein core consists of a single polypeptide chain. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that about 40% of the cell layer-associated proteoheparan sulfate was released into the medium, while the remainder was internalized and converted to smaller species through a series of degradation steps. Initially there was a proteolytical cleavage of the protein core generating glycosaminoglycan peptide intermediates with polysaccharides chains similar in size to the original. The half-life of the native proteoheparan sulfate was found to be about 4 h

  3. Desulfonatronovibrio halophilus sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from hypersaline chloride-sulfate lakes in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Abbas, B.; Suhacheva, M.V.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Four strains of lithotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been enriched and isolated from anoxic sediments of hypersaline chloride-sulfate lakes in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) at 2 M NaCl and pH 7.5. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were closely related

  4. Desulfonatronovibrio halophilus sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from hypersaline chloride–sulfate lakes in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Abbas, B.; Suhacheva, M.V.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Four strains of lithotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been enriched and isolated from anoxic sediments of hypersaline chloride–sulfate lakes in the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) at 2 M NaCl and pH 7.5. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were closely related

  5. Hydrogen bond strengths in phosphorylated and sulfated amino acid residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Rapp

    Full Text Available Post-translational modification by the addition of an oxoanion functional group, usually a phosphate group and less commonly a sulfate group, leads to diverse structural and functional consequences in protein systems. Building upon previous studies of the phosphoserine residue (pSer, we address the distinct nature of hydrogen bonding interactions in phosphotyrosine (pTyr and sulfotyrosine (sTyr residues. We derive partial charges for these modified residues and then study them in the context of molecular dynamics simulation of model tripeptides and sulfated protein complexes, potentials of mean force for interacting residue pairs, and a survey of the interactions of modified residues among experimental protein structures. Overall, our findings show that for pTyr, bidentate interactions with Arg are particularly dominant, as has been previously demonstrated for pSer. sTyr interactions with Arg are significantly weaker, even as compared to the same interactions made by the Glu residue. Our work sheds light on the distinct nature of these modified tyrosine residues, and provides a physical-chemical foundation for future studies with the goal of understanding their roles in systems of biological interest.

  6. Micro-SHINE Uranyl Sulfate Irradiations at the Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youker, Amanda J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kalensky, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schneider, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Byrnes, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Peroxide formation due to water radiolysis in a uranyl sulfate solution is a concern for the SHINE Medical Technologies process in which Mo-99 is generated from the fission of dissolved low enriched uranium. To investigate the effects of power density and fission on peroxide formation and uranyl-peroxide precipitation, uranyl sulfate solutions were irradiated using a 50-MeV electron linac as part of the micro-SHINE experimental setup. Results are given for uranyl sulfate solutions with both high and low enriched uranium irradiated at different linac powers.

  7. Opiate-like excitatory effects of steroid sulfates and calcium-complexing agents given cerebroventricularly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBella, F S; Havlicek, V; Pinsky, C

    1979-01-12

    Intracerebroventricular administration of 10--20 microgram of steroid-O-sulfates induced hypermotility, agitation, salivation, EEG abnormalities, stereotypies, wet dog shakes and seizures. Equivalent effects resulted from 30--200 microgram morphine sulfate (H2SO4 salt), 50 microgram EGTA or 300--400 microgram of sodium sulfate or phosphate, but not chloride, nitrate or acetate. Non-steroid sulfates, steroid glucuronides and steroid phosphates were inactive. Naloxone, previously found to antagonize the excitatory effects of androsterone sulfate, failed to antagonize those of cortisol sulfate, sodium sulfate or EGTA. These findings suggest a role for extracellular calcium ions and for sulfate derived from circulating steroids in central responses to opiates.

  8. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    KAUST Repository

    Kravitz, Ben

    2009-07-28

    We used a general circulation model of Earth\\'s climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  9. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    KAUST Repository

    Kravitz, Ben; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Marquardt, Allison B.

    2009-01-01

    We used a general circulation model of Earth's climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  10. Evolutionary relationships and functional diversity of plant sulfate transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideki; Buchner, Peter; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate is an essential nutrient cycled in nature. Ion transporters that specifically facilitate the transport of sulfate across the membranes are found ubiquitously in living organisms. The phylogenetic analysis of known sulfate transporters and their homologous proteins from eukaryotic organisms indicate two evolutionarily distinct groups of sulfate transport systems. One major group named Tribe 1 represents yeast and fungal SUL, plant SULTR, and animal SLC26 families. The evolutionary origin of SULTR family members in land plants and green algae is suggested to be common with yeast and fungal SUL and animal anion exchangers (SLC26). The lineage of plant SULTR family is expanded into four subfamilies (SULTR1-SULTR4) in land plant species. By contrast, the putative SULTR homologs from Chlorophyte green algae are in two separate lineages; one with the subfamily of plant tonoplast-localized sulfate transporters (SULTR4), and the other diverged before the appearance of lineages for SUL, SULTR, and SLC26. There also was a group of yet undefined members of putative sulfate transporters in yeast and fungi divergent from these major lineages in Tribe 1. The other distinct group is Tribe 2, primarily composed of animal sodium-dependent sulfate/carboxylate transporters (SLC13) and plant tonoplast-localized dicarboxylate transporters (TDT). The putative sulfur-sensing protein (SAC1) and SAC1-like transporters (SLT) of Chlorophyte green algae, bryophyte, and lycophyte show low degrees of sequence similarities with SLC13 and TDT. However, the phylogenetic relationship between SAC1/SLT and the other two families, SLC13 and TDT in Tribe 2, is not clearly supported. In addition, the SAC1/SLT family is absent in the angiosperm species analyzed. The present study suggests distinct evolutionary trajectories of sulfate transport systems for land plants and green algae.

  11. Effects of ferrous sulfate amendment and water management on rice growth and metal(loid) accumulation in arsenic and lead co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lina; Zhang, Shu; Duan, Dechao; Liang, Xinqiang; Shi, Jiyan; Xu, Jianming; Tang, Xianjin

    2018-03-01

    Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) commonly co-exist with high concentrations in paddy soil mainly due to human activities in south of China. This study investigates the effect of ferrous sulfate (FeSO 4 ) amendment and water management on rice growth and arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) accumulation in rice plants. A paddy soil co-contaminated with As and Pb was chosen for the pot experiment with three FeSO 4 levels (0, 0.25, and 1%, on a dry weight basis) and two water managements (flooded, non-flooded). The concentrations of As and Pb in iron plaques and rice plants were determined. Application of FeSO 4 and non-flooded conditions significantly accelerated the growth of rice plants. With the addition of FeSO 4 , iron plaques were significantly promoted and most of the As and Pb were sequestered in the iron plaques. The addition of 0.25% FeSO 4 and non-flooded conditions did not significantly change the accumulation of As and Pb in rice grains. The practice also significantly decreased the translocation factor (TF) of As and Pb from roots to above-ground parts which might have been aided by the reduction of As and Pb availability in soil, the preventing effect of rice roots, and the formation of more reduced glutathione (GSH). Flooded conditions decreased the Pb concentration in rice plants, but increased As accumulation. Moreover, rice grew thin and weak and even died under flooded conditions. Overall, an appropriate FeSO 4 dose and non-flooded conditions might be feasible for rice cultivation, especially addressing the As issue in the co-contaminated soil. However, further detailed studies to decrease the accumulation of Pb in edible parts and the field application in As and Pb co-contaminated soil are recommended.

  12. Parameterization and evaluation of sulfate adsorption in a dynamic soil chemistry model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, Liisa; Alveteg, Mattias; Warfvinge, Per

    2003-01-01

    Including sulfate adsorption improves the dynamic behavior of the SAFE model. - Sulfate adsorption was implemented in the dynamic, multi-layer soil chemistry model SAFE. The process is modeled by an isotherm in which sulfate adsorption is considered to be fully reversible and dependent on sulfate concentration as well as pH in soil solution. The isotherm was parameterized by a site-specific series of simple batch experiments at different pH (3.8-5.0) and sulfate concentration (10-260 μmol l -1 ) levels. Application of the model to the Lake Gaardsjoen roof covered site shows that including sulfate adsorption improves the dynamic behavior of the model and sulfate adsorption and desorption delay acidification and recovery of the soil. The modeled adsorbed pool of sulfate at the site reached a maximum level of 700 mmol/m 2 in the late 1980s, well in line with experimental data

  13. Sorption of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) on lead sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.

    1985-01-01

    The sorption of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) on lead sulfide was investigated in dependence on pH, time of sorption, and on the concnetrations of sorbate and sorbent. The mechanisms of the sorption of Crsup(3+) and CrOsub(4)sup(2-) traces on lead sulfide are discussed; a difference between CrOsub(4)sup(2-) sorption on PbS and α-Fesub(2)Osub(3) was found. Sulfates and molybdates affect the removal of chromates from aqueous solutions. Lead sulfide carrier prepared in this work was also used for the preconcentration of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) from tap water. (author)

  14. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A., E-mail: jimfield@email.arizona.edu

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Electron donor from zero-valent iron (ZVI) drives sulfate reduction to sulfide. • Sulfide converts soluble heavy metals into sulfide minerals. • Excess sulfide is sequestered by iron preventing discharge. • Corrosion of ZVI consumes acidity in acid rock drainage. • ZVI as reactive material outlasted limestone in removing heavy metals. - Abstract: This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  15. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electron donor from zero-valent iron (ZVI) drives sulfate reduction to sulfide. • Sulfide converts soluble heavy metals into sulfide minerals. • Excess sulfide is sequestered by iron preventing discharge. • Corrosion of ZVI consumes acidity in acid rock drainage. • ZVI as reactive material outlasted limestone in removing heavy metals. - Abstract: This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  16. Gastrointestinal and microbial responses to sulfate-supplemented drinking water in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deplancke, Bart; Finster, Kai; Graham, W Vallen; Collier, Chad T; Thurmond, Joel E; Gaskins, H Rex

    2003-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of chronic diseases such as ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer. The activity of SRB, and thus H2S production, is likely determined by the availability of sulfur-containing compounds in the intestine. However, little is known about the impact of dietary or inorganic sulfate on intestinal sulfate and SRB-derived H2S concentrations. In this study, the effects of short-term (7 day) and long-term (1 year) inorganic sulfate supplementation of the drinking water on gastrointestinal (GI) sulfate and H2S concentrations (and thus activity of resident SRBs), and the density of large intestinal sulfomucin-containing goblet cells, were examined in C3H/HeJBir mice. Additionally, a PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based molecular ecology technique was used to examine the impact of sulfate-amended drinking water on microbial community structure throughout the GI tract. Average H2S concentrations ranged from 0.1 mM (stomach) to 1 mM (cecum). A sulfate reduction assay demonstrated in situ production of H2S throughout the GI tract, confirming the presence of SRB. However, H2S generation and concentrations were greatest in the cecum and colon. Sulfate supplementation of drinking water did not significantly increase intestinal sulfate or H2S concentrations, suggesting that inorganic sulfate is not an important modulator of intestinal H2S concentrations, although it altered the bacterial profiles of the stomach and distal colon of 1-year-old mice. This change in colonic bacterial profiles may reflect a corresponding increase in the density of sulfomucin-containing goblet cells in sulfate-supplemented compared with control mice.

  17. Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Nitrate and Sulfate in Fog and River water in Podocarpus National Forest, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, L. A.; Fabian, P.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    The eastern slopes of the Andean rainforests of Ecuador possess some of the highest plant biodiversity found on the planet; however, these ecosystems are in jeopardy because region is experiences one of the highest deforestation rates in South America. This rainforest characterized by high acidity and low nutrient soils and experiences natural process which are both destabilizing and stabilizing to biodiversity rendering this a unique, though sensitive environment. There is increased concern that anthropogenic activities are affecting rainforests and could lead to higher extinction rates, changes in the biodiversity and far reaching effects on the global troposphere. Measurements of nitrate and sulfate in rain and fog water have shown periods of elevated concentrations in the Podocarpus National Park near Loja, Ecuador. These high episodes contribute to annual deposition rates that are comparable to polluted central Europe. Significant anthropogenic sources near this region are lacking and it is believed that the majority of the nitrate and sulfate pollution can be attributed to biomass burning in the Amazon basin. Concentration measurements do not elucidate the source of high nitrate and sulfate pollution; however, by measuring all three stable isotopes of oxygen in nitrate and sulfate from fog and river water provides a new way to examine the impacts of biomass burning on the region. By using stable isotope techniques atmospheric nitrate and sulfate can be resolved from terrestrial sources. This provides an unique way to trace the contributions from the biomass burning and farming sources. Current research at the field station monitors sulfate and nitrate concentrations in rain and fog water by standard methods to investigate water and nutrient pathways along with data from satellite and ground based remote sensing, in-situ observations and numerical models.

  18. Sulfate was a trace constituent of Archean seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Sean Andrew; Paris, Guillaume; Katsev, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In the low-oxygen Archean world (>2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column...

  19. Large-scale chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan digestion with chondroitinase gene therapy leads to reduced pathology and modulates macrophage phenotype following spinal cord contusion injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartus, Katalin; James, Nicholas D; Didangelos, Athanasios; Bosch, Karen D; Verhaagen, J.; Yáñez-Muñoz, Rafael J; Rogers, John H; Schneider, Bernard L; Muir, Elizabeth M; Bradbury, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit repair following spinal cord injury. Here we use mammalian-compatible engineered chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) delivered via lentiviral vector (LV-ChABC) to explore the consequences of large-scale CSPG digestion for spinal cord repair. We demonstrate

  20. Initial kinetics of the direct sulfation of limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Shang, Lei; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The initial kinetics of direct sulfation of Faxe Bryozo, a porous bryozoan limestone was studied in the temperature interval from 873 to 973 K in a pilot entrained flow reactor with very short reaction times (between 0.1 and 0.6 s). The initial conversion rate of the limestone - for conversions...... less than 0.3% - was observed to be significantly promoted by higher SO2 concentrations and lower CO2 concentrations, whereas 02 showed negligible influence. A mathematical model for the sulfation of limestone involving chemical reaction at calcite grain surfaces and solid-state diffusion of carbonate...... ions in calcite grains is established. The validity of the model is limited to the initial sulfation period, in which nucleation of the solid product calcium sulphate is not started. This theoretical reaction-diffusion model gives a good simulation of the initial kinetics of the direct sulfation...

  1. Prognostic significance of highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates in ovarian cancer defined by the single chain antibody GD3A11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, Sophieke C H A; van Tilborg, Angela A G; Vallen, Myrtille J E; Bulten, Johan; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2016-03-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of ovarian cancer may provide a number of potential biomarkers. Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a class of sulfated polysaccharides, is abundantly present in the ECM of ovarian cancer. Structural alterations of CS chains (i.e. sulfation pattern) have been demonstrated to play a role in cancer development and progression. In this study we investigate the potential of highly sulfated CS as a biomarker in ovarian cancer using the single chain antibody GD3A11 selected by the phage display technology. The specificity of the antibody was determined by an indirect ELISA. GD3A11 epitope expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in healthy organs, benign and malignant ovarian tumors (N=359) and correlated to clinical parameters. The CHST15 gene, responsible for the biosynthesis of highly sulfated CS was evaluated for mutation and methylation status. The GD3A11 epitope was minimally expressed in normal organs. Intense expression was observed in the ECM of different ovarian cancer subtypes, in contrast to benign ovarian tumors. Expression was independent of tumor grade, FIGO stage, and the use chemotherapy. For the aggressive ovarian cancer phenotype, intense expression was identified as an independent predictor for poor prognosis. CHST15 gene analysis showed no mutations nor an altered methylation status. Specific highly sulfated CS motifs expressed in the tumoral ECM hold biomarker potential in ovarian cancer patients. These matrix motifs constitute a novel class of biomarkers with prognostic significance and may be instrumental for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic applications (e.g. targeted therapy) in management of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of protein sulfation in vasodilation induced by minoxidil sulfate, a K+ channel opener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisheri, K.D.; Oleynek, J.J.; Puddington, L.

    1991-01-01

    Evidence from contractile, radioisotope ion flux and electrophysiological studies suggest that minoxidil sulfate (MNXS) acts as a K+ channel opener in vascular smooth muscle. This study was designed to examine possible biochemical mechanisms by which MNXS exerts such an effect. Experiments performed in the isolated rabbit mesenteric artery (RMA) showed that MNXS, 5 microM, but not the parent compound minoxidil, was a potent vasodilator. Whereas the relaxant effects of an another K+ channel opener vasodilator, BRL-34915 (cromakalim), were removed by washing with physiological saline solution, the effects of MNXS persisted after repeated washout attempts. Furthermore, after an initial exposure of segments of intact RMA to [35S] MNXS, greater than 30% of the radiolabel was retained 2 hr after removal of the drug. In contrast, retention of radiolabel was not detected with either [3H]MNXS (label on the piperidine ring of MNXS) or [3H]minoxidil (each less than 3% after a 2-hr washout). These data suggested that the sulfate moiety from MNXS was closely associated with the vascular tissue. To determine if proteins were the acceptors of sulfate from MNXS, intact RMAs were incubated with [35S]MNXS, and then 35S-labeled proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analyzed by fluorography. Preferential labeling of a 116 kD protein was detected by 2 and 5 min of treatment. A 43 kD protein (resembling actin) also showed significant labeling. A similar profile of 35S-labeled proteins was observed in [35S] MNXS-treated A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells, suggesting that the majority of proteins labeled by [35S]MNXS in intact RMA were components of smooth muscle cells

  3. Influence of Internal Sulfate Attack on Some Properties of High Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Mahdi Fawzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems that faces the concrete industry in Iraq is the deterioration due to internal sulfate attack , since it reduces the compressive strength and increases the expansion of concrete. Consequently, the concrete structure may be damage .The effects of total and total effective sulfate contents on high strength concrete (HSC have been studied in the present study. The research studied the effect of sulfate content in cement , sand and gravel , as well as comparing the total sulfate content with the total effective SO3 content. Materials used were divided into two groups of SO3 in cement ,three groups of SO3 in sand ,and two groups of SO3 in gravel. The results show that considering the total effective sulfate content is better than the total content of sulfates since the effect of sulfate in each constituent of concrete, depends on it's granular size .The smaller the particle size of the material the more effective is the sulfate in it. Therefore, it is recommended to follow the Iraqi specification for total effective sulfate content, because it gives more flexibility to the use of sand and gravel with higher sulfate content. The results of compressive strength at 90-days show that the effect of total effective SO3 content of ( 2.647% , 2.992% , 3.424% that correspond to total sulfate of ( 3.778%, 3.294%, 4.528% decrease the compressive strength by (7.53%, 11.44%, 14.59% respectively.

  4. Isotopic constraints on heterogeneous sulfate production in Beijing haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pengzhen; Alexander, Becky; Geng, Lei; Chi, Xiyuan; Fan, Shidong; Zhan, Haicong; Kang, Hui; Zheng, Guangjie; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing

    2018-04-01

    Discerning mechanisms of sulfate formation during fine-particle pollution (referred to as haze hereafter) in Beijing is important for understanding the rapid evolution of haze and for developing cost-effective air pollution mitigation strategies. Here we present observations of the oxygen-17 excess of PM2.5 sulfate (Δ17O(SO42-)) collected in Beijing haze from October 2014 to January 2015 to constrain possible sulfate formation pathways. Throughout the sampling campaign, the 12-hourly averaged PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 16 to 323 µg m-3 with a mean of (141 ± 88 (1σ)) µg m-3, with SO42- representing 8-25 % of PM2.5 mass. The observed Δ17O(SO42-) varied from 0.1 to 1.6 ‰ with a mean of (0.9 ± 0.3) ‰. Δ17O(SO42-) increased with PM2.5 levels in October 2014 while the opposite trend was observed from November 2014 to January 2015. Our estimate suggested that in-cloud reactions dominated sulfate production on polluted days (PDs, PM2.5 ≥ 75 µg m-3) of Case II in October 2014 due to the relatively high cloud liquid water content, with a fractional contribution of up to 68 %. During PDs of Cases I and III-V, heterogeneous sulfate production (Phet) was estimated to contribute 41-54 % to total sulfate formation with a mean of (48 ± 5) %. For the specific mechanisms of heterogeneous oxidation of SO2, chemical reaction kinetics calculations suggested S(IV) ( = SO2 ⚫ H2O + HSO3- + SO32-) oxidation by H2O2 in aerosol water accounted for 5-13 % of Phet. The relative importance of heterogeneous sulfate production by other mechanisms was constrained by our observed Δ17O(SO42-). Heterogeneous sulfate production via S(IV) oxidation by O3 was estimated to contribute 21-22 % of Phet on average. Heterogeneous sulfate production pathways that result in zero-Δ17O(SO42-), such as S(IV) oxidation by NO2 in aerosol water and/or by O2 via a radical chain mechanism, contributed the remaining 66-73 % of Phet. The assumption about the thermodynamic state of aerosols

  5. On the roles and regulation of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate in zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmborn, Katarina; Habicher, Judith; Kasza, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    The present study addresses the roles of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans and chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans in the development of zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage structures. uxs1 and b3gat3 mutants, predicted to have impaired biosynthesis of both HS and CS because of defective formation...... levels of CS than control larvae, whereas morpholino-mediated suppression of csgalnact1/csgalnact2 resulted in increased HS biosynthesis. Thus, the balance of the Extl3 and Csgalnact1/Csgalnact2 proteins influences the HS/CS ratio. A characterization of the pharyngeal cartilage element morphologies...

  6. Abundant carbon substrates drive extremely high sulfate reduction rates and methane fluxes in Prairie Pothole Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcin Martins, Paula; Hoyt, David W; Bansal, Sheel; Mills, Christopher T; Tfaily, Malak; Tangen, Brian A; Finocchiaro, Raymond G; Johnston, Michael D; McAdams, Brandon C; Solensky, Matthew J; Smith, Garrett J; Chin, Yu-Ping; Wilkins, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Inland waters are increasingly recognized as critical sites of methane emissions to the atmosphere, but the biogeochemical reactions driving such fluxes are less well understood. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is one of the largest wetland complexes in the world, containing millions of small, shallow wetlands. The sediment pore waters of PPR wetlands contain some of the highest concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and sulfur species ever recorded in terrestrial aquatic environments. Using a suite of geochemical and microbiological analyses, we measured the impact of sedimentary carbon and sulfur transformations in these wetlands on methane fluxes to the atmosphere. This research represents the first study of coupled geochemistry and microbiology within the PPR and demonstrates how the conversion of abundant labile DOC pools into methane results in some of the highest fluxes of this greenhouse gas to the atmosphere ever reported. Abundant DOC and sulfate additionally supported some of the highest sulfate reduction rates ever measured in terrestrial aquatic environments, which we infer to account for a large fraction of carbon mineralization in this system. Methane accumulations in zones of active sulfate reduction may be due to either the transport of free methane gas from deeper locations or the co-occurrence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. If both respiratory processes are concurrent, any competitive inhibition of methanogenesis by sulfate-reducing bacteria may be lessened by the presence of large labile DOC pools that yield noncompetitive substrates such as methanol. Our results reveal some of the underlying mechanisms that make PPR wetlands biogeochemical hotspots, which ultimately leads to their critical, but poorly recognized role in regional greenhouse gas emissions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Abundant carbon substrates drive extremely high sulfate reduction rates and methane fluxes in Prairie Pothole Wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalcin Martins, Paula [Microbiology Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; Hoyt, David W. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Richland WA 99350 USA; Bansal, Sheel [United States Geological Survey - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown ND 58401 USA; Mills, Christopher T. [United States Geological Survey, Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center, Building 20, Denver Federal Center Denver CO 80225 USA; Tfaily, Malak [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Richland WA 99350 USA; Tangen, Brian A. [United States Geological Survey - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown ND 58401 USA; Finocchiaro, Raymond G. [United States Geological Survey - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown ND 58401 USA; Johnston, Michael D. [School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; McAdams, Brandon C. [School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; Solensky, Matthew J. [United States Geological Survey - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown ND 58401 USA; Smith, Garrett J. [Microbiology Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; Chin, Yu-Ping [School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; Wilkins, Michael J. [Microbiology Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA

    2017-02-23

    Inland waters are increasingly recognized as critical sites of methane emissions to the atmosphere, but the biogeochemical reactions driving such fluxes are less well understood. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is one of the largest wetland complexes in the world, containing millions of small, shallow wetlands. The sediment pore waters of PPR wetlands contain some of the highest concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and sulfur species ever recorded in terrestrial aquatic environments. Using a suite of geochemical and microbiological analyses we measured the impact of sedimentary carbon and sulfur transformations in these wetlands on methane fluxes to the atmosphere. This research represents the first study of coupled geochemistry and microbiology within the PPR, and demonstrates how the conversion of abundant labile DOC pools into methane results in some of the highest fluxes of this greenhouse gas to the atmosphere ever reported. Abundant DOC and sulfate additionally supported some of the highest sulfate reduction rates ever measured in terrestrial aquatic environments, which we infer to account for a large fraction of carbon mineralization in this system. Methane accumulations in zones of active sulfate reduction may be due to either the transport of free methane gas from deeper locations, or the co-occurrence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. If both respiratory processes are concurrent, any competitive inhibition of methanogenesis by sulfate-reducing bacteria may be lessened by the presence of large labile DOC pools that yield non-competitive substrates such as methanol. Our results reveal some of the underlying mechanisms that make PPR wetlands biogeochemical hotspots, which ultimately leads to their critical, but poorly recognized role in regional greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Incorporation of Monovalent Cations in Sulfate Green Rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Dideriksen, K.; Katz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Green rust is a naturally occurring layered mixed-valent ferrous-ferric hydroxide, which can react with a range of redox-active compounds. Sulfate-bearing green rust is generally thought to have interlayers composed of sulfate and water. Here, we provide evidence that the interlayers also contain...... with water showed that Na+ and K+ were structurally fixed in the interlayer, whereas Rb+ and Cs+ could be removed, resulting in a decrease in the basal layer spacing. The incorporation of cations in the interlayer opens up new possibilities for the use of sulfate green rust for exchange reactions with both...

  9. B{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 9}. A boron sulfate with phyllosilicate topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logemann, Christian; Wickleder, Mathias S. [Carl von Ossietzky University, Institute for Chemistry, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2013-12-23

    The condensation of [BO{sub 4}] and [SO{sub 4}] tetrahedra in the first binary boron sulfate B{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 9}, leads to a structure with typical layered phyllosilicate topology. The compound is obtained from the hydrolysis of B(OH){sub 3} and HSO{sub 3}Cl. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Sulfation of Condensed Potassium Chloride by SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Louise With; Hansen, Troels Bruun; Bartolomé, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K and with rea......The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K...... and with reactant concentrations of 500–3000 ppm SO2, 1–20% O2, and 4–15% H2O. The degree of sulfation was monitored by measuring the formation of HCl. Analysis of the solid residue confirmed that the reaction proceeds according to a shrinking core model and showed the formation of an eutectic at higher...... temperatures. On the basis of the experimental results, a rate expression for the sulfation reaction was derived. The model compared well with literature data for sulfation of KCl and NaCl, and the results indicate that it may be applied at even higher SO2 concentrations and temperatures than those...

  11. Transmission spectra study of sulfate substituted potassium dihydrogen phosphate

    KAUST Repository

    LI, LIANG; Zhang, Jianqin; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Xian; Zhang, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with different amounts of sulfate concentration were grown and the transmittance spectrum was studied. A crystal with high sulfate replacement density exhibits heavy absorption property

  12. Cloning and characterization of a novel chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate 4-O-endosulfatase from a marine bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenshuang; Han, Wenjun; Cai, Xingya; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2015-03-20

    Sulfatases are potentially useful tools for structure-function studies of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). To date, various GAG exosulfatases have been identified in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, endosulfatases that act on GAGs have rarely been reported. Recently, a novel HA and CS lyase (HCLase) was identified for the first time from a marine bacterium (Han, W., Wang, W., Zhao, M., Sugahara, K., and Li, F. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 27886-27898). In this study, a putative sulfatase gene, closely linked to the hclase gene in the genome, was recombinantly expressed and characterized in detail. The recombinant protein showed a specific N-acetylgalactosamine-4-O-sulfatase activity that removes 4-O-sulfate from both disaccharides and polysaccharides of chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS), suggesting that this sulfatase represents a novel endosulfatase. The novel endosulfatase exhibited maximal reaction rate in a phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) at 30 °C and effectively removed 17-65% of 4-O-sulfates from various CS and DS and thus significantly inhibited the interactions of CS and DS with a positively supercharged fluorescent protein. Moreover, this endosulfatase significantly promoted the digestion of CS by HCLase, suggesting that it enhances the digestion of CS/DS by the bacterium. Therefore, this endosulfatase is a potential tool for use in CS/DS-related studies and applications. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis and reutilization of beta-D-xyloside-initiated chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycosaminoglycans in fetal kidney branching morphogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.J.; Brown, D.M.; Moran, A.; Oegema, T.R. Jr.; Platt, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis by explanted fetal mouse kidneys were previously shown to be inhibited by p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside (beta-D-xyloside) while glomerular development and heparan sulfate proteoglycan synthesis were unaffected. The metabolic fate of fetal kidney explant proteoglycans was investigated to determine whether or not recovery of proteoglycan synthesis and morphogenesis occur after exposure to beta-D-xyloside. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis resumed within 4 hr of removal of beta-D-xyloside and was enhanced once beta-D-xyloside-initiated chondroitin/dermatan- 35 SO 4 glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were released from the tissue. Radioactivity incorporated into beta-D-xyloside-initiated chondroitin/dermatan- 35 SO 4 GAGs during labeling in the presence of beta-D-xyloside was reutilized in the synthesis of chondroitin- 35 SO 4 proteoglycan during a 24-hr chase in nonradioactive medium without beta-D-xyloside. Further, highly purified beta-D-xyloside-initiated chondroitin/dermatan- 35 SO 4 GAGs were taken up by kidneys more avidly than was free [ 35 S]sulfate. These 35 S-GAGs were degraded and reutilized in the synthesis of chondroitin- 35 SO 4 proteoglycan. Ureteric bud branching resumed 48 hr after beta-D-xyloside was removed from the incubation medium. These findings support the idea that both chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis and proteoglycan processing may be involved in branching morphogenesis

  14. Diversity of sulfur isotope fractionations by sulfate-reducing prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detmers, Jan; Brüchert, Volker; Habicht, K S

    2001-01-01

    Batch culture experiments were performed with 32 different sulfate-reducing prokaryotes to explore the diversity in sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction by pure cultures. The selected strains reflect the phylogenetic and physiologic diversity of presently known...... sulfate reducers and cover a broad range of natural marine and freshwater habitats. Experimental conditions were designed to achieve optimum growth conditions with respect to electron donors, salinity, temperature, and pH. Under these optimized conditions, experimental fractionation factors ranged from 2.......0 to 42.0 per thousand. Salinity, incubation temperature, pH, and phylogeny had no systematic effect on the sulfur isotope fractionation. There was no correlation between isotope fractionation and sulfate reduction rate. The type of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase also had no effect on fractionation...

  15. Annual sulfate budgets for Dutch lowland peat polders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaat, Jan E.; Harmsen, Joop; Hellmann, Fritz A.; Geest, van der Harm G.; Klein, de Jeroen J.M.; Kosten, Sarian; Smolders, Alfons J.P.; Verhoeven, Jos T.A.; Mes, Ron G.; Ouboter, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Annual sulfate mass balances have been constructed for four low-lying peat polders in the Netherlands, to resolve the origin of high sulfate concentrations in surface water, which is considered a water quality problem, as indicated amongst others by the absence of sensitive water plant species.

  16. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamvarn, Vararas; Boontanon, Narin; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kumsopa, Acharaporn; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  17. Preparation and characterization of a chemically sulfated cashew gum polysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura Neto, Erico de; Maciel, Jeanny da S.; Cunha, Pablyana L. R.; Paula, Regina Celia M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Cashew gum (CG) was sulfated in pyridine:formamide using chlorosulfonic acid as the reagent. Confirmation of sulfation was obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy through the presence of an asymmetrical S=O stretching vibration at 1259 cm{sup -1}. The degrees of substitution were 0.02, 0.24 and 0.88 determined from the sulfur percentage. 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data showed that the sulfation occurred at primary carbons. An increase of at least 4% of the solution viscosity was observed due to sulfation. The thermal gravimetric curves (TGA) indicate that the derivatives are stable up to ca. 200 deg C. The sulfated CG is compared to carboxymethylated CG in order to verify the possibility of the use of the former in the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes; the latter is already being used for this application. (author)

  18. Transcriptome analysis of the sulfate deficiency response in the marine microalga Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochenek, Michal; Etherington, Graham J; Koprivova, Anna; Mugford, Sam T; Bell, Thomas G; Malin, Gill; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2013-08-01

    The response to sulfate deficiency of plants and freshwater green algae has been extensively analysed by system biology approaches. By contrast, seawater sulfate concentration is high and very little is known about the sulfur metabolism of marine organisms. Here, we used a combination of metabolite analysis and transcriptomics to analyse the response of the marine microalga Emiliania huxleyi as it acclimated to sulfate limitation. Lowering sulfate availability in artificial seawater from 25 to 5 mM resulted in significant reduction in growth and intracellular concentrations of dimethylsulfoniopropionate and glutathione. Sulfate-limited E. huxleyi cells showed increased sulfate uptake but sulfate reduction to sulfite did not seem to be regulated. Sulfate limitation in E. huxleyi affected expression of 1718 genes. The vast majority of these genes were upregulated, including genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and genes involved in the general stress response. The acclimation response of E. huxleyi to sulfate deficiency shows several similarities to the well-described responses of Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas, but also has many unique features. This dataset shows that even though E. huxleyi is adapted to constitutively high sulfate concentration, it retains the ability to re-program its gene expression in response to reduced sulfate availability. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. O-sulfated bacterial polysaccharides with low anticoagulant activity inhibit metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgenström, Marjut; Wärri, Anni; Hiilesvuo, Katri; Käkönen, Rami; Käkönen, Sanna; Nissinen, Liisa; Pihlavisto, Marjo; Marjamäki, Anne; Vlodavsky, Israel; Naggi, Annamaria; Torri, Giangiacomo; Casu, Benito; Veromaa, Timo; Salmivirta, Markku; Elenius, Klaus

    2007-07-01

    Heparin-like polysaccharides possess the capacity to inhibit cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, heparanase-mediated cancer cell invasion, and cancer cell adhesion to vascular endothelia via adhesion receptors, such as selectins. The clinical applicability of the antitumor effect of such polysaccharides, however, is compromised by their anticoagulant activity. We have compared the potential of chemically O-sulfated and N,O-sulfated bacterial polysaccharide (capsular polysaccharide from E. COLI K5 [K5PS]) species to inhibit metastasis of mouse B16-BL6 melanoma cells and human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in two in vivo models. We demonstrate that in both settings, O-sulfated K5PS was a potent inhibitor of metastasis. Reducing the molecular weight of the polysaccharide, however, resulted in lower antimetastatic capacity. Furthermore, we show that O-sulfated K5PS efficiently inhibited the invasion of B16-BL6 cells through Matrigel and also inhibited the in vitro activity of heparanase. Moreover, treatment with O-sulfated K5PS lowered the ability of B16-BL6 cells to adhere to endothelial cells, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and P-selectin, but not to E-selectin. Importantly, O-sulfated K5PSs were largely devoid of anticoagulant activity. These findings indicate that O-sulfated K5PS polysaccharide should be considered as a potential antimetastatic agent.

  20. Distinguishing iron-reducing from sulfate-reducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, M.A.; McMahon, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water systems dominated by iron- or sulfate-reducing conditions may be distinguished by observing concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe2+) and sulfide (sum of H2S, HS-, and S= species and denoted here as "H2S"). This approach is based on the observation that concentrations of Fe2+ and H2S in ground water systems tend to be inversely related according to a hyperbolic function. That is, when Fe2+ concentrations are high, H2S concentrations tend to be low and vice versa. This relation partly reflects the rapid reaction kinetics of Fe2+ with H2S to produce relatively insoluble ferrous sulfides (FeS). This relation also reflects competition for organic substrates between the iron- and the sulfate-reducing microorganisms that catalyze the production of Fe2+ and H 2S. These solubility and microbial constraints operate in tandem, resulting in the observed hyperbolic relation between Fe2+ and H 2S concentrations. Concentrations of redox indicators, including dissolved hydrogen (H2) measured in a shallow aquifer in Hanahan, South Carolina, suggest that if the Fe2+/H2S mass ratio (units of mg/L) exceeded 10, the screened interval being tapped was consistently iron reducing (H2 ???0.2 to 0.8 nM). Conversely, if the Fe 2+/H2S ratio was less than 0.30, consistent sulfate-reducing (H2 ???1 to 5 nM) conditions were observed over time. Concomitantly high Fe2+ and H2S concentrations were associated with H2 concentrations that varied between 0.2 and 5.0 nM over time, suggesting mixing of water from adjacent iron- and sulfate-reducing zones or concomitant iron and sulfate reduction under nonelectron donor-limited conditions. These observations suggest that Fe2+/H2S mass ratios may provide useful information concerning the occurrence and distribution of iron and sulfate reduction in ground water systems. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  1. Impacts of Four SO2 Oxidation Pathways on Wintertime Sulfate Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, G.; Fahey, K.; Zhang, Y.; Kang, D.; Mathur, R.; Xing, J.; Wei, C.; Cheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Air quality models tend to under-estimate winter-time sulfate concentrations compared to observed data. Such under-estimations are particularly acute in China where very high concentrations of sulfate have been measured. Sulfate is produced by oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in gas-phase by hydroxyl radical and in aqueous-phase by hydrogen peroxide, ozone, etc. and most air quality models employ such typical reactions. Several additional SO2 oxidation pathways have recently been proposed. Heterogeneous reaction on dust has been suggested to be an important sink for SO2. Oxidation of SO2 on fine particles in presence of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ammonia (NH3) at high relative humidity has been implicated for sulfate formation in Chinese haze and London fog. Reactive nitrogen chemistry in aerosol water has also been suggested to produce winter-time sulfate in China. Specifically, high aerosol water can trap SO2 which can be subsequently oxidized by NO2 to form sulfate. Aqueous-phase (in-cloud) oxidation of SO2 by NO2 can also produce sulfate. Here, we use the hemispheric Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to examine the potential impacts of these SO2 oxidation pathways on sulfate formation. We use anthropogenic emissions from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research and biogenic emissions from Global Emissions InitiAtive. We performed simulations without and with these SO2 oxidation pathways for October-December of 2014 using meteorological fields obtained from the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The standard CMAQ model contains one gas-phase chemical reaction and five aqueous-phase chemical reactions for SO2 oxidation. We implement four additional SO2 oxidation pathways into the CMAQ model. Our preliminary results suggest that the dust chemistry enhances mean sulfate over parts of China and Middle-East, the in-cloud SO2 oxidation by NO2 enhances sulfate over parts of western Europe, oxidation of SO2 by NO2 and NH3 on

  2. Understanding the kinetics of sulfate reduction in brines by hydrogen: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.

    1988-07-01

    Experiments were conducted with mixtures of hydrogen gas and each of PBB1 and PBB3 brines to examine the reduction kinetics of sulfate in high ionic strength solutions. Results from the experiments with brines showed that the kinetics of sulfate reduction is slower in high ionic strength solutions than the kinetics in low ionic strength solutions. However, the kinetic mechanism does not seem to alter the slow kinetics, but the addition of much larger quantities of sulfide, about 40 mM, does accelerate the reduction of sulfate. Since the proposed reaction mechanism for the reduction of sulfate by hydrogen gas involves the reaction of sulfide with sulfate, slow initial kinetics in the absence of sulfide is understandable, but also implies an unknown rate-limiting reaction. Precipitation of calcium sulfate(s) and calcium sulfide may limit the sulfide and sulfate concentrations to low values. The coexistence of anhydrite and oldhamite may indicate a part of the Ca-S-H 2 O that has not yet been investigated. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Hexagonal-shaped chondroitin sulfate self-assemblies have exalted anti-HSV-2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Aurélia; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Lembo, David; Cagno, Valeria; Djabourov, Madeleine; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Bouchemal, Kawthar

    2016-01-20

    The initial step in mucosal infection by the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) requires its binding to certain glycosaminoglycans naturally present on host cell membranes. We took advantage of this interaction to design biomimetic supramolecular hexagonal-shaped nanoassemblies composed of chondroitin sulfate having exalted anti-HSV-2 activity in comparison with native chondroitin sulfate. Nanoassemblies were formed by mixing hydrophobically-modified chondroitin sulfate with α-cyclodextrin in water. Optimization of alkyl chain length grafted on chondroitin sulfate and the ratio between hydrophobically-modified chondroitin sulfate and α-cyclodextrin showed that more cohesive and well-structured nanoassemblies were obtained using higher α-cyclodextrin concentration and longer alkyl chain lengths. A structure-activity relationship was found between anti-HSV-2 activity and the amphiphilic nature of hydrophobically-modified chondroitin sulfate. Also, antiviral activity of hexagonal nanoassemblies against HSV-2 was further improved in comparison with hydrophobically-modified chondroitin sulfate. This work suggests a new biomimetic formulation approach that can be extended to other heparan-sulfate-dependent viruses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF microfiltration (MF membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3–5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3–5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2–30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling.

  5. Relationship between microbial sulfate reduction rates and sulfur isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsu'Ura, F.

    2009-12-01

    Sulfate reduction is one of the common processes to obtain energy for certain types of microorganisms.They use hydrogen gas or organic substrates as electron donor and sulfates as electron acceptor, and reduce sulfates to sulfides. Sulfate reducing microbes extend across domains Archea and Bacteria, and are believed to be one of the earliest forms of terrestrial life (Shen 2004). The origin of 34S-depleted (light) sulfide sulfur, especially δ34S vials, which contain 40ml of liquid culture media slightly modified from DSMZ #63 medium.Excess amount of Fe (II) is added to the DSMZ#63 medium to precipitate sulfide as iron sulfide. The vials were incubated at 25°C, 30°C, and 37°C, respectively. 21 vials were used for one temperature and sulfide and sulfate was collected from each three glass vials at every 12 hours from 72 hours to 144 hours after start of incubation. The sulfide was precipitated as iron sulfide and the sulfate was precipitated as barite. Sulfur isotope compositions of sulfate and sulfide were measured by standard method using Delta Plus mass-spectrometer. [Results and Discussion] The fractionation between sulfide and sulfate ranged from 2.7 to 11.0. The fractionation values varied among the different incubation temperature and growth phase of D. desulfuricans. The maximum fractionation values of three incubation temperatures were 9.9, 11.0, and 9.7, for 25 °C, 30°C, and 37°C, respectively. These results were different from standard model and Canfield et al. (2006). I could not find the clear correlation between ∂34S values and incubation temperatures in this experiment. The measured fractionation values during the incubation varied with incubation stage. The fractionation values clearly increased with incubation time at every temperature, and at 25°C ∂34S value was 3.6 at the 72h and it increased to 7.9 at 144 hours. This indicated the difference of sulfate reduction rate due to the growth phase of SRB. In the early logarithmic growth phase

  6. Oriented nucleation and growth of anhydrite during direct sulfation of limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2008-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone (Iceland Spar) was studied at 973 K in a fixed-bed reactor. Scanning electron microscopy examinations of the sulfated limestone particles show that the sulfation process involves oriented nucleation and growth of the solid product, anhydrite. The reason...

  7. Uranyl Sulfate Nanotubules Templated by N-phenylglycine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg I. Siidra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, structure, and infrared spectroscopy properties of the new organically templated uranyl sulfate Na(phgH+7[(UO26(SO410](H2O3.5 (1, obtained at room temperature by evaporation from aqueous solution, are reported. Its structure contains unique uranyl sulfate [(UO26(SO410]8− nanotubules templated by protonated N-phenylglycine (C6H5NH2CH2COOH+. Their internal diameter is 1.4 nm. Each of the nanotubules is built from uranyl sulfate rings sharing common SO4 tetrahedra. The template plays an important role in the formation of the complex structure of 1. The aromatic rings are stacked parallel to each other due to the effect of π–π interaction with their side chains extending into the gaps between the nanotubules.

  8. Substantial Seasonal Contribution of Observed Biogenic Sulfate Particles to Cloud Condensation Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Kevin J; Chen, Chia-Li; Russell, Lynn M; Betha, Raghu; Liu, Jun; Price, Derek J; Massoli, Paola; Ziemba, Luke D; Crosbie, Ewan C; Moore, Richard H; Müller, Markus; Schiller, Sven A; Wisthaler, Armin; Lee, Alex K Y; Quinn, Patricia K; Bates, Timothy S; Porter, Jack; Bell, Thomas G; Saltzman, Eric S; Vaillancourt, Robert D; Behrenfeld, Mike J

    2018-02-19

    Biogenic sources contribute to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the clean marine atmosphere, but few measurements exist to constrain climate model simulations of their importance. The chemical composition of individual atmospheric aerosol particles showed two types of sulfate-containing particles in clean marine air masses in addition to mass-based Estimated Salt particles. Both types of sulfate particles lack combustion tracers and correlate, for some conditions, to atmospheric or seawater dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentrations, which means their source was largely biogenic. The first type is identified as New Sulfate because their large sulfate mass fraction (63% sulfate) and association with entrainment conditions means they could have formed by nucleation in the free troposphere. The second type is Added Sulfate particles (38% sulfate), because they are preexisting particles onto which additional sulfate condensed. New Sulfate particles accounted for 31% (7 cm -3 ) and 33% (36 cm -3 ) CCN at 0.1% supersaturation in late-autumn and late-spring, respectively, whereas sea spray provided 55% (13 cm -3 ) in late-autumn but only 4% (4 cm -3 ) in late-spring. Our results show a clear seasonal difference in the marine CCN budget, which illustrates how important phytoplankton-produced DMS emissions are for CCN in the North Atlantic.

  9. Dissolution of sulfate scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hen, J.

    1991-11-26

    This patent describes a composition for the removal of sulfate scale from surfaces. It comprises: an aqueous solution of about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of an aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) containing 1 to 4 amino groups or a salt thereof, and about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of a second component which is diethylenetriaminepenta (methylenephosphonic acid) (DTPMP) or a salt thereof, or aminotri (methylenephosphonic acid) (ATMP) or a salt thereof as an internal phase enveloped by a hydrocarbon membrane phase which is itself emulsified in an external aqueous phase, the hydrocarbon membrane phase continuing a complexing agent weaker for the cations of the sulfate scale than the APCA and DTPMP or ATMP, any complexing agent for the cations in the external aqueous phase being weaker than that in the hydrocarbon membrane phase.

  10. Damage modelling in concrete subject to sulfate attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cefis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the mechanical effect of the sulfate attack on concrete. The durability analysis of concrete structures in contact to external sulfate solutions requires the definition of a proper diffusion-reaction model, for the computation of the varying sulfate concentration and of the consequent ettringite formation, coupled to a mechanical model for the prediction of swelling and material degradation. In this work, we make use of a two-ions formulation of the reactive-diffusion problem and we propose a bi-phase chemo-elastic damage model aimed to simulate the mechanical response of concrete and apt to be used in structural analyses.

  11. Study of calcium carbonate and sulfate co-precipitation

    KAUST Repository

    Zarga, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Co-precipitation of mineral based salts in scaling is still not well understood and/or thermodynamically well defined in the water industry. This study focuses on investigating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and sulfate mixed precipitation in scaling which is commonly observed in industrial water treatment processes including seawater desalination either by thermal-based or membrane-based processes. Co-precipitation kinetics were studied carefully by monitoring several parameters simultaneously measured, including: pH, calcium and alkalinity concentrations as well as quartz microbalance responses. The CaCO3 germination in mixed precipitation was found to be different than that of simple precipitation. Indeed, the co-precipitation of CaCO3 germination time was not anymore related to supersaturation as in a simple homogenous precipitation, but was significantly reduced when the gypsum crystals appeared first. On the other hand, the calcium sulfate crystals appear to reduce the energetic barrier of CaCO3 nucleation and lead to its precipitation by activating heterogeneous germination. However, the presence of CaCO3 crystals does not seem to have any significant effect on gypsum precipitation. IR spectroscopy and the Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) were used to identify the nature of scales structures. Gypsum was found to be the dominant precipitate while calcite and especially vaterite were found at lower proportions. These analyses showed also that gypsum crystals promote calcite crystallization to the detriment of other forms. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Ionic and secretory response of pancreatic islet cells to minoxidil sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, M.H.; Hermann, M.; Herchuelz, A.; Lebrun, P.

    1991-01-01

    Minoxidil sulfate is an antihypertensive agent belonging to the new class of vasodilators, the K+ channel openers. The present study was undertaken to characterize the effects of minoxidil sulfate on ionic and secretory events in rat pancreatic islets. The drug unexpectedly provoked a concentration-dependent decrease in 86Rb outflow. This inhibitory effect was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by glucose and tolbutamide. Minoxidil sulfate did not affect 45Ca outflow from islets perfused in the presence of extracellular Ca++ and absence or presence of glucose. However, in islets exposed to a medium deprived of extracellular Ca++, the drug provoked a rise in 45Ca outflow. Whether in the absence or presence of extracellular Ca++, minoxidil sulfate increased the cytosolic free Ca++ concentration of islet cells. Lastly, minoxidil sulfate increased the release of insulin from glucose-stimulated pancreatic islets. These results suggest that minoxidil sulfate reduces the activity of the ATP-sensitive K+ channels and promotes an intracellular translocation of Ca++. The latter change might account for the effect of the drug on the insulin-releasing process. However, the secretory response to minoxidil sulfate could also be mediated, at least in part, by a modest Ca++ entry

  13. Sulfate Formation on Mars by Volcanic Aerosols: A New Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, D. L.

    1996-03-01

    Sulfur was measured at both Viking Lander sites in abundances of 5-9 wt % SO3. Because the sulfur was more concentrated in clumps which disintegrated and the general oxidized nature of the Martian soil, these measurements led to the assumption that a sulfate duricrust existed. Two types of models for sulfate formation have been proposed. One is a formation by upwardly migrating ground water. The other is the formation of sulfates by the precipitation of volcanic aerosols. Most investigators have tended to favor the ground water origin of sulfates on Mars. However, evidence assemble since Viking may point to a volcanic aerosol origin.

  14. Copper-Sulfate Pentahydrate as a Product of the Waste Sulfuric Acid Solution Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Marković, Radmila; Stevanović, Jasmina; Avramović, Ljiljana; Nedeljković, Dragutin; Jugović, Branimir; Stajić Trošić, Jasna; Gvozdenović, Milica M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is synthesis of copper-sulfate pentahydrate from the waste sulfuric acid solution-mother liquor generated during the regeneration process of copper bleed solution. Copper is removed from the mother liquor solution in the process of the electrolytic treatment using the insoluble lead anodes alloyed with 6 mass pct of antimony on the industrial-scale equipment. As the result of the decopperization process, copper is removed in the form of the cathode sludge and is precipit...

  15. The importance of observation of structural changes of lead acid battery active mass in special applications in the mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zimáková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To be able to use lead acid batteries in particularly difficult conditions in the mining industry, it is very important to understand the events that occur during traction operation of mining carts, or auxiliary lighting. Failure of lead accumulators in the hazardous environments, where it is desired non-explosive embodiment, may have fatal consequences. The paper describes the possibility of observing changes in active materials at the microscopic level. The process of charging and discharging lead-acid accumulator has been described in many publications. The aim of this article is to supplement known information about a series of images and analysis that will accurately show progressive changes in the structure of the negative electrode. Negative electrodes are, at each cycle, charged and discharged under the same conditions, scanned with a scanning electron microscope, the elemental analysis (EDS is performed, and the size of the individual sulfate crystals is measured. Previously measured results indicate that during the charging the conversion of PbSO4 crystals into a charged form of the active mass is not complete, and there is a rapid increase in the size of lead sulfate crystals on the negative electrode. This article compares changes in electrode surface composition after two cycles. There is a clear loss of lead and, on the other hand, the visible growth of sulfur. This indicates progressive surface sulfation.

  16. Structure-Activity Relationships of Bioengineered Heparin/Heparan Sulfates Produced in Different Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Na Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Heparin and heparan sulfate are structurally-related carbohydrates with therapeutic applications in anticoagulation, drug delivery, and regenerative medicine. This study explored the effect of different bioreactor conditions on the production of heparin/heparan sulfate chains via the recombinant expression of serglycin in mammalian cells. Tissue culture flasks and continuously-stirred tank reactors promoted the production of serglycin decorated with heparin/heparan sulfate, as well as chondroitin sulfate, while the serglycin secreted by cells in the tissue culture flasks produced more highly-sulfated heparin/heparan sulfate chains. The serglycin produced in tissue culture flasks was effective in binding and signaling fibroblast growth factor 2, indicating the utility of this molecule in drug delivery and regenerative medicine applications in addition to its well-known anticoagulant activity.

  17. Chondroitin sulfate addition to CD44H negatively regulates hyaluronan binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffell, Brian; Johnson, Pauline

    2005-01-01

    CD44 is a widely expressed cell adhesion molecule that binds hyaluronan, an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, in a tightly regulated manner. This regulated interaction has been implicated in inflammation and tumor metastasis. CD44 exists in the standard form, CD44H, or as higher molecular mass isoforms due to alternative splicing. Here, we identify serine 180 in human CD44H as the site of chondroitin sulfate addition and show that lack of chondroitin sulfate addition at this site enhances hyaluronan binding by CD44. A CD44H-immunoglobulin fusion protein expressed in HEK293 cells, and CD44H expressed in murine L fibroblast cells were modified by chondroitin sulfate, as determined by reduced sulfate incorporation after chondroitinase ABC treatment. Mutation of serine 180 or glycine 181 in CD44H reduced chondroitin sulfate addition and increased hyaluronan binding, indicating that serine 180 is the site for chondroitin sulfate addition in CD44H and that this negatively regulates hyaluronan binding

  18. The role microbial sulfate reduction in the direct mediation of sedimentary authigenic carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchyn, A. V.; Walker, K.; Sun, X.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of modern deep marine sediments are bathed in water that is undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate. However, within marine sediments changing chemical conditions, driven largely by the microbial oxidation of organic carbon in the absence of oxygen, lead to supersaturated conditions and drive calcium carbonate precipitation. This sedimentary calcium carbonate is often called `authigenic carbonate', and is found in the form of cements and disseminated crystals within the marine sedimentary pile. As this precipitation of this calcium carbonate is microbially mediated, identifying authigenic carbonate within the geological record and understanding what information its geochemical and/or isotopic signature may hold is key for understanding its importance and what information it may contain past life. However, the modern controls on authigenic carbonate precipitation remain enigmatic because the myriad of microbially mediated reactions occurring within sediments both directly and indirectly impact the proton balance. In this submission we present data from 25 ocean sediment cores spanning the globe where we explore the deviation from the stoichiometrically predicted relationships among alkalinity, calcium and sulfate concentrations. In theory for every mol of organic carbon reduced by sulfate, two mol of alkalinity is produced, and to precipitate subsurface calcium carbonate one mol of calcium is used to consume two mol of alkalinity. We use this data with a model to explore changes in carbonate saturation state with depth below the seafloor. Alkalinity changes in the subsurface are poorly correlated with changes in calcium concentrations, however calcium concentrations are directly and tightly coupled to changes in sulfate concentrations in all studied sites. This suggests a direct role for sulfate reducing bacteria in the precipitation of subsurface carbonate cements.

  19. Superconducting lead particles produced by chemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariss, T. L.; Nixon, W. E.; Bucelot, T. J.; Deaver, B. S., Jr.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1982-09-01

    The superconductivity of extremely small lead particles has been studied as a function of size, surface condition, and connectivity using chemical techniques to produce particles of well-controlled size and shape suspended in insulating media. Approximately monodisperse suspensions of equiaxed, rod, and lath-shaped particles of lead halides and other lead compounds suspended in gelatin, polyacrylamide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, and hydroxyethyl cellulose have been produced. These particles have been reduced to pseudomorphs of lead in the liquid phase or the suspensions have been coated on substrates and dried before reduction. Reducing solutions containing aminoiminomethanesulfinic acid are effective with particles of lead halides, lead phosphate, lead sulfate, and lead tartrate. Suspensions of smaller discrete lead particles have also been produced by direct reduction of solutions of soluble lead salts containing suitable polymers, chelating, and stabilizing agents. Dispersions with mean particle dimensions between 3 nm and 5 μm, and a narrow size-frequency distribution, have been produced. The superconductivity of the particles has been characterized by measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The larger particles have a transition temperature of 7.2 K, the same as bulk lead; however, for particles of characteristic dimensions less than 20 nm, the transition temperature is lower by ˜0.1 K.

  20. Superconducting lead particles produced by chemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fariss, T.L.; Nixon, W.E.; Bucelot, T.J.; Deaver, B.S. Jr.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The superconductivity of extremely small lead particles has been studied as a function of size, surface condition, and connectivity using chemical techniques to produce particles of well-controlled size and shape suspended in insulating media. Approximately monodisperse suspensions of equiaxed, rod, and lath-shaped particles of lead halides and other lead compounds suspended in gelatin, polyacrylamide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, and hydroxyethyl cellulose have been produced. These particles have been reduced to pseudomorphs of lead in the liquid phase or the suspensions have been coated on substrates and dried before reduction. Reducing solutions containing aminoiminomethanesulfinic acid are effective with particles of lead halides, lead phosphate, lead sulfate, and lead tartrate. Suspensions of smaller discrete lead particles have also been produced by direct reduction of solutions of soluble lead salts containing suitable polymers, chelating, and stabilizing agents. Dispersions with mean particle dimensions between 3 nm and 5 μm, and a narrow size-frequency distribution, have been produced. The superconductivity of the particles has been characterized by measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The larger particles have a transition temperature of 7.2 K, the same as bulk lead; however, for particles of characteristic dimensions less than 20 nm, the transition temperature is lower by approx.0.1 K

  1. Interpreting isotopic analyses of microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, C. G.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Druhan, J. L.; Cheng, Y.; Li, L.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Coates, J. D.; Conrad, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs is often associated with secondary production of oil where seawater (28 mM sulfate) is commonly injected to maintain reservoir pressure and displace oil. The hydrogen sulfide produced can cause a suite of operating problems including corrosion of infrastructure, health exposure risks and additional processing costs. We propose that monitoring of the sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate can be used as early indicators that microbial sulfate reduction is occurring, as this process is well known to cause substantial isotopic fractionation. This approach relies on the idea that reactions with reservoir (iron) minerals can remove dissolved sulfide, thereby delaying the transport of the sulfide through the reservoir relative to the sulfate in the injected water. Changes in the sulfate isotopes due to microbial sulfate reduction may therefore be measurable in the produced water before sulfide is detected. However, turning this approach into a predictive tool requires (i) an understanding of appropriate fractionation factors for oil reservoirs, (ii) incorporation of isotopic data into reservoir flow and reactive transport models. We present here the results of preliminary batch experiments aimed at determining fractionation factors using relevant electron donors (e.g. crude oil and volatile fatty acids), reservoir microbial communities and reservoir environmental conditions (pressure, temperature). We further explore modeling options for integrating isotope data and discuss whether single fractionation factors are appropriate to model complex environments with dynamic hydrology, geochemistry, temperature and microbiology gradients.

  2. Biological sulfate removal from construction and demolition debris leachate: Effect of bioreactor configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck, E-mail: som_cheng00@hotmail.com [Pollution Prevention and Resource Recovery Chair Group, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Do, Anh Tien [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Annachhatre, Ajit P. [Environmental Engineering and Management, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Esposito, Giovanni [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy); Yeh, Daniel H. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Lens, Piet N.L. [Pollution Prevention and Resource Recovery Chair Group, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Novel biological technique for gypsum removal from CDD. • CDDS leachate treatment performed using different sulfate reducing bioreactors. • Gypsum in CDD can be used as a source of sulfate for sulfate reducing bacteria. • High calcium concentration (1000 mg L{sup −1}) did not affect the bioreactor performance. - Abstract: Due to the contamination of construction and demolition debris (CDD) by gypsum drywall, especially, its sand fraction (CDD sand, CDDS), the sulfate content in CDDS exceeds the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulfate present in building sand (1.73 g sulfate per kg of sand for the Netherlands). Therefore, the CDDS cannot be reused for construction. The CDDS has to be washed in order to remove most of the impurities and to obtain the right sulfate content, thus generating a leachate, containing high sulfate and calcium concentrations. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate reduction system for CDDS leachate treatment and compared three different reactor configurations for the sulfate reduction step: the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor and gas lift anaerobic membrane bioreactor (GL-AnMBR). This investigation demonstrated that all three systems can be applied for the treatment of CDDS leachate. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 75–85% was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15.5 h. A high calcium concentration up to 1000 mg L{sup −1} did not give any adverse effect on the sulfate removal efficiency of the IFB and GL-AnMBR systems.

  3. Biological sulfate removal from construction and demolition debris leachate: Effect of bioreactor configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Do, Anh Tien; Annachhatre, Ajit P.; Esposito, Giovanni; Yeh, Daniel H.; Lens, Piet N.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel biological technique for gypsum removal from CDD. • CDDS leachate treatment performed using different sulfate reducing bioreactors. • Gypsum in CDD can be used as a source of sulfate for sulfate reducing bacteria. • High calcium concentration (1000 mg L −1 ) did not affect the bioreactor performance. - Abstract: Due to the contamination of construction and demolition debris (CDD) by gypsum drywall, especially, its sand fraction (CDD sand, CDDS), the sulfate content in CDDS exceeds the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulfate present in building sand (1.73 g sulfate per kg of sand for the Netherlands). Therefore, the CDDS cannot be reused for construction. The CDDS has to be washed in order to remove most of the impurities and to obtain the right sulfate content, thus generating a leachate, containing high sulfate and calcium concentrations. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate reduction system for CDDS leachate treatment and compared three different reactor configurations for the sulfate reduction step: the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor and gas lift anaerobic membrane bioreactor (GL-AnMBR). This investigation demonstrated that all three systems can be applied for the treatment of CDDS leachate. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 75–85% was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15.5 h. A high calcium concentration up to 1000 mg L −1 did not give any adverse effect on the sulfate removal efficiency of the IFB and GL-AnMBR systems

  4. 21 CFR 864.9320 - Copper sulfate solution for specific gravity determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper sulfate solution for specific gravity... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9320 Copper sulfate solution for specific gravity determinations. (a) Identification. A copper sulfate solution for specific gravity determinations is a device...

  5. Reduction of orthophosphates loss in agricultural soil by nano calcium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Szostak, Paul; Wei, Zongsu; Xiao, Ruiyang

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient loss from soil, especially phosphorous (P) from farmlands to natural water bodies via surface runoff or infiltration, have caused significant eutrophication problems. This is because dissolved orthophosphates are usually the limiting nutrient for algal blooms. Currently, available techniques to control eutrophication are surprisingly scarce. Calcium sulfate or gypsum is a common soil amendment and has a strong complexation to orthophosphates. The results showed that calcium sulfate reduced the amount of water extractable P (WEP) through soil incubation tests, suggesting less P loss from farmlands. A greater decrease in WEP occurred with a greater dosage of calcium sulfate. Compared to conventional coarse calcium sulfate, nano calcium sulfate further reduced WEP by providing a much greater specific surface area, higher solubility, better contact with the fertilizer and the soil particles, and superior dispersibility. The enhancement of the nano calcium sulfate for WEP reduction is more apparent for a pellet- than a powdered- fertilizer. At the dosage of Ca/P weight ratio of 2.8, the WEP decreased by 31±5% with the nano calcium sulfate compared to 20±5% decrease with the coarse calcium sulfate when the pellet fertilizer was used. Computation of the chemical equilibrium speciation shows that calcium hydroxyapatite has the lowest solubility. However, other mineral phases such as hydroxydicalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, octacalcium phosphate, and tricalcium phosphate might form preceding to calcium hydroxyapatite. Since calcium sulfate is the major product of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process, this study demonstrates a potential beneficial reuse and reduction of the solid FGD waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Controlling sulfate attack in Mississippi Department of Transportation structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    At some construction sites in Mississippi, deterioration of concrete in contact with the surrounding soil could be related to the high sulfate content of the adjacent soils. Studies dating to 1966 have documented sulfate attack associated with sp...

  7. Controlling sulfate attack in Mississippi Department of Transportation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    At some construction sites in Mississippi, deterioration of concrete in contact with the surrounding soil could be related to the high sulfate content of the adjacent soils. Studies dating to 1966 have documented sulfate attack associated with specif...

  8. Sulfate cooling effects on climate through in-cloud oxidation of anthropogenic SO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Heintzenberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    Anthropogenic SO 2 emissions may exert a significant cooling effect on climate in the Northern Hemisphere through backscattering of solar radiation by sulfate particles. Earlier estimates of the sulfate climate forcing were based on a limited number of sulfate-scattering correlation measurements from which a high sulfate-scattering efficiency was derived. Model results suggest that cloud processing of air is the underlying mechanism. aqueous phase oxidation of SO 2 into sulfate and the subsequent release of the dry aerosol by cloud evaporation render sulfate a much more efficient scatterer than through gas-phase SO 2 oxidation

  9. Global source attribution of sulfate concentration and direct and indirect radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Hailong; Smith, Steven J.; Easter, Richard; Ma, Po-Lun; Qian, Yun; Yu, Hongbin; Li, Can; Rasch, Philip J.

    2017-07-01

    The global source-receptor relationships of sulfate concentrations, and direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF) from 16 regions/sectors for years 2010-2014 are examined in this study through utilizing a sulfur source-tagging capability implemented in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with winds nudged to reanalysis data. Sulfate concentrations are mostly contributed by local emissions in regions with high emissions, while over regions with relatively low SO2 emissions, the near-surface sulfate concentrations are primarily attributed to non-local sources from long-range transport. Regional source efficiencies of sulfate concentrations are higher over regions with dry atmospheric conditions and less export, suggesting that lifetime of aerosols, together with regional export, is important in determining regional air quality. The simulated global total sulfate DRF is -0.42 W m-2, with -0.31 W m-2 contributed by anthropogenic sulfate and -0.11 W m-2 contributed by natural sulfate, relative to a state with no sulfur emissions. In the Southern Hemisphere tropics, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contributes 17-84 % to the total DRF. East Asia has the largest contribution of 20-30 % over the Northern Hemisphere mid- and high latitudes. A 20 % perturbation of sulfate and its precursor emissions gives a sulfate incremental IRF of -0.44 W m-2. DMS has the largest contribution, explaining -0.23 W m-2 of the global sulfate incremental IRF. Incremental IRF over regions in the Southern Hemisphere with low background aerosols is more sensitive to emission perturbation than that over the polluted Northern Hemisphere.

  10. Dominance of sulfur-fueled iron oxide reduction in low-sulfate freshwater sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Colleen M; Lentini, Chris J; Tang, Yuanzhi; Johnston, David T; Wankel, Scott D; Jardine, Philip M

    2015-11-01

    A central tenant in microbial biogeochemistry is that microbial metabolisms follow a predictable sequence of terminal electron acceptors based on the energetic yield for the reaction. It is thereby oftentimes assumed that microbial respiration of ferric iron outcompetes sulfate in all but high-sulfate systems, and thus sulfide has little influence on freshwater or terrestrial iron cycling. Observations of sulfate reduction in low-sulfate environments have been attributed to the presumed presence of highly crystalline iron oxides allowing sulfate reduction to be more energetically favored. Here we identified the iron-reducing processes under low-sulfate conditions within columns containing freshwater sediments amended with structurally diverse iron oxides and fermentation products that fuel anaerobic respiration. We show that despite low sulfate concentrations and regardless of iron oxide substrate (ferrihydrite, Al-ferrihydrite, goethite, hematite), sulfidization was a dominant pathway in iron reduction. This process was mediated by (re)cycling of sulfur upon reaction of sulfide and iron oxides to support continued sulfur-based respiration--a cryptic sulfur cycle involving generation and consumption of sulfur intermediates. Although canonical iron respiration was not observed in the sediments amended with the more crystalline iron oxides, iron respiration did become dominant in the presence of ferrihydrite once sulfate was consumed. Thus, despite more favorable energetics, ferrihydrite reduction did not precede sulfate reduction and instead an inverse redox zonation was observed. These findings indicate that sulfur (re)cycling is a dominant force in iron cycling even in low-sulfate systems and in a manner difficult to predict using the classical thermodynamic ladder.

  11. Tales of volcanoes and El-Nino southern oscillations with the oxygen isotope anomaly of sulfate aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Robina; Abauanza, Mariana; Jackson, Teresa L; McCabe, Justin; Savarino, Joel; Thiemens, Mark H

    2013-10-29

    The ability of sulfate aerosols to reflect solar radiation and simultaneously act as cloud condensation nuclei renders them central players in the global climate system. The oxidation of S(IV) compounds and their transport as stable S(VI) in the Earth's system are intricately linked to planetary scale processes, and precise characterization of the overall process requires a detailed understanding of the linkage between climate dynamics and the chemistry leading to the product sulfate. This paper reports a high-resolution, 22-y (1980-2002) record of the oxygen-triple isotopic composition of sulfate (SO4) aerosols retrieved from a snow pit at the South Pole. Observed variation in the O-isotopic anomaly of SO4 aerosol is linked to the ozone variation in the tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere via the Ozone El-Niño Southern Oscillations (ENSO) Index (OEI). Higher (17)O values (3.3‰, 4.5‰, and 4.2‰) were observed during the three largest ENSO events of the past 2 decades. Volcanic events inject significant quantities of SO4 aerosol into the stratosphere, which are known to affect ENSO strength by modulating stratospheric ozone levels (OEI = 6 and (17)O = 3.3‰, OEI = 11 and (17)O = 4.5‰) and normal oxidative pathways. Our high-resolution data indicated that (17)O of sulfate aerosols can record extreme phases of naturally occurring climate cycles, such as ENSOs, which couple variations in the ozone levels in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere via temperature driven changes in relative humidity levels. A longer term, higher resolution oxygen-triple isotope analysis of sulfate aerosols from ice cores, encompassing more ENSO periods, is required to reconstruct paleo-ENSO events and paleotropical ozone variations.

  12. Effect of chondroitin sulfate on osteogenetic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiders, Wolfgang; Rentsch, Claudia; Rehberg, Sebastian; Rein, Susanne; Zwipp, Hans; Rammelt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) has anti-inflammatory properties and increases the regeneration ability of injured bone. In different in vivo investigations on bone defects the addition of CS to calcium phosphate bone cement has lead to an enhanced bone remodeling and increased new bone formation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of CS on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In cell culture experiments hMSCs were incubated on calcium phosphate bone cements with and without CS and cultivated in a proliferation and an osteogenetic differentiation media. Alkaline phosphatase and the proliferation rate were determined on days 1, 7 and 14. Concerning the proliferation rates, no significant differences were detected. On days 1, 7 and 14 a significantly higher activity of alkaline phosphatase, an early marker of osteogenesis, was detected around CS modified cements in both types of media. The addition of CS leads to a significant increase of osteogenetic differentiation of hMSCs. To evaluate the influence of the osteoconductive potency of CS in twelve adult male Wistar rats, the interface reaction of cancellous bone to a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite cement containing type I collagen (CDHA/Coll) without and with CS (CDHA/Coll/CS) was evaluated. Cylindrical implants were inserted press-fit into a defect of the tibial head. 28 days after the operation the direct bone contact and the percentage of newly formed bone were significantly higher on CDHA/Coll/CS-implants (p < 0.05). The addition of CS appears to enhance new bone formation on CDHA/Coll-composites in the early stages of bone healing. Possible mechanisms are discussed. - Highlights: ► The influence of chondroitin sulfate (CS) on bone metabolism was evaluated. ► CS leads to a significant increase of osteogenetic differentiation of hMSCs. ► In small animal investigation CS seems to enhance osteogenesis in bone healing.

  13. Characterization of a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve root regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conovaloff, Aaron; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-10-01

    Brachial plexus injury is a serious medical problem that affects many patients annually, with most cases involving damage to the nerve roots. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel was designed to both serve as a scaffold for regenerating root neurons and deliver neurotrophic signals. Capillary electrophoresis showed that chondroitin sulfate has a dissociation constant in the micromolar range with several common neurotrophins, and this was determined to be approximately tenfold stronger than with heparin. It was also revealed that nerve growth factor exhibits a slightly stronger affinity for hyaluronic acid than for chondroitin sulfate. However, E8 chick dorsal root ganglia cultured in the presence of nerve growth factor revealed that ganglia cultured in chondroitin sulfate scaffolds showed more robust growth than those cultured in control gels of hyaluronic acid. It is hypothesized that, despite the stronger affinity of nerve growth factor for hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate serves as a better scaffold for neurite outgrowth, possibly due to inhibition of growth by hyaluronic acid chains.

  14. Effects of sulfate deposition on pore water dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and microbial enzyme activities in a northern peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.R. Seifert-Monson; B.H. Hill; R.K. Kolka; T.M. Jicha; L.L. Lehto; C.M. Elonen

    2014-01-01

    Export of dissolved organic carbon from lakes and streams has increased throughout Europe and North America over the past several decades. One possible cause is altered deposition chemistry; specifically, decreasing sulfate inputs leading to changes in ionic strength and dissolved organic carbon solubility. To further investigate the relationship between deposition...

  15. Improved biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using recombinant host cells. More particularly, the present invention pertains to recombinant host cells comprising (e.g., expressing) a polypeptide having aryl sulfotransferase...... activity, wherein said recombinant host cells have been modified to have an increased uptake of sulfate compared to identical host cells that does not carry said modification. Further provided are processes for the production of aryl sulfates, such as zosteric acid, employing such recombinant host cells....

  16. Alginate Sulfate-Nanocellulose Bioinks for Cartilage Bioprinting Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Michael; Öztürk, Ece; Arlov, Øystein; Gatenholm, Paul; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy

    2017-01-01

    One of the challenges of bioprinting is to identify bioinks which support cell growth, tissue maturation, and ultimately the formation of functional grafts for use in regenerative medicine. The influence of this new biofabrication technology on biology of living cells, however, is still being evaluated. Recently we have identified a mitogenic hydrogel system based on alginate sulfate which potently supports chondrocyte phenotype, but is not printable due to its rheological properties (no yield point). To convert alginate sulfate to a printable bioink, it was combined with nanocellulose, which has been shown to possess very good printability. The alginate sulfate/nanocellulose ink showed good printing properties and the non-printed bioink material promoted cell spreading, proliferation, and collagen II synthesis by the encapsulated cells. When the bioink was printed, the biological performance of the cells was highly dependent on the nozzle geometry. Cell spreading properties were maintained with the lowest extrusion pressure and shear stress. However, extruding the alginate sulfate/nanocellulose bioink and chondrocytes significantly compromised cell proliferation, particularly when using small diameter nozzles and valves.

  17. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in rice field soil and on rice roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, T; Stubner, S; Conrad, R

    1999-05-01

    Rice plants that were grown in flooded rice soil microcosms were examined for their ability to exhibit sulfate reducing activity. Washed excised rice roots showed sulfate reduction potential when incubated in anaerobic medium indicating the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Rice plants, that were incubated in a double-chamber (phylloshpere and rhizosphere separated), showed potential sulfate reduction rates in the anoxic rhizosphere compartment. These rates decreased when oxygen was allowed to penetrate through the aerenchyma system of the plants into the anoxic root compartment, indicating that sulfate reducers on the roots were partially inhibited by oxygen or that sulfate was regenerated by oxidation of reduced S-compounds. The potential activity of sulfate reducers on rice roots was consistent with MPN enumerations showing that H2-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacteria were present in high numbers on the rhizoplane (4.1 x 10(7) g-1 root fresh weight) and in the adjacent rhizosperic soil (2.5 x 10(7) g-1 soil dry weight). Acetate-oxidizing sulfate reducers, on the other hand, showed highest numbers in the unplanted bulk soil (1.9 x 10(6) g-1 soil dry weight). Two sulfate reducing bacteria were isolated from the highest dilutions of the MPN series and were characterized physiologically and phylogenetically. Strain F1-7b which was isolated from the rhizoplane with H2 as electron donor was related to subgroup II of the family Desulfovibrionaceae. Strain EZ-2C2, isolated from the rhizoplane on acetate, grouped together with Desulforhabdus sp. and Syntrophobacter wolinii. Other strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria originated from bulk soil of rice soil microcosms and were isolated using different electron donors. From these isolates, strains R-AcA1, R-IbutA1, R-PimA1 and R-AcetonA170 were Gram-positive bacteria which were affiliated with the genus Desulfotomaculum. The other isolates were members of subgroup II of the Desulfovibrionaceae (R-SucA1 and R-LacA1), were

  18. The heparin/heparan sulfate sequence that interacts with cyclophilin B contains a 3-O-sulfated N-unsubstituted glucosamine residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanpouille, Christophe; Deligny, Audrey; Delehedde, Maryse; Denys, Agnès; Melchior, Aurélie; Liénard, Xavier; Lyon, Malcolm; Mazurier, Joël; Fernig, David G; Allain, Fabrice

    2007-08-17

    Many of the biological functions of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans can be attributed to specialized structures within HS moieties, which are thought to modulate binding and function of various effector proteins. Cyclophilin B (CyPB), which was initially identified as a cyclosporin A-binding protein, triggers migration and integrin-mediated adhesion of peripheral blood T lymphocytes by a mechanism dependent on interaction with cell surface HS. Here we determined the structural features of HS that are responsible for the specific binding of CyPB. In addition to the involvement of 2-O,6-O, and N-sulfate groups, we also demonstrated that binding of CyPB was dependent on the presence of N-unsubstituted glucosamine residues (GlcNH2), which have been reported to be precursors for sulfation by 3-O-sulfotransferases-3 (3-OST-3). Interestingly, 3-OST-3B isoform was found to be the main 3-OST isoenzyme expressed in peripheral blood T lymphocytes and Jurkat T cells. Moreover, down-regulation of the expression of 3-OST-3 by RNA interference potently reduced CyPB binding and consequent activation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Altogether, our results strongly support the hypothesis that 3-O-sulfation of GlcNH2 residues could be a key modification that provides specialized HS structures for CyPB binding to responsive cells. Given that 3-O-sulfation of GlcNH2-containing HS by 3-OST-3 also provides binding sites for glycoprotein gD of herpes simplex virus type I, these findings suggest an intriguing structural linkage between the HS sequences involved in CyPB binding and viral infection.

  19. Wound healing and antibacterial activities of chondroitin sulfate- and acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, A-Rang; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2013-01-01

    For topical applications in wound healing, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted much attention as antibacterial agents. Herein, we describe a green-synthetic route for the production of biocompatible and crystalline AgNPs using two glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and acharan sulfate (AS), as reducing agents. The synthetic approach avoids the use of toxic chemicals, and the yield of AgNPs formation is found to be 98.1% and 91.1% for the chondroitin sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and the acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (AS-AgNPs), respectively. Nanoparticles with mostly spherical and amorphous shapes were observed, with an average diameter of 6.16 ± 2.26 nm for CS-AgNPs and 5.79 ± 3.10 nm for AS-AgNPs. Images of the CS-AgNPs obtained from atomic force microscopy revealed the self-assembled structure of CS was similar to a densely packed woven mat with AgNPs sprinkled on the CS. These nanoparticles were stable under cell culture conditions without any noticeable aggregation. An approximately 128-fold enhancement of the antibacterial activities of the AgNPs was observed against Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli when compared to CS and AS alone. In addition, an in vivo animal model of wound healing activity was tested using mice that were subjected to deep incision wounds. In comparison to the controls, the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs stimulated wound closure under histological examination and accelerated the deposition of granulation tissue and collagen in the wound area. The wound healing activity of the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs are comparable to that of a commercial formulation of silver sulfadiazine even though the newly prepared ointments contain a lower silver concentration. Therefore, the newly prepared AgNPs demonstrate potential for use as an attractive biocompatible nanocomposite for topical applications in the treatment of wounds. (paper)

  20. Wound healing and antibacterial activities of chondroitin sulfate- and acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, A.-Rang; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2013-10-01

    For topical applications in wound healing, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted much attention as antibacterial agents. Herein, we describe a green-synthetic route for the production of biocompatible and crystalline AgNPs using two glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and acharan sulfate (AS), as reducing agents. The synthetic approach avoids the use of toxic chemicals, and the yield of AgNPs formation is found to be 98.1% and 91.1% for the chondroitin sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and the acharan sulfate-reduced silver nanoparticles (AS-AgNPs), respectively. Nanoparticles with mostly spherical and amorphous shapes were observed, with an average diameter of 6.16 ± 2.26 nm for CS-AgNPs and 5.79 ± 3.10 nm for AS-AgNPs. Images of the CS-AgNPs obtained from atomic force microscopy revealed the self-assembled structure of CS was similar to a densely packed woven mat with AgNPs sprinkled on the CS. These nanoparticles were stable under cell culture conditions without any noticeable aggregation. An approximately 128-fold enhancement of the antibacterial activities of the AgNPs was observed against Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli when compared to CS and AS alone. In addition, an in vivo animal model of wound healing activity was tested using mice that were subjected to deep incision wounds. In comparison to the controls, the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs stimulated wound closure under histological examination and accelerated the deposition of granulation tissue and collagen in the wound area. The wound healing activity of the ointments containing CS-AgNPs and AS-AgNPs are comparable to that of a commercial formulation of silver sulfadiazine even though the newly prepared ointments contain a lower silver concentration. Therefore, the newly prepared AgNPs demonstrate potential for use as an attractive biocompatible nanocomposite for topical applications in the treatment of wounds.

  1. Isotopic constraints on heterogeneous sulfate production in Beijing haze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. He

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Discerning mechanisms of sulfate formation during fine-particle pollution (referred to as haze hereafter in Beijing is important for understanding the rapid evolution of haze and for developing cost-effective air pollution mitigation strategies. Here we present observations of the oxygen-17 excess of PM2.5 sulfate (Δ17O(SO42− collected in Beijing haze from October 2014 to January 2015 to constrain possible sulfate formation pathways. Throughout the sampling campaign, the 12-hourly averaged PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 16 to 323 µg m−3 with a mean of (141  ±  88 (1σ µg m−3, with SO42− representing 8–25 % of PM2.5 mass. The observed Δ17O(SO42− varied from 0.1 to 1.6 ‰ with a mean of (0.9  ±  0.3 ‰. Δ17O(SO42− increased with PM2.5 levels in October 2014 while the opposite trend was observed from November 2014 to January 2015. Our estimate suggested that in-cloud reactions dominated sulfate production on polluted days (PDs, PM2.5  ≥  75 µg m−3 of Case II in October 2014 due to the relatively high cloud liquid water content, with a fractional contribution of up to 68 %. During PDs of Cases I and III–V, heterogeneous sulfate production (Phet was estimated to contribute 41–54 % to total sulfate formation with a mean of (48  ±  5 %. For the specific mechanisms of heterogeneous oxidation of SO2, chemical reaction kinetics calculations suggested S(IV ( =  SO2 ⚫ H2O + HSO3−  +  SO32− oxidation by H2O2 in aerosol water accounted for 5–13 % of Phet. The relative importance of heterogeneous sulfate production by other mechanisms was constrained by our observed Δ17O(SO42−. Heterogeneous sulfate production via S(IV oxidation by O3 was estimated to contribute 21–22 % of Phet on average. Heterogeneous sulfate production pathways that result in zero-Δ17O(SO42−, such as S(IV oxidation by NO2 in aerosol water and/or by O2 via a

  2. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed on the Gusev Crater plains west of the Columbia Hills in January, 2004, during the Martian summer (sol 0; sol = 1 Martian day = 24 hr 40 min). Spirit explored the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater in the vicinity of Home Plate at the onset on its second winter (sol approximately 900) until the onset of its fourth winter (sol approximately 2170). At that time, Spirit became mired in a deposit of fined-grained and sulfate-rich soil with dust-covered solar panels and unfavorable pointing of the solar arrays toward the sun. Spirit has not communicated with the Earth since sol 2210 (January, 2011). Like its twin rover Opportunity, which landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridiani Planum, Spirit has an Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument for chemical analyses and a Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) for measurement of iron redox state, mineralogical speciation, and quantitative distribution among oxidation (Fe(3+)/sigma Fe) and coordination (octahedral versus tetrahedral) states and mineralogical speciation (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, carbonate, and sulfate). The concentration of SO3 in Gusev rocks and soils varies from approximately 1 to approximately 34 wt%. Because the APXS instrument does not detect low atomic number elements (e.g., H and C), major-element oxide concentrations are normalized to sum to 100 wt%, i.e., contributions of H2O, CO2, NO2, etc. to the bulk composition care not considered. The majority of Gusev samples have approximately 6 plus or minus 5 wt% SO3, but there is a group of samples with high SO3 concentrations (approximately 30 wt%) and high total iron concentrations (approximately 20 wt%). There is also a group with low total Fe and SO3 concentrations that is also characterized by high SiO2 concentrations (greater than 70 wt%). The trend labeled "Basaltic Soil" is interpreted as mixtures in variable proportions between unaltered igneous material and oxidized and SO3-rich basaltic

  3. Facile analysis of contents and compositions of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate hybrid chain in shark and ray tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naoko; Horai, Sawako; Tamura, Jun-ichi

    2016-04-07

    The chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) hybrid chain was extracted from specific tissues of several kinds of sharks and rays. The contents and sulfation patterns of the CS/DS hybrid chain were precisely analyzed by digestion with chondroitinases ABC and AC. All samples predominantly contained the A- and C-units. Furthermore, all samples characteristically contained the D-unit. Species-specific differences were observed in the contents of the CS/DS hybrid chain, which were the highest in Mako and Blue sharks and Sharpspine skates, but were lower in Hammerhead sharks. Marked differences were observed in the ratio of the C-unit/A-unit between sharks and rays. The contents of the CS/DS hybrid chain and the ratio of the C-unit/A-unit may be related to an oxidative stress-decreasing ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using polypeptides or recombinant cells comprising said polypeptides. More particularly, the present invention pertains to polypeptides having aryl sulfotransferase activity......, recombinant host cells expressing same and processes for the production of aryl sulfates employing these polypeptides or recombinant host cells....

  5. Determination of sulfate in thorium salts using gravimetric technique with previous thorium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.M. da; Pires, M.A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Available as short communication only. A simple analytical method to analyze sulfates in thorium salt, is presented. The method is based on the thorium separation as hydroxide. The gravimetric technique is used to analyze the sulfate in the filtered as barium sulfate. Using this method, the sulfate separation from thorium has been reach 99,9% yield, and 0,1% precision. This method is applied to thorium salts specifically thorium sulfate, carbonate and nitrate. (author). 5 refs, 2 tabs

  6. Sulfate reduction and methane oxidation activity below the sulfate-methane transition zone in Alaskan Beaufort Sea continental margin sediments: Implications for deep sulfur cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treude, Tina; Krause, Stefan; Maltby, Johanna; Dale, Andrew W.; Coffin, Richard; Hamdan, Leila J.

    2014-11-01

    Two ∼6 m long sediment cores were collected along the ∼300 m isobath on the Alaskan Beaufort Sea continental margin. Both cores showed distinct sulfate-methane transition zones (SMTZ) at 105 and 120 cm below seafloor (cmbsf). Sulfate was not completely depleted below the SMTZ but remained between 30 and 500 μM. Sulfate reduction and anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) determined by radiotracer incubations were active throughout the methanogenic zone. Although a mass balance could not explain the source of sulfate below the SMTZ, geochemical profiles and correlation network analyses of biotic and abiotic data suggest a cryptic sulfur cycle involving iron, manganese and barite. Inhibition experiments with molybdate and 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) indicated decoupling of sulfate reduction and AOM and competition between sulfate reducers and methanogens for substrates. While correlation network analyses predicted coupling of AOM to iron reduction, the addition of manganese or iron did not stimulate AOM. Since none of the classical archaeal anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME) were abundant, the involvement of unknown or unconventional phylotypes in AOM is conceivable. The resistance of AOM activity to inhibitors implies deviation from conventional enzymatic pathways. This work suggests that the classical redox cascade of electron acceptor utilization based on Gibbs energy yields does not always hold in diffusion-dominated systems, and instead biotic processes may be more strongly coupled to mineralogy.

  7. Effects of magnesium sulfate on the foliar absorption of phosphates at the pumpkin; Effets du sulfate de magnesium sur l'absorption foliaire de phosphates chez le potiron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamel, A

    1962-07-01

    The foliar absorption of phosphates labelled with {sup 32}P and applied with or without magnesium sulfate on the first leaf of pumpkin seedlings have been studied. The magnesium sulfate applied with the phosphate reduces plainly the absorption rate of {sup 32}P. (O.M.) [French] Nous avons etudie l'absorption foliaire de phosphates marques au {sup 32}P appliques, avec et sans sulfate de magnesium, sur la premiere feuille de jeunes plants de potirons. Le sulfate de magnesium applique avec le phosphate diminue nettement le taux d'absorption du {sup 32}P. (auteur)

  8. Integrated approach for investigating the durability of self-consolidating concrete to sulfate attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuoni, Mohamed Tamer F.

    The growing use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in various infrastructure applications exposed to sulfate-rich environments necessitates conducting comprehensive research to evaluate its durability to external sulfate attack. Since the reliability and adequacy of standard sulfate immersion tests have been questioned, the current thesis introduced an integrated testing approach for assessing the durability of a wide scope of SCC mixtures to external sulfate attack. This testing approach involved progressive levels of complexity from single to multiple damage processes. A new series of sulfate attack tests involving multiple field-like parameters and combined damage mechanisms (various cations, controlled pH, wetting-drying, partial immersion, freezing-thawing, and cyclic cold-hot conditions with or without sustained flexural loading) were designed to evaluate the performance (suitability) of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure scenarios. The main mixture design variables of SCC included the type of binder (single, binary, ternary and quaternary), air-entrainment, sand-to-aggregate mass ratio and hybrid fibre reinforcement. The comprehensive database and knowledge obtained from this research were used to develop smart models (fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy inference systems) based on artificial-intelligence to evaluate and predict the performance of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure regimes implemented in this study. In full immersion tests involving high concentration sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions with controlled pH, the low penetrability of SCC was responsible for the high durability of specimens. Ternary and quaternary cementitious systems with or without limestone materials provided a passivating layer, with or without acid neutralization capacity, which protected SCC from severe damage in the aggressive sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate solutions. In contrast to conclusions drawn from the sodium sulfate immersion

  9. A ‘rare biosphere’ microorganism contributes to sulfate reduction in a peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pester, Michael; Bittner, Norbert; Deevong, Pinsurang; Wagner, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Methane emission from peatlands contributes substantially to global warming but is significantly reduced by sulfate reduction, which is fuelled by globally increasing aerial sulfur pollution. However, the biology behind sulfate reduction in terrestrial ecosystems is not well understood and the key players for this process as well as their abundance remained unidentified. Comparative 16S rRNA gene stable isotope probing in the presence and absence of sulfate indicated that a Desulfosporosinus species, which constitutes only 0.006% of the total microbial community 16S rRNA genes, is an important sulfate reducer in a long-term experimental peatland field site. Parallel stable isotope probing using dsrAB [encoding subunit A and B of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase] identified no additional sulfate reducers under the conditions tested. For the identified Desulfosporosinus species a high cell-specific sulfate reduction rate of up to 341 fmol SO42− cell−1 day−1 was estimated. Thus, the small Desulfosporosinus population has the potential to reduce sulfate in situ at a rate of 4.0–36.8 nmol (g soil w. wt.)−1 day−1, sufficient to account for a considerable part of sulfate reduction in the peat soil. Modeling of sulfate diffusion to such highly active cells identified no limitation in sulfate supply even at bulk concentrations as low as 10 μM. Collectively, these data show that the identified Desulfosporosinus species, despite being a member of the ‘rare biosphere’, contributes to an important biogeochemical process that diverts the carbon flow in peatlands from methane to CO2 and, thus, alters their contribution to global warming. PMID:20535221

  10. Global source attribution of sulfate concentration and direct and indirect radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The global source–receptor relationships of sulfate concentrations, and direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF from 16 regions/sectors for years 2010–2014 are examined in this study through utilizing a sulfur source-tagging capability implemented in the Community Earth System Model (CESM with winds nudged to reanalysis data. Sulfate concentrations are mostly contributed by local emissions in regions with high emissions, while over regions with relatively low SO2 emissions, the near-surface sulfate concentrations are primarily attributed to non-local sources from long-range transport. Regional source efficiencies of sulfate concentrations are higher over regions with dry atmospheric conditions and less export, suggesting that lifetime of aerosols, together with regional export, is important in determining regional air quality. The simulated global total sulfate DRF is −0.42 W m−2, with −0.31 W m−2 contributed by anthropogenic sulfate and −0.11 W m−2 contributed by natural sulfate, relative to a state with no sulfur emissions. In the Southern Hemisphere tropics, dimethyl sulfide (DMS contributes 17–84 % to the total DRF. East Asia has the largest contribution of 20–30 % over the Northern Hemisphere mid- and high latitudes. A 20 % perturbation of sulfate and its precursor emissions gives a sulfate incremental IRF of −0.44 W m−2. DMS has the largest contribution, explaining −0.23 W m−2 of the global sulfate incremental IRF. Incremental IRF over regions in the Southern Hemisphere with low background aerosols is more sensitive to emission perturbation than that over the polluted Northern Hemisphere.

  11. Sulfated zirconia modified SBA-15 catalysts for cellobiose hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degirmenci, V.; Uner, D.; Cinlar, B.; Shanks, B.H.; Yilmaz, A.; Santen, van R.A.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Zirconia modified SBA-15 becomes a very active catalyst for the selective hydrolysis of cellobiose to glucose after sulfation. Spectroscopic investigations indicate the presence of Brønsted acid sites with similar properties to those present in conventional sulfated zirconia. Indications are found

  12. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Zearalenone-14-Sulfate, Zearalenone-14-Glucoside and Zearalenone-16-Glucoside Using Common Fungal Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Borzekowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN and its phase II sulfate and glucoside metabolites have been detected in food and feed commodities. After consumption, the conjugates can be hydrolyzed by the human intestinal microbiota leading to liberation of ZEN that implies an underestimation of the true ZEN exposure. To include ZEN conjugates in routine analysis, reliable standards are needed, which are currently not available. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a facilitated biosynthesis of ZEN-14-sulfate, ZEN-14-glucoside and ZEN-16-glucoside. A metabolite screening was conducted by adding ZEN to liquid fungi cultures of known ZEN conjugating Aspergillus and Rhizopus strains. Cultivation conditions and ZEN incubation time were varied. All media samples were analyzed for metabolite formation by HPLC-MS/MS. In addition, a consecutive biosynthesis was developed by using Fusarium graminearum for ZEN biosynthesis with subsequent conjugation of the toxin by utilizing Aspergillus and Rhizopus species. ZEN-14-sulfate (yield: 49% is exclusively formed by Aspergillus oryzae. ZEN-14-glucoside (yield: 67% and ZEN-16-glucoside (yield: 39% are formed by Rhizopus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus, respectively. Purities of ≥73% ZEN-14-sulfate, ≥82% ZEN-14-glucoside and ≥50% ZEN-16-glucoside were obtained by 1H-NMR. In total, under optimized cultivation conditions, fungi can be easily utilized for a targeted and regioselective synthesis of ZEN conjugates.

  13. Thermoreversible gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate as a potential contraceptive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haineault, Caroline; Gourde, Pierrette; Perron, Sylvie; Désormeaux, André; Piret, Jocelyne; Omar, Rabeea F; Tremblay, Roland R; Bergeron, Michel G

    2003-08-01

    The contraceptive properties of a gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate were investigated in both in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that sodium lauryl sulfate inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the activity of sheep testicular hyaluronidase. Sodium lauryl sulfate also completely inhibited human sperm motility as evaluated by the 30-sec Sander-Cramer test. The acid-buffering capacity of gel formulations containing sodium lauryl sulfate increased with the molarity of the citrate buffers used for their preparations. Furthermore, experiments in which semen was mixed with undiluted gel formulations in different proportions confirmed their physiologically relevant buffering capacity. Intravaginal application of the gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate to rabbits before their artificial insemination with freshly ejaculated semen completely prevented egg fertilization. The gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate was fully compatible with nonlubricated latex condoms. Taken together, these results suggest that the gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate could represent a potential candidate for use as a topical vaginal spermicidal formulation to provide fertility control in women.

  14. Quantification and isotopic analysis of intracellular sulfur metabolites in the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Min Sub; Paris, Guillaume; Adkins, Jess F.; Orphan, Victoria J.; Sessions, Alex L.

    2017-06-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction exhibits a normal isotope effect, leaving unreacted sulfate enriched in 34S and producing sulfide that is depleted in 34S. However, the magnitude of sulfur isotope fractionation is quite variable. The resulting changes in sulfur isotope abundance have been used to trace microbial sulfate reduction in modern and ancient ecosystems, but the intracellular mechanism(s) underlying the wide range of fractionations remains unclear. Here we report the concentrations and isotopic ratios of sulfur metabolites in the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway of Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Intracellular sulfate and APS levels change depending on the growth phase, peaking at the end of exponential phase, while sulfite accumulates in the cell during stationary phase. During exponential growth, intracellular sulfate and APS are strongly enriched in 34S. The fractionation between internal and external sulfate is up to 49‰, while at the same time that between external sulfate and sulfide is just a few permil. We interpret this pattern to indicate that enzymatic fractionations remain large but the net fractionation between sulfate and sulfide is muted by the closed-system limitation of intracellular sulfate. This 'reservoir effect' diminishes upon cessation of exponential phase growth, allowing the expression of larger net sulfur isotope fractionations. Thus, the relative rates of sulfate exchange across the membrane versus intracellular sulfate reduction should govern the overall (net) fractionation that is expressed. A strong reservoir effect due to vigorous sulfate reduction might be responsible for the well-established inverse correlation between sulfur isotope fractionation and the cell-specific rate of sulfate reduction, while at the same time intraspecies differences in sulfate uptake and/or exchange rates could account for the significant scatter in this relationship. Our approach, together with ongoing investigations of the kinetic isotope

  15. Evaporation — a key mechanism for the thaumasite form of sulfate attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittermayr, Florian; Baldermann, Andre; Kurta, Christoph; Rinder, Thomas; Klammer, Dietmar; Leis, Albrecht; Tritthart, Josef; Dietzel, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms leading to chemical attack on concrete is crucial in order to prevent damage of concrete structures. To date, most studies on sulfate attack and thaumasite formation are based on empirical approaches, as the identification of associated reaction mechanisms and paths is known to be highly complex. In this study, sulfate damaged concrete from Austrian tunnels was investigated by mineralogical, chemical and isotope methods to identify the reactions which caused intense concrete alteration. Major, minor and trace elemental contents as well as isotope ratios of local ground water (GW), drainage water (DW) and interstitial solutions (IS), extracted from damaged concrete material, were analyzed. Locally occurring GW contained 3 to 545 mg L −1 of SO 4 and is thus regarded as slightly aggressive to concrete in accordance to standard specifications (e.g. DIN EN 206-1). The concrete linings and drainage systems of the studied tunnels, however, have partly suffered from intensive sulfate attack. Heavily damaged concrete consisted mainly of thaumasite, secondary calcite, gypsum, and relicts of aggregates. Surprisingly, the concentrations of dissolved ions were extremely enriched in the IS with up to 30,000 and 12,000 mg L −1 of SO 4 and Cl, respectively. Analyses of aqueous ions with a highly conservative behavior, e.g. K, Rb and Li, as well as 2 H/H and 18 O/ 16 O isotope ratios of H 2 O of the IS showed an intensive accumulation of ions and discrimination of the light isotopes vs. the GW. These isotope signals of the IS clearly revealed evaporation at distinct relative humidities. From ion accumulation and isotope fractionation individual total and current evaporation degrees were estimated. Our combined elemental and isotopic approach verified wetting–drying cycles within a highly dynamic concrete-solution-atmosphere system. Based on these boundary conditions, key factors controlling thaumasite formation are discussed regarding the

  16. Barium sulfate suspension as a negative oral contrast agent for MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.C.P.; Tart, R.P.; Fitzsimmons, J.R.; Storm, B.; Mao, J.

    1989-01-01

    Proton spectroscopy with linewidth measurements and MR imaging were performed on various commercially available barium sulfate suspensions as well as inorganic sulfates and barium salts. Approximately 500 mL of 20%, 40%, 60%, and 70% wt/wt single-contrast oral barium sulfate suspensions were administered to four normal volunteers, and MR imaging was performed with both a 1.5-T and a 0.15-T MR imager. As much as 80% of the small bowel and the entire colon were well visualized with the 60% or 70% wt/wt single-contrast barium sulfate suspensions. The authors conclude that barium sulfate suspensions are useful as oral MR contrast agents

  17. Bacterial PerO Permeases Transport Sulfate and Related Oxyanions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Marie-Christine; Pfänder, Yvonne; Tintel, Marc; Masepohl, Bernd

    2017-07-15

    Rhodobacter capsulatus synthesizes the high-affinity ABC transporters CysTWA and ModABC to specifically import the chemically related oxyanions sulfate and molybdate, respectively. In addition, R. capsulatus has the low-affinity permease PerO acting as a general oxyanion transporter, whose elimination increases tolerance to molybdate and tungstate. Although PerO-like permeases are widespread in bacteria, their function has not been examined in any other species to date. Here, we present evidence that PerO permeases from the alphaproteobacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens , Dinoroseobacter shibae , Rhodobacter sphaeroides , and Sinorhizobium meliloti and the gammaproteobacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri functionally substitute for R. capsulatus PerO in sulfate uptake and sulfate-dependent growth, as shown by assimilation of radioactively labeled sulfate and heterologous complementation. Disruption of perO genes in A. tumefaciens , R. sphaeroides , and S. meliloti increased tolerance to tungstate and, in the case of R. sphaeroides , to molybdate, suggesting that heterometal oxyanions are common substrates of PerO permeases. This study supports the view that bacterial PerO permeases typically transport sulfate and related oxyanions and, hence, form a functionally conserved permease family. IMPORTANCE Despite the widespread distribution of PerO-like permeases in bacteria, our knowledge about PerO function until now was limited to one species, Rhodobacter capsulatus In this study, we showed that PerO proteins from diverse bacteria are functionally similar to the R. capsulatus prototype, suggesting that PerO permeases form a conserved family whose members transport sulfate and related oxyanions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Cloud albedo changes in response to anthropogenic sulfate and non-sulfate aerosol forcings in CMIP5 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Frey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different aerosol types on cloud albedo are analysed using the linear relation between total albedo and cloud fraction found on a monthly mean scale in regions of subtropical marine stratocumulus clouds and the influence of simulated aerosol variations on this relation. Model experiments from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5 are used to separately study the responses to increases in sulfate, non-sulfate and all anthropogenic aerosols. A cloud brightening on the month-to-month scale due to variability in the background aerosol is found to dominate even in the cases where anthropogenic aerosols are added. The aerosol composition is of importance for this cloud brightening, that is thereby region dependent. There is indication that absorbing aerosols to some extent counteract the cloud brightening but scene darkening with increasing aerosol burden is generally not supported, even in regions where absorbing aerosols dominate. Month-to-month cloud albedo variability also confirms the importance of liquid water content for cloud albedo. Regional, monthly mean cloud albedo is found to increase with the addition of anthropogenic aerosols and more so with sulfate than non-sulfate. Changes in cloud albedo between experiments are related to changes in cloud water content as well as droplet size distribution changes, so that models with large increases in liquid water path and/or cloud droplet number show large cloud albedo increases with increasing aerosol. However, no clear relation between model sensitivities to aerosol variations on the month-to-month scale and changes in cloud albedo due to changed aerosol burden is found.

  19. Observations of linear dependence between sulfate and nitrate in atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingdong; Yang, Yiwei; Zhang, Shuanqin; Zhao, Xi; Du, Huanhuan; Fu, Hongbo; Zhang, Shicheng; Cheng, Tiantao; Yang, Xin; Chen, Jianmin; Wu, Dui; Shen, Jiandong; Hong, Shengmao; Jiao, Li

    2014-01-01

    Hourly measurements of water-soluble inorganic ionic species in ambient atmospheric particles were conducted at Shanghai, Hangzhou, and Guangzhou sampling sites in China during the period of 2009-2011. The relation between sulfate and nitrate in particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) was examined based on these measurements. Results showed that the mass fraction of sulfate was strongly negatively correlated with that of nitrate in atmospheric particles on most of the sampling days, especially when sulfate and nitrate made up the vast majority of the total soluble anions and cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) made a small contribution to the total water-soluble ions, revealing that the formation mechanisms of sulfate and nitrate in the atmosphere are highly correlated, and there exists a significant negative correlation trend between sulfate and nitrate mass fractions in the atmospheric particles. We found that local meteorological conditions presented opposite influences on the mass fractions of sulfate and nitrate. Further analysis indicated that the two mass fractions were modulated by the neutralizing level of atmospheric aerosols, and the negative correlation could be found in acidic atmospheric particles. Strong negative correlation was usually observed on clear days, hazy days, foggy days, and respirable particulate air pollution days, whereas poor negative correlation was often observed during cloud, rain, snow, dust storm, and suspended dust events. The results can help to better understand the formation mechanisms of atmospheric sulfate and nitrate during air pollution episodes and to better explain field results of atmospheric chemistry concerning sulfate and nitrate.

  20. Chondroitin sulfates do not impede axonal regeneration in goldfish spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akihito; Okada, Soichiro; Funakoshi, Kengo

    2017-10-15

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans produced in glial scar tissue are a major inhibitory factor for axonal regeneration after central nervous system injury in mammals. The inhibition is largely due to chondroitin sulfates, whose effects differ according to the sulfation pattern. In contrast to mammals, fish nerves spontaneously regenerate beyond the scar tissue after spinal cord injury, although the mechanisms that allow for axons to pass through the scar are unclear. Here, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of two chondroitin sulfates with different sulfation variants at the lesion site in goldfish spinal cord. The intact spinal cord was immunoreactive for both chondroitin sulfate-A (CS-A) and chondroitin sulfate-C (CS-C), and CS-A immunoreactivity overlapped extensively with glial processes positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein. At 1week after inducing the spinal lesion, CS-A immunoreactivity was observed in the cell bodies and extracellular matrix, as well as in glial processes surrounding the lesion center. At 2weeks after the spinal lesion, regenerating axons entering the lesion center overtook the CS-A abundant area. In contrast, at 1week after lesion induction, CS-C immunoreactivity was significantly decreased, and at 2weeks after lesion induction, CS-C immunoreactivity was observed along the regenerating axons entering the lesion center. The present findings suggest that after spinal cord injury in goldfish, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are deposited in the extracellular matrix at the lesion site but do not form an impenetrable barrier to the growth of regenerating axons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunological characterization of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Accavitti, M A; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    with the proteoglycan preparation and four mAbs recognizing the core protein of a high-density, buoyant chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan were raised. Confirmation of antibody specificity was carried out by the preparation of affinity columns made from each of the mAbs. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) were...... (Mr = 5-6 x 10(5)), with a core protein of Mr = approximately 1.5-1.6 x 10(5) and composed exclusively of chondroitin sulfate chains with an average Mr = 1.6-1.8 x 10(4). In addition, a CSPG was purified from adult rat kidney, whose core protein was also Mr = 1.6 x 10(5). The proteoglycan and its core...... sulfate proteoglycans, it therefore appears that at least one CSPG is a widespread basement membrane component....

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant activities and chemical analysis of sulfated chitosan from Sepia prashadi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedevi, Palaniappan; Moovendhan, Meivelu; Vairamani, Shanmugam; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2017-06-01

    The chitin and chitosan of S. prashadi was prepared through demineralization, deproteinzation, deacetylation process and sulfation were carried by chlorosulfonic acid in N,N-dimethylformamide. The sulfate content in chitosan was found to be 18.9%. The carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen composition of the sulfated chitosan were recorded 39.09%, 6.95% and 6.58% respectively. The structural analysis was done by using FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy technique. The DSC curves of sulfated chitosan showed a large endothermic peak resolved with T o value of 54.57°C and T P value of 97.46°C. The morphology of sulfated chitin and sulfated chitosan were studied by SEM. The Further in vitro antioxidant activity of sulfated chitosan was screened by scavenging activity of superoxide radical assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, metal-ion chelating effect and reducing power. Its anticoagulant activity was tested for human plasma with respect to Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and Prothrombin Time (PT). Results prove that sulfated chitosan has potent antioxidant and anticoagulant activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sequencing of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides using a novel exolyase from a marine bacterium that degrades hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenshuang; Cai, Xiaojuan; Han, Naihan; Han, Wenjun; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Li, Fuchuan

    2017-11-09

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a family of chemically heterogeneous polysaccharides that play important roles in physiological and pathological processes. Owing to the structural complexity of GAGs, their sophisticated chemical structures and biological functions have not been extensively studied. Lyases that cleave GAGs are important tools for structural analysis. Although various GAG lyases have been identified, exolytic lyases with unique enzymatic property are urgently needed for GAG sequencing. In the present study, a putative exolytic GAG lyase from a marine bacterium was recombinantly expressed and characterized in detail. Since it showed exolytic lyase activity toward hyaluronan (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), and dermatan sulfate (DS), it was designated as HCDLase. This novel exolyase exhibited the highest activity in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.0) at 30°C. Especially, it showed a specific activity that released 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB)-labeled disaccharides from the reducing end of 2-AB-labeled CS oligosaccharides, which suggest that HCDLase is not only a novel exolytic lyase that can split disaccharide residues from the reducing termini of sugar chains but also a useful tool for the sequencing of CS chains. Notably, HCDLase could not digest 2-AB-labeled oligosaccharides from HA, DS, or unsulfated chondroitin, which indicated that sulfates and bond types affect the catalytic activity of HCDLase. Finally, this enzyme combined with CSase ABC was successfully applied for the sequencing of several CS hexa- and octasaccharides with complex structures. The identification of HCDLase provides a useful tool for CS-related research and applications. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Heparan sulfate regulates fibrillin-1 N- and C-terminal interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cain, Stuart A; Baldwin, Andrew K; Mahalingam, Yashithra

    2008-01-01

    Fibrillin-1 N- and C-terminal heparin binding sites have been characterized. An unprocessed monomeric N-terminal fragment (PF1) induced a very high heparin binding response, indicating heparin-mediated multimerization. Using PF1 deletion and short fragments, a heparin binding site was localized w......-terminal interactions with heparin/heparan sulfate directly influence cell behavior, whereas C-terminal interactions with heparin/heparan sulfate regulate elastin deposition. These data highlight how heparin/heparan sulfate controls fibrillin-1 interactions....

  5. Mechanisms and Effectivity of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining-influenced water (MIW) is the main environmental challenges associated with the mining industry. Passive MIW remediation can be achieved through microbial activity in sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs), but their actual removal rates depend on different factors, one of which is the substrate composition. Chitinous materials have demonstrated high metal removal rates, particularly for the two recalcitrant MIW contaminants Zn and Mn, but their removal mechanisms need further study. We studied Cd, Fe, Zn, and Mn removal in bioactive and abiotic SRBRs to elucidate the metal removal mechanisms and the differences in metal and sulfate removal rates using a chitinous material as substrate. We found that sulfate-reducing bacteria are effective in increasing metal and sulfate removal rates and duration of operation in SRBRs, and that the main mechanism involved was metal precipitation as sulfides. The solid residues provided evidence of the presence of sulfides in the bioactive column, more specifically ZnS, according to XPS analysis. The feasibility of passive treatments with a chitinous substrate could be an important option for MIW remediation. Mining influenced water (MIW) remediation is still one of the top priorities for the agency because it addresses the most important environmental problem associated with the mining industry and that affects thousands of communities in the U.S. and worldwide. In this paper, the MIW bioremediation mechanisms are studied

  6. Biological sulfate removal from construction and demolition debris leachate: effect of bioreactor configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Do, Anh Tien; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; Yeh, Daniel H; Lens, Piet N L

    2014-03-30

    Due to the contamination of construction and demolition debris (CDD) by gypsum drywall, especially, its sand fraction (CDD sand, CDDS), the sulfate content in CDDS exceeds the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulfate present in building sand (1.73 g sulfate per kg of sand for the Netherlands). Therefore, the CDDS cannot be reused for construction. The CDDS has to be washed in order to remove most of the impurities and to obtain the right sulfate content, thus generating a leachate, containing high sulfate and calcium concentrations. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate reduction system for CDDS leachate treatment and compared three different reactor configurations for the sulfate reduction step: the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor and gas lift anaerobic membrane bioreactor (GL-AnMBR). This investigation demonstrated that all three systems can be applied for the treatment of CDDS leachate. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 75-85% was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15.5h. A high calcium concentration up to 1,000 mg L(-1) did not give any adverse effect on the sulfate removal efficiency of the IFB and GL-AnMBR systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sulfated modification and anticoagulant activity of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, Lady Godiva) polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Ao, Le; Ma, Tao; Ni, Yuanying; Liao, Xiaojun; Hu, Xiaosong; Song, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Sulfated modification of pumpkin polysaccharide using CAS with pyridines as catalysts under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of sulfation on a laboratory scale. Anticoagulant activities of pumpkin polysaccharide and its sulfated derivatives were also investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Results showed that addition of high ratio of CAS/pyridine under constant conditions could increase the degree of substitution. Sulfate substitution was further confirmed by the FT-IR and 13 C NMR analysis. The d f values between 2.11-2.73 indicated the relatively expanded conformation of the sulfated derivatives. The sulfated polysaccharides showed higher anticoagulant activities through activated partial thrombosis time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT) and anti-Xa activity assay, which revealed that better anticoagulant activities could be obtained when DS remained higher and M w maintained in a moderate range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Diversity and abundance of sulfate-reducing microorganisms in the sulfate and methane zones of a marine sediment, Black Sea RID A-8182-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leloup, Julie; Loy, Alexander; Knab, Nina J.

    2007-01-01

    branching sequences which might represent Gram-positive spore-forming sulfate- and/or sulfite-reducing microorganisms. We thus hypothesize that terminal carbon mineralization in surface sediments of the Black Sea is largely due to the sulfate reduction activity of previously hidden SRM. Although these novel...

  9. Transmission spectra study of sulfate substituted potassium dihydrogen phosphate

    KAUST Repository

    LI, LIANG

    2013-04-18

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with different amounts of sulfate concentration were grown and the transmittance spectrum was studied. A crystal with high sulfate replacement density exhibits heavy absorption property in the ultraviolet region which confirms and agrees well with former results. © 2013 Astro Ltd.

  10. Artemin Crystal Structure Reveals Insights into Heparan Sulfate Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvian,L.; Jin, P.; Carmillo, P.; Boriack-Sjodin, P.; Pelletier, C.; Rushe, M.; Gong, B.; Sah, D.; Pepinsky, B.; Rossomando, A.

    2006-01-01

    Artemin (ART) promotes the growth of developing peripheral neurons by signaling through a multicomponent receptor complex comprised of a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor (cRET) and a specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked co-receptor (GFR{alpha}3). Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signals through a similar ternary complex but requires heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) for full activity. HSPG has not been demonstrated as a requirement for ART signaling. We crystallized ART in the presence of sulfate and solved its structure by isomorphous replacement. The structure reveals ordered sulfate anions bound to arginine residues in the pre-helix and amino-terminal regions that were organized in a triad arrangement characteristic of heparan sulfate. Three residues in the pre-helix were singly or triply substituted with glutamic acid, and the resulting proteins were shown to have reduced heparin-binding affinity that is partly reflected in their ability to activate cRET. This study suggests that ART binds HSPGs and identifies residues that may be involved in HSPG binding.

  11. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranghel, D., E-mail: daranghe@nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); Extreme Light Intrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), Reactorului 30,RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Badita, C. R. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Atomiştilor 405, CP MG - 11, RO – 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Radulescu, A. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science, 85747 Garching (Germany); Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O. [National Institute R& D for Biological Sciences, Splaiul Independenţei 296, sector 6, cod 060031, C.P. 17-16, Bucharest (Romania); Balasoiu, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-25

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca{sup 2+} cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca{sup 2+} by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl{sub 2}) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  12. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranghel, D.; Badita, C. R.; Radulescu, A.; Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O.; Balasoiu, M.

    2016-03-01

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca2+ cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca2+ by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl2) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  13. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranghel, D.; Badita, C. R.; Radulescu, A.; Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O.; Balasoiu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca"2"+ cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca"2"+ by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl_2) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  14. Acidity characterization of a titanium and sulfate modified vermiculite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, W.Y.; Centeno, M.A.; Odriozola, J.A.; Moreno, S.; Molina, R.

    2008-01-01

    A natural vermiculite has been modified with titanium and sulfated by the intercalation and impregnation method in order to optimize the acidity of the clay mineral, and characterization of samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption isotherms, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature programmed desorption with ammonia (TPD-NH 3 ). All the modified solids have a significantly higher number of acidic sites with respect to the parent material and in all of these, Broensted as well as Lewis acidity are identified. The presence of sulfate appears not to increase the number of acidic centers in the modified clay. For the materials sulfated with the intercalation method, it is observed that the strength of the acidic sites found in the material increases with the nominal sulfate/metal ratio. Nevertheless, when elevated quantities of sulfur are deposited, diffusion problems in the heptane reaction appear

  15. Structural elucidation of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates from sea cucumber using FTICR-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyekum, Isaac; Pepi, Lauren; Yu, Yanlei; Li, Junhui; Yan, Lufeng; Linhardt, Robert J; Chen, Shiguo; Amster, I Jonathan

    2018-02-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates are complex polysaccharides extracted from sea cucumber. They have been extensively studied for their anticoagulant properties and have been implicated in other biological activities. While nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to extensively characterize fucosylated chondroitin sulfate oligomers, we herein report the first detailed mass characterization of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate using high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The two species of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates considered for this work include Pearsonothuria graeffei (FCS-Pg) and Isostichopus badionotus (FCS-Ib). Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides were prepared by N-deacetylation-deaminative cleavage of the two fucosylated chondroitin sulfates and purified by repeated gel filtration. Accurate mass measurements obtained from electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry measurements confirmed the oligomeric nature of these two fucosylated chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides with each trisaccharide repeating unit averaging four sulfates per trisaccharide. Collision-induced dissociation of efficiently deprotonated molecular ions through Na/H + exchange proved useful in providing structurally relevant glycosidic and cross-ring product ions, capable of assigning the sulfate modifications on the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate oligomers. Careful examination of the tandem mass spectrometry of both species deferring in the positions of sulfate groups on the fucose residue (FCS-Pg-3,4- OS) and (FCS-Ib-2,4- OS) revealed cross-ring products 0,2 A αf and 2,4 X 2αf which were diagnostic for (FCS-Pg-3,4- OS) and 0,2 X 2αf diagnostic for (FCS-Ib-2,4- OS). Mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry data acquired for both species varying in oligomer length (dp3-dp15) are presented.

  16. Participation of 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfates in the protection of macrophages by herpes simplex virus-1 glycoprotein D and cyclophilin B against apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delos, Maxime; Hellec, Charles; Foulquier, François; Carpentier, Mathieu; Allain, Fabrice; Denys, Agnès

    2017-02-01

    Heparan sulfates (HS) are involved in numerous biological processes, which rely on their ability to interact with a large panel of proteins. Although the reaction of 3-O-sulfation can be catalysed by the largest family of HS sulfotransferases, very few mechanisms have been associated with this modification and to date, only glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 gD) and cyclophilin B (CyPB) have been well-described as ligands for 3- O -sulfated HS. Here, we hypothesized that both ligands could induce the same responses via a mechanism dependent on 3- O -sulfated HS. First, we checked that HSV-1 gD was as efficient as CyPB to induce the activation of the same signalling events in primary macrophages. We then demonstrated that both ligands efficiently reduced staurosporin-induced apoptosis and modulated the expression of apoptotic genes. In addition to 3- O -sulfated HS, HSV-1 gD was reported to interact with other receptors, including herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), nectin-1 and -2. Thus, we decided to identify the contribution of each binding site in the responses triggered by HSV-1 gD and CyPB. We found that knock-down of 3- O -sulfotransferase 2, which is the main 3- O -sulfated HS-generating enzyme in macrophages, strongly reduced the responses induced by both ligands. Moreover, silencing the expression of HVEM rendered macrophages unresponsive to either HSV-1 gD and CyPB, thus indicating that both proteins induced the same responses by interacting with a complex formed by 3- O -sulfated HS and HVEM. Collectively, our results suggest that HSV-1 might hijack the binding sites for CyPB in order to protect macrophages against apoptosis for efficient infection.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a mesophilic heavy-metals-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfomicrobium sp. from an enrichment culture using phosphogypsum as a sulfate source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azabou, Samia; Mechichi, Tahar; Patel, Bharat K.C.; Sayadi, Sami

    2007-01-01

    A sulfate-reducing bacterium, was isolated from a 6 month trained enrichment culture in an anaerobic media containing phosphogypsum as a sulfate source, and, designated strain SA2. Cells of strain SA2 were rod-shaped, did not form spores and stained Gram-negative. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate revealed that it was related to members of the genus Desulfomicrobium (average sequence similarity of 98%) with Desulfomicrobium baculatum being the most closely related (sequence similarity of 99%). Strain SA2 used thiosulfate, sulfate, sulfite and elemental sulfur as electron acceptors and produced sulfide. Strain SA2 reduced sulfate contained in 1-20 g/L phosphogypsum to sulfide with reduction of sulfate contained in 2 g/L phosphogypsum being the optimum concentration. Strain SA2 grew with metalloid, halogenated and non-metal ions present in phosphogypsum and with added high concentrations of heavy metals (125 ppm Zn and 100 ppm Ni, W, Li and Al). The relative order for the inhibitory metal concentrations, based on the IC 50 values, was Cu, Te > Cd > Fe, Co, Mn > F, Se > Ni, Al, Li > Zn

  18. Analysis of Saprolegnia parasitica Transcriptome following Treatment with Copper Sulfate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hu

    Full Text Available Massive infection caused by oomycete fungus Saprolegnia parasitica is detrimental to freshwater fish. Recently, we showed that copper sulfate demonstrated good efficacy for controlling S. parasitica infection in grass carp. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of inhibition of S. parasitica growth by copper sulfate by analyzing the transcriptome of copper sulfate-treated S. parasitica. To examine the mechanism of copper sulfate inhibiting S. parasitica, we utilized RNA-seq technology to compare differential gene expression in S. parasitica treated with or without copper sulfate.The total mapped rates of the reads with the reference genome were 90.50% in the control group and 73.50% in the experimental group. In the control group, annotated splice junctions, partial novel splice junctions and complete novel splice junctions were about 83%, 3% and 14%, respectively. In the treatment group, the corresponding values were about 75%, 6% and 19%. Following copper sulfate treatment, a total 310 genes were markedly upregulated and 556 genes were markedly downregulated in S. parasitica. Material metabolism related GO terms including cofactor binding (33 genes, 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase complex (4 genes, carboxylic acid metabolic process (40 genes were the most significantly enriched. KEGG pathway analysis also determined that the metabolism-related biological pathways were significantly enriched, including the metabolic pathways (98 genes, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites pathways (42 genes, fatty acid metabolism (13 genes, phenylalanine metabolism (7 genes, starch and sucrose metabolism pathway (12 genes. The qRT-PCR results were largely consistent with the RNA-Seq results.Our results indicate that copper sulfate inhibits S. parasitica growth by affecting multiple biological functions, including protein synthesis, energy biogenesis, and metabolism.

  19. Tyramine-O-sulfate is produced and secreted by human hepatoma cells, line HepG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M.C.; Yu, S.; Suiko, M.

    1987-01-01

    Human hepatoma cells, line HepG2, were metabolically labeled with [ 35 S]sulfate. The spent medium separated following 24 hr labeling was subjected to ultrafiltration using an Amicon Centricon unit. The filtrate obtained was analyzed by a two-dimensional separation procedure combining high-voltage electrophoresis and thin-layer chromatography. The autoradiograph taken from the cellulose thin-layer plate following the analysis revealed the presence of tyramine-O-[ 35 ]sulfate in addition to tyrosine-O-[ 35 ]sulfate. Using adenosine, 3'-phosphate, 5'-phospho[ 35 S]sulfate as the sulfate donor, it was shown that tyramine was actively sulfated to form tyramine-O-[ 35 S]sulfate as catalyzed by the sulfotransferase(s) present in dog liver homogenate. Attempts to decarboxylate tyrosine-O-sulfate to tyramine-O-sulfate using intrinsic p-tyrosine decarboxylase present in dog liver homogenate, however, were unsuccessful. Employing purified Streptococcus faecalis tyrosine decarboxylase, it was shown that L-tyrosine was actively decarboxylated to tyramine, whereas tyrosine-O-sulfate could not serve as a substrate

  20. Emerging sulfated flavonoids and other polyphenols as drugs: nature as an inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Pinto, Madalena M M

    2014-03-01

    Nature uses sulfation of endogenous and exogenous molecules mainly to avoid potential toxicity. The growing importance of natural sulfated molecules, as modulators of a number of physiological and pathological processes, has inspired the synthesis of non-natural sulfated scaffolds. Until the 1990s, the synthesis of sulfated small molecules was almost restricted to derivatives of flavonoids and aimed mainly at structure elucidation and plant biosynthesis studies. Currently, the synthesis of this type of compounds concerns structurally diverse scaffolds and is aimed at the development of potential drugs and/or exploitation of the biological effects of sulfated metabolites. Some important hit compounds are emerging from sulfated flavonoids and other polyphenols mainly as anticoagulant and antiviral agents. When compared with polymeric macromolecules such as heparins, sulfated small molecules could be of value in therapeutics due to their hydrophobic nature that can contribute to improve the bioavailability. This review highlights the synthetic approaches that were applied to obtain monosulfated or polysulfated phenolic small molecules and compiles the diverse biological activities already reported for this type of derivatives. Toxicity and pharmacokinetic parameters of this emerging class of derivatives will also be considered, emphasizing their value for therapeutic applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Research on A3 steel corrosion behavior of basic magnesium sulfate cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Sainan; Wu, Chengyou; Yu, Hongfa; Jiang, Ningshan; Zhang, Wuyu

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, Tafel polarization technique is used to study the corrosion behavior of A3 steel basic magnesium sulfate, and then analyzing the ratio of raw materials cement, nitrites rust inhibitor and wet-dry cycle of basic magnesium sulfate corrosion of reinforced influence, and the steel corrosion behavior of basic magnesium sulfate compared with magnesium oxychloride cement and Portland cement. The results show that: the higher MgO/MgSO4 mole ratio will reduce the corrosion rate of steel; Too high and too low H2O/MgSO4 mole ratio may speed up the reinforcement corrosion effect; Adding a small amount of nitrite rust and corrosion inhibitor, not only can obviously reduce the alkali type magnesium sulfate in the early hydration of cement steel bar corrosion rate, but also can significantly reduce dry-wet circulation under the action of alkali type magnesium sulfate cement corrosion of reinforcement effect. Basic magnesium sulfate cement has excellent ability to protect reinforced, its long-term corrosion of reinforcement effect and was equal to that of Portland cement. Basic magnesium sulfate corrosion of reinforced is far below the level in the MOC in the case.

  2. Sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures for multipotent protein activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungsoo S.; Fyrner, Timmy; Chen, Feng; Álvarez, Zaida; Sleep, Eduard; Chun, Danielle S.; Weiner, Joseph A.; Cook, Ralph W.; Freshman, Ryan D.; Schallmo, Michael S.; Katchko, Karina M.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Smith, Justin T.; Yun, Chawon; Singh, Gurmit; Hashmi, Sohaib Z.; McClendon, Mark T.; Yu, Zhilin; Stock, Stuart R.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Hsu, Erin L.; Stupp , Samuel I. (NWU)

    2017-06-19

    Biological systems have evolved to utilize numerous proteins with capacity to bind polysaccharides for the purpose of optimizing their function. A well-known subset of these proteins with binding domains for the highly diverse sulfated polysaccharides are important growth factors involved in biological development and tissue repair. We report here on supramolecular sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures, which display a trisulfated monosaccharide on their surfaces and bind five critical proteins with different polysaccharide-binding domains. Binding does not disrupt the filamentous shape of the nanostructures or their internal β-sheet backbone, but must involve accessible adaptive configurations to interact with such different proteins. The glycopeptide nanostructures amplified signalling of bone morphogenetic protein 2 significantly more than the natural sulfated polysaccharide heparin, and promoted regeneration of bone in the spine with a protein dose that is 100-fold lower than that required in the animal model. These highly bioactive nanostructures may enable many therapies in the future involving proteins.

  3. Inhibitory effect of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides on bovine testicular hyaluronidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizaki, Ikuko; Koizumi, Hideyo; Chen, Fengchao; Endo, Masahiko

    2015-05-05

    Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates are prominent components of the extracellular matrices of animal tissues; however, their functions in relation to their oligosaccharide structures have not yet been fully elucidated. The oligosaccharides of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate were prepared and used to investigate their effects on the hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase when hyaluronan was used as a substrate. Hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities were assessed in independent reaction systems by analyzing the products by HPLC. The hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were dose-dependently inhibited by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides, but not by hyaluronan or chondroitin oligosaccharides. A kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis reaction using hyaluronan octasaccharide revealed that the inhibition mode by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides was competitive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between binding activity of sup 67 Ga and low sulfated acid glycosaminoglycans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, Yasuhito; Tsukada, Fumitake; Kohno, Hiroyuki (Tohoku Coll. of Pharmacy, Sendai (Japan)); Kubodera, Akiko (Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). School of Pharmaceutical Sciences)

    1989-01-01

    Sulfate content of acid glycosaminoglycan (AGAG) extracted from granuloma which had been produced by turpentine oil was inversely proportional to the amount of {sub 67}Ga accumulation in the granuloma. Additionally, the lowest sulfation occurred in granuloma at a peak of inflammation when the uptake of {sub 67}Ga had reached a maximum. On the basis of electrophoretic pattern, sulfate content, and specific optical rotation, it was concluded that acid glycosaminoglycans obtained from granuloma are mainly composed of chondroitin sulfate-A, -B, and desulfated heparin, while haparan sulfate was a minor component. From in vitro assays, desulfated acid glycosaminoglycans, especially desulfated-heparin and desulfated-heparan sulfate, were found to have a high affinity to {sub 67}Ga. These results suggest that low- or de-sulfation of AGAG is related to the accumulation of {sub 67}Ga in inflammatory lesions such as granuloma. Moreover, these results suggest that {sub 67}Ga does not bind to glycosaminoglycans via sulfuric acid residues. (author).

  5. Relative importance of nitrate and sulfate aerosol production mechanisms in urban atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, P.; Kiang, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    The relative importance of the various sulfate and nitrate aerosol production mechanisms is calculated for different atmospheric conditions. The calculation scheme used to determine the rates of nitrate and sulfate production, based on the concept that vapor transfer to the aerosols and nitrate and sulfate formation within the aerosols are coupled kinetic processes, considers sulfate formation by ozone and hydrogen peroxide oxidation and catalytic oxidation in the presence of soot, iron and manganese of sulfite solutions and sulfuric acid condensation and nitrate formation by the liquid-phase oxidation of dissolved nitrogen oxides for different initial gas concentrations and particle compositions and sizes. It is found that sulfate production is higher under daytime conditions, primarily proceeding by mechanisms involving sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide, while at night oxidation processes on the surface of the aerosol film are more important. Nitrate tends to decrease nighttime sulfate production due to an increase in aerosol acidity and nitrate production is found to be higher under nighttime conditions and in the winter

  6. Separation and Precipitation of Nickel from Acidic Sulfate Leaching Solution of Molybdenum-Nickel Black Shale by Potassium Nickel Sulfate Hexahydrate Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhigan; Wei, Chang; Fan, Gang; Li, Xingbin; Li, Minting; Li, Cunxiong

    2018-02-01

    Nickel was separated and precipitated with potassium nickel sulfate hexahydrate [K2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O] from acidic sulfate solution, a leach solution from molybdenum-nickel black shale. The effects of the potassium sulfate (K2SO4) concentration, crystallization temperature, solution pH, and crystallization time on nickel(II) recovery and iron(III) precipitation were investigated, revealing that nickel and iron were separated effectively. The optimum parameters were K2SO4 concentration of 200 g/L, crystallization temperature of 10°C, solution pH of 0.5, and crystallization time of 24 h. Under these conditions, 97.6% nickel(II) was recovered as K2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O crystals while only 2.0% of the total iron(III) was precipitated. After recrystallization, 98.4% pure K2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O crystals were obtained in the solids. The mother liquor was purified by hydrolysis-precipitation followed by cooling, and more than 99.0% K2SO4 could be crystallized. A process flowsheet was developed to separate iron(III) and nickel(II) from acidic-sulfate solution.

  7. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Flor, Susanne; He, Xianran; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies identified PCB sulfate esters as a major product of PCB metabolism. Since hydroxy-PCBs (HO-PCBs), the immediate precursors of PCB sulfates and important contributors to PCB toxicity, were shown to have estrogenic activity, we investigated the estrogenicity/androgenicty of a series of PCB sulfate metabolites. We synthesized the five possible structural sulfate monoester metabolites of PCB 3, a congener shown to be biotransformed to sulfates, a sulfate ester of the paint-specific...

  8. Application of Biostimulation for Remediation of Sulfate-Contaminated Groundwater at a Mining Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Z.; Carroll, K. C.; Carreon, C.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing concern regarding sulfate contamination of groundwater. One innovative in-situ remediation option under investigation is biostimulation through addition of electron-donor amendments to enhance sulfate reduction. Two pilot-scale ethanol-injection tests were conducted at a former uranium mining site that is contaminated with sulfate and nitrate (with a lack of heavy metals), and for which there appears to be minimal natural attenuation of sulfate. The first test was a push-pull test that had a limited zone of influence, while the second test was a single-well injection test in which additional downgradient wells were monitored. For both tests, sulfate concentrations began to decline within a few weeks of injection, after nitrate concentrations were significantly reduced. Concomitantly, aqueous concentrations of manganese, iron, and hydrogen sulfide increased from background. Monitoring over many months revealed that the declines in sulfate concentration conformed to exponential decay, with first-order decay rates of approximately 0.01 /d. Analysis of sulfur stable isotope data indicated that the decrease in sulfate concentrations was microbially mediated. The results also indicated that sulfides formed during sulfate reduction may have undergone partial re-oxidation. This study illustrates the feasibility of using ethanol injection for remediation of sulfate-contaminated groundwater. However, re-oxidation of sulfides (both metal sulfide precipitates and hydrogen sulfide gas) is a potential issue of significance that would need to be addressed.

  9. Aqueous two-phase (polyethylene glycol + sodium sulfate) system for caffeine extraction: Equilibrium diagrams and partitioning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Sampaio, Daniela de; Mafra, Luciana Igarashi; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; Forville de Andrade, Eriel; Oberson de Souza, Michèle; Mafra, Marcos Rogério; Castilhos, Fernanda de

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Binodal curves of PEG (400, 4000 and 6000) + Na_2SO_4 ATPS were determined. • Tie-lines were experimentally determined for aqueous (PEG 400 + Na_2SO_4) system. • Influence of caffeine on LLE of aqueous (PEG 400 + Na_2SO_4) system was investigated. • Partitioning of caffeine in aqueous (PEG 400 + Na_2SO_4) system was investigated. • Caffeine partition showed to be dependent on temperature and TLL. - Abstract: Environmental friendly methods for liquid–liquid extraction have been taken into account due to critical conditions and ecotoxicological effects potentially produced by organic solvents applied in traditional methods. Liquid–liquid extraction using aqueous two phase systems (ATPSs) presents advantages when compared to traditional liquid–liquid extraction. (Polyethylene glycol (PEG) + sodium sulfate + water) ATPS was applied to study partition of caffeine. Binodal curves for ATPSs composed of PEG of different molecular weights (400 g · mol"−"1, 4000 g · mol"−"1 and 6000 g · mol"−"1) sodium sulfate + water were determined by cloud point method at three different temperatures (293.15, 313.15 and 333.15) K. Liquid–liquid equilibrium (LLE) data (tie-lines, slope of the tie-line and tie-lines length) were obtained applying a gravimetric method proposed by Merchuck and co-workers at the same temperatures for aqueous (PEG 400 + sodium sulfate) and aqueous (PEG 400 + sodium sulfate + caffeine) systems. Reliability of the experimental tie-line (TL) data was evaluated using the equations reported by Othmer–Tobias and satisfactory linearity was obtained. Concerning to aqueous (PEG + sodium sulfate) system, the results pointed out that the higher PEG molecular weight the largest is the heterogeneous region. Moreover, temperature showed not to be relevant on binodal curves behavior, but it influenced on tie-line slopes. Partitioning of caffeine in aqueous (PEG 400 + sodium sulfate) system was investigated at different temperatures

  10. Studies on Thermal Decomposition of Aluminium Sulfate to Produce Alumina Nano Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jafar-Tafreshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum sulfate nano structures have been prepared by solution combustion synthesis using aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (Al(NO33.9H2O and ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4. The resultant aluminum sulfate nano structures were calcined at different temperatures to study thermal  decomposition of aluminum sulfate. The crystallinity and phase of  the as-synthesized and calcined samples were characterized by both X- ray diffraction and FTIR measurements. These two analyses determined the temperature at which the aluminum sulfate is converted to γ-alumina nano particles. The specific surface area and pore size distribution for  γ-alumina nano particles were determined by BET measurement. TEM measurement confirmed the size of the particles obtained by XRD and BET analyses.

  11. Control of sulfate concentration by miR395-targeted APS genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Ai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur nutrition is crucial for plant growth and development, as well as crop yield and quality. Inorganic sulfate in the soil is the major sulfur source for plants. After uptake, sulfate is activated by ATP sulfurylase, and then gets assimilated into sulfur-containing metabolites. However, the mechanism of regulation of sulfate levels by ATP sulfurylase is unclear. Here, we investigated the control of sulfate levels by miR395-mediated regulation of APS1/3/4. Sulfate was over-accumulated in the shoots of miR395 over-expression plants in which the expression of the APS1, APS3, and APS4 genes was suppressed. Accordingly, reduced expression of miR395 caused a decline of sulfate concentration. In agreement with these results, over-expression of the APS1, APS3, and APS4 genes led to the reduction of sulfate levels. Differential expression of these three APS genes in response to sulfate starvation implied that they have different functions. Further investigation revealed that the regulation of sulfate levels mediated by miR395 depends on the repression of its APS targets. Unlike the APS1, APS3, and APS4 genes, which encode plastid-localized ATP sulfurylases, the APS2 gene encodes a cytosolic version of ATP sulfurylase. Genetic analysis indicated that APS2 has no significant effect on sulfate levels. Our data suggest that miR395-targeted APS genes are key regulators of sulfate concentration in leaves.

  12. Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of zinc, nickel, iron and lead in different matrixes after solid phase extraction on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated alumina as their bis (2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1, 3-propanediimine chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Tavallali, H.; Shokrollahi, A.; Zahedi, M.; Montazerozohori, M.; Soylak, M.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive and simple solid phase extraction method for the simultaneous determination of trace and toxic metals in food samples has been reported. The method is based on the adsorption of zinc, nickel, iron and lead on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated alumina, which is also chelated with bis (2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1, 3-propanediimine (BHAPN). The retained analyte ions on modified solid phase were eluted using 8 mL of 4 mol L -1 HNO 3 . The analyte determinations were carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influences of some metal ions and anions on the recoveries of understudy analyte ions were investigated. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the evaluation of these trace and toxic metals in some traditional food samples from Iran.

  13. Effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate of polyphenoloxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.M.; Flurkey, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the enzymatic and physical characteristics of purified broad bean polyphenoloxidase (PPO) were examined. A sigmoidal increase in PPO activation was observed with increasing SDS concentrations. Half maximal activation occurred at .9 mM SDS well below the CMC of 3.5 mM. No apparent changes in the Km for catechol, pH optimum, of I 50 for tropolone were observed in the presence vs absence of SDS. Thermal inactivation and binding of 14 C dopa increased in the presence of SDS. Analytical ultracentrifugation and HPLC-SEC indicated that SDS did not change the apparent size of the PPO under nondenaturing conditions. Scanning fluorescence spectroscopy showed an increase in intrinsic trp/tyr fluorescence at approximately the same concentration in which SDS activation began. Further addition of SDS caused a large increase in intrinsic fluorescence. These results suggest the SDS causes an apparent conformational change induced by SDS binding which leads to enzyme activation

  14. Immobilization of cobalt by sulfate-reducing bacteria in subsurface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Lee R.; Elias, Dwayne A.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the impact of sulfate-reduction on immobilization of metals in subsurface aquifers. Co 2+ was used as a model for heavy metals. Factors limiting sulfate-reduction dependent Co 2+ immobilization were tested on pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria, and in sediment columns from a landfill leachate contaminated aquifer. In the presence of 1 mM Co 2+ , the growth of pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria was not impacted. Cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfotomaculum gibsoniae , and Desulfomicrobium hypogeia removed greater than 99.99% of the soluble Co 2+ when CoCl 2 was used with no chelators. The above cultures and Desulfoarcula baarsi removed 98-99.94% of the soluble Co(II) when the metal was complexed with the model ligand nitrilotriacetate (Co-NTA). Factors controlling the rate of sulfate-reduction based Co 2+ precipitation were investigated in sediment-cobalt mixtures. Several electron donors were tested and all but toluene accelerated soluble Co 2+ loss. Ethanol and formate showed the greatest stimulation. All complex nitrogen sources tested slowed and decreased the extent of Co 2+ removal from solution relative to formate-amended sediment incubations. A range of pH values were tested (6.35-7.81), with the more alkaline incubations exhibiting the largest precipitation of Co 2+ . The immobilization of Co 2+ in sediments was also investigated with cores to monitor the flow of Co 2+ through undisturbed sediments. An increase in the amount of Co 2+ immobilized as CoS was observed as sulfate reduction activity was stimulated in flow through columns. Both pure culture and sediment incubation data indicate that stimulation of sulfate reduction is a viable strategy in the immobilization of contaminating metals in subsurface systems.

  15. Enzymatic sulfation of tocopherols and tocopherol metabolites by human cytosolic sulfotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Takuyu; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Yamasaki, Masao; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Yasuda, Shin; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Suiko, Masahito

    2011-01-01

    Tocopherols are essential micronutrients for mammals widely known as potent lipid-soluble antioxidants that are present in cell membranes. Recent studies have demonstrated that most of the carboxychromanol (CEHC), a tocopherol metabolite, in the plasma exists primarily in sulfate- and glucuronide-conjugated forms. To gain insight into the enzymatic sulfation of tocopherols and their metabolites, a systematic investigation was performed using all 14 known human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs). The results showed that the members of the SULT1 family displayed stronger sulfating activities toward tocopherols and their metabolites. These enzymes showed a substrate preference for γ-tocopherol over α-tocopherol and for γ-CEHC over other CEHCs. Using A549 human lung epithelial cells in a metabolic labeling study, a similar trend in the sulfation of tocopherols and CEHCs was observed. Collectively, the results obtained indicate that SULT-mediated enzymatic sulfation of tocopherols and their metabolites is a significant pathway for regulation of the homeostasis and physiological functions of these important compounds.

  16. Hydrothermal Formation Of Hemi-hydrate Calcium Sulfate Whiskers In The Presence Of Additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, K. B.; Li, C. M.; Li, H. P.; Ning, P.; Xiang, L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of addictives on the hydrothermal formation of hemi-hydrate calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ·0.5H 2 O) whiskers were discussed in this paper, using CaCl 2 and Na 2 SO 4 as the reactants. The presence of NaCl, CaCl 2 or Na 2 SO 4 increased the concentrations of Ca 2+ and SO 4 2- , leading to the formation of CaSO 4 ·0.5H 2 O whiskers with aspect ratio lower than 50. The one dimensional growth of CaSO 4 ·0.5H 2 O whiskers was enhanced in water with no additives owing to the low super-saturation, leading to the formation of uniform whiskers with a length of 200-2000 μm and an aspect ratio higher than 100.

  17. Effects of magnesium sulfate on the foliar absorption of phosphates at the pumpkin; Effets du sulfate de magnesium sur l'absorption foliaire de phosphates chez le potiron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamel, A

    1962-07-01

    The foliar absorption of phosphates labelled with {sup 32}P and applied with or without magnesium sulfate on the first leaf of pumpkin seedlings have been studied. The magnesium sulfate applied with the phosphate reduces plainly the absorption rate of {sup 32}P. (O.M.) [French] Nous avons etudie l'absorption foliaire de phosphates marques au {sup 32}P appliques, avec et sans sulfate de magnesium, sur la premiere feuille de jeunes plants de potirons. Le sulfate de magnesium applique avec le phosphate diminue nettement le taux d'absorption du {sup 32}P. (auteur)

  18. Predictive mapping of the acidifying potential for acid sulfate soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boman, A; Beucher, Amélie; Mattbäck, S

    Developing methods for the predictive mapping of the potential environmental impact from acid sulfate soils is important because recent studies (e.g. Mattbäck et al., under revision) have shown that the environmental hazards (e.g. leaching of acidity) related to acid sulfate soils vary depending...... on their texture (clay, silt, sand etc.). Moreover, acidity correlates, not only with the sulfur content, but also with the electrical conductivity (EC) measured after incubation. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) data collected from an EM38 proximal sensor also enabled the detailed mapping of acid sulfate soils...... over a field (Huang et al., 2014).This study aims at assessing the use of EMI data for the predictive mapping of the acidifying potential in an acid sulfate soil area in western Finland. Different supervised classification modelling techniques, such as Artificial Neural Networks (Beucher et al., 2015...

  19. Discrepancies in composition and biological effects of different formulations of chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Farran, Aina; Montell, Eulàlia; Vergés, Josep; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-03-06

    Osteoarthritis is a common, progressive joint disease, and treatments generally aim for symptomatic improvement. However, SYmptomatic Slow-Acting Drugs in Osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs) not only reduce joint pain, but slow structural disease progression. One such agent is chondroitin sulfate-a complex, heterogeneous polysaccharide. It is extracted from various animal cartilages, thus has a wide range of molecular weights and different amounts and patterns of sulfation. Chondroitin sulfate has an excellent safety profile, and although various meta-analyses have concluded that it has a beneficial effect on symptoms and structure, others have concluded little or no benefit. This may be due, at least partly, to variations in the quality of the chondroitin sulfate used for a particular study. Chondroitin sulfate is available as pharmaceutical- and nutraceutical-grade products, and the latter have great variations in preparation, composition, purity and effects. Moreover, some products contain a negligible amount of chondroitin sulfate and among samples with reasonable amounts, in vitro testing showed widely varying effects. Of importance, although some showed anti-inflammatory effects, others demonstrated weak effects, and some instances were even pro-inflammatory. This could be related to contaminants, which depend on the origin, production and purification process. It is therefore vitally important that only pharmaceutical-grade chondroitin sulfate be used for treating osteoarthritis patients.

  20. Calcium-based stabilizer induced heave in Oklahoma sulfate-bearing soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The addition of lime stabilizers can create problems in soils containing sulfates. In most cases, lime is mixed with expansive soils rendering them non-expansive; however, when a certain amount of sulfate is present naturally in expansive soils, the ...

  1. Presence of sulfate does not inhibit low-temperature dolomite precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Román, Mónica; McKenzie, Judith A.; de Luca Rebello Wagener, Angela; Rivadeneyra, Maria A.; Vasconcelos, Crisógono

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that sulfate inhibits dolomite formation evolved from geochemical studies of porewaters from deep-sea sedimentary sequences and has been tested with hydrothermal experiments. We examined the sulfate inhibition factor using aerobic culture experiments with Virgibacillus marismortui and

  2. Structural analysis and anticoagulant activities of two sulfated polysaccharides from the sea cucumber Holothuria coluber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjiao; Cai, Ying; Yin, Ronghua; Lin, Lisha; Li, Zhongkun; Wu, Mingyi; Zhao, Jinhua

    2018-05-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides such as fucosylated glycosaminoglycan and fucan sulfate from echinoderm possess complex chemical structure and various biological activities. The two sulfated polysaccharides were purified from the low-value sea cucumber Holothuria coluber. Their physicochemical properties and chemical structures were analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods. Structural analysis clarified that the sea cucumber fucosylated glycosaminoglycan contains a chondroitin sulfate-like backbone and fucosyl branches with four various sulfation patterns. The fucan sulfate with molecular weight of 64.6 kDa comprises a central core of regular α(1 → 4)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units, each of which is linked by a 4-O-sulfated fucose residue. Anticoagulant assays indicated that these sulfated polysaccharides possessed strong APTT prolonging activities and intrinsic factor Xase inhibitory activities, both of which decreased with the reduction of their molecular weights. Our results expand knowledge on the structural types of sulfated polysaccharides from sea cucumbers and further illustrate their functionality. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Transcriptome profiling of sulfate deprivation responses in two agarophytes Gracilaria changii and Gracilaria salicornia (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Kang; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ong Abdullah, Janna; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2017-04-24

    Seaweeds survive in marine waters with high sulfate concentration compared to those living at freshwater habitats. The cell wall polymer of Gracilaria spp. which supplies more than 50% of the world agar is heavily sulfated. Since sulfation reduces the agar quality, it is interesting to investigate the effects of sulfate deprivation on the sulfate contents of seaweed and agar, as well as the metabolic pathways of these seaweeds. In this study, two agarophytes G. changii and G. salicornia were treated under sulfate deprivation for 5 days. The sulfate contents in the seaweed/agar were generally lower in sulfate-deprivated samples compared to those in the controls, but the differences were only statistically significant for seaweed sample of G. changii and agar sample of G. salicornia. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of sulfate-deprivated and untreated seaweed samples revealed 1,292 and 3,439 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; ≥1.5-fold) in sulfate-deprivated G. changii and G. salicornia, respectively, compared to their respective controls. Among the annotated DEGs were genes involved in putative agar biosynthesis, sulfur metabolism, metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, carbon metabolism and oxidative stress. These findings shed light on the sulfate deprivation responses in agarophytes and help to identify candidate genes involved in agar biosynthesis.

  4. Proton beam modification of lead white pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Gutiérrez, P.C.; Miserque, F.; Thomé, L.

    2013-01-01

    Pigments and paint materials are known to be sensitive to particle irradiation. Occasionally, the analysis of paintings by PIXE can induce a slight or dark stain depending on the experimental conditions (beam current, dose, particle energy). In order to understand this discoloration, we have irradiated various types of art white pigments – lead white (hydrocerussite and basic lead sulfate), gypsum, calcite, zinc oxide and titanium oxide – with an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam commonly used for PIXE experiments. We have observed various sensitivities depending on the pigment. No visible change occurs for calcite and titanium oxide, whereas lead white pigments are very sensitive. For the majority of the studied compounds, the discoloration is proportional to the beam current and charge. The damage induced by proton beam irradiation in lead white pigments was studied by micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Structural modifications and dehydration were detected. Damage recovery was investigated by thermal treatment and UV-light irradiation. The discoloration disappeared after one week of UV illumination, showing that PIXE experiments could be safely undertaken for pigments and paintings

  5. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  6. Process integration for biological sulfate reduction in a carbon monoxide fed packed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Sinharoy, Arindam; Pakshirajan, Kannan

    2018-05-09

    This study examined immobilized anaerobic biomass for sulfate reduction using carbon monoxide (CO) as the sole carbon source under batch and continuous fed conditions. The immobilized bacteria with beads made of 10% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) showed best results in terms of sulfate reduction (84 ± 3.52%) and CO utilization (98 ± 1.67%). The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT), sulfate loading rate and CO loading rate on sulfate and CO removal was investigated employing a 1L packed bed bioreactor containing the immobilized biomass. At 48, 24 and 12 h HRT, the sulfate removal was 94.42 ± 0.15%, 89.75 ± 0.47% and 61.08 ± 0.34%, respectively, along with a CO utilization of more than 90%. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results obtained showed that only the initial CO concentration significantly affected the sulfate reduction process. The reactor effluent sulfate concentrations were 27.41 ± 0.44, 59.16 ± 1.08, 315.83 ± 7.33 mg/L for 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L of influent sulfate concentrations respectively, under the optimum operating conditions. The sulfate reduction rates matched well with low inlet sulfate loading rates, indicating stable performance of the bioreactor system. Overall, this study yielded very high sulfate reduction efficiency by the immobilized anaerobic biomass under high CO loading condition using the packed bed reactor system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anaerobic oxidation of methane by sulfate in hypersaline groundwater of the Dead Sea aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrahamov, N; Antler, G; Yechieli, Y; Gavrieli, I; Joye, S B; Saxton, M; Turchyn, A V; Sivan, O

    2014-01-01

    Geochemical and microbial evidence points to anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) likely coupled with bacterial sulfate reduction in the hypersaline groundwater of the Dead Sea (DS) alluvial aquifer. Groundwater was sampled from nine boreholes drilled along the Arugot alluvial fan next to the DS. The groundwater samples were highly saline (up to 6300 mm chlorine), anoxic, and contained methane. A mass balance calculation demonstrates that the very low δ13CDIC in this groundwater is due to anaerobic methane oxidation. Sulfate depletion coincident with isotope enrichment of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in the sulfate suggests that sulfate reduction is associated with this AOM. DNA extraction and 16S amplicon sequencing were used to explore the microbial community present and were found to be microbial composition indicative of bacterial sulfate reducers associated with anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) driving AOM. The net sulfate reduction seems to be primarily controlled by the salinity and the available methane and is substantially lower as salinity increases (2.5 mm sulfate removal at 3000 mm chlorine but only 0.5 mm sulfate removal at 6300 mm chlorine). Low overall sulfur isotope fractionation observed (34ε = 17 ± 3.5‰) hints at high rates of sulfate reduction, as has been previously suggested for sulfate reduction coupled with methane oxidation. The new results demonstrate the presence of sulfate-driven AOM in terrestrial hypersaline systems and expand our understanding of how microbial life is sustained under the challenging conditions of an extremely hypersaline environment. PMID:25039851

  8. Anaerobic BTEX biodegradation linked to nitrate and sulfate reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Junfeng; Liu Xiang; Hu Zhifeng; Deng Dong

    2008-01-01

    Effective anaerobic BTEX biodegradation was obtained under nitrate and sulfate reducing conditions by the mixed bacterial consortium that were enriched from gasoline contaminated soil. Under the conditions of using nitrate or sulfate as reducing acceptor, the degradation rates of the six tested substrates decreased with toluene > ethylbenzene > m-xylene > o-xylene > benzene > p-xylene. The higher concentrations of BTEX were toxic to the mixed cultures and led to reduce the degradation rates of BTEX. Benzene and p-xylene were more toxic than toluene and ethylbenzene. Nitrate was a more favorable electron acceptor compared to sulfate. The measured ratios between the amount of nitrate consumed and the amount of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene degraded were 9.47, 9.26, 11.14, 12.46, 13.36 and 13.02, respectively. The measured ratios between sulfate reduction and BTEX degradation were 3.51, 4.33, 4.89, 4.81, 4.86 and 4.76, respectively, which were nearly the same to theoretical ones, and the relative error between the measured and calculated ratios was less than 10%

  9. Case study of elevated layers of high sulfate concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNaughton, D.J.; Orgill, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    During studies in August 1976 that were part of the Multi-State Atmospheric Power Production Pollutant Study (MAP3S), Alkezweeny et al., (1977) noted that in the Milwaukee urban plume, layers of relatively high sulfate concentrations occurred at high altitudes with respect to the boundary layer. This paper represents a progress report on studies undertaken to investigate possible causes for a bimodel vertical profile of sulfate concentrations. Data presented by Alkezweeny et al., (1977) serve as a basis for this study. Data from August 23, 1976, and August 24, 1978, indicate concentrations relatively high in sulfate, at 1000 and 6000 ft, respectively, with lower concentrations at lower altitudes. Concentrations of trace metals also indicate no peaks in the vertical concentration profiles above the surface. Initial studies of the high, elevated sulfate concentrations have centered on the August 23 measurements taken over southeast Wisconsin using synoptic data from the national weather service, emissions data from the national emissions data bank system (EPA), air quality data from the national air surveillance network (EPA), and satellite photographs from the EROS Data Center

  10. Sulfate Salts in Gasoline and Ethanol Fuels -- Historical Perspective and Analysis of Available Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Alleman, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Inc., Sharonville, OH (United States)

    2017-09-21

    This report reviews the chemistry of sulfate salts dissolved in ethanol and gasoline, potential sources of sulfate salts in ethanol and gasoline, the history of consumer vehicle issues with sulfate salt deposits in the early 2000s, and the corresponding changes to the denatured fuel ethanol specification. Recommendations for future research are provided. During a period of rapid market expansion in 2004-05, issues were reported with vehicles running on E10 provided by certain suppliers in some markets. It was commonly believed that these vehicle problems were caused by sulfate salts precipitating from the fuel. Investigators identified sodium sulfate, and in one case also ammonium sulfate, as the predominate salts found in the engines. Several stakeholders believed the issue was excess sulfate ions in the ethanol portion of the E10, and in 2005 the ASTM specification for ethanol (D4806) was modified to include a 4-part per million (ppm) limit on sulfate ions. While there have been no further reports of consumer vehicle issues, the recently approved increase of ethanol in gasoline from 10 to 15 volume percent has resulted in renewed interest in the sulfate ion concentration in fuel ethanol. This report reviews published data on the solubility of sulfate salts in ethanol. The possible sources of sulfate anions and charge balancing cations (such as sodium) in fuel ethanol and petroleum derived blendstocks are discussed. Examination of historical information on the consumer vehicle issues that occurred in 2004-2005 reveals that a source of sodium or ammonium ions, required for the formation of the observed insoluble salts, was never identified. Recommendations for research to better understand sulfate salt solubility issues in ethanol, hydrocarbon blendstocks, and ethanol-gasoline blends are presented.

  11. Morpholine-4-carboxamidinium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tiritiris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt, 2C5H12N3O+·SO42−, comprises two cations and one sulfate ion. In both cations, the C, N and O atoms of the morpholine rings are disordered over two sets of sites, with refined occupancies of 0.849 (3:0.151 (3 for cation I and 0.684 (4:0.316 (4 for cation II. The C—N bond lengths in both central C3N units of the carboxamidinium ions range between 1.253 (12 and 1.362 (5 Å, indicating a degree of double-bond character. The central C atoms are bonded to the three N atoms in a nearly ideal trigonal–planar geometry and the positive charges are delocalized in both CN3 planes. The crystal structure is stabilized by a three-dimensional network of N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the cations and the sulfate ion. Scheme tiny font, charges and delocalized bonds almost invisible

  12. Sulfation of ceria-zirconia model automotive emissions control catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alan Edwin

    Cerium-zirconium mixed metal oxides are used in automotive emissions control catalysts to regulate the partial pressure of oxygen near the catalyst surface. The near surface oxygen partial pressure is regulated through transfer of atomic oxygen from the ceria-zirconia solid matrix to the platinum group metals to form metal oxides capable of oxidizing carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. Although the addition of zirconium in the cubic lattice of ceria increases the oxygen storage capacity and thermal stability of the ceria matrix, the cerium-zirconium oxide system remains particularly susceptible to deactivation from sulfur compounds. While the overall effect of sulfur on these systems is understood (partially irreversible deactivation), the fundamental and molecular interaction of sulfur with ceria-zirconia remains a challenging problem. Ceria-zirconia metal oxide solid solutions have been prepared through co-precipitation with nitrate precursors. The prepared powders were calcined and subsequently formed into planer wafers and characterized for chemical and physical attributes. The prepared samples were subsequently exposed to a sulfur dioxide based environment and characterized with spectroscopic techniques to characterize the extent of sulfation and the nature of surface sulfur species. The extent of sulfation of the model ceria-zirconia systems was characterized with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) prior to and after treatment in a microreactor. Strong dependencies were observed between the atomic ratio of ceria to zirconia and the extent of sulfation. In addition, the partial pressure of sulfur dioxide during treatments also correlated to the extent of sulfation, while temperature only slightly effected the extent of sulfation. The AES data suggests the gas phase sulfur dioxide preferentially chemisorbs on surface ceria atoms and the extent of sulfation is heavily dependent on sulfur dioxide concentrations and only slightly dependent on catalyst

  13. Effects of Sulfation Level on the Desulfation Behavior of Presulfated Pt-BaO/Al2O3 Lean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Szanyi, J.; Kwak, J.; Wang, X.; Hanson, J.; Engelhard, M.; Peden, C.

    2009-01-01

    Desulfation by hydrogen of presulfated Pt (2 wt %)-BaO(20 wt %)/Al2O3 with various sulfur loading (S/Ba = 0.12, 0.31, and 0.62) were investigated by combining H2 temperature programmed reaction (TPRX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), in situ sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), and synchrotron time-resolved X-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) techniques. We find that the amount of H2S desorbed during the desulfation in the H2 TPRX experiments is not proportional to the amount of initial sulfur loading. The results of both in situ sulfur K-edge XANES and TR-XRD show that at low sulfur loadings, sulfates were transformed to a BaS phase and remained in the catalyst rather than being removed as H2S. On the other hand, when the deposited sulfur level exceeded a certain threshold (at least S/Ba = 0.31) sulfates were reduced to form H2S, and the relative amount of the residual sulfide species in the catalyst was much less than at low sulfur loading. Unlike samples with high sulfur loading (e.g., S/Ba = 0.62), H2O did not promote the desulfation for the sample with S/Ba of 0.12, implying that the formed BaS species originating from the reduction of sulfates at low sulfur loading are more stable to hydrolysis. The results of this combined spectroscopy investigation provide clear evidence to show that sulfates at low sulfur loadings are less likely to be removed as H2S and have a greater tendency to be transformed to BaS on the material, leading to the conclusion that desulfation behavior of Pt-BaO/Al2O3 lean NOx trap catalysts is markedly dependent on the sulfation levels.

  14. Reliability of pregnancy diagnosis in sows by direct radioimmunoassay of estrone sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalab, P.; Hajek, J.

    1988-01-01

    Pregnancy diagnosis in sows using direct radioimmunoassay of estrone sulfate in the blood serum without sample extraction is described. It was found that for pregnancy diagnosis the period between days 22 and 30 of pregnancy can be used since in this period the estrone sulfate concentrations in all pregnant sows markedly exceeded those of 64 non-pregnant animals. The estrone sulfate estimation cannot be used for pregnancy diagnosis before day 22 and between days 30 and 40 because the estrone sulfate concentrations in most samples collected in these periods were lower than 4 nmol.l -1 . (author). 1 fig., 6 refs

  15. Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2. We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80%–20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. Surface sulfate concentrations are dominated by local anthropogenic sources. Of the sulfate produced from sources other than local anthropogenic emissions (defined here as "background" sulfate, EA sources account for approximately 30%–50% (over the Western US and 10%–20% (over the Eastern US. The surface concentrations of sulfate from EA sources over the Western US are highest in MAM (up to 0.15 μg/m3, and lowest in DJF (less than 0.06 μg/m3. Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence (represented by the areas where at least 0.1 μg m−3 of sulfate originates from EA over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 hPa in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (in particular of H2O2, which oxidizes SO2 to sulfate in the aqueous phase. We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be

  16. Novel thermally stable poly(vinyl chloride) composites for sulfate removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N., E-mail: Nadagouda.mallikarjuna@epa.gov [Water Supply and Water Resources Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45268 (United States); Pressman, Jonathan; White, Colin; Speth, Thomas F.; McCurry, Daniel L. [Water Supply and Water Resources Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45268 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Graphical abstract: Barium carbonate and/or barium carbonate-loaded silica aero-gels dispersed polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composites were prepared by dissolving PVC in tetrahydrofuran (THF), dispersing BaCO{sub 3} and/or BaCO{sub 3}-loaded silica aero-gels, re-precipitating the PVC with water at room temperature. The PVC composites were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The obtained composites had better thermal properties than the control PVC. The composites were tested for sulfate removal and found to significantly reduce sulfate when compared with control PVC. - Abstract: BaCO{sub 3} dispersed PVC composites were prepared through a polymer re-precipitation method. The composites were tested for sulfate removal using rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) and found to significantly reduce sulfate concentration. The method was extended to synthesize barium carbonate-loaded silica aero-gels-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymer composites. The PVC composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The method has advantages over conventional sulfate precipitation (sulfate removal process) using BaCO{sub 3} wherein clogging of the filter can be avoided. The method is environmentally friendly and does not interfere with natural organic matter as the conventional resin does. Some of the composites were thermally more stable as compared with the pure PVC discussed in the literature.

  17. Novel thermally stable poly(vinyl chloride) composites for sulfate removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N.; Pressman, Jonathan; White, Colin; Speth, Thomas F.; McCurry, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Barium carbonate and/or barium carbonate-loaded silica aero-gels dispersed polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composites were prepared by dissolving PVC in tetrahydrofuran (THF), dispersing BaCO 3 and/or BaCO 3 -loaded silica aero-gels, re-precipitating the PVC with water at room temperature. The PVC composites were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The obtained composites had better thermal properties than the control PVC. The composites were tested for sulfate removal and found to significantly reduce sulfate when compared with control PVC. - Abstract: BaCO 3 dispersed PVC composites were prepared through a polymer re-precipitation method. The composites were tested for sulfate removal using rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) and found to significantly reduce sulfate concentration. The method was extended to synthesize barium carbonate-loaded silica aero-gels-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymer composites. The PVC composites were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The method has advantages over conventional sulfate precipitation (sulfate removal process) using BaCO 3 wherein clogging of the filter can be avoided. The method is environmentally friendly and does not interfere with natural organic matter as the conventional resin does. Some of the composites were thermally more stable as compared with the pure PVC discussed in the literature.

  18. Tyrosine sulfation, a post-translational modification of microvillar enzymes in the small intestinal enterocyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1987-01-01

    Protein sulfation in small intestinal epithelial cells was studied by labelling of organ cultured mucosal explants with [35S]-sulfate. Six bands in SDS-PAGE became selectively labelled; four, of 250, 200, 166 and 130 kd, were membrane-bound and two, of 75 and 60 kd, were soluble. The sulfated mem...... sulfated. Most if not all the sulfate was bound to tyrosine residues rather than to the carbohydrate of the microvillar enzymes, showing that this type of modification can occur on plasma membrane proteins as well as on secretory proteins....

  19. Impacts of East Asian Sulfate Aerosols on Local and Remote Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R. E.; Bollasina, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols exert significant climate forcing, which increases with emissions following trends of growing population and industry. Globally, aerosols cause a net cooling, counteracting greenhouse gas warming; however, regional impacts vary since emissions are spatially and temporally heterogeneous. While European and North American emissions have decreased in recent decades, Asian, particularly East Asian, emissions continued to rise into the 21st century. In addition to links between Asian anthropogenic aerosols and significant local climate impacts - for example, changes to the Asian monsoon system - studies have also shown influences on remote climate. Sulfate aerosols are particularly important for East Asia, remaining at constant levels higher than column burdens of other aerosol species. If a concerted effort - as laid out by government policies aiming to improve air quality - is made, the effects of anthropogenic aerosols (due to their short atmospheric lifetime) could be quickly reversed. Thus, it is vital to understand the climate impact aerosols have had up to now to aid in determining what will happen in the future. We use transient climate modelling experiments with the Community Earth System Model to investigate the impacts of East Asian sulfate aerosols in the present day compared to 1950 (i.e. before rapid industrialisation in this region), focusing on dynamical mechanisms leading to the occurrence of such impacts, and how their influence can spread to remote regions. We find, in addition to significant monsoon impacts, noticeable shifts in large-scale circulation features such as the ITCZ and the Pacific Walker cell. Through diabatic heating responses, changes to upper-level atmospheric dynamics are evident, leading to downstream effects on surface climate - for example, surface cooling over Europe. Understanding of these impacts is vital when considering how the good intentions of air quality improvement might inadvertently have

  20. Sulfate minerals: a problem for the detection of organic compounds on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James M T; Watson, Jonathan S; Najorka, Jens; Luong, Duy; Sephton, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    The search for in situ organic matter on Mars involves encounters with minerals and requires an understanding of their influence on lander and rover experiments. Inorganic host materials can be helpful by aiding the preservation of organic compounds or unhelpful by causing the destruction of organic matter during thermal extraction steps. Perchlorates are recognized as confounding minerals for thermal degradation studies. On heating, perchlorates can decompose to produce oxygen, which then oxidizes organic matter. Other common minerals on Mars, such as sulfates, may also produce oxygen upon thermal decay, presenting an additional complication. Different sulfate species decompose within a large range of temperatures. We performed a series of experiments on a sample containing the ferric sulfate jarosite. The sulfate ions within jarosite break down from 500 °C. Carbon dioxide detected during heating of the sample was attributed to oxidation of organic matter. A laboratory standard of ferric sulfate hydrate released sulfur dioxide from 550 °C, and an oxygen peak was detected in the products. Calcium sulfate did not decompose below 1000 °C. Oxygen released from sulfate minerals may have already affected organic compound detection during in situ thermal experiments on Mars missions. A combination of preliminary mineralogical analyses and suitably selected pyrolysis temperatures may increase future success in the search for past or present life on Mars.

  1. Extraction and determination of chondroitin sulfate from fish processing byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) refers to a group of sulfated glycosaminoglycan containing a chain of alternating N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid sugars. It is a major component of the extracellular matrix of cartilage and attached to proteins. CS is usually an over the counter dietary supplement...

  2. Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarana, M.; Kalamajski, S.; Kongsgaard, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Here we report on the generation of DS-epi1-null mice and the resulting alterations in the chondroitin/dermatan polysaccharide chains. The numbers of long blocks......-derived chains. DS-epi1-deficient mice are smaller than their wild-type littermates but otherwise have no gross macroscopic alterations. The lack of DS-epi1 affects the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in many proteoglycans, and the consequences for skin collagen structure were initially analyzed. We found...... that the skin collagen architecture was altered, and electron microscopy showed that the DS-epi1-null fibrils have a larger diameter than the wild-type fibrils. The altered chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chains carried by decorin in skin are likely to affect collagen fibril formation and reduce the tensile...

  3. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI BAKTERI PEREDUKSI SULFAT PADA AREA PERTAMBANGAN BATU BARA MUARA ENIM, SUMATERA SELATAN

    OpenAIRE

    Muchamad Yusron; Bibiana W Lay; Anas M Fauzi; Dwi Andreas Santosa

    2010-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria utilize sulfate as their terminal electron acceptor and reduce it to sulphide. Acid mine drainage, by-products of mining activities, is an acidic sulfate-rich wastewater suitable habitat for sulfate reducing bacteria. Isolation and identification of sulfate reducing bacteria collected from Muara Enim coal mining, South Sumatra was carried out at Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Indonesian Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology (ICBB), Bogor, and Laborato...

  4. Mercury methylation in Sphagnum moss mats and its association with sulfate-reducing bacteria in an acidic Adirondack forest lake wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ri-Qing; Adatto, Isaac; Montesdeoca, Mario R; Driscoll, Charles T; Hines, Mark E; Barkay, Tamar

    2010-12-01

    Processes leading to the bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in northern wetlands are largely unknown. We have studied various ecological niches within a remote, acidic forested lake ecosystem in the southwestern Adirondacks, NY, to discover that mats comprised of Sphagnum moss were a hot spot for mercury (Hg) and MeHg accumulation (190.5 and 18.6 ng g⁻¹ dw, respectively). Furthermore, significantly higher potential methylation rates were measured in Sphagnum mats as compared with other sites within Sunday Lake's ecosystem. Although MPN estimates showed a low biomass of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), 2.8 × 10⁴ cells mL⁻¹ in mat samples, evidence consisting of (1) a twofold stimulation of potential methylation by the addition of sulfate, (2) a significant decrease in Hg methylation in the presence of the sulfate reduction inhibitor molybdate, and (3) presence of dsrAB-like genes in mat DNA extracts, suggested that SRB were involved in Hg methylation. Sequencing of dsrB genes indicated that novel SRB, incomplete oxidizers including Desulfobulbus spp. and Desulfovibrio spp., and syntrophs dominated the sulfate-reducing guild in the Sphagnum moss mat. Sphagnum, a bryophyte dominating boreal peatlands, and its associated microbial communities appear to play an important role in the production and accumulation of MeHg in high-latitude ecosystems. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 75 FR 56101 - Lauryl Sulfate Salts Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... decision for the pesticide, lauryl sulfate salts (also known as sodium lauryl salts), case 4061... announces the availability of EPA's final registration review decision for the lauryl sulfate salts. Sodium... product that contains sodium lauryl sulfate as an active ingredient. The product, Kleenex[reg] Brand...

  6. Sulfate Reduction at pH 4.0 for Treatment of Process and Wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmans, M.F.M.; Vries, de E.; Yang, C.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Lens, P.N.L.; Dopson, M.

    2010-01-01

    Acidic industrial process and wastewaters often contain high sulfate and metal concentrations and their direct biological treatment is thus far not possible as biological processes at pH <5 have been neglected. Sulfate-reducing bacteria convert sulfate to sulfide that can subsequently be used to

  7. Microstructural and Microanalytical Study on Concrete Exposed to the Sulfate Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Fang; Beixing, Li; Jiangang, Yin; Xiaolu, Yuan

    2017-11-01

    Microstructural properties have been examined to investigate the effect of mineral admixtures on the sulfate resistance of concrete. Concrete and cement paste specimens made with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) or ordinary Portland cement incorporating 20% fly ash (FA) or 30% ground blast furnace slag (GBFS), were made and exposed to 250 cycles of the cyclic sulfate environment. Microstructural and Microanalytical study was conducted by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). Results indicate that the pore structure of concrete after sulfate exposure possesses the fractal feature. The OPC concrete presents more complex pore internal surface, higher porosity and less micro-pores than the concrete incorporating fly ash and GBFS. Portlandite in OPC concrete and OPC-FA concrete is mainly converted to gypsum; while for OPC-GBFS concrete, both gypsum and ettringite are formed. In the cyclic sulfate environment, repeated hydration and dehydration of sulfates produce the expansive stress in pores, aggravating the demolishment of concrete structure.

  8. Interface-Limited Spherulitic Growth of Hydroxyapatite/Chondroitin Sulfate Composite Enamel-like Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guobin; Xu, Yifei; Wang, Xiyan; Wang, Mu

    2012-02-01

    Understanding and mimicking the growth of hard tissues such as tooth enamel may lead to innovative approaches toward engineering novel functional materials and providing new therapeutics. Up to now, in vitro growth of enamel-like materials is still a great challenge, and the microscopic formation mechanisms are far from well understood. Here we report synthesis of large-scale hydroxyapatite (HAP) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS) composite films by an efficient solution-air interface growth method. The products have the characteristic hierarchical prism structures of enamel and the mechanical properties comparable to dentin. We demonstrate that the films are assembled by spherulites nucleated at the solution surface. The growth of the spherulites is limited by the interfaces between them as well as between the solution and air, leading to the ordered prism structure. The results are beneficial for a clearer understanding of the fundamentals of tooth enamel formation.

  9. Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-containing wastewater from distilleries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, E.A.; Oey, L.N.; Weber, B.

    1994-01-01

    Bioprocess evaluation of a staged arrangement of a Pulse Driven Loop Reaktor (PDLR) and a Pulsed Anaerobic Filter (PAF) using highly polluted cherry slops as industrial wastewater shows a COD removal efficiency of 80-90% at loading rates of 8-4 kg COD/(M 3 .d). Contamination of cherry slops by sulfate (2 g/l) and copper (150-200 mg/l) reduces COD degradation to 40-50 percent. A pulsed anaerobic baffled reactor was envisaged as a corrective tool to improve mineralisation in the presence of sulfate-rich substrates by confining sulfate reducing bacteria to the first 4 chambers of the reactor. Phasing slightly improves COD degradation yield, but is not sufficient for stable process performance. Consequently, the use of lactic acid in stead of sulfuric acid in cherry-fermentation was suggested as a preventive method to avoid sulphide-induced digester failure. (orig.) [de

  10. Effect of chondroitin sulfate on osteogenetic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneiders, Wolfgang, E-mail: schneidersw@gmx.de; Rentsch, Claudia; Rehberg, Sebastian; Rein, Susanne; Zwipp, Hans; Rammelt, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) has anti-inflammatory properties and increases the regeneration ability of injured bone. In different in vivo investigations on bone defects the addition of CS to calcium phosphate bone cement has lead to an enhanced bone remodeling and increased new bone formation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of CS on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In cell culture experiments hMSCs were incubated on calcium phosphate bone cements with and without CS and cultivated in a proliferation and an osteogenetic differentiation media. Alkaline phosphatase and the proliferation rate were determined on days 1, 7 and 14. Concerning the proliferation rates, no significant differences were detected. On days 1, 7 and 14 a significantly higher activity of alkaline phosphatase, an early marker of osteogenesis, was detected around CS modified cements in both types of media. The addition of CS leads to a significant increase of osteogenetic differentiation of hMSCs. To evaluate the influence of the osteoconductive potency of CS in twelve adult male Wistar rats, the interface reaction of cancellous bone to a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite cement containing type I collagen (CDHA/Coll) without and with CS (CDHA/Coll/CS) was evaluated. Cylindrical implants were inserted press-fit into a defect of the tibial head. 28 days after the operation the direct bone contact and the percentage of newly formed bone were significantly higher on CDHA/Coll/CS-implants (p < 0.05). The addition of CS appears to enhance new bone formation on CDHA/Coll-composites in the early stages of bone healing. Possible mechanisms are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influence of chondroitin sulfate (CS) on bone metabolism was evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CS leads to a significant increase of osteogenetic differentiation of hMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In small animal investigation CS seems to enhance osteogenesis in bone healing.

  11. Inhibition of sulfate reduction in paddy soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamos, R

    1958-12-13

    The hydrogen sulfide formed in waterlogged soils is a serious problem in rice cultivation. It inhibits the uptake of water and nutrients and may even cause root-rot. Results can best be obtained by preventing the formation of hydrogen sulfide. It is formed mainly by reduction of sulfate for which the cellulose-butyric acid fermentation provides the hydrogen source. Addition of ammonium or potassium nitrate prevents the formation of H/sub 2/S. The hydrogen produced by butyric acid fermentation is used to reduce nitrate and consequently cannot be utilized by the sulfate-reducing bacteria as a source of energy. 6 references.

  12. Combined elimination of organic C, sulfate and heavy metals. Final report; Kombinierte organische C-, Sulfat- und Schwermetalleliminierung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raebiger, N.

    2002-01-11

    A new biological process for purification of highly burdened industrial effluents was developed in which aerobic, oxygen-limiting reaction conditions ensure simultaneous elimination of organic C, sulfate and heavy metals in a single process step in a compact system. The design data are presented here for the purpose of practical implementation of the process. [German] Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens ist die Entwicklung eines neuen biologischen Verfahrens zur Reinigung hochbelasteter Industrieabwaesser, bei dem durch die Einstellung aerober, sauerstofflimitierender Reaktionsbedingungen eine kombinierte organisch C-, Sulfat- und Schwermetalleliminierung gleichzeitig in einem Verfahrensschritt und kompakter Anlagentechnik realisiert wird. Hierbei werden die Auslegungsunterlagen fuer die praxisrelevante Umsetzung dieses Verfahrens zur Verfuegung gestellt. (orig.)

  13. Sulfur accumulation and atmospherically deposited sulfate in the Lake States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark B. David; George Z. Gernter; David F. Grigal; Lewis F. Ohmann

    1989-01-01

    Characterizes the mass of soil sulfur (adjusted for nitrogen), and atmospherically deposited sulfate along an acid precipitation gradient from Minnesota to Michigan. The relationship of these variables, presented graphically through contour mapping, suggests that patterns of atmospheric wet sulfate deposition are reflected in soil sulfur pools.

  14. Origin of increased sulfate in groundwater at the ETF disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.

    1997-09-01

    Treated effluent being discharged to the vadose zone from the C-018H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at the Hanford Site has infiltrated vertically to the unconfined aquifer, as indicated by increasing tritium activity levels in the groundwater. Well 699-48-77A, in particular, exhibits increased levels of tritium and also sulfate in the groundwater. The origin of increased sulfate levels in the groundwater is attributed to the dissolution of gypsum as the effluent flows through the vadose zone. This is supported by the observation that sulfate was found to be present in soils collected from the vadose zone at an average value of about 10.6 ppm. The maximum observed sulfate concentration of 190 mg/L from well 699-48-77A was observed on August 6, 1996, and is less than the maximum value of 879 mg/L that potentially could be achieved if water in the vadose zone was to attain saturation with respect to gypsum and calcite. It is suggested that infiltration rates were high enough that the effluent did not completely equilibrate with gypsum in the vadose zone, and thus, sulfate levels remained below gypsum saturation levels. Sulfate levels appear to be dropping, which may be attributed to the completion of the dissolution of the bulk of gypsum present along the vadose zone flow path traversed by the effluent. Geochemical modeling was undertaken to evaluate the influence of effluent chemistry on sulfate concentration levels in the presence of excess calcite and gypsum. In general, the effect is fairly minor for dilute solutions, but becomes more significant for concentrated solutions

  15. Antimicrobial effect of a crude sulfated polysaccharide from the red seaweed Gracilaria ornata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo das Neves dos Santos Amorim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the yield, chemical composition, specific rotation (SR, infrared (IR spectroscopy and the effect on bacterial growth of a crude sulfated polysaccharide (SP from the red marine alga G. ornata (Go. Go-1 (25°C, Go-2 (80°C, and Go-3 (80°C were sequentially extracted and yielded 9.2%. The contents of sulfate (5.88-10.3% and proteins (0.1-3.7% were small. The values of SR were [µ]D20°f -19.0, -51.0, and -56.5, respectively. IR spectrums showed the presence of galactose-4 sulfate and absence of 3,6-anydrogalactose-2 sulfate, galactose-6 sulfate and galactose-2 sulfate. SR and IR techniques confirmed SPs. Go-3 was tested on the growth of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonela choleraesuis and Salmonela typhi, but only E. coli was inhibited.

  16. Effects of enteral and intravenous fluid therapy, magnesium sulfate, and sodium sulfate on colonic contents and feces in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marco A F; White, Nathaniel A; Donaldson, Lydia; Crisman, Mark V; Ward, Daniel L

    2004-05-01

    To assess changes in systemic hydration, concentrations of electrolytes in plasma, hydration of colonic contents and feces, and gastrointestinal transit in horses treated with IV fluid therapy or enteral administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), sodium sulfate (NaSO4), water, or a balanced electrolyte solution. 7 horses with fistulas in the right dorsal colon (RDC). In a crossover design, horses alternately received 1 of 6 treatments: no treatment (control); IV fluid therapy with lactated Ringer's solution; or enteral administration of MgSO4, Na2SO4, water, or a balanced electrolyte solution via nasogastric intubation. Physical examinations were performed and samples of blood, RDC contents, and feces were collected every 6 hours during the 48 hour-observation period. Horses were muzzled for the initial 24 hours but had access to water ad libitum. Horses had access to hay, salt, and water ad libitum for the last 24 hours. Enteral administration of a balanced electrolyte solution and Na2SO4 were the best treatments for promoting hydration of RDC contents, followed by water. Sodium sulfate was the best treatment for promoting fecal hydration, followed by MgSO4 and the balanced electrolyte solution. Sodium sulfate caused hypocalcemia and hypernatremia, and water caused hyponatremia. Enteral administration of a balanced electrolyte solution promoted hydration of RDC contents and may be useful in horses with large colon impactions. Enteral administration of either Na2SO4 or water may promote hydration of RDC contents but can cause severe electrolyte imbalances.

  17. Effect of mechanical activation on structure and thermal decomposition of aluminum sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasri-Khouzani, M.; Meratian, M.; Panjepour, M.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of both non-activated and mechanically activated aluminum sulfates were studied by thermogravimetry (TG). The structural disorder, the specific surface area (SSA) and the morphology of mechanically activated aluminum sulfates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser particle-size analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Thermal analyses results indicated that the initial temperature of thermal decomposition (T i ) in TG curves for mechanically activated aluminum sulfates decreased gradually with increasing the milling time. It was also found that the SSA of mechanically activated aluminum sulfates remained almost constant after a certain milling time, and lattice strains (ε) rose but the crystallite sizes (D) decreased with increasing the milling time. These results showed that the decrease of T i in TG curves of mechanically activated aluminum sulfates was mainly caused by the increase of lattice distortions and decrease of the crystallite sizes with increasing the milling time

  18. Studies of doped negative valve-regulated lead-acid battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micka, K. [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, ASCR, 182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Calabek, M.; Baca, P.; Krivak, P.; Labus, R.; Bilko, R. [Department of Electrotechnology, University of Technology, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2009-06-01

    Accelerated cycling in the partial state of charge regime showed conclusively that the improvement in cycle life of negative lead accumulator electrodes can be brought about not only by the addition of various sorts of powdered carbon into the active mass but also by the addition of other powdered inert materials like glass fibers, alumina, or titanium dioxide. Steric hindrance of the crystallization of lead sulfate in the electrode pores evidenced by ESEM microphotographs is considered as the main reason for this effect. The added powdered substances were practically without influence on the hydrogen overpotential; and their effect on the active material resistance was also negligible. (author)

  19. Evaluating performance-based test and specifications for sulfate resistance in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    This research project involved an experimental evaluation of the sulfate resistance of various concretes and mortars for the purpose of establishing performance-based specifications for the durability of concrete against sulfate attack. The research ...

  20. An exploratory study of alkali sulfate aerosol formation during biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løj, Lusi Hindiyarti; Frandsen, Flemming; Livbjerg, Hans

    2008-01-01

    mechanism. The modeling predictions are compared to data from laboratory experiments and entrained flow reactor experiments available in the literature. The analysis support that alkali sulfate aerosols are formed from homogeneous nucleation following a series of steps occurring in the gas phase. The rate......It is still in discussion to what extent alkali sulfate aerosols in biomass combustion are formed in the gas phase by a homogeneous mechanism or involve heterogeneous or catalyzed reactions. The present study investigates sulfate aerosol formation based on calculations with a detailed gas phase......-limiting step may be the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate, rather than the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 proposed previously. Even though the proposed model is consistent with experimental observations, experiments in a rigorously homogeneous system are called for to test its validity....

  1. Oxygen Reduction Reaction on PtCo Nanocatalyst: (Bi)sulfate Anion Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Yan

    2018-05-01

    Pt alloy electrocatalysts are susceptible to anion adsorption in the working environment of fuel cells. In this work, the unavoidable bisulfate and sulfate ((bi)sulfate) poisoning of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on a common PtCo nanocatalyst was studied by the rotating disk electrode (RDE) technique, for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The specific activity decreases linearly with the logarithm of (bi)sulfate concentration under various high potentials. This demonstrates that the (bi)sulfate adsorption does not affect the free energy of ORR activation at a given potential. Moreover, it is speculated that these two conditions, the adsorption of one O2 molecule onto two Pt sites and this adsorption as a rate-determining step of ORR reaction, are unlikely to exist simultaneously.

  2. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R

    1984-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  3. Skeletal keratan sulfate chain molecular weight calibration by high-performance gel-permeation chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickenson, J.M.; Morris, H.G.; Nieduszynski, I.A.; Huckerby, T.N.

    1990-01-01

    A method has been developed for the molecular sizing of skeletal keratan sulfate chains using an HPLC gel-permeation chromatography system. Keratan sulfate chains and keratanase-derived oligosaccharides were prepared from the nucleus pulposus of bovine intervertebral disc (6-year-old animals). A Bio-Gel TSK 30 XL column eluted in 0.2 M NaCl and at 30 degrees C was calibrated with keratan sulfate oligosaccharides of known size as well as 3H-end-labeled keratan sulfate chains to yield the relationship

  4. Sensitivity of modelled sulfate aerosol and its radiative effect on climate to ocean DMS concentration and air–sea flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-E. Tesdal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dimethylsulfide (DMS is a well-known marine trace gas that is emitted from the ocean and subsequently oxidizes to sulfate in the atmosphere. Sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere have direct and indirect effects on the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Thus, as a potential source of sulfate, ocean efflux of DMS needs to be accounted for in climate studies. Seawater concentration of DMS is highly variable in space and time, which in turn leads to high spatial and temporal variability in ocean DMS emissions. Because of sparse sampling (in both space and time, large uncertainties remain regarding ocean DMS concentration. In this study, we use an atmospheric general circulation model with explicit aerosol chemistry (CanAM4.1 and several climatologies of surface ocean DMS concentration to assess uncertainties about the climate impact of ocean DMS efflux. Despite substantial variation in the spatial pattern and seasonal evolution of simulated DMS fluxes, the global-mean radiative effect of sulfate is approximately linearly proportional to the global-mean surface flux of DMS; the spatial and temporal distribution of ocean DMS efflux has only a minor effect on the global radiation budget. The effect of the spatial structure, however, generates statistically significant changes in the global-mean concentrations of some aerosol species. The effect of seasonality on the net radiative effect is larger than that of spatial distribution and is significant at global scale.

  5. Synthesis and surface properties of submicron barium sulfate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Zhang Bao; Li Xinhai; Yin Zhoulan; Guo Xueyi

    2011-01-01

    Barium sulfate particles were synthesized in the presence of EDTA at room temperature. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared resonance (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of BaSO 4 particles. The effect of the preparation parameters on the particle size distribution and morphology was investigated. The conditional formation constants of Ba-EDTA at different pH values were calculated. The results show that the size and morphology of BaSO 4 particles can be effectively controlled by adding EDTA in the precipitation process. Among all the operation conditions, the pH value has significant effect on the particle size. The obtained barium sulfate particles are spherical and well dispersed at pH = 9-10. Zeta potentials of BaSO 4 were measured at different pH. The isoelectric point (IEP) of barium sulfate colloid appears at pH 6.92. The model of the solid-solution interface at a particle of BaSO 4 was presented. The FTIR result indicates that the surface of the prepared BaSO 4 absorbs the functional groups of EDTA, which lower the IEP of the barium sulfate particles.

  6. Synthesis and surface properties of submicron barium sulfate particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ming, E-mail: csu.light@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Zhaoqing University, Zhaoqing 526061 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhang Bao; Li Xinhai [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yin Zhoulan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Guo Xueyi [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Barium sulfate particles were synthesized in the presence of EDTA at room temperature. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared resonance (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of BaSO{sub 4} particles. The effect of the preparation parameters on the particle size distribution and morphology was investigated. The conditional formation constants of Ba-EDTA at different pH values were calculated. The results show that the size and morphology of BaSO{sub 4} particles can be effectively controlled by adding EDTA in the precipitation process. Among all the operation conditions, the pH value has significant effect on the particle size. The obtained barium sulfate particles are spherical and well dispersed at pH = 9-10. Zeta potentials of BaSO{sub 4} were measured at different pH. The isoelectric point (IEP) of barium sulfate colloid appears at pH 6.92. The model of the solid-solution interface at a particle of BaSO{sub 4} was presented. The FTIR result indicates that the surface of the prepared BaSO{sub 4} absorbs the functional groups of EDTA, which lower the IEP of the barium sulfate particles.

  7. Weak bases and formation of a less soluble lauryl sulfate salt/complex in sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) containing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachar, Shobha N; Risley, Donald S; Werawatganone, Pornpen; Aburub, Aktham

    2011-06-30

    This work reports on the solubility of two weakly basic model compounds in media containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Results clearly show that the presence of SLS in the media (e.g. simulated gastric fluid or dissolution media) can result in an underestimation of solubility of some weak bases. We systematically study this phenomenon and provide evidence (chromatography and pXRD) for the first time that the decrease in solubility is likely due to formation of a less soluble salt/complex between the protonated form of the weak base and lauryl sulfate anion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of magnesium sulfate on the acquisition and reinstatement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the current study, the effects of magnesium sulfate on the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in an animal model were investigated. The acquisition and extinction and reinstatement phases induced using morphine 40 and 10mg/kg. Magnesium sulfate 300 and 600 ...

  9. Reductive and sorptive properties of sulfate green rust (GRSO4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedel, Sorin

    The Fe(II), Fe(III) hydroxide containing sulfate in its structure, called sulfate green rust (GRSO4), can effectively reduce and convert contaminants to less mobile and less toxic forms. However, the ability of GRSO4 to remove positively charged species from solution, via sorption, is very limited...

  10. Metabolic niche of a prominent sulfate-reducing human gut bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Federico E; Gonzalez, Mark D; Cheng, Jiye; Wu, Meng; Ahern, Philip P; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2013-08-13

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) colonize the guts of ∼50% of humans. We used genome-wide transposon mutagenesis and insertion-site sequencing, RNA-Seq, plus mass spectrometry to characterize genetic and environmental factors that impact the niche of Desulfovibrio piger, the most common SRB in a surveyed cohort of healthy US adults. Gnotobiotic mice were colonized with an assemblage of sequenced human gut bacterial species with or without D. piger and fed diets with different levels and types of carbohydrates and sulfur sources. Diet was a major determinant of functions expressed by this artificial nine-member community and of the genes that impact D. piger fitness; the latter includes high- and low-affinity systems for using ammonia, a limiting resource for D. piger in mice consuming a polysaccharide-rich diet. Although genes involved in hydrogen consumption and sulfate reduction are necessary for its colonization, varying dietary-free sulfate levels did not significantly alter levels of D. piger, which can obtain sulfate from the host in part via cross-feeding mediated by Bacteroides-encoded sulfatases. Chondroitin sulfate, a common dietary supplement, increased D. piger and H2S levels without compromising gut barrier integrity. A chondroitin sulfate-supplemented diet together with D. piger impacted the assemblage's substrate utilization preferences, allowing consumption of more reduced carbon sources and increasing the abundance of the H2-producing Actinobacterium, Collinsella aerofaciens. Our findings provide genetic and metabolic details of how this H2-consuming SRB shapes the responses of a microbiota to diet ingredients and a framework for examining how individuals lacking D. piger differ from those who harbor it.

  11. Active Microbial Sulfate Reduction in Serpentinization Fluids of the Semail Ophiolite in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glombitza, C.; Rempfert, K. R.; Templeton, A. S.; Hoehler, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction (SR) is among the oldest known microbial processes on Earth. It is the predominant anaerobic microbial process in sulfur-rich marine sediments but it also occurs in subsurface lithoautotrophic ecosystems, where it is driven by radiolytically produced H2 and sulfate [1]. Serpentinization is a process by which H2 is generated in a reaction of water with peridotite rock. This abiotic generation of H2 suggests its potential to power life in rocks as a stand-alone process, independent of the photosynthetic biosphere, because the generated H2 is a key energy source for microbial metabolism. This is of particular interest in understanding the role of water-rock reactions in generating habitable conditions on and beyond Earth. Sulfate is plausibly available in several of the water-bearing environments now known beyond Earth, making SR a potentially important metabolism in those systems. Sulfate minerals are abundant on the surface of Mars [2], suggesting that Martian groundwaters may be sulfate-rich. Sulfate is also postulated to be a component of the oceans of Europa and Enceladus [3, 4]. The inferred presence of both sulfate and peridotite rocks in these environments points toward a potential niche for sulfate reducers and highlights the need to understand how and where SR occurs in serpentinizing systems on Earth. We incubated formation fluids sampled from in the Semail Ophiolite in Oman with a 35-S labelled sulfate tracer and determined the rates of in-situ microbial sulfate reduction. The selected fluids represent different environmental conditions, in particular varying substrate concentrations (sulfate, H2 and CH4) and pH (pH 8.4 to pH 11.2). We found active microbial SR at very low rates in almost all fluids, ranging from 2 fmol mL-1 d-1 to 2 pmol mL-1 d-2. Lowest rates were associated with the hyperalkaline fluids (pH > 10), that had also the lowest sulfate concentration (50-90 µmol L-1). In line with previously determined species

  12. Glycan Sulfation Modulates Dendritic Cell Biology and Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland El Ghazal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In cancer, proteoglycans have been found to play roles in facilitating the actions of growth factors, and effecting matrix invasion and remodeling. However, little is known regarding the genetic and functional importance of glycan chains displayed by proteoglycans on dendritic cells (DCs in cancer immunity. In lung carcinoma, among other solid tumors, tumor-associated DCs play largely subversive/suppressive roles, promoting tumor growth and progression. Herein, we show that targeting of DC glycan sulfation through mutation in the heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzyme N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1 in mice increased DC maturation and inhibited trafficking of DCs to draining lymph nodes. Lymphatic-driven DC migration and chemokine (CCL21-dependent activation of a major signaling pathway required for DC migration (as measured by phospho-Akt were sensitive to Ndst1 mutation in DCs. Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in mice deficient in Ndst1 were reduced in size. Purified CD11c+ cells from the tumors, which contain the tumor-infiltrating DC population, showed a similar phenotype in mutant cells. These features were replicated in mice deficient in syndecan-4, the major heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the DC surface: Tumors were growth-impaired in syndecan-4–deficient mice and were characterized by increased infiltration by mature DCs. Tumors on the mutant background also showed greater infiltration by NK cells and NKT cells. These findings indicate the genetic importance of DC heparan sulfate proteoglycans in tumor growth and may guide therapeutic development of novel strategies to target syndecan-4 and heparan sulfate in cancer.

  13. Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Thelin, Martin A; Bartolini, Barbara; Axelsson, Jakob; Gustafsson, Renata; Tykesson, Emil; Pera, Edgar; Oldberg, ?ke; Maccarana, Marco; Malmstrom, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The presence of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate changes the properties of the polysaccharides because it generates a more flexible chain with increased binding potentials. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate influences multiple cellular properties, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and the regulation of cytokine/growth factor activities. Under pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation and cancer, iduronic acid has diverse...

  14. The Compact and Biologically Relevant Structure of Inter-α-inhibitor Is Maintained by the Chondroitin Sulfate Chain and Divalent Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavenius, Carsten; Nikolajsen, Camilla Lund; Stenvang, Marcel; Thøgersen, Ida B; Wyrożemski, Łukasz; Wisniewski, Hans-Georg; Otzen, Daniel E; Sanggaard, Kristian W; Enghild, Jan J

    2016-02-26

    Inter-α-inhibitor is a proteoglycan of unique structure. The protein consists of three subunits, heavy chain 1, heavy chain 2, and bikunin covalently joined by a chondroitin sulfate chain originating at Ser-10 of bikunin. Inter-α-inhibitor interacts with an inflammation-associated protein, tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein, in the extracellular matrix. This interaction leads to transfer of the heavy chains from the chondroitin sulfate of inter-α-inhibitor to hyaluronan and consequently to matrix stabilization. Divalent cations and heavy chain 2 are essential co-factors in this transfer reaction. In the present study, we have investigated how divalent cations in concert with the chondroitin sulfate chain influence the structure and stability of inter-α-inhibitor. The results showed that Mg(2+) or Mn(2+), but not Ca(2+), induced a conformational change in inter-α-inhibitor as evidenced by a decrease in the Stokes radius and a bikunin chondroitin sulfate-dependent increase of the thermodynamic stability. This structure was shown to be essential for the ability of inter-α-inhibitor to participate in extracellular matrix stabilization. In addition, the data revealed that bikunin was positioned adjacent to both heavy chains and that the two heavy chains also were in close proximity. The chondroitin sulfate chain interacted with all protein components and inter-α-inhibitor dissociated when it was degraded. Conventional purification protocols result in the removal of the Mg(2+) found in plasma and because divalent cations influence the conformation and affect function it is important to consider this when characterizing the biological activity of inter-α-inhibitor. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Effect of Sulfation and Molecular Weight on Anticoagulant Activity of Dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, N N; Logvinova, Yu S; Torlopov, M A; Udoratina, E V

    2017-02-01

    Sulfation (to 2.8) of dextrans with molecular weight of 150 and 20 kDa was followed by the appearance of anticoagulant activity that increased with decreasing their molecular weight and did not depend on antithrombin, plasma inhibitor of serine proteases of the blood coagulation system. Antithrombin activity of dextran sulfate with a molecular weight of 20 kDa reached 12.6-15.3 U/mg. Dextran sulfates with molecular weights of 20 and 150 kDa did not potentiate ADP-induced human platelet aggregation.

  16. Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Stephen Ewart

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans, ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application.

  17. Sulfate reduction with methanol by a thermophilic consortium obtained from a methanogenic reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidova, I.A. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Microbiology; Stams, A.J.M. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Microbiology

    1996-12-31

    An enrichment culture obtained from anaerobic granular sludge of a bench-scale anarobic reactor degraded methanol at 65 C via sulfate reduction and acetogenesis. Sulfate reduction was the dominant process (S{sup 2-}/acetate=2.5). No methane formation was observed. Approximately 30% of the methanol was converted by acetogenic bacteria to acetate, while the remainder was degraded by these bacteria to H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} in syntrophy with hydrogen-consuming sulfate-reducing bacteria. Pure cultures of sulfate-reducing and acetogenic bacteria were isolated and characterized. (orig.)

  18. 75 FR 37790 - Lauryl Sulfate Salts; Antimicrobial Registration Review Final Work Plan and Proposed Registration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ..., and opens a 60-day public comment period on the proposed decision. Sodium lauryl sulfate (PC Code...% sodium lauryl sulfate and is registered by Kimberly-Clark Global Sales, LLC (EPA Reg. No. 9402-10). The... sulfate as an active ingredient were first registered in 1948 and sodium lauryl sulfate is widely used as...

  19. Elevated olivine weathering rates and sulfate formation at cryogenic temperatures on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Paul B; Michalski, Joseph; Ming, Douglas W; Golden, D C

    2017-10-17

    Large Hesperian-aged (~3.7 Ga) layered deposits of sulfate-rich sediments in the equatorial regions of Mars have been suggested to be evidence for ephemeral playa environments. But early Mars may not have been warm enough to support conditions similar to what occurs in arid environments on Earth. Instead cold, icy environments may have been widespread. Under cryogenic conditions sulfate formation might be blocked, since kinetics of silicate weathering are typically strongly retarded at temperatures well below 0 °C. But cryo-concentration of acidic solutions may counteract the slow kinetics. Here we show that cryo-concentrated acidic brines rapidly chemically weather olivine minerals and form sulfate minerals at temperatures as low as -60 °C. These experimental results demonstrate the viability of sulfate formation under current Martian conditions, even in the polar regions. An ice-hosted sedimentation and weathering model may provide a compelling description of the origin of large Hesperian-aged layered sulfate deposits on Mars.

  20. Regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.S.; Thomson, I.; Egan, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    As part of the Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) Design Project, a regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates has been developed. This quasi-Lagrangian three-dimensional grid numerical model uses a detailed SO 2 emission inventory of major anthropogenic sources in the Eastern U.S. region, and observed meteorological data during an episode as inputs. The model accounts for advective transport and turbulent diffusion of the pollutants. The chemical transformation of SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ and the deposition of the species at the earth's surface are assumed to be linear processes at specified constant rates. The numerical model can predict the daily average concentrations of SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ at all receptor locations in the grid region during the episode. Because of the spatial resolution of the grid, this model is particularly suited to investigate the effect of tall stacks in reducing the ambient concentration levels of sulfur pollutants. This paper presents the formulations and assumptions of the regional sulfate transport model. The model inputs and results are discussed. Isopleths of predicted SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ concentrations are compared with the observed ground level values. The bulk of the information in this paper is directed to air pollution meteorologists and environmental engineers interested in the atmospheric transport modeling studies of sulfur oxide pollutants

  1. Investigation of kinetics and absorption isotherm models for hydroponic phytoremediation of waters contaminated with sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Ali; Tafazzoli, Milad; Mortazavian, Soroosh; James, David E

    2018-02-01

    Two common wetland plants, Pampas Grass (Cortaderia selloana) and Lucky Bamboo (Dracaena sanderiana), were used in hydroponic cultivation systems for the treatment of simulated high-sulfate wastewaters. Plants in initial experiments at pH 7.0 removed sulfate more efficiently compared to the same experimental conditions at pH 6.0. Results at sulfate concentrations of 50, 200, 300, 600, 900, 1200, 1500 and 3000 mg/L during three consecutive 7-day treatment periods with 1-day rest intervals, showed decreasing trends of both removal efficiencies and uptake rates with increasing sulfate concentrations from the first to the second to the third 7-day treatment periods. Removed sulfate masses per unit dry plant mass, calculated after 23 days, showed highest removal capacity at 600 mg/L sulfate for both plants. A Langmuir-type isotherm best described sulfate uptake capacity of both plants. Kinetic studies showed that compared to pseudo first-order kinetics, pseudo-second order kinetic models slightly better described sulfate uptake rates by both plants. The Elovich kinetic model showed faster rates of attaining equilibrium at low sulfate concentrations for both plants. The dimensionless Elovich model showed that about 80% of sulfate uptake occurred during the first four days' contact time. Application of three 4-day contact times with 2-day rest intervals at high sulfate concentrations resulted in slightly higher uptakes compared to three 7-day contact times with 1-day rest intervals, indicating that pilot-plant scale treatment systems could be sized with shorter contact times and longer rest-intervals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biogenic, anthropogenic and sea salt sulfate size-segregated aerosols in the Arctic summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghahremaninezhad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Size-segregated aerosol sulfate concentrations were measured on board the Canadian Coast Guard Ship (CCGS Amundsen in the Arctic during July 2014. The objective of this study was to utilize the isotopic composition of sulfate to address the contribution of anthropogenic and biogenic sources of aerosols to the growth of the different aerosol size fractions in the Arctic atmosphere. Non-sea-salt sulfate is divided into biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate using stable isotope apportionment techniques. A considerable amount of the average sulfate concentration in the fine aerosols with a diameter  <  0.49 µm was from biogenic sources (>  63 %, which is higher than in previous Arctic studies measuring above the ocean during fall (<  15 % (Rempillo et al., 2011 and total aerosol sulfate at higher latitudes at Alert in summer (>  30 % (Norman et al., 1999. The anthropogenic sulfate concentration was less than that of biogenic sulfate, with potential sources being long-range transport and, more locally, the Amundsen's emissions. Despite attempts to minimize the influence of ship stack emissions, evidence from larger-sized particles demonstrates a contribution from local pollution. A comparison of δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols was used to show that gas-to-particle conversion likely occurred during most sampling periods. δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols were similar, suggesting the same source for SO2 and aerosol sulfate, except for two samples with a relatively high anthropogenic fraction in particles  <  0.49 µm in diameter (15–17 and 17–19 July. The high biogenic fraction of sulfate fine aerosol and similar isotope ratio values of these particles and SO2 emphasize the role of marine organisms (e.g., phytoplankton, algae, bacteria in the formation of fine particles above the Arctic Ocean during the productive summer months.

  3. DETECTION AND PURIFICATION OF TYROSINE-SULFATED PROTEINS USING A NOVEL ANTI-SULFOTYROSINE MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffhines, Adam J.; Damoc, Eugen; Bridges, Kristie G.; Leary, Julie A.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2006-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine O-sulfation is a post-translational modification mediated by one of two Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 & TPST-2) that catalyze the transfer of sulfate to tyrosine residues in secreted and transmembrane proteins. Tyrosine sulfation plays a role in protein-protein interactions in several well-defined systems. Although dozens of tyrosine-sulfated proteins are known, many more are likely to exist and await description. Advancing our understanding of the importance of tyrosine sulfation in biological systems requires the development of new tools for the detection and study of tyrosine-sulfated proteins. We have developed a novel anti-sulfotyrosine monoclonal antibody, called PSG2, that binds with high affinity and exquisite specificity to sulfotyrosine residues in peptides and proteins independent of sequence context. We show that it can detect tyrosinesulfated proteins in complex biological samples and can be used as a probe to assess the role of tyrosine sulfation in protein function. We also demonstrate the utility of PSG2 in the purification of tyrosine-sulfated proteins from crude tissue samples. Finally, Western blot analysis using PSG2 indicates that certain sperm/epididymal proteins are undersulfated in Tpst2−/− mice. This indicates that TPST-1 and TPST-2 have distinct macromolecular substrate specificities and provides clues as to the molecular mechanism of the infertility of Tpst2−/− males. PSG2 should be widely applicable for identification of tyrosine-sulfated proteins in other systems and organisms. PMID:17046811

  4. Influence of the enzyme dissimilatory sulfite reductase on stable isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalo, Muna; Einsiedl, Florian; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Stichler, Willibald

    2008-03-01

    The stable isotopes of sulfate are often used as a tool to assess bacterial sulfate reduction on the macro scale. However, the mechanisms of stable isotope fractionation of sulfur and oxygen at the enzymatic level are not yet fully understood. In batch experiments with water enriched in 18O we investigated the effect of different nitrite concentrations on sulfur isotope fractionation by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. With increasing nitrite concentrations, we found sulfur isotope enrichment factors ranging from -11.2 ± 1.8‰ to -22.5 ± 3.2‰. Furthermore, the δ18O values in the remaining sulfate increased from approximately 50-120‰ when 18O-enriched water was supplied. Since 18O-exchange with ambient water does not take place in sulfate, but rather in intermediates of the sulfate reduction pathway (e.g. SO32-), we suggest that nitrite affects the steady-state concentration and the extent of reoxidation of the metabolic intermediate sulfite to sulfate during sulfate reduction. Given that nitrite is known to inhibit the production of the enzyme dissimilatory sulfite reductase, our results suggest that the activity of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase regulates the kinetic isotope fractionation of sulfur and oxygen during bacterial sulfate reduction. Our novel results also imply that isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction strongly depends on the cell internal enzymatic regulation rather than on the physico-chemical features of the individual enzymes.

  5. LC-MS n Analysis of Isomeric Chondroitin Sulfate Oligosaccharides Using a Chemical Derivatization Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongrong; Pomin, Vitor H.; Sharp, Joshua S.

    2011-09-01

    Improved methods for structural analyses of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are required to understand their functional roles in various biological processes. Major challenges in structural characterization of complex GAG oligosaccharides using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) include the accurate determination of the patterns of sulfation due to gas-phase losses of the sulfate groups upon collisional activation and inefficient on-line separation of positional sulfation isomers prior to MS/MS analyses. Here, a sequential chemical derivatization procedure including permethylation, desulfation, and acetylation was demonstrated to enable both on-line LC separation of isomeric mixtures of chondroitin sulfate (CS) oligosaccharides and accurate determination of sites of sulfation by MS n . The derivatized oligosaccharides have sulfate groups replaced with acetyl groups, which are sufficiently stable to survive MS n fragmentation and reflect the original sulfation patterns. A standard reversed-phase LC-MS system with a capillary C18 column was used for separation, and MS n experiments using collision-induced dissociation (CID) were performed. Our results indicate that the combination of this derivatization strategy and MS n methodology enables accurate identification of the sulfation isomers of CS hexasaccharides with either saturated or unsaturated nonreducing ends. Moreover, derivatized CS hexasaccharide isomer mixtures become separable by LC-MS method due to different positions of acetyl modifications.

  6. Measurement of chloride and sulfate in residues from municipal solid waste incineration; Bestimmung von Chlorid und Sulfat in Reststoffen aus der thermischen Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, F.G. [ABB Forschungszentrum, Abt. Umwelttechnologien, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Birkenberger, R. [ABB Forschungszentrum, Abt. Umwelttechnologien, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Schmidt, V. [ABB Forschungszentrum, Abt. Umwelttechnologien, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Levina, M. [ABB Forschungszentrum, Abt. Umwelttechnologien, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    1996-03-01

    The concentrations of the chloride and sulfate in waste incineration ashes and leachate of these solids have been measured with ionselective electrodes and the ion chromotography. The results are compared with the legislative requirements. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Konzentrationen der Anionen Chlorid und Sulfat in Abfallverbrennungsaschen sowie in Eluaten dieser Stoffe wurden mit ionenselektiven Elektroden und der Ionenchromotographie gemessen. Die Resultate werden mit den gesetzlichen Anforderungen verglichen. (orig.)

  7. Short communication: Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis--Where is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T

    2015-04-01

    Digital dermatitis is a major problem in modern dairy production because of decreased animal welfare and financial losses. Individual cow treatments are often seen as too time consuming by farmers, and walk-through hoof baths have therefore been used extensively to control digital dermatitis. For decades, copper sulfate hoof baths have been used to treat and prevent digital dermatitis. Copper sulfate has been referred to as the industry gold standard when it comes to hoof-bath chemicals. In several scientific studies testing the efficacy of other hoof-care products, copper sulfate has been used as a positive control, thereby indicating that copper sulfate has a known positive effect. However, this may not be the case. A dilemma may exist between (1) copper sulfate generally being perceived as being effective against digital dermatitis and (2) a possible lack of well-documented scientific evidence of this effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing scientific literature to determine whether the efficacy of copper sulfate used in hoof baths against digital dermatitis has in fact been demonstrated scientifically. A systematic literature search identified 7 peer-reviewed journal articles describing the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths as treatment or prevention of bovine digital dermatitis. Only 2 of the 7 studies compared copper sulfate to a negative control; most studies were relatively small, and often no clear positive effect of copper sulfate was demonstrated. In conclusion, the frequent claim that copper sulfate is widely reported to be effective is supported by little scientific evidence. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating the effect of copper sulfate against digital dermatitis compared with a negative control are needed. Until such studies have been made, the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths against digital dermatitis remains largely unproven. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  8. Anaerobic metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds by sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boopathy, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kulpa, C.F. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1994-06-01

    Ecological observations suggest that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria might metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment, but this ability had not been demonstrated until recently. Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds used aerobic microorganisms. In most cases no mineralization of nitroaromatics occurs, and only superficial modifications of the structures are reported. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds reportedly undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. For example, trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of ammonia from triaminotoluene is achieved by reductive deamination catalyzed by the enzyme reductive deaminase, with the production of ammonia and toluene. Some sulfate reducers can metabolize toluene to CO{sub 2}. Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. Many methanogenic bacteria can reduce nitroaromatic compounds to amino compounds. In this paper we review the anaerobic metabolic processes of nitroaromatic compounds under sulfate-reducing And methanogenic conditions.

  9. Anaerobic metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds by sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boopathy, R.; Kulpa, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    Ecological observations suggest that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria might metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment, but this ability had not been demonstrated until recently. Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds used aerobic microorganisms. In most cases no mineralization of nitroaromatics occurs, and only superficial modifications of the structures are reported. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds reportedly undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. For example, trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of ammonia from triaminotoluene is achieved by reductive deamination catalyzed by the enzyme reductive deaminase, with the production of ammonia and toluene. Some sulfate reducers can metabolize toluene to CO 2 . Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. Many methanogenic bacteria can reduce nitroaromatic compounds to amino compounds. In this paper we review the anaerobic metabolic processes of nitroaromatic compounds under sulfate-reducing And methanogenic conditions

  10. The reduction of sulfate ions in Musashino woody lignite and in acetone-furfural resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T.

    1986-01-01

    By adding a barium chloride solution to sulfur-containing woody lignite kept in water for two years, it has been confirmed that large quantities of sulfate ions are adsorbed by the lignite. Furthermore, spectroscopic measurements have confirmed the reduction of sulfate ions in an acetone-furfural resin prepared with residual sulfuric acid. These experimental results suggest the possibility of reducing sulfate ions in coal in the absence of sulfate bacteria. 2 refs.

  11. Formation of carbonate pipes in the northern Okinawa Trough linked to strong sulfate exhaustion and iron supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Guo, Zixiao; Chen, Shun; Sun, Zhilei; Xu, Hengchao; Ta, Kaiwen; Zhang, Jianchao; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Jiwei; Du, Mengran

    2017-05-01

    The microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a key biogeochemical process that consumes substantial amounts of methane produced in seafloor sediments, can lead to the formation of carbonate deposits at or beneath the sea floor. Although Fe oxide-driven AOM has been identified in cold seep sediments, the exact mode by which it may influence the formation of carbonate deposits remains poorly understood. Here, we characterize the morphology, petrology and geochemistry of a methane-derived Fe-rich carbonate pipe in the northern Okinawa Trough (OT). We detect abundant authigenic pyrites, as well as widespread trace Fe, within microbial mat-like carbonate veins in the pipe. The in situ δ34S values of these pyrites range from -3.9 to 31.6‰ (VCDT), suggesting a strong consumption of seawater sulfate by sulfate-driven AOM at the bottom of sulfate reduction zone. The positive δ56Fe values of pyrite and notable enrichment of Fe in the OT pipe concurrently indicate that the pyrites are primarily derived from Fe oxides in deep sediments. We propose that the Fe-rich carbonate pipe formed at the bottom of sulfate reduction zone, below which Fe-driven AOM, rather than Fe-oxide reduction coupled to organic matter degradation, might be responsible for the abundantly available Fe2+ in the fluids from which pyrites precipitated. The Fe-rich carbonate pipe described in this study probably represents the first fossil example of carbonate deposits linked to Fe-driven AOM. Because Fe-rich carbonate deposits have also been found at other cold seeps worldwide, we infer that similar processes may play an essential role in biogeochemical cycling of sub-seafloor methane and Fe at continental margins.

  12. The chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate 4-O-endosulfatase from marine bacterium Vibrio sp FC509 is a dimeric species: Biophysical characterization of an endosulfatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, José L; Medina-Carmona, Encarnación; Hernández-Cifre, José G; Montoliu-Gaya, Laia; Cámara-Artigás, Ana; Seffouh, Ilham; Gonnet, Florence; Daniel, Régis; Villegas, Sandra; de la Torre, José García; Pey, Angel L; Li, Fuchuan

    2016-12-01

    Sulfatases catalyze hydrolysis of sulfate groups. They have a key role in regulating the sulfation states that determine the function of several scaffold molecules. Currently, there are no studies of the conformational stability of endosulfatases. In this work, we describe the structural features and conformational stability of a 4-O-endosulfatase (EndoV) from a marine bacterium, which removes specifically the 4-O-sulfate from chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate. For that purpose, we have used several biophysical techniques, namely, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), FTIR spectroscopy, analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), mass spectrometry (MS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The protein was a dimer with an elongated shape. EndoV acquired a native-like structure in a narrow pH range (7.0-9.0); it is within this range where the protein shows the maximum of enzymatic activity. The dimerization did not involve the presence of disulphide-bridges as suggested by AUC, SEC and DLS experiments in the presence of β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME). EndoV secondary structure is formed by a mixture of α and β-sheet topology, as judged by deconvolution of CD and FTIR spectra. Thermal and chemical denaturations showed irreversibility and the former indicates that protein did not unfold completely during heating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  13. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Burg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides’ antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains’ interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca2+ had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides’ stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  14. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Ariela; Oshrat, Levy-Ontman

    2015-10-20

    Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides' antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains' interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca(2+) had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides' stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  15. Adding different doses of intrathecal magnesium sulfate for spinal anesthesia in the cesarean section: A prospective double blind randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Jabalameli

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: In patients undergoing the caesarean section under hyperbaric bupivacaine spinal anesthesia, the addition of 50, 75, or 100 mg magnesium sulfate provides safe and effective anesthesia, but 75 mg of this drug was enough to lead a significant delay in the onset of both sensory and motor blockade, and prolonged the duration of sensory and motor blockade, without increasing major side effects.

  16. Tribasic copper chloride and copper sulfate as copper sources for weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D; Monegue, H J; Hall, D D; Orr, D E

    1998-01-01

    We conducted three 28-d experiments involving a total of 915 pigs to assess the relative efficacy of tribasic Cu chloride (Cu2[OH]3Cl) and Cu sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H20) in diets for weanling pigs. Experiments 1 and 2 were conducted at an experiment station (University of Kentucky), and Exp. 3 was conducted at a commercial feed company's swine research facilities (United Feeds, Inc.). The basal diet was a fortified corn-soybean meal-dried whey diet (1.25% lysine) with no antimicrobials in Exp. 1 or with carbadox (55 mg/kg) in Exp. 2 and 3. In Exp. 1, 135 pigs were weaned at 27 to 31 d and fed the basal diet without or with 100 or 200 ppm Cu from Cu chloride, or 100 or 200 ppm Cu from Cu sulfate from 7.9 to 17.7 kg BW. The 200 ppm level of Cu from Cu sulfate improved ADG (P sulfate from 8.9 to 20.8 kg BW. Addition of 200 ppm Cu improved ADG (P sulfate tended to increase liver Cu more than did Cu chloride in one experiment, but not in another experiment. The results indicate that tribasic Cu chloride is as effective as Cu sulfate in improving growth in weanling pigs.

  17. Dynamic affinity chromatography in the separation of sulfated lignins binding to thrombin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Aiye; Thakkar, Jay N.; Hindle, Michael; Desai, Umesh R.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfated low molecular weight lignins (LMWLs), a mixture of chemo-enzymatically prepared oligomers, have been found to be potent antagonists of coagulation. However, structures that induce anticoagulation remain unidentified. The highly polar sulfate groups on these molecules and the thousands of different structures present in these mixtures make traditional chromatographic resolution of sulfated LMWLs difficult. We performed dynamic thrombin affinity chromatography monitored using chromogenic substrate hydrolysis assay to isolate sulfated LMWL fractions that differed significantly in their biophysical and biochemical properties. Three fractions, I35, I55 and Peak II, were isolated from the starting complex mixture. Independent plasma clotting assays suggested that I35 possessed good anticoagulation potential (APTT = 4.2 μM; PT = 6.8 μM), while I55 and Peak II were approximately 10- and 100-fold less potent. The ESI-MS spectrum of this oligomeric fraction showed multiple peaks at 684.8, 610.6, 557.4, 541.4, 536.5, and 519.4 m/z, which most probably arise from variably functionalized (β-O4—β-β-linked trimers and/or a β-O4—β-O4-linked dimers. The first direct observation of these structures in sulfated LMWLs will greatly assist in the discovery of more potent sulfated LMWL-based anticoagulants. PMID:23122400

  18. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  19. Development of an eco-friendly material recycling process for spent lead glass using a mechanochemical process and Na2EDTA reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Ryo; Kubo, Hisashi; Kamiya, Masahiro; Itoh, Hideaki

    2008-06-01

    To develop a novel nonheating method with lower energy consumption and higher efficiency for recovering both lead and SiO2 glass matrix from spent lead-glass powder, we attempted to treat the spent lead glass by the mechanochemical method using the metal chelate reagent, sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Na2EDTA). As a result of the wet ball-milling treatment of spent lead-glass powder sealed in a polypropylene bottle with zirconia balls, Na2EDTA, and water at room temperature, we found that more than 99 mass % of lead contained in the spentlead-glass powder was extracted as a lead-EDTA species from the solid silica glass network matrix. This separation phenomenon was accelerated by the enlargement of the solid-liquid interface area due to ball-milling atomization and by the high stability constant of lead-EDTA. High extraction yield suggests that Pb-O-Pb bonds in lead glass are weakened or are broken down by the wet ball-milling treatment, i.e., the strong mechanical energy such as the potential and/ or friction energy provided by ball-milling may be high enough to elute lead ions from silica matrix. Moreover, we succeeded in recovering both lead ions as lead sulfate, which is the main compound of anglesite, and the EDTA as sodium-EDTA, which is reusable as the metal chelate reagent in wet chemical process using the ferric sulfate.

  20. Preparation of chondroitin sulfate libraries containing disulfated disaccharide units and inhibition of thrombin by these chondroitin sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numakura, Mario; Kusakabe, Noriko; Ishige, Kazuya; Ohtake-Niimi, Shiori; Habuchi, Hiroko; Habuchi, Osami

    2010-07-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) containing GlcA-GalNAc(4,6-SO(4)) (E unit) and CS containing GlcA(2SO(4))-GalNAc(6SO(4)) (D unit) have been implicated in various physiological functions. However, it has been poorly understood how the structure and contents of disulfated disaccharide units in CS contribute to these functions. We prepared CS libraries containing E unit or D unit in various proportions by in vitro enzymatic reactions using recombinant GalNAc 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase and uronosyl 2-O-sulfotransferase, and examined their inhibitory activity toward thrombin. The in vitro sulfated CSs containing disulfated disaccharide units showed concentration-dependent direct inhibition of thrombin when the proportion of E unit or D unit in the CSs was above 15-17%. The CSs containing both E unit and D unit exhibited higher inhibitory activity toward thrombin than the CSs containing either E unit or D unit alone, if the proportion of the total disulfated disaccharide units of these CSs was comparable. The thrombin-catalyzed degradation of fibrinogen, a physiological substrate for thrombin, was also inhibited by the CS containing both E unit and D unit. These observations indicate that the enzymatically prepared CS libraries containing various amounts of disulfated disaccharide units appear to be useful for elucidating the physiological function of disulfated disaccharide units in CS.

  1. Alkylation of isobutane by butenes on zirconium sulfate catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrenov, A.V.; Perelevskij, E.V.; Finevich, V.P.; Zajkovskij, V.I.; Paukshtis, E.A.; Duplyakiv, V.K.; Bal'zhinimaev, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Preparation of applied zirconium sulfate catalysts obtained by the method of impregnation is investigated. Results of comparative study of structural, acid-base and catalytic properties of sulfated zirconium dioxide applied on silica gel and aluminium oxide are represented. Intervals of values of synthesis basic parameters and characteristics of catalysts properties providing achievement of high activity and selectivity in isobutane alkylation by butenes in liquid phase are determined [ru

  2. Controlling Sulfate Attack in Mississippi Department of Transportation Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    such as calcium aluminates and calcium hydroxide , can influence the degree of damage observed. In all cases, the deterioration observed appears to be...high levels of sulfate showed mineralogical evidence that calcium alumino-sulfate minerals such as ettringite were present in significant quantities...investigation, the Caltrans test was modified to adapt it to the available equipment. A description of the modified test procedure is given in Appendix B. A

  3. Radioimmunoassay of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, J.G.H.; Furlanetto, R.P.; Russo, E.M.K.; Noguti, K.O.; Chacra, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a radioimmunological method for the measurement of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in serum is described. For the immunization of rabbits, a DHA-3-hemissuccinate-bovine serum albumin conjugate was synthetized and a highly specific anti-serum was produced. The method developed requires only simple dilution prior to assay and the normal values for the different age groups were determined in 146 normal individuals. (Author) [pt

  4. Symptom and structure modification in osteoarthritis with pharmaceutical-grade chondroitin sulfate: what's the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, M; Chevalier, X; Henrotin, Y; Hunter, D J; Uebelhart, D

    2013-03-01

    Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease characterized by irreversible damage to joint structures, including loss of articular cartilage, osteophyte formation, alterations in the subchondral bone and synovial inflammation. It has been shown that chondroitin sulfate interferes with the progression of structural changes in joint tissues and is used in the management of patients with osteoarthritis. This review summarizes data from relevant reports describing the mechanisms of action of chondroitin sulfate that may explain the beneficial effects of the drug and examines the evidence for clinical efficacy of oral chondroitin sulfate in osteoarthritis. Data included in the review were derived from a literature search in PubMed. Literature searches were performed in PubMed using the search terms 'chondroitin sulfate', 'pharmaceutical-grade', 'osteoarthritis', 'randomized clinical trials', 'humans'. The MEDLINE database was searched from January 1996 through August 2012 for all randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and review articles of chondroitin sulfate in osteoarthritis. Chondroitin sulfate exerts in vitro a beneficial effect on the metabolism of different cell lines: chondrocytes, synoviocytes and cells from subchondral bone, all involved in osteoarthritis. It increases type II collagen and proteoglycan synthesis in human articular chondrocytes and is able to reduce the production of some pro-inflammatory factors and proteases, to reduce the cellular death process, and improve the anabolic/catabolic balance of the extracellular cartilage matrix (ECM). Clinical trials have reported a beneficial effect of chondroitin sulfate on pain and function. The structure-modifying effects of chondroitin sulfate have been reported and analyzed in recent meta-analyses. The results in knee osteoarthritis demonstrate a small but significant reduction in the rate of decline in joint space width. Because chondroitin sulfate quality of several nutraceuticals has

  5. Evaluation of sulfate resistance of cement mortars containing black rice husk ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, black rice husk ashes (BRHAs), which are agrowastes from an electricity generating power plant and a rice mill, were ground and used as a partial cement replacement. The durability of mortars under sulfate attack including expansion and compressive strength loss were investigated. For parametric study, BRHA were used as a Portland cement Type 1 replacement at the levels of 0%, 10%, 30%, and 50% by weight of binder. The water-to-binder ratios were 0.55 and 0.65. For the durability of mortar exposed to sulfate attack, 5% sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) solutions were used. As a result, when increasing the percentage replacement of BRHA, the expansion and compressive strength loss of mortar decreased. At the replacement levels of 30% and 50% of BRHA, the expansion of the mortars was less than those mixed with sulfate-resistant cement. However, the expansion of the mortars exposed to Na2SO4 was more than those exposed to MgSO4. Increasing the replacement level of BRHA tends to reduce the compressive strength loss of mortars exposed to Na2SO4 attack. In contrary, under MgSO4 attack, when increasing the replacement level of BRHA, the compressive strength loss increases from 0% to 50% in comparison to Portland cement mortar. Results show that ground BRHA can be applied as a pozzolanic material to concrete and also improve resistance to sodium sulfate attack, but it can impair resistance to magnesium sulfate attack.

  6. SUMMARY OF FY11 SULFATE RETENTION STUDIES FOR DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2012-05-08

    This report describes the results of studies related to the incorporation of sulfate in high level waste (HLW) borosilicate glass produced at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). A group of simulated HLW glasses produced for earlier sulfate retention studies was selected for full chemical composition measurements to determine whether there is any clear link between composition and sulfate retention over the compositional region evaluated. In addition, the viscosity of several glasses was measured to support future efforts in modeling sulfate solubility as a function of predicted viscosity. The intent of these studies was to develop a better understanding of sulfate retention in borosilicate HLW glass to allow for higher loadings of sulfate containing waste. Based on the results of these and other studies, the ability to improve sulfate solubility in DWPF borosilicate glasses lies in reducing the connectivity of the glass network structure. This can be achieved, as an example, by increasing the concentration of alkali species in the glass. However, this must be balanced with other effects of reduced network connectivity, such as reduced viscosity, potentially lower chemical durability, and in the case of higher sodium and aluminum concentrations, the propensity for nepheline crystallization. Future DWPF processing is likely to target higher waste loadings and higher sludge sodium concentrations, meaning that alkali concentrations in the glass will already be relatively high. It is therefore unlikely that there will be the ability to target significantly higher total alkali concentrations in the glass solely to support increased sulfate solubility without the increased alkali concentration causing failure of other Product Composition Control System (PCCS) constraints, such as low viscosity and durability. No individual components were found to provide a significant improvement in sulfate retention (i.e., an increase of the magnitude

  7. Copper oxide--copper sulfate water-splitting cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foh, S. E.; Schreiber, J. D.; Dafler, J. R.

    1978-08-01

    A hybrid copper oxide--copper sulfate thermochemical water-splitting cycle, IGT's H-5, has been demonstrated in the laboratory with recycled materials. The optimum configuration and operating conditions for the electrolytic hydrogen-producing step have not yet been defined. With cooperative funding (A.G.A./G.R.I./DOE) a conceptual flowsheet was developed for this cycle and a load-line efficiency of about 37% calculated. This figure is the result of a single iteration on the original base case flow sheet and compares well with the values calculated for other processes at this stage of development. An iterative optimization of process conditions would improve efficiency. The data required to perform an economic analysis are not yet available and the electrolysis step must be more fully defined. An attractive process efficiency, relatively few corrosive materials, and few gas-phase separations are attributes of Cycle H-5 that lead us to believe hydrogen costs (to be developed during future analyses) would be improved significantly over similar processes analyzed to date.

  8. Methods for Engineering Sulfate Reducing Bacteria of the Genus Desulfovibrio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Swapnil R; Keller, Kimberly L.; Wall, Judy D.

    2011-03-15

    Sulfate reducing bacteria are physiologically important given their nearly ubiquitous presence and have important applications in the areas of bioremediation and bioenergy. This chapter provides details on the steps used for homologous-recombination mediated chromosomal manipulation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a well-studied sulfate reducer. More specifically, we focus on the implementation of a 'parts' based approach for suicide vector assembly, important aspects of anaerobic culturing, choices for antibiotic selection, electroporation-based DNA transformation, as well as tools for screening and verifying genetically modified constructs. These methods, which in principle may be extended to other sulfate-reducing bacteria, are applicable for functional genomics investigations, as well as metabolic engineering manipulations.

  9. The Chemical Composition and Structure of Supported Sulfated Zirconia with Regulated Size Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazhevskiy, V. V.; Shmachkova, V. P.; Kotsarenko, N. S.; Kochubey, D. I.; Vedrine, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    A set of model skeletal isomerization catalysts - sulfated zirconia nanoparticles of controlled thickness anchored on different supports - was prepared using colloidal solutions of Zr salt on titania as support. The nanoparticles of zirconia (1-5 nm) are epitaxially connected to the support surface, with S/Zr ratio equals to 1.3-1.5. It was shown by EXAFS that nanoparticles of non-stoichiometric zirconium sulfate Zr(SO4)1+x, where x<0.5, are formed on the support surface. Its structure looks like half-period shifted counterdirected chains built-up by zirconium atoms linked by triangle pyramids of sulfate groups. Considering catalytic data of skeletal n-butane isomerisation at 150 deg. C, one can suggest that these species behave as the active component of sulfated zirconia. They are formed in subsurface layers as zirconium hydroxide undergoes sulfation followed by thermal treatment

  10. Microbial fuel cell based on electroactive sulfate-reducing biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelov, Anatoliy; Bratkova, Svetlana; Loukanov, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Regulation and management of electricity generation by variation of residence time. ► Design of microbial fuel cell based on electroactive biofilm on zeolite. ► Engineering solution for removing of the obtained elemental sulfur. - abstract: A two chambered laboratory scale microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been developed, based on natural sulfate-reducing bacterium consortium in electroactive biofilm on zeolite. The MFC utilizes potassium ferricyanide in the cathode chamber as an electron acceptor that derives electrons from the obtained in anode chamber H 2 S. The molecular oxygen is finally used as a terminal electron acceptor at cathode compartment. The generated power density was 0.68 W m −2 with current density of 3.2 A m −2 at 150 Ω electrode resistivity. The hydrogen sulfide itself is produced by microbial dissimilative sulfate reduction process by utilizing various organic substrates. Finally, elemental sulfur was identified as the predominant final oxidation product in the anode chamber. It was removed from MFC through medium circulation and gathering in an external tank. This report reveals dependence relationship between the progress of general electrochemical parameters and bacterial sulfate-reduction rate. The presented MFC design can be used for simultaneous sulfate purification of mining drainage wastewater and generation of renewable electricity

  11. COMBINED ALUMINIUM SULFATE/HYDROXIDE PROCESS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulfate, and used for fluoride removal from water by combining with Nalgonda Technique. ... effects on human health and could result in fluorosis. ... [23], nanoscale aluminium oxide hydroxide (AlOOH) [24] and natural zeolite [25], were among.

  12. Comparison of Bupivacaine Plus Magnesium Sulfate and Ropivacaine Plus Magnesium Sulfate Infiltration for Postoperative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Laminectomy: A Randomized Double-blinded Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Rajib; Parua, Samit; Choudhury, Dipika; Barooah, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the analgesic duration of local infiltration of bupivacaine plus magnesium sulfate and ropivacaine plus magnesium sulfate for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing lumbar laminectomy. A randomized, prospective, double-blinded single hospital, comparative study. Sixty adult patients of the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status I and II were randomly allocated into two Groups BM and RM, comprising 30 and 31 patients. Postlumbar laminectomy, the study drug was locally infiltrated into the paravertebral muscles on either side before skin closure. Group BM was given 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine combined with 500 mg of magnesium sulfate (constituted with normal saline [NS]), and Group RM was given 20 ml of 0.25% ropivacaine combined with 500 mg of magnesium sulfate (constituted with NS). Postoperative visual analog scale pain score was assessed hourly for the first 24 h postoperatively. Duration of postoperative analgesia, rescue analgesia consumption and side effects were also recorded. Comparison of data between the groups was done with SPSS 21.0© using independent t -test, Chi-square test, and Mann-Whitney U-test accordingly. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Time to first analgesic consumption was significantly longer in Group BM (7.3 ± 0.46 h) compared to Group RM (6.6 ± 0.69 h) ( P < 0.05). The consumption of nalbuphine rescue analgesic was significantly higher in Group RM (15.33 ± 5.07 mg) compared to Group BM (12 ± 4.07 mg) ( P < 0.05). Wound infiltration with bupivacaine and magnesium sulfate compared to ropivacaine and magnesium sulfate provided longer duration of postoperative analgesia and significantly reduced postoperative opioid consumption in patients undergoing lumbar laminectomy.

  13. [Analysis of chondroitin sulfate content of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum with different processing methods and different parts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Rui-Ze; Wang, Yan-Hua; Sun, Yin-Shi

    2018-02-01

    The differences and the variations of chondroitin sulfate content in different parts of Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum(CCP) with different processing methods were investigated. The chondroitin sulfate from velvet was extracted by dilute alkali-concentrated salt method. Next, the chondroitin sulfate was digested by chondroitinase ABC.The contents of total chondroitin sulfate and chondroitin sulfate A, B and C in the samples were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with freeze-drying processing is 14.13,11.99,1.74,0.32 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with boiling processing is 10.71,8.97,2.21,1.40 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. The content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP without blood is 12.47,9.47,2.64,0.07 g·kg⁻¹, respectively. And the content of chondroitin sulfate in wax,powder,gauze,bone slices of CCP with blood is 8.22,4.39,0.87,0.28 g·kg⁻¹ respectively. The results indicated that the chondroitin sulfate content in different processing methods was significantly different.The content of chondroitin sulfate in CCP with freeze-drying is higher than that in CCP with boiling processing.The content of chondroitin sulfate in CCP without blood is higher than that in CCP with blood. The chondroitin sulfate content in differerent paris of the velvet with the same processing methods was arranged from high to low as: wax slices, powder, gauze slices, bone slices. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Evaluation of commercial and sulfated ZrO_2 aiming application catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.N.; Dantas, J.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Pallone, E.M.J.A.; Dutra, R.C.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of commercial and sulfated ZrO_2 for future application in catalysis. Commercial ZrO_2 was provided by the company Saint-Gobain Zirpro. The sulfation occurred with SO_4"-"2 ion content of 30% compared to the mass of ZrO_2. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, EDX and GD. The results revealed the formation of a monoclinic phase for the commercial sample, and a monoclinic major phase with tetragonal traces for the sulfated sample. The commercial ZrO_2 showed a narrow, bimodal and asymmetric agglomerates distribution, while the sulfated sample showed a narrow, tetramodal and asymmetric agglomerates distribution. The presence of traces of the tetragonal phase in the SO_4"-"2/ZrO_2 XRD, and the presence of SO_3 in the EDX were good indicators for future use in catalysis to provide ester. (author)

  15. Effect of sulfate absence and nitrate addition on bacterial community in a sulfidogenic bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yangguo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Wang Aijie, E-mail: waj0578@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Ren Nanqi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2009-12-30

    The characteristics and behavior of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methane-producing bacteria (MPB) and denitrifying bacteria (DB) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods under the transitory sulfate absence or nitrate addition conditions in a sulfidogenic continuously stirred tank reactor. The bioreactor started-up feeding with 4000 mg l{sup -1} COD (lactate) and 2000 mg l{sup -1} sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). The sulfate removal efficiency reached 3.84 g l{sup -1} d{sup -1} when the activated sludge formed a stable bacterial community comprising of some members of genera Desulfobulbus, Desulfovibrio, Clostridium and Pseudomonas after 20 days' operation. And about 79% of reduced sulfate captured electrons from the oxidization of propionate. Sulfate absence influenced little on quantity and population structure of SRB and DB, while much on MPB and metabolic typing. And the acetate (up to 86% (w/w) of total end-products) in end-product profiles was replaced by the propionate (75% (w/w)). The addition of nitrate to sulfidogenic system suppressed the sulfidogenesis mainly by capturing the electron flow. These results suggested that sulfate absence or nitrate addition would not inhibit SRB permanently in a stable sulfidogenic community.

  16. Anaerobic methane oxidation rates at the sulfate-methane transition in marine sediments from Kattegat and Skagerrak (Denmark)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iversen, N.; Jorgensen, B.B.

    1985-01-01

    Concomitant radiotracer measurements were made of in situ rates of sulfate reduction and anaerobic methane oxidation in 2-3-m-long sediment cores. Methane accumulated to high concentrations (> 1 mM CH 4 ) only below the sulfate zone, at 1 m or deeper in the sediment. Sulfate reduction showed a broad maximum below the sediment surface and a smaller, narrow maximum at the sulfate-methane transition. Methane oxidation was low (0.002-0.1 nmol CH 4 cm -3 d -1 ) throughout the sulfate zone and showed a sharp maximum at the sulfate-methane transition, coinciding with the sulfate reduction maximum. Total anaerobic methane oxidation at two stations was 0.83 and 1.16 mmol CH 4 m -2 d -1 , of which 96% was confined to the sulfate-methane transition. All the methane that was calculated to diffuse up into the sulfate-methane transition was oxidized in this zone. The methane oxidation was equivalent to 10% of the electron donor requirement for the total measured sulfate reduction. A third station showed high sulfate concentrations at all depths sampled and the total methane oxidation was only 0.013 mmol m -2 d -1 . From direct measurements of rates, concentration gradients, and diffusion coefficients, simple calculations were made of sulfate and methane fluxes and of methane production rates

  17. Key factors influencing rates of heterotrophic sulfate reduction in active seafloor hydrothermal massive sulfide deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiana Laieikawai Frank

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal vents are thermally and geochemically dynamic habitats, and the organisms therein are subject to steep gradients in temperature and chemistry. To date, the influence of these environmental dynamics on microbial sulfate reduction has not been well constrained. Here, via multivariate experiments, we evaluate the effects of key environmental variables (temperature, pH, H2S, SO42-, DOC on sulfate reduction rates and metabolic energy yields in material recovered from a hydrothermal flange from the Grotto edifice in the Main Endeavor Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Sulfate reduction was measured in batch reactions across a range of physico-chemical conditions. Temperature and pH were the strongest stimuli, and maximum sulfate reduction rates were observed at 50 °C and pH 6, suggesting that the in situ community of sulfate-reducing organisms in Grotto flanges may be most active in a slightly acidic and moderate thermal/chemical regime. At pH 4, sulfate reduction rates increased with sulfide concentrations most likely due to the mitigation of metal toxicity. While substrate concentrations also influenced sulfate reduction rates, energy-rich conditions muted the effect of metabolic energetics on sulfate reduction rates. We posit that variability in sulfate reduction rates reflect the response of the active microbial consortia to environmental constraints on in situ microbial physiology, toxicity, and the type and extent of energy limitation. These experiments help to constrain models of the spatial contribution of heterotrophic sulfate reduction within the complex gradients inherent to seafloor hydrothermal deposits.

  18. N-acetylneuraminlactose sulfate in milk and its role in the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieras, F.J.; Kastin, S.; Rerecich, M.; Sturman, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Mammals in early life are incapable of synthesizing inorganic sulfate, an important constituent of connective tissue glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Studies have shown that [ 35 S]Na 2 SO 4 injected into lactating rats is secreted into the milk as [ 35 S] N-acetylneuraminlactose sulfate (NLS); this compound accounts for ≥ 95% of the radioactivity found in milk. They have studied the metabolic fate of the sulfate moiety of NLS in the newborn rat. Lactating rat dams were injected with [ 35 S] Na 2 SO 4 at various times postpartum and pups were allowed to suckle for 48 hrs before sacrifice. Pups of varying ages (3 d. - 19 d.) were sacrificed and the GAGs were prepared from 9 different organs and tissues. Pups of all ages showed appreciable radiosulfate incorporated into all of the tissues and organs examined. In young pups (3 and 5 d old) a high of 75% of the total [ 35 S] sulfate in the homogenate was found in the GAGs of bone, and a low of 27% in the GAGs of liver. Analysis of the composition of the GAGs by enzymatic degradation showed that bone GAGs consisted entirely of chondroitin 4/6 sulfate (C4/6S) while liver GAGs contained 50% C4/6S, 10% dermatan sulfate (DS), and 40% chondroitinase resistant material (probably heparan sulfate). These data show that sulfate in the form of NLS is incorporated in substantial amounts into the sulfated GAGs of the developing rat and support the hypothesis that NLS is an important source of nutrient sulfate during rat development

  19. THE IMPACT OF BIOSTIMULATION ON THE FATE OF SULFATE AND ASSOCIATED SULFUR DYNAMICS IN GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ziheng; Carreón-Diazconti, Concepcion; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of electron-donor addition on sulfur dynamics for a groundwater system with low levels of metal contaminants was evaluated with a pilot-scale biostimulation test conducted at a former uranium mining site. Geochemical and stable-isotope data collected before, during, and after the test were analyzed to evaluate the sustainability of sulfate reducing conditions induced by the test, the fate of hydrogen sulfide, and the impact on aqueous geochemical conditions. The results of site characterization activities conducted prior to the test indicated the absence of measurable bacterial sulfate reduction. The injection of an electron donor (ethanol) induced bacterial sulfate reduction, as confirmed by an exponential decrease of sulfate concentration in concert with changes in oxidation-reduction potential, redox species, alkalinity, production of hydrogen sulfide, and fractionation of δ34S-sulfate. High, stoichiometrically-equivalent hydrogen sulfide concentrations were not observed until several months after the start of the test. It is hypothesized that hydrogen sulfide produced from sulfate reduction was initially sequestered in the form of iron sulfides until the exhaustion of readily reducible iron oxides associated with the sediment. The fractionation of δ34S for sulfate was atypical, wherein the enrichment declined in the latter half of the experiment. It was conjectured that mixing effects associated with the release of sulfate from sulfate minerals associated with the sediments, along with possible sulfide re-oxidation contributed to this behavior. The results of this study illustrate the biogeochemical complexity that is associated with in-situ biostimulation processes involving bacterial sulfate reduction. PMID:25016586

  20. The impact of biostimulation on the fate of sulfate and associated sulfur dynamics in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ziheng; Carreón-Diazconti, Concepcion; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2014-08-01

    The impact of electron-donor addition on sulfur dynamics for a groundwater system with low levels of metal contaminants was evaluated with a pilot-scale biostimulation test conducted at a former uranium mining site. Geochemical and stable-isotope data collected before, during, and after the test were analyzed to evaluate the sustainability of sulfate reducing conditions induced by the test, the fate of hydrogen sulfide, and the impact on aqueous geochemical conditions. The results of site characterization activities conducted prior to the test indicated the absence of measurable bacterial sulfate reduction. The injection of an electron donor (ethanol) induced bacterial sulfate reduction, as confirmed by an exponential decrease of sulfate concentration in concert with changes in oxidation-reduction potential, redox species, alkalinity, production of hydrogen sulfide, and fractionation of δ34S-sulfate. High, stoichiometrically-equivalent hydrogen sulfide concentrations were not observed until several months after the start of the test. It is hypothesized that hydrogen sulfide produced from sulfate reduction was initially sequestered in the form of iron sulfides until the exhaustion of readily reducible iron oxides within the sediment. The fractionation of δ34S for sulfate was atypical, wherein the enrichment declined in the latter half of the experiment. It was conjectured that mixing effects associated with the release of sulfate from sulfate minerals associated with the sediments, along with possible sulfide re-oxidation contributed to this behavior. The results of this study illustrate the biogeochemical complexity that is associated with in-situ biostimulation processes involving bacterial sulfate reduction.

  1. Biotechnological aspects of anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulepas, R.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reduction (SR) can be used for the removal and recovery of metals and oxidized sulfur compounds from waste streams. Sulfate-reducing bacteria reduce oxidized sulfur compounds to sulfide. Subsequently, sulfide can precipitate dissolved metals or can be oxidized to elemental sulfur. Both metal

  2. Chemical analysis of simulated high level waste glasses to support stage III sulfate solubility modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is sponsoring an international, collaborative project to develop a fundamental model for sulfate solubility in nuclear waste glass. The solubility of sulfate has a significant impact on the achievable waste loading for nuclear waste forms within the DOE complex. These wastes can contain relatively high concentrations of sulfate, which has low solubility in borosilicate glass. This is a significant issue for low-activity waste (LAW) glass and is projected to have a major impact on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Sulfate solubility has also been a limiting factor for recent high level waste (HLW) sludge processed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The low solubility of sulfate in glass, along with melter and off-gas corrosion constraints, dictate that the waste be blended with lower sulfate concentration waste sources or washed to remove sulfate prior to vitrification. The development of enhanced borosilicate glass compositions with improved sulfate solubility will allow for higher waste loadings and accelerate mission completion.The objective of the current scope being pursued by SHU is to mature the sulfate solubility model to the point where it can be used to guide glass composition development for DWPF and WTP, allowing for enhanced waste loadings and waste throughput at these facilities. A series of targeted glass compositions was selected to resolve data gaps in the model and is identified as Stage III. SHU fabricated these glasses and sent samples to SRNL for chemical composition analysis. SHU will use the resulting data to enhance the sulfate solubility model and resolve any deficiencies. In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses for the Stage III, simulated HLW glasses fabricated by SHU in support of the sulfate solubility model development.

  3. Molecular analysis of the metabolic rates of discrete subsurface populations of sulfate reducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miletto, M.; Williams, K.H.; N' Guessan, A.L.; Lovley, D.R.

    2011-04-01

    Elucidating the in situ metabolic activity of phylogenetically diverse populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms that populate anoxic sedimentary environments is key to understanding subsurface ecology. Previous pure culture studies have demonstrated that transcript abundance of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes is correlated with the sulfate reducing activity of individual cells. To evaluate whether expression of these genes was diagnostic for subsurface communities, dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene transcript abundance in phylogenetically distinct sulfate-reducing populations was quantified during a field experiment in which acetate was added to uranium-contaminated groundwater. Analysis of dsrAB sequences prior to the addition of acetate indicated that Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and Syntrophaceae-related sulfate reducers were the most abundant. Quantifying dsrB transcripts of the individual populations suggested that Desulfobacteraceae initially had higher dsrB transcripts per cell than Desulfobulbaceae or Syntrophaceae populations, and that the activit