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Sample records for leachates aerobic biooxidation

  1. Influence of leachate recirculation on aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgili, M. Sinan [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Ozkaya, Bestamin [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: bozkaya@yildiz.edu.tr

    2007-05-08

    In this study, the effect of leachate recirculation on aerobic and anaerobic degradation of municipal solid wastes is determined by four laboratory-scale landfill reactors. The options studied and compared with the traditional anaerobic landfill are: leachate recirculation, landfill aeration, and aeration with leachate recirculation. Leachate quality is regularly monitored by the means of pH, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, chloride, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen, in addition to generated leachate quantity. Aerobic leachate recirculated landfill appears to be the most effective option in the removal of organic matter and ammonia. The main difference between aerobic recirculated and non-recirculated landfill options is determined at leachate quantity. Recirculation is more effective on anaerobic degradation of solid waste than aerobic degradation. Further studies are going on to determine the optimum operational conditions for aeration and leachate recirculation rates, also with the operational costs of aeration and recirculation.

  2. COD fractions of leachate from aerobic and anaerobic pilot scale landfill reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgili, M. Sinan [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Akkaya, Ebru [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: ekoca@yildiz.edu.tr; Ozkaya, Bestamin [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: bozkaya@yildiz.edu.tr

    2008-10-01

    One of the most important problems with designing and maintaining a landfill is managing leachate that generated when water passes through the waste. In this study, leachate samples taken from aerobic and anaerobic landfill reactors operated with and without leachate recirculation are investigated in terms of biodegradable and non-biodegradable fractions of COD. The operation time is 600 days for anaerobic reactors and 250 days for aerobic reactors. Results of this study show that while the values of soluble inert COD to total COD in the leachate of aerobic landfill with leachate recirculation and aerobic dry reactors are determined around 40%, this rate was found around 30% in the leachate of anaerobic landfill with leachate recirculation and traditional landfill reactors. The reason for this difference is that the aerobic reactors generated much more microbial products. Because of this condition, it can be concluded that total inert COD/total COD ratios of the aerobic reactors were 60%, whereas those of anaerobic reactors were 50%. This study is important for modeling, design, and operation of landfill leachate treatment systems and determination of discharge limits.

  3. Quality and Quantity of Leachate in Aerobic Pilot-Scale Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Memmet Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Özkaya, Bestamin

    2006-08-01

    In this study, two pilot-scale aerobic landfill reactors with (A1) and without (A2) leachate recirculation are used to obtain detailed information on the quantity and quality of leachate in aerobic landfills. The observed parameters of leachate quality are pH, chloride (Cl-), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and nitrate (NO3 --N). pH values of the leachate increased to 7 after 50 days in reactor A1 and after 70 days in reactor A2. Cl- concentrations increased rapidly to 6100 (A1) and 6900 (A2) mg/L after 80 days, from initial values of 3000 and 2800 mg/L, respectively. COD and BOD values decreased rapidly in the A1 landfill reactor, indicating the rapid oxidation of organic matter. The BOD/COD ratio indicates that leachate recirculation slightly increases the degradation of solid waste in aerobic landfills. NH3-N concentrations decreased as a result of the nitrification process. Denitrification occurred in parts of the reactors as a result of intermittent aeration; this process causes a decrease in NO3 - concentrations. There is a marked difference between the A1 and A2 reactors in terms of leachate quantity. Recirculated leachate made up 53.3% of the leachate generated from the A1 reactor during the experiment, while leachate quantity decreased by 47.3% with recirculation when compared with the aerobic dry landfill reactor.

  4. The influence of preliminary aerobic treatment on the efficacy of waste stabilisation under leachate recirculation conditions

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    Monika Suchowska-Kisielewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the changes in the chemical composition of leachate and the concentrations and quantity of methane production in each individual decomposition phases, determined for untreated and after aerobic treatment of waste stabilised in anaerobic reactors with and without leachate recirculation. The research results demonstrate that leachate recirculation intensifies the decomposition of both aerobically treated and untreated waste. The methane production in the reactor with untreated, stabilised waste with recirculation was 28% higher; and in the reactor with aerobically treated waste, the methane production was 24% higher than in the reactors without recirculation. An important finding of the study is that aerobic treatment of waste prior to landfilling effectively reduces the quantity of pollutant emissions in leachate and biogas from waste and increases the availability for methane micro-organisms of organic substrates from difficult-to-decompose organic substances.

  5. Bacterial community composition and abundance in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Bo Yue; Qi Wang; Zechun Huang; Qifei Huang; Zengqiang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The abundance and phylogenetic composition of bacterial community in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfill were compared through real-time polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.In semi-aerobic landfill scenario,the bacterial 16S rRNA copy numbers in leachate had no significant reduction from initial stage to stable period.In the scenario of anaerobic landfill,the largest bacterial 16S rRNA gene copy number was found in leachate at initial stage,but it reduced significantly at stable period.Moreover,methane-oxidizing bacteria population in stable period was lower than that in initial period in both two landfill processes.However,semi-aerobic landfill leachate had more methanotrophic bacteria populations than that in the anaerobic one.Furthermore,according to the sequences and phylogenetic analysis,obvious difference could be detected in bacterial community composition in different scenarios.Proteobacteria and bacteroidetes took up a dominantly higher proportion in semi-aerobic landfill leachate.To summarize up,different landfill methods and its landfill ages had crucial impacts on bacterial abundance and composition in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills.

  6. Characterization and treatment of Denizli landfill leachate using anaerobic hybrid/aerobic CSTR systems.

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    Ağdağ, Osman Nuri

    2011-01-01

    Leachate generated in municipal solid waste landfill contains large amounts of organic and inorganic contaminants. In the scope of the study, characterization and anaerobic/aerobic treatability of leachate from Denizli (Turkey) Sanitary Landfill were investigated. Time-based fluctuations in characteristics of leachate were monitored during a one-year period. In characterization study; chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids, total nitrogen, NH4-N, BOD5/COD ratio, suspended solid, inert COD, anaerobic toxicity assay and heavy metals concentrations in leachate were monitored. Average COD, BOD and NH4-N concentration in leachate were measured as 18034 mg/l, 11504 mg/l and 454 mg/l, respectively. Generally, pollution parameters in leachate were higher in summer and relatively lower in winter due to dilution by precipitation. For treatment of leachate, two different reactors, namely anaerobic hybrid and aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) having effective volumes of 17.7 and 10.5 litres, respectively, were used. After 41 days of start-up period, leachate was loaded to hybrid reactor at 10 different organic loading rates (OLRs). OLR was increased by increasing COD concentrations. COD removal efficiency of hybrid reactor was carried out at a maximum of 91%. A percentage of 96% of residual COD was removed in the aerobic reactor. NH4-N removal rate in CSTR was quite high. In addition, high methane content was obtained as 64% in the hybrid reactor. At the end of the study, after 170 operation days, it can be said that the hybrid reactor and CSTR were very effective for leachate treatment.

  7. INVESTIGATIONS ON SEWAGE TREATMENT PROCESS USING COMBINED BIO-OXIDIZERS

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    V. N. Jaromsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations on process of aerobic waste water treatment with combined bio-oxidizers at milk processing enterprises. It has been shown that attached biocenosis, free-floating biocenosis and also bio-module rotation frequency  have exerted a significant influence on the process of an aerobic sewage treatment. It has been established that combined bio-oxidizers can be used for cleaning high concentrated waste water at the enterprises of food industry.

  8. INVESTIGATIONS ON SEWAGE TREATMENT PROCESS USING COMBINED BIO-OXIDIZERS

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Jaromsky; E. I. Mihnevich

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigations on process of aerobic waste water treatment with combined bio-oxidizers at milk processing enterprises. It has been shown that attached biocenosis, free-floating biocenosis and also bio-module rotation frequency  have exerted a significant influence on the process of an aerobic sewage treatment. It has been established that combined bio-oxidizers can be used for cleaning high concentrated waste water at the enterprises of food industry.

  9. Temperature-induced changes in treatment efficiency and microbial structure of aerobic granules treating landfill leachate

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    Mieczkowski, Dorian; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Rusanowska, Paulina; Świątczak, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of temperature on nitrogen and carbon removal by aerobic granules from landfill leachate with a high ammonium concentration and low concentration of biodegradable organics. The study was conducted in three stages; firstly the operating temperature of the batch reactor with aerobic granules was maintained at 29 °C, then at 25 °C, and finally at 20 °C. It was found that a gradual decrease in operational temperature allowed the nitrogen-converting community in ...

  10. Co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater using a submerged aerobic biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, F M; Povinelli, J; Pozzi, E; Vieira, E M; Trofino, J C

    2014-08-01

    This study used a pilot-scale submerged aerobic biofilter (SAB) to evaluate the co-treatment of domestic wastewater and landfill leachate that was pre-treated by air stripping. The leachate tested volumetric ratios were 0, 2, and 5%. At a hydraulic retention time of 24 h, the SAB was best operated with a volumetric ratio of 2% and removed 98% of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 80% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 90% of the total suspended solids (TSS). A proposed method, which we called the "equivalent in humic acid" (Eq.HA) approach, indicated that the hardly biodegradable organic matter in leachate was removed by partial degradation (71% of DOC Eq.HA removal). Adding leachate at a volumetric ratio of 5%, the concentration of the hardly biodegradable organic matter was decreased primarily as a result of dilution rather than biodegradation, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was mostly removed (90%) by nitrification, and the SAB performances at the volumetric ratios of 0 and 2% were equal. For the three tested volumetric ratios of leachate (0, 2, and 5%), the concentrations of heavy metals in the treated samples were below the local limits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolution on qualities of leachate and landfill gas in the semi-aerobic landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qifei; YANG Yufei; PANG Xiangrui; WANG Qi

    2008-01-01

    To study the characteristics of stabilization in semi-aerobic landfill, large-scale simulated landfill was constructed based on the semi-aerobic landfill theory. Consequently, the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen, and nitrite nitrogen, and the pH value in leachate, as well as the component contents of landfill gas composition (methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen) in landfill were regularly monitored for 52 weeks. The results showed that COD and ammonia concentrations declined rapidly and did not show the accumulating rule like anaerobic landfill, and remained at about 300 and 100 mg/L, respectively, after 48 weeks. Meanwhile, the descending rate reached 98.9% and 96.9%, respectively. Nitrate concentration increased rapidly after 24 weeks and fluctuated between 220-280 mg/L after 43 weeks. The pH values were below 7 during the first 8 weeks and after that leachates appeared to be alkaline. Carbon dioxide was the main composition in landfill gas and its concentration remained at a high level through the whole stabilization process. The average contents of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and methane varied between 19 vol.%-28 vol.%, 2 vol.%-8 vol.%, and 5 vol.%-13 vol.%, respectively. A relative equilibrium was reached after 48 weeks. The highest temperature in the landfill chamber could amount to 75.8 degrees centigrade.

  12. Impact of intermittent aerations on leachate quality and greenhouse gas reduction in the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method.

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    Nag, Mitali; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Komiya, Teppei

    2016-09-01

    The aerobic-anaerobic landfill method (AALM) is a novel approach in solid waste management that could shorten the landfill post-closure period and minimize the environmental loads. In this study, the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method was evaluated by using intermittent aeration. In addition, the nitrification-denitrification process was assessed as a means of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and improving the leachate quality during the degradation of the organic solid waste. The leachate quality and the gas composition in each of the reactors were measured during the experimental period (408days). The aeration process entailed the injection of air into plexiglass cylinders (200cm height×10 cm diameter), filled with fresh organic solid waste collected from a composting plant. Different aeration routines were applied, namely, continuous aeration (aerobic reactor A), aeration for three days/week (aerobic-anaerobic reactor B), aeration for 6h/day (aerobic-anaerobic reactor C), and no aeration (non-aerated reactor D). It was found that aerobic reactor A produced the best results in terms of reduction of GHGs and improvement of the leachate quality. The aerobic-anaerobic reactor C was found to be more effective than reactor B in respect of both the emission of GHGs and the leachate quality; moreover, compared with aerobic reactor A, energy costs were reduced by operating this reactor. The transition period phenomenon was investigated during an intensive seven-day experiment conducted on the discharged leachate obtained from aerobic-anaerobic reactors B and C. The experiment concerned the differences in the composition of the gas during the aeration and the non-aeration periods. It was found that the transition period between the aeration and non-aeration cycles, which followed the simultaneous nitrification-denitrification had a considerable effect on the leachate quality of both the reactors. The results indicated that AALM has the potential to reduce

  13. Microbial and hydrodynamic properties of aerobic granules in a sequencing batch reactor treating landfill leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-jie WEI; Min JI; Guo-yi LI; Fei-fei QIN

    2012-01-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) seeded with activated sludge was established for landfill leachate treatment.Small bio-aggregates began to appear after 40-d operation,and gradually changed to mature aerobic granules,with a mean size of 0.36-0.60 mm.Their sludge volume index at 5 min (SVI5 min),mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS),and wet density were around 35 ml/g,3.4 g/L,and 1.062 g/cm3,respectively.The settling velocities of the granules in distilled water ranged from 0.3 to 1.3 cm/s,which were faster than those in landfill leachate with a salt content of 1.4% (w/v),and also slightly faster than those predicted by Stokes' law for porous but impermeable particles.Microbial community evolution during the granulation process and stages under different nitrogen loading rates (NLRs) were monitored and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE),cloning,and sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) fragments.Results revealed that some primary and dominant communities in inoculating activated sludge died out gradually; while a few common bacteria,inhabiting soils,municipal wastewater,or activated sludge systems,dominated in the SBR system throughout.In addition,some other dominant species,associated with the aerobic granulation process,were thought to play a significant role in the formation and growth of aerobic granular sludge.During the stable operation time under low NLR,a few species were present in abundance,and may have been responsible for the high organic removal efficiency at this time.

  14. Temperature-induced changes in treatment efficiency and microbial structure of aerobic granules treating landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczkowski, Dorian; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Rusanowska, Paulina; Świątczak, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates the effect of temperature on nitrogen and carbon removal by aerobic granules from landfill leachate with a high ammonium concentration and low concentration of biodegradable organics. The study was conducted in three stages; firstly the operating temperature of the batch reactor with aerobic granules was maintained at 29 °C, then at 25 °C, and finally at 20 °C. It was found that a gradual decrease in operational temperature allowed the nitrogen-converting community in the granules to acclimate, ensuring efficient nitrification even at ambient temperature (20 °C). Ammonium was fully removed from leachate regardless of the temperature, but higher operational temperatures resulted in higher ammonium removal rates [up to 44.2 mg/(L h) at 29 °C]. Lowering the operational temperature from 29 to 20 °C decreased nitrite accumulation in the GSBR cycle. The highest efficiency of total nitrogen removal was achieved at 25 °C (36.8 ± 10.9 %). The COD removal efficiency did not exceed 50 %. Granules constituted 77, 80 and 83 % of the biomass at 29, 25 and 20 °C, respectively. Ammonium was oxidized by both aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Accumulibacter sp., Thauera sp., cultured Tetrasphaera PAO and Azoarcus-Thauera cluster occurred in granules independent of the temperature. Lower temperatures favored the occurrence of denitrifiers of Zooglea lineage (not Z. resiniphila), bacteria related to Comamonadaceae, Curvibacter sp., Azoarcus cluster, Rhodobacter sp., Roseobacter sp. and Acidovorax spp. At lower temperatures, the increased abundance of denitrifiers compensated for the lowered enzymatic activity of the biomass and ensured that nitrogen removal at 20 °C was similar to that at 25 °C and significantly higher than removal at 29 °C.

  15. [Treatment of landfill leachate using sequential anaerobic/aerobic moving-bed biofilm reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Sun, De-zhi; Chen, Gui-xia; Jong, Shik Chung

    2006-10-01

    A sequential anaerobic-aerobic moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was employed to treat landfill leachate produced from disposal of municipal solid waste. The affecting operation conditions were investigated, and the affecting mechanism was also analyzed. The results showed that the HRT and organic loading rate (OLR) could greatly influence the treat efficiency. When the influent OLR was in the range of 4.01 - 7.87 kg/(m3 x d), the average total COD removal efficiency was 94.2%, and the contribution of anaerobic stage to total COD removal efficiency was 87.95% - 92.76%; while the influent OLR was in the range of 10.23-16.14 kg/(m3 x d), the average total COD removal efficiency was still 92.64%, and the contribution of anaerobic stage to total COD removal efficiency was 79.05% - 86.56%. As long as HRT of aerobic MBBR was longer than 1.25 d, the total HN4+ -N removal efficiency was persistently more than 97%; while the HRT was 0.75 d, the total HN4+ -N removal efficiency was only about 20%. The sequential anaerobic-aerobic MBBR can endure strong loading impact, even though the OLR was sharply increased 4 times and lasted for 24 h; the system could recover the normal treat efficiency in 3 d.

  16. The Effectiveness of Silica Sand in Semi-Aerobic Stabilized Landfill Leachate Treatment

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    Ezlina Othman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the suitability of natural silica sand as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and heavy metals, particularly iron and zinc, from semi-aerobic stabilized landfill leachate. Leachate samples were collected from the Pulau Burung landfill site (PBLS in Penang, Malaysia. The above-mentioned contaminants are highlighted in this study because of their unsafe concentrations at PBLS. The effects of shaking time, settling time, and silica sand dosage on the study parameter removal efficiencies were investigated to predict the performance of the process. The adsorptions of ammoniacal nitrogen, iron, and zinc were judiciously described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The optimum removal efficiencies of ammoniacal nitrogen, iron, and zinc obtained were 51%, 44.4%, and 39.2%, respectively, with a shaking time of 90 min, a settling time of 60 min, and with a dosage of 60 g (0.5 kg/L of silica sand. Based on the coefficient of determination (R2 values obtained from Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, ammoniacal nitrogen, iron, and zinc adsorption were better fitted to the Freundlich model.

  17. Antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli in leachates from municipal solid waste landfills: comparison between semi-aerobic and anaerobic operations.

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    Threedeach, Simanata; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Watanabe, Toru; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Honda, Ryo; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2012-06-01

    A bacterial susceptibility test to 31 antibiotics was conducted on the 80 isolated Escherichia coli from the leachates of the landfills in two different operations: semi-aerobic (SL) and anaerobic (AL) landfills. The average population of E. coli from SL and AL leachates were 2.2 × 10(4) and 9.4 × 10(3)CFU/100ml, respectively. Between 80.8% and 87.5% of the E. coli isolated from both leachates as resistant to the tested antibiotics and high resistances were found to doxycycline (53.8-68.8%), cephalothin (57.5-61.3%), tetracycline (51.3-67.5%) and minocycline (37.5-46.3%). The percentages of isolates resistant to most antibiotics were higher in the AL leachate. The exception was nitrofurantoin to which the isolates from the SL were highly resistant. E. coli from both sources showed similarly high susceptibilities (90-100%) to aminoglycosides, quinolones, chloramphenicol, sulfonamide and some new beta-lactams. The difference in available oxygen in landfills could affect E. coli susceptibility to antibiotics in leachates.

  18. [Impact of Salinity on Leachate Treatment and N2O Releases from Semi-aerobic Aged-refuse Bioreactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-hua; Sun, Ying-jie; Liu, Zi-liang; Ma, Qiang; Yang, Qiang

    2016-02-15

    Semi-aerobic Aged-refuse Bioreactor (SAARB) has a good effect on nitrogen removal in leachate, but a strong greenhouse gas (N2O) was generated during the nitrification and denitrification process. The effect of salinity (7-30 g x L(-1)) on the leachate treatment and the N2O production from SAARB system was investigated. Experimental results showed that salinity ranging from 7 to 30 g x L(-1) had no significant effect on COD removal, and the removal efficiency was always more than 85%. On the contrary, it had a strong influence on the removal of nitrogen. The removal efficiencies of NH4+ -N and TN decreased from 98. 23% and 91.48% at 7 g x L(-1) salt to 31.75% and 34.24% at 30 g x L(-1) salt, respectively. Moreover, there was significant nitrite (NO2- -N) accumulation in the presence of 30 g x L(-1) salt. Meanwhile, salinity had different inhibition strength on nitrification and denitrification bacteria, and the order of inhibition strength was as follows: nitrification bacteria > denitrification bacteria. In addition, the N2O production increased with salinity concentration, and the highest N2O accumulation (1397 microg +/- 369.88 microg) was observed with addition of 30 g x L(-1) salt, which accounted for 8.87%o of the total nitrogen removal. Meanwhile, it was 6-117 times higher in the presence of 30 g x L(-1) salt than that in low salinity conditions (7-20 g x L(-1)). And the peak time of the N2O production showed a delayed trend. These results indicated that salinity recirculation in leachate had a negative effect on the nitrogen removal and N2O production. Overall, salinity seemed to be a key parameter during leachate recirculation.

  19. Leachate/domestic wastewater aerobic co-treatment: A pilot-scale study using multivariate analysis.

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    Ferraz, F M; Bruni, A T; Povinelli, J; Vieira, E M

    2016-01-15

    Multivariate analysis was used to identify the variables affecting the performance of pilot-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors treating old leachate from a landfill and from domestic wastewater. Raw leachate was pre-treated using air stripping to partially remove the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). The control AS reactor (AS-0%) was loaded only with domestic wastewater, whereas the other reactor was loaded with mixtures containing leachate at volumetric ratios of 2 and 5%. The best removal efficiencies were obtained for a ratio of 2%, as follows: 70 ± 4% for total suspended solids (TSS), 70 ± 3% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 70 ± 4% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 51 ± 9% for the leachate slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed that most of the SBOM was removed by partial biodegradation rather than dilution or adsorption of organics in the sludge. Nitrification was approximately 80% in the AS-0% and AS-2% reactors. No significant accumulation of heavy metals was observed for any of the tested volumetric ratios. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) indicated that the data dimension could be reduced and that TAN, SCOD, DOC and nitrification efficiency were the main variables that affected the performance of the AS reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Advanced removal of organic and nitrogen from ammonium-rich landfill leachate using an anaerobic-aerobic system☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Sun; Huanan Zhao; Baoxia Bai; Yuying Chen; Qing Yang; Yongzhen Peng

    2015-01-01

    A novel system coupling an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was introduced to achieve advanced removal of organic and nitrogen from ammonium-rich landfill leachate. UASB could remove 88.1%of the influent COD at a volumetric loading rate of 6.8 kg COD·m−3·d−1. Nitritation–denitritation was responsible for removing 99.8%of NH4+-N and 25%of total nitrogen in the SBR under alternating aerobic/anoxic modes. Simultaneous denitritation and methanogenesis in the UASB enhanced COD and TN removal, and replenished alkalinity consumed in nitritation. For the activated sludge of SBR, ammonia oxidizing bacteria were preponderant in nitrifying population, indicated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) anal-ysis. The Monod equation is appropriate to describe the kinetic behavior of heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria, with its kinetic parameters determined from batch experiments.

  1. Influence of aeration modes on leachate characteristic of landfills that adopt the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuanfu; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Komiya, Teppei; Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia

    2014-01-01

    As far as the optimal design, operation, and field application of the Aerobic-Anaerobic Landfill Method (AALM) are concerned, it is very important to understand how aeration modes (different combinations of aeration depth and air injection rate) affect the biodegradation of organic carbon and the transformation of nitrogen in landfill solid waste. Pilot-scale lysimeter experiments were carried out under different aeration modes to obtain detailed information regarding the influence of aeration modes on leachate characteristics. Results from these lysimeter experiments revealed that aeration at the bottom layer was the most effective for decomposition of organic carbon when compared with aeration at the surface or middle layers. Moreover, the air injection rate led to different nitrogen transformation patterns, unlike the lesser influence it has on organic carbon decomposition. Effective simultaneous nitrification and denitrification were observed for the aeration mode with a higher air injection rate (=1.0 L/min). On the other hand, the phenomenon of sequenced nitrification and denitrification could be observed when a low air injection rate (=0.5L/min.) was employed. Finally, it is concluded that, for AALM, air injection with a higher air injection rate at the deepest layer near the leachate collection pipe tends to accelerate the stabilization of landfill waste as defined in terms of the enhancement of denitrification as well as organic carbon decomposition.

  2. Extraction and application of starch-based coagulants from sago trunk for semi-aerobic landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Sobri, Nur Izzati Mohamad

    2015-11-01

    Malaysia is one of the highest starch producers. In this study, sago starch was utilized as a natural coagulant aid to reduce the dosage of aluminum-based coagulant in leachate treatment. The potential of native sago trunk starch (NSTS) and commercial sago starch (CSS) was evaluated as sole coagulant and coagulant aid in the presence of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) in the removal of color, suspended solids (SS), NH3-N, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, organic UV254, Cd, and Ni. Leachate was sampled from Pulau Burung Landfill Site, one of the semi-aerobic landfills in Malaysia. The optimum dosage for PACl in the presence of NSTS or CSS as coagulant aid was reduced from 3100 to 2000 mg/L. In the presence of 2000 mg/L PACl with 6000 mg/L NSTS and 2000 mg/L PACl with 5000 mg/L CSS, the removal performance for color, SS, and turbidity are 94.7, 99.2, and 98.9%, respectively. Similar results were obtained with the use of 3100 mg/L PACl alone. Therefore, CSS and NSTS can be used as coagulant aid.

  3. Treatment of semi-aerobic landfill leachate using durian peel-based activated carbon adsorption- Optimization of preparation conditions

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    Mohamad Anuar Kamaruddin, Mohd Suffian Yusoff, Mohd Azmier Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatability of semi-aerobic landfill leachate parameters using durian peel-based activated carbon (DPAC was investigated. An ideal experimental design was conducted based on central composite design (CCD using response surface methodology to evaluate individual and interactive effects of operational variables namely activation temperature, activation time and carbon dioxide (CO2 flow rate on treatment performance in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD and colour removal efficiencies. The DPAC was prepared using physical activation method which consists of CO2 gasification. The adsorptions of COD and colour were described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Based on the CCD, quadratic model was developed to correlate preparation variables to the two responses. The optimum DPAC preparation conditions were obtained using 800 °C activation temperature, 2.1 h activation time and 68.68 ml/s of CO2 flow rate. From the experimental work, the maximum removal of COD and colour obtained were 41.98 and 39.86%, respectively.

  4. Treatment of semi-aerobic landfill leachate using durian peel-based activated carbon adsorption- Optimization of preparation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian [School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Ahmad, Mohd Azmier [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2012-07-01

    The treatability of semi-aerobic landfill leachate parameters using durian peel-based activated carbon (DPAC) was investigated. An ideal experimental design was conducted based on central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology to evaluate individual and interactive effects of operational variables namely activation temperature, activation time and carbon dioxide (CO2) flow rate on treatment performance in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour removal efficiencies. The DPAC was prepared using physical activation method which consists of CO2 gasification. The adsorptions of COD and colour were described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Based on the CCD, quadratic model was developed to correlate preparation variables to the two responses. The optimum DPAC preparation conditions were obtained using 800 C activation temperature, 2.1 h activation time and 68.68 ml/s of CO2 flow rate. From the experimental work, the maximum removal of COD and colour obtained were 41.98 and 39.86%, respectively.

  5. Bio-oxidation of arsenopyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Tao; LI Qian; YANG Yong-bin; LI Guang-hui; QIU Guan-zhou

    2008-01-01

    Oxidation of arsenopyrite with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was studied.The electrochemical results show that arsenopyrite is firstly oxidized to As2S2 at the potential of 0.2-0.3 V (vs SHE) and As2S2 covers the electrode and retards the process continuously.While at higher potential over 0.3 V (vs SHE),As2S2 is oxidized to H3AsO3,and H3AsO3 is then oxidized to H3AsO4 at 0.8 V (vs SHE).The leaching results show that the addition of FeS2 can promote the oxidation of As3+ to As5+ and increase the activity of the bacteria.The best bio-oxidation technical parameters are the initial pH of 1.8-2.0,particle sizes less than 0.074 mm,temperature in the range of 25-30 ℃ and rotating speed of the orbital incubator of 100-160 r/min.The results provide theoretical and technological supports of bio-oxidation arsenopyrite for pretreating refractory arsenic gold ores.

  6. Aerobic co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater - are slowly biodegradable organics removed or simply diluted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, R; Ferraz, F M; Vieira, E M; Povinelli, J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the co-treatment of landfill leachate/domestic wastewater in bench-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors to determine whether the slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM) was removed rather than diluted. The AS reactors were loaded with mixtures of raw leachate and leachate that was pretreated by air stripping. The tested volumetric ratios were 0%, 0.2%, 2% and 5%. For all of the tested conditions, the reactors performed better when pretreated leachate was used rather than raw leachate, and the best volumetric ratio was 2%. The following removals were obtained: 97% for the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5,20), 79% for total suspended solids, 77% for dissolved organic carbon and 84% for soluble chemical oxygen demand. Most of the pretreated leachate SBOM (65%) was removed rather than diluted or adsorbed into the sludge, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses.

  7. Prolonged aerobic degradation of shredded and pre-composted municipal solid waste: report from a 21-year study of leachate quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisey, Elise; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of long-term waste maturation at a closed landfill (Etueffont, France) over a period of 21 years (1989-2010) through analysis of the physicochemical characteristics of leachates as well as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal content in waste. The results show that the leachates, generated in two different sections (older and newer) of the landfill, have low organic, mineral, and metallic loads, as the wastes were mainly of household origin from a rural area where sorting and composting were required. Based on pH and BOD/COD assessments, leachate monitoring in the landfill's newer section showed a rapid decrease in the pollution load over time and an early onset of methanogenic conditions. The closing of the older of the two sections contributed to a significant decline for the majority of parameters, attributable to degradation and leaching. A gradual decreasing trend was observed after waste placement had ceased in the older section, indicating that degradation continued and the waste mass had not yet fully stabilized. At the end of monitoring, leachates from the two landfill linings contained typical old leachates in the maturation period, with a pH ≥ 7 and a low BOD/COD ratio indicating a low level of waste biodegradability. Age actually contributes to a gradual removal of organic, inorganic, and metallic wastes, but it is not the only driving factor behind advanced degradation. The lack of compaction and cover immediately after deposit extended the aerobic degradation phase, significantly reducing the amount of organic matter. In addition, waste shredding improved water infiltration into the waste mass, hastening removal of polluting components through percolation.

  8. N2O emissions from an intermittently aerated semi-aerobic aged refuse bioreactor: Combined effect of COD and NH4(+)-N in influent leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihua; Sun, Yingjie; Bian, Rongxing; Wang, Huawei; Zhang, Dalei

    2017-08-12

    The carbon-nitrogen ratio (COD/NH4(+)-N) is an important factor affecting nitrification and denitrification in wastewater treatment; this factor also influences nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. This study investigated two simulated intermittently aerated semi-aerobic aged refuse bioreactors (SAARB) filled with 8-year old aged refuse (AR). The research analyzed how differences in and the combination of influent COD and NH4(+)-N impact N2O emissions in leachate treatment. Experimental results showed that N2O emissions increased as the influent COD/NH4(+)-N decreased. The influent COD had a greater effect on N2O emissions than NH4(+)-N at the same influent ratios of COD/NH4(+)-N (2.7 and 8.0, respectively). The maximum N2O emission accounted for 8.82±2.65% of the total nitrogen removed from the influent leachate; the maximum level occurred when the COD was 2000mg/L. An analysis of differences in influent carbon sources at the same COD/NH4(+)-N ratios concluded that the availability of biodegradable carbon substrates (i.e. glucose) is an important factor affecting N2O emissions. At a low influent COD/NH4(+)-N ratio (2.7), the N2O conversion rate was greater when there were more biodegradable carbon substrates. Although the SAARB included the N2O generation and reduction processes, N2O reduction mainly occurred later in the process, after leachate recirculation. The maximum N2O emission rate occurred in the first hour of single-period (24h) experiments, as leachate contacted the surface AR. In practical SAARB applications, N2O emissions may be reduced by measures such as reducing the initial recirculation loading of NH4(+)-N substrates, adding a later supplement of biodegradable carbon substrates, and/or prolonging hydraulic retention time (HRT) of influent leachate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Assessment of the aerobic preparation and bottom ash addition as pretreatment steps before landfilling: impact on methanogenesis kinetics and leachate parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Alicia A; Motte, Antoine; Pallier, Virginie; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, Geneviève; Ponthieux, Arnaud

    2012-10-01

    This work focuses on assessing the impact of two types of waste pretreatment: addition of bottom ashes and aerobic pretreatment on both the onset and kinetics of methanogenesis and the evolution of different parameters in the leachate. It also studies the correlation between methane production and the different parameters measured in the leachate produced. A total of six 68-L pilots were thus used with fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) shredded to a 40-mm size. After 14 months of landfilling, the control has produced less than 10 NLkg(-1)DM, which corresponds to around 7% of its biochemical methane potential (BMP). Nevertheless, on one hand for aerobically pretreated waste, the lag phase before the onset of methanogenesis is significantly reduced to 0.9 month compared to more than 1 year for the control. In addition to that, on average 110 NLkg(-1)DM (90% of the BMP) is produced within around 6.5 months. On the other hand, the waste with added bottom ash shows a slight improvement of the lag phase over the control for one of the duplicate: 6.1 months of lag phase. At this stage, on average of 26 NLkg(-1)DM waste are detected (22% of the BMP) no final conclusion concerning the impact of bottom ashes could be made. The data obtained for the leachate parameters agrees with the observations on methane production. Statistical correlation study shows that the two components of the corrected PCA interpret 76% of the variability of the data: SUVA (specific UV absorbance at 254 nm) and HPI(*) (% of hydrophilic compounds) are identified as interesting parameters for following up the biodegradation in landfill conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ammonium-dependent regulation of aerobic methane-consuming bacteria in landfill cover soil by leachate irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Fan; He, Pinjing; Guo, Min; Yang, Na; Shao, Liming

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of landfill leachate irrigation on methane oxidation activities and methane-consuming bacteria populations were studied by incubation of landfill cover soils with leachate and (NH4)2SO4 solution at different ammonium concentrations. The community structures and abundances of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were examined by PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR. Compared with the pure (NH4)2SO4 solution, leachate addition was found to have a positive effect on methane oxidation activity. In terms of the irrigation amount, ammonium in leachate was responsible for the actual inhibition of leachate. The extent of inhibitory effect mainly depended on its ammonium concentration. The suppression of the predominant methane-consuming bacteria, type I MOB, was responsible for the decreased methane oxidation activity by ammonium inhibition. Methane-consuming bacteria responded diversely in abundance to ammonium. The abundance of type I MOB decreased by fivefold; type II MOB showed stimulation response of fivefold magnification upon the first addition but lessened to be lower than the original level after the second addition; the amount of AOB was stimulated to increase for 20-30 times gradually. Accumulated nitrate from nitrification strengthened the ammonium inhibition on type I and type II MOB, as a result, repetitive irrigation was unfavorable for methane oxidation.

  11. Ammonium-dependent regulation of aerobic methane-consuming bacteria in landfill cover soil by leachate irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Lü; Pinjing He; Min Guo; Na Yang; Liming Shao

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of landfill leachate irrigation on methane oxidation activities and methane-consuming bacteria populations were studied by incubation of landfill cover soils with leachate and (NH4)2SO4 solution at different ammonium concentrations.The community structures and abundances of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were examined by PCRDGGE and real-time PCR.Compared with the pure (NH4)2SO4 solution,leachate addition was found to have a positive effect on methane oxidation activity.In terms of the irrigation amount,ammonium in leachate was responsible for the actual inhibition of leachate.The extent of inhibitory effect mainly depended on its ammonium concentration.The suppression of the predominant methaneconsuming bacteria,type Ⅰ MOB,was responsible for the decreased methane oxidation activity by ammonium inhibition.Methaneconsuming bacteria responded diversely in abundance to ammonium.The abundance of type Ⅰ MOB decreased by fivefold; type Ⅱ MOB showed stimulation response of fivefold magnification upon the first addition but lessened to be lower than the original level after the second addition; the amount of AOB was stimulated to increase for 20-30 times gradually.Accumulated nitrate from nitrification strengthened the ammonium inhibition on type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ MOB,as a result,repetitive irrigation was unfavorable for methane oxidation.

  12. Aerobic SMBR/reverse osmosis system enhanced by Fenton oxidation for advanced treatment of old municipal landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoliang; Qin, Lei; Meng, Qin; Fan, Zheng; Wu, Dexin

    2013-08-01

    A novel combined process of Fenton oxidation, submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) and reverse osmosis (RO) was applied as an appropriate option for old municipal landfill leachate treatment. Fenton process was designed to intensively solve the problem of non-biodegradable organic pollutant removal and low biodegradability of leachate, although the removal of ammonia-nitrogen was similar to 10%. After SMBR treatment, it not only presented a higher removal efficiency of organics, but also exhibited high ammonia-nitrogen removal of 80% on average. The variation of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content, zeta potential, and particle size of flocs after Fenton effluent continually fed in SMBR was found to be benefit for alleviating membrane fouling. Finally, three kinds of RO membranes (RE, CPA, and BW) were applied to treat SMBR effluents and successfully met wastewater re-utilization requirement. Compared with simple RO process, the troublesome membrane fouling can be effectively reduced in the combined process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental Study on Treatment of Landfill Leachate with Aerobic Granular Sludge%好氧颗粒污泥处理垃圾渗滤液的效能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鑫; 李金城; 郑华燕; 许丹丹; 徐芝芬; 吴蕾; 邓富勇

    2011-01-01

    Using aeration rate as a main control condition and landfill leachate as substrate , aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in SBR system , and the treatment efficiency of landfill leachate was investigated. The results show that the aerobic granular sludge is successfully cultivated at aeration rate of 0.08 m3/h and 0.003 m3/h in SBR system, with a great difference in sludge morphology. The aerobic granular sludge formed at high aeration rate has compact structure, small particle size, more gully and channel , while that formed at low aeration rate has loose structure , less gully and channel and large particle size. When the influent COD concentration is 900 to 1200 mg/L, the removal rate of COD is 93%at low aeration rate and 80% at high aeration rate. The removal rate of TP is all 60% at different aeration rates. the aeration rate has great influence on nitrification , and the removal rate of NH3 - N reaches 90%at high aeration rate, higher than that at low aeration rate. Compared with aerobic granular sludge at low aeration rate, aerobic granular sludge at high aeration rate is more adaptable to high-concentration free ammonia .%利用SBR反应器,以曝气量作为主要控制条件、以垃圾渗滤液作为培养基质来培养好氧颗粒污泥,研究好氧颗粒污泥的培养以及对垃圾渗滤液的处理效果.结果表明:在0.08、0.003 m3/h两种曝气量下均成功培养出好氧颗粒污泥,但其形态存在较大差别,高曝气量下形成的颗粒污泥结构紧密、粒径小、沟壑和孔道较多,而低曝气量下形成的颗粒污泥结构松散、沟壑和孔道较少,但粒径较大.当进水COD为900~1 200 mg/L时,低曝气量系统对COD的去除率可达93%左右,高曝气量系统的为80%;在不同的曝气量下,对TP的去除率均在60%左右;曝气量对硝化的影响较大,高曝气量下好氧颗粒污泥对氨氮的去除率能达到90%,高于低曝气量下对氨氮的去除率;与低曝气量下形成的颗

  14. Inorganic fouling of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and a polishing aerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcinski, Antoine P; Stuckey, David C

    2016-03-01

    The treatment of leachate (Average TCOD=11.97 g/L, 14.4% soluble) from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste was investigated using a Submerged Anaerobic Membrane BioReactor (SAMBR), followed by an aerobic membrane bioreactor (AMBR) to polish this effluent. This paper investigated the exact nature and composition of the inorganic precipitate in each of the reactors in the process. The flux decreased due to precipitation of calcium as monohydrocalcite (CaCO3·H2O) containing traces of metals onto the SAMBR membrane because of high CO2 partial pressures. Precipitation of calcium in the AMBR was also observed due to a higher pH. In this case, phosphorus also precipitated with calcium in two different phases: the background layer contained calcium, oxygen, carbon and small amounts of phosphorus (2-6.7%), while flakes containing calcium, oxygen and higher amounts of phosphorus (10-17%) were probably hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of landfill structures on stabilization of fully recycled leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to treat the leachate from two simulating columns by recycling to the columns themselves without being discharged into the enviroment. The columns were employed to simulate anaerobic and semi-aerobic landfills separately. The influence of landfill structure on stabilization of fully recycled leachate was studied. The results show that semi-aerobic landfill structure accelerates the stabilization of leachate recycled. The full recycle of leachate in semi-aerobic landfill is a very feasible and effective technology for leachate treatment with low cost and energy saving especially in arid and rare rainfall regions. Meanwhile, the environmental impact of landfill can be greatly minimized.

  16. Bio-oxidation of galena particles by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jiang; Huaiyang Zhou; Xiaotong Peng; Zhonghao Ding

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the bio-oxidation of galena particles (-80 meshes) usingAcidithiobacillusferrooxidans and compares it with Fe3+ oxidation. Experimental results show that, at least, 0.00197 mol galena was leached from 100mL pulp (density of 3.8%) with 39 days' bio-oxidation, as compared to 0.00329 mol galena by Fe3+ with 9 days' oxidation. Because Fe3+ was constantly consumed, leaching by F3+e almost stopped after 9 days. Large amounts of lead sulfate were detected in both bio-oxidation and Fe3+ oxidation of galena. A. ferrooxidans followed a unique growth pattern during the bio-oxidation of galena. In the initial 15 days, the bacteria attached themselves to the galena surface with the formation of erosion pits similar in shape and length to those of the bacteria, and there were hardly any bacteria suspended in the solution. After 15 days, suspended bacteria increased. It is thus suggested that A. ferrooxidans may directly oxidize galena.

  17. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  18. Bio-oxidation of pyrite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the bio-oxidation processes by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans of pyrite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite. Our experimental results show distinctive bio-oxidation characteristics for the three sulfide minerals. In the presence of A. ferrooxidans, the sulfide oxidation rates generally decrease in the order of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and pyrite. The pH during bio-oxidation of pyrite tends to decrease as a whole, whereas a rise-fall pattern was recorded for both chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite in their pH variations. No deposition was observed during the bio-oxidation of pyrite, suggesting a possible link to lower pH value in the process. However, large amounts of jarosite and element sulfur were determined in the bio-oxidation processes of chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite. A. ferrooxidans individuals were found directly as attachments to erosion pits on the smooth surface of pyrite. The erosion pits are similar to the bacterium in shape and length, and thus are probably products of dissolution of organic acid secreted by the cells on the mineral surface. More complicatedly, biofilm exists on the surfaces of chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite. This type of structured community of A. ferrooxidans is enclosed in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and covered with the deposition generated in the bio-oxidation processes of chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite. Different bio-oxidation processes of pyrite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite may be linked mainly to characteristics of individual minerals and the pH in the reaction solution of the bio-oxidation system.

  19. Review on Landfill Leachate Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhussain A. Abbas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Sanitary landfilling is the most common way to eliminate solid urban wastes. An important problem associated to landfills is the production of leachates. This study is a review of landfill leachate treatments. Approach: The advantages and disadvantages of the various existing leachate treatments discussed under the items: (i Leachate channeling (combined treatment with domestic sewage, recycling (ii Biological processing (aerobic and anaerobic (iii Chemical/physical treatment (flotation, coagulation/flocculation, chemical precipitation, adsorption, ammonium stripping, chemical oxidation, ion exchange and electrochemical treatment (iv Membrane filtration (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis. Conclusion: The major fraction of old or biologically treated leachate was large recalcitrant organic molecules that are not easy removed during biological treatment. So that, in order to meet strict quality standards for direct discharge of leachate into the surface water, a development of integrated methods of treatment, a combination of biological, chemical, physical and membrane process steps, were required. Today, the use of membrane technologies, more especially Reverse Osmosis (RO, either as a main step in a landfill leachate treatment chain or as single post-treatment step had shown to be an indispensable means of achieving purification.

  20. Biodegradability of leachates from Chinese and German municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SELIC E.; WANG Chi; BOES N., HERBELL J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative composition of Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW) differs significantly from German waste. The focus of this paper is on whether these differences also lead to dissimilar qualities of leachates during storage or landfilling. Leachates ingredients determine the appropriate treatment technique. MSW compositions of the two cities Guilin (China) and Essen (Germany), each with approx. 600000 inhabitants, are used to simulate Chinese and German MSW types. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is used, combining aerobic and anaerobic reaction principles, to test the biodegradability of leachates. Leachates are tested for temperature, pH-value, redox potentials, and oxygen concentration. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) values are determined. Within 8 h, the biodegradation rates for both kinds of leachates are more than 90%. Due to the high organic content of Chinese waste, the degradation rate for Guilin MSW leachate is even higher, up to 97%. The effluent from SBR technique is suitable for direct discharge into bodies of water.

  1. XPS characteristics of sulfur of bio-oxidized arsenic-bearing gold concentrate and changes of surface nature of bio-oxidation residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪英; 巩恩普; 杨立; 陈刚; 范有静; 张玉山; 吕久吉

    2004-01-01

    During bio-oxidation of sulfides, the chemical state change of sulfur is a complex and key factor. It is not only an indicator of the extent and intensity of the bio-oxidation, but also controls the property of bio-leaching medium and the period of oxidation. The chemical state of sulfur in sulfides oxidized by leaching bacteria was studied with XPS. Sulfide minerals in the arsenic-hearing gold concentrate consist of pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite and so on. In order to probe the pattern of the chemical state change of sulfur in the bio-oxidation residue of arsenic-bearing gold concentrate, the structure of the grains, and the surface nature of the residue, XPS test was carried out through different sputtering duration. The study of XPS clearly shows that: sulfides is progressively oxidized from the surface of minerals to the core by leaching bacteria; the chemical valence of sulfur changes from S2- or [S2]2- to [SO4]2-; sulfur in the core is in a reduction state, S2- or [S2]2- , but exists in an oxidation state S6+ on the surface; due to the chemical state change of sulfur, mineral phase of the bio-oxidation residue is also changed(sulfides inside, while sulfates outside); the layered structure is found in the grains of the bio-oxidation residue.

  2. Wastewater engineering applications of BioIronTech process based on the biogeochemical cycle of iron bioreduction and (biooxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Ivanov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioreduction of Fe(III and biooxidation of Fe(II can be used in wastewater engineering as an innovative biotechnology BioIronTech, which is protected for commercial applications by US patent 7393452 and Singapore patent 106658 “Compositions and methods for the treatment of wastewater and other waste”. The BioIronTech process comprises the following steps: 1 anoxic bacterial reduction of Fe(III, for example in iron ore powder; 2 surface renovation of iron ore particles due to the formation of dissolved Fe2+ ions; 3 precipitation of insoluble ferrous salts of inorganic anions (phosphate or organic anions (phenols and organic acids; 4 (biooxidation of ferrous compunds with the formation of negatively, positively, or neutrally charged ferric hydroxides, which are good adsorbents of many pollutants; 5 disposal or thermal regeration of ferric (hydroxide. Different organic substances can be used as electron donors in bioreduction of Fe(III. Ferrous ions and fresh ferrous or ferric hydroxides that are produced after iron bioreduction and (biooxidation adsorb and precipitate diferent negatively charged molecules, for example chlorinated compounds of sucralose production wastewater or other halogenated organics, as well as phenols, organic acids, phosphate, and sulphide. Reject water (return liquor from the stage of sewage sludge dewatering on municipal wastewater treatment plants represents from 10 to 50% of phosphorus load when being recycled to the aeration tank. BioIronTech process can remove/recover more than 90% of phosphorous from this reject water thus replacing the conventional process of phosphate precipitation by ferric/ferrous salts, which are 20–100 times more expensive than iron ore, which is used in BioIronTech process. BioIronTech process can remarkably improve the aerobic and anaerobic treatments of municipal and industrial wastewaters, especially anaerobic digestion of lipid- and sulphate-containing food-processing wastewater. It

  3. Enzymatic systems involved in D-limonene biooxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Menéndez

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The biooxidation of limonene by an Aspergillus strain resulted in the production of perillyl alcohol and short chain fatty acids. Addition of ketoconazole, a known inhibitor of cytochrome P450 oxydase, eliminated the production of free acids, but did not affect biotransformation to perillyl alcohol.A biooxidação do limoneno por uma linhagem de Aspergillus resulta na produção de álcool perílico e ácidos graxos de cadeia curta. A adição de quetoconazol, um conhecido inibidor da citocromo P450 oxidase, elimina a produção de ácidos graxos livres, mas não afeta a biotransformação a álcool perilhílico.

  4. 好氧颗粒污泥SBR处理垃圾渗滤液的污泥理化特性分析%Physicochemical Characteristics of Aerobic Granular Sludge in Granular Sequencing Batch Reactor Treating Landfill Leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏燕杰; 季民; 李国一; 秦菲菲

    2012-01-01

    By seeding aerobic granular sludge, a SBR, which was correspondingly called GSBR, was applied to treat refractory landfill leachate. The physicochemical characteristics of aerobic granular sludge were studied. During the 91-day continuous operation time, the aerobic granular sludge was stable with dense structure, and was mainly composed of bacillus, as well as some protozoa and metazoan, like vorticella. Granules with the size of 0.20- 0.60 mm were the main part of the sludge. Its SVI5mil,, average zone settling velocity (ZSV), biomass density, strength (in terms of integrity coefficient) , water content, average SOUR and relative hydrophobicity were 38mL/g, 24m/h, 28g(VSS)/L, 96.3%. 97%, 67.9mg(O2)/(g(VSS) oh)and85.9%, respectively. The elemental analysis showed that multi-valence Ca, Fe, and Cu were the main metal elements of granules. Especially Ca, in the form of CaCO3, largely accumulated in the core of granules. While Na, K, and Mg were the main cations in the extracellular polymer substance (EPS) of granules, in comparison with the low content of Ca.%应用接种颗粒污泥的SBR(GSBR)处理垃圾渗滤液,研究反应器内污泥的理化特性连续稳定运行91d的试验结果表明:GSBR中颗粒污泥结构密实;细菌以杆菌为主,颗粒表面发现少量钟虫;粒径以0.20~0.60 mm的小粒径颗粒为主;污泥SVI5min为38 mL/g左右,污泥层区域平均沉降速度(ZSV)为24 m/h;污泥密度为28 g(VSS)/L;颗粒污泥强度(以完整性系数计)为96.3%;含水率为97%; SOUR平均为67.9 mg(O2)/(g(VSS)?h);污泥表面相对疏水性为85.9%.污泥内元素分析表明:颗粒状污泥更倾向于选择性结合Ca、Fe、Cu等2价或3价金属,特别是Ca元素以CaCO3化合物的形式在好氧颗粒污泥内核大量沉积.污泥EPS中Na、K和Mg为主要的阳离子,而Ca元素所占的比例相对较小.

  5. Metal concentrations of simulated aerobic and anaerobic pilot scale landfill reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinan Bilgili, M. [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Ince, Mahir [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Gebze (Turkey)]. E-mail: mahirince@gyte.edu.tr; Ozkaya, Bestamin [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Yildiz, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: bozkaya@yildiz.edu.tr

    2007-06-25

    Leachate and solid waste samples from aerobic and anaerobic simulated landfill reactors operated with and without leachate recirculation were characterized in terms of metals such as Fe, Ca, K, Na, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Metal concentrations of aerobic landfill reactor leachate samples are always below the regulation limits. The higher concentrations in anaerobic landfill leachate samples decreased to regulation limits after the landfill becomes methanogenic. The effect of leachate recirculation is determined in anaerobic landfills more clearly than aerobic landfills. Metal precipitation resulted in a decrease in leachate metal content and an increase in solid waste metal content as expected. Result of the study show that the metal content of landfill leachate samples is not a major concern for both aerobic and anaerobic landfills.

  6. Redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Downgradient from an old municipal landfill allowing leachate, rich in dissolved organic carbon, to enter a shallow sandy aerobic aquifer, a sequence of redoxe zones is identified from groundwater chemical analysis. Below the landfill, methanogenic conditions prevail, followed by sulfidogenic......, ferrogenic, nitrate-reducing and aerobic environments overa distance of 370 m. This redox zone sequence is consistent with thermodynamical principles and is closely matched by the leachate plume determined by the chloride plume distribution. The redox zone sequence is believed to be key in controlling...

  7. [Biooxidation of a Double-Refractory Gold-Bearing Sulfide Ore Concentrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulaev, A G; Kanaeva, Z K; Kanaev, A T; Kondrat'eva, T F

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of biooxidation for treatment of a double-refractory gold-bearing sulfide ore concentrate from the Bakyrchik deposit (East Kazakhstan) was defined. The experiments were conducted in two different modes, i.e., with the standard liquid medium and the medium imitating the chemical composition of the Bakyrchik deposit groundwater and containing high concentrations of sodium, magnesium, and chloride. The concentrate contained 17.5% of organic carbon, 6% of pyrite and 13% arsenopyrite. Gold content was 57.5 g t@-1@. Direct gold recovery by cyanidation was very low (2.8%). While biooxidation was efficient in both cases (approximately 90% of sulfide sulfur was oxidized), the efficiency of cyanidation was low (39 and 32%, respectively). This fact suggests high efficiency of biooxidation is insufficient for efficient treatment of double-refractory gold-bearing sulfide ore concentrates.

  8. Aerobic and anaerobic mineralization of Salvinia molesta and Myriophyllum aquaticum leachates from a tropical reservoir (Brazil Mineralização aeróbia e anaeróbia dos lixiviados de Salvinia molesta e Myriophyllum aquaticum de um reservatório tropical (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Henriques da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed at describing and discussing the leachates mineralization (aerobic and anaerobic of two species of aquatic macrophytes (Salvinia molesta and Myriophyllum aquaticum from a tropical reservoir (22° 00' S and 47° 54' W; METHODS: The incubations were prepared with plant leachates and reservoir water sample and were maintained during 45 days in the dark (at 20 °C. The organic carbon and the oxygen consumption kinetics were evaluated; RESULTS: Irrespective of to the experimental condition, the leachates were mainly utilized for catabolic processes (i.e., respiration, mineralization was slightly faster in an aerobic environment (1.22 fold and in this condition, the yield of refractory products was smaller (2.3%; the O/C stoichiometric ratios values (oxygen consumed per atom of carbon from mineralization of the 2 types of leachates were similar (ca. 1.12; CONCLUSIONS: According to these results we conclude that the leachate from selected macrophytes is rapidly decomposed and subsidize primariy the microbial catabolism (aerobic or anaerobic; in addition, we propose that S. molesta contributes more to the input of dissolved organic matter within the reservoir.OBJETIVO: Nesse estudo foram descritas as mineralizações (aeróbias e anaeróbias dos lixiviados de 2 espécies de macrófitas aquáticas (Salvinia molesta e Myriophyllum aquaticum que ocorrem em um reservatório tropical (22° 00' S e 47° 54' O; MÉTODOS: As incubações, preparadas com os lixiviados das plantas e amostra de água do reservatório, foram mantidas no escuro e a 20 °C, por 45 dias. Foram avaliadas as cinéticas de perda de massa do carbono orgânico e de consumo de oxigênio; RESULTADOS: Independente da condição experimental, os lixiviados foram principalmente utilizados na respiração; as mineralizações foram ligeiramente mais rápidas em meio aeróbio (1,22 vezes e nessa condição, os rendimentos dos produtos refratários foram menores (2,3%; as

  9. Redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Downgradient from an old municipal landfill allowing leachate, rich in dissolved organic carbon, to enter a shallow sandy aerobic aquifer, a sequence of redoxe zones is identified from groundwater chemical analysis. Below the landfill, methanogenic conditions prevail, followed by sulfidogenic...... the fate of reactive pollutants leached from the landfill....

  10. Biological Treatment of Leachate using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WDMC Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE TA Abstract   In Sri Lanka municipal solid waste is generally disposed in poorly managed open dumps which lack liner systems and leachate collection systems. Rain water percolates through the waste layers to produce leachate which drains in to ground water and finally to nearby water bodies, degrading the quality of water. Leachate thus has become a major environmental concern in municipal waste management and treatment of leachate is a major challenge for the existing and proposed landfill sites.   The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the usage of the Sequencing Batch Reactor in the treatment of the landfill leachate up to the proposed levels in the draft report of “Proposed Sri Lankan standard for landfill leachate to be disposed to the inland waters". Leachate collected from the open dumpsite at Meethotamulla, Western Province, Sri Lanka was used for leachate characterization.   SBR was constructed with a 10-liter working volume operated in an 18 hour cycle mode and each cycle consists of 15hours of aerobic, 2h settle and 0.5 h of fill/decant stages. The Dissolved Oxygen level within the SBR was maintained at 2 mg/l through the aerobic stage. Infeed was diluted with water during the acclimatization period and a leachate to water ratio of 55:45 was maintained. The removal efficiencies for different parameters were; COD (90.5%, BOD (92.6%, TS (92.1%, Conductivity (83.9%, Alkalinity (97.4%, Hardness (82.2%, Mg (80.5%, Fe (94.2%, Zn (63.4%, Cr (31.69%, Pb (99.6%, Sulphate (98.9%, and Phosphorus (71.4% respectively. In addition Ni and Cd were removed completely during a single SBR cycle. Thus the dilution of leachate in the dumpsites using municipal wastewater, groundwater or rainwater was identified as the most cost effective dilution methods. The effluent from the Sequencing batch reactor is proposed to be further treated using a constructed wetland before releasing to surface water.

  11. A PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT ON DENITRIFICATION OF WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Nariaki; Nakamichi, Tamihiro; Yagi, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Toshihide; Kugimiya, Akikazu; Michioku, Kohji

    A laboratory experiment on denitrification was carried out in order to reduce nitrogen load from municipal landfill leachate. Nitrogen was efficiently removed by feeding sludge of the leachate pond into the tanks, which could activate denitrification bacteria. Although inorganic reducing agent such as iron powder was not able to make the whole water mass anoxic, denitrification took place by supplying organic matters such as methanol, hydrogen feeding agent, etc.. It is considered that small amount of anoxic water film produced on surfaces of container and carriers might contribute to denitrification, although the bulk water is kept aerobic. It is found that organic matters contained in the leachate is so insufficient that nitrification liquid circulation does not work well for denitrification.

  12. Biogeochemistry of landfill leachate plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2001-01-01

    is on dissolved organic matter, xenobiotic organic compounds, inorganic macrocomponents as anions and cations, and heavy metals. Laboratory as well as field investigations are included. This review is an up-date of an earlier comprehensive review. The review shows that most leachate contamination plumes...... the behavior of the contaminants in the plume as the leachate migrates away from the landfill. Diverse microbial communities have been identified in leachate plumes and are believed to be responsible for the redox processes. Dissolved organic C in the leachate, although it appears to be only slowly degradable...

  13. Adaptation of a mixed culture of acidophiles for a tank biooxidation of refractory gold concentrates containing a high concentration of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeongsik; Silva, Rene A; Park, Jeonghyun; Lee, Eunseong; Park, Jayhyun; Kim, Hyunjung

    2016-05-01

    We adapted a mixed culture of acidophiles to high arsenic concentrations to confirm the possibility of achieving more than 70% biooxidation of refractory gold concentrates containing high arsenic (As) concentration. The biooxidation process was applied to refractory gold concentrates containing approximately 139.67 g/kg of total As in a stirred tank reactor using an adapted mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. The percentage of the biooxidation process was analyzed based on the total As removal efficiency. The As removal was monitored by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, conducted every 24 h. The results obtained with the adapted culture were compared with the percentage of biooxidation obtained with a non-adapted mixed culture of A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans, and with their respective pure cultures. The percentages of biooxidation obtained during 358 h of reaction were 72.20%, 38.20%, 27.70%, and 11.45% for adapted culture, non-adapted culture, and pure cultures of A. thiooxidans and A. ferrooxidans, respectively. The adapted culture showed a peak maximum percentage of biooxidation of 77% at 120 h of reaction, confirming that it is possible to obtain biooxidation percentages over 70% in gold concentrates containing high As concentrations.

  14. The Confluence of Heavy Metal Biooxidation and Heavy Metal Resistance: Implications for Bioleaching by Extreme Thermoacidophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Wheaton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Extreme thermoacidophiles (Topt > 65 °C, pHopt < 3.5 inhabit unique environments fraught with challenges, including extremely high temperatures, low pH, as well as high levels of soluble metal species. In fact, certain members of this group thrive by metabolizing heavy metals, creating a dynamic equilibrium between biooxidation to meet bioenergetic needs and mechanisms for tolerating and resisting the toxic effects of solubilized metals. Extremely thermoacidophilic archaea dominate bioleaching operations at elevated temperatures and have been considered for processing certain mineral types (e.g., chalcopyrite, some of which are recalcitrant to their mesophilic counterparts. A key issue to consider, in addition to temperature and pH, is the extent to which solid phase heavy metals are solubilized and the concomitant impact of these mobilized metals on the microorganism’s growth physiology. Here, extreme thermoacidophiles are examined from the perspectives of biodiversity, heavy metal biooxidation, metal resistance mechanisms, microbe-solid interactions, and application of these archaea in biomining operations.

  15. Processing of arsenopyritic gold concentrates by partial bio-oxidation followed by bioreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, Alex; van der Weijden, Renata D; Van Weert, Gus; Kondos, Peter; Buisman, Cees J N

    2011-08-01

    Gold is commonly liberated from sulfide minerals by chemical and biological oxidation. Although these technologies are successful, they are costly and produce acidic waste streams. Removal of mineral-sulfur to overcome the mineralogical barrier could also be done by bioreduction, producing hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). To make the sulfur within these minerals available for bioreduction, the use of partial bio-oxidation as a pretreatment to oxidize the sulfides to elemental sulfur was investigated in gas lift loop reactor experiments. Experiments at 35 °C using a refractory concentrate showed that at pH 2 arsenopyrite is preferentially partially oxidized over pyrite and that elemental sulfur can be subsequently converted into H(2)S at pH 5 via bioreduction using H(2) gas. A single partial bio-oxidation/bioreduction treatment increased the gold recovery of the concentrate from 6% to 39%. As elemental sulfur seems to inhibit further oxidation by covering the mineral surface, several treatments may be required to reach a gold recovery >90%. Depending on the number of treatments this method could be an interesting alternative to bio-oxidation.

  16. Chemical behaviors of different arsenic-bearing sulphides bio-oxidated by thermophilic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-ying; GONG En-pu; YANG Li-li; WANG Da-wen

    2005-01-01

    The study on arsenopyrite and realgar of bacterial oxidation shows that the chemical behaviors of different arsenic-bearing sulphides oxidated by thermophilic bacteria are quite distinct. Arsenopyrite is active and quickly eroded in bacteria-bearing solution. With a high leaching rate over 95%, the arsenopyrite phase cannot be detected by X-ray diffraction(XRD). Arsenopyrite is highly toxic to bacteria that at the initial stage of bio-oxidation, bacterial growth is inhibited and the number of bacterium cell drops from 2.26 × 108/mL to the lowest 2.01 × 105/mL. At the later stages of bio-oxidation, bacteria grow fast and reach 2.23 × 108/mL. Comparably, realgar is inertial and resistive to bacterial corrosion and oxidation. Arsenic in realgar crystal is hard to be leached and the residue is still realgar phase, as indicated by XRD. The cell number of bacteria varies a little, decreasing from 2.26 × 108/mL to 2.01 × 107/mL, during the bacterial oxidation. The results show that the crystal structure and arsenic valency of arsenic-bearing sulphides play a vital role during the leaching process of bacterial oxidation.

  17. Continuous testing system for Baeyer-Villiger biooxidation using recombinant Escherichia coli expressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase encapsulated in polyelectrolyte complex capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bučko, Marek; Schenkmayerová, Andrea; Gemeiner, Peter; Vikartovská, Alica; Mihovilovič, Marko D; Lacík, Igor

    2011-08-10

    An original strategy for universal laboratory testing of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases based on continuous packed-bed minireactor connected with flow calorimeter and integrated with bubble-free oxygenation is reported. Model enantioselective Baeyer-Villiger biooxidations of rac-bicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-en-6-one to corresponding lactones (1R,5S)-3-oxabicyclo-[3.3.0]oct-6-en-3-one and (1S,5R)-2-oxabicyclo-[3.3.0]oct-6-en-3-one as important chiral synthons for the synthesis of bioactive compounds were performed in the minireactor equipped with a column packed with encapsulated recombinant cells Escherichia coli overexpressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase. The cells were encapsulated in polyelectrolyte complex capsules formed by reaction of oppositely charged polymers utilizing highly reproducible and controlled encapsulation process. Encapsulated cells tested in minireactor exhibited high operational stability with 4 complete substrate conversions to products and 6 conversions above 80% within 14 repeated consecutive biooxidation tests. Moreover, encapsulated cells showed high enzyme stability during 91 days of storage with substrate conversions above 80% up to 60 days of storage. Furthermore, usable thermometric signal of Baeyer-Villiger biooxidation obtained by flow calorimetry using encapsulated cells was utilized for preparatory kinetic study in order to guarantee sub-inhibitory initial substrate concentration for biooxidation tests.

  18. Packing materials selection for a biofilter to bio-oxidize methane in coal mine gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hai-xia; Min Hang; Lu Zhen-mei; Li Zi-mu [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). College of Life Sciences

    2008-02-15

    For bio-oxidizing methane (with the concentration 0 to 20%) in coal mine gas with a biofilter, three kinds of packing materials - small ceramic balls, vermiculite and larger sized porcelain balls - were studied. The results indicate that the small ceramic balls have the lowest capacity for biomass growth and the lowest capacity for methane removal. The biofilter with vermiculite as packing material cannot withstand the pressure of the inlet gas. The biofilter with large porcelain balls has the biggest capability to oxidise methane and to withstand the inlet gas, having a suitable specific surface area, grain diameter and density. This is the best packing material for a biofilter to oxidise methane in coal mines. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Sustainable treatment of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd. Suffian; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Hung, Yung-Tse

    2015-06-01

    Landfill leachate is a complex liquid that contains excessive concentrations of biodegradable and non-biodegradable products including organic matter, phenols, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, heavy metals, and sulfide. If not properly treated and safely disposed, landfill leachate could be an impending source to surface and ground water contamination as it may percolate throughout soils and subsoils, causing adverse impacts to receiving waters. Lately, various types of treatment methods have been proposed to alleviate the risks of untreated leachate. However, some of the available techniques remain complicated, expensive and generally require definite adaptation during process. In this article, a review of literature reported from 2008 to 2012 on sustainable landfill leachate treatment technologies is discussed which includes biological and physical-chemical techniques, respectively.

  20. Submicro-battery effect and selective bio-oxidation model of gold-bearing arsenopyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪英; 杨立; 赵玉山; 陈刚; 吕久吉; 范有静

    2002-01-01

    Through the study by electronic probe it was found that many new cracks and holes appear on the surface of gold-bearing arsenopyrite crystal oxidized by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, which are along with some directions. Then the selective bio-oxidation model of gold-bearing arsenopyrite was set up. The selective bio-oxidation resulting from the submicro-battery effect of gold/ arsenopyrite mineral pairs naturally forms in the gold-bearing arsenopyrite crystal. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans has priority to oxidize the place of gold-rich and oxidizes selectedly along with the crystal border, crystal face and crack. The bacteria oxidation process of gold-bearing arsenopyrite is divided into three stages: the first stage is the surface oxidation, the second stage is restraining oxidation and the third stage is the filament oxidation, bacteria oxidize along with cracks of arsenopyrite.

  1. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  2. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  3. Uranium Immobilization through Fe(II) bio-oxidation: A Column study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, John D.

    2009-09-14

    Current research on the bioremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides is focused on the ability of reducing organisms to use these metals as alternative electron acceptors in the absence of oxygen and thus precipitate them out of solution. However, many aspects of this proposed scheme need to be resolved, not the least of which is the time frame of the treatment process. Once treatment is complete and the electron donor addition is halted, the system will ultimately revert back to an oxic state and potentially result in the abiotic reoxidation and remobilization of the immobilized metals. In addition, the possibility exists that the presence of more electropositive electron acceptors such as nitrate or oxygen will also stimulate the biological oxidation and remobilization of these contaminants. The selective nitrate-dependent biooxidation of added Fe(II) may offer an effective means of “capping off” and completing the attenuation of these contaminants in a reducing environment making the contaminants less accessible to abiotic and biotic reactions and allowing the system to naturally revert to an oxic state. Our previous DOE-NABIR funded studies demonstrated that radionuclides such as uranium and cobalt are rapidly removed from solution during the biogenic formation of Fe(III)-oxides. In the case of uranium, X-ray spectroscopy analysis indicated that the uranium was in the hexavalent form (normally soluble) and was bound to the precipitated Fe(III)-oxides thus demonstrating the bioremediative potential of this process. We also demonstrated that nitrate-dependent Fe(II)- oxidizing bacteria are prevalent in the sediment and groundwater samples collected from sites 1 and 2 and the background site of the NABIR FRC in Oakridge, TN. However, all of these studies were performed in batch experiments in the laboratory with pure cultures and although a significant amount was learned about the microbiology of nitrate-dependent bio-oxidation of Fe(II), the effects of

  4. Estimation of the environmental risk posed by landfills using chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological testing of leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejczyk, Marek; Płaza, Grażyna A; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Ulfig, Krzysztof; Markowska-Szczupak, Agata

    2011-02-01

    The leachates from 22 municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill sites in Southern Poland were characterized by evaluation of chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological parameters. Chemical analyses were mainly focused on the identification of the priority hazardous substances according to Directive on Priority Substances, 2008/105/EC (a daughter directive of the WFD) in leachates. As showed, only five substances (Cd, Hg, hexachlorobutadiene, pentachlorobenzene and PAHs) were detected in the leachates. The compounds tested were absent or present at very low concentrations. Among them, only PAHs were found in all samples in the range from 0.057 to 77.2 μg L⁻¹. The leachates were contaminated with bacteria, including aerobic, psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, coliform and fecal coliforms, and spore-forming-bacteria, including Clostridium perfringens, and with filamentous fungi. From the analysis of specific microorganism groups (indicators of environmental pollution by pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic organisms) it can be concluded that the landfill leachates showed sanitary and epidemiological hazard. In the ecotoxicological study, a battery of tests comprised of 5 bioassays, i.e. Microtox(®), Spirotox, Rotoxkit F™, Thamnotoxkit F™ and Daphtoxkit F™ magna was applied. The leachate samples were classified as toxic in 13.6%, highly toxic in 54.6% and very highly toxic in 31.8%. The Spirotox test was the most sensitive bioassay used. The percentage of class weight score was very high - above 60%; these samples could definitely be considered seriously hazardous and acutely toxic to the fauna and microflora. No correlations were found between the toxicity values and chemical parameters. The toxicity of leachate samples cannot be explained by low levels of the priority pollutants. It seems that other kinds of xenobiotics present in the samples at subacute levels gave the high aggregate toxic effect. The chemical, ecotoxicological and microbiological

  5. Coagulation-flocculation in leachate treatment using modified micro sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaldiri, Nur Hanani; Halim, Azhar Abdul

    2013-11-01

    Sanitary landfill leachate is considered as highly polluted wastewater, without any treatment, discharging into water system will cause underground water and surface water pollutions. This study was to investigate the treatability of the semi-aerobic landfill leachate via coagulation-flocculation using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), cationic polymer, and modified micro sand. Leachate was collected from Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill (PBSL) located in Penang, Malaysia. Coagulation-flocculation was performed by using jar test equipment and the effect of pH, dose of coagulant and dose of polymer toward removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and suspended solid (SS) were examined. Micro sand was also used in this study to compare settling time of coagulation-flocculation process. The optimum pH, dose of coagulant (PAC) and dose of polymer (cationic) achieved were 7.0, 1000 mg/L and 8 mg/L, respectively. The dose of micro sand used for the settling time process was 300 mg/L. Results showed that 52.66% removal of COD, 97.16% removal of SS and 96.44% removal of color were achieved under optimum condition. The settling times for the settling down of the sludge or particles that formed during coagulation-flocculation process were 1 min with modified sand, 20 min with raw micro sand and 45 min without micro sand.

  6. LANDFILL LEACHATES PRETREATMENT BY OZONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Leszczyński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ozonation processes for stabilized landfill leachate treatment was investigated. The leachate came from a municipal sanitary landfill located nearby Bielsk Podlaski. The average values of its main parameters were: pH 8.23; COD 870 mgO2/dm3; BOD 90 mgO2/dm3; NH4+ 136.2 mgN/dm3; UV254 absorbance 0.312 and turbidity 14 NTU. The ozone dosages used were in the range of 115.5 to 808.5 mgO3/dm3 of the leachate. The maximum COD, color and UV254 absorbance removal wa.5 mgO3/dm3. After oxidation, the ratio of BOD/COD was increased from 0.1 up to 0.23.

  7. Whole-cell Gluconobacter oxydans biosensor for 2-phenylethanol biooxidation monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkmayerová, Andrea; Bertóková, Anikó; Sefčovičová, Jana; Stefuca, Vladimír; Bučko, Marek; Vikartovská, Alica; Gemeiner, Peter; Tkáč, Ján; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2015-01-07

    A microbial biosensor for 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) based on the bacteria Gluconobacter oxydans was developed and applied in monitoring of a biotechnological process. The cells of G. oxydans were immobilized within a disposable polyelectrolyte complex gel membrane consisting of sodium alginate, cellulose sulphate and poly(methylene-co-guanidine) attached onto a miniaturized Clark oxygen electrode, forming whole cell amperometric biosensor. Measured changes in oxygen concentration were proportional to changes in 2-PE concentration. The biosensor sensitivity was 864 nA mM(-1) (RSD=6%), a detection limit of 1 μM, and the biosensor response towards 2-PE was linear in the range 0.02-0.70 mM. The biosensor preserved 93% of its initial sensitivity after 7h of continuous operation and exhibited excellent storage stability with loss of only 6% of initial sensitivity within two months, when stored at 4°C. The developed system was designed and successfully used for an off-line monitoring of whole course of 2-PE biooxidation process producing phenylacetic acid (PA) as industrially valuable aromatic compound. The biosensor measurement did not require the use of hazardous organic solvent. The biosensor response to 2-PE was not affected by interferences from PA and phenylacetaldehyde at concentrations present in real samples during the biotransformation and the results were in a very good agreement with those obtained via gas chromatography.

  8. Fungus-promoted transformation of lanthanides during the biooxidation of divalent manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qianqian; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Kazuya; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Tani, Yukinori

    2016-02-01

    Although microorganisms possess high sorption capability for lanthanides, the effect of their biological response on lanthanides migration is unclear. Using active fungus Acremonium strictum KR21-2, supplied with nutrients, this study compared the transformation of lanthanides during the biooxidation of Mn(II) in the absence and presence of trisodium citrate. In the absence of trisodium citrate, lanthanides were rapidly sorbed on fungal cells within 24 h, followed by the preferential desorption of Ce over other lanthanides as Mn oxide formed. Most of the desorbed Ce was in the colloidal phase and associated with a biomolecule produced by the active fungus. In contrast, neither desorption of Ce nor release of this biomolecule occurred in the presence of trisodium citrate. Most importantly, the Ce-binding biomolecule was not found to associate with any other trivalent lanthanides tested or with Fe. The biomolecule was characterized as c.a. 4700 Da in size, and it contains saccharides that differed from those non-nuclide-specific organic substances released from resting cells, as reported previously. This study highlights the importance of biotic reactions between lanthanides and microbial cells, which may affect the migration of lanthanides at the water-Mn oxide interface.

  9. Application of Raman Spectroscopy to the Biooxidation Analysis of Sulfide Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. García-Meza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the application of confocal laser scanning microscopy CLSM and Raman spectroscopy on the (biochemical oxidation of pyrite and chalcopyrite, in order to understand how surface sulfur species (S2−/S0 affects biofilm evolution during mineral colonization by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. We found that cells attachment occurs as cells clusters and monolayered biofilms within the first 12 h. Longer times resulted in the formation of micro- and macrocolonies with variable cell density and higher epifluorescence signal of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, indicating double dynamic activity of A. thiooxidans: sulfur biooxidation and biofilm formation. Raman spectra indicated S2−/S0 consumption modification during biofilm evolution. Hence, cell density increase was primarily associated with the presence of S0; the presence of refractory sulfur species on the mineral surfaces does not to affect biofilm evolution. The EPS of the biofilms was mainly composed of extracellular hydrophobic compounds (vr. gr. lipids and a minor content of hydrophilic exopolysaccharides, suggesting a hydrophobic interaction between attached cells and the altered pyrite and chalcopyrite.

  10. 厌氧-好氧组合工艺处理垃圾渗滤液短程硝化的二次启动%THE SECOND STARTUP OF THE SHORT-CUT NITRIFICATION OF LANDFILL LEACHATE BY THE ANAEROBIC-AEROBIC PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘牡; 彭永臻; 宋燕杰; 吴莉娜; 张靖倩

    2011-01-01

    A system consisting of a two-stage UASB and anoxic-oxic reactor was used to enhance COD and nitrogen removal fiom landfill leachate,focusing on methods and influencing factors of the second startup of the reactor.The results showed that: the SS, VSS, VSS / SS, settlement rate and the average particle size of the granular sludge in the two UASB rise periodically and the activity was resumed in a relatively short term through gradually increasing the organic loading and creating conducive conditions for anaerobic digestion such as temperature, pH, alkalinity, VFA and so on.NO2-N accumulation rate from the initial 19.4% increases to 90% in A/O system and remains stable with FA as the main controlling factor, and creating an appropriate temperature, pH, alkalinity, DO, and other conditions.By means of creating conditions to make the anaerobic and aerobic biological systems reach coordination and complementarity the reactor startup is completed in 6 weeks.COD and nitrogen was removed simultaneously and effectively by the biological system, the average removal efficiency of NH4+-N, TN and COD are up to 99%, 87%, 92%, respectively.When the average influent NH4+-N, TN concentrations and COD were 2 315 mg·L-1, 2 422 mg·L-1 and 12 800 mg·L-1%采用"两级UASB-A/O"组合工艺处理实际高氨氮城市生活垃圾渗滤液,对反应器二次启动的方法和影响因素进行了分析与考察.试验结果表明,通过逐步提高两级UASB的有机负荷,并创造有利于厌氧消化的温度、pH、碱度和VFA等条件,在较短的时间内使得两级UASB内颗粒污泥的SS、VSS、VSS/SS、沉降速率和平均粒径呈阶段性增加,生物活性得到迅速恢复;以FA为主要控制因素,创造适宜的温度,pH、碱度和DO等其它条件,并辅以过程控制,使得A/O系统中的NO2--N累积率从启动初期的19.4%上升到90%的短程硝化并得以稳定维持.兼顾两类生化系统使其达到相互协调而且优势互补的状态,6

  11. Treating leachate by Fenton oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Iván Méndez Novelo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Leachates are formed from liquids, mainly rainwater, percolating through solid wastes during stabilisation. Their composition is variable and highly toxic; leachate treatment is therefore a complex task. Leachates represent a high risk to health due to the Yucatan Peninsula’s highly permeable soil. The results are presented from applying the Fenton process to treating leachate from the sanitary Merida landfill, Yucatan, Mexico. The Fenton process consists of treating the contaminant load with an H2O2 and FeSO4 combination in acidic conditions. Optimal reaction time, pH value, Fenton reagent dose, post treatment coagulation – flocculation doses and increased biodegradability index were all determined. Optimal oxidation conditions and doses were 202+ minute contact time, 4 pH, 600 mg/L H2O2 concentration and 1,000 mg/L Fe. Average organic matter removal rate, measured as CODS and TOC, were 78% and 87% respectively. The biodegradability index increased from 0.07 to 0.11 during the Fenton process and up to 0.13 when the Fenton process was followed by coagulation-flocculation.

  12. An innovative multistage treatment system for sanitary landfill leachate depuration: Studies at pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Soares, Petrick A; Manenti, Diego R; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2017-01-15

    In this work, an innovative methodology for the treatment of landfill leachates, after aerobic lagooning, is proposed and adjusted at pilot-scale. This methodology involves an aerobic activated sludge biological pre-oxidation (ASBO), a coagulation/sedimentation step (240mgFe(3+)/L, at pH4.2) and a photo-oxidation through a photo-Fenton (PF) reaction (60mg Fe(2+), at pH2.8) combining solar and artificial light. The ASBO process applied to a leachate after aerobic lagooning, with high organic and nitrogen content (1.1-1.5gC/L; 0.8-3.0gN/L) and low biodegradability (BOD5/COD =0.07-0.13), is capable to oxidise 62-99% of the ammonium nitrogen, consuming only the affluent alkalinity (70-100%). The coagulation/sedimentation stage led to the humic acids precipitation, promoting a marked change in leachate colour, from dark-brown to yellowish-brown (related to fulvic acids), accompanied by a reduction of 60%, 58% and 88% on DOC, COD and TSS, respectively. The PF system promoted the degradation of the recalcitrant organic molecules into more easily biodegradable ones. According to Zahn-Wellens biodegradability test, a leachate with 419mg DOC/L after coagulation, would have to be photo-oxidized until DOC 60%. The PF step cost to treat 100m(3)/day of leachate was 6.41€/m(3), combining 1339m(2) of CPCs with 31 lamps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Improvement in grade of minerals using simultaneous Bio-oxidation of invisible gold concentrate and deep-sea manganese crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, EunJi; Cho, Kang Hee; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Cheon Young

    2016-04-01

    Many sulfides of metal such as galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite, are semiconductors. When two kinds of such minerals contact each other in an electrolyte, a galvanic couple, where the mineral of lower rest potential as anode, and that of higher rest potential as cathode forms. Manganese dioxide is also a semiconductor with much higher rest potential than all sulfides mentioned above, so that a galvanic couple in which both the minerals would dissolve simultaneously can form, when it contacts with any of the sulfides. The aim of this study was to investigate the improvement in grade of minerals using the simultaneous bio-oxidation of deep-sea manganese crust and invisible gold concentrate. The samples(deep-sea manganese crust and invisible gold concentrate) were characterized by chemical and XRD analysis. The primary components of the invisible gold concentrate was pyrite and quartz and the deep-sea manganese crust was amorphous material, as detected using XRD. The result of chemical analysis showed that Au, Ag, Te contents in the invisible gold concentrate 130.2, 954.1 and 1,043.6 mg/kg, respectively. and that Mn, Ni, Co contents in the deep-sea manganese crust 19,501.5, 151.9, 400.4 mg/kg, respectively. In order to increase the bacteria's tolerance of heavy metals, the bacteria using bio-oxidation experiments were repeatedly subcultured in an Cu adaptation-medium containing of 382.98 mg/l for 20 periods of 21 days. The improvement in grade of samples of in present adapted bacteria condition was greater than another conditions(control and in present non-adapted bacteria). The Au-Ag-Te contents in the invisible gold concentrate was enhanced in the order of physical oxidation, simultaneous/non-adaptive bio-oxidation, adaptive/bio-oxidation, simultaneous/adaptive bio-oxidation. If the bacteria is adapted to heavy metal ions and an optimization of conditions is found in future bio-oxidation-leaching processes. Acknowledgment : "This research was supported

  14. Evaluation of the Treatment Process of Landfill Leachate Using the Toxicity Assessment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aifeng Qiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate is composed of a complex composition with strong biological toxicity. The combined treatment process of coagulation and sedimentation, anaerobics, electrolysis, and aerobics was set up to treat landfill leachate. This paper explores the effect of different operational parameters of coagulation and sedimentation tanks and electrolytic cells, while investigating the combined process for the removal efficiency of physicochemical indices after processing the landfill leachate. Meanwhile, a battery of toxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri, zebrafish larvae, and embryos were conducted to evaluate acute toxicity and calculated the toxicity reduction efficiency after each treatment process. The combined treatment process resulted in a 100% removal efficiency of Cu, Cd and Zn, and a 93.50% and an 87.44% removal efficiency of Ni and Cr, respectively. The overall removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N, and total nitrogen (TN were 93.57%, 97.46% and 73.60%, respectively. In addition, toxicity test results showed that the acute toxicity of landfill leachate had also been reduced significantly: toxicity units (TU decreased from 84.75 to 12.00 for zebrafish larvae, from 82.64 to 10.55 for zebrafish embryos, and from 3.41 to 0.63 for Vibrio fischeri. The combined treatment process was proved to be an efficient treatment method to remove heavy metals, COD, NH4+-N, and acute bio-toxicity of landfill leachate.

  15. Effect of neutralized solid waste generated in lime neutralization on the ferrous ion bio-oxidation process during acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Lixiang; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Ming

    2015-12-15

    Bio-oxidation of ferrous ions prior to lime neutralization exhibits great potential for acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment, while slow ferrous ion bio-oxidation or total iron precipitation is a bottleneck in this process. In this study, neutralized solid waste (NSW) harvested in an AMD lime neutralization procedure was added as a crystal seed in AMD for iron oxyhydroxysulfate bio-synthesis. The effect of this waste on ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and iron oxyhydroxysulfate minerals yield during ferrous ion bio-oxidation by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was investigated. Ferrous ion oxidation efficiency was greatly improved by adding NSW. After 72 h incubation, total iron precipitation efficiency in treatment with 24 g/L of NSW was 1.74-1.03 times higher than in treatment with 0-12 g/L of NSW. Compared with the conventional treatment system without added NSW, the iron oxyhydroxysulfate minerals yield was increased by approximately 21.2-80.9% when 3-24 g/L of NSW were added. Aside from NSW, jarosite and schwertmannite were the main precipitates during ferrous ion bio-oxidation with NSW addition. NSW can thus serve as the crystal seed for iron oxyhydroxysulfate mineral bio-synthesis in AMD, and improve ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation efficiency significantly.

  16. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman, E-mail: nilgunayman@comu.edu.tr; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  17. Behavior of engineered nanoparticles in landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Stephanie C; Reinhart, Debra R; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2013-08-01

    This research sought to understand the behavior of engineered nanoparticles in landfill leachate by examining the interactions between nanoparticles and leachate components. The primary foci of this paper are the effects of ZnO, TiO2, and Ag nanoparticles on biological landfill processes and the form of Zn, Ti, and Ag in leachate following the addition of nanoparticles. Insight into the behavior of nanoparticles in landfill leachate was gained from the observed increase in the aqueous concentrations over background for Zn, Ti, and Ag in some tested leachates attributed to leachate components interacting with the nanoparticle coatings resulting in dispersion, dissolution/dissociation, and/or agglomeration. Coated nanoparticles did not affect biological processes when added to leachate; five-day biochemical oxygen demand and biochemical methane potential results were not statistically different when exposed to nanoparticles, presumably due to the low concentration of dissolved free ionic forms of the associated metals resulting from the interaction with leachate components. Chemical speciation modeling predicted that dissolved Zn in leachate was primarily associated with dissolved organic matter, Ti with hydroxide, and Ag with hydrogen sulfide and ammonia; less than 1% of dissolved Zn and Ag was in the free ionic form, and free ionic Ti and Ag concentrations were negligible.

  18. Cadmium complexation by solid waste leachates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu Ze Lun; Christensen, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    A previously reported method for determination of Cd species in solid waste leachates has been applied to ten leachate samples representing five different types of solid waste: refuse compost, flyash from coal combustion, sewage sludge, refuse incineration residues and landfilled municipal waste......, slowly labile complexes and stable complexes. Leachates originating from the same type of solid waste showed different fractions of Cd, in particular with respect to free divalent Cd and stable Cd complexes. Only coal flyash showed almost identical fractions of Cd in the two leachates. The latter is due...

  19. Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of Landfill leachate on Phaseolus vulgaris L and survival of microorganisms of public health importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Ortiz, Vanessa Ruby

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In landfill, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste generated leachate (LE, a chemical inorganic and organic mix an environmental pollutant to determine by Leachate Pollution Index (LPI. A bioassay could give certainty to its negative effect. To include pathogenic human microorganisms (PHM and mesophilic total aerobic bacteria (MTAB different than fecal and total coliforms would have health value. The objectives of this research were i analyzed the phytotoxicity of leachate on Phaseolus vulgaris and ii to detect in LE the existence of HPM and MATB. A bioassay "in vitro" was made in Petri dishes and Leonard jars using seeds P. vulgaris treated by diluted leachate. The response variables of bioassay were: germination percentage, phenotype: plant height and root length, biomass total: fresh and dry weight of root and plant. Including HPM and MATB detection. Experimental data was analyzed by Tukey p<0.05. The results indicated that LE caused inhibition and/or stimulation on P. vulgaris; Leachate´s phytoxicity was depending on its chemical composition and level dilution, this suggests that toxic effect is due its heavy metals and extreme alkalinity, killing HPM in leachate but not MATB. A bioassay P. vulgaris is useful to define degree of benefical and/or toxicity of LE, and validate LPI. While is important to know the role of HPM in LE and potential environmental biological contamination.

  20. Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivula, Leena; Oikari, Aimo; Rintala, Jukka

    2012-06-01

    Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate from landfill lysimeters (112 m(3)) was studied over three years. The leachate of grate incineration bottom ash from a parallel setup was used as reference material. Three aquatic organisms (bioluminescent bacteria, green algae and water flea) were used to study acute toxicity. In addition, an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay was performed with mouse hepatoma cells to indicate the presence of organic contaminants. Concentrations of 14 elements and 15 PAH compounds were determined to characterise leachate. Gasification ash leachate had a high pH (9.2-12.4) and assays with and without pH adjustment to neutral were used. Gasification ash leachate was acutely toxic (EC(50) 0.09-62 vol-%) in all assays except in the algae assay with pH adjustment. The gasification ash toxicity lasted the entire study period and was at maximum after two years of disposal both in water flea (EC(50) 0.09 vol-%) and in algae assays (EC(50) 7.5 vol-%). The grate ash leachate showed decreasing toxicity during the first two years of disposal in water flea and algae assays, which then tapered off. Both in the grate ash and in the gasification ash leachates EROD-activity increased during the first two years of disposal and then tapered off, the highest inductions were observed with the gasification ash leachate. The higher toxicity of the gasification ash leachate was probably related to direct and indirect effects of high pH and to lower levels of TOC and DOC compared to the grate ash leachate. The grate ash leachate toxicity was similar to that previously reported in literature, therefore, confirming that used setup was both comparable and reliable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Attenuation of Landfill Leachate In Unsaturated Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. P.; Brook, C.; Godley, A.; Lewin, K.; Young, C. P.

    aerobic. This change appears to be related to the introduction of a landfill gas extraction system at the site, which has resulted in atmospheric oxygen being drawn into the underlying environment. Although the sandstone is relatively inert (CEC around 2 meq.100g-1), a clear retardation of the ammoniacal nitrogen is evident. The retardation coefficient is about 4 giving a linear equilibrium partition factor Kd of 0.15 cm3.g-1 (which is substantially lower than batch laboratory values of 1.2 ­ 2.0 cm3g-1). In addition, model simulations indicate a degree of attenuation of in ammonium concentrations, although the exact nature of this mechanism is still under investigation. Therefore, an analysis of the most recent results at the Burntstump site, set in the context of the historic data, indicates that the amount of attenuation present in 30 m of unsaturated sandstone is sufficient to mitigate most of the impact of MSW leachate emanating from a moderately wet landfill on the underlying groundwater. This has important implications both in terms of groundwater protection and the environmental liabilities for waste operators/site holders at similar sites.

  2. Removal of toxic metals during biological treatment of landfill leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T

    2017-05-01

    Progressive implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has resulted in substantial changes in limits for discharges of heavy metals both to watercourses, and to sewer. The objective of this paper is to provide original, real, full-scale data obtained for removal of metals during aerobic biological leachate treatment, and also to report on studies carried out to look at further trace metal removal. Polishing technologies examined and investigated include; the incorporation of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes into biological treatment systems, the use of ion exchange, and of activated carbon polishing processes. Ultrafiltration was able to provide a 60 percent reduction in COD values in treated leachates, compared with COD values found in settled/clarified effluents. Removal rates for COD varied from 30.5 to 79.8 percent. Additionally, ultrafiltration of treated leachates significantly reduced both chromium and nickel concentrations of effluents by 61.6% and 34.3% respectively (median values). Despite mean reductions of chromium (9.7%) and nickel (13.7%) noted during the ion exchange trials, these results would not justify use of this technology for metals removal at full-scale. Further preliminary studies used pulverized activated carbon (PAC) polishing of UF effluents to demonstrate that significant (up to 80 per cent) removal of COD, TOC and heavy metals could readily be achieved by doses of up to 10g/l of suitable activated carbons. Additional evidence is provided that many trace metals are present not in ionic form, but as organic complexes; this is likely to make their removal to low levels more difficult and expensive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Leachate characterization and identification of dominant pollutants using leachate pollution index for an uncontrolled landfill site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. De

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachates are potential threats for environmental degradation. This study was conducted to determine the leachate quality, to identify the dominant pollutants and to evaluate the leachate pollution potential of an active and closed dumping ground of an uncontrolled municipal solid waste landfill site in Kolkata, India using leachate pollution index. The results of the physico-chemical and biological analyses of leachate indicated that landfill site was in its methanogenic phase. Among the analysed leachate pollutants, TDS, BOD5, COD, TKN, NH3-N, Cl¯, TCB, Pb, and Hg surpassed the leachate discharge standards for inland surface water as specified by the municipal solid waste (Management and Handling Rules, 2013 for both the dumping grounds. Moreover the concentrations of total Cr and Zn also exceeded the leachate disposal standards for the active dumping ground. The leachate pollution potentialities of both the active and closed dumping grounds were comparable as the overall LPI obtained 34.02 and 31.80 respectively. The overall LPI, LPI organic (LPIor, LPI inorganic (LPIin and LPI heavy metals (LPIhm of both the dumping grounds largely exceeded the LPI and sub-LPI values for treated leachate before disposal to the inland surface water. In terms of the individual pollution rating, total coliform bacteria, TKN, NH3-N and Hg were identified as the dominant pollutants and major contributing factors for the leachate pollution potential.

  4. Qualitative Research and Evaluation of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kačinskaja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, depositing municipal waste in landfills is the dominating method in Lithuania. A large amount of landfill leachate is the main environmental problem. Municipal waste landfill leachate is characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD containing a number of heavy metals and concentration of organic compounds. The colmatation of landfill leachate collection systems is another burning problem that occurs due to certain characteristics of leachate such as suspended solids, an increase in calcium and magnesium concentrations and vital activity of microorganisms. Therefore, it is necessary to examine conditions affecting these parameters. The paper presents and analyses the characteristics of experimental data, assesses the factors having the greatest influence on recent development and introduces the measures that should be taken into account so that to the ensure optimal operation of the systems for collecting municipal waste landfill leachate.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Effect of leachate recycle and inoculation on microbial characteristics of municipal refuse in landfill bioreactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Population development of key groups of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria involved in municipal refuse decomposition under laboratory landfill bioreactors with and without leachate recycle adinoculation was measured since modeling municipal refuse was landfilled in bioreactors for about 210 days. Hydrolytic fermentative bacteria (HFB), hydrogen-producing acetogenic bacteria (HPAB), methane-producing bacteria (MPB), sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), anaerobic and aerobic cellulolytic bacteria and denitrabacteria were enumerated by the most probable number technique. The results showed that the dominant microorganismgroups were the methanogenic bacteria including hydrolytic fermentative, hydrogen-producing acetogenic and methane-producing bacteria. They were present in fresh refuse but at low values and positively affected by leachate recycle and refuse inoculation. The amounts of HFB or HPAB in digesters D4 and D5 operated with noculation and leachate recycle reached their maximum values of1010-1012 cells/g dry refuse for HFB or 105-106 cells/g dry refuse for HPAB on day 60, in digester D3 operated with leachate recycle on day 120 for HFB (109 cells/g dry refuse) or on day 90 for HPAB (105 cells/g dry refuse), and in digesters D1 and D2 on day 210 for HFB (109 cells/g dry refuse) or on day 90 for HPAB (104-106 cells/g dry refuse). The population of methane-producing bacteria in digesters D4 and D5 sharply increased on days 60 and 90 respectively, however in igesters D1, D2 and D3 on day 120. Leachate recycle and inoculation changed the cellulolytic microorganisms composition of refuse ecosystem, the higher amounts of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria were measured in digesters D4 and D5 (107 cells/g dry refuse), followed by digesters D3 (106 cells/g dry refuse), D2 or D1(104 cells/g dry refuse). However, the amounts of aerobic cellulolytic bacteria were much lower than that of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria. And it was higher in digester D3 than those in digesters D1, D2

  6. Monitoring transitory profiles of leachate humic substances in landfill aeration reactors in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Huanhuan [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, CleanTech One, 637141 (Singapore); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Yin, Ke; Ge, Liya; Giannis, Apostolos [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, CleanTech One, 637141 (Singapore); Chuan, Valerie W.L. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Wang, Jing-Yuan, E-mail: JYWANG@ntu.edu.sg [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, CleanTech One, 637141 (Singapore); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Polymerization and condensation of humic substances (HS) were enhanced by aeration. • Carboxylic group was enriched in HS by aeration presenting improved hydrophilicity. • Mobility of humic acid, as a result was enhanced by aeration especially in young landfill. • Waste age plays an important role in leachate management during aeration. - Abstract: The presence of humic substances (HS) in landfill leachate is of great interest because of their structural stability and potential toxicity. This study examined the effects of temperature and waste age on the transformation of HS during in situ aeration of bioreactor landfills. By establishing aerobic conditions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) rapidly accumulated in the bioreactor leachate. Fractional analysis showed that the elevated concentration of humic acids (HAs) was primarily responsible for the increment of leachate strength. Further structural characterization indicated that the molecular weight (MW) and aromacity of HS were enhanced by aeration in conjunction with thermophilic temperature. Interestingly, elevation of HAs concentration was not observed in the aeration reactor with a prolonged waste age, as the mobility of HAs was lowered by the high MW derived from extended waste age. Based on these results, aeration may be more favorable in aged landfills, since dissolution of HAs could be minimized by the evolution to larger MW compared to young landfills. Moreover, increased operation temperature during aeration likely offers benefits for the rapid maturation of HS.

  7. Landfill leachate treatment in assisted landfill bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Pin-jing; QU Xian; SHAO Li-ming; LEE Duu-jong

    2006-01-01

    Landfill is the major disposal route of municipal solid waste(MSW) in most Asian countries. Leachate from landfill presents a strong wastewater that needs intensive treatment before discharge. Direct recycling was proposed as an effective alternative for leachate treatment by taking the landfill as a bioreactor. This process was proved not only considerably reducing the pollution potential of leachate, but also enhancing organic degradation in the landfill. However, as this paper shows, although direct leachate recycling was effective in landfilled MSW with low food waste fraction (3.5%, w/w), it failed in MSW containing 54% food waste, as normally noted in Asian countries. The initial acid stuck would inhibit methanogenesis to build up, hence strong leachate was yielded from landfill to threaten the quality of receiving water body. We demonstrated the feasibility to use an assisted bioreactor landfill, with a well-decomposed refuse layer as ex-situ anaerobic digester to reducing COD loading in leachate. By doing so, the refuse in simulated landfill column (2.3 m high) could be stabilized in 30 weeks while the COD in leachate reduced by 95%(61000 mg/L to 3000 mg/L). Meanwhile, the biogas production was considerably enhanced, signaling by the much greater amount and much higher methane content in the biogas.

  8. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman's test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (pbiogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p<0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency ultrasound pretreatment can be potentially used for wastewater management especially with integration of anaerobic processes.

  9. Pretreated waste landfilling: relation between leachate characteristics and mechanical behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maria Rosaria; Chiavola, Agostina; Sbaffoni, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    The present paper presents a part of a wider research effort aiming at studying the long-term behaviour of different pre-treated wastes once landfilled; in particular, this paper deals with the analysis of settlements and their correlation with the main leachate biochemical parameters (BOD, COD and pH). The municipal solid waste organic fraction (MSWOF) and bottom ash (BA) from incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) were considered in the study and used to set up different semi-pilot landfill plants. Particularly, the FT plant contained 90 days aerobically biostabilized MSWOF, the FP plant was filled with 15 days aerobically biostabilized MSWOF and the MX plant with a 30-70% (by weight) mixture of BA and the same MSWOF used in the FP plant. The data obtained showed a faster mechanical and biological stabilization of the FT and MX plants, due to the less biodegradable organic fraction content initially present in the FT plant and to the presence of BA, having a stabilizing effect, in the MX plant. Besides, similar behaviour of FT and MX was observed, and also a strong correlation between the settlement and the biochemical parameters time profiles was identified.

  10. Anabaena sp. mediated bio-oxidation of arsenite to arsenate in synthetic arsenic (III) solution: Process optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Animesh; Bhattacharya, Priyankari; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Majumdar, Swachchha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2015-11-01

    Blue green algae Anabaena sp. was cultivated in synthetic arsenite solution to investigate its bio-oxidation potential for arsenic species. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed based on a 3-level full factorial design considering four factors, viz. initial arsenic (III) concentration, algal dose, temperature and time. Bio-oxidation (%) of arsenic (III) was considered as response for the design. The study revealed that about 100% conversion of As (III) to As (V) was obtained for initial As (III) concentration of 2.5-7.5 mg/L at 30 °C for 72 h of exposure using 3 g/L of algal dose signifying a unique bio-oxidation potential of Anabaena sp. The dissolved CO2 (DCO2) and oxygen (DO) concentration in solution was monitored during the process and based on the data, a probable mechanism was proposed wherein algal cell acts like a catalytic membrane surface and expedites the bio-oxidation process. Bioaccumulation of arsenic, as well as, surface adsorption on algal cell was found considerably low. Lipid content of algal biomass grown in arsenite solution was found slightly lower than that of algae grown in synthetic media. Toxicity effects on algal cells due to arsenic exposure were evaluated in terms of comet assay and chlorophyll a content which indicated DNA damage to some extent along with very little decrease in chlorophyll a content. In summary, the present study explored the potential application of Anabaena sp. as an ecofriendly and sustainable option for detoxification of arsenic contaminated natural water with value-added product generation.

  11. Characterization and treatment of municipal landfill leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welander, Ulrika

    1998-03-01

    The efficiency of different leachate treatment methods for the removal of refractory organic compounds and ammonium-nitrogen was investigated. The methods evaluated were nitrification, denitrification, adsorption onto activated carbon, precipitation by ferric chloride or aluminum sulphate and oxidation by ozone or Fenton`s reagent. Furthermore, analyses were performed on leachates from municipal landfills of different kinds (a biocell deposit, a conventional mixed landfill containing household and industrial waste, and an ash deposit) in order to study the leachate composition in regard to various hydrophobic organic compounds as a function of the type of waste deposited. The results suggested that, in order to achieve a satisfactory removal of both ammonium-nitrogen and organic substances, the treatment of methanogenic leachates should be performed through a process combining biological and physical or chemical stages. When the biological treatment was not combined with a physical or a chemical process a COD removal of only 20-30% was achieved, whereas the toxicity of the leachate was significantly reduced. In contrast, a combination of nitrification and either adsorption onto activated carbon or oxidation using Fenton`s reagent resulted in a COD removal of about 80%, although certain specific organic compounds, such as phthalates, were unaffected by the treatment. A combination of nitrification, precipitation by ferric chloride and adsorption onto activated carbon removed 96% of the TOC. The analyses of leachates from municipal landfills of different types showed the leachate from the ash deposit to contain more C4-substituted phenols than the other leachates and to likewise contain alkanes, which the others did not 154 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  12. Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Kirana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals content as well as magnetic and electrical properties of leachate from Sarimukti, West Java were studied in an attempt to seek correlation between heavy metals content and magnetic/electrical properties. Such correlation is expected to open the way for the use of magnetic/electrical properties as proxy indicators for the concentration of heavy metals in the leachate. The number of leachate samples studied is 21; 15 were taken spatially at depth of 1 m while the remaining 6 samples were taken vertically at a particular point. Measurement results showed that the heavy metals content in the leachate has a smaller concentration, except for Fe. The correlation between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals content was found to be not so significant. The best correlation coefficient between magnetic susceptibility with heavy metals in leachate was found in Zn. Correlation between electrical conductivity and heavy metal is also not so significant, except for Zn and Cd. The use of magnetic properties as proxy indicator for heavy metals content in leachate is plausible provided that the magnetic susceptibility exceeds certain threshold value. Correlation between magnetic susceptibility, electrical conductivity and heavy metal content would be good if each quantity has a large value.

  13. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Waste Before and After Aerobic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchowska-Kisielewicz Monika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An important advantage of use of an aerobic biostabilization of waste prior to its disposal is that it intensifies the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste into the form which is easily assimilable for methanogenic microorganisms involved in anaerobic decomposition of waste in the landfill. In this article it is presented the influence of aerobic pre-treatment of waste as well as leachate recirculation on susceptibility to biodegradation of waste in anaerobic laboratory reactors. The research has shown that in the reactor with aerobically treated waste stabilized with recilculation conversion of the organic carbon into the methane is about 45% higher than in the reactor with untreated waste stabilized without recirculation.

  14. Nitrogen removal via nitrite from municipal landfill leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Lina; PENG Chengyao; ZHANG Shujun; PENG Yongzhen

    2009-01-01

    A system consisting of a two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB),an anoxic/aerobic (A/O) reactor and a sequencing batch reactor (SBR),was used to treat landfill leachate.During operation,denitrification and methanogenesis took place simultaneously in the first stage UASB (UASB1),and the effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD) was further removed in the second stage UASB (UASB2).Then the denitrification of nitrite and nitrate in the returned sludge by using the residual COD was accomplished in the A/O reactor,and ammonia was removed via nitrite in it.Last but not least,the residual ammonia was removed in SBR as well as nitrite and nitrate which were produced by nitrification.A system consisting of a two-stage UASB and an A/O reactor was used to achieve the stable short-cut nitrification in the first stage (60 d).The effluent of stage one was treated by SBR in the second stage (60 d).The results over 120 d were as follows: when the total nitrogen (TN) concentration of influent leachate was about 2500 mg/L and the ammonia nitrogen concentration was about 2000 mg/L,the short-cut nitrification with 85%-90% nitrite accumulation was achieved stably in the A/O reactor.The TN and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies of the system were 98% and 97%,respectively.The residual ammonia,nitrite and nitrate which were produced by nitrification in the A/O reactor could be washed out almost completely in SBR.The TN and ammonia nitrogen concentrations of final effluent were about 39 mg/L and 12 mg/L,respectively.

  15. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio F. L. Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+ concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates.

  16. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F. L.; Gonçalves, Ana L.; Moreira, Francisca C.; Silva, Tânia F. C. V.; Vilar, Vítor J. P.; Pires, José C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates. PMID:27869676

  17. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F L; Gonçalves, Ana L; Moreira, Francisca C; Silva, Tânia F C V; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pires, José C M

    2016-11-17

    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N-NH₄⁺) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N-NH₄⁺ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N-NH₄⁺ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N-NO₃(-) removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates.

  18. LEACHATE CLOGGING ASSESSMENT OF GEOTEXTILE AND SOIL LANDFILL FILTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The liquids management strategy for any municipal or hazardous waste landfill requires a knowledgeable design strategy for the leachate collection system located at the base of the waste mass. Such leachate collection systems generally consist of sumps, perforated pipes, drainag...

  19. Biological Treatment of Leachate using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Abstract   In Sri Lanka municipal solid waste is generally disposed in poorly managed open dumps which lack liner systems and leachate collection systems. Rain water percolates through the waste layers to produce leachate which drains in to ground water and finally to nearby water bodies, degrading the quality of water. Leachate thus has become a major environmental concern in municipal waste management and treatment of leachate is a major challenge for the existing and proposed landfill si...

  20. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    from entering the groundwater or surface water. The bottom lining system should cover the full footprint area of the landfill, including both the relatively flat bottom and the sideslopes in the case of an excavated configuration. This prevents the lateral migration of leachate from within the landfill...... triple) liners, are extremely effective in preventing leachate from entering into the environment. In addition, the risk of polluting the groundwater at a landfill by any leakage of leachate depends on several factors related to siting of the landfill: distance to the water table, distance to surface...... water bodies, and the properties of the soil beneath the landfill. In addition to the lining and drainage systems described in this chapter, the siting and hydrogeology of the landfill site (Chapter 10.12) and the top cover (Chapter 10.9) are also part of the barrier system, contributing to reducing...

  1. Electrocoagulation and decolorization of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Zainab Haider; Othman, Mohamed Rozali; Abdullah, Md Pauzi

    2013-11-01

    In this study, several operating conditions such as electrode material, treatment time, applied voltage, Cl□ concentration and PH of solution were tested on treatability of landfill leachate by using electrocoagulation (EC) method. According to the results, EC method can be used efficiently for the treatment of landfill leachate by using proper operating conditions. The best removal rats were obtained when C (rod) electrode as anode, operating time is 120 min, voltage applied is 10 V, NaCl concentration is 5.85 g/L and the raw PH, for these conditions, 70% color removal was obtained.

  2. The impact of nanoparticles on aerobic degradation of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici Guvenc, Senem; Alan, Burcu; Adar, Elanur; Bilgili, Mehmet Sinan

    2017-04-01

    The amount of nanoparticles released from industrial and consumer products has increased rapidly in the last decade. These products may enter landfills directly or indirectly after the end of their useful life. In order to determine the impact of TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles on aerobic landfilling processes, municipal solid waste was loaded to three pilot-scale aerobic landfill bioreactors (80 cm diameter and 350 cm height) and exposed to TiO2 (AT) and Ag (AA) nanoparticles at total concentrations of 100 mg kg(-1) of solid waste. Aerobic landfill bioreactors were operated under the conditions about 0.03 L min(-1) kg(-1) aeration rate for 250 days, during which the leachate, solid waste, and gas characteristics were measured. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in the leachate characteristics, gas constituents, solid quality parameters, and temperature variations, which are the most important indicators of landfill operations, and overall aerobic degradation performance between the reactors containing TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles, and control (AC) reactor. The data also indicate that the pH levels, ionic strength, and the complex formation capacity of nanoparticles with Cl(-) ions can reduce the toxicity effects of nanoparticles on aerobic degradation processes. The results suggest that TiO2 and Ag nanoparticles at concentrations of 100 mg kg(-1) of solid waste do not have significant impacts on aerobic biological processes and waste management systems.

  3. Degradation of municipal solid waste in simulated landfill bioreactors under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Radoslaw; Krzystek, Liliana; Ledakowicz, Stanislaw

    2015-09-01

    In this study the municipal solid waste degradation processes in simulated landfill bioreactors under aerobic and anaerobic conditions is investigated. The effect of waste aeration on the dynamics of the aerobic degradation processes in lysimeters as well as during anaerobic processes after completion of aeration is presented. The results are compared with the anaerobic degradation process to determine the stabilization stage of waste in both experimental modes. The experiments in aerobic lysimeters were carried out at small aeration rate (4.41⋅10(-3)lmin(-1)kg(-1)) and for two recirculation rates (24.9 and 1.58lm(-3)d(-1)). The change of leachate and formed gases composition showed that the application of even a small aeration rate favored the degradation of organic matter. The amount of CO2 and CH4 released from anaerobic lysimeter was about 5 times lower than that from the aerobic lysimeters. Better stabilization of the waste was obtained in the aerobic lysimeter with small recirculation, from which the amount of CO2 produced was larger by about 19% in comparison with that from the aerobic lysimeter with large leachate recirculation.

  4. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac

    2015-07-01

    Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic-anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia-nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75d and 60d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4L/kgvs and 113.2L/kgvs. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens.

  5. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sangjae; Nam, Anwoo; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Jae Young

    2015-02-01

    According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH4 produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH4/CO2 ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3-1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0-2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH4+CO2% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Kaolinite sorption of Cd, Ni and Cu from landfill leachates: influence of leachate composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrangeli Papini, M; Majone, M; Rolle, E

    2001-01-01

    Heavy metal speciation in landfill leachates plays a significant role in determining the mobility during the percolation through soils. The complexation characteristics of landfill leachate directly affects heavy metal solubility and the extent of the interaction with soils, lowering or raising the sorbed amount depending on the relative affinity of the complexed metal and uncomplexed form to soil adsorption sites. In this paper, the adsorption of Cd, Ni and Cu onto kaolinite from three leachates (collected from landfill at different fermentation stage) is studied, also in comparison with metal speciation by two different operative procedures. The heavy metals, at their natural concentration, were divided into operational classes according to an exchange-based procedure and by fractionation on the basis of molecular weight (exchange onto Chelex100 resin and ultrafiltration, respectively). All the experiments were performed also on synthetic solutions designed according to leachate composition and theoretical speciation. The experimental results have shown leachate complexing capacity is strongly dependent on landfill age, and that broad parameters such as COD, DOC, pH, ionic strength and VFA concentration are not able to predict it. It is notheworthy that the strong complexing capacity of leachate can cause extraction of metals from the solid phase instead of adsorption from the liquid one.

  7. Nonequilibrium free diffusion in seed leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz G., Luis; Riquelme P., Pablo; Guzmán, R.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we use a Schlieren-like Near Field Scattering (SNFS) setup to study nonequilibrium free diffusion behavior of a colloidal solution obtained from seeds leachate. The main objective is to compare the temporal behavior of the diffusion coefficient of seed leachate with an electric conductivity based vigor test. SNFS sizing measurements, based on Mie theory, were carried out to ensure its reliability and sensitivity. Then, we performed a typical nonequilibrium free diffusion experiment of a glycerol-water mixture. In this way, we confirmed that SNFS setup is sensitive to giant concentration fluctuations of nanocolloidal solutions. The results obtained in this stage reproduce properly the data reported elsewhere in literature. Moreover, seed leachate diffuse, in water, in a similar way that glycerol does. In both cases we used the same method (dynamic structure factor) to determine thermo-physical properties. We show that time evolution of diffusion coefficient of Lupinus Albus leachate exhibits three defined regimes as electric conductivity measurements. The results also exhibit a correspondence between the behavior of the diffusion coefficient and electric conductivity values of the two regions in the temporal range studied. Finally, we discuss biological processes involved in germination that could modulate this dependence, and the role played by the electrolytic nature of solutes.

  8. Treatment of Landfill Leachate at Army Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    e.g., training residues; propellant, explosive , or pyrotechnic residues; and abandoned transformers. Such materials may be mixed with the general...Schanche, L. J. Benson, M. J. Staub , and M. A. Kamiya, Charateristics, Control, and Treatment of Leachate at Military Installations, Interim Report N-97

  9. Removal of organic micro-pollutants from solid waste landfill leachate in membrane bioreactor operated without excess sludge discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyaroj, V; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Yamamoto, K

    2012-01-01

    Two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was applied to the treatment of landfill leachate from a solid waste disposal site in Thailand. The first stage anoxic reactor was equipped with an inclined tube module for sludge separation. It was followed by an aerobic stage with a hollow fiber membrane module for solid liquid separation. Mixed liquor sludge from the aerobic reactor was re-circulated back to anoxic reactor in order to maintain constant mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration in the aerobic reactor. The removal of micro-pollutants from landfill leachate along the treatment period of 300 days was monitored. The results indicated that two-stage MBRs could remove biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH(4)(+) by 97, 87 and 91% at steady operating condition. Meanwhile organic micro-pollutant removals were 50-76%. The removal efficiencies varied according to the hydrophobic characteristic of compounds but they were improved during long-term MBR operation without sludge discharge.

  10. Recirculation of reverse osmosis concentrate in lab-scale anaerobic and aerobic landfill simulation reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello; Raga, Roberto; Pivato, Alberto; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Leachate treatment is a major issue in the context of landfill management, particularly in view of the consistent changes manifested over time in the quality and quantity of leachate produced, linked to both waste and landfill characteristics, which renders the procedure technically difficult and expensive. Leachate recirculation may afford a series of potential advantages, including improvement of leachate quality, enhancement of gas production, acceleration of biochemical processes, control of moisture content, as well as nutrients and microbe migration within the landfill. Recirculation of the products of leachate treatment, such as reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate, is a less common practice, with widespread controversy relating to its suitability, potential impacts on landfill management and future gaseous and leachable emissions. Scientific literature provides the results of only a few full-scale applications of concentrate recirculation. In some cases, an increase of COD and ammonium nitrogen in leachate was observed, coupled with an increase of salinity; which, additionally, might negatively affect performance of the RO plant itself. In other cases, not only did leachate production not increase significantly but the characteristics of leachate extracted from the well closest to the re-injection point also remained unchanged. This paper presents the results of lab-scale tests conducted in landfill simulation reactors, in which the effects of injection of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate RO concentrate were evaluated. Six reactors were managed with different weekly concentrate inputs, under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, with the aim of investigating the short and long-term effects of this practice on landfill emissions. Lab-scale tests resulted in a more reliable identification of compound accumulation and kinetic changes than full-scale applications, further enhancing the development of a mass balance in which gaseous emissions and waste

  11. Enzymatic microbial Mn(II) oxidation and Mn biooxide production in the Guaymas Basin deep-sea hydrothermal plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Gregory J.; Clement, Brian G.; Webb, Samuel M.; Fodrie, F. Joel; Bargar, John R.; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2009-11-01

    . Overall, these results reveal a vigorous Mn biogeochemical cycle in the GB hydrothermal plume, where a distinct microbial community enzymatically catalyzes rapid Mn(II) oxidation and the production of Mn biooxides.

  12. Photodegradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, A J; Garbarino, J R; Ferrer, I; Rutherford, D W; Wershaw, R L; Ranville, J F; Wildeman, T R

    2003-01-20

    Arsenic compounds have been used extensively in agriculture in the US for applications ranging from cotton herbicides to animal feed supplements. Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid), in particular, is used widely in poultry production to control coccidial intestinal parasites. It is excreted unchanged in the manure and introduced into the environment when litter is applied to farmland as fertilizer. Although the toxicity of roxarsone is less than that of inorganic arsenic, roxarsone can degrade, biotically and abiotically, to produce more toxic inorganic forms of arsenic, such as arsenite and arsenate. Experiments were conducted on aqueous litter leachates to test the stability of roxarsone under different conditions. Laboratory experiments have shown that arsenite can be cleaved photolytically from the roxarsone moiety at pH 4-8 and that the degradation rate increases with increasing pH. Furthermore, the rate of photodegradation increases with nitrate and natural organic matter concentration, reactants that are commonly found in poultry-litter-water leachates. Additional photochemical reactions rapidly oxidize the cleaved arsenite to arsenate. The formation of arsenate is not entirely undesirable, because it is less mobile in soil systems and less toxic than arsenite. A possible mechanism for the degradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates is proposed. The results suggest that poultry litter storage and field application practices could affect the degradation of roxarsone and subsequent mobilization of inorganic arsenic species.

  13. Different leachate phytotreatment systems using sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbo, Francesco; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Malagoli, Mario; Schiavon, Michela; Cossu, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    The use of energy crops in the treatment of wastewaters is of increasing interest, particularly in view of the widespread scarcity of water in many countries and the possibility of obtaining renewable fuels of vegetable origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of landfill leachate phytotreatment using sunflowers, particularly as seeds from this crop are suitable for use in biodiesel production. Two different irrigation systems were tested: vertical flow and horizontal subsurface flow, with or without effluent recirculation. Plants were grown in 130L rectangular tanks placed in a special climatic chamber. Leachate irrigated units were submitted to increasing nitrogen concentrations up to 372mgN/L. Leachate was successfully tested as an alternative fertilizer for plants and was not found to inhibit biomass development. The experiment revealed good removal efficiencies for COD (η>50%) up until flowering, while phosphorous removal invariably exceeded 60%. Nitrogen removal rates decreased over time in all experimental units, particularly in vertical flow tanks. In general, horizontal flow units showed the best performances in terms of contaminant removal capacity; the effluent recirculation procedure did not improve performance. Significant evapo-transpiration was observed, particularly in vertical flow units, promoting removal of up to 80% of the inlet irrigation volume.

  14. Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abood, Alkhafaji R. [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Thi Qar University, Nasiriyah (Iraq); Bao, Jianguo, E-mail: bjianguo888@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Du, Jiangkun; Zheng, Dan; Luo, Ye [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A novel method of stripping (agitation) was investigated for NH{sub 3}-N removal. • PFS coagulation followed agitation process enhanced the leachate biodegradation. • Nitrification–denitrification achieved by changing operation process in SBR treatment. • A dual filter of carbon-sand is suitable as a polishing treatment of leachate. • Combined treatment success for the complete treatment of non-biodegradable leachate. - Abstract: This study describes the complete treatment of non-biodegradable landfill leachate by combined treatment processes. The processes consist of agitation as a novel stripping method used to overcome the ammonia toxicity regarding aerobic microorganisms. The NH{sub 3}-N removal ratio was 93.9% obtained at pH 11.5 and a gradient velocity (G) 150 s{sup −1} within a five-hour agitation time. By poly ferric sulphate (PFS) coagulation followed the agitation process; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) were removed at 70.6% and 49.4%, respectively at an optimum dose of 1200 mg L{sup −1} at pH 5.0. The biodegradable ratio BOD{sub 5}/COD was improved from 0.18 to 0.31 during pretreatment step by agitation and PFS coagulation. Thereafter, the effluent was diluted with sewage at a different ratio before it was subjected to sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment. Up to 93.3% BOD{sub 5}, 95.5% COD and 98.1% NH{sub 3}-N removal were achieved by SBR operated under anoxic–aerobic–anoxic conditions. The filtration process was carried out using sand and carbon as a dual filter media as polishing process. The final effluent concentration of COD, BOD{sub 5}, suspended solid (SS), NH{sub 3}-N and total organic carbon (TOC) were 72.4 mg L{sup −1}, 22.8 mg L{sup −1}, 24.2 mg L{sup −1}, 18.4 mg L{sup −1} and 50.8 mg L{sup −1} respectively, which met the discharge standard. The results indicated that a combined process of agitation-coagulation-SBR and filtration effectively eliminated

  15. Improvement of Landfill Leachate Biodegradability with Ultrasonic Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mahvi Amirhossein; Roodbari Aliakbar; Nabizadeh Nodehi Ramin; Naseri Simin; Dehghani Mohammadhadii; Alimohammadi Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Leachate from mature landfills is typically characterized by high ammonium (NH4+) content, low biodegradability (low BOD5/COD ratio) and high fraction of refractory and large organic molecules such as humic and fulvic acids. Mature leachate effluents are known to contain recalcitrant and/or non-biodegradable organic substances and biological processes are not efficient in these cases. A promising alternative to complete oxidation of biorecalcitrant leachate is the use of ultrasonic process as...

  16. An investigation of recalcitrant organic compounds in leachates

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Recalcitrant organic compounds remain a key challenge in landfill leachate management as they are resistant to microbial degradation and have potential to damage the water environment. Conventional leachate characterisation methods are time consuming and limited by their inability to provide compositional analysis. This research therefore investigates the characteristics of recalcitrant organic compounds in leachates and undertakes a feasibility study of the possible use of UV absorption and ...

  17. Phytotoxicity of landfill leachate on willow--Salix amygdalina L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialowiec, Andrzej; Randerson, Peter F

    2010-01-01

    Because of low investment and operational costs, interest is increasing in the use of willow plants in landfill leachate disposal. Toxic effects of leachate on the plants should be avoided in the initial period of growth and phytotoxicological testing may be helpful to select appropriate leachate dose rates. The aim of this study was to determine the phytotoxicity of landfill leachate on young willow (Salix amygdalina L.) cuttings, as a criterion for dose rate selection in the early phase of growth. Over a test period of 6 weeks plants were exposed to six concentrations of landfill leachate solutions (0%; 6.25%; 12.5%; 25%; 50% and 100%), under two different regimes. In regime A willow plants were cultivated in leachate solution from the beginning, whereas in regime B they were grown initially in clean water for 4 weeks, after which the water was exchanged for leachate solutions. The lowest effective concentration causing toxic effects (LOEC) was calculated (pWillow plants were able to survive in landfill leachate solutions with electrical conductivity (EC) values up to 5.0 mS/cm in regime A, whereas in regime B plants were killed when EC exceeded 3.0 mS/cm. This indicates an ability of willow plants to tolerate higher strengths of landfill leachate if they are cultivated in such concentrations from the beginning.

  18. Leachate migration and its impacts on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y. S

    1998-12-01

    In Korea there are hundreds of landfill sites all over the peninsular and the leachate problem is one of the national concern. Heavy precipitation especially during hot summers creates the fast degradation of waste products in the site which accelerates the migration of the leachate. In this report current status of the landfill site related issues were studied along with potential solutions on them. Also the fundamental mathematical derivations to describe the movement of the leachate in geologic medium was studied. These results shall be used to assess the leachate migration in the specific landfill site in the 2nd R and D year.

  19. Water hyacinth system for municipal landfill leachate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gendy, A.S.; Biswas, N.; Bewtra, J.K. [Univ. of Windsor, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    Batch experiments were conducted in a green house environment to investigate the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to treat municipal landfill leachate. The experiments were carried out on leachate samples collected from Essex-Windsor Regional Landfill, Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Three leachate dilutions were used in the study. In addition to plant growth, leachate constituents such as pH, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), nitrate, reactive phosphate, total iron, potassium and chloride were also determined. These parameters were analyzed at different times covering the duration of the experiments. The experimental data showed that water hyacinth system was capable of reducing total nitrogen in the leachate. The pH level remained around 8.0. High consumption of alkalinity during the first three weeks was observed, which could be attributed to nitrification of ammonia. Ammonia nitrogen and total reactive phosphate were removed completely, whereas potassium and chloride remained unchanged. Landfill leachate has a negative impact on plant growth. As the concentration of leachate increases, its toxicity increases resulting in the decrease in the growth of water hyacinth. Water hyacinth system seems to be a promising technology for treating municipal landfill leachate. However, additional studies are required to investigate the system tolerance for some pollutants that might be present in leachate at wide ranges of concentrations such as salinities, hydrogen ion concentration, and heavy metals. (author)

  20. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sangjae [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Anwoo [Korea Environment Corporation, 42 Hwangyeong-ro, Seo-gu, Incheon 404-170 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seung-Muk [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Young, E-mail: jaeykim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% are proposed as indices to evaluate semi-aerobic landfills. • A landfill which CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} > 1.0 is difficult to be categorized as semi-aerobic landfill. • Field conditions should be carefully investigated to determine landfill types. • The MCF default value for semi-aerobic landfills underestimates the methane emissions. - Abstract: According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH{sub 4} produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3–1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0–2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills.

  1. [Testing aerobic power].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehance, C; Bury, T

    2008-01-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is regarded by some as the best single measurement of aerobic fitness. An other major determinant of successful endurance performance is the percentage of VO2 max that an athlete can maintain for a prolonged period. It is related to the lactate threshold. Two other factors also appear to be important for endurance activities as high economy of effort, or low VO2 value for the same rate of work; high percentage of ST muscle fibers. In the laboratory, the usual measurements of aerobic power include the determination of maximum oxygen consumption and the identification of lactate threshold. Testing aerobic power can help determine the type of aerobic training that should be emphasized.

  2. Biological nutrient removal from leachate using a pilot liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldyasti, Ahmed; Chowdhury, Nabin; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2010-09-15

    Biological treatment of landfill leachate is a concern due to toxicity, high ammonia, low biodegradable organic matter concentrations, and low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. To study the reliability and commercial viability of leachate treatment using an integrated liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB), a pilot-scale LSCFB was established at the Adelaide Pollution Control Plant, London, Ontario, Canada. Anoxic and aerobic columns were used to optimize carbon and nutrient removal capability from leachate using 600 microm lava rock with a total porosity of 61%, at empty bed contact times (EBCTs) of 0.55, 0.49, and 0.41 d. The LSCFB achieved COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal efficiencies of 85%, 80%, and 70%, respectively at a low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of 3:1 and nutrients loading rates of 2.15 kg COD/(m(3) d), 0.70 kg N/(m(3) d), and 0.014 kg P/(m(3) d), as compared with 60-77% COD and 70-79% nitrogen removal efficiencies achieved by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and moving bed bioreactor (MBBR), respectively. The LSCFB effluent characterized by

  3. Integrating landfill bioreactors, partial nitritation and anammox process for methane recovery and nitrogen removal from leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Faqian; Su, Xiaomei; Kang, Tingting; Wu, Songwei; Yuan, Mengdong; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Xiayun; Xu, Fang; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-06-01

    A new process consisting of a landfill bioreactor, partial-nitritation (PN) and the anammox process has been developed for landfill leachate treatment. In this study, the landfill bioreactor exhibited excellent performance in methane-rich biogas recovery, with a specific biogas yield of 0.47 L gas g-1 COD and methane percentages of 53-76%. PN was achieved in the aerobic reactor by high free ammonia (101 ± 83 mg NH3 L-1) inhibition for nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, and the desired PN effluent composition (effluent nitrite: ammonium ratio of 1.1 ± 0.3) was controlled by adjusting the alkalinity concentration per unit of ammonium oxidized to approximately 14.3 mg CaCO3 mg-1 N in the influent. The startup of anammox process was successfully achieved with a membrane bioreactor in 160 d, and a maximum nitrogen removal rate of 216 mg N L-1 d-1 was attained for real landfill leachate treatment. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction results confirmed that the cell-specific anammox activity was approximately 68-95 fmol N cell-1 d-1, which finally led to the stable operation of the system.

  4. Mathematical Modelling of Leachate Production from Waste Contained Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojolo S. Joshua

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, mathematical models of leachate production from Waste Contained Site (WCS was developed and validated using the existing experimental data with aid of MATLAB, 2007a. When the leachate generation potentials (Lo were 100m3, 80m3 and 50m3, the maximum amount of leachate generated were about 2920m3, 2338m3 and 1461m3 for about 130 days respectively. It was noted that as the leachate percolates through a selected distance, the concentration keeps decreasing for one-dimensional flow in all the cases considered. Decreasing in concentration continues until a point was reached when the concentration was almost zero and later constant. The effects of diffusivity, amount of organic content present within the waste and gravity, as cases, were also considered in various occasions during the percolation. Comparison of their effects was also taken into account. In case of gravity at constant diffusivity, decrease in concentration was not rapid but gradually while much organic content in the waste caused the rate of leachate production to be rapid; hence, giving rise to a sharp sloped curve. It can be concluded that gravity influences the rate of change in the concentration of the leachate generation as the leachate percolate downward to the underground water. When the diffusivity and gravity are put into consideration, the concentration of the leachate decreases gradually and slowly.

  5. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF LEACHATE FROM A SUPERFUND SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have heen completed on treating a leachate from New Lyme, Ohio. The leachate was transported to Cincinnati, Ohio, where a pilot-sized rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used for a treatment evaluation. he biomass was developed on the ARC discs with primary effluent f...

  6. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Weiss, B.L. Lawrence, D.W. Woolery

    2010-07-08

    This document reports the findings of the groundwater and leachate monitoring and sampling at the Environmental restoration Disposal Facility for calendar year 2009. The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF and report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD and the ERDF Amended ROD.

  7. Partial nitrification for nitrogen removal from sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagni, Alessandro; Psaila, Giuliana; Rizzo, Andrea

    2014-09-19

    Biological nitrogen removal using nitrite as a shortcut has recently been proposed for the treatment of high strength landfill leachate. The aim of this study was to assess the application of the SHARON (Single reactor High activity Ammonium Removal Over Nitrite) process for the partial nitrification of leachate generated in old landfills. Particular attention was given to the start-up phase of the process. This study demonstrated that partial nitrification can be obtained when treating raw leachate after biomass acclimation. Only a fraction (50-70%) of the ammonia present in the leachate can be oxidised due to a limited amount of alkalinity available. Stable nitritation was obtained by applying a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4-5 d, which is higher than the values proposed for the effluent of anaerobic digesters. This higher HRT could probably be allowed by the high concentration of free ammonia present in the leachate, which could severely inhibit the growth of nitrite-oxidising bacteria.

  8. Assessment of landfill leachate toxicity reduction after biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemec, Anita; Tišler, Tatjana; Zgajnar-Gotvajn, Andreja

    2012-02-01

    In the present article, the efficiency of biological treatment of landfill leachates was evaluated by implementation of physicochemical characterisation and a complex toxicity assessment. An array of toxicity tests using bacterium Vibrio fischeri, alga Desmodesmus subspicatus, crustacean Daphnia magna, and embryo of fish Danio rerio, as well as unconventional methods using biochemical biomarkers (protein content, enzymes cholinesterase, and glutathione-S-transferase), were employed. Toxicity of leachates varied depending on the season of collection in relation to their different physicochemical characteristics. Uncommon effects of leachates on organisms, such as hormetic-like increases of algal growth and reproduction of daphnids, were identified. New approaches using the activities of enzymes were found unsuitable for routine hazard assessment of leachates. Although physicochemical parameters and toxicity decreased significantly after biological treatment, the effluents did not meet the demands of the current Slovenian legislation; thus, the existing biological treatment was found inappropriate. The development of advanced treatment techniques for landfill leachates is thus encouraged.

  9. Effect of hydraulic retention time and sludge recirculation on greenhouse gas emission and related microbial communities in two-stage membrane bioreactor treating solid waste leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuansawan, Nararatchporn; Boonnorat, Jarungwit; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2016-06-01

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and responsible microorganisms during the treatment of municipal solid waste leachate in two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. The MBR system, consisting of anaerobic and aerobic stages, were operated at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 and 2.5days in each reactor under the presence and absence of sludge recirculation. Organic and nitrogen removals were more than 80% under all operating conditions during which CH4 emission were found highest under no sludge recirculation condition at HRT of 5days. An increase in hydraulic loading resulted in a reduction in CH4 emission from anaerobic reactor but an increase from the aerobic reactor. N2O emission rates were found relatively constant from anaerobic and aerobic reactors under different operating conditions. Diversity of CH4 and N2O producing microorganisms were found decreasing when hydraulic loading rate to the reactors was increased.

  10. Treatment of landfill leachate by immobilized microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE ZhengFang; YU HongYan; WEN LiLi; NI JinRen

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the outcome and the main performance of the immobilized microbial that treats landfill leachate. Based on the analysis of COD and ammonia-nitrogen of the influent and effluent, research was done on the high removal efficiency of COD and ammonium nitrogen by immobilized microbial. The leachate composition was analyzed qualitatively using GC-MS before and after being treated. Biological loading of efficient microbial flora on the carrier was measured by Kjeldahl's method. Finally, the patterns of immobilized microbe were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that in immobilized microorganisms system, the efficiencies of COD and nitrogen were 98.3% and 99.9%, respectively. There was a great reduction of organic components in effluent. When the immobilized biomass on the carrier was 38 g·L-1 (H2O), the filamentous microorganism was highly developed. There was no inhibitory effect on the nitrobacteria and nitrococcus, when ammonia was over 200 mg·L-1 and NH3 over 150 mg·L-1, At a high organic loading, it still had good nitrification. This paper also compares the performance of immobilized microbial with free microbial under the same condition. The immobilized microbial technology demonstrated better than the latter in all aspects.

  11. Treatment of landfill leachate by immobilized microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the outcome and the main performance of the immobilized microbial that treats landfill leachate. Based on the analysis of COD and ammonia-nitrogen of the influent and effluent, research was done on the high removal efficiency of COD and ammonium nitrogen by immobilized microbial. The leachate composition was analyzed qualitatively using GC-MS before and after being treated. Biological loading of efficient microbial flora on the carrier was measured by Kjeldahl’s method. Finally, the patterns of immobilized microbe were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that in immobilized microorganisms system, the efficiencies of COD and nitrogen were 98.3% and 99.9%, respectively. There was a great reduction of organic components in effluent. When the immobilized biomass on the carrier was 38 g·L?1 (H2O), the filamentous microorganism was highly developed. There was no inhibitory effect on the nitrobacteria and nitrococcus, when ammonia was over 200 mg·L?1 and NH3 over 150 mg·L?1. At a high organic loading, it still had good nitrification. This paper also compares the performance of immobilized microbial with free microbial under the same condition. The immobilized microbial technology demonstrated better than the latter in all aspects.

  12. Heavy metal leaching from aerobic and anaerobic landfill bioreactors of co-disposed municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and shredded low-organic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanc, Bulent; Inoue, Yuzo; Yamada, Masato; Ono, Yusaku; Nagamori, Masanao

    2007-03-22

    In this study, heavy metal leaching from aerobic and anaerobic landfill bioreactor test cells for co-disposed municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and shredded low-organic residues has been investigated. Test cells were operated for 1 year. Heavy metals which were comparatively higher in leachate of aerobic cell were copper (Cu), lead (Pb), boron (B), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe), and those apparently lower were aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), molybdenum (Mo), and vanadium (V). However, no significant release of heavy metals under aerobic conditions was observed compared to anaerobic and control cells. Furthermore, there was no meaningful correlation between oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and heavy metal concentrations in the leachates although some researchers speculate that aeration may result in excessive heavy metal leaching. No meaningful correlation between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and leaching of Cu and Pb was another interesting observation. The only heavy metal that exceeded the state discharge limits (10mg/l, to be enforced after April 2005) in the aerobic cell leachate samples was boron and there was no correlation between boron leaching and ORP. Higher B levels in aerobic cell should be due to comparatively lower pH values in this cell. However, it is anticipated that this slightly increased concentrations of B (maximum 25mg/l) will not create a risk for bioreactor operation; rather it should be beneficial for long-term stability of the landfill through faster washout. It was concluded that aerobization of landfills of heavy metal rich MSWI bottom ash and shredded residues is possible with no dramatic increase in heavy metals in the leachate.

  13. 不同含砷类型金矿的细菌氧化-氰化浸出%Biooxidation-cyanidation leaching of gold concentrates with different arsenic types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔日成; 杨洪英; 富瑶; 陈森; 张硕

    2011-01-01

    The biooxidation and cyanidation leaching of gold concentrates and monominerals with different arsenic types were studied.The effects of arsenopyrite and realgar on the biooxidation and cyanidation leaching of gold concentrate were investigated.The results show that arsenopyrite in the arsenic-bearing gold concentrate is easily oxidized and decomposed.The dearsenification rate rises up to 93.10% after 192 h biooxidation.On the contrary, realgar cannot be biooxidated, which restrains the growth of bacteria and extends the lag phase.In the process of cyanidation leaching, arsenopyrite is very stable and does not participate in any side reactions, conversely, realgar participates in the side reactions with cyanide and alkali.The efficiency of cyanidation leaching is depressed because the precipitates produced form the film on the surface of gold grain in the process of cyanidation leaching.%对含砷类型不同的金精矿和单矿物进行细菌氧化-氰化浸出研究,分析毒砂和雄黄对金精矿细菌氧化-氰化浸出效果的影响.结果表明:在细菌氧化过程中,含砷金精矿中的毒砂易被氧化分解,经过192 h的细菌氧化后,脱砷率可达93.10%;而雄黄无法被细菌氧化分解,且影响细菌活性,延长浸矿的停滞期;在氰化浸出过程中,毒砂非常稳定,不参与任何副反应;而雄黄易与CN-及保护碱发生副反应,且产生的沉淀物质会在金粒表面形成薄膜,从而降低氰化浸出效率.

  14. Field survey of enteric viruses in solid waste landfill leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, M D

    1978-09-01

    Because municipal solid waste may contain fecal material from a variety of sources, there is concern that the leachate discharged from some solid waste landfills may contain enteric pathogens, including enteric viruses. In this study, 22 leachate samples from 21 different landfills in the United States and Canada were examined for enteric viruses. The sites represented a broad range of conditions for solid waste landfills and the leachate samples ranged from 10.3 to 18 liters in volume. Enteric viruses were found in only one of the 22 leachate samples examined. Two viruses, identified as poliovirus types 1 and 3, were found in an 11.8 liter sample obtained from a site where solid waste landfill practice was deficient. The low levels of enteric viruses detected in field samples of raw leachate and the opportunities for further reductions in the virus concentration of leachates by such processes as thermal inactivation, removal by soil and dilution in ground and surface waters, suggest that leachates from properly operated solid waste landfills do not constitute an environmental or public health hazard due to enteric viruses.

  15. Microbiology, Redox and Contaminat Fate in the Grindsted Landfill Leachate Plume - A Summary of 25 Years of work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, T. H.

    2001-05-01

    The contamination by leachate of the upper aquifer at the Grindsted Landfill (Denmark) stretches about 300 m downgradient from the landfill. The plume has been described with respect to water chemistry, sediment chemistry, pollutant distribution, microbial counts, PLFA and redox rates determined by unamended bioassays. This presentation summaries the findings and discusses unanswered questions. The landfill was active from 1930 to the mid 1970 and has no engineered leachate collection system. Leachate from municipal as well as from industrial waste has entered the aquifer for more than thirty years. The redox conditions change from strongly anaerobic (methanogenic, sulfate reducing, iron reducing) close to the landfill over manganese reduction and denitrification to aerobic conditions in the outskirts of the plume The redox conditions were determined from groundwater sample composition, hydrogen concentrations and sediment chemistry. The plume showed strong attenuation of aromatic compounds within the first 100 m downgradient of the landfill. Degradation experiments (batch, in-situ testers, long term field injection experiments) could not fully document degradation of all the compounds. MPN-measurements of methanogens, sulfate-reducers, iron-reducers, manganese-reducers and denitrifiers showed abundance of all groups with a slight trend with the redox conditions. PLFA measurements did not provide much insight into the microbial populations of the plume, but confirmed some previous observations. Bioassays gave estimates of the rates of the various redox processes, but showed for some samples more simultaneous redox processes. More than 25 years of work has been put into the Grindsted Landfill leachate plume. References Bjerg, P.L., Rugge, K., Cortsen, J., Nielsen, P.H. & Christensen, T.H. (1999): Degradation of aromatic and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in the anaerobic part of the Grindsted Landfill leachate plume: In situ microcosm and laboratory batch

  16. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna; Stensøe, Steen; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3-4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate and a significant amount of landfill gas. Leachate controls may include bottom liners and leachate collection systems as well as leachate treatment prior to discharge to surface water. Gas controls may include oxidizing top covers, gas collection systems with flares or gas utilization systems for production of electricity and heat. The importance of leachate and gas control measures in reducing the overall environmental impact from a conventional landfill was assessed by life-cycle-assessment (LCA). The direct cost for the measures were also estimated providing a basis for assessing which measures are the most cost-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to -0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE). For the toxic and spoiled groundwater impact categories the trend is not as clear. The reason for this was that the load to the environment shifted as more technologies were used. For the dump landfill the main impacts were impacts for spoiled groundwater due to lack of leachate collection, 2.3 PE down to 0.4 PE when leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007 E to 0

  17. Supercritical water oxidation of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuzhong; Guo, Yang; Chen, Chongming; Zhang, Jie; Gong, Yanmeng; Wang, Yuzhen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, ammonia as an important ingredient in landfill leachate was mainly studied. Based on Peng-Robinson formulations and Gibbs free energy minimization method, the estimation of equilibrium composition and thermodynamic analysis for supercritical water oxidation of ammonia (SCWO) was made. As equilibrium is reached, ammonia could be totally oxidized in SCW. N(2) is the main product, and the formation of NO(2) and NO could be neglected. The investigation on SCWO of landfill leachate was conducted in a batch reactor at temperature of 380-500 °C, reaction time of 50-300s and pressure of 25 MPa. The effect of reaction parameters such as oxidant equivalent ratio, reaction time and temperature were investigated. The results showed that COD and NH(3) conversion improved as temperature, reaction time and oxygen excess increased. Compared to organics, NH(3) is a refractory compound in supercritical water. The conversion of COD and NH(3) were higher in the presence of MnO(2) than that without catalyst. The interaction between reaction temperature and time was analyzed by using response surface method (RSM) and the results showed that its influence on the NH(3) conversion was relatively insignificant in the case without catalyst. A global power-law rate expression was regressed from experimental data to estimate the reaction rate of NH(3). The activation energy with and without catalyst for NH(3) oxidation were 107.07 ± 8.57 kJ/mol and 83.22 ± 15.62 kJ/mol, respectively.

  18. Zeta Potential Study on the Bio-oxidation of Copper Sulfide Minerals%硫化铜矿细菌氧化的Zeta电位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅开彬; 林海

    2012-01-01

    为了研究矿物与细菌相互作用后矿物的Zeta电位与细菌对矿物的氧化能力之间的关系,利用Zeta电位仪检测与细菌作用前后硫化矿的Zeta电位,根据Zeta电位和IEP(Iso Electric Point)的变化,判断细菌对硫化矿的氧化作用及其程度。结果表明,硫化铜矿与细菌作用后,矿物的Zeta电位降低,辉铜矿、斑铜矿和铜蓝的IEP向铜的氢氧化物方向移动,而黄铜矿向细菌的IEP方向靠近,分析原因主要是由于各矿物被细菌氧化的程度不同。对与细菌相互作用后的铜蓝进行XPS测试结果证实其表面被氧化。研究证实了细菌对硫化矿的直接氧化作用,同时也得出不同硫化铜的细菌氧化顺序:辉铜矿〉斑铜矿〉铜蓝〉黄铜矿。%The direct bacterial oxidation of sulphide minerals was evaluated by Zeta potential and the iso- electric point (IEP). The results show that copper sulphide minerals have been directly oxidized by the bacteria, after conditioning with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, the Zeta potential of copper sulphide de- creased and became negative, the IEP of chalcoeite, bornite and covellite moved towards the IEP of cop- per hydroxide, however, the IEP of chalcopyrite was very close to that of bacteria. The XPS of covellite after conditioning with bacteria indicates the surface was oxidized. The results support the direct mecha- nism of sulphide minerals bio-oxidation from a new viewpoint. The following order for the bio-oxidation of these minerals is obtained ~ chalcocite 〉 bornite 〉 covellite 〉 chalcoovrite.

  19. Field survey of enteric viruses in solid waste landfill leachates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sobsey, M D

    1978-01-01

    Because municipal solid waste may contain fecal material from a variety of sources, there is concern that the leachate discharged from some solid waste landfills may contain enteric pathogens, including enteric viruses...

  20. Adsorption of heavy metal from landfill leachate by wasted biosolids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Key words: Adsorption, biomass waste, heavy metal, synthetic water, leachate. INTRODUCTION ... Gadd, 1993; White et al., 1997). There is also ..... The performance of natural clay as a barrier to the diffusion of municipal ...

  1. levels of some physiochemical parameters in leachates from open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University Kano .... waste water treated and directive (European Union. 2000), there has ... Sample Treatment ... biological oxygen demand determination of the leachate sample in mg/l was.

  2. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Weiss; D. W. Woolery

    2009-09-03

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF, to report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD and the ERDF Amended ROD.

  3. Ammonia nitrogen desorption from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Valderi D.; Barros,Aldre J. M.; Lopes,Wilton S.; Sousa,José T. de

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary landfill leachates present high concentrations of carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials. The crucial point is that carbonaceous materials are of difficult biodegradation, what compromises the performance of biological treatment processes, while nitrogenous materials, such as ammonia nitrogen, probably preclude the use of biological treatments. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the desorption process of ammonia nitrogen from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers. De...

  4. Characterization and toxicological evaluation of leachate from closed sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenike, Chijioke U; Fauziah, Shahul H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-09-01

    Landfilling is a major option in waste management hierarchy in developing nations. It generates leachate, which has the potential of polluting watercourses. This study analysed the physico-chemical components of leachate from a closed sanitary landfill in Malaysia, in relation to evaluating the toxicological impact on fish species namely Pangasius sutchi S., 1878 and Clarias batrachus L., 1758. The leachate samples were taken from Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill (AHSL) and the static method of acute toxicity testing was experimented on both fish species at different leachate concentrations. Each fish had an average of 1.3 ± 0.2 g wet weight and length of 5.0 ± 0.1 cm. Histology of the fishes was examined by analysing the gills of the response (dead) group, using the Harris haemtoxylin and eosin (H&E) method. Finneys' Probit method was utilized as a statistical tool to evaluate the data from the fish test. The physico-chemical analysis of the leachate recorded pH 8.2 ± 0.3, biochemical oxygen demand 3500 ± 125 mg L(-1), COD 10 234 ± 175 mg L(-1), ammonical nitrogen of 880 ± 74 mg L(-1), benzene 0.22 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) and toluene 1.2 ± 0.4 mg L(-1). The 50% lethality concentration (LC(50)) values calculated after 96 h exposure were 3.2% (v/v) and 5.9% (v/v) of raw leachate on P. sutchi and C. batrachus, respectively. The H&E staining showed denaturation of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the gills of the response groups. Leachate from the sanitary landfill was toxic to both fish species. The P. sutchi and C. batrachus may be used as indicator organisms for leachate pollution in water.

  5. Leachate from microplastics impairs larval development in brown mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara E Silva, Pablo Pena; Nobre, Caio Rodrigues; Resaffe, Pryscila; Pereira, Camilo Dias Seabra; Gusmão, Felipe

    2016-12-01

    Microplastic debris is a pervasive type of contaminant in marine ecosystems, being considered a major threat to marine biota. One of the problems of microplastics is that they can adsorb contaminants in extremely high concentrations. When released from the particle, these contaminants have the potential to cause toxic effects in the biota. So far, reports of toxic effects are mostly linked with the direct exposure of organisms through ingestion of contaminated microplastics. There is little information on the toxicity of leachates from microplastics to marine organisms. In this study, we conducted experiments to evaluate the toxicity of leachates from virgin and beached plastic pellets to embryo development of the brown mussel (Perna perna). We compared the efficiency of two test procedures, and evaluated the toxicity of beached pellets collected in a coastal marine protected area. We observed that mussel embryo is sensitive to leachate from both virgin and beached pellets. However, the toxicity of the leachate from beached pellets was much higher than that of virgin pellets. We suggest contaminants adsorbed onto the surface of beached pellets were responsible for the high toxicity of leachate from beached pellets, while the toxicity of leachate from virgin pellets was mainly due to plastic additives. Our results suggest microplastic debris may be harmful even if ingestion is not the only or main pathway of interaction of marine organisms with contaminated plastic debris.

  6. Impact of leachate composition on the advanced oxidation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are gaining importance as an alternative to the biological or physicochemical treatments for the management of leachates. In this work, it has been studied the effect of the characteristics of the leachate (content in humic acids, landfill age and degree of stabilization) on the wet oxidation process and final quality of the treated effluent. A high concentration of humic acids in the leachate had a positive effect on the COD removal because this fraction is more easily oxidizable. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that the simultaneous presence of humic acid and the intermediates generated during the oxidation process improved the degradation of this acid, since such intermediates are stronger initiators of free radicals than the humic acid itself. Similar values of COD removals (49% and 51%) and biodegradability indices (0.30 and 0.35) were observed, after 8 h of wet oxidation, for the stabilised leachate (biologically pretreated) and the raw one, respectively. Nevertheless, final colour removal was much higher for the stabilised leachate, achieving values up to 91%, whereas for the raw one only 56% removal was attained for the same reaction time. Besides, wet oxidation treatment was more efficient for the young leachate than for the old one, with final COD conversions of 60% and 37%, respectively. Eventually, a triangular "three-lump" kinetic model, which considered direct oxidation to CO2 and partial oxidation through intermediate compounds, was here proposed.

  7. Analysis of Errors Involved in the Estimation of Leachate Pollution Index Due to Nonavailability of Leachate Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. Rafizul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An important part of maintaining a solid waste landfill is managing the leachate through proper treatment to prevent pollution into the surrounding ground and surface water. Any assessment of potential impact of a landfill on groundwater quality requires consideration of the component of leachate most likely to cause an envionental impact as well as the source of concentration of those components. Leachate pollution index (LPI is an environmental index used to quantify and compare the leachate contamination potential of solid waste landfill. This index is based on concentration of 18 pollutants in leachate and their corresponding significance. That means, for calculating the LPI of a landfill, concentration of these 18 parameters are to be known. However, sometimes the data for all the 18 pollutants included in the LPI may not be available to calculate the LPI. In this study, the possible errors involved in calculating the LPI due to nonavailability of data are reported by the author. The leachate characteristic data for solid waste landfill at Chittagong in Bangladesh have been used to estimate these errors. Based on this study, it can be concluded that the errors may be high if the data for the pollutants having significantly high or low concentration are not available. However, LPI can be reported with a marginal error if the concentrations of the nonavailable pollutants are not completely biased.

  8. Kinetics of Organic Matter Biodegradation in Leachate from Tobacco Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briški, F.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of wastes and leachate evolved in landfills is today an imperative due to rigorous environmental protection legislation. In this work, biodegradation of the organic fraction in tobaccowaste leachate was studied. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor at initial concentra tion of activated sludge of 3.03 g dm–3 and different initial concentrations of organic matter in leachate, expressed as COD, which ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 g dm–3 . The working volume of the reactor (Fig. 1 was 7 dm3 within the cylindrical porous liner and it was filled with the suspension of leachate and activated sludge . The liner was designed such that it did not allow activated sludge to pass through. Continuous up-flow aeration was provided by a membrane pump. The temperature during the biodegradation process was 23 ± 2 °C. Dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature in reactor were monitored continuously by probes connected to a remote meter. Toxicity of leachate was performed by toxicity test using marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri before starting with the biodegradation in the batch reactor. The obtained results showed that effective concentration of leachate is EC 50 = 1.6 g dm–3 and toxicity impact index is TII50 = 9.99, meaning that untreated leachate must not be discharged into the environment before treatment. The results of the biodegradation process of leachate in batch reactor are presented in Table 1 and Fig. 2. The ratio γXv/γX was almost constant throughout the experiments and ranged from 0.69 do 0.73. This implies that the concentration of biomass remained unchanged during the experiments, and average yield was 5.26 %. The important kinetic and stoichiometric parameters required for performance of the biological removal process, namely the Y, Ks, Kd, and μmax were calculated from the batch experiments (Table 2. The experimental results of the influence of initial substrate concentrations on substrate degradation rate, and influence of

  9. Metal ions, not metal-catalyzed oxidative stress, cause clay leachate antibacterial activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin C Otto

    Full Text Available Aqueous leachates prepared from natural antibacterial clays, arbitrarily designated CB-L, release metal ions into suspension, have a low pH (3.4-5, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS and H2O2, and have a high oxidation-reduction potential. To isolate the role of pH in the antibacterial activity of CB clay mixtures, we exposed three different strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to 10% clay suspensions. The clay suspension completely killed acid-sensitive and acid-tolerant E. coli O157:H7 strains, whereas incubation in a low-pH buffer resulted in a minimal decrease in viability, demonstrating that low pH alone does not mediate antibacterial activity. The prevailing hypothesis is that metal ions participate in redox cycling and produce ROS, leading to oxidative damage to macromolecules and resulting in cellular death. However, E. coli cells showed no increase in DNA or protein oxidative lesions and a slight increase in lipid peroxidation following exposure to the antibacterial leachate. Further, supplementation with numerous ROS scavengers eliminated lipid peroxidation, but did not rescue the cells from CB-L-mediated killing. In contrast, supplementing CB-L with EDTA, a broad-spectrum metal chelator, reduced killing. Finally, CB-L was equally lethal to cells in an anoxic environment as compared to the aerobic environment. Thus, ROS were not required for lethal activity and did not contribute to toxicity of CB-L. We conclude that clay-mediated killing was not due to oxidative damage, but rather, was due to toxicity associated directly with released metal ions.

  10. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac, E-mail: jaehacko@pkusz.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Temporary aeration shortened the initial acid inhibition phase for methanogens. • COD decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactor than that in the anaerobic control. • Methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. • MSW settlement increased with increasing the frequency of intermittent aeration. - Abstract: Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10 months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic–anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia–nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75 d and 60 d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens.

  11. Geophysical mapping of contaminant leachate around a reclaimed open dumpsite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.O. Raji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM, 2D Electrical Resistivity Profiling (2D ERP and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES methods of geophysics were deployed to map the extent of leachate contamination in near-surface rocks around a popular reclaimed dumpsite in north central Nigeria. Two years after abandon and waste excavation; the dumpsite was converted to a residential area with over 80 houses under construction. Prior to waste dumping operation, clay-seal was installed at 2 m depth around the dumpsite to prevent leachate from the waste material flowing to the adjoining area. Results from VLF, 2D ERP, and VES show presence of leachate contamination in rocks and soil of the reclaimed dumpsite. Leachate has spread laterally up to a distance of about 1 km on the northern and southern parts of the dumpsite centre, and up to a depth of about 20 m. Compared to the results of similar survey in an area outside the dumpsite, leachate infiltration raised the conductivity signature of the rocks around the dumpsite by about 200%: from 7% to 22%. Both VLF-EM and 2D ERP show the presence of approximate north – south oriented structures/fracture characterised by high conductivity. VES results show the presence of four – five geo-electric layers. Important conclusions from the study are that (i leachate is still present in the rocks and soil of the reclaimed dumpsite two years after the abandonment and excavation of the waste materials, and (ii the clay seal installed around the dumpsite could not prevent leachate migration to the adjoining areas.

  12. Electrochemical treatment of leachates from sanitary landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNABEL FERNANDES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical treatment of leachate samples from a Portuguese intermunicipal sanitary landfill was carried out using anodic oxidation. The treatment was performed in a pilot plant that possesses an electrochemical cell, with boron-doped diamond electrodes, working in batch mode with recirculation. The influence of the applied current density and the flow rate on the performance of the electrochemical oxidation was investigated. Current density was decreased by steps, during the degradation, in order to study this effect on the efficiency of the process. For the assays run at equal flow rate and initial current intensity, chemical oxygen demand (COD removal seems to depend mainly on the charge passed and the variation of the current density during the anodic oxidation process can reduce the energetic costs. An increase in the recirculation flow rate leads to an increase in the organic load removal rate and a consequent decrease in the energetic costs, but it decreases the nitrogen removal rate. Also, the bias between dissolved organic carbon and COD removals increases with flow rate, indicating that an increase in recirculation flow rate decreases the mineralization index.

  13. Ion chromatographic analysis of oil shale leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, N.L.

    1990-10-01

    In the present work an investigation of the use of ion chromatography to determine environmentally significant anions present in oil shale leachates was undertaken. Nadkarni et al. have used ion chromatography to separate and quantify halogen, sulfur and nitrogen species in oil shales after combustion in a Parr bomb. Potts and Potas used ion chromatography to monitor inorganic ions in cooling tower wastewater from coal gasification. Wallace and coworkers have used ion chromatography to determine anions encountered in retort wastewaters. The ions of interest in this work were the ions of sulfur oxides including sulfite (SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), thiosulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionite (S{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionate (S{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), peroxyodisulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2{minus}}), and tetrathionate (S{sub 4}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), and thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), sulfide (S{sup 2{minus}}) hydrosulfide (HS{sup {minus}}), cyanide (CN{sup {minus}}), thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), and cyanate (OCN{sup {minus}}). A literature search was completed and a leaching procedure developed. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Impact of cigarette butt leachate on tidepool snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, David J; Gribben, Paul; Parkinson, Kerryn

    2015-06-15

    In urban areas, cigarette butts are the most common discarded refuse articles. In marine intertidal zones, they often fall into tidepools. We tested how common intertidal molluscs were affected by butt leachate in a laboratory experiment, where snails were exposed to various leachate concentrations. Mortality was very high, with all species showing 100% mortality at the full leachate concentration (5 butts per litre and 2h soak time) after 8days. However, Austrocochlea porcata showed higher mortality than the other 2 species at lower concentrations (10%, 25%) which may affect the relative abundance of the 3 snails under different concentrations of leachate pollution. Also, sublethal effects of leachate on snail activity were observed, with greater activity of Nerita atramentosa than the other 2 species at higher concentrations, suggesting it is more resilient than the other 2 species. While human health concerns predominate with respect to smoking, we show strong lethal and sublethal (via behavioural modifications) impacts of discarded butts on intertidal organisms, with even closely-related taxa responding differently.

  15. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R.; Mukherjee, A. [University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Botany

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals - sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significantconcentration-dependent increases in DNA damage in whole blood cells, lymphocytes, and in Nicotiana plants. The comet parameters show increases in tail DNA percentage (%), tail length (mu m), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  16. Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgård, Annica; Treu, Andreas; van Zeeland, Albert N T; Gosselink, Richard J A; Westin, Mats

    2010-09-01

    The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl alcohol polymer and the wood. In the present study, five different wood species were used, both hardwoods and softwoods. They were treated with three different furfurylation procedures and leached according to three different leaching methods. The present study shows that, in general, the leachates from furfurylated wood have low toxicity. It also shows that the choice of leaching method is decisive for the outcome of the toxicity results. Earlier studies have shown that leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol prepolymers have higher toxicity to Vibrio fischeri than leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol monomers. This is probably attributable to differences in leaching of chemical compounds. The present study shows that this difference in the toxicity most likely cannot be attributed to maleic acid, furan, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, or 2-furoic acid. However, the difference might be caused by the two substances 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandimethanol. The present study found no difference in the amount of leached furfuryl alcohol between leachates from furfurylated softwood and furfurylated hardwood species. Earlier studies have indicated differences in grafting of furfuryl alcohol to lignin. However, nothing was found in the present study that could support this. The leachates of furfurylated wood still need to be

  17. The Comet Assay for the Evaluation of Genotoxic Potential of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Widziewicz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic assessment of landfill leachate before and after biological treatment was conducted with two human cell lines (Me45 and NHDF and Daphnia magna somatic cells. The alkali version of comet assay was used to examine genotoxicity of leachate by DNA strand breaks analysis and its repair dynamics. The leachate samples were collected from Zabrze landfill, situated in the Upper Silesian Industrial District, Poland. Statistically significant differences (Kruskal-Wallice ANOVA rank model were observed between DNA strand breaks in cells incubated with leachate before and after treatment (P<0.001. Nonparametric Friedman ANOVA confirmed time-reliable and concentration-reliable cells response to leachate concentration. Examinations of chemical properties showed a marked decrease in leachate parameters after treatment which correlate to reduced genotoxicity towards tested cells. Obtained results demonstrate that biological cotreatment of leachate together with municipal wastewater is an efficient method for its genotoxic potential reduction; however, treated leachate still possessed genotoxic character.

  18. Pilot-scale nitrogen removal from leachate by ex situ nitrification and in situ denitrification in a landfill bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Faqian; Sun, Bin; Li, Qian; Deng, Xiaoya; Hu, Jian; Wu, Weixiang

    2014-04-01

    A combined process consisting of ex situ nitrification and in situ denitrification in landfill refuse was studied in pilot scale for nitrogen removal from municipal landfill leachate. The results showed that above 80% of partial nitrification ratio and an average COD loading rate of 1.50 kg m(-3) d(-1) were steadily maintained under DO concentrations of 1.0-1.7 mg L(-1) in the aerobic reactor. Quantitative PCR results indicated that nitrite-oxidizing bacteria being sensitive to DO fluctuations lead to partial nitrification when free ammonia inhibition was weak. Nitrified landfill leachate could be denitrified in the landfill bioreactor with maximum total oxidizing nitrogen removal rate of 67.2 g N t(-1) TSwaste d(-1). Clone and sequencing analysis of denitrifying bacterial nirS gene inferred that heterotrophic denitrifier Azoarcus tolulyticu was the primary nitrogen converter in the landfill bioreactor. The obtained results will provide valuable information for optimizing the design and operation of a landfill bioreactor.

  19. Preparation of tamarind fruit seed activated carbon by microwave heating for the adsorptive treatment of landfill leachate: A laboratory column evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, K Y; Lee, L K; Hameed, B H

    2013-04-01

    The preparation of tamarind fruit seed granular activated carbon (TSAC) by microwave induced chemical activation for the adsorptive treatment of semi-aerobic landfill leachate has been attempted. The chemical and physical properties of TSAC were examined. A series of column tests were performed to determine the breakthrough characteristics, by varying the operational parameters, hydraulic loading rate (5-20 mL/min) and adsorbent bed height (15-21 cm). Ammonical nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand (COD), which provide a prerequisite insight into the prediction of leachate quality was quantified. Results illustrated an encouraging performance for the adsorptive removal of ammonical nitrogen and COD, with the highest bed capacity of 84.69 and 55.09 mg/g respectively, at the hydraulic loading rate of 5 mL/min and adsorbent bed height of 21 cm. The dynamic adsorption behavior was satisfactory described by the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. The findings demonstrated the applicability of TSAC for the adsorptive treatment of landfill leachate.

  20. Biosorption of gold from computer microprocessor leachate solutions using chitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, Letícia N; Tanabe, Eduardo H; Bertuol, Daniel A; Dotto, Guilherme L

    2015-11-01

    The biosorption of gold from discarded computer microprocessor (DCM) leachate solutions was studied using chitin as a biosorbent. The DCM components were leached with thiourea solutions, and two procedures were tested for recovery of gold from the leachates: (1) biosorption and (2) precipitation followed by biosorption. For each procedure, the biosorption was evaluated considering kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic aspects. The general order model was able to represent the kinetic behavior, and the equilibrium was well represented by the BET model. The maximum biosorption capacities were around 35 mg g(-1) for both procedures. The biosorption of gold on chitin was a spontaneous, favorable, and exothermic process. It was found that precipitation followed by biosorption resulted in the best gold recovery, because other species were removed from the leachate solution in the precipitation step. This method enabled about 80% of the gold to be recovered, using 20 g L(-1) of chitin at 298 K for 4 h.

  1. Ammonium removal from landfill leachate by anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabeza, Adelaida [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Urtiaga, Ane [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain)]. E-mail: urtiaga@unican.es; Rivero, Maria-Jose [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Ortiz, Inmaculada [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2007-06-18

    The feasibility of removing ammonium from landfill leachates by electrochemical oxidation was studied. Raw leachates and biologically/physico-chemically pretreated leachates from a municipal landfill site were treated. Boron doped diamond was used as anode and stainless steel as cathode, both electrodes with an area of 70 cm{sup 2}. The effects of the applied current density (15-90 mA cm{sup -2}), the initial ammonium concentration (480-2000 mg L{sup -1}), and the initial chloride concentration were experimentally studied. Total ammonium removal was obtained after 360 min of processing and almost half of the initial ammonium nitrogen was oxidized to nitrate. On the other hand, the concentration of chloride enhanced the rate of ammonium oxidation. In addition, the amount of N-NH{sub 4} {sup +} transformed into N-NO{sub 3} {sup -} decreased when additional chloride was provided.

  2. Regioselective biooxidation of (+-valencene by recombinant E. coli expressing CYP109B1 from Bacillus subtilis in a two-liquid-phase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Rolf D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background (+-Nootkatone (4 is a high added-value compound found in grapefruit juice. Allylic oxidation of the sesquiterpene (+-valencene (1 provides an attractive route to this sought-after flavoring. So far, chemical methods to produce (+-nootkatone (4 from (+-valencene (1 involve unsafe toxic compounds, whereas several biotechnological approaches applied yield large amounts of undesirable byproducts. In the present work 125 cytochrome P450 enzymes from bacteria were tested for regioselective oxidation of (+-valencene (1 at allylic C2-position to produce (+-nootkatone (4 via cis- (2 or trans-nootkatol (3. The P450 activity was supported by the co-expression of putidaredoxin reductase (PdR and putidaredoxin (Pdx from Pseudomonas putida in Escherichia coli. Results Addressing the whole-cell system, the cytochrome CYP109B1 from Bacillus subtilis was found to catalyze the oxidation of (+-valencene (1 yielding nootkatol (2 and 3 and (+-nootkatone (4. However, when the in vivo biooxidation of (+-valencene (1 with CYP109B1 was carried out in an aqueous milieu, a number of undesired multi-oxygenated products has also been observed accounting for approximately 35% of the total product. The formation of these byproducts was significantly reduced when aqueous-organic two-liquid-phase systems with four water immiscible organic solvents – isooctane, n-octane, dodecane or hexadecane – were set up, resulting in accumulation of nootkatol (2 and 3 and (+-nootkatone (4 of up to 97% of the total product. The best productivity of 120 mg l-1 of desired products was achieved within 8 h in the system comprising 10% dodecane. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the identification of new P450s capable of producing valuable compounds can basically be achieved by screening of recombinant P450 libraries. The biphasic reaction system described in this work presents an attractive way for the production of (+-nootkatone (4, as it is safe and can easily be

  3. Regioselective biooxidation of (+)-valencene by recombinant E. coli expressing CYP109B1 from Bacillus subtilis in a two-liquid-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girhard, Marco; Machida, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Masashi; Schmid, Rolf D; Arisawa, Akira; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2009-07-10

    (+)-Nootkatone (4) is a high added-value compound found in grapefruit juice. Allylic oxidation of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene (1) provides an attractive route to this sought-after flavoring. So far, chemical methods to produce (+)-nootkatone (4) from (+)-valencene (1) involve unsafe toxic compounds, whereas several biotechnological approaches applied yield large amounts of undesirable byproducts. In the present work 125 cytochrome P450 enzymes from bacteria were tested for regioselective oxidation of (+)-valencene (1) at allylic C2-position to produce (+)-nootkatone (4) via cis- (2) or trans-nootkatol (3). The P450 activity was supported by the co-expression of putidaredoxin reductase (PdR) and putidaredoxin (Pdx) from Pseudomonas putida in Escherichia coli. Addressing the whole-cell system, the cytochrome CYP109B1 from Bacillus subtilis was found to catalyze the oxidation of (+)-valencene (1) yielding nootkatol (2 and 3) and (+)-nootkatone (4). However, when the in vivo biooxidation of (+)-valencene (1) with CYP109B1 was carried out in an aqueous milieu, a number of undesired multi-oxygenated products has also been observed accounting for approximately 35% of the total product. The formation of these byproducts was significantly reduced when aqueous-organic two-liquid-phase systems with four water immiscible organic solvents - isooctane, n-octane, dodecane or hexadecane - were set up, resulting in accumulation of nootkatol (2 and 3) and (+)-nootkatone (4) of up to 97% of the total product. The best productivity of 120 mg l-1 of desired products was achieved within 8 h in the system comprising 10% dodecane. This study demonstrates that the identification of new P450s capable of producing valuable compounds can basically be achieved by screening of recombinant P450 libraries. The biphasic reaction system described in this work presents an attractive way for the production of (+)-nootkatone (4), as it is safe and can easily be controlled and scaled up.

  4. Evaluation of phytotoxicity of municipal landfill leachate before and after biological treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CR Klauck

    Full Text Available In the present study, leachate toxicity of a municipal solid waste landfill located in the Sinos River Valley region (southern Brazil was evaluated using plant bioassays. Leachate toxicity was assessed by analysis of seed germination and root elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and rocket plant (Eruca sativa Mill. and root elongation of onions (Allium cepa L.. Bioassays were performed by exposing the seeds of L. sativa and E. sativa and the roots of A. cepa to raw leachate, treated leachate (biological treatment and negative control (tap water. The levels of metals detected in both samples of leachate were low, and raw leachate showed high values for ammoniacal nitrogen and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. There is a reduction in the values of several physicochemical parameters, which demonstrates the efficiency of the treatment. Both L. sativa and A. cepashowed a phytotoxic response to landfill leachate, showing reduced root elongation. However, the responses of these two plant species were different. Root elongation was significantly lower in A. cepa exposed to treated leachate, when compared to negative control, but did not show any difference when compared to raw leachate. In L. sativa, seeds exposed to the raw leachate showed significant reduction in root elongation, when compared to treated leachate and negative control. Seed germination showed no difference across the treatments. The results of the study show that plant species respond differently and that municipal solid waste landfill leachate show phytotoxicity, even after biological treatment.

  5. Evaluation of phytotoxicity of municipal landfill leachate before and after biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauck, C R; Rodrigues, M A S; Silva, L B

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, leachate toxicity of a municipal solid waste landfill located in the Sinos River Valley region (southern Brazil) was evaluated using plant bioassays. Leachate toxicity was assessed by analysis of seed germination and root elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rocket plant Eruca sativa Mill.) and root elongation of onions Allium cepa L.). Bioassays were performed by exposing the seeds of L. sativa and E. sativa and the roots of A. cepa to raw leachate, treated leachate (biological treatment) and negative control (tap water). The levels of metals detected in both samples of leachate were low, and raw leachate showed high values for ammoniacal nitrogen and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. There is a reduction in the values of several physicochemical parameters, which demonstrates the efficiency of the treatment. Both L. sativa and A. cepa showed a phytotoxic response to landfill leachate, showing reduced root elongation. However, the responses of these two plant species were different. Root elongation was significantly lower in A. cepa exposed to treated leachate, when compared to negative control, but did not show any difference when compared to raw leachate. In L. sativa, seeds exposed to the raw leachate showed significant reduction in root elongation, when compared to treated leachate and negative control. Seed germination showed no difference across the treatments. The results of the study show that plant species respond differently and that municipal solid waste landfill leachate show phytotoxicity, even after biological treatment.

  6. Development of methods for detecting viruses in solid waste landfill leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, M D; Wallis, C; Melnick, J L

    1974-08-01

    Methods were developed for detecting and concentrating enteric viruses in municipal solid waste landfill leachates. Poliovirus added to a leachate was not readily detectable, possibly because the virus was adsorbed to the leachate particulates. The masking effects associated with suspended solids in the leachate were overcome by adding a final 0.1 M sodium (tetra)ethylenediaminetetraacetate concentration to the leachate. A sodium (tetra)ethylenediaminetetraacetate-treated leachate could be clarified by filtration at pH 8.0 without a loss of virus. The clarified and sodium (tetra)ethylenediaminetetraacetate-treated leachate contained interfering materials of an anionic nature which prevented virus adsorption to epoxy-fiber glass filters. This interfering effect was overcome by treating the leachate with an anion-exchange resin. Viruses in the resin-treated leachate were concentrated by adjusting the leachate to pH 3.5, adding AlCl(3) to a final 0.005 M concentration, adsorbing the viruses to an epoxy-fiber glass virus adsorbent, and eluting the adsorbed viruses in a small volume. When this method was used to concentrate poliovirus 100-fold in a variety of leachates, the average virus recovery efficiency was 37%. With the methods described in this study, it should be possible to efficiently monitor solid waste disposal site leachates for enteric viruses.

  7. Choosing tree genotypes for phytoremediation of landfill leachate using phyto-recurrent selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Richard B. Hall

    2007-01-01

    Information about the response of poplar (Populus spp.) genotypes to landfill leachate irrigation is needed, along with efficient methods for choosing genotypes based on leachate composition. Poplar clones were irrigated during three cycles of phyto-recurrent selection to test whether genotypes responded differently to leachate and water, and to test...

  8. PERFORMANCE OF NORTH AMERICAN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: I. LEACHATE HYDROLOGY AND WASTE SETTLEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An assessment of state-of-the-practice at five full-scale North American landfills operating as bioreactors is presented in this two-paper set. This paper focuses on effectiveness of liners and leachate collection systems, leachate generation rates, leachate recirculation practi...

  9. PERFORMANCE OF NORTH AMERICAN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: I. LEACHATE HYDROLOGY AND WASTE SETTLEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An assessment of state-of-the-practice at five full-scale North American landfills operating as bioreactors is presented in this two-paper set. This paper focuses on effectiveness of liners and leachate collection systems, leachate generation rates, leachate recirculation practi...

  10. Application of photochemical technologies for treatment of landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeroff, Daniel E., E-mail: dmeeroff@fau.edu [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Bloetscher, Frederick; Reddy, D.V.; Gasnier, Francois; Jain, Swapnil; McBarnette, Andre; Hamaguchi, Hatsuko [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photochemical iron-mediated aeration and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis for leachate treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal efficiency tested on COD, BOD{sub 5}, color, ammonia, and lead. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact times for 90% removal were 10-200 h for PIMA Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact times for 90% removal were 3-37 h for TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre-filtration is not necessary. - Abstract: Because of widely varying practices in solid waste management, an all-inclusive solution to long-term management of landfill leachate is currently not available. There is a major technological need for sustainable, economical options for safe discharge of leachate to the environment. Two potential on-site pretreatment technologies, photochemical iron-mediated aeration (PIMA) and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis were compared for treatment of landfill leachate at laboratory scale. Results of bench scale testing of real landfill leachate with PIMA and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis showed up to 86% conversion of refractory COD to complete mineralization, up to 91% removal of lead, up to 71% removal of ammonia without pH adjustment, and up to 90% effective color removal with detention times between 4 and 6 h, in field samples. The estimated contact times for 90% removal of COD, ammonia, lead, and color were found to be on the order of 10-200 h for PIMA and 3-37 h for TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. Testing with actual leachate samples showed 85% TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst recovery efficiency with no loss in performance after multiple (n > 4 uses). Pre-filtration was not found to be necessary for effective treatment using either process.

  11. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  12. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna Kristina

    2011-01-01

    improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to −0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE).For the toxic...... through emissions of treated wastewater to surface waters.The largest environmental improvement with regard to the direct cost of the landfill was the capping and leachate treatment system. The capping, though very cheap to establish, gave a huge benefit in lowered impacts, the leachate collection system...

  13. Biodegradability enhancement of a leachate after biological lagooning using a solar driven photo-Fenton reaction, and further combination with an activated sludge biological process, at pre-industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Vilar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2013-06-15

    This work proposes an integrated leachate treatment strategy, combining a solar photo-Fenton reaction, to enhance the biodegradability of the leachate from an aerated lagoon, with an activated sludge process, under aerobic and anoxic conditions, to achieve COD target values and nitrogen content according to the legislation. The efficiency and performance of the photo-Fenton reaction, concerning a sludge removal step after acidification, defining the optimum phototreatment time to reach a biodegradable wastewater that can be further oxidized in a biological reactor and, activation sludge biological process, defining the nitrification and denitrification reaction rates, alkalinity balance and methanol dose necessary as external carbon source, was evaluated in the integrated system at a scale close to industrial. The pre-industrial plant presents a photocatalytic system with 39.52 m(2) of compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) and 2 m(3) recirculation tank and, an activated sludge biological reactor with 3 m(3) capacity. Leachate biodegradability enhancement by means of a solar driven photo-Fenton process was evaluated using direct biodegradability tests, as Zahn-Wellens method, and indirect measure according to average oxidation state (AOS), low molecular carboxylic acids content (fast biodegradable character) and humic substances (recalcitrant character) concentration. Due to high variability of leachate composition, UV absorbance on-line measurement was established as a useful parameter for photo-Fenton reaction control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Landfill leachate effects on sorption of organic micropollutants onto aquifer materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Pfeffer, Fred M.;

    1992-01-01

    content. The experiments showed that hydrophobic organic micropollutants do partition into dissolved organic carbon found in landfill leachate potentially increasing their mobility. However, landfill leachate interacted with aquifer materials apparently increases the sorbent affinity for the hydrophobic......The effect of dissolved organic carbon as present in landfill leachate, on the sorption of organic micropollutants in aquifer materials was studied by laboratory batch and column experiments involving 15 non-polar organic chemicals, 5 landfill leachates and 4 aquifer materials of low organic carbon......, the effect of landfill leachate on retardation of organic micropollutants in aquifer material seems limited....

  15. Nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway during wastewater co-treatment with ammonia-rich landfill leachates in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Luczkiewicz, A; Fitobor, K; Olanczuk-Neyman, K

    2014-06-01

    The biological treatment of ammonia-rich landfill leachates due to an inadequate C to N ratio requires expensive supplementation of carbon from an external carbon source. In an effort to reduce treatment costs, the objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway during landfill leachate co-treatment with municipal wastewater. Initially, the laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was inoculated with nitrifying activated sludge and fed only raw municipal wastewater (RWW) during a start-up period of 9 weeks. Then, in the co-treatment period, consisting of the next 17 weeks, the system was fed a mixture of RWW and an increasing quantity of landfill leachates (from 1 to 10% by volume). The results indicate that landfill leachate addition of up to 10% (by volume) influenced the effluent quality, except for BOD5. During the experiment, a positive correlation (r(2) = 0.908) between ammonia load in the influent and nitrite in the effluent was observed, suggesting that the second step of nitrification was partially inhibited. The partial nitrification (PN) was also confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis of nitrifying bacteria. Nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway was observed when the oxygen concentration ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mg O2/dm(3) and free ammonia (FA) ranged from 2.01 to 35.86 mg N-NH3/dm(3) in the aerobic phase. Increasing ammonia load in wastewater influent was also correlated with an increasing amount of total nitrogen (TN) in the effluent, which suggested insufficient amounts of assimilable organic carbon to complete denitrification. Because nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway is beneficial for carbon-limited and highly ammonia-loaded mixtures, obtaining PN can lead to a reduction in the external carbon source needed to support denitrification.

  16. Use of Combined Coagulation-Adsorption Process as Pretreatment of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekrishnaperumal Thanga Ramesh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate is an important pollution factor resulting from municipal landfill sites. Physical and chemical processes are the better option for pretreatment or full treatment of landfill leachate. This article presents a combination of pre-treatment method (coagulation and adsorption for leachate collected from municipal solid waste open dumping site. Physico chemical characteristics of stabilized and fresh leachate were examined. Coagulation process was examined by using alum and ferric chloride. A low cost adsorbent, fly ash was used for adsorption studies. Coagulation studies were carried out for fresh and stabilized leachate. Adsorption studies have been conducted for alum pre-treated stabilized leachate. Effect of coagulant dose, adsorbent dose, pH and contact time were carried out. The effective optimum coagulant dosages were 0.6 g/L and 0.7 g/L for alum and ferric chloride respectively for stabilized leachate and incase of fresh leachate 0.8 g/L and 0.6 g/L for alum and ferric chloride respectively. For the alum pretreated stabilized leachate, the maximum COD removal is 28% using fly ash adsorbent with equilibrium time of 210 min and optimum dose of 6 g/L. Overall COD removal efficiency of 82% was obtained by coagulation using alum and adsorption using fly ash for stabilized leachate. The results obtained showed that combined coagulation and adsorption process can be used effectively for stabilized leachate treatment.

  17. Use of combined coagulation-adsorption process as pretreatment of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhimathi, Rajan; Durai, Nalladurai Jegan; Nidheesh, Puthiya Veetil; Ramesh, Sreekrishnaperumal Thanga; Kanmani, Subramaniam

    2013-03-21

    Landfill leachate is an important pollution factor resulting from municipal landfill sites. Physical and chemical processes are the better option for pretreatment or full treatment of landfill leachate. This article presents a combination of pre-treatment method (coagulation and adsorption) for leachate collected from municipal solid waste open dumping site. Physico chemical characteristics of stabilized and fresh leachate were examined. Coagulation process was examined by using alum and ferric chloride. A low cost adsorbent, fly ash was used for adsorption studies. Coagulation studies were carried out for fresh and stabilized leachate. Adsorption studies have been conducted for alum pre-treated stabilized leachate. Effect of coagulant dose, adsorbent dose, pH and contact time were carried out. The effective optimum coagulant dosages were 0.6 g/L and 0.7 g/L for alum and ferric chloride respectively for stabilized leachate and incase of fresh leachate 0.8 g/L and 0.6 g/L for alum and ferric chloride respectively. For the alum pretreated stabilized leachate, the maximum COD removal is 28% using fly ash adsorbent with equilibrium time of 210 min and optimum dose of 6 g/L. Overall COD removal efficiency of 82% was obtained by coagulation using alum and adsorption using fly ash for stabilized leachate. The results obtained showed that combined coagulation and adsorption process can be used effectively for stabilized leachate treatment.

  18. A mass balance study on nitrification and deammonification in vertical flow constructed wetlands treating landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, G; Austin, D

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory-scale, mass-balance study was carried out on the transformation of nitrogenous pollutants in four vertical flow wetland columns. Landfill leachate containing low organic matter, but a high concentration of ammoniacal-nitrogen, was treated under dissolved oxygen concentrations close to saturation. Influent total nitrogen (TN) comprised ammoniacal-nitrogen with less than 1% nitrate and nitrite, negligible organic nitrogen, and very low BOD. Nitrification occurred in three of the four columns. There was a substantial loss of total nitrogen (52%) in one column, whereas other columns exhibited zero to minor losses (< 12%). Nitrogen loss under study conditions was unexpected. Two hypotheses are proposed to account for it: (1) either the loss of TN is attributed to nitrogen transformation into a form (provisionally termed alpha-nitrogen) that is undetectable by the analytical methods used; or (2) the loss is caused by microbial denitrification or deammonification. By elimination and stoichiometric mass balance calculations, completely autotrophic nitrogen-removal over nitrite (CANON) deammonification is confirmed as responsible for nitrogen loss in one column. This result reveals that CANON can be native to aerobic engineered wetland systems treating high ammonia, low organic content wastewater.

  19. A feruloyl esterase derived from a leachate metagenome library

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rashamuse, K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A feruloyl esterase encoding gene (designated fae6), derived from a leachate metagenomic library, was cloned and the nucleotide sequence of the insert DNA determined. Translational analysis revealed that fae6 consists of a 515 amino acid polypeptide...

  20. Ammonia removal from leachate solution using natural Chinese clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqiu; Liu, Shijun; Xu, Ze; Han, Tianwei; Chuan, Sun; Zhu, Tan

    2006-08-25

    This paper assesses the potential of natural Chinese clinoptilolite for ammonia removal from the leachate solution of sewage sludge. In batch study the effects of relevant parameters, such as contact time, initial ammonia concentration and particle size of clinoptilolite, were examined respectively. The results show that the data obtained from batch studies were fit to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and the Langmuir isotherms reflect more reasonable for ammonium ion uptake onto clinoptilolite; the clinoptilolite adsorption process has been proved effective, at laboratory scale, the maximum adsorption capacity of the clinoptilolite, for ammonium concentration ranging from 11.12 to 115.16 mg NH(4)-N L(-1) in leachate solution, was about 1.74 mg NH(4)-Ng(-1); the time to adsorption equilibrium was 2.5 h in leachate solution and 1.5 h more than for in NH(4)Cl synthetic solution; ammonium adsorption increased with decreasing clinoptilolite particle size; the ammonia removal capacity of clinoptilolite increased with increasing initial ammonia concentration. It is believed that as adsorption agent for NH(4)-N removal from sludge leachate, natural Chinese clinoptilolite can be feasible.

  1. Treatment of landfill leachate using Solar UV facilitated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2016) > ... The use of heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation for the treatment of landfill leachate was investigated in this study. The photocatalytic degradation studies were carried out using Zinc oxide (ZnO) as ... Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep.

  2. Plant Leachate Nutrient Recovery with Biological, Thermal, and Photocatalytic Pretreatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Les

    2015-01-01

    Plants are ideal for long term space travel: provide essential resources - oxygen, water, food; Water-soaked plants expel soluble nutrients in a leachate solution - toxins and wastes are also expelled and inhibit growth; biological, thermal, photocatalytic coupled with an acid digestion treatment will hopefully maximize recovery and remove wastes

  3. Composition of leachate from old landfills in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Christophersen, Mette

    2001-01-01

    smaller landfills by a comprehensive review of the investigations carried out by the counties. In total 106 landfills were selected by criteria avoiding dilution effects. A database was constructed using a standard program. Statistical evaluations showed that the leachate concentrations in general...

  4. Treatment of landfill leachate: Removal of ammonia by struvite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... from the leachate exceeded 85% when the reaction was performed at an initial pH of 10.0. The highest ... into biological reactors for activated sludge. Chemical precipitation in the form of the double salt of magnesium and ...

  5. Treating leachate mixture with anaerobic ammonium oxidation technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-guo; ZHOU Shao-qi

    2006-01-01

    Large amounts of ammonium and a low content of biodegradable chemical oxygen demand(COD) are contained in leachate from aged landfills, together with the effluent containing high concentration of nitric nitrogen after biochemical treatment.Treatment effect of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process on the mixture of the leachate and its biochemical effluent was investigated. The results show that the average removal efficiencies of ammonium, nitric nitrogen and total nitrogen are 87.51%,74.95% and 79.59%, respectively, corresponding to the average ratio of removed nitric nitrogen to ammonium, i.e. 1.14 during the steady phase of anammox activity. The mean removal efficiency of COD is only 24.01% during the experimental period. The demand of total phosphorous for the anammox process is unobvious. Especially, the alkalinity and pH value of the effluent are close to those of the influent during the steady phase of anammox activity. In addition, it is demonstrated that the status of the anammox bioreactor can be indicated by the alkalinity and pH value during the course of the experiment. The anammox bioreactor has shown potential for nitrogen removal in the leachate mixture. However, COD and total phosphorous in the leachate mixture need further treatment for removal efficiencies of COD and total phosphorous are not good in the anammox bioreactor.

  6. Ammonia removal from landfill leachate by air stripping and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Fernanda M; Povinelli, Jurandyr; Vieira, Eny Maria

    2013-01-01

    An old landfill leachate was pre-treated in a pilot-scale aerated packed tower operated in batch mode for total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) removal. The stripped ammonia was recovered with a 0.4 mol L(-1) H2SO4 solution, deionized water and tap water. Ca(OH)2 (95% purity) or commercial hydrated lime was added to the raw leachate to adjust its pH to 11, causing removal of colour (82%) and heavy metals (70-90% for Zn, Fe and Mn). The 0.4 molL(-1) H2SO4 solution was able to neutralize 80% of the stripped ammonia removed from 12 L of leachate. The effectiveness of the neutralization of ammonia with deionized water was 75%. Treating 100 L of leachate, the air stripping tower removed 88% of TAN after 72 h of aeration, and 87% of the stripped ammonia was recovered in two 31 L pilot-scale absorption units filled with 20 L of tap water.

  7. Attenuation of municipal landfill leachate through land treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazoki, Maryam; Abdoli, Mohammad Ali; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Mehrdadi, Naser; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar

    2014-01-07

    The treatment of municipal landfill's leachate is considered as one of the most significant environmental issues. In this study a laboratory experiment was conducted through land treatment, achieving an efficient and economical method by using Vetiver plant. Moreover, the effects of land treatment of leachate of municipal landfills on the natural reduction of organic and inorganic contaminants in the leachate after the pre-treatment in the Aradkouh disposal center are invested. Three pilots including the under-investigation region's soil planted by Vetiver plant, the region's intact soil pilot and the artificial composition of the region's soil including the natural region's soil, sand, and rock stone are used. The leachate, having passed its initial treatment, passed through the soil and to the pilot. It was collected in the end of the pilots and its organic and inorganic contaminants were measured. However, the land treatment of leachate was conducted in a slow rate at various speeds. According to the results, in order to remove COD, BOD5, TDS, TSS, TOC the best result was obtained in the region's soil planted with Vetiver plant and at the speed of 0.2 ml per minute which resulted 99.1%, 99.7%, 52.4%, 98.8%, 94.9% removal efficiencies, respectively. It also can be concluded that the higher the organic rate load is, the lower the efficiency of the removal would be. In addition, EC & pH were measured and the best result was obtained in the region's soil planted with Vetiver plant and at the speed of 0.2 ml/min.

  8. Brain plasticity and aerobic fitness

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Regular aerobic exercise has a wide range of positive effects on health and cognition. Exercise has been demonstrated to provide a particularly powerful and replicable method of triggering a wide range of structural changes within both human and animal brains. However, the details and mechanisms of these changes remain poorly understood. This thesis undertakes a comprehensive examination of the relationship between brain plasticity and aerobic exercise. A large, longitudinal experiment ...

  9. Onsite survey on the mechanism of passive aeration and air flow path in a semi-aerobic landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuto, Toshihiko; Zhang, Xin; Matsuo, Takayuki; Yamada, Shuhei

    2015-02-01

    The semi-aerobic landfill is a widely accepted landfill concept in Japan because it promotes stabilization of leachates and waste via passive aeration without using any type of mechanical equipment. Ambient air is thought to be supplied to the landfill through a perforated pipe network made of leachate collection pipe laid along the bottom and a vertically erected gas vent. However, its underlying air flow path and driving forces are unclear because empirical data from real-world landfills is inadequate. The objective of this study is to establish scientific evidence about the aeration mechanisms and air flow path by an on-site survey of a full-scale, semi-aerobic landfill. First, all passive vents located in the landfill were monitored with respect to temperature level and gas velocity in different seasons. We found a linear correlation between the outflow rate and gas temperature, suggesting that air flow is driven by a buoyancy force caused by the temperature difference between waste in the landfill and the ambient temperature. Some vents located near the landfill bottom acted as air inflow vents. Second, we conducted a tracer test to determine the air flow path between two vents, by injecting tracer gas from an air sucking vent. The resulting slowly increasing gas concentration at the neighboring vent suggested that fresh air flow passes through the waste layer toward the gas vents from leachate collection pipes, as well as directly flowing through the pipe network. Third, we monitored the temperature of gas flowing out of a vent at night. Since the temperature drop of the gas was much smaller than that of the environment, the air collected at the gas vents was estimated to flow mostly through the waste layer, i.e., the semi-aerobic landfill has considerable aeration ability under the appropriate conditions.

  10. Effect of landfill characteristics on leachate organic matter properties and coagulation treatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Sarah E H; Boyer, Treavor H; Graf, Katherine C; Townsend, Timothy G

    2010-11-01

    This work spans landfill characteristics, leachate organic matter properties, and coagulation chemistry to provide new insights into the physical-chemical treatability of stabilized landfill leachate. Furthermore, leachate organic matter is viewed in terms of dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in the natural environment, and coagulation chemistry is evaluated based on previous leachate and water treatment coagulation studies. Stabilized leachate was collected from four landfills for a total of seven leachate samples, and samples were coagulated using ferric chloride, ferric sulfate, and aluminum sulfate. Landfill characteristics, such as age, leachate recirculation, and cover material, influenced properties of DOM present in the leachate, as measured by specific ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices. The coagulation performance of the metal salts was ferric sulfate>aluminum sulfate>ferric chloride, and DOM removal followed the trend of color>UV254>dissolved organic carbon>chemical oxygen demand (COD). Finally, a strong association was found between increasing SUVA254 and increasing DOM removal for coagulation of both leachate and natural surface water. Thus, SUVA254 is expected to be a better predictor of leachate treatability, in particular DOM removal, than the traditionally used ratio of biochemical oxygen demand to COD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytotoxic Effect of Landfill and Leachate Pollution Indexes on Germination and Seedling of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez-Benavides Liliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate solid waste management includes leachate management, an effluent that results from the degradation of solid waste, moisture content and pluvial additions to the disposal site. Due to poor management of the landfill, sometimes leachate is likely to reach nearby areas, affecting soil water and vegetal area. A powerful tool to assess the pollution potential of a given leachate is the leachate pollution index (LPI developed by Kummar & Alappat (2005 that evaluates 18 parameters in order to calculate a value between 5-100 being 100 the highest in pollution potential. The LPI allows the comparison between leachates from different sites and ages, and also assists in the decision making process on leachate treatment. However, it is currently unknown if this value can also be related to the fitotóxico effect of a leachate on Phaseolus vulgaris L. The aim of this work was to calculate the LPI of two leachates and compare the effect on P. vulgaris L (common bean. A greenhouse scale experiment was set up, the studied variables were seed germination per cent (% and phenotype of P. vulgaris at seedling step after treated with several leachate concentrations from Guanajuato (GTO and Toluca (TOL, México. Results showed that a greater LPI (34.8 from GTO did not correspond to a largest fitotoxic effect on P. vulgaris. This bioassay could be a completely tool with LPI to evaluate pollution potential of leachate approaching to normal environmental conditions.

  12. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

    2002-12-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the dominant method of solid waste disposal in the United States, accounting for about 217 million tons of waste annually (U.S. EPA, 1997) and has more than doubled since 1960. In spite of increasing rates of reuse and recycling, population and economic growth will continue to render landfilling as an important and necessary component of solid waste management. Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works, Division of Integrated Waste Management is demonstrating a new landfill technology called Bioreactor Landfill to better manage solid waste. In a Bioreactor Landfill, controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray-water, etc.) are added and recirculated to increase the moisture content of the waste and improve waste decomposition. As demonstrated in a small-scale demonstration project at the Yolo County Central Landfill in 1995, this process significantly increases the biodegradation rate of waste and thus decreases the waste stabilization and composting time (5 to 10 years) relative to what would occur within a conventional landfill (30 to 50 years or more). When waste decomposes anaerobically (in absence of oxygen), it produces landfill gas (biogas). Biogas is primarily a mixture of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which can be recovered for electricity or other uses. Other benefits of a bioreactor landfill composting operation include increased landfill waste settlement which increases in landfill capacity and life, improved leachate chemistry, possible reduction of landfill post-closure management time, opportunity to explore decomposed waste for landfill mining, and abatement of greenhouse gases through highly efficient methane capture over a much shorter period of time than is typical of waste management through conventional landfilling. This project also investigates the aerobic decomposition of waste of 13,000 tons of waste (2.5 acre) for

  13. Ecotoxicological assessment and evaluation of a pine bark biosorbent treatment of five landfill leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribé, Veronica; Nehrenheim, Emma; Odlare, Monica; Gustavsson, Lillemor; Berglind, Rune; Forsberg, Ake

    2012-10-01

    When selecting a landfill leachate treatment method the contaminant composition of the leachate should be considered in order to obtain the most cost-effective treatment option. In this study the filter material pine bark was evaluated as a treatment for five landfill leachates originating from different cells of the same landfill in Sweden. The objective of the study was to determine the uptake, or release, of metals and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during a leaching test using the pine bark filter material with the five different landfill leachates. Furthermore the change of toxicity after treatment was studied using a battery of aquatic bioassays assessing luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) acute toxicity (30-min Microtox®), immobility of the crustacean Daphnia magna, growth inhibition of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the aquatic plant Lemna minor; and genotoxicity with the bacterial Umu-C assay. The results from the toxicity tests and the chemical analysis were analyzed in a Principal Component Analysis and the toxicity of the samples before and after treatment was evaluated in a toxicity classification. The pine bark filter material reduced the concentrations of metal contaminants from the landfill leachates in the study, with some exceptions for Cu and Cd. The Zn uptake of the filter was high for heavily contaminated leachates (≥73%), although some desorption of zinc occurred in less contaminated waters. Some of the leachates may require further treatment due to discharge into a natural recipient in order to reduce the risk of possible biological effects. The difference in pH changes between the different leachates was probably due to variations in buffering capacity, affected by physicochemical properties of the leachate. The greatest desorption of phenol during filtration occurred in leachates with high conductivity or elevated levels of metals or salts. Generally, the toxicity classification of the leachates implies that although

  14. Microbial reduction of hexavalent chromium by landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yarong; Low, Gary K-C; Scott, Jason A; Amal, Rose

    2007-04-02

    The reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in municipal landfill leachates (MLL) and a non-putrescible landfill leachate (NPLL) was investigated. Complete Cr(VI) reduction was achieved within 17 days in a MLL when spiked with 100 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) or less. In the same period, negligible Cr(VI) reduction was observed in NPLL. In MLL, Cr(VI) reduction was demonstrated to be a function of initial Cr(VI) concentration and bacterial biomass and organic matter concentrations. The bacteria were observed to tolerate 250 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) in MLL and had an optimal growth activity at pH 7.4 in a growth medium. The MLL also possessed an ability to sequentially reduce Cr(VI) over three consecutive spiking cycles.

  15. Contamination of Ground Water Due To Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. S. Raju

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present site under investigation at Ajitsingh Nagar in Vijayawada of Andhra Pradesh is initially a low lying area and used for disposing the urban solid waste for the last few years, through open dumping with out taking any measures to protect the Ground water against pollution. The present study has been taken up to measure the degree of pollution of ground water due to leachate produced in the landfill site. Bore holes were made at eight random locations to measure the depth and characteristics of solid waste. Four sampling wells were made for the collection of ground water samples and they were analyzed for various parameters. All parameters were measured based on Standard methods. It is found that the ground water is contaminated due leachates of Landfill to the large extent and is not suitable for Drinking, Domestic and Irrigation purposes.

  16. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, James W; Van Stempvoort, Dale R; Bickerton, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources.

  17. Review of the literature on leachates from coal storage piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Runoff from coal storage piles associated with coal conversion or combustion facilities may represent a potential source of environmental pollution. This report is an assessment of existing information on coal pile leachate. The assessment indicates that few detailed studies have been conducted to date, and these are limited and the results are highly variable. More detailed long-range studies using various types of coal are recommended. These studies should be carried out both in the laboratory and in field-scale experiments.

  18. Analysis of parameters for leachate treatment in a greenhouse system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Gómez Blasco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented an approach for landfill leachate treatment using enhanced natural evaporation. Experimental set up considered using a greenhouse pilot prototype placed into the municipal landfill of Puebla city, México. The greenhouse was built with a basement surface enough to place 9 trays with leachate. Treatment follow up was done through the following parameters: air temperature inside and outside the greenhouse; leachate temperature at surface and middle liquid height. Results of the first set of experiments defined a minimal initial liquid height of 20% in respect to the tray height; the 2nd set allowed defining optimal evaporation rate conditions evaluated in respect of a tray placed outside, considered as reference of 100% efficiency (blank, obtained results showed that morning and night processes provided efficiencies up to 2 times the reference; otherwise, afternoon measurements showed similar temperature values inside and outside. In general collected data at winter season provided efficiencies between 82% and 147%, in periods of 24 h, it was observed that higher liquid reductions took place at North, and lower ones at the South positions. Based on these results it was proposed a 20 days experiment, using stagnant (E and recharge (R conditions referred to the blank (L, the R process showed greater efficiency (168% than the stagnant one (158%. Leachate chemical characterization indicates that pH is highly stable; while total solids, chemical oxygen demand, sulfate and chloride exhibit an increase in concentration reaching values of 1.2–2.5 times the initial concentration, phosphate was the only parameter exhibiting a decreasing trend ending with 40% of its initial concentration.

  19. Plants Role in Reducing Heavy Metals from Polluted Soil Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amouei A.* PhD,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims In the past few decades, more attention has been paid to clean up soils polluted with heavy metals by plants. A serious problem in this way is the amount of heavy metals uptake by plants. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 local plants of Mazandaran province, Iran, in reducing and controlling the soil’s heavy metals. Instrument & Methods The removal amount of three heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium by native plants (maize, velvetleaf and wild amaranth was investigated in alkaline (pH=8 and acidic (pH=5 soils and also using three substances such as EDTA, ammonium citrate and phosphate. The concentrations of these metals in leachate were measured by using atomic absorption spectrometry method. Findings Lead, cadmium and zinc levels in leachate in treatments with plants were less than unplanted ones. The concentrations of these metals in the produced leachate of treatments with acidic soils were higher than those with alkaline soils. In the treatments of soil polluted with additives, treatments containing ammonium phosphate and EDTA had the lowest and highest concentrations of heavy metals, respectively. Concentrations of these metals in treatments without plants were higher than those with plants. Conclusion Increasing of soil pH is effective on stabilization of heavy metals in soil. Ammonium phosphate plays an important role in stabilizing and EDTA and ammonium citrate increase the mobility of lead, zinc and cadmium in soil and groundwater.

  20. Biogeochemistry and isotope geochemistry of a landfill leachate plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breukelen, Boris M; Röling, Wilfred F M; Groen, Jacobus; Griffioen, Jasper; van Verseveld, Henk W

    2003-09-01

    The biogeochemical processes were identified which improved the leachate composition in the flow direction of a landfill leachate plume (Banisveld, The Netherlands). Groundwater observation wells were placed at specific locations after delineating the leachate plume using geophysical tests to map subsurface conductivity. Redox processes were determined using the distribution of solid and soluble redox species, hydrogen concentrations, concentration of dissolved gases (N(2), Ar, and CH(4)), and stable isotopes (delta15N-NO(3), delta34S-SO(4), delta13C-CH(4), delta2H-CH(4), and delta13C of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC, respectively)). The combined application of these techniques improved the redox interpretation considerably. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decreased downstream in association with increasing delta13C-DOC values confirming the occurrence of degradation. Degradation of DOC was coupled to iron reduction inside the plume, while denitrification could be an important redox process at the top fringe of the plume. Stable carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures of methane indicated that methane was formed inside the landfill and not in the plume. Total gas pressure exceeded hydrostatic pressure in the plume, and methane seems subject to degassing. Quantitative proof for DOC degradation under iron-reducing conditions could only be obtained if the geochemical processes cation exchange and precipitation of carbonate minerals (siderite and calcite) were considered and incorporated in an inverse geochemical model of the plume. Simulation of delta13C-DIC confirmed that precipitation of carbonate minerals happened.

  1. Domestic wells have high probability of pumping septic tank leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Bremer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Onsite wastewater treatment systems are common in rural and semi-rural areas around the world; in the US, about 25–30% of households are served by a septic (onsite wastewater treatment system, and many property owners also operate their own domestic well nearby. Site-specific conditions and local groundwater flow are often ignored when installing septic systems and wells. In areas with small lots (thus high spatial septic system densities, shallow domestic wells are prone to contamination by septic system leachate. Mass balance approaches have been used to determine a maximum septic system density that would prevent contamination of groundwater resources. In this study, a source area model based on detailed groundwater flow and transport modeling is applied for a stochastic analysis of domestic well contamination by septic leachate. Specifically, we determine the probability that a source area overlaps with a septic system drainfield as a function of aquifer properties, septic system density and drainfield size. We show that high spatial septic system density poses a high probability of pumping septic system leachate. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer has a strong influence on the intersection probability. We find that mass balance calculations applied on a regional scale underestimate the contamination risk of individual drinking water wells by septic systems. This is particularly relevant for contaminants released at high concentrations, for substances that experience limited attenuation, and those that are harmful even at low concentrations (e.g., pathogens.

  2. Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: contaminants in leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, R J; Gronow, J R; Voulvoulis, N

    2005-01-20

    Household hazardous waste (HHW) includes waste from a number of household products such as paint, garden pesticides, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, certain detergents, personal care products, fluorescent tubes, waste oil, heavy metal-containing batteries, wood treated with dangerous substances, waste electronic and electrical equipment and discarded CFC-containing equipment. Data on the amounts of HHW discarded are very limited and are hampered by insufficient definitions of what constitutes HHW. Consequently, the risks associated with the disposal of HHW to landfill have not been fully elucidated. This work has focused on the assessment of data concerning the presence of hazardous chemicals in leachates as evidence of the disposal of HHW in municipal landfills. Evidence is sought from a number of sources on the occurrence in landfill leachates of hazardous components (heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds [XOC]) from household products and the possible disposal-to-emissions pathways occurring within landfills. This review demonstrates that a broad range of xenobiotic compounds occurring in leachate can be linked to HHW but further work is required to assess whether such compounds pose a risk to the environment and human health as a result of leakage/seepage or through treatment and discharge.

  3. Genotoxicity of Pesticide Waste Contaminated Soil and Its Leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. D. SIVANESAN; K. KRISHNAMURTHI; S. D. WACHASUNDER; T. CHAKRABARTI

    2004-01-01

    Improper land disposal of hazardous waste can result in leaching of hazardous constituents which may contaminate ground and surface water leading to adverse impact on human health and environment consequences. The present study utilized mammalian cell culture for the genotoxicity assessment of waste and its leachate. Methods Genotoxic potential and chemical analysis of pesticide derived tarry waste contaminated soil extract and its leachate was assessed using in vitro human lymphocyte cultures and GC-MS. Results The investigation revealed that the soil extract could cause significant to highly significant genotoxicity in the form of DNA strand break at 25 μL (P<0.01), 50 μL, 100 μL and 200 μL (P<0.001) and chromosomal aberration at 25 μL (P<0.01) and 50 μL and 100 μL (P<0.001). The leachate could cause significant DNA strand break and chromosomal aberration only at 100 μL and 200 μL (P<0.01) dose levels. Conclusion The genotoxicity observed is attributed to carbaril and tetra methyl naphthyl carbamate, the major ingredients of the extracts, as revealed by GC-MS.

  4. Fresh Kills leachate treatment and minimization study: Volume 2, Modeling, monitoring and evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillos, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    1993-09-01

    The New York City Department of Sanitation is developing a comprehensive landfill leachate management plan for the Fresh Kills landfill, located on the western shore of Staten Island, New York. The 3000-acre facility, owned and operated by the City of New York, has been developed into four distinct mounds that correspond to areas designated as Sections 1/9, 2/8, 3/4 and 6/7. In developing a comprehensive leachate management plan, the estimating leachate flow rates is important in designing appropriate treatment alternatives to reduce the offsite migration that pollutes both surface water and groundwater resources.Estimating the leachate flow rates from Sections 1/9 and 6/7 was given priority using an available model, hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance (HELP), and a new model, flow investigation for landfill leachate (FILL). The field-scale analysis for leachate flow included data collection of the leachate mound-level from piezometers and monitoring wells installed on-site, for six months period. From the leachate mound-head contours and flow-gradients, Leachate flow rates were computed using Darcy`s Law.

  5. Leachate formation and characteristics from gasification and grate incineration bottom ash under landfill conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivula, Leena; Sormunen, Kai; Rintala, Jukka

    2012-04-01

    Characteristics and formation of leachates from waste gasification and grate firing bottom ash were studied using continuous field measurements from 112 m(3) lysimeters embedded into landfill body for three years. In addition, the total element concentrations of the fresh ash were analysed and laboratory batch tests were performed to study leachate composition. The three-year continuous flow measurement showed that about one fifth of the leachates were formed, when the flow rate was >200 l/d, covering 13) major part of the study. In the grate ash leachate pH was lower (landfill conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Migration behavior of landfill leachate contaminants through alternative composite liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varank, Gamze, E-mail: gvarank@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Top, Selin, E-mail: stop@yildiz.edu.tr; Sekman, Elif, E-mail: esekman@yildiz.edu.tr; Akkaya, Ebru, E-mail: ekoca@yildiz.edu.tr; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan, E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Bilgili, M. Sinan, E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr

    2011-08-01

    Four identical pilot-scale landfill reactors with different alternative composite liners were simultaneously operated for a period of about 540 days to investigate and to simulate the migration behaviors of phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-CP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 2-NP, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, PCP) and heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni) from landfill leachate to the groundwater. Alternative landfill liners of four reactors consist of R1: Compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R2: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R3: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + bentonite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), and R4: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + zeolite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn). Wastes representing Istanbul municipal solid wastes were disposed in the reactors. To represent bioreactor landfills, reactors were operated by leachate recirculation. To monitor and control anaerobic degradation in the reactors, variations of conventional parameters (pH, alkalinity, chloride, conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, ammonia and alcaly metals) were also investigated in landfill leachate samples. The results of this study showed that about 35-50% of migration of organic contaminants (phenolic compounds) and 55-100% of migration of inorganic contaminants (heavy metals) to the model groundwater could be effectively reduced with the use of bentonite and zeolite materials in landfill liner systems. Although leachate contaminants can reach to the groundwater in trace concentrations, findings of this study concluded that the release of these compounds from landfill leachate to the groundwater may potentially be of an important environmental concern based on the experimental findings. - Research highlights: {yields} Migration of

  7. Integrated characterisation of aquifer heterogeneity and landfill leachate plume migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, L.; Lefebvre, R.; Gloaguen, E.; Paradis, D.

    2009-05-01

    The understanding of groundwater flow and contaminant migration is based on our ability to characterize aquifers and represent these processes with numerical simulators. This understanding is required to efficiently remediate contaminated sites since the failure of remediation actions are often related to an insufficient understanding of aquifer heterogeneity. During the last decades, continuous development of numerical simulators allowed models to better represent complex flow systems. However, conventional hydrogeological characterization methods do not provide the data required to define aquifer heterogeneity. An original hydrogeological characterization approach was used to define aquifer heterogeneity and delineate landfill leachate plumes through the use and integration of varied techniques. The objective of the study is to develop a methodology to integrate hydrogeological, geophysical and geochemical data using geostatistical tools. The characterization program aims to better characterize the aquifer, delineate leachate plumes emitted by a former landfill, and guide a study of the natural attenuation of the plumes. The initial phase of the integrated multidisciplinary aquifer characterization program was carried out in a 12 km2 area of the sub-watershed surrounding the landfill of St-Lambert-de-Lauzon, Québec. In the study area, a 10-m thick sandy unconfined aquifer overlies clayey silt and till layers. In this relatively flat area, natural streams as well as agricultural and forestry drainage networks control groundwater flow. The first phase of the project focused on a regional hydrogeological and geochemical characterization where 5 field methods were combined: 1) surface geophysics (ground penetrating radar and electrical tomography) (GPR); 2) direct-push methods including a) cone penetration tests (CPT), b) soil sampling and c) installation of full- screened observation wells; 3) multilevel measurement of geochemical parameters and groundwater

  8. Advanced nitrogen removal via nitrite from municipal landfill leachate using a two-stage UASB-A/O system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina Wu; Yongzhen Peng; Xiao Shi; Chengyao Peng; Jie Zhang

    2015-01-01

    A system consisting of a two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and an anoxic/aerobic (A/O) reactor was used to treat municipal landfill leachate. Denitrification took place in the first stage of the UASB re-actor (UASB1). The chemical oxygen demand of the UASB1 effluent was further decreased in the second stage (UASB2). Nitrification was accomplished in the A/O reactor. When diluted with tap water at a ratio of 1:1, the ammonia nitrogen concentration of the influent leachate was approximately 1200 mg·L−1, whereas that of the system effluent was approximately 8–11 mg·L−1, and the corresponding removal efficiency is about 99.08%. Stable partial nitrification was achieved in the A/O reactor with 88.61%–91.58%of the nitrite accumula-tion ratio, even at comparatively low temperature (16 °C). The results demonstrate that free ammonia (FA) con-centrations within a suitable range exhibit a positive effect on partial nitrification. In this experiment when FA was within the 1–30 mg·L−1 range, partial nitrification could be achieved, whereas when FA exceeded 280 mg·L−1, the nitrification process was entirely inhibited. Temperature was not the key factor leading to par-tial nitrification within the 16–29 °C range. The inhibitory influence of free nitrous acid (FNA) on nitrification was also minimal when pH was greater than 8.5. Thus, FA concentration was a major factor in achieving partial nitrification.

  9. Landfill leachate as a mirror of today's disposable society: Pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern in final leachate from landfills in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoner, Jason R.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Furlong, Edward T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Gray, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Final leachates (leachate after storage or treatment processes) from 22 landfills in 12 states were analyzed for 190 pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), which were detected in every sample, with the number of CECs ranging from 1 to 58 (median = 22). In total, 101 different CECs were detected in leachate samples, including 43 prescription pharmaceuticals, 22 industrial chemicals, 15 household chemicals, 12 nonprescription pharmaceuticals, 5 steroid hormones, and 4 animal/plant sterols. The most frequently detected CECs were lidocaine (91%, local anesthetic), cotinine (86%, nicotine degradate), carisoprodol (82%, muscle relaxant), bisphenol A (77%, component of plastics and thermal paper), carbamazepine (77%, anticonvulsant), and N,N-diethyltoluamide (68%, insect repellent). Concentrations of CECs spanned 7 orders of magnitude, ranging from 2.0 ng/L (estrone) to 17 200 000 ng/L (bisphenol A). Concentrations of household and industrial chemicals were the greatest (∼1000-1 000 000 ng/L), followed by plant/animal sterols (∼1000-100 000 ng/L), nonprescription pharmaceuticals (∼100-10 000 ng/L), prescription pharmaceuticals (∼10-10 000 ng/L), and steroid hormones (∼10-100 ng/L). The CEC concentrations in leachate from active landfills were significantly greater than those in leachate from closed, unlined landfills (p = 0.05). The CEC concentrations were significantly greater (p modern lined landfills than in leachate released to groundwater from closed, unlined landfills (p = 0.04). The CEC concentrations were significantly greater (p = 0.06) in the fresh leachate (leachate before storage or treatment) reported in a previous study compared with the final leachate sampled for the present study.

  10. The efficiency of different phenol-degrading bacteria and activated sludges in detoxification of phenolic leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahru, A; Reiman, R; Rätsep, A

    1998-07-01

    Phenolic composition, toxicity and biodegradability of three different phenolic leachates/samples was studied. Samples A and C were the leachates from the oil-shale industry spent shale dumps at Kohtla-Järve, Estonia. Sample B was a laboratory-prepared synthetic mixture of 7 phenolic compounds mimmicking the phenolic composition of the leachate A. Toxicity of these 3 samples was analyzed using two photobacterial test (BioTox and Microtox), Daphnia test (DAPHTOXKIT F pulex) and rotifiers' test (ROTOXKIT F). All the LC50 values were in the range of 1-10%, leachate A being the most toxic. The growth and detoxifying potential (toxicity of the growth medium was measured using photobacterial tests) of 3 different phenol-utilizing bacteria and acclimated activated sludges was studied in shake-flask cultures. 30% leachate A (altogether 0.6 mM total phenolic compounds) was too toxic to rhodococci and they did not grow. Cell number of Kurthia sp. and Pseudomonas sp. in 30% leachate A increased by 2 orders of magnitude but despite of the growth of bacteria the toxicity of the leachate did not decrease even by 7 weeks of cultivation. However, if the activated sludge was used instead of pure bacterial cultures the toxicity of the 30% leachate A was eliminated already after 3 days of incubation. 30% samples B and C were detoxified by activated sludge even more rapidly, within 2 days. As the biodegradable part of samples A and B should be identical, the detoxification of leachate A compared to that of sample B was most probably inhibited by inorganic (e.g. sulphuric) compounds present in the leachate A. Also, the presence of toxic recalcitrant organic compounds in the leachate A (missed by chemical analysis) that were not readily biodegradable even by activated sludge consortium should not be excluded.

  11. AEROBIC EXERCISE IN PULMONARY REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on the usefulness of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation. This is an exploratory study of literature through the electronic databases Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed and Google Scholar, published between 1996 and 2012, conducted during the period February to May 2012 with the following keywords: COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation, aerobic exercises, physical training, quality of life. The change in pulmonary function and dysfunction of skeletal muscles that result in exercise intolerance and reduced fitness and may cause social isolation, depression, anxiety and addiction. The training exercise is the most important component of the program of pulmonary rehabilitation where the aerobic training provides consistent results in clinical improvement in levels of exercise tolerance and decreased dyspnea generating more benefits to the body, reducing the chance of cardiovascular disease and improves quality and expectation of life. We demonstrated that the use of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation program, allows an improvement of motor skills, decreased muscle fatigue and deconditioning, reducing sedentary lifestyle; however, has little or no effect on the reduction of strength and atrophy muscle.

  12. Aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on the usefulness of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation. This is an exploratory study of literature through the electronic databases Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed and Google Scholar, published between 1996 and 2012, conducted during the period February to May 2012 with the following keywords: COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation, aerobic exercises, physical training, quality of life. The change in pulmonary function and dysfunction of skeletal muscles that result in exercise intolerance and reduced fitness and may cause social isolation, depression, anxiety and addiction. The training exercise is the most important component of the program of pulmonary rehabilitation where the aerobic training provides consistent results in clinical improvement in levels of exercise tolerance and decreased dyspnea generating more benefits to the body, reducing the chance of cardiovascular disease and improves quality and expectation of life. We demonstrated that the use of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation program, allows an improvement of motor skills, decreased muscle fatigue and deconditioning, reducing sedentary lifestyle; however, has little or no effect on the reduction of strength and atrophy muscle.

  13. 垃圾焚烧厂渗滤液处理设施运行优化%Operation Optimization of Landfill Leachate Treatment Facilities in Waste Incineration Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广; 王诚; 裘湛; 汪喜生

    2015-01-01

    好氧膜生物反应器(MBR)工艺是垃圾焚烧厂处理渗滤液的常用工艺之一,使用中膜污染及膜通量下降是制约MBR系统处理能力的主要因素。该文分析了上海某垃圾焚烧厂渗滤液处理设施、处理效果及实际影响因素,对离心出水的可行性进行了理论分析和试验研究,并提出了切实可行的运行优化方案,有效缓解了膜污染及膜通量下降等问题对整个MBR系统处理能力的制约。%Aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR ) process is one of conventional process of landfill leachate treatment in waste incineration plant. However,membrane fouling and membrane flux declining limit the capacity of MBR system during its operation. On the basis of the data from operation of landfill leachate treatment facility in a waste incineration plant in Shanghai and some special experiments about the centrifugal filtrate,combined centrifugation units and unltra-filter were suggested to used,which can alleviate membrane fouling and flux decline problem effectively,and has popularization value for operation optimization.

  14. Characterization of microalgae-bacteria consortium cultured in landfill leachate for carbon fixation and lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Yan; Huang, Sheng; Qiu, Duanyang; Schideman, Lance; Chai, Xiaoli; Zhao, Youcai

    2014-03-01

    The characteristics of cultivating high-density microalgae-bacteria consortium with landfill leachate was tested in this study. Landfill leachate was collected from Laogang landfill operated for over 10 years in Shanghai, China. The maximum biomass concentration of 1.58g L(-1) and chlorophyll a level of 22mg L(-1) were obtained in 10% leachate spike ratio. Meanwhile, up to 90% of the total nitrogen in landfill leachate was removed in culture with 10% leachate spike ratio with a total nitrogen concentration of 221.6mg L(-1). The fluorescence peak of humic-like organic matters red shifted to longer wavelengths by the end of culture, indicating that microalgae-bacteria consortium was effective for treating landfill leachate contaminants. Furthermore, with the leachate spike ratio of 10%, the maximum lipid productivity and carbon fixation were 24.1 and 65.8mg L(-1)d(-1), respectively. Results of this research provide valuable information for optimizing microalgae culture in landfill leachate.

  15. 40 CFR 761.357 - Reporting the results of the procedure used to simulate leachate generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... simulate leachate generation as micrograms PCBs per liter of extract from a 100 gram sample of dry bulk... used to simulate leachate generation. 761.357 Section 761.357 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk...

  16. Physiological responses of Vetiver plant (Vetiver zizanioides to municipal waste leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Mohsenzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vetiver plant is tolerant to acidity and temperature variations. Has rapid growth for biomass production and has high tolerance to organic and non-organic compounds in municipal waste leachate for example heavy metals. So this plant is good for landfill cultivation. In this study, physiological responses to municipal waste leachate were studied. Statistical design was a randomized complete block and each block treated with different concentrations of latex at levels of zero, 15, 30, 45 and 60 percent compared to the original latex waste. The leachate collected from the Shiraz landfill and brought into the greenhouse. The physiological characterization including leaf area, dry weight, chlorophyll, anthocyanin, proline, soluble sugars and total protein were measured. The result indicated that the dry weight, chlorophyll and anthocyanin decrease with increasing of latex concentration. The leaf area, leaf relative water, soluble sugars and total protein increased with increasing latex concentration. Proline concentration at 15 percent of leachate increased significantly compared to controls, whereas at higher concentrations decreased. According to the results, it is recommended that 45 percent of leachate in a landfill can be used to irrigate Vetiver. This is the maximum concentration of leachate that Vetiver plant can survive as green space. Primary filtration of leachate before using is recommended. If the aim is more growth or perfume application from root, less concentration of leachate is better.

  17. Effect and Cost Research for Leachate Treatment in PAC/Fenton and Fenton/PAC Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Bao-jun; YIN Jun; WU Xiao-yan; Zhao Yu-xin

    2010-01-01

    To compare the treatment effects and the costs of coagulation/Fenton process and Fenton/coagulation process in leachate treatment,fresh and old leachates were respestively treated with these two techniques.The experimental results indicate that the highest chemical oxygen demand(COD)removal rate of Fenton reaction on leachate can be acquired under the conditions of pH = 3.5,nH2O2/nFe2+= 6,mH2O2/mCOD = 3,and reaction time = 4 h.Polyaluminium chloride(PAC)coagulation has the highest COD removal rate on leachate under the condition of mPAC/mCOD = 0.6.Under the optimum reaction conditions,coagulation/Fenton and Fenton/coagulation processes were respestively adopted to treat raw leachate.The data also show that COD removal rate of coagulation/Fenton process on fresh and old leachates are90.56% and 86.52% respectively and that of Fenton/coagulation process 89.99% and 85.99%,so there is no obvious difference.But the cost of coagulation/Fenton process for leachate treatment is RMB 62.6,lower than that of Fenton/coagulation process.Therefore,coagulation/Fenton process is more optimized than Fenton/coagulation process for leachate treatment.

  18. Control factors of partial nitritation for landfill leachate treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zhu; LIU Jun-xin

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) technology has potential technical superiority and economical efficiency for the nitrogen removal from landfill leachate, which contains high-strength ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) and refractory organics. To complete the ANAMMOX process, a preceding partial nitritation step to produce the appropriate ratio of nitrite/ammonium is a key stage. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal conditions to acquire constant partial nitritation for landfill leachate treatment, and a bench scale fixed bed bio-film reactor was used in this study to investigate the effects of the running factors on the partial nitritation. The results showed that both the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and the ammonium volumetric loading rate (Nv) had effects on the partial nitritation. In the controlling conditions with a temperature of 30±1℃, Nv of 0.2-1.0 kg NH4+-N/(m3·d), and DO concentration of 0.8-2.3 mg/L, the steady partial nitritation was achieved as follows: more than 94% partial nitritation efficiency (nitrite as the main product), 60%-74% NH4+-N removal efficiency, and NO2--N/NH4+-N ratio (concentration ratio) of 1.0-1.4 in the effluent.The impact of temperature was related to Nv at certain DO concentration, and the temperature range of 25-30℃ was suitable for treating high strength ammonium leachate. Ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) could be acclimated to higher FA (free ammonium) in the range of 122-224 mg/L. According to the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis result of the bio-film in the reactor, there were 25 kinds of 16S rRNA gene fragments, which indicated that abundant microbial communities existed in the bio-film, although high concentrations of ammonium and FA may inhibit the growth of the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and other microorganisms in the reactor.

  19. Transformation of metals speciation in a combined landfill leachate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yanyu [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Eco-remediation of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhou Shaoqi, E-mail: fesqzhou@scut.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006 (China); State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Eco-remediation of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen Dongyu; Zhao Rong; Li Huosheng; Lin Yiming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Eco-remediation of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-04-01

    Landfill leachate was treated by a combined sequential batch reactor (SBR), coagulation, Fenton oxidation and biological aerated filter (BAF) technology. The metals in treatment process were fractionated into three fractions: particulate and colloidal (size charge filtration), free ion/labile (cation exchange) and non-labile fractions. Fifty percent to 66% Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd were present as particulate/colloidal matter in raw leachate, whereas Cr was present 94.9% as non-labile complexes. The free ion/labile fractions of Ni, Zn, Mg, Mn, Pb and Cd increased significantly after treatment except Cr. Fifty-nine percent to 100% of Al was present mainly as particulate/colloidal matter > 0.45 {mu}m and the remaining portions were predicted as non-labile complexes except in coagulation effluent. The speciation of Fe varied significantly in various individual processes. Visual MINTEQ simulation showed that 95-100% colloidal species for Cu, Cd and Pb were present as metal-humic complexes even with the lower dissolved organic carbon. Optimum agreements for the free ion/labile species were within acidic solution, whereas under-estimated in alkaline effluents. Overestimated particulate/colloidal fraction consisted with the hypothesis that a portion of colloids in fraction < 0.45 {mu}m were considered as dissolved. - Research Highlights: {yields} Metals in various landfill leachate treatments were size charge fractionated and the speciation transformations were compared. {yields} Species predictions of metals were simulated by Visual MINTEQ model. {yields} Optimum agreements for the free ion/labile species were within acidic solution. {yields} Predictions of colloidal species agree with experimental data well in alkaline solution.

  20. Environmental impact of leachate characteristics on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumar, Sampath Kumar Mandyam; Nagaraja, Balasubramanya

    2011-07-01

    Improper urbanization and industrialization are causing a critical stress on groundwater quality in urban areas of the developing countries. The present study under investigation describes the pollution caused by leachate from a waste management site in southwestern Bangalore city causing pollution of the surface water and groundwater reserves. The characterization of 20 groundwater samples and Haralukunte lake sample indicated high pollution of these water reserves by leachate entry into the groundwater and surface water sources. The study area focuses around the solid waste management site, carrying out bio-composting and vermi-composting of municipal solid waste. Further investigations on the severe health problems faced by the public in the study area has revealed a clear pointer towards the usage of polluted water for rearing live-stock, farming, and domestic activities. The characterization of the leachate with high values of BOD at 1,450 mg/l, TDS at 17,200 mg/l, nitrates at 240 mg/l, and MPN at 545/100 ml indicates a clear nuisance potential, which has been substantiated by the characterization of lake water sample with chlorides at 3,400 mg/l, TDS at 8,020 mg/l, and lead and cadmium at 0.18 and 0.08 mg/l, respectively. Analysis of groundwater samples shows alarming physicochemical values closer to the waste disposal site and relatively reduced values away from the source of the waste management site. Bureau of Indian Standards have been adapted as the benchmark for the analysis and validation of observed water quality criteria.

  1. Enhanced performance of the aerobic landfill reactor by augmentation of manganese peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholameuz, E M; Hettiaratchi, J P A; Kumar, S

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the work discussed in this article was to determine the ability of an MnP augmented aerobic waste cell to reach stable conditions rapidly in terms of gas production, nutrient content and cellulose and hemicellulose to lignin ratio (C+H/L). Two types of experiments were conducted; small batch and laboratory scale lysimeter experiments. Results from batch experiments showed that enzyme added treatments have the capability to reach a stable C+H/L and lower gas production rates, faster than the treatments without enzyme addition. Enzyme enhancement of the lysimeter increased the rate of biodegradability of the waste; gas production increased more than two times and there was clear evidence of increase in nutrients (nitrogen, dissolved carbon, biological oxygen demand) in the lysimeter ​leachate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of landfill leachate using a solar destillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Thomé Jucá

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this research was to build, develop, evaluate and optimize a system of natural evaporation of leachate, to reduce the organic loads. Physical and chemical microbiological parameters were monitored during the experiment to evaluate the system performance. The solar radiation and rainfall influence on the evaporator was investigated. The results showed 100% reduction of the turbidity, color and total solids. The values of BOD, COD, thermotolerants and total coliforms in the treated effluent had concentrations that meet the Brazilian Federal Environmental Council (CONAMA standards. Based on the results, it was concluded that the natural solar system was adequate for small landfills.

  3. Managing the leachate at the regional landfill in Kikinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed, industrial countries, there is 1.2kg waste per capita, waste being collected and disposed of in regulated, sanitary landfills, which have systems for the protection of groundwater and air from pollutants, in Serbia, the largest number of landfills does not meet even the basic safety criteria for environmental protection. Several municipalities in Serbia began with the organization of the regional waste management system and within that frame, the construction of regional landfills which meet European standards in terms of environmental protection. The paper presents a method of management and use of leachate at the regional waste landfill 'ASA', Kikinda.

  4. Groundwater and Leachate Monitoring and Sampling at ERDF, CY 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, R. L.; Lawrence, B. L.

    2011-06-09

    The purpose of this annual monitoring report is to evaluate the conditions of and identify trends for groundwater beneath the ERDF and report leachate results in fulfillment of the requirements specified in the ERDF ROD2 and the ERDF Amended ROD (EPA 1999). The overall objective of the groundwater monitoring program is to determine whether ERDF has impacted the groundwater. This objective is complicated by the fact that the ERDF is situated downgradient of the numerous groundwater contamination plumes originating from the 200 West Area.

  5. Municipal sludge leachate-induced genotoxicity in mice--a subacute study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Anamika; Chauhan, L K S; Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, S K

    2005-11-10

    Inappropriate disposal of municipal sludge (MS) results in the leaching of toxic metals and organic chemicals, which can contaminate the surface and ground water leading to the serious health hazards. In this study, the genotoxic potential of the leachate prepared from MS sample was examined in mouse bone marrow cells through chromosomal aberrations (CA), micronucleus test (MT) and comet assay. Analysis of metals and physicochemical parameters of the leachate was also carried out to correlate the genotoxic results. The dried sludge showed high concentrations of heavy metals, viz. Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni. However, in 10% leachate, concentrations of these metals were manifold lower than that of obtained in dried sludge. Male mice orally gavaged to leachates (0.1-0.4 ml/mouse/day) for 15 days revealed significant (Peffect was observed to be dose-dependent. Treatment of mice with leachates also induced significant (Pgenotoxic effects in mammals and suggest risks in human population.

  6. Parametric Analysis of Leachate and Water Resources around Municipal Solid Waste Landfill area in Solan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Deepika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachate is defined as the liquid that drains from the landfill. The paper presents the physico-chemical, bacteriological and heavy metal testing results carried out for leachate, surface and sub-surface water samples collected from municipal solid waste landfill and different water sources in Solan to find out the effect of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Physico-chemical parameters analysed were, pH, Total Dissolve Solid (TDS, sulphate, turbidity, Electrical Conductivity (EC while biological parameters tested were Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Most Probable Number (MPN test and ammonical nitrogen. Testing for heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, Fe were carried out and have been reported. The results reveal that the leachate from the unlined landfill may have a significant impact on the groundwater resource (often used as drinking source particularly because of the toxic nature of the leachate coupled with the soil characteristics which is permeable in nature.

  7. Multistage treatment system for raw leachate from sanitary landfill combining biological nitrification-denitrification/solar photo-Fenton/biological processes, at a scale close to industrial--biodegradability enhancement and evolution profile of trace pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Silva, M Elisabete F; Cunha-Queda, A Cristina; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Sousa, M A; Gonçalves, C; Alpendurada, M F; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2013-10-15

    A multistage treatment system, at a scale close to the industrial, was designed for the treatment of a mature raw landfill leachate, including: a) an activated sludge biological oxidation (ASBO), under aerobic and anoxic conditions; b) a solar photo-Fenton process, enhancing the bio-treated leachate biodegradability, with and without sludge removal after acidification; and c) a final polishing step, with further ASBO. The raw leachate was characterized by a high concentration of humic substances (HS) (1211 mg CHS/L), representing 39% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, and a high nitrogen content, mainly in the form of ammonium nitrogen (>3.8 g NH4(+)-N/L). In the first biological oxidation step, a 95% removal of total nitrogen and a 39% mineralization in terms of DOC were achieved, remaining only the recalcitrant fraction, mainly attributed to HS (57% of DOC). Under aerobic conditions, the highest nitrification rate obtained was 8.2 mg NH4(+)-N/h/g of volatile suspended solids (VSS), and under anoxic conditions, the maximum denitrification rate obtained was 5.8 mg (NO2(-)-N + NO3(-)-N)/h/g VSS, with a C/N consumption ratio of 2.4 mg CH3OH/mg (NO2(-)-N + NO3(-)-N). The precipitation of humic acids (37% of HS) after acidification of the bio-treated leachate corresponds to a 96% DOC abatement. The amount of UV energy and H2O2 consumption during the photo-Fenton reaction was 30% higher in the experiment without sludge removal and, consequently, the reaction velocity was 30% lower. The phototreatment process led to the depletion of HS >80%, of low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions >70% and other organic micropollutants, thus resulting in a total biodegradability increase of >70%. The second biological oxidation allowed to obtain a final treated leachate in compliance with legal discharge limits regarding water bodies (with the exception of sulfate ions), considering the experiment without sludge. Finally, the high efficiency of the overall treatment

  8. Influence of Landfill Operation and Tropical Seasonal Variation on Leachate Characteristics: Results from Lysimeter Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. Rafizul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the influence of lysimeter operational condition and tropical seasonal variation of leachate characteristics generated from municipal solid waste (MSW deposited in landfill lysimeter at KUET campus, Bangladesh. Three different situations of landfill were considered here as well as both the open dump lysimeter-A having a base liner and sanitary landfill lysimeter-B and C at two different types of cap liner were simulated. The leachate characteristics, leachate generation and climatic influence parameter had been continually monitored, from June 2008 to May 2010. This period covers both dry and rainy season. The leachate generation followed the rainfall pattern and the open dump lysimeter-A without top cover was recorded to have the highest leachate generation. Moreover, the open dump lysimeter-A had lower concentration and load of total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, while chemical oxygen demand (COD and biological oxygen demand (BOD5 concentration were higher compared with sanitary lysimeter-B and C. On the other hand, sanitary lysimeter-B, not only had lowest leachate generation, but also produced reasonably low COD and BOD5 concentration compared with open dump lysimeter-A. Based on evaluated results, it was also concluded that metal concentrations which were comparatively higher in leachate of open dump lysimeter were Ca and K, however, the heavy metal concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Mn, and those apparently lower were metals of Na, Mg and Fe as well as heavy metals of Cr, Pb and Ni. However, significant release of heavy metals under open dump lysimeter was observed compared to sanitary lysimeter. Moreover, meaningful correlation between DOC and leaching of Cu and Pb was observed. Result reveals that lysimeter operational mode had direct effect on leachate quality. Finally, it can be concluded that the knowledge of leachate quality will be useful in planning and

  9. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  10. The BIOZO process--a biofilm system combined with ozonation: occurrence of xenobiotic organic micro-pollutants in and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen from landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plósz, Benedek G Y; Vogelsang, Christian; Macrae, Kenneth; Heiaas, Harald H; Lopez, Antonio; Liltved, Helge; Langford, Katherine H

    2010-01-01

    We present an assessment of xenobiotic organic micro-pollutants (XOM) occurrence and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a novel biofilm system combined with ozonation, the BIOZO concept, treating partly stabilised landfill leachate. A novel, staged moving-bed biofilm reactor (SMBBR) design was implemented in laboratory- and pilot-scale, and the PAHs removal efficiency of controlled ozonation was assessed installing the ozonation step in the nitrate recirculation line (Position 1) or between the pre-anoxic and aerobic zones (Position 2). COD removal in a laboratory- and in a pilot-scale SMBBR system with and without ozonation is additionally addressed. Results obtained in a screening study (GC-ToF-MS) were used to compile a priority list of XOMs in leachate based on relative occurrence, showing PAHs as the predominant fraction. Biological treatment is shown to be an effective means to remove PAHs detected in the aqueous phase. PAH removal takes in most part place in the pre-anoxic zone, thereby decreasing toxicity exhibited by PAH on autotrophic nitrifier bacteria in the aerobic zone. Ozonation installed in Position 2 is shown to be superior over Position I in terms of COD, PAH and nitrogen removal efficiencies. We additionally demonstrate the potential of intermittent sludge ozonation as a means to decrease PAH concentrations in sludge wasted and to improve nitrogen removal in the BIOZO system.

  11. Optimization of electrocoagulation process for the treatment of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, N.; Raman, A. A.; Ramesh, S.

    2017-06-01

    The main problem of landfill leachate is its diverse composition comprising of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which must be removed before being discharge into the environment. In this study, the treatment of leachate using electrocoagulation (EC) was investigated. Iron was used as both the anode and cathode. Response surface methodology was used for experimental design and to study the effects of operational parameters. Central Composite Design was used to study the effects of initial pH, inter-electrode distance, and electrolyte concentration on color, and COD removals. The process could remove up to 84 % color and 49.5 % COD. The experimental data was fitted onto second order polynomial equations. All three factors were found to be significantly affect the color removal. On the other hand, electrolyte concentration was the most significant parameter affecting the COD removal. Numerical optimization was conducted to obtain the optimum process performance. Further work will be conducted towards integrating EC with other wastewater treatment processes such as electro-Fenton.

  12. Occurrence and prevalence of antibiotic resistance in landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangqing; Tang, Wei; Qiao, Jing; Song, Liyan

    2015-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is extensively present in various environments, posing emerging threat to public and environmental health. Landfill receives unused and unwanted antibiotics through household waste and AR within waste (e.g., activated sludge and illegal clinical waste) and is supposed to serve as an important AR reservoir. In this study, we used culture-dependent methods and quantitative molecular techniques to detect and quantify antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in 12 landfill leachate samples from six geographic different landfills, China. Five tested ARGs (tetO, tetW, bla(TEM), sulI, and sulII) and seven kinds of antibiotic-resistant heterotrophic ARB were extensively detected in all samples, demonstrating their occurrence in landfill. The detected high ratio (10(-2) to 10(-5)) of ARGs to 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene copies implied that ARGs are prevalent in landfill. Correlation analysis showed that ARGs (tetO, tetW, sulI, and sulII) significantly correlated to ambient bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies, suggesting that the abundance of bacteria in landfill leachate may play an important role in the horizontal spread of ARGs.

  13. Reverse osmosis and nanofiltration of biologically treated leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusik, Aare; Pachel, Karin; Kuusik, Argo; Loigu, Enn; Tang, Walter Z

    2014-01-01

    Experiments of nano-filtration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) were conducted to remove most pollutants from the biological treated leachate. For example, the purified permeate after reverse osmosis treatment with spiral membranes reached effluent water quality as follows: COD of 57 mg O2/l, BOD7 of 35 mg O2/l, and suspended solid of 1 mg/l which satisfies the discharge standards in Estonia. For both RO and NF, conductivity can be reduced by 91% from 6.06 to 0.371 mS/cm by RO and 99% from 200 to 1 mS/cm by NF. To test the service life of the RO spiral membranes, the process was able to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of biologically treated leachate by 97.9% and 93.2% even after 328 and 586 hours, respectively. However, only 39.0% and 21.7% reductions of Ptot and Ntot were achieved. As a result, neither RO (spiral membranes process) nor NF was able to reduce the total nitrogen (TN) to the required discharge limit of 15 mg/l.

  14. Anaerobic methane oxidation in a landfill-leachate plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Ethan L; Cifuentes, Luis A; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M

    2002-06-01

    The alluvial aquifer adjacent to Norman Landfill, OK, provides an excellent natural laboratory for the study of anaerobic processes impacting landfill-leachate contaminated aquifers. We collected groundwaters from a transect of seven multilevel wells ranging in depth from 1.3 to 11 m that were oriented parallel to the flow path. The center of the leachate plume was characterized by (1) high alkalinity and elevated concentrations of total dissolved organic carbon, reduced iron, and methane, and (2) negligible oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate concentrations. Methane concentrations and stable carbon isotope (delta13C) values suggest anaerobic methane oxidation was occurring within the plume and at its margins. Methane delta13C values increased from about -54 per thousand near the source to > -10 per thousand downgradient and at the plume margins. The isotopic fractionation associated with this methane oxidation was -13.6+/-1.0 per thousand. Methane 13C enrichment indicated that 80-90% of the original landfill methane was oxidized over the 210-m transect. First-order rate constants ranged from 0.06 to 0.23 per year, and oxidation rates ranged from 18 to 230 microM/y. Overall, hydrochemical data suggest that a sulfate reducer-methanogen consortium may mediate this methane oxidation. These results demonstrate that natural attenuation through anaerobic methane oxidation can be an important sink for landfill methane in aquifer systems.

  15. Novel and Conventional Technologies for Landfill Leachates Treatment: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Torretta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste final disposal represents an environmental burden worldwide since landfilling, or open dumping, is still the preferred solution for the end of life of solid discarded materials. This study aims to review the technological innovations applied for landfill leachate treatment, taking into consideration the experiences obtained during the past years and the solutions which have been implemented. The review showed that both biological and physiochemical treatments are not able to achieve the requested water quality level, according to the limits established by regulations, whether applied in a single treatment or multiple treatments. In order to respect sustainable release limits to guarantee environmental protection, the construction of depuration systems and combining biological and physiochemical treatment methods is considered of the utmost importance. The review looks at possible joint applications of different treatment techniques reviewed by other studies and considers the state of the art of current research. Combined technical solutions suggested within the 2016 peer-reviewed papers are presented and discussed as a sustainable way to effectively treat landfill leachate, giving particular attention to feasible solutions for developing countries.

  16. Transformation of metals speciation in a combined landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyu; Zhou, Shaoqi; Chen, Dongyu; Zhao, Rong; Li, Huosheng; Lin, Yiming

    2011-04-01

    Landfill leachate was treated by a combined sequential batch reactor (SBR), coagulation, Fenton oxidation and biological aerated filter (BAF) technology. The metals in treatment process were fractionated into three fractions: particulate and colloidal (size charge filtration), free ion/labile (cation exchange) and non-labile fractions. Fifty percent to 66% Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd were present as particulate/colloidal matter in raw leachate, whereas Cr was present 94.9% as non-labile complexes. The free ion/labile fractions of Ni, Zn, Mg, Mn, Pb and Cd increased significantly after treatment except Cr. Fifty-nine percent to 100% of Al was present mainly as particulate/colloidal matter >0.45 μm and the remaining portions were predicted as non-labile complexes except in coagulation effluent. The speciation of Fe varied significantly in various individual processes. Visual MINTEQ simulation showed that 95-100% colloidal species for Cu, Cd and Pb were present as metal-humic complexes even with the lower dissolved organic carbon. Optimum agreements for the free ion/labile species were within acidic solution, whereas under-estimated in alkaline effluents. Overestimated particulate/colloidal fraction consisted with the hypothesis that a portion of colloids in fraction <0.45 μm were considered as dissolved.

  17. Aerobic conditioning for team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas M; Kilding, Andrew E

    2009-01-01

    Team sport athletes require a high level of aerobic fitness in order to generate and maintain power output during repeated high-intensity efforts and to recover. Research to date suggests that these components can be increased by regularly performing aerobic conditioning. Traditional aerobic conditioning, with minimal changes of direction and no skill component, has been demonstrated to effectively increase aerobic function within a 4- to 10-week period in team sport players. More importantly, traditional aerobic conditioning methods have been shown to increase team sport performance substantially. Many team sports require the upkeep of both aerobic fitness and sport-specific skills during a lengthy competitive season. Classic team sport trainings have been shown to evoke marginal increases/decreases in aerobic fitness. In recent years, aerobic conditioning methods have been designed to allow adequate intensities to be achieved to induce improvements in aerobic fitness whilst incorporating movement-specific and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games and dribbling circuits. Such 'sport-specific' conditioning methods have been demonstrated to promote increases in aerobic fitness, though careful consideration of player skill levels, current fitness, player numbers, field dimensions, game rules and availability of player encouragement is required. Whilst different conditioning methods appear equivalent in their ability to improve fitness, whether sport-specific conditioning is superior to other methods at improving actual game performance statistics requires further research.

  18. Enhancing biogas production from anaerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste through leachate blending and recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Arjun; Sartaj, Majid; Kennedy, Kevin; Coelho, Nuno M G

    2014-10-01

    Leachate recirculation has a profound advantage on biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in landfills. Mature leachate from older sections of landfills (>10 years) and young leachate were blended and added to organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a series of biomethane potential assay experiments with different mixing ratios of mature and young leachate and their effect on biogas production was monitored. The improvement in biogas production was in the range of 19%-41% depending on the ratio of mixing old and new leachate. The results are conclusive that the biogas generation could be improved by blending the old and new leachate in a bioreactor landfill system as compared with a conventional system employed in bioreactor landfills today for recirculating the same age leachate.

  19. Effect of Inoculation with Effective Microorganisms and Leachate Recycle on Degradation of Municipal Refuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈东升; 何若; 朱荫湄

    2004-01-01

    Biodegradation of waste in landfill is a slow process requiring decades for completion. Accelerated degradation of municipal refuse in modulated landfill environments may alleviate or eliminate pollution to the land, water and air. In this work, nineteen effective microorganisms (EMs) were isolated from old landfill refuse by enrichment culturing techniques and used for the inoculum of municipal refuse. The preliminary experiments demonstrate that a combination of EMs inoculation in landfill with leachate recycle resulted in increased rates of decomposition and faster process stability. The concentrations of COD, VFA and SO42- in digester with EMs inoculation and leachate recycle decreased more rapidly than others. Gas production from digester with EMs inoculation and leachate recycle commenced around 32 days, which is a week shorter than with leachate recycle only. And peak cumulative gas production was obtained much earlier in digester with EMs inoculation and leachate recycle (150 days) compared to 180 days with leachate recycle only. Moreover, in the first two months, the rate of settlement in digester with EMs inoculation and leachate recycle was more rapid than others.

  20. Fertilizer efficiency and environmental risk of irrigating Impatiens with composting leachate in decentralized solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanbin; Wang, Rusong; Zhang, Yishan

    2010-06-01

    The reduction and reuse of composting leachate is an issue of importance in the field of decentralized solid waste management. In this study, composting leachate from source-separated food waste was treated and subsequently used as liquid fertilizer to irrigate Impatiens (Impatiens balsamina). The leachate was altered by adjusting storage time and dilution, and through addition of microbial inocula. For each test case, the effects of irrigation were monitored by analyzing the Impatiens extension degree, numbers of leaves and flowers, dry weight, and photosynthetic pigment content to assess fertilizer efficiency. The main results obtained revealed that the addition of microbial inocula and lengthening of storage times may lower COD concentrations, adjust pH value and maintain a comparatively high level of nutrient contents. By adding microbial inocula, a COD concentration of 9.6% and BOD(5) concentration of 6.7% were obtained for non-treated leachate with the same storage time. COD concentrations in leachate decreased to 69.4% after 36weeks storage. Moreover, composting leachate promoted growth of Impatiens. The dry weight biomass of Impatiens irrigated using treated diluted leachate was 1.15-2.94 times that obtained for Impatiens irrigated using tap water. Lastly, following the irrigation of Impatiens over a short period, soil did not accumulate VOCs and heavy metals to levels exceeding relative standards. Further research on heavy metal and salinity accumulation in plants should be undertaken to meet the needs of large-scale applications.

  1. Toxicological evaluation of landfill leachate using plant (Allium cepa) and fish (Leporinus obtusidens) bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauck, Cláudia Regina; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Siqueira; da Silva, Luciano Basso

    2013-11-01

    The disposal of municipal waste in landfills may pose an environmental problem because the product of the decomposition of these residues generates large volumes of leachate, which may present high toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic and genotoxic effects of a sample of untreated leachate in fish (Leporinus obtusidens) and onions (Allium cepa). The leachate was collected in a landfill located in the region of Vale do Rio dos Sinos, southern Brazil. The fish were exposed to raw leachate, at concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 5%, 10% and 20% for 6 days, while the bulbs of A. cepa were exposed to concentrations of 5%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% for 48 h. For fish, the concentrations of 5%, 10% and 20% were lethal, thus indicating high toxicity; however, sublethal concentrations (0.5% and 1.0%) showed no genotoxicity by micronucleus test when compared with the control group. In the bioassays involving onions, high toxicity was observed, with significant reduction of root growth and mitotic index in bulbs exposed to the 100% concentration of the leachate. An increase in the frequency of chromosome abnormalities in the A. cepa root cells in anaphase-telophase was observed in accordance with the increase in the concentration of leachate (5%, 10%, 25% and 50%), with values significantly greater than the control, at the highest concentration. The results showed that the leachate contains toxic and genotoxic substances, thus representing a major source of environmental pollution if not handled properly.

  2. Evaluation of Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) for phytoremediation of landfill leachate containing chromium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez Ch, José A; Romero, Rosaura M

    2016-11-01

    Landfill leachates containing heavy metals are important contaminants and a matter of great concern due to the effect that they might have on ecosystems. We evaluated the use of Cajanus cajan to remove chromium and lead from landfill leachates. Eight-week-old plants were submitted to varied tests to select the experimental conditions. Water assays with a solution (pH 6) containing leachate (25% v/v) were selected; the metals were added as potassium dichromate and lead (II) nitrate salts. Soil matrices that contained leachate (30% v/v) up to field capacity were used. For both water and soil assays, the metal concentrations were 10 mg kg(-1). C. cajan proved able to remove 49% of chromium and 36% of lead, both from dilute leachate. The plants also removed 34.7% of chromium from irrigated soil, but were unable to decrease the lead content. Removal of nitrogen from landfill leachate was also tested, resulting in elimination of 85% of ammonia and 70% of combined nitrite/nitrate species. The results indicate that C. cajan might be an effective candidate for the rhizofiltration of leachates containing chromium and lead, and nitrogen in large concentrations.

  3. Municipal Leachate Treatment by Fenton Process: Effect of Some Variable and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ahmadian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to complex composition of leachate, the comprehensive leachate treatment methods have been not demonstrated. Moreover, the improper management of leachate can lead to many environmental problems. The aim of this study was application of Fenton process for decreasing the major pollutants of landfill leachate on Kermanshah city. The leachate was collected from Kermanshah landfill site and treated by Fenton process. The effect of various parameters including solution pH, Fe2+ and H2O2 dosage, Fe2+/H2O2 molar ratio, and reaction time was investigated. The result showed that with increasing Fe2+ and H2O2 dosage, Fe2+/H2O2 molar ratio, and reaction time, the COD, TOC, TSS, and color removal increased. The maximum COD, TOC, TSS, and color removal were obtained at low pH (pH: 3. The kinetic data were analyzed in term of zero-order, first-order, and second-order expressions. First-order kinetic model described the removal of COD, TOC, TSS, and color from leachate better than two other kinetic models. In spite of extremely difficulty of leachate treatment, the previous results seem rather encouraging on the application of Fenton’s oxidation.

  4. Heavy metal binding capacity (HMBC) of municipal solid waste landfill leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Marnie L; Bitton, Gabriel; Townsend, Timothy

    2005-07-01

    This research describes the use of a toxicity assay for the identification of metal toxicity, bioavailability and heavy metal binding capacity (HMBC) of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachates. MetPLATE, an assay specific for heavy metal toxicity, was used to determine the HMBC of MSW leachates collected from 14 sites in Florida, with a wide range of chemical and physical characteristics. The leachates displayed a low toxicity which was attributed to the site-specific parameters, including, high concentrations of both organic and inorganic ligands. The HMBC test was undertaken to measure the effect of these site-specific parameters on metal toxicity. The potential for MSW leachate to bind and, thus, detoxify heavy metals was investigated with copper, zinc, and mercury. The HMBC values obtained ranged from 3 to 115, 5 to 93 and 4 to 101 for HMBC-Cu+2, HMBC-Zn+2, and HMBC-Hg+2, respectively. Additionally, the high strength leachates displayed the highest binding capacities, although the landfills sampled represented a wide range of characteristics. For comparison, the HMBC values reported with local lake water, Lake Alice and Lake Beverly, and a wastewater treatment plant effluent were all below 3. A partial fractionation of MSW leachate samples from sites 1, 5 and 8, was conducted to further investigate the influence of selected site-specific physico-chemical parameters on metal binding. The fractionation revealed that the HMBC of the leachate samples was heavily influenced by the concentration of solids, organics and hardness.

  5. Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

  6. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and landfill leachate in single-phase batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Shuangyan; Zhong, Delai; Zhu, Jingping, E-mail: jpzhuhust@163.com; Liao, Li, E-mail: liaoli2003@126.com

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic co-digestion strategy for food waste treatment at OLR 41.8 g VS/L. • A certain amount of raw leachate effectively relieved acidic inhibition. • The study showed that food waste was completely degraded. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of raw leachate on anaerobic digestion of food waste, co-digestions of food waste with raw leachate were carried out. A series of single-phase batch mesophilic (35 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a food waste concentration of 41.8 g VS/L. The results showed that inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred without raw leachate addition. A certain amount of raw leachate in the reactors effectively relieved acidic inhibition caused by VFA accumulation, and the system maintained stable with methane yield of 369–466 mL/g VS. Total ammonia nitrogen introduced into the digestion systems with initial 2000–3000 mgNH{sub 4}–N/L not only replenished nitrogen for bacterial growth, but also formed a buffer system with VFA to maintain a delicate biochemical balance between the acidogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. UV spectroscopy and fluorescence excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy data showed that food waste was completely degraded. We concluded that using raw leachate for supplement water addition and pH modifier on anaerobic digestion of food waste was effective. An appropriate fraction of leachate could stimulate methanogenic activity and enhance biogas production.

  7. Tracing solid waste leachate in groundwater using δ13 C from dissolved inorganic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarstad, Ketil; Mæhlum, Trond

    2013-01-01

    Tracers can be used to monitor emissions of leachate from landfills in order to detect hydrological pathways and to evaluate environmental pollution. We investigated the stable carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C-Σ CO (2)) in dissolved inorganic carbon and tritium ((3)H) in water, in addition to the tracers of pollution commonly found in relatively high concentrations in leachate, such as chloride (Cl), organic matter (COD), nitrogen (total and NH(4)-N), iron (Fe), electrical conductivity (EC) and pH. The sampling was performed at seven landfills in the south-eastern part of Norway during a period of 5 years. The objective was to evaluate the potential for tracing leachate in the environment with emphasis on groundwater pollution. By measuring the δ(13)C-Σ CO (2) in leachates, groundwaters and surface waters, the influence of leachate can be identified. The value of δ(13)C-Σ CO (2) varied from-5.5 to 25.9 ‰ in leachate, from-25.4 to 14.7 ‰ in groundwater and from-19.7 to-13.1 ‰ in creeks. A comparison of the carbon isotope ratio with COD, EC and the concentrations of total and NH (4)-N, Cl and Fe showed that δ(13)C-Σ CO (2) is a good tracer for leachate due to higher sensitivity compared to other parameters. The mean concentrations of all the studied parameters were higher in the leachate samples; however, only the carbon isotope ratio showed significant differences between all the groups with strong and middle pollution and samples with low pollution, showing that it can be used as a convenient tracer for leachate in groundwater and surface water. The carbon isotope ratio showed strong correlation between nitrogen, EC and bicarbonate, but not with pH. Tritium was only sporadically found in measureable concentrations and is not considered as a suitable tracer at the sampled locations.

  8. Leachates draining from controlled municipal solid waste landfill: Detailed geochemical characterization and toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavakala, Bienvenu K; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mulaji, Crispin K; Laffite, Amandine; Devarajan, Naresh; Biey, Emmanuel M; Giuliani, Gregory; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Kabatusuila, Prosper; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-09-01

    Management of municipal solid wastes in many countries consists of waste disposal into landfill without treatment or selective collection of solid waste fractions including plastics, paper, glass, metals, electronic waste, and organic fraction leading to the unsolved problem of contamination of numerous ecosystems such as air, soil, surface, and ground water. Knowledge of leachate composition is critical in risk assessment of long-term impact of landfills on human health and the environment as well as for prevention of negative outcomes. The research presented in this paper investigates the seasonal variation of draining leachate composition and resulting toxicity as well as the contamination status of soil/sediment from lagoon basins receiving leachates from landfill in Mpasa, a suburb of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, soluble ions, toxic metals, and were then subjected to toxicity tests. Results highlight the significant seasonal difference in leachate physicochemical composition. Affected soil/sediment showed higher values for toxic metals than leachates, indicating the possibility of using lagoon system for the purification of landfill leachates, especially for organic matter and heavy metal sedimentation. However, the ecotoxicity tests demonstrated that leachates are still a significant source of toxicity for terrestrial and benthic organisms. Therefore, landfill leachates should not be discarded into the environment (soil or surface water) without prior treatment. Interest in the use of macrophytes in lagoon system is growing and toxic metal retention in lagoon basin receiving systems needs to be fully investigated in the future. This study presents useful tools for evaluating landfill leachate quality and risk in lagoon systems which can be applied to similar environmental compartments.

  9. Longitudinal data analysis in support of functional stability concepts for leachate management at closed municipal landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, Robert D., E-mail: rdg@uchicago.edu [Center for Health Statistics, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Morris, Jeremy W.F., E-mail: jmorris@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, 10220 Old Columbia Road, Suite A, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Prucha, Christopher P., E-mail: cprucha@wm.com [Groundwater Protection Program, Waste Management, 1550 Balmer Road, Box 200, Model City, NY 14107 (United States); Caldwell, Michael D., E-mail: mcaldwell@wm.com [Groundwater Protection Program, Waste Management, 3623 Wilson Road, Humble, TX 77396 (United States); Staley, Bryan F., E-mail: BStaley@erefdn.org [Environmental Research and Education Foundation, 3301 Benson Drive, Suite 301, Raleigh, NC 27609 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Longitudinal data analysis using a mixed-effects regression model. • Dataset consisted of a total of 1402 samples from 101 closed municipal landfills. • Target analytes and classes generally showed predictable degradation trends. • Validates historical studies focused on macro organic indicators such as BOD. • BOD can serve as “gateway” indicator for planning leachate management. - Abstract: Landfill functional stability provides a target that supports no environmental threat at the relevant point of exposure in the absence of active control systems. With respect to leachate management, this study investigates “gateway” indicators for functional stability in terms of the predictability of leachate characteristics, and thus potential threat to water quality posed by leachate emissions. Historical studies conducted on changes in municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate concentrations over time (longitudinal analysis) have concentrated on indicator compounds, primarily chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). However, validation of these studies using an expanded database and larger constituent sets has not been performed. This study evaluated leachate data using a mixed-effects regression model to determine the extent to which leachate constituent degradation can be predicted based on waste age or operational practices. The final dataset analyzed consisted of a total of 1402 samples from 101 MSW landfills. Results from the study indicated that all leachate constituents exhibit a decreasing trend with time in the post-closure period, with 16 of the 25 target analytes and aggregate classes exhibiting a statistically significant trend consistent with well-studied indicators such as BOD. Decreasing trends in BOD concentration after landfill closure can thus be considered representative of trends for many leachate constituents of concern.

  10. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We investigated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). METHODS: Eighteen CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin performed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 12 weeks of resistance exerci...

  11. Ammonia removal from leachate by photochemical process using H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Archanjo Brota

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it was studied the optimization of the photochemical process using H2O2/UV in order to reduce the concentration of ammonia in leachate. It was used landfills leachate previously treated in the development of studies. A photochemical reactor with the capacity of 1.7 liters equipped with refrigeration system and recirculation of leachate was employed in the research. The influence of temperature, the light bulb power, the concentration of H2O2 and treatment time were tested during the study. A removal of 97% of ammonia was observed at 90 min.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from landfill leachate treatment plants: A comparison of young and aged landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun, E-mail: xjwang@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Jia, Mingsheng, E-mail: msjia@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Chen, Xiaohai, E-mail: cxiaoh_xm@126.com [Xiamen City Environmental Sanitation Management Department, Xiamen 361000 (China); Xu, Ying, E-mail: yxu@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Lin, Xiangyu, E-mail: xylin@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Kao, Chih Ming, E-mail: jkao@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shaohua, E-mail: shchen@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Young and aged leachate works accounted for 89.1% and 10.9% of 33.35 Gg CO{sub 2} yr{sup −1}. • Fresh leachate owned extremely low ORP and high organic matter content. • Strong CH{sub 4} emissions occurred in the fresh leachate ponds, but small in the aged. • N{sub 2}O emissions became dominant in the treatment units of both systems. • 8.45–11.9% of nitrogen was removed as the form of N{sub 2}O under steady-state. - Abstract: With limited assessment, leachate treatment of a specified landfill is considered to be a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In our study, the cumulative GHG emitted from the storage ponds and process configurations that manage fresh or aged landfill leachate were investigated. Our results showed that strong CH{sub 4} emissions were observed from the fresh leachate storage pond, with the fluxes values (2219–26,489 mg C m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) extremely higher than those of N{sub 2}O (0.028–0.41 mg N m{sup −2} h{sup −1}). In contrast, the emission values for both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O were low for the aged leachate tank. N{sub 2}O emissions became dominant once the leachate entered the treatment plants of both systems, accounting for 8–12% of the removal of N-species gases. Per capita, the N{sub 2}O emission based on both leachate treatment systems was estimated to be 7.99 g N{sub 2}O–N capita{sup −1} yr{sup −1}. An increase of 80% in N{sub 2}O emissions was observed when the bioreactor pH decreased by approximately 1 pH unit. The vast majority of carbon was removed in the form of CO{sub 2}, with a small portion as CH{sub 4} (<0.3%) during both treatment processes. The cumulative GHG emissions for fresh leachate storage ponds, fresh leachate treatment system and aged leachate treatment system were 19.10, 10.62 and 3.63 Gg CO{sub 2} eq yr{sup −1}, respectively, for a total that could be transformed to 9.09 kg CO{sub 2} eq capita{sup −1} yr{sup −1}.

  13. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  14. Effect of turning regime and seasonal weather conditions on nitrogen and phosphorus losses during aerobic composting of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, R; Gibbs, P; Burchett, S; Misselbrook, T

    2004-01-01

    Cattle manure from stock bedded on straw was aerobically composted under ambient conditions, turning with either a tractor-mounted front-end loader or a rear discharge manure spreader. Three composting experiments, each of approximately four months duration, were conducted to investigate the effect of turning regime and seasonal weather conditions on nitrogen and phosphorus losses during aerobic composting of cattle manure. Manure stacks of 12-15 m(3) initial volume were constructed in separate 5 x 5 m concrete compartments. Experiment 1 (January-April 1999) compared manure heaps turned once (T1) or three times (T3) using a front-end loader with an unturned static (S) control manure stack. Experiment 2 (June-September 1999) compared the same treatments as Experiment 1. Experiment 3 (September-December 1999) compared T1 and T3 turning regimes using a front end loader with turning by a rear-discharge spreader (TR1 and TR1T2) for more effective aeration of the manure. Turning took place at 6 weeks for the one turn treatments, and after 2, 6 and 10 weeks for the three turn treatments. Leachate losses were dominated by NH(4)-N during the first three weeks of composting, after which time NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations in leachates were approximately the same, in the range 0-20 mg N l(-1). The concentrations of both NH4-N and NO3-N in leachate were higher after turning. Molybdate-reactive P concentrations in leachate tended not to be significantly influenced by turning regime. Gaseous losses of NH3 and N2O rose quickly during the initial phases of composting, peaking at 152 g N t(-1) d(-1) for the T3 treatment. Mean NH3 emission rate (25-252 g N t(-1) d(-1)) for the first two weeks of Experiment 2 conducted during the period June-September were an order of magnitude greater (1-10 g N t(-1) d(-1)) than Experiment 3, conducted during the colder, wetter autumn period (September-December). Nitrous oxide emission rates ranged between 1-14 g N t(-1) d(-1) and showed little

  15. Energetic and metabolic consequences of aerobic and an-aerobic ATP-production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.; Aarts, M.J.; IJssennagger, N.; Hermans, J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    ATP, the currency of cellular energy metabolism, can be produced during aerobic and an-aerobic oxidation of metabolic substrates. The aerobic oxidation yields CO2 + H2O as metabolic end products while ATP is produced by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. Carbohydrate, protein and fat pro

  16. Energetic and metabolic consequences of aerobic and an-aerobic ATP-production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.; Aarts, M.J.; IJssennagger, N.; Hermans, J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    ATP, the currency of cellular energy metabolism, can be produced during aerobic and an-aerobic oxidation of metabolic substrates. The aerobic oxidation yields CO2 + H2O as metabolic end products while ATP is produced by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. Carbohydrate, protein and fat

  17. Treatment of Landfill Leachate by Fenton Oxidation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHui; HUANGChin-Pao

    2002-01-01

    Central composite design (CCD), the most popular design of response surface methodology (RSM), was employed to investigate the effect of total organic carbon (TOC) ratio of high molecular weight organic matter (HMW) to low molecular weight organic matter (LMW), the LMW strength and molar ratio of hydrogen peroxide to ferrous ion on landfill leachate treatment by Fention process. Based on the experimental data, a response surface quadratic model in terms of actual factors was obtained through analysis of variance (ANOVA). The model showed that TOC removal increased with the increase of HMW to LMW ratio and the decrease of LMW strength. There existed an optimal hydrogen peroxide to ferrous ion molar ratio for TOC removal.

  18. Landfill leachate treatment by solar-driven AOPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Elisangela M.R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Centro de Tecnologia, Departamento de Engenharia Hidraulica e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Saneamento (LABOSAN), Avenida da Universidade, 2853 - Benfica, 60020-181 Fortaleza (Brazil); Vilar, Vitor J.P.; Boaventura, Rui A.R. [LSRE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Fonseca, Amelia; Saraiva, Isabel [Efacec Ambiente, SA, Rua Eng. Frederico Ulrich - Guardeiras, Apartado 3003, 4471-907 Moreira da Maia (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    Sanitary landfill leachate resulting from the rainwater percolation through the landfill layers and waste material decomposition is a complex mixture of high-strength organic and inorganic compounds which constitutes serious environmental problems. In this study, different heterogeneous (TiO{sub 2}/UV, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) and homogenous (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) photocatalytic processes were investigated as an alternative for the treatment of a mature landfill leachate. The addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to TiO{sub 2}/UV system increased the reduction of the aromatic compounds from 15% to 61%, although mineralization was almost the same. The DOC and aromatic content abatement is similar for the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV and TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV processes, although the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} consumption is three times higher in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system. The low efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system is presumably due to the alkaline leachate solution, for which the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} becomes highly unstable and self-decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} occurs. The efficiency of the TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system increased 10 times after a preliminary pH correction to 4. The photo-Fenton process is much more efficient than heterogeneous (TiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) or homogeneous (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) photocatalysis, showing an initial reaction rate more than 20 times higher, and leading to almost complete mineralization of the wastewater. However, when compared with TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV with acidification, the photo-Fenton reaction is only two times faster. The optimal initial iron dose for the photo-Fenton treatment of the leachate is 60 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}, which is in agreement with path length of 5 cm in the photoreactor. The kinetic behaviour of the process (60 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}) comprises a slow initial reaction, followed by a first-order kinetics (k = 0.020 LkJ{sub UV

  19. [Influence of biological activated carbon dosage on landfill leachate treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan-Rui; Guo, Yan; Wu, Qing

    2014-08-01

    Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC) dosage on COD removal in landfill leachate treatment were compared. The COD removal efficiency of reactors with 0, 100 and 300 g activated carbon dosage per litre activated sludge was 12.9%, 19.6% and 27.7%, respectively. The results indicated that BAC improved the refractory organic matter removal efficiency and there was a positive correlation between COD removal efficiency and BAC dosage. The output of carbon dioxide after 8h of aeration in reactors was 109, 193 and 306 mg corresponding to the activated carbon dosages mentioned above, which indicated the amount of biodegradation and BAC dosage also had a positive correlation. The combination of adsorption and bioregeneration of BAC resulted in the positive correlation betweem organic matter removal efficiency and BAC dosage, and bioregeneration was the root cause for the microbial decomposition of refractory organics.

  20. Use of vetiver grass constructed wetland for treatment of leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, K M; Njau, K N; Minja, R J A

    2011-01-01

    Performance of Constructed Wetland planted with vetiver grasses for the treatment of leachate was investigated in controlled experiments involving horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW). The HSSFCW experimental unit had two cells, one planted with vetiver grasses and another bare. Both units were packed with limestone gravel as substrate and were operated with equal hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time. Collected samples of influents and effluents were analysed for COD, Cr, Pb, Fe and pH. The results showed that vetiver grasses tolerated leachate with high loading of COD up to 14,000 mg L(-1). The planted cell outperformed the unplanted cell in terms of COD, Cr, Pb and Fe removal. The systems showed optimum points for COD and Pb removal as a function of feed concentrations. The optimum COD removal values of 210 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed COD concentration of 11,200 mg COD L(-1) and 89 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed concentration of 7,200 mg COD L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted cells respectively. Similarly Pb removal values of 0.0132 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.0 mg Pb L(-1) and 0.0052 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.04 mgPb L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted units respectively. Removal of Fe as a function of feed Fe concentration showed a parabolic behaviour but Cr removal showed linear behaviour with feed Cr concentrations in both units. The system showed very good removal efficiencies with Cr and Fe but poor efficiencies were recorded for Pb.

  1. Generation of leachate and the flow regime in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, D.

    1998-06-01

    In this thesis the generation of leachate and the presence and movement of water in landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) is investigated. The precipitation-leachate discharge relationship for landfills was found to be dominated by evaporation, accumulation in the soil cover, accumulation in the solid waste and fast gravitational flow in a network of channels. The flow regime is governed by the heterogeneity of the internal geometry of the landfill, which is characterized by a discrete structure, significant horizontal stratification, structural voids, impermeable surfaces, and low capillarity. Also the boundary conditions, that is the water input pattern, has shown to be important for the flow process. Based on this, landfilled waste can be conceptualized as a dual domain medium, consisting of a channel domain and a matrix domain. The matrix flow is slow and diffusive, whereas the channel flow is assumed to be driven solely by gravity and to take place as a thin viscous film on solid surfaces. A kinematic wave model for unsaturated infiltration and internal drainage in the channel domain is presented. The model employs a two-parameter power expression as macroscopic flux law. Solutions were derived for the cases when water enters the channel domain laterally and when water enters from the upper end. The model parameters were determined and interpreted in terms of the internal geometry of the waste medium by fitting the model to one set of infiltration and drainage data derived from a large scale laboratory experiment under transient conditions. The model was validated using another set of data from a sequence of water input events and was shown to perform accurately. A solute transport model was developed by coupling a simple piston flux expression and a mobile-immobile conceptualization of the transport domains with the water flow model. Breakthrough curves derived from steady and transient tracer experiments where interpreted with the model. The transport

  2. Biogas production enhancement using semi-aerobic pre-aeration in a hybrid bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Morello, Luca; Raga, Roberto; Cerminara, Giulia

    2016-09-01

    Landfilling continues to be one of the main methods used in managing Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Although in many countries national legislation aims to reduce this practice as much as possible, landfill is a necessary and unavoidable step in closing the material cycle. The need for innovative waste management techniques to improve landfill management and minimize the adverse environmental impact produced has resulted in an increasing interest in innovative systems capable of accelerating waste stabilization. Landfill bioreactors allow decomposition kinetics to be increased and post-operational phase to be shortened; in particular, hybrid bioreactors combine the benefits afforded by both aerobic and anaerobic processes. Six bioreactor simulators were used in the present study: four managed as hybrid, with an initial semi-aerobic phase and a second anaerobic phase, and two as anaerobic control bioreactors. The main goal of the first aerated phase is to reduce Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) in order to increase pH and enhance methane production during the anaerobic phase; for this reason, air injection was stopped only when these parameters reached the optimum range for methanogenic bacteria. Biogas and leachate were constantly monitored throughout the entire methanogenic phase with the aim of calibrating a Gompertz Model and evaluating the effects of pre-aeration on subsequent methane production. The results showed that moderate and intermittent pre-aeration produces a positive effect both on methane potential and in the kinetics of reaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aerobic respiration in the Archaean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe, K M

    1990-11-01

    The Earth's atmosphere during the Archaean era (3,800-2,500 Myr ago) is generally thought to have been anoxic, with the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen about 10(-12) times the present value. In the absence of aerobic consumption of oxygen produced by photosynthesis in the ocean, the major sink for this oxygen would have been oxidation of dissolved Fe(II). Atmospheric oxygen would also be removed by the oxidation of biogenic methane. But even very low estimates of global primary productivity, obtained from the amounts of organic carbon preserved in Archaean rocks, seem to require the sedimentation of an unrealistically large amount of iron and the oxidation of too much methane if global anoxia was to be maintained. I therefore suggest that aerobic respiration must have developed early in the Archaean to prevent a build-up of atmospheric oxygen before the Proterozoic. An atmosphere that contained a low (0.2-0.4%) but stable proportion of oxygen is required.

  4. Fresh Kills leachate treatment and minimization study. Volume 1, Characteristics and treatment alternatives: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillos, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    1993-09-01

    The New York City Department of Sanitation is developing a comprehensive landfill leachate management plan for the Fresh Kills Landfill. The leachate was first analyzed for conventional and priority pollutants. The leachate was well buffered at pH 7 to 8 with an alkalinity of 5,000 to 6,000 mg/L. The BOD was low, usually less than 100 mg/L, but the COD was as high as 1,800 mg/L. Ammonia concentrations were around 700 mg/L and the color resembled strong tea at 3,000 colorimetric units. Only few of the priority pollutants were present, and at extremely low concentrations. Based on the chemical characteristics of the leachate, the primary environmental impact would be on the oxygen balance of the receiving surface waters.

  5. Physiological responses of Vetiver plant (Vetiver zizanioides) to municipal waste leachate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sasan Mohsenzadeh; Nadereh Naderi; Mahdi Nazari

    2016-01-01

    Vetiver plant is tolerant to acidity and temperature variations. Has rapid growth for biomass production and has high tolerance to organic and non-organic compounds in municipal waste leachate for example heavy metals...

  6. Variability in the concentration of indicator bacteria in landfill leachate--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Muhammad; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian

    2015-03-01

    Leachate collected from the collection ponds of four landfill sites was investigated and compared for total coliforms and E. coli concentration as representatives of fecal pollution. Concentration of total coliforms and E. coli was comparable for leachate obtained from Kulim Landfill Site (KLS) and Ampang Landfill Site (ALS) with little variations. However, the level of indicator bacteria was significantly lower for Kuala Sepetang Landfill Site (KSLS), whereas Pulau Burung Landfill Site (PBLS) had the lowest concentration for both total coliforms and E. coli. Considering the landfills are currently operational, with the exception of ALS, the presence of indicator bacteria implies their inactivation prior to discharge. High concentration of indicator bacteria in ALS is attributed to the run-off entering the leachate pond. Greater concentration of ammonia and salinity level were partly responsible for lower concentration of indicator bacteria in leachate from KSLS and PBLS, indicating that salinty and ammonia could significantly affect the survival of indicator bacteria.

  7. Present and long-term composition of MSW landfill leachate: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Barlaz, M.A.; Rooker, A.P.;

    2002-01-01

    The major potential environmental impacts related to landfill leachate are pollution of groundwater and surface waters. Landfill leachate contains pollutants that can be categorized into four groups (dissolved organic matter, inorganic macrocomponents, heavy metals, and xenobiotic organic compounds......). Existing data show high leachate concentrations of all components in the early acid phase due to strong decomposition and leaching. In the long methanogenic phase a more stable leachate, with lower concentrations and a low BOD/COD-ratio, is observed. Generally, very low concentrations of heavy metals...... is discussed based on theory and model simulations. It seems that the somewhere postulated enhanced release of accumulated heavy metals would not take place within the time frames of thousands of years. This is supported by a few laboratory investigations. The existing data and model evaluations indicate...

  8. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Kjeldsen, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    contents. To overcome this problem, a new estimation method was established considering two sources: (1) precipitation infiltrated throughout waste layers, which was simulated with the HELP model, (2) water squeezed out of the waste itself, which was theoretically calculated using actual data of Chinese...... of about 58.2%. In China-NW, accumulated leachate amounts were very low and mainly the result of waste degradation, implying on-site spraying/irrigation or recirculation may be an economic approach to treatment. In China-N, water squeezed out of waste by compaction totaled 22-45% of overall leachate......The quantity of leachate is crucial when assessing pollution emanating from municipal landfills. In most cases, existing leachate quantification measures only take into account one source - precipitation, which resulted in serious underestimation in China due to its waste properties: high moisture...

  9. From a Literature Review to an Alternative Treatment System for Landfill Gas and Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an alternative treatment system for landfill gas and leachate control in order to reduce the energy consumption and disposal cost, using the recycled landfill gas as the combustion promoter for incineration of the leachate. This study starts by providing a literature review to summarize and analyze different approaches being applied to landfill leachate treatment. Subsequently, a conceptual prototype is proposed, which can be built using existing technology by means of technical possibility analysis, whilst economic benefits could be returned through preliminary comparison. With the proposed introduction of a “waste treatment park”, this alternative treatment system could provide a template for leachate and landfill gas control. This study may provide an insight for landfill operators and engineers to promote the transformation from the conceptual framework to the real achievement. Finally, the limitations of the conceptual model and analysis are discussed, laying a foundation for further work.

  10. Monitoring of landfill leachate dispersion using reflectance spectroscopy and ground-penetrating radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splajt, T; Ferrier, G; Frostick, L E

    2003-09-15

    The utility of ground-penetrating radar and reflectance spectroscopy in the monitoring of landfill sites has been investigated. Strong correlations between red edge inflection position and chlorophyll and heavy metal concentrations have been demonstrated from grassland species affected by leachate contamination of the soil adjacent to the landfill test site. This study demonstrated that reflectance spectroscopy can identify vegetation affected by leachate-contaminated soil at a range of spatial resolutions. To identify the vegetation affected by leachate contamination, the spectroradiometer must have contiguous bands at sufficient spectral resolution over the critical wave range that measures chlorophyll absorption and the red edge (between 650 and 750 nm). The utility of ground-penetrating radar data to identify leachate escaping from breakout points in the contaminant wall has also been demonstrated. An integrated approach using these techniques, combined with field and borehole sampling and contaminant migration modeling, offers a possible cost-effective monitoring approach for landfill sites.

  11. Fly ash leachate generation and qualitative trends at Ohio test sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solc, J.; Foster, H.J.; Butler, R.D. [Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, the environmental impact and potential contamination from landfilled fly ash (coal conversion solid residues - CCSRs) have been studied at field sites in Ohio. The progressive increase of moisture content within pilot cells over depth and time facilitated intensive chemical processes and generation of highly alkaline (pH of 10 to 12) leachate. Chemistry of pore water from lysimeters and ASTM leachate from fly ash and soil cores indicate the leachate potential to migrate out of deposit and impact the pore water quality of surrounding soils. Na, SO{sub 4} and, particularly, K, Cl, pH, and EC appeared to be valuable indicator parameters for tracking potential leachate transport both within the cells and below the ash/soil interface.

  12. FITOREMEDIASI KADMIUM (CD PADA LEACHATE MENGGUNAKAN KANGKUNG AIR (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. (STUDI KASUS TPA JATIBARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Zamhar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leachate TPA Jatibarang yang tercemar kadmium (Cd kemungkinan dapat dibersihkan secara fitoremediasi menggunakan kangkung air (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan kangkung air sebagai fitoremediator dalam menyerap Cd dalam leachate TPA Jatibarang. Sebelum penelitian, dilakukan uji pendahuluan kandungan Cd dalam leachate maupun dalam kangkung air. Kangkung diaklimatisasi dalam air bersih selama 3 hari, selanjutnya ditimbang seberat 300 gram kemudian diletakkan ke dalam ember berisi 10 L leachate. Sampel leachate dan organ tanaman diambil setiap 2 hari sekali (2 hari, 4 hari, 6 hari, dan 8 hari. Faktor intensitas cahaya diambil setiap hari pada pukul 08.00-09.00 WIB menggunakan lux meter, sedangkan nilai pH dan suhu leachate diukur menggunakan kertas indikator pH dan termometer sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan. Perameter yang diamati adalah akumulasi Cd dalam akar, batang, dan daun kangkung air pada masing-masing lama waktu pananaman. Akumulasi Cd diukur dengan AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Data penyerapan Cd dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lama waktu kangkung air ditanam dalam leachate berpengaruh terhadap akumulasi Cd pada tanaman. Penyerapan Cd oleh kangkung air mencapai jenuh pada hari ke-8 dengan total penyerapan 0,052 ppm. Akumulasi Cd paling besar pada akar kangkung yaitu 0,023 ppm.Cadmium (Cd that contained in TPA Jatibarang’s leachate can be cleaned by phytoremediation using water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.. This research aimed to determine the ability of the water spinach as a fitoremediator in adsorb cadmium (Cd that contained in TPA Jatibarang’s leachate. The research was conducted by using a randomized completely design (RCD factorial, with longer treatment planted time in leachate water spinach was 0 day, 2 days, 4 days, 6 days, and 8 days respectively. The observed parameters of Cd accumulation in roots, stems, and leaves of water spinach in

  13. Phytoremediation of Polychlorobiphenyls PCBs in Landfill E-Waste Leachate with Water Hyacinth E.Crassipes

    OpenAIRE

    E.A Omondi; P.K Ndiba and P.G Njuru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The presence of e-waste in a landfill can release persistent organic pollutants POPs including polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs into the environment. PCBs are a family of more than 200 chemical compounds congeners each of which consists of two benzene rings and one to ten chlorine atoms. This study investigated use of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes for phytoremediation of landfill leachate waste containing PCB. Landfill leachate was simulated in the laboratory by spiking water sam...

  14. Application of Deuterium and Oxygen-18 to Trace Leachate Movement in Bantar Gebang Sanitary Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Pujiindiyati

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bantar Gebang landfill was constructed in 1986 with total area of 108 ha and approximately 6000 ton/day solid waste is disposed to this landfill. Mostly, the people living surrounding landfill get afraid of impact of the hazardous chemicals produced by waste disposal to their health. The purpose of this investigation was to study the migration of leachate to Cibitung River water and shallow groundwaters near to the river. It is possible to be done because chemical contents and isotopic characteristics of municipal landfill leachate are unique, relative to aqueous media in the most natural environments. Laser absorption method developed by the LGR (Los Gatos Research was used to measure absolute abundances of 2HHO, HH18O and HHO in a number of water samples. In-situ measurements were also conducted as an additional parameter besides their isotopes. The δ2H of the H2O in landfill leachate was significantly enriched, with values of - 22.6 ‰ to + 4.3 ‰. This deuterium enrichment was undoubtedly due to the extensive production of microbial methane within the limited reservoir of the landfill. However, the enriched deuterium value in leachate was not detected in the river which still had depleted values. It was probably caused by the amount of natural water in the river was comparatively large, with respect to limited leachate discarded to the river.The electrical conductivity of the leachate was higher (3200 to 7600 S and the decreasing values were still monitored in the river to approximately 12 km after streaming the landfills. The effect of the high electrical conductivity and enriched deuterium of leachate was not clearly indicated in the groundwater samples which still represented the local precipitation recharge, except a monitoring well located in Bantar Gebang landfill area which has an indication of leachate contamination.

  15. Comparison of Diffrent Coagulants Efficiency for Treatment of Hamedan Landfills Leachate Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hasanvand

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:In Iran , indicated that the municipal landfill leachate has been one of the major problem for environment. In the operations, leachate treatment is a very difficult and expensive process. Although, young leachate can be treated easily by biological treatment, COD removal efficiency are usually low due to high ammonium ion content and the presence of toxic compounds such as metal ions. Treatment of leachate is necessary.The aim of this study is reduction of Chemical Oxygen Demond (COD and Total Suspended Solids (TSS from hamedan city sanitary landfill leachate by three coagulants: alum, PAC and ferrous sulfate."nMaterials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of treatment of landfill leachate by a coagulation-flocculation process. The effects of different amounts of coagulant and different pH values on the coagulation processes were compared."nResults:Result shown the high efficiency for reduction of CODby PAC in pH=12 and concentration of 2500(mg/l (62.66%, and by alum in pH=12 and concentration of 1000 (mg/l (60% , by ferrous sulfate in pH=2 and concentration of 1000 (mg/l (70.62%. Also result shown the high efficiency for TSS removal by PAC in pH=12 and 2500(mg/l concentration of PAC was 58.37%, with alum in pH=2 and 1500 (mg/l concentration of alum was39.14% , by ferrous sulfate in pH=7 and 2500(mg/l concentration of ferrous sulfate was 35.58%."nConclusion:The best coagulant for COD removal is ferrous sulfate.The physico-chemical process may be used as a useful pretreatment step, especially for fresh leachates, prior to post-treatment (polishing step for partially stabilized leachates.

  16. THE "CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND / TOTAL VOLATILE ACIDS" RATIO AS AN ANAEROBIC TREATABILITY INDICATOR FOR LANDFILL LEACHATES

    OpenAIRE

    Contrera,R. C.; K. C. da Cruz Silva; G. H. Ribeiro Silva; D. M. Morita; Zaiat,M.; V. Schalch

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In some operational circumstances a fast evaluation of landfill leachate anaerobic treatability is necessary, and neither Biochemical Methane Potential nor BOD/COD ratio are fast enough. Looking for a fast indicator, this work evaluated the anaerobic treatability of landfill leachate from São Carlos-SP (Brazil) in a pilot scale Anaerobic Sequence Batch Biofilm Reactor (AnSBBR). The experiment was conducted at ambient temperature in the landfill area. After the acclimation, at a ...

  17. Treatment of Navy Landfill Leachate Contaminated with Low Levels of Priority Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    EFD). Because the landfills were unlined, there is the strong possibility that the leachate has migrated into the groundwater. The data therefore are...converted into ammonium ions, NH4 , which are readily soluble and may give rise to significant quantities of ammonia in the leachate. The landfill quickly...aeration basin X - mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) 32 Table IV-4 lists the advantages and disadvantages of the two reactor systems. The restrictions

  18. Separation of heavy metals from landfill leachate by reactive liquid-liquid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickler, W. [Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie und Didaktik der Chemie

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the decontamination of a model landfill leachate by simultaneous separation of heavy metals from alkaline earth metals and iron in order to obtain a leachate that can be led back to the landfill. Reactive extraction as a separation process offers the possibility of selectively separating cations, that is, of separating toxic components from less problematic ones, and also includes the possibility of electrolysis and further processes to obtain the desired metals. (orig.)

  19. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Kjeldsen, Peter; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2015-12-01

    The quantity of leachate is crucial when assessing pollution emanating from municipal landfills. In most cases, existing leachate quantification measures only take into account one source - precipitation, which resulted in serious underestimation in China due to its waste properties: high moisture contents. To overcome this problem, a new estimation method was established considering two sources: (1) precipitation infiltrated throughout waste layers, which was simulated with the HELP model, (2) water squeezed out of the waste itself, which was theoretically calculated using actual data of Chinese waste. The two sources depended on climate conditions and waste characteristics, respectively, which both varied in different regions. In this study, 31 Chinese cities were investigated and classified into three geographic regions according to landfill leachate generation performance: northwestern China (China-NW) with semi-arid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 46.0%, northern China (China-N) with semi-humid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%, and southern China (China-S) with humid and sub-tropical/tropical climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%. In China-NW, accumulated leachate amounts were very low and mainly the result of waste degradation, implying on-site spraying/irrigation or recirculation may be an economic approach to treatment. In China-N, water squeezed out of waste by compaction totaled 22-45% of overall leachate amounts in the first 40 years, so decreasing the initial moisture content of waste arriving at landfills could reduce leachate generation. In China-S, the leachate generated by infiltrated precipitation after HDPE geomembranes in top cover started failing, contributed more than 60% of the overall amounts over 100 years of landfilling. Therefore, the quality and placing of HDPE geomembranes in the top cover should be controlled strictly for the purpose of mitigation leachate generation.

  20. Geochemistry of leachates from the El Fraile sulfide tailings piles in Taxco, Guerrero, southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera Mendoza, Oscar; Armienta Hernández, Ma Aurora; Abundis, José García; Mundo, Nestor Flores

    2006-06-01

    Leachates from the El Fraile tailings impoundment (Taxco, Mexico) were monitored every 2 months from October 2001 to August 2002 to assess the geochemical characteristics. These leachates are of interest because they are sometimes used as alternative sources of domestic water. Alternatively, they drain into the Cacalotenango creek and may represent a major source of metal contamination of surface water and sediments. Most El Fraile leachates show characteristics of Ca-SO(4), (Ca+Mg)-SO(4), Mg-SO(4 )and Ca-(SO(4)+HCO(3)) water types and are near-neutral (pH=6.3-7.7). Some acid leachates are generated by the interaction of meteoric water with tailings during rainfall events (pH=2.4-2.5). These contain variable levels of SO(4) (2-) (280-29,500 mg l(-1)) and As (<0.01-12.0 mg l(-1)) as well as Fe (0.025-2,352 mg l(-1)), Mn (0.1-732 mg l(-1)), Zn (<0.025-1465 mg l(-1)) and Pb (<0.01-0.351 mg l(-1)). Most samples show the highest metal enrichment during the dry seasons. Leachates used as domestic water typically exceed the Mexican Drinking Water Guidelines for sulfate, hardness, Fe, Mn, Pb and As, while acidic leachates exceed the Mexican Guidelines for Industrial Discharge Waters for pH, Cu, Cd and As. Speciation shows that in near-neutral solutions, metals exist mainly as free ions, sulfates and bicarbonates, while in acidic leachates they are present as sulfates and free ions. Arsenic appears as As((V)) in all samples. Thermodynamic and mineralogical evidence indicates that precipitation of Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides, clay minerals and jarosite as well as sorption by these minerals are the main processes controlling leachate chemistry. These processes occur mainly after neutralization by interaction with bedrock and equilibration with atmospheric oxygen.

  1. Quinones in aerobic and anaerobic mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klei, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Ubiquinone (UQ), also known as coenzyme Q, is a ubiquitous quinone and is known to have several functions. One of these functions is electron carrier in the mitochondrial electron transport chain of aerobically functioning bacteria and eukaryotes. In contrast to this aerobically functioning quinone,

  2. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  3. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  4. Quinones in aerobic and anaerobic mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klei, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Ubiquinone (UQ), also known as coenzyme Q, is a ubiquitous quinone and is known to have several functions. One of these functions is electron carrier in the mitochondrial electron transport chain of aerobically functioning bacteria and eukaryotes. In contrast to this aerobically functioning quinone,

  5. A simulation analysis of the migration and transformation of pollutants contained in landfill leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-qi; TIAN Kai-ming; QI Yong-qiang; CHEN Jia-jun; WANG Ya-nan

    2003-01-01

    A dynamic composite model for a soil-water system that can be used to simulate the movement of leachate from a landfill. The composite model includes nine sub-models that trace water movement and the migration and transformation of five pollutants(organic N, NH4- ,NO3- , NO2- , and Cl- ) in saturated and unsaturated soil. The model to simulate the movement of leachate from a landfill in Laogang Town,Shanghai City was used. In this application, the values for the model parameters were obtained by performing a laboratory simulation experiment of water movement and pollutant migration and transformation in soil colunms. Soil and leachate obtained from the landfill site and its vicinity were used in the laboratory experiments. The model was then used to simulate leachate movement and pollutant activity during the ten-year period when the landfill was in operation and in the twenty-year period following its closure. The simulation results revealed that the leachate migrated into the groundwater at the rate of 90-100 meters per year. This model can be applied in the design of future landfills in China for the purpose of assessing and forecasting leachate plumes.

  6. Evolution of clog formation with time in columns permeated with synthetic landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanGulck, Jamie F.; Rowe, R. Kerry

    2004-11-01

    Laboratory column tests conducted to gain insight regarding the biological and chemical clogging mechanisms in a porous medium are presented. To seed the porous medium with landfill bacteria, a mixture of Keele Valley Landfill and synthetic leachate permeated through the column under anaerobic conditions for the first 9 days of operation. After this, 100% synthetic leachate was used. The synthetic leachate approximated Keele Valley Landfill leachate in chemical composition but contained negligible suspended solids and bacteria compared with real leachate. The removal of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), primarily acetate, in leachate as it passed through the medium was highly correlated with the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3(s)) from solution. The columns experienced a decrease in drainable porosity from an initial value of about 0.38 to less than 0.1 after steady state chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, resulting in a five-order magnitude decrease in hydraulic conductivity. The decrease in drainable porosity prior to steady state COD removal was primarily due to the growth of a biofilm on the medium surface. After steady state COD removal, calcium precipitation was at least equally responsible for the decrease in drainable porosity as biofilm growth. Clog composition analyses showed that CaCO 3(s) was the dominant clog constituent and that 99% of the carbonate in the clog material was bound to calcium.

  7. An Interactive Real-time Decision Support System for Leachate Irrigation on Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Landfill disposal is still the most common and economical practice for municipal solid waste in most countries. However, heavily polluted leachate generated by excess rainwater percolating through the landfill waste is the major drawback of this practice. Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used as alternative cover systems to minimize percolation by evapotranspiration. Leachate recirculation is one of the least expensive options for leachate treatment. The combination of ET cover systems and leachate recirculation can be an economical and environment-friendly practice for landfill leachate management. An interactive real-time decision support system is being developed to better manage leachate irrigation using historical and forecasting weather data, and real time soil moisture data. The main frame of this system includes soil water modules, and plant-soil modules. An inverse simulation module is also included to calibrate certain parameters based on observed data when necessary. It would be an objectives-oriented irrigation management tool to minimize landfill operation costs and negative environmental impacts.

  8. Acute toxicity tests on raw leachate from a Malaysian dumping site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujá, Fatihah; Yusof, Arij; Osman, Md Anuar

    2010-01-01

    Leachate samples collected from the Ampar Tenang open dumping site at Dengkil, Malaysia, were analyzed for acute toxicity. Two in vivo toxicity tests, Acute Oral Toxicity (AOT) and Primary Skin Irritation (PSI), were performed using Sprague Dawley rats and New Zealand Albino rabbits, respectively. The leachate samples were also analyzed chemically for nitrate and phosphate, ammonia-nitrogen, Kjeldahl-nitrogen and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Results from both the AOT and PSI tests showed that the leachate did not contribute to acute toxicity. The AOT test yielded a negative result: no effect was observed in at least half of the rat population. The PSI test on rabbits produced effects only at a leachate concentration of 100%. However, the skin irritation was minor, and the test returned a negative result. The four chemical tests showed high levels of nutrient pollution in the leachate. The nitrate and phosphate concentrations were 2.1 mg/L and 23.6 mg/L, respectively. Further, the ammonia-nitrogen concentration was 1,000 mg NH(3)-N/L the Kjeldahl-nitrogen level was 446 mg NH(3)-N/L, and the Chemical Oxygen Demand was 1,300 mg/L. The in vivo toxicity and chemical analyses showed that the leachate is polluted but not acutely toxic to organisms.

  9. Determination of leachate toxicity through acute toxicity using Daphnia pulex and Anaerobic Toxicity Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Lozada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The municipal solid waste (MSW of large cities, in particular in developing countries, is mainly disposed of in landfills (LFs, whose inadequate management generates the emission of greenhouse gases and the production of leachates with high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter and occasionally heavy metals. In this study, the toxicity of the leachates from an intermediate-age municipal landfill was evaluated by ecotoxicity and anaerobic digestion tests. The acute toxicity assays with Daphnia pulex presented a toxic unit (TU value of 49.5%, which indicates that these leachates should not be directly discharged into water sources or percolate into the soil because they would affect the ecosystems served by these waters. According to statistical analyses, the leachate toxicity is mainly associated with the inorganic fraction, with chlorides, calcium hardness and calcium having the greatest influence on the toxicity. The anaerobic toxicity assays showed that in the exposure stage, the methanogenic activity exceeded that of the control, which suggests that the anaerobic bacteria easily adapted to the leachate. Therefore, this treatment could be an alternative to mitigate the toxicity of the studied leachates. The inhibition presented in the recovery stage, represented by a reduction of the methanogenic activity, could arise because the amount of supplied substrate was not enough to fulfill the carbon and nutrient requirements of the bacterial population present.

  10. The potential for constructed wetlands to treat alkaline bauxite-residue leachate: Phragmites australis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, D; Curtin, T; Pawlett, M; Courtney, R

    2016-12-01

    High alkalinity (pH > 12) of bauxite-residue leachates presents challenges for the long-term storage and managements of the residue. Recent evidence has highlighted the potential for constructed wetlands to effectively buffer the alkalinity, but there is limited evidence on the potential for wetland plants to establish and grow in soils inundated with residue leachate. A pot-based trial was conducted to investigate the potential for Phragmites australis to establish and grow in substrate treated with residue leachate over a pH range of 8.6-11.1. The trial ran for 3 months, after which plant growth and biomass were determined. Concentrations of soluble and exchangeable trace elements in the soil substrate and also in the aboveground and belowground biomass were determined. Residue leachate pH did not affect plant biomass or microbial biomass. With the exception of Na, there was no effect on exchangeable trace elements in the substrate; however, increases in soluble metals (As, Cd and Na) were observed with increasing leachate concentration. Furthermore, increases in Al, As and V were observed in belowground biomass and for Cd and Cr in aboveground biomass. Concentrations within the vegetation biomass were less than critical phytotoxic levels. Results demonstrate the ability for P. australis to grow in bauxite-residue leachate-inundated growth media without adverse effects.

  11. Membrane bioreactor technology: A novel approach to the treatment of compost leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kayleigh; Ghoshdastidar, Avik J.; Hanmore, Jillian [Department of Chemistry, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS, Canada B4P 2R6 (Canada); Frazee, James [E and Q Consulting and Associates Limited, Wolfville, NS, Canada B4P 2R1 (Canada); Tong, Anthony Z., E-mail: anthony.tong@acadiau.ca [Department of Chemistry, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS, Canada B4P 2R6 (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • First membrane bioreactor treatment method for compost leachate. • No chemical additive or UV radiation source in this new biological method. • Removal rates of more than 99% for organics and ammonium were achieved. • Heavy metals were reduced by at least 82.7% except copper. - Abstract: Compost leachate forms during the composting process of organic material. It is rich in oxidizable organics, ammonia and metals, which pose a risk to the environment if released without proper treatment. An innovative method based on the membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology was developed to treat compost leachate over 39 days. Water quality parameters, such as pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured daily. Concentrations of caffeine and metals were measured over the course of the experiment using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (ICP–MS) respectively. A decrease of more than 99% was achieved for a COD of 116 g/L in the initial leachate. Ammonia was decreased from 2720 mg/L to 0.046 mg/L, while the nitrate concentration in the effluent rose to 710 mg/L. The bacteria in the MBR system adjusted to the presence of the leachate, and increased 4 orders of magnitude. Heavy metals were removed by at least 82.7% except copper. These successful results demonstrated the membrane bioreactor technology is feasible, efficient method for the treatment of compost leachate.

  12. Chemical analysis of soil and leachate from experimental wetland mesocosms lined with coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, C.; Mitsch, W.J. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (USA). Environmental Science Graduate Program and School of Natural Resources

    2001-08-01

    Small-scale (1 m{sup 2}) wetland mesocosm experiments were conducted over two consecutive growing seasons to investigate the effects on soil and leachate chemistry of using a recycled coal combustion product as a liner. The coal combustion product used as a liner consisted of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products and fly ash. This paper provides the chemical characteristics of mesocosm soil and leachate after 2 yr of experimentation. Arsenic, Ca and pH were higher in FGD-lined mesocosm surface soil relative to unlined mesocosms. Aluminium was higher in the soils of unlined mesocosms relative to FGD-lined mesocosms. No significant difference of potentially phytotoxic B was observed between lined and unlined mesocosms in the soil. Higher pH, conductivity and concentrations of Al, B, Ca, K and S (SO{sub 4}-S) were observed in leachate from lined mesocosms compared with unlined controls while Fe, Mg and Mn were higher in leachate from unlined mesocosms. Concentrations of most elements analyzed in the leachate were below national primary and secondary drinking water standards after 2 yr of experimentation. Initially high pH and soluble salt concentrations measured in the leachate from the lined mesocosms may indicate the reason for early effects noted on the development of wetland vegetation in the mesocosms. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Effect of advanced oxidation processes (AOP's) on the toxicity of municipal landfill leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slomczynska, B.; Slomczynski, T. [Inst. of Environmental Engineering Systems, Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Wasowski, J. [Inst. of Water Supply and Hydraulic Construction, Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of present study was to assess the effect of AOP's (oxidation ozone and peroxide/ozone) on the toxicity of leachates from municipal landfill for Warsaw, Poland, using battery of tests. Advanced oxidation processes used to pre-treat leachates were carried out in laboratory conditions after their coagulation with the use of FeCl{sub 3}. The effects of the pre-treatment of leachates using the method of coagulation with FeCl{sub 3} depended on the concentration of organic compounds and with optimal conditions of the process ranged from 40 to 70%. Further pre-treatment of the leachates after coagulation, involving the use of oxidation with O{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/O{sub 3}, did not caused significant decrease of leachate toxicity. The data of this study demonstrated the usefulness of the battery of tests using Daphnia magna, Artemia franciscana, Scenedesmus quadricauda and Vibrio fischeri for the toxicity evaluation of raw and pre-treated leachates. (orig.)

  14. An economic analysis of leachate purification through willow-coppice vegetation filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenqvist, Håkan; Ness, Barry

    2004-09-01

    In this study an economic analysis of the purification of integrated solid waste treatment facility leachates through a willow-coppice (Salix) vegetation filter in southern Sweden was carried out. Calculations were based on the use of two computer models that were initially used in estimating a pump-and-pipe irrigation system for a 36-ha willow-coppice plantation to purify an average annual quantity of 195,000 m(3) of leachate with an average nitrogen content of 24 g/m(3). Results showed that facility leachates could be purified at US dollars 0.34/m(3) compared with US dollars 0.62/m(3) for that of conventional leachate treatment at a wastewater treatment plant. Furthermore, results revealed that the increased income from willow growing and sale of the biomass chips represented only a small factor in the overall cost of the purification technique--decreasing purification costs to US dollars 0.326/m(3). Sensitivity analyses also demonstrated that, because of the large leachate holding pond expense, only a fraction of facility leachate should be treated through a vegetation filter.

  15. Environmental risk index: A tool to assess the safety of dams for leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colomer Mendoza, Francisco J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Av. de Vicente Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellon (Spain)], E-mail: fcolomer@emc.uji.es; Gallardo Izquierdo, Antonio [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Av. de Vicente Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    Dams for leachate store very toxic substances that contain a large amount of organic material and, probably, heavy metals; they therefore constitute an important threat to the environment. Existing models of environmental risk assessment for landfills do not take into consideration the specific risk that leachate dams may represent for the environment. In this paper a methodology to improve the environmental safety is presented according to the parameters used in their construction and management. In order to do that, the following characteristics of the dam must be known: (1) geotechnical stability, (2) erosion of downstream slope, (3) type of sealing of the dam, (4) overtopping probability, (5) volume of leachate stored inside the dam and (6) pollution load of leachate. Once these parameters have been calculated, they are transformed by means of rating curves into homogeneous units, so as to make it possible to operate between them. From the study and analysis of these parameters an environmental risk index for a dam for leachate can be calculated. If the environmental risk index exceeds an established value then it involves a dam for leachate with high environmental risk, therefore preventive measures in its design, construction and management would be necessary.

  16. Application of Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation to Treatment of Landfill Leachate on Co/Bi Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-sheng; LIU Liang; ZHANG Rong; DONG De-ming; LIU Hong-liang; LI Yu

    2004-01-01

    Catalytic wet air oxidation(CWAO) was employed to reduce the organic compounds in landfill leachate and the effects of temperature, oxygen pressure, catalyst dosage, and concentration of the organic compounds on the TOC and CODCr removal rates were studied. The degradation kinetics of landfill leachate was also investigated and an exponential experiential model consisting of four influential factors was established to describe the reduction of the organic compounds in the landfill leachate. Meanwhile, the GC-MS technique was used to detect the components of the organic intermediates for the inference of the decomposition mechanisms of the organic compounds in landfill leachate. The results reveal that the reaction temperature and the catalyst dosage are the most important factors affecting the degradation reaction of the organic compounds and that the principal intermediates confirmed by GC-MS are organic acids at a percentage of more than 88% with no aldehydes or alcohols detected. The decomposition mechanisms of the organic compounds in landfill leachate were inferred based on the GC-MS information as follows: the activated gas phase O2 captured the hydrogen of the organic pollutants to produce free radicals, which then initiated the catalytic reaction. So most of the organic compounds were oxidized into CO2 and H2O ultimately. In general, catalytic wet air oxidation over catalyst Co3O4/Bi2O3 was a very promising technique for the treatment of landfill leachate.

  17. Two Domain Flow Method for Leachate PredictionThrough Municipal Solid Waste Layers in Al–Amari Landfill Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Mohammed Abdul–Hameed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing leachate models over–or underestimates leachate generation by up to three orders of magnitude. Practical experiments show that channeled flow in waste leads to rapid discharge of large leachate volumes and heterogeneous moisture distribution. In order to more accurately predict leachate generation, leachate models must be improved. To predict moisture movement through waste, the two–domain PREFLO, are tested. Experimental waste and leachate flow values are compared with model predictions. When calibrated with experimental parameters, the PREFLO provides estimates of breakthrough time. In the short term, field capacity has to be reduced to 0.12 and effective storage and hydraulic conductivity of the waste must be increased to 0.12 and effective storage and hydraulic conductivity of the wasted must be increased to 0.2 and 2.2 cm/s respectively. In the long term, a new modeling approach must be developed to adequately describe the moisture movement mechanisms.

  18. The Andersen aerobic fitness test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadland, Eivind; Terum, Torkil; Mamen, Asgeir

    2014-01-01

    of agreement) were 26.7±125.2 m for test 2 vs. test 1 (ptest 3 vs. test 2 (p = .514 for mean difference). The equation to estimate VO2peak suggested by Andersen et al. (2008) showed a poor fit in the present sample; thus, we suggest a new equation: VO2peak = 23......BACKGROUND: High aerobic fitness is consistently associated with a favorable metabolic risk profile in children. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is often not feasible, thus indirect tests such as the Andersen test are required in many settings. The present study seeks...... to determine the reliability and validity of the Andersen test in 10-year-old children. METHODS: A total of 118 10-year-old children (67 boys and 51 girls) were recruited from one school and performed four VO2peak tests over three weeks: three Andersen tests (indirect) and one continuous progressive treadmill...

  19. EFFICIENCY OF PRE-TREATMENT OF LEACHATE FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE DUMPS BY GASEOUS DESORPTION (STRIPPING OF AMMONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the efficiency of pre-treatment of landfill leachate by gaseous desorption of ammonia. The research was done on a municipal non-hazardous waste dump in Krosno (Sub-Carpathian Province, Poland. The pretreatment provided a favorable BOD5/COD ratio in leachate. Also concentrations of 16 PAHs and heavy metals did not exceed the legal limits. However, gaseous desorption of ammonia was insufficiently efficient in recovering ammonia nitrogen from leachate.

  20. Studies on Hydroxyl Radical Formation and Correlated Photoflocculation Process Using Degraded Wood Leachate as a CDOM Source

    OpenAIRE

    Luni eSun; Kenneth eMopper

    2016-01-01

    The iron-poor leachate from decaying wood can be an important source of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in natural waters. In this study, we examined hydroxyl radical (•OH) formation with respect to photoreactivity of wood leachate DOM, the Fenton reaction, and photoflocculation. The relationship of •OH photoproduction rate and leachate optical properties (UV-visible absorption and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMS) coupled with PARAFAC analysis) were studied during irra...

  1. Effects of leachate accumulation on landfill stability in humid regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianguo, Jiang; Yong, Yang; Shihui, Yang; Bin, Ye; Chang, Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Leachate levels are important to landfill stability and safety. High leachate or water levels often lead to landfill instability, which can cause accidents. Here a case study of a landfill located in a humid region of southern China is presented. Leachate distribution and quality were systematically analyzed, and the effect of leachate level on waste-mass stability was assessed. Boreholes were drilled in the field, samples were analyzed in the laboratory, and a simulation was performed. In addition, the safety and stability of the landfill was evaluated. The leachate level in the landfill was 9-19m, which was higher than the top of the dam crest (8-20m). Leachate accounted for more than 1/4 of the total landfill storage capacity. The contaminant concentration of the leachate samples collected directly from the waste body was very high, with large variation among the samples. The mean concentrations of NH(3)-N, BOD, and COD from the waste body were 5404, 14,136, and 22,691mg/L, nearly 2.7, 2.4, and 1.8 times the mean concentrations in the leachate pond, respectively. Three series of shear strength parameters were used in a slope stability analysis, and a limit equilibrium method was used to calculate the factor of safety (Fs). The analysis showed that Fs could be affected by potential anisotropy in the shear strength of the waste. The minimum values of Fs corresponding to series I were 1.84 and 1.17 for units capital I, Ukrainian and II, respectively. The Fs value of unit II was significantly lower than the safe design value (1.25). In addition, Fs decreased with increase in the normalized height of the leachate level, h/H, where h is the height of the leachate mound and H is the maximum thickness of the landfill. If the h/H values of units I and II are kept below 50% and 40%, respectively, a safe design value of 1.25 for Fs can be guaranteed. Therefore, some measures to prevent risk should be considered. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  3. Comparative evaluation of leachate pollution index of MSW landfill site of Kolkata with other metropolitan cities of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motling, Sanjay; Dutta, Amit; Mukherjee, S N; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-07-01

    The uncontrolled tipping of mixed urban solid waste in landfill site causes serious negative impacts on the environment. The major issue in this context is the generation of leachate which possesses potential of polluting freshwater ecosystem including groundwater besides associated health hazards and depletion of soil fertility. In this context, a pseudo computation quantitative tool, known as leachate pollution index (LPI), has been developed by some researchers for scaling pollution potential of landfill site owing to emergence of leachate. This paper. deals with the assessment of leachate quality of existing landfill site of Kolkata situated at Dhapa waste dumping ground through evaluation of the LPI from experimental analysis of leachate. The leachate was collected from this site in different seasons. 18 parameters were tested with real leachate samples in the Environmental Engineering Laboratory of Civil Engineering Department of Jadavpur University Kolkata. The results exhibited a very high value of organic pollutants in the leachate with COD as 21,129 mg/L and also values of TDS, Fe2+, Cr, Zn, chloride and ammonical nitrogen. The LPI value of Kolkata landfill site at Dhapa was estimated and also compared with leachate quality data of other metropolitan cities viz. Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai as available in literatures. It is found that LPI of the Kolkata landfill site is highest compared to all other landfill sites of other metropolitan cities in India.

  4. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  5. A novel heterotrophic nitrifying and aerobic denitrifying bacterium, Zobellella taiwanensis DN-7, can remove high-strength ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Wang, Yangqing; Liu, Hongjie; Xi, Chuanwu; Song, Liyan

    2016-05-01

    A novel heterotrophic bacterium capable of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification was isolated from ammonium contaminated landfill leachate and physiochemical and phylogenetically identified as Zobellella taiwanensis DN-7. DN-7 converted nitrate, nitrate, and ammonium to N2 as the primary end product. Single factor experiments suggested that the optimal conditions for ammonium removal were trisodium citrate as carbon source, C/N ratio 8, pH 8.0-10.0, salinity less than 3 %, temperature 30 °C, and rotation speed more than 150 rpm. Specifically, DN-7 could remove 1000.0 and 2000.0 mg/L NH4 (+)-N completely within 96 and 216 h, with maximum removal rates of 19.6 and 17.3 mg L(-1) h(-1), respectively. These results demonstrated that DN-7 is a promising candidate for application of high-strength ammonium wastewater treatments.

  6. Apparent Formation Factor for Leachate-Saturated Waste and Sediments: Examples from the USA and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philip J Carpenter; Ding Aizhong; Cheng Lirong; Liu Puxin; Chu Fulu

    2009-01-01

    The formation factor relates bulk resistivity to pore fluid resistivity in porous materials. Understanding the formation factor is essential in using electrical and electromagnetic methods to monitor leachate accumulations and movements both within and around landfills. Specifically, the formation factor allows leachate resistivity, the degree of saturation, and, possibly, even the hydraulic conductivity of the waste to be estimated from non-invasive surface measurements. In this study, apparent formation factors are computed for three landfills with different types of waste as well as sediments contaminated by landfill leachate. Resistivity soundings at the closed Mallard North landfill in suburban Chicago (Illinois, USA) mapped leachate surfaces that were confirmed by monitoring wells. The resistivity of leachate-saturated waste from resistivity sounding inversions was then divided by the leachate resistivity values measured in-situ to compute apparent formation factors (Fa) ranging from 1.6 to 4.9. A global Fa of 3.0±1.9 was computed for the entire monitored portion of this landfill At a nearby mixed laboratory waste landfill, a 2D inverted resistivity section was used to compute an Fa of 2.9. Finally, a distinctly different Fa value of 10.6±2.8 was computed for leachate-saturated retorted oil and organic compounds. The Fa for aquifers containing contaminated groundwater fall in the same range as aquifers with normal groundwater, 1.7-3.9. However, models from inverted sounding curves over these contaminated areas exhibit unusually low resistivity layers, which may be diagnostic of contamination.

  7. Delineation of a landfill leachate plume using shallow electromagnetic and ground-penetrating radar surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobes, D.C.; Armstrong, M.J. [Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand); Broadbent, M. [Broadbent (Michael), Christchurch (New Zealand)

    1994-12-31

    Leachate plumes are often more electrically conductive than the surrounding host pore waters, and thus can be detected using shallow electromagnetic (EM) methods. The depth of penetration of ground penetrating radar (GPR) is controlled to a large extent by the electrical conductivity. Conductive leachate plumes will appear as ``blank`` areas in the radar profiles, because the radar energy is more severely attenuated in the region of the leachate plume. The authors present here the results of EM and GPR Surveys carried out in an area adjacent to a landfill site. Previous resistivity surveys indicated the presence of a leachate plume originating from an early stage of the landfill operation. The shallow EM and GPR surveys were carried out, in part, to confirm and refine the resistivity results, and to delineate the spatial extent of the plume. The surficial sediments are coastal sands, and the dune topography has an effect on the EM results, even though the variations in elevation are, in general, no more than 3 m. Besides the leachate plume, numerous conductivity highs and lows are present, which are at least coarsely correlated with topographic lows and highs. Following the empirical procedure outlined by Monier-Williams et al. (1990), the topographic effects have been removed, and the plume is better isolated and delineated. A possible second, weaker leachate plume has been identified, emanating from the current landfill operation. The second plume may follow a channel that was masked by the overlying dune sands. The leading edge of the primary leachate plume is moving to the south-southeast at a rate of 14 to 15 m/yr.

  8. Optimizing the treatment of landfill leachate by conventional Fenton and photo-Fenton processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermosilla, Daphne, E-mail: dhermosilla@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cortijo, Manuel [U.D. Operaciones Basicas, Departamento de Ingenieria Forestal, E.T.S.I. Montes, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Ramiro de Maeztu s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Huang, Chin Pao [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 352C DuPont Hall, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Landfill, a matured and economically appealing technology, is the ultimate approach for the management of municipal solid wastes. However, the inevitable generation of leachate from landfill requires further treatment. Among the various leachate treatment technologies available, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are among powerful methods to deal with the refractory organic constituents, and the Fenton reagent has evolved as one promising AOPs for the treatment of leachates. Particularly, the combination of UV-radiation with Fenton's reagent has been reported to be a method that allows both the photo-regeneration of Fe{sup 2+} and photo-decarboxylation of ferric carboxylates. In this study, Fenton and photo-Fenton processes were fine tuned for the treatment of leachates from the Colmenar Viejo (Madrid, Spain) Landfill. Results showed that it is possible to define a set of conditions under which the same COD and TOC removals (approx 70%) could be achieved with both the conventional and photo-Fenton processes. But Fenton process generated an important quantity of iron sludge, which will require further disposal, when performed under optimal COD removal conditions. Furthermore conventional Fenton process was able to achieve slightly over an 80% COD removal from a 'young' leachate, while for 'old' and 'mixed' leachates was close to a 70%. The main advantage showed by the photo-assisted Fenton treatment of landfill leachate was that it consumed 32 times less iron and produced 25 times less sludge volume yielding the same COD removal results than a conventional Fenton treatment.

  9. Effect of leachate recycling and inoculation on the biochemical characteristics of municipal refuse in landfill bioreactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Activity development of key groups of enzymes involved in municipal refuse decomposition was measured in laboratory landfill hioreactors with and without leachate recycling and inoculation for about 210 days.The results showed that the enzymes (amylase,protease,cellulase,lipase and pectinase ) were present in fresh refuse but at low values and positively affected hy leachate recycling and refuse inoculation.The total average of cellulase activity in digesters D3 operated with leachate recycling but no inoculation,D4 and D5 operated with leachate recycling and inoculation was much higher than that in digesters D1 and D2 without leachate recycling and inoculation by 88%-127%,117%-162% and 64%-98%.The total average of protease activity was higher in digester D4 than that in digesters D1,D2,D3and D5 by 63%,39%,24% and 24%,respectively,and the positive effect of leachate recycli.ng and inoculation on protease activity of landfilled refuse mainly was at the first two months.The total average of amylase activity was higher in digesters D3,D4 and D5 than that in digesters D1 and D2 by 83%-132%,96%-148% and 81%-129%.During the early phase of incubation,the stimulatory effect of inoculation on lipase activity was measured,but refuse moisture was the main factor affecting lipase activity of landfilled refuse.The inoculation,initial and continuous inoculation of microorganisms existing in leachate,was the mainly stimulatory factor affecting pectinase activity of landfilled refuse.

  10. THE STRIPPING OF AMMONIA FROM LANDFILL LEACHATE IN PLUG FLOW REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuza Costa Campos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The leachate is a highly liquid polluting, considering, besides high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen. Treating leachate is a very difficult task once its composition is very complex. A king of treatment that is being developed is the stripping of ammonia where this chemical will be removed from the leachate by mass transfer of the liquid phase to gas. Therefore, this paper addressed to study the ammonia stripping process in leachates liquids using plug-flow reactors in series. In order to accomplish the experimental part four plugflow reactors in series were build, with an average height of 50 centimeters, without forced air supplier and without leachate pH adjustment. The leachate sample used was from the metropolitan landfill of Joao Pessoa city, which was collected and transported to the EXTRABES laboratory and made the physicochemical characterization. The experimental monitoring system consisted of four distinct phases, with applied superficial loads of 450, 500, 600 and 700 kg NH4+ ha-1 day-1, hydraulic detention time equal to 65, 60, 50 and 38 days, and it was obtained an average efficiency of ammonia nitrogen removal around 96.1%, 99.7%, 99.5% and 98.5% respectively. It was found that the removal efficiency of NH3 was satisfactory in all phases, however, the kinetic study showed that the higher the surface charge applied to the reactors, the higher the rate constant for removal of NH3 stripping process. Thus we can conclude that the process of stripping ammonia from landfill leachate may be done in plug-flow reactors in series, with an average depth of 50 cm, due to provide high removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen, with low operating costs.

  11. Optimized evaporation technique for leachate treatment: Small scale implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyoucef, Fatima; Makan, Abdelhadi; El Ghmari, Abderrahman; Ouatmane, Aziz

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces an optimized evaporation technique for leachate treatment. For this purpose and in order to study the feasibility and measure the effectiveness of the forced evaporation, three cuboidal steel tubs were designed and implemented. The first control-tub was installed at the ground level to monitor natural evaporation. Similarly, the second and the third tub, models under investigation, were installed respectively at the ground level (equipped-tub 1) and out of the ground level (equipped-tub 2), and provided with special equipment to accelerate the evaporation process. The obtained results showed that the evaporation rate at the equipped-tubs was much accelerated with respect to the control-tub. It was accelerated five times in the winter period, where the evaporation rate was increased from a value of 0.37 mm/day to reach a value of 1.50 mm/day. In the summer period, the evaporation rate was accelerated more than three times and it increased from a value of 3.06 mm/day to reach a value of 10.25 mm/day. Overall, the optimized evaporation technique can be applied effectively either under electric or solar energy supply, and will accelerate the evaporation rate from three to five times whatever the season temperature. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Ozonation of refractory chemicals in leachate with hydrogen peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nearly 97% of organic chemicals in Hong Kong leachatecould be effectively removed by the UASB(upflow anaerobic sludgeblanket) process followed by the Fenton coagulation. The COD ofleachate was lowered from an average of 12900 mg/L to 1440 mg/hafter the UASB treatment, and was further lowered to 394 mg/L afterthe Fenton coagulation. The remaining refractory residues could befurther removed by ozonation with the addition of H2O2. Theozonation for the supernatant of the Fenton coagulation was mosteffective at pH 7-8, with the addition of 300 mg/L of H2O2, and 30min of reaction. The final effluent contained only 85 mg/L of CODand l0 mg/L of BOD5. On the other hand, direct ozonation of UASBeffluent lowered the COD to 905 mg/L and BOD5 to l03 mg/L.Ozonation improved the biodegradability of the organic residues,and also converted part of organic-N in the leachate into NH3-N andNO3--N.

  13. An Autopsy of Nanofiltration Membrane Used for Landfill Leachate Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Demir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Komurcuoda leachate treatment plant, Istanbul, which consists of membrane bioreactor (MBR and nanofiltration (NF system, faced rapid flux decline in membranes after 3-year successful operation. To compensate rapid flux decline in membranes, the fouled membranes were renewed but replacement of the membranes did not solve the problem. To find the reasons and make a comprehensive analysis, membrane autopsy was performed. Visual and physical inspection of the modules and some instrumental analysis were conducted for membrane autopsy. Membranes were found severely fouled with organic and inorganic foulants. Main foulant was iron which was deposited on surface. The main reason was found to be the changing of aerator type of MBR. When surface aerators were exchanged with bottom diffusers which led to increasing of dissolved oxygen (DO level of the basin, iron particles were oxidized and they converted into particulate insoluble form. It was thought that probably this insoluble form of the iron particles was the main cause of decreased membrane performance. After the diagnosis, a new pretreatment alternative including a new iron antiscalant was suggested and system performance has been recovered.

  14. Analysis of bio-obtainable endocrine disrupting metals in river water and sediment, sewage influent/effluent, sludge, leachate, and concentrated leachate, in the irish midlands shannon catchment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reid, Antoinette M

    2009-01-01

    The application of an acid digestion and subsequent solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure were implemented as preliminary treatments prior to quantifying the levels of potentially endocrine disrupting metals (EDMs) in a variety of solid and liquid matrices. These included (solid) river sediment, leachate sediment and sewage sludge and also (liquid) river water, landfill leachate, concentrated leachate, sewage influent, and sewage effluent, sampled in the Irish Midlands. The total concentrations of cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn), after extraction and preconcentration, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Mercury (Hg) in sediment and sludge was determined using cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS). For sewage sludge maximum values (mg\\/kg(dw)) of 4700 Ni, 1642 Mn, 100.0 Cd, 3400 Zn, 36.70 Co, 750.0 Pb, 485.8 Cr, and 1003 Cu were determined whilst in leachate sediment, maximum values (mg\\/kg(dw)) of 32.10 Ni, 815.0 Mn, 32.78 Cd, 230.3 Zn, 26.73 Co, 3525 Pb, 124.9 Cr, and 50.13 Cu were found. Over several months, the data showed elevated levels in sewage influents, effluents, and sludges compared to a battery of adjacent river water samples and corresponding sediments. There was a definite trend for target values for sediments to be exceeded, while intervention values were only exceeded for cadmium. Overall the pattern in terms of concentration was sewage > leachate > river matrices. A nonparametric assessment of the effect of sewage treatment method on median metal levels in sludge revealed statistically significant differences at the 95% level of confidence for Co, Cr, and Hg and at the 90% level of confidence for Cd.

  15. Analysis of bio-obtainable endocrine disrupting metals in river water and sediment, sewage influent/effluent, sludge, leachate, and concentrated leachate, in the irish midlands shannon catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Antoinette M; Brougham, Concepta A; Fogarty, Andrew M; Roche, James J

    2009-01-01

    The application of an acid digestion and subsequent solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure were implemented as preliminary treatments prior to quantifying the levels of potentially endocrine disrupting metals (EDMs) in a variety of solid and liquid matrices. These included (solid) river sediment, leachate sediment and sewage sludge and also (liquid) river water, landfill leachate, concentrated leachate, sewage influent, and sewage effluent, sampled in the Irish Midlands. The total concentrations of cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn), after extraction and preconcentration, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Mercury (Hg) in sediment and sludge was determined using cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS). For sewage sludge maximum values (mg/kg(dw)) of 4700 Ni, 1642 Mn, 100.0 Cd, 3400 Zn, 36.70 Co, 750.0 Pb, 485.8 Cr, and 1003 Cu were determined whilst in leachate sediment, maximum values (mg/kg(dw)) of 32.10 Ni, 815.0 Mn, 32.78 Cd, 230.3 Zn, 26.73 Co, 3525 Pb, 124.9 Cr, and 50.13 Cu were found. Over several months, the data showed elevated levels in sewage influents, effluents, and sludges compared to a battery of adjacent river water samples and corresponding sediments. There was a definite trend for target values for sediments to be exceeded, while intervention values were only exceeded for cadmium. Overall the pattern in terms of concentration was sewage > leachate > river matrices. A nonparametric assessment of the effect of sewage treatment method on median metal levels in sludge revealed statistically significant differences at the 95% level of confidence for Co, Cr, and Hg and at the 90% level of confidence for Cd.

  16. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia eHeijnen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors.

  17. Removal of nitrogen compounds from landfill leachate using reverse osmosis with leachate stabilization in a buffer tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela Anna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a removal of nitrogen compounds from a landfill leachate during reverse osmosis (RO) was evaluated. The treatment facility consists of a buffer tank and a RO system. The removal rate of N─NH4, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in the buffer tank reached 14%, 91% and 41%, respectively. The relatively low concentration of organic carbon limits N─NH4 oxidation in the buffer tank. The removal rate for the total organic nitrogen (TON) was 47%. The removal rate in RO was 99% for [Formula: see text], 84.1% for [Formula: see text] and 41% for [Formula: see text]. The accumulation of [Formula: see text] may be the result of a low pH, which before the RO process is reduced to a value of 6.0-6.5. Besides it, the cause for a low removal rate of the [Formula: see text] in the buffer tank and during RO may be free ammonia, which can inhibit the [Formula: see text] oxidation. The removal rates of total inorganic nitrogen and TON in the RO treatment facility were similar being 99% and 98.5%, respectively.

  18. Temperature effect on aerobic denitrification and nitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-guang; ZHANG Xiao-jian; WANG Zhan-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen loss without organic removal in biofilter was observed and its possible reason was explained. A lower hydraulic loading could improve aerobic denitrification rate. Aerobic denitrification was seriously affected by low temperature(below 10oC). However, nitrification rate remained high when the temperature dropped from 15oC to5oC. It seemed the autotrophic biofilm in BAF could alleviate the adverse effect of low temperature.

  19. TREATMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE BY COUPLING COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION OR OZONATION TO GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloibiri, Violet; Ufomba, Innocent; Chys, Michael; Audenaert, Wim; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Hulle, Stijn W H

    2015-01-01

    A major concern for landfilling facilities is the treatment of their leachate. To optimize organic matter removal from this leachate, the combination of two or more techniques is preferred in order to meet stringent effluent standards. In our study, coagulation-flocculation and ozonation are compared as pre- treatment steps for stabilized landfill leachate prior to granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The efficiency of the pre treatment techniques is evaluated using COD and UVA254 measurements. For coagulation- flocculation, different chemicals are compared and optimal dosages are determined. After this, iron (III) chloride is selected for subsequent adsorption studies due to its high percentage of COD and UVA254 removal and good sludge settle-ability. Our finding show that ozonation as a single treatment is effective in reducing COD in landfill leachate by 66% compared to coagulation flocculation (33%). Meanwhile, coagulation performs better in UVA254 reduction than ozonation. Subsequent GAC adsorption of ozonated effluent, coagulated effluent and untreated leachate resulted in 77%, 53% and 8% total COD removal respectively (after 6 bed volumes). The effect of the pre-treatment techniques on GAC adsorption properties is evaluated experimentally and mathematically using Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. Mathematical modelling of the experimental GAC adsorption data shows that ozonation increases the adsorption capacity and break through time with a factor of 2.5 compared to coagulation-flocculation.

  20.  Distribution and composition of microbial populations in landfill leachate contaminated aquifer (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, L; Albrechtsen, HJ; Ringelberg, DB

    1999-01-01

    To investigate whether landfill leachates affected the microbial biomass and/or community composition of the extant microbiota, 37 samples were collected along a 305-m transect of a shallow landfill-leachate polluted aquifer. The samples were analyzed for total numbers of bacteria by use of the a......To investigate whether landfill leachates affected the microbial biomass and/or community composition of the extant microbiota, 37 samples were collected along a 305-m transect of a shallow landfill-leachate polluted aquifer. The samples were analyzed for total numbers of bacteria by use......), and with the greatest concentrations close to the landfill. Methanogens (Archaea) and reducers of sulfate, iron, manganese, and nitrate were all observed in the aquifer. Methanogens were found to be restricted to the most polluted and reduced part of the aquifer at a maximum cell number of 5.4 × 104 cells/g dw....... Populations of sulfate reducers decreased with an increase in horizontal distance from the landfill ranging from a high of 9.0 × 103 cells/g dw to a low of 6 cells/g dw. Iron, manganese, and nitrate reducers were detected throughout the leachate plume all at maximum cell numbers of 106 cells/g dw. Changes...

  1. BIOLEACH: Coupled modeling of leachate and biogas production on solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena; Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important factors to address when performing the environmental impact assessment of urban solid waste landfills is to evaluate the leachate production. Leachate management (collection and treatment) is also one of the most relevant economical aspects to take into account during the landfill life. Leachate is formed as a solution of biological and chemical components during operational and post-operational phases on urban solid waste landfills as a combination of different processes that involve water gains and looses inside the solid waste mass. Infiltration of external water coming from precipitation is the most important component on this water balance. However, anaerobic waste decomposition and biogas formation processes play also a role on the balance as water-consuming processes. The production of leachate one biogas is therefore a coupled process. Biogas production models usually consider optimal conditions of water content on the solid waste mass. However, real conditions during the operational phase of the landfill may greatly differ from these optimal conditions. In this work, the first results obtained to predict both the leachate and the biogas production as a single coupled phenomenon on real solid waste landfills are shown. The model is applied on a synthetic case considering typical climatological conditions of Mediterranean catchments.

  2. Application of Electrochemical Process in Removal of Heavy Metals from Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafaii Gh.1 PhD,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Municipal landfill leachate contains high concentrations of heavy metals, organics, ammonia. The efficeincy of electrochemically removal of heavy metals from landfill leachate was studied. Materials & Methods The leachate was obtained from Kahrizak landfill in south of Tehran. The experiments were carried out by batch process. The 2liter batch reactor was made of glass. There were eight anodes and cathodes electrodes. The electrodes were placed vertically parallel to each other and they were connected to a digital DC power supply. The pH and conductivity were adjusted to a desirable value using NaOH or H2SO4, and NaCl. All the runs were performed at constant temperature of 25°C. In each run, 1.5liter of the leachate was placed into the electrolytic cell. Samples were extracted every 10min and then filtered through a mixed cellulose acetate membrane (0.42μm. The amount of Lead, Zinc and Nickel removal was measured at pH=7 and in current density of 0.5, 0.75, and 1A. Findings When current density and time reaction increased, removal efficiency of heavy metals such as Lead, Zinc and Nickel increased. At initial pH=7, density 1A and reaction time= 60min, Lead, Nickel and Zinc were removed up to 86, 93 and 95%, respectively. Conclusion Electrochemical process can be proposed as a suitable technique to remove heavy metal from landfill leachate.

  3. High-throughput nucleotide sequence analysis of diverse bacterial communities in leachates of decomposing pig carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hak Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The leachate generated by the decomposition of animal carcass has been implicated as an environmental contaminant surrounding the burial site. High-throughput nucleotide sequencing was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in leachates from the decomposition of pig carcasses. We acquired 51,230 reads from six different samples (1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 14 week-old carcasses and found that sequences representing the phylum Firmicutes predominated. The diversity of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in the leachate was the highest at 6 weeks, in contrast to those at 2 and 14 weeks. The relative abundance of Firmicutes was reduced, while the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria increased from 3–6 weeks. The representation of phyla was restored after 14 weeks. However, the community structures between the samples taken at 1–2 and 14 weeks differed at the bacterial classification level. The trend in pH was similar to the changes seen in bacterial communities, indicating that the pH of the leachate could be related to the shift in the microbial community. The results indicate that the composition of bacterial communities in leachates of decomposing pig carcasses shifted continuously during the study period and might be influenced by the burial site.

  4. Artemia salina as test organism for assessment of acute toxicity of leachate water from landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, B M; Mathiasson, L; Mårtensson, L; Bergström, S

    2005-03-01

    Artemia salina has, for the first time, been used as test organism for acute toxicity of leachate water from three landfills (the municipal landfills at Kristianstad, Sweden and Siauliai, Lithuania, and an industrial landfill at Stena fragmenting AB, Halmstad, as well as for leachate from Kristianstad treated in different ways in a pilot plan). Artemia can tolerate the high concentrations of chloride ions found in such waters. Large differences in toxicities were found, the leachate from Siauliai being the most toxic one. To increase the selectivity in the measurements, a fractionation was done by using ion exchange to separate ammonium/ammonia and metal ions from the leachate, and activated carbon adsorbents for organic pollutants. The influence of some metals and phenol compounds on the toxicity was investigated separately. It was found that most of the toxicity emanated from the ammonium/ammonia components in the leachate. However, there was also a significant contribution n from organic pollutants, other than phenol compounds, since separate experiments had in this latter case indicated negligible impact. The concentrations of metals were at a level, shown by separate experiments, where only small contribution to the toxicity could be expected.

  5. REMOVAL OF PHENOL AND SURFACTANT FROM LANDFILL LEACHATE BY COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BAKRAOUY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the action of rainfall and natural fermentation, the stored waste produces a liquid fraction called leachate. This leachate is rich in organic matter (biodegradable but also refractory and trace elements. There are many techniques of treating the leachate, in particular, biological, physicochemical, membrane processes. The choice of a technique instead of another depends on several parameters including: the age of the leachate, composition... In this work we applied a coagulation-flocculation process to treat intermediate landfill leachate of Rabat city with a combined ferric chloride coagulant and a polymer flocculant. We were inspired by full factorial design, including twenty five experiments, to determine optimal dosages of coagulant and flocculant. We operate at pH 8.4, the best removal efficiencies obtained were 88 % for Turbidity, 98 % for Phenol and 82 % for surfactant. The optimum dosages values determined by this study were 13.2 g∙L-1 of coagulant, 62 mL∙L-1 of flocculant.

  6. Degradation Kinetics of Photoelectrocatalysis on Landfill Leachate Using Codoped TiO2/Ti Photoelectrodes

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    Xiao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The photoelectrocatalytic (PEC oxidation degradation of landfill leachate rejected by reverse osmosis (RO using a Cu/N codoped TiO2/Ti photoelectrode was kinetically investigated in terms of COD concentration. The key factors affecting the reaction rate of PEC oxidation and the removal efficiency of COD concentration were studied, including the COD concentration of landfill leachate, potential bias applied, pH value of landfill leachate, and the reaction temperature of photoelectrocatalytic reactor. The apparent kinetic model was applied to describe the photoelectrocatalysis reaction. The results showed that the kinetic equation for photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of landfill leachate was fitting well with the experimental data (R2= 0.967~0.998, with average activation energy Ea= 6.35 × 104 J·mol−1. It was found that there was an optimal bias voltage of 20 V and low pH value was favorable for COD removal in landfill leachate. The reaction order of initial COD concentration (1.326 is higher than that of potential bias (1.102 and pH value (0.074, which indicates that the reaction rate can be controlled efficiently through adjusted initial concentration. The experiments demonstrated that potential bias would approach its statured value with increasing potential bias.

  7. In vivo genotoxic effects of industrial waste leachates in mice following oral exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Saurabh; Chauhan, Lalit K S; Dhawan, Alok; Murthy, Ramesh C; Gupta, Shrawan K

    2006-06-01

    Contamination of ground water by industrial waste poses potential health hazards for man and his environment. The improper disposal of toxic wastes could allow genotoxic chemicals to percolate into ground waters, and these contaminated ground waters may produce toxicity, including mutation and eventually cancer, in exposed individuals. In the present study, we evaluated the in vivo genotoxic potential of leachates made from three different kinds of industrial waste (tannery waste, metal-based waste, and waste containing dyes and pigments) that are disposed of in areas adjoining human habitation. Three different doses of test leachates were administered by oral gavage for 15 consecutive days to Swiss albino mice; their bone marrow cells were examined for chromosome aberrations (CAs), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs), and DNA damage using the alkaline Comet assay. Exposure to the leachates resulted in significant (P dye-waste leachate produced weaker genotoxic responses. The cytogenetic abnormalities and DNA damage produced by the leachates indicate that humans consuming water contaminated with these materials are at increased risk of developing adverse health consequences.

  8. The attenuation of chemical elements in acidic leachates from coal mineral wastes by soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangen, Lawrence E.; Jones, Marianne M.

    1984-09-01

    The chemical attenuation of acidity and selected elements (aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluorine, iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc) in acidic leachates from coal mineral wastes by four natural subsurface soils has been investigated using laboratory column methods Leachate solutions were allowed to percolate through the soils under simulated natural flow conditions, and the elemental concentrations in the influents and effluents were measured periodically Elemental retentions were substantial for all species except managanese, which was eluted in excess from all soils except the most calcareous Two processes appeared to operate in decreasing influent concentrations: (1) precipitation of solid phases caused by increased pH of the leachate as it percolated through the soil, and (2) adsorption of elements onto exchange and sorption sites naturally present in the soil and on iron and aluminum oxide precipitates formed in situ from leachate components because of the increased pH The soil property most important in retention was its alkalinity Thus, carbonaceous soils provide the best control material for acidic leachates from coal mineral wastes. Results show that natural soils can substantially reduce pollutant fluxes to the environment from acidic coal waste dumps and should be considered when selecting waste disposal sites

  9. Utilization of natural zeolite and perlite as landfill liners for in situ leachate treatment in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Ummukulsum; Akdemir, Andaç; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2012-05-01

    The potential long term environmental impacts of a landfill on groundwater quality depend on its liner material properties. In case synthetic liner materials are damaged during the construction or operation, many of the original chemical and biological constituents are removed by filtration and the adsorptive action of natural liner materials such as natural zeolite, perlite and bentonite minerals. Before leachate treatment, reduction of these constituents is important not only to leachate percolation, but also treatment cost and efficiency. In this study, the pollutant removal efficiency from the leachate was investigated for natural natural zeolite, expanded perlite and bentonite. Experimental studies was performed in boxes made of glass and with 1:10 sloping. Leachate quantity was determined and pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate (NO(3)-N), ammonium-nitrogen (NH(4)-N), phosphate (PO(4)), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and organic matter in leachate samples were measured and the measurement was compared with control process (System 4). The results showed that natural zeolite was effective in removing NO(3), NH(4), PO(4), COD and organic matter with removal efficiencies of 91.20, 95.6, 95.5, 83.4 and 87.8%, respectively. Expanded perlite has high efficiency removing of NO(3), PO(4) and COD 83.2, 91.0 and 62.5%, respectively, but it was unsuccessful in reducing NH(4) (1.5%).

  10. Characterization and pollution potential assessment of Tunceli, Turkey municipal solid waste open dumping site leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbilek, Deniz; Öztüfekçi Önal, Ayten; Demir, Veysel; Uslu, Gulsad; Arslanoglu-Isık, Hilal

    2013-11-01

    Environmental monitoring of leachate quality from an open municipal solid waste dumping site in Tunceli, Turkey was studied in this research. The most commonly examined pollution parameters were determined on a seasonal basis. The annual average 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD₅) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values of station points were measured as 70 and 425 mg/L, respectively, and also the average BOD₅/COD ratio (a measure of biodegradability) was calculated as 0.20. The low ratio of biodegradability and slightly alkaline pH values in the leachate samples indicated that the site was characterized by methanogenic conditions. The mean ammonium-nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) and corresponding phosphate (orthophosphate) values were assayed as 70 and 11 mg/L, respectively. The average solids content in the leachates was measured as 4,681 mg/L (total solids) and 144 mg/L (suspended solids). Very low concentrations of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the leachate samples were found and the concentration of cadmium was measured below detection limits. Excessive amount of nutrients and high organic and inorganic pollutant content in the leachates pose serious pollution potential to the environment. Since no drainage system or bio treatment exists in this open dumping site, high permeability of natural soil at the site and in the surrounding area and very fractured and crackled rocks under natural soil are indicators of high groundwater pollution potential in this site.

  11. Toxicity evaluation of leachate of solid waste after biological and photocatalitical treatment

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    Ronaldo Teixeira Pelegrini

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The final disposition of urban solid wastes is a practice that still causes serious environmental impacts generating several pollutant subproducts, such as the landfill leachate. The toxicity tests are used in the pollution control with the scope of finding the permissive concentrations of a chemical agent for the development survival of particular alive organisms. This work aims the toxicity evaluation study in leachate samples of in natura solid wastes, after biological treatment through slow filtration and after heterogeneous photocatalitical treatment using TiO2/UV. The ecotoxicological evaluation was executed through accute and chronical toxicity tests using as test organisms: Daphnias similis e Eruca sativa (arugula. On average, the in natura, filtered and photocatalized leachate dilution that kills or inhibits around 50% (EC50 of the Daphnias similes is 6%, 7% and 6% respectively. On average of non observable effect concentration (NOEC of in natura, filtered and photocatalized leachate for arugula is 2%, 1% and 4% respectively; and on average of observable effect concentration (OEC is 5%, 3% and 6% respectively. The toxicity tests showed a great usage in the monitoring and management of waste leachate so that presenting the high toxicity of this effluent for aquatic environment.

  12. Fermentation pre-treatment of landfill leachate for enhanced electron recovery in a microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed; Parameswaran, Prathap; Torres, César I; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2014-01-01

    Pre-fermentation of poorly biodegradable landfill leachate (BOD5/COD ratio of 0.32) was evaluated for enhanced current density (j), Coulombic efficiency (CE), Coulombic recovery (CR), and removal of organics (BOD5 and COD) in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). During fermentation, the complex organic matter in the leachate was transformed to simple volatile fatty acids, particularly succinate and acetate in batch tests, but mostly acetate in semi-continuous fermentation. Carbohydrate had the highest degree of fermentation, followed by protein and lipids. j, CE, CR, and BOD5 removal were much greater for an MEC fed with fermented leachate (23 A/m(3) or 16 mA/m(2), 68%, 17.3%, and 83%, respectively) compared to raw leachate (2.5 A/m(3) or 1.7 mA/m(2), 56%, 2.1%, and 5.6%, respectively). All differences support the value of pre-fermentation before an MEC for stabilization of BOD5 and enhanced electron recovery as current when treating a recalcitrant wastewater like landfill leachate.

  13. THE "CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND / TOTAL VOLATILE ACIDS" RATIO AS AN ANAEROBIC TREATABILITY INDICATOR FOR LANDFILL LEACHATES

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    R. C. Contrera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In some operational circumstances a fast evaluation of landfill leachate anaerobic treatability is necessary, and neither Biochemical Methane Potential nor BOD/COD ratio are fast enough. Looking for a fast indicator, this work evaluated the anaerobic treatability of landfill leachate from São Carlos-SP (Brazil in a pilot scale Anaerobic Sequence Batch Biofilm Reactor (AnSBBR. The experiment was conducted at ambient temperature in the landfill area. After the acclimation, at a second stage of operation, the AnSBBR presented efficiency above 70%, in terms of COD removal, utilizing landfill leachate without water dilution, with an inlet COD of about 11,000 mg.L-1, a TVA/COD ratio of approximately 0.6 and reaction time equal to 7 days. To evaluate the landfill leachate biodegradability variation over time, temporal profiles of concentration were performed in the AnSBBR. The landfill leachate anaerobic biodegradability was verified to have a direct and strong relationship to the TVA/COD ratio. For a TVA/CODTotal ratio lower than 0.20, the biodegradability was considered low, for ratios between 0.20 and 0.40 it was considered medium, and above 0.40 it was considered high.

  14. Three-stage aged refuse biofilter for the treatment of landfill leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongjiang; ZHAO Youcai; SHI Lei; GU Yingying

    2009-01-01

    A field-scale aged refuse (AR) biofilter constructed in Shanghai Refuse Landfill, containing about 7 000 m3 aged refuse inside, was evaluated for its performance in the treatment of landfill leachate. This AR biofilter can be divided into three stages and can manage 50 m3 landfill leachate per day. The physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of AR were analyzed for evaluating the AR biofilter as leachate treatment host. The results revealed that over 87.8%--96.2% of COD and 96.9%--99.4% of ammonia nitrogen were removed by the three-stage AR biofilter when the influent leachate COD and ammonia nitrogen were 5 478-10 842 mg/L and 811-1 582 mg/L, respectively. The final effluent was inodorous and pale yellow with COD and ammonia nitrogen below 267--1,020 mg/L and 6--45 mg/L, respectively. The three-stage AR biofilter had efficient nitrification but relative poor denitrification capacity with a total nitrogen (TN) removal of 58%--73%. The external temperature of AR biofilter did not influence the total ammonia nitrogen removal significantly. It was concluded that the scale-up AR biofilter can work very well and can be a promising technology for the treatment of landfill leachate.

  15. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to leachate infiltration using electrical resistivity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosuro, G. O.; Omosanya, K. O.; Bayewu, O. O.; Oloruntola, M. O.; Laniyan, T. A.; Atobi, O.; Okubena, M.; Popoola, E.; Adekoya, F.

    2016-02-01

    This aim of this work is to assess the degree of leachate infiltration at a dumpsite in Agbara industrial estate, Southwestern Nigeria using electrical resistivity techniques. Around the dumpsite were 45 vertical electrical sounding (VES) stations and 3 electrical resistivity tomography profiles. Current electrode spread varied from 300 to 600 m for the electrical sounding. Electrode configuration includes Schlumberger and Wenner array for sounding and profiling. The state of leachate contamination was tested using parameters such as aquifer vulnerability index, overburden protective capacity and longitudinal unit conductance (Si) derived from the apparent resistivity values. Four principal geoelectric layers inferred from the VES data include the topsoil, sand, clayey sand, and clay/shale. Resistivity values for these layers vary from 3 to 1688, 203 to 3642 123 to 388, and 67 to 2201 Ω m with corresponding thickness of 0.8-2.4, 2.5-140, 3-26 m and infinity, respectively. The leachate plume occurs at a maximum depth of 10 m on the 2-D inverse models of real electrical resistivity with an average depth of infiltration being 6 m in the study area. The correlation between longitudinal conductance and overburden protective capacity show that aquifers around the dumpsite have poor protective capacity and are vulnerable to leachate contamination. Leachate infiltration is favored by the absence of lithological barriers such as clay which in the study area are either mixed with sand or positioned away from the aquifer.

  16. Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater quality: A case study in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda M. Abd El-Salam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria Governorate contracted an international company in the field of municipal solid waste management for the collection, transport and disposal of municipal solid waste. Construction and operation of the sanitary landfill sites were also included in the contract for the safe final disposal of solid waste. To evaluate the environmental impacts associated with solid waste landfilling, leachate and groundwater quality near the landfills were analyzed. The results of physico-chemical analyses of leachate confirmed that its characteristics were highly variable with severe contamination of organics, salts and heavy metals. The BOD5/COD ratio (0.69 indicated that the leachate was biodegradable and un-stabilized. It was also found that groundwater in the vicinity of the landfills did not have severe contamination, although certain parameters exceeded the WHO and EPA limits. These parameters included conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfates, Mn and Fe. The results suggested the need for adjusting factors enhancing anaerobic biodegradation that lead to leachate stabilization in addition to continuous monitoring of the groundwater and leachate treatment processes.

  17. Three-stage aged refuse biofilter for the treatment of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjiang; Zhao, Youcai; Shi, Lei; Gu, Yingying

    2009-01-01

    A field-scale aged refuse (AR) biofilter constructed in Shanghai Refuse Landfill, containing about 7000 m3 aged refuse inside, was evaluated for its performance in the treatment of landfill leachate. This AR biofilter can be divided into three stages and can manage 50 m3 landfill leachate per day. The physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of AR were analyzed for evaluating the AR biofilter as leachate treatment host. The results revealed that over 87.8%-96.2% of COD and 96.9%-99.4% of ammonia nitrogen were removed by the three-stage AR biofilter when the influent leachate COD and ammonia nitrogen concentration were in the range 5478-10842 mg/L and 811-1582 mg/L, respectively. The final effluent was inodorous and pale yellow with COD and ammonia nitrogen below 267-1020 mg/L and 6-45 mg/L, respectively. The three-stage AR biofilter had efficient nitrification but relative poor denitrification capacity with a total nitrogen (TN) removal of 58%-73%. The external temperature of AR biofilter did not influence the total ammonia nitrogen removal significantly. It was concluded that the scale-up AR biofilter can work very well and can be a promising technology for the treatment of landfill leachate.

  18. Pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern in landfill leachate of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Masoner, Jason R.; Furlong, Edward T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Gray, James L.; Schwab, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Landfills are commonly the final respository for a heterogeneous mixture of waste from residential, commercial, and industrial sources. The use of landfills as a means of waste disposal will likely increase as the global population increases and nations develop. Thus, landfills receiving such waste have the potential to produce leachate containing numerous organic chemicals including contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and hormones. This leachate is often discharged to pathways that lead directly (e.g. groundwater, streams) or indirectly (e.g. wastewater treament plants) to the environment. Limited research, however, has been conducted regarding the characterisation of landfill leachate for CECs.To provide the first national-scale assessment of CECs in landfill leachate across the United States, fresh leachate samples (i.e. prior to onsite treatment) from 19 landfills in 16 states were collected in 2011 and analysed for 202 CECs [1]. The targeted CECs were selected for analysis because they were expected to be persistent in the environment; are used, excreted, or disposed of in substantial quantities; may have human or environmental health effects; or are potential indicators of environmentally relevant classes of chemicals or source materials.

  19. Formulation of a liquid fertilizer for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using vermicompost leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; García-Gómez, Roberto Carlos; Rincón Rosales, Reiner; Abud-Archila, Miguel; María Angela, Oliva Llaven; Cruz, Marcos Joaquín Guillen; Dendooven, Luc

    2008-09-01

    Leachate from vermicomposting contains large amounts of plant nutrients and can be used as liquid fertilizer, but normally diluted to avoid plant damage. The amount of nutrients applied is thus reduced so that an additional fertilizer is required. We investigated how dilution of vermicompost leachate combined with different concentrations of NPK triple 17 fertilizer, and polyoxyethylene tridecyl alcohol as dispersant and polyethylene nonylphenol as adherent to increase efficiency of fertilizer uptake, affected sorghum plant development. The vermicomposting leachate with pH 7.8 and electrolytic conductivity 2.6 dS m(-1), contained 834 mg K(+) l(-1), 247 mg NO(3)(-)l(-1) and 168 mg PO(4)(3-) l(-1), was free of pathogens and resulted in a 65 % germination index. Vermicompost leachate can be used as liquid fertilizer for the cultivation of sorghum without dilution and mixed with 140-170 g l(-1) of NPK triple 17 fertilizer and 2-3 ml(-1) of dispersant and 0-1 ml l(-1) adherent. It was found that vermicompost leachate stimulated plant development, but fertilization with NPK was required for maximum growth.

  20. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to leachate infiltration using electrical resistivity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosuro, G. O.; Omosanya, K. O.; Bayewu, O. O.; Oloruntola, M. O.; Laniyan, T. A.; Atobi, O.; Okubena, M.; Popoola, E.; Adekoya, F.

    2017-09-01

    This aim of this work is to assess the degree of leachate infiltration at a dumpsite in Agbara industrial estate, Southwestern Nigeria using electrical resistivity techniques. Around the dumpsite were 45 vertical electrical sounding (VES) stations and 3 electrical resistivity tomography profiles. Current electrode spread varied from 300 to 600 m for the electrical sounding. Electrode configuration includes Schlumberger and Wenner array for sounding and profiling. The state of leachate contamination was tested using parameters such as aquifer vulnerability index, overburden protective capacity and longitudinal unit conductance (S i) derived from the apparent resistivity values. Four principal geoelectric layers inferred from the VES data include the topsoil, sand, clayey sand, and clay/shale. Resistivity values for these layers vary from 3 to 1688, 203 to 3642 123 to 388, and 67 to 2201 Ω m with corresponding thickness of 0.8-2.4, 2.5-140, 3-26 m and infinity, respectively. The leachate plume occurs at a maximum depth of 10 m on the 2-D inverse models of real electrical resistivity with an average depth of infiltration being 6 m in the study area. The correlation between longitudinal conductance and overburden protective capacity show that aquifers around the dumpsite have poor protective capacity and are vulnerable to leachate contamination. Leachate infiltration is favored by the absence of lithological barriers such as clay which in the study area are either mixed with sand or positioned away from the aquifer.

  1. UVR induce optical changes and phosphorous release of lake water and macrophyte leachates in shallow Andean lakes

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    Beatriz MODENUTTI

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We carried out laboratory experiments in order to study the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR on optical features and phosphorous release of Dissolved Organic Mater (DOM from lake water and macrophyte leachates. Lake water samples were obtained from lakes Escondido and El Trébol, and macrophytes (Potamogeton linguatus and Schoenoplectus californicus from their littoral zones. After UVR exposure, DOM from lake El Trébol seemed to react more quickly than that from Lake Escondido and this seems to be related with the degree of lability or aromaticity in the DOM bulk of each lake. Leachates from both macrophytes showed different absorbance spectra with differences in photochemical transformations after UVR exposure: S. californicus leachates exhibited the highest photodegradation. A significant Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (SRP release was observed in lake water after UVR exposure. Lake El Trébol showed the highest SRP concentrations, suggesting that the release of orthophosphate was favored by low molecular weight DOM. P. linguatus leachates have more dissolved phosphorus content than S. californicus ones and after UVR exposure, P. linguatus leachate did not react to UVR while S. californicus exhibited a decrease in SRP. However both macrophyte leachates showed the higher P release in darkness. The obtained results indicated that macrophyte leachates could contribute significantly to changes in the optical characteristics and in the nutrient content in shallow Andean lakes. An increasing input of P. linguatus leachates would produce DOM of high molecular size and a higher P release than S. californicus.

  2. Measuring organic carbon, nutrients and heavy metals in rivers receiving leachate from controlled and uncontrolled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, N; Haraguchi, A; Hassan, M A; Othman, M R; Wakisaka, M; Shirai, Y

    2009-10-01

    Since landfilling is the common method of waste disposal in Malaysia, river water is greatly exposed to the risk of contamination from leachate unless proper leachate management is carried out. In this study, leachates from three different types of landfills, namely active uncontrolled, active controlled and closed controlled, were characterized, and their relationships with river water chemistry were examined monthly for a year. The influence of leachate on river water chemistry from each type of landfill depended on many factors, including the presence of a leachate control mechanism, leachate characteristics, precipitation, surface runoff and the applied treatment. The impact of leachate from an active uncontrolled landfill was the highest, as the organic content, NH(4)(+)-N, Cd and Mn levels appeared high in the river. At the same time, influences of leachate were also observed from both types of controlled landfills in the form of inorganic nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N, NO(3)(-)-N and NO(2)(-)-N) and heavy metals (Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn). Improper treatment practice led to high levels of some contaminants in the stream near the closed controlled landfill. Meanwhile, the active controlled landfill, which was located near the coastline, was exposed to the risk of contamination resulting from the pyrite oxidation of the surrounding area.

  3. Treatment of leachates of sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes. Tratamiento de lixiviados de vertederos controlados de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iza Lopez, J. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y de Medio Ambiente, ETSII, Bilbao (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The method more used for Urban Solid Wastes is the sanitary landfill. Its management is similar to the industrial process plant. The minimization techniques of wastes are applicated to reduce the environmental impact and to increase the degradation process in order to improve the biogas as alternative energy. This article analyzes the anaerobic digestion, the leachates characterization and treatment of leachates. (Author)

  4. Formation of dimethyldithioarsinic acid in a simulated landfill leachate in relation to hydrosulfide concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jinsung; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kong, Mihye; Kim, Joo-Ae; Shin, Jeoung Hwa; Ahn, Yun Gyong; Yoon, Hye-On

    2016-02-01

    Dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTA(V)), present in such intense sources as municipal landfill leachate, has drawn a great deal of attention due to its abundant occurrence and different aspect of toxicity. The hydrosulfide (HS(-)) concentration in leachate was studied as a major variable affecting the formation of DMDTA(V). To this end, the HPLC-ICPMS system equipped with the reversed-phase C18 column was used to determine DMDTA(V). Simulated landfill leachates (SLLs) were prepared to cover a mature landfill condition with the addition of sodium sulfate and sulfide at varying concentrations in the presence of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)). The concentration of sodium sulfide added in the SLLs generally exhibited a strong positive correlation with the concentration of DMDTA(V). As such, the formation of DMDTA(V) in the SLLs is demonstrated to be controlled by the interactive relationship between DMA(V) and the HS(-).

  5. Removing heavy metals from Isfahan composting leachate by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshoodeh, Reza; Alavi, Nadali; Soltani Mohammadi, Amir; Ghanavati, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Composting facility leachate usually contains high concentrations of pollutants including heavy metals that are seriously harmful to the environment and public health. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals removal from Isfahan composting facility (ICF) leachate by a horizontal flow constructed wetland (HFCWs) system. Two horizontal systems were constructed, one planted with vetiver and the other without plant as a control. They both operated at a flow rate of 24 L/day with a 5-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The average removal efficiencies for Cr (53 %), Cd (40 %), Ni (35 %), Pb (30 %), Zn (35 %), and Cu (40 %) in vetiver constructed wetland were significantly higher than those of the control (P Vetiver tolerates the extreme condition in leachate including high total dissolved solids.

  6. Removal of Cu(II) from leachate using natural zeolite as a landfill liner material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, N Gamze; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-08-15

    All hazardous waste disposal facilities require composite liner systems to act as a barrier against migration of contaminated leachate into the subsurface environment. Removal of copper(II) from leachate was studied using natural zeolite. A serial of laboratory systems on bentonite added natural zeolite was conducted and copper flotation waste was used as hazardous waste. The adsorption capacities and sorption efficiencies were determined. The sorption efficiencies increased with increasing natural zeolite ratio. The pseudo-first-order, the pseudo-second-order, Elovich and the intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data to estimate the rate constants. The second-order model best described adsorption kinetic data. The results indicated that natural zeolite showed excellent adsorptive characteristics for the removal of copper(II) from leachate and could be used as very good liner materials due to its high uptake capacity and the abundance in availability.

  7. Unusual calcite stromatolites and pisoids from a landfill leachate collection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliva, Robert G.; Missimer, Thomas M.; Leo, Kevin C.; Statom, Richard A.; Dupraz, Christophe; Lynn, Matthew; Dickson, J. A. D.

    2000-10-01

    Low-magnesium calcite stromatolites and pisoids were found to have precipitated within the leachate collection system piping of a Palm Beach County, Florida, landfill. The stromatolites and pisoids formed in an aphotic and anoxic environment that was at times greatly supersaturated with calcite. The stromatolites are composed of branching cylindrical bundles of concentrically laminated radial fibrous crystals. The pisoids consist of concentric layers of radial fibrous and microcrystalline calcite. Bacteria, likely sulfate reducing, appear to have acted as catalysts for calcite crystal nucleation, and thus the formation of the stromatolites and pisoids. The leachate system stromatolites provide a recent example of stromatolites that formed largely by cement precipitation. By acting as catalysts for calcite nucleation, bacteria may cause more rapid cementation than would have occurred under purely abiotic conditions. Rapid calcite precipitation catalyzed by bacteria has interfered with the operation of the Palm Beach County landfill leachate collection by obstructing pipes and may be an unrecognized problem at other landfill sites.

  8. Characteristics of blast furnace slag leachate produced under reduced and oxidized conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, A P; Hickey, J; Hunter, J; Banks, M K

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine the environmental conditions necessary to reproduce leachates observed emerging from blast furnace slag acting as the foundation of highways in northwest Indiana. The leachates in the field are often highly alkaline with a pungent sulfur odor, a distinct green or milky-white in color, and sulfate concentrations exceeding 2,000 mg/L. Slag was equilibrated in the laboratory under both oxidized and anoxic environments and at various slag:water ratios. Constant anoxic conditions were required to produce to green colors in the slag, but high sulfate concentrations were observed only when the suspensions were fully oxidized. Leachate from the study site appears to form as a result of a series of complex chemical reactions including fluctuating oxidized and reduced conditions.

  9. Analysis of Electro-Oxidation Suitability for Landfill Leachate Treatment through an Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ragazzi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the efficiency of electro-oxidation used as the single pretreatment of landfill leachate. The experiments were performed on three different types of leachate. The results obtained using this electrochemical method results were analyzed after seven days of treatment. The main characteristics of leachate and a diagram of the experimental apparatus are presented. The overall objectives were to contribute to the knowledge of electrochemical treatments for the reduction of COD, BOD5, ammonium, and total suspended solids, and also to examine whether there was any resulting hexavalent chromium in the liquid sample. The yields obtained were considered satisfactory, particularly given the simplicity of this technology. Like all processes used to treat refluent water, the applicability of this technique to a specific industrial refluent needs to be supported by feasibility studies to estimate its effectiveness and optimize the project parameters. This could be a future development of the work.

  10. Lab-scale phytotreatment of old landfill leachate using different energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Malagoli, Mario; Garbo, Francesco; Pivato, Alberto; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-09-01

    Old landfill leachate was treated in lab-scale phytotreatment units using three oleaginous species: sunflower (H), soybean (S) and rapeseed (R). The specific objectives of this study were to identify the effects of plant species combinations with two different soil textures on the reduction of COD, total N (nitrogen) and total P (phosphorous); to identify the correlation between biomass growth and removal efficiency; to assess the potential of oily seeds for the production of biodiesel. The experimental test was carried out using 20L volume pots installed in a greenhouse under different leachate percentages in the feeding and subsequent COD, N and P loads. Significant removal efficiencies were achieved: COD (ɳ>80%), total N (ɳ>70%) and total P (ɳ>95%). Better performances were displayed by the clayey soil. Plants irrigated with leachate, when compared to control units fed only with water and nutrient solution (Hoagland solution), developed a larger plant mass. Sunflower was the best performing species.

  11. Optimisation of sanitary landfill leachate treatment in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagni, A; Marsili-Libelli, S; Lavagnolo, M C

    2008-01-01

    A bench-scale SBR was operated for almost three years in an attempt to optimise the treatment of leachates generated in old landfill. The results of the first two years were used to design a monitoring and control system based on artificial intelligence concepts. Nitrogen removal was optimized via the nitrite shortcut. Nitrification and N removal were usually higher than 98% and 90%, respectively, whereas COD (of the leachate) removal was approximately 30-40%. The monitoring and control system was demonstrated capable of optimizing process operation, in terms of phase length and external COD addition, to the varying loading conditions. Using the control system developed, a significant improvement of the process was obtained: COD and N load were increased (HRT decrease) and a significant decrease (approximately 34%) of the ratio of COD added to N leachate content was observed.

  12. Enhancing biomethanogenic treatment of fresh incineration leachate using single chambered microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Sun, Dezhi; Dang, Yan; Lei, Yuqing; Ji, Jiayang; Lv, Tingwei; Bian, Rui; Xiao, Zhihui; Yan, Liangming; Holmes, Dawn E

    2017-05-01

    Methanogenic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration leachate can be hindered by high concentrations of refractory organic matter and humification of compounds in the leachate. In an attempt to overcome some of these impediments, microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were incorporated into anaerobic digesters (ADMECs). COD removal efficiencies and methane production were 8.7% and 44.3% higher in ADMECs than in controls, and ADMEC reactors recovered more readily from souring caused by high organic loading rates. The degradation rate of large macromolecules was substantially higher (96% vs 81%) in ADMEC than control effluent, suggesting that MECs stimulated degradation of refractory organic matter and reduced humification. Exoelectrogenic bacteria and microorganisms known to form syntrophic partnerships were enriched in ADMECs. These results show that ADMECs were more effective at treatment of MSW incineration leachate, and should be taken into consideration when designing future treatment facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The potential for constructed wetlands to treat alkaline bauxite residue leachate: laboratory investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Buckley; T, Curtin; R, Courtney

    2016-07-01

    High alkalinity (pH > 12) of bauxite residue leachates presents challenges for the long-term storage and managements of the residue. Whilst the use of constructed wetlands is gaining in interest for its use in the treatment of alkaline waters, thus far, there is limited evidence of its suitability for treating NaOH dominated bauxite residue leachate. A series of batch trials were conducted to investigate the potential for constructed wetland conferred mechanisms (dilution water quality, contact with CO2, and substrate type) for treating NaOH solutions to levels permissible for discharge (p constructed wetland. Formation of a calcite precipitate was observed in some treatments and further characterisation by XRD and XPS suggested surface coating with Na2CO3. It is therefore suggested that, under suitable conditions, constructed wetland technology can reduce leachate pH to constructed wetland.

  14. Experimental evidence of colloids and nanoparticles presence from 25 waste leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebert, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.hennebert@ineris.fr [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Avellan, Astrid; Yan, Junfang [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • This work is the first assessment of colloids in waste leachates. • Analytical methods are proposed and discussed. • All the waste have at least one element in colloidal form, and some elements are always colloidal. • Man-made nanoparticles are observed. • It can change the interpretation of leachate elemental concentration. - Abstract: The potential colloids release from a large panel of 25 solid industrial and municipal waste leachates, contaminated soil, contaminated sediments and landfill leachates was studied. Standardized leaching, cascade filtrations and measurement of element concentrations in the microfiltrate (MF) and ultrafiltrate (UF) fraction were used to easily detect colloids potentially released by waste. Precautions against CO{sub 2} capture by alkaline leachates, or bacterial re-growth in leachates from wastes containing organic matter should be taken. Most of the colloidal particles were visible by transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersion spectrometry (TEM–EDS) if their elemental MF concentration is greater than 200 μg l{sup −1}. If the samples are dried during the preparation for microscopy, neoformation of particles can occur from the soluble part of the element. Size distribution analysis measured by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) were frequently unvalid, particularly due to polydispersity and/or too low concentrations in the leachates. A low sensitivity device is required, and further improvement is desirable in that field. For some waste leachates, particles had a zeta potential strong enough to remain in suspension. Mn, As, Co, Pb, Sn, Zn had always a colloidal form (MF concentration/UF concentration > 1.5) and total organic carbon (TOC), Fe, P, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni are partly colloidal for more than half of the samples). Nearly all the micro-pollutants (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, V and Zn) were found at least once in colloidal form greater than 100 μg l{sup −1}. In particular

  15. Investigation of landfill leachate toxic potency: An integrated approach with the use of stress indices in tissues of mussels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki [Section of Animal Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Dailianis, Stefanos, E-mail: sdailianis@upatras.gr [Section of Animal Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leachate induces mortality of mussels and their cell death at very low doses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prepathological alterations occur in tissues of leachate-exposed mussels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alterations of stress indices reveal neurotoxic and genotoxic potency of leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leachate could induce oxidative damage in tissues of leachate-exposed mussels. - Abstract: The present study investigates the harmful impacts of landfill leachate release and/or disposal into the marine environment, as well as its ability to induce lethal and pre-pathological alterations in marine organisms, such as the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. In specific, mortality test (96 h), performed first in order to estimate leachate lethal endpoints, showed increased levels of mussel mortality after exposure to leachate higher than 0.5%, v/v (96 h LC{sub 50} = 0.526%, v/v), while the exposure to 0.01 and 0.1% (v/v) of leachate showed negligible levels of mortality (96 h LC{sub 10} = 0.167%, v/v). Furthermore, the estimation of lysosomal membrane integrity in hemocytes of exposed mussels (Neutral Red Retention Time assay) showed increased levels of lysosomal destabilization in cells of mussels exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of leachate (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5%, v/v) for 4 days. In order to exclude parameters, such as mussel mortality and cell death, which could interfere with the obtained results, leachate at final concentrations of 0.01 and 0.1% (v/v) were finally used for the estimation of a battery of stress indices in target tissues of mussels, such as hemolymph, gills and digestive gland. According to the results, leachate-exposed mussels showed a significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity, increased levels of nuclear abnormalities, as well as increased levels of metallothionein, superoxide anion and lipid peroxides (in terms of malondialdehyde equivalents) in each tissue tested. The

  16. [Litter decomposition of dominant plantations in Guangxi and its effects on leachate quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gai-Ren; Zhang, Xiu-Qing; Cai, De-Suo; Shi, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Hua; Huang, Cheng-Biao

    2012-01-01

    To understand the decomposition characteristics of the litters in different forest plantations and the effects of released substances during litter decomposition on the leachate quality, litter samples (leaf, shoot, and cortices) were collected from five forest plantations (1 year-old Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, EU1; 4 year-old Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, EU4; 7 year-old Acacia mangium x A. auriculaef, AM; 13 year-old Pinus massoniana Lamb, PL; and mixed broad-leaved softwood, BL), and incubated at 28 degrees C, using water leached for 255 days. In the first 105 days, the litter leachates of EU1 and EU4 had significantly higher coloration and N and P contents and lower pH than those of AM, PL, and BL. On the 255th day, the cumulative chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the leaf litters leachates of EU1 and EU4 was 193.9 and 212.8 g x kg(-1), being 4.2, 4.0, and 4.3 times and 5.3, 4.4, and 4.7 times higher than that of AM, PL, and BL, respectively. The mass loss rate and the N and P leaching rate of the leaf litter of EU1 were significantly higher than those of AM, PL, and BL. The mass loss rate of cortices of EU1 was significantly higher than that of PL. No significant difference was observed for the leaching rate of the shoot litters between AM, PL, and BL. Among the litter samples, leaf litter was easiest to be decomposed, while shoot litter was most difficult to be decomposed. The pH value of the litter leachates of Eucalyptus plantations was significantly negatively correlated with leachate chroma and COD, and the COD had significant positive correlations with the concentrations of total N and P in the leachates.

  17. Recovery of molybdenum, nickel and cobalt by precipitation from the acidic leachate of a mineral sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemic, M; Bordas, F; Comte, S; Guibaud, G; Lens, P N L; van Hullebusch, E D

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the recovery potential of molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) from synthetic and real acidic leachate of a mineral sludge from a metal recycling plant by sulfide precipitation. The operational parameters (metal sulfide (M/S) ratio 0.1-1, agitation speed 0-100 rpm, contact time 15-120 min and pH 1-5) were optimized in batch conditions on synthetic metal leachate (0.5 M HNO3, Mo = 101.6 mg L(-1), Ni = 70.8 mg L(-1), Co = 27.1 mg L(-1)) with a 0.1 M Na2S solution. Additionally, recovery of the target metals was theoretically simulated with a chemical equilibrium model (Visual MINTEQ 3.0). The optimized Na2S precipitation of metals from the synthetic leachate resulted in the potential selective recovery of Mo at pH 1 (98% by modeling, 95% experimental), after simultaneous precipitation of Ni and Co as sulfide at pH 4 (100% by modeling, 98% experimental). Metal precipitation from the real leachate (18 M H2SO4, Mo = 10,160 mg L(-1), Ni = 7,080 mg L(-1), Co = 2,710 mg L(-1)) was performed with 1 M Na2S, and resulted in a maximal Mo recovery at pH 2 (50%), while maximal recoveries of Ni and Co were observed at pH 4 (56% and 60%, respectively). Real leachate gave a lower metals recovery efficiency compared with synthetic leachate, which can be attributed to changes in the pH, nature of leachant, co-precipitation of Zn and competition for S(2-) ions.

  18. The Study of LeachateTreatment by Using Three Advanced Oxidation Process Based Wet air Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behroz Karimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wet air oxidation is regarded as appropriate options for wastewater treatment with average organic compounds. The general purpose of this research is to determine the efficiency of three wet air oxidation methods, wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and absorption with activated carbon in removing organic matter and nitrogenous compounds from Isfahan's urban leachate. A leachate sample with the volume of 1.5 liters entered into a steel reactor with the volume of three liters and was put under a 10-bar pressure, at temperatures of 100, 200, and 300[degree sign] as well as three retention times of 30, 60, and 90 minutes. The sample was placed at 18 stages of leachate storage ponds in Isfahan Compost Plant with the volume of 20 liters, using three WPO, WAO methods and a combination of WAO/GAC for leachate pre-treatment. Thirty percent of pure oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were applied as oxidation agents. The COD removal efficiency in WAO method is 7.8-33.3%, in BOD is 14.7-50.6%, the maximum removal percentage (efficiency for NH4-N is 53.3% and for NO3-N is 56.4-73.9%. The removal efficiency of COD and BOD5 is 4.6%-34 and 24%-50 respectively in WPO method. Adding GAC to the reactor, the removal efficiency of all parameters was improved. The maximum removal efficiency was increased 48% for COD, 31%-43.6 for BOD5 by a combinational method, and the ratio of BOD5/COD was also increased to 90%. In this paper, WAO and WPO process was used for Leachate pre-treatment and WAO/GAC combinational process was applied for improving the organic matter removal and leachate treatment; it was also determined that the recent process is much more efficient in removing resistant organic matter.

  19. Plants' use of leachate derived from municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revel, J.C.; Morard, P.; Bailly, J.R.; Labbe, H.; Berthout, C.; Kaemmerer, M.

    1999-08-01

    Leachate was collected from a watertight pit at a landfill center dealing mainly with household refuse and plant waste. This effluent was characterized by a moderate organic matter content, a pH slightly higher than neutral and strong electrical conductivity. This latter was due to the presence of chlorides, Na, K, and ammonium. The organic content could be divided into two fractions: Fraction A consisting of large molecules and Fraction B of smaller, more acidic molecules. The presence of phenols could be identified in the leachate as a whole. A biological treatment of this leachate, involving methanization followed by aerated lagooning, was set up on the site: this led to a reduction of nearly 60% in the organic content and almost total elimination of the ammonium. This treatment was not however sufficient to allow direct evacuation of the resulting effluent into the surface ground water. As heavy metals were absent from this effluent, the leachates from this landfill site could possibly be envisaged in the fertilization of soil-grown crops or for furrow irrigation-fertilization of tree plantations. The effect of irrigating soil-grown plants with a solution of leachate was examined using pots of ryegrass (Lolium sp.). Application of solutions containing dilutions of 1 to 400 mL L{sup {minus}1} of this effluent had a highly favorable effect on plant growth. Toxicity phenomena were apparent above this concentration. The optimum effect on ryegrass growth, under the conditions of this trial, was obtained by watering each pot with 30 mL of a solution containing 400 mL L{sup {minus}1} of leachate, every 2 d. This solution improved water and N nutrition in these plants.

  20. The study of leachate treatment by using three advanced oxidation process based wet air oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Behroz; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Ebrahimi, Asghar; Mokhtari, Mehdi

    2013-01-02

    Wet air oxidation is regarded as appropriate options for wastewater treatment with average organic compounds. The general purpose of this research is to determine the efficiency of three wet air oxidation methods, wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and absorption with activated carbon in removing organic matter and nitrogenous compounds from Isfahan's urban leachate. A leachate sample with the volume of 1.5 liters entered into a steel reactor with the volume of three liters and was put under a 10-bar pressure, at temperatures of 100, 200, and 300° as well as three retention times of 30, 60, and 90 minutes. The sample was placed at 18 stages of leachate storage ponds in Isfahan Compost Plant with the volume of 20 liters, using three WPO, WAO methods and a combination of WAO/GAC for leachate pre-treatment. Thirty percent of pure oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were applied as oxidation agents. The COD removal efficiency in WAO method is 7.8-33.3%, in BOD is 14.7-50.6%, the maximum removal percentage (efficiency) for NH4-N is 53.3% and for NO3-N is 56.4-73.9%. The removal efficiency of COD and BOD5 is 4.6%-34 and 24%-50 respectively in WPO method. Adding GAC to the reactor, the removal efficiency of all parameters was improved. The maximum removal efficiency was increased 48% for COD, 31%-43.6 for BOD5 by a combinational method, and the ratio of BOD5/COD was also increased to 90%. In this paper, WAO and WPO process was used for Leachate pre-treatment and WAO/GAC combinational process was applied for improving the organic matter removal and leachate treatment; it was also determined that the recent process is much more efficient in removing resistant organic matter.

  1. Elements in cottonwood trees as an indicator of ground water contaminated by landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, James A.; Christenson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Ground water at the Norman Landfill Research Site is contaminated by a leachate plume emanating from a closed, unlined landfill formerly operated by the city of Norman, Oklahoma, Ground water contaminated by the leachate plume is known to be elevated in the concentration of many, organic and inorganic constituents. Specific conductance, alkalinity, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, boron, sodium, strontium, and deuterium in ground water are considered to be indicators of the leachate plume at this site. Leaf samples of broad-leafed cottonwood, Populus deltoides, were collected from 57 sites around the closed landfill. Cottonwood, a phreatophyte or “well plant,” functions as a & surrogate well and serves as a ground water quality sampler. The leaf samples were combusted to ash and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation for 35 elements and by prompt-gamma instrumental neutron activation, for boron. A monitoring well was located within a few meters of a sampled cottonwood tree at 15 of the 57 sites, and ground water samples were collected from these monitoring wells simultaneously with a leaf sample. The chemical analyses of the ground water and leaf samples from these 15 sites indicated that boron, bromine, sodium, and strontium concentrations in leaves were significantly correlated with leachate indicator constituents in ground water. A point-plot map of selected percentiles indicated high concentrations of boron, bromine, and sodium in leaf ash from sites downgradient of the most recent landfill and from older landfills nearby. Data from leaf analysis greatly extended the known areal extent of the leachate plume previously determined from a network of monitoring wells and geophysical surveys. This phytosgeochemical study provided a cost-effective method for assessing the extent of a leachate plume from an old landfill. Such a method may be useful as a preliminary sampling tool to guide the design of hydrogeochemical and geophysical studies.

  2. Energy consumption by forward osmosis treatment of landfill leachate for water recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Syeed Md; Zou, Shiqiang; Brazil, Brian; Novak, John T; He, Zhen

    2017-03-22

    Forward osmosis (FO) is an alternative approach for treating landfill leachate with potential advantages of reducing leachate volume and recovering high quality water for direct discharge or reuse. However, energy consumption by FO treatment of leachate has not been examined before. Herein, the operational factors such as recirculation rates and draw concentrations were studied for their effects on the quantified energy consumption by an FO system treating actual leachate collected from two different landfills. It was found that the energy consumption increased with a higher recirculation rate and decreased with a higher draw concentration, and higher water recovery tended to reduce energy consumption. The highest energy consumption was 0.276±0.033kWhm(-3) with the recirculation rate of 110mLmin(-1) and 1-M draw concentration, while the lowest of 0.005±0.000kWhm(-3) was obtained with 30mLmin(-1) recirculation and 3-M draw concentration. The leachate with lower concentrations of the contaminants had a much lower requirement for energy, benefited from its higher water recovery. Osmotic backwashing appeared to be more effective for removing foulants, but precise understanding of membrane fouling and its controlling methods will need a long-term study. The results of this work have implied that FO treatment of leachate could be energy efficient, especially with the use of a suitable draw solute that can be regenerated in an energy efficient way and/or through combination with other treatment technologies that can reduce contaminant concentrations before FO treatment, which warrants further investigation.

  3. Relationships between antibiotics and antibiotic resistance gene levels in municipal solid waste leachates in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Huang, Zhiting; Yang, Kai; Graham, David; Xie, Bing

    2015-04-01

    Many studies have quantified antibiotics and antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) levels in soils, surface waters, and waste treatment plants (WTPs). However, similar work on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachates is limited, which is concerning because antibiotics disposal is often in the MSW stream. Here we quantified 20 sulfonamide (SA), quinolone (FQ), tetracycline (TC), macrolide (ML), and chloramphenicol (CP) antibiotics, and six ARGs (sul1, sul2, tetQ, tetM, ermB, and mefA) in MSW leachates from two Shanghai transfer stations (TS; sites Hulin (HL) and Xupu (XP)) and one landfill reservoir (LR) in April and July 2014. Antibiotic levels were higher in TS than LR leachates (985 ± 1965 ng/L vs 345 ± 932 ng/L, n = 40), which was because of very high levels in the HL leachates (averaging at 1676 ± 5175 ng/L, n = 40). The mean MLs (3561 ± 8377 ng/L, n = 12), FQs (975 ± 1608 ng/L, n = 24), and SAs (402 ± 704 ng/L, n = 42) classes of antibiotics were highest across all samples. ARGs were detected in all leachate samples with normalized sul2 and ermB levels being especially elevated (-1.37 ± 1.2 and -1.76 ± 1.6 log (copies/16S-rDNA), respectively). However, ARG abundances did not correlate with detected antibiotic levels, except for tetW and tetQ with TC levels (r = 0.88 and 0.81, respectively). In contrast, most measured ARGs did significantly correlate with heavy metal levels (p antibiotics can prevail in MSW leachates and landfills may be an underappreciated as a source of antibiotics and ARGs to the environment.

  4. Comparisons of Three Advanced Oxidation Processes in Organic Matter Removal from Esfahan Composting Factory Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    karimi B.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objectives: Wet air oxidation (WAO is one of the advanced oxidation process which is mostly used to reduce organic matter concentration from industrial wastewater, toxic and non biodegradable substance and solid waste leachate.The objective of this paper is comparisons of three advance oxidation in organic matter removal in different conditions from Esfahan composing factory leachateMaterial and Methods: The experiment was carried out by adding 1.5 Lit pretreated leachate sample to 3Lit autoclave reactor and adding 10 bar pressure at temperature of 100, 200 and 300 °C and pressure (10 bars with retention time of 30, 60 and 90 min. leachate sample in 18 stages from composting factory in Isfahan in the volume of 20 lit was taken and the three methodsWAO, WPO, and a combination of WAO/GAC were used for pre-treatments. Pure oxygen and 30% hydrogen peroxide was used as oxidation agent.Results: The result shows significant improvement on the removal rate of COD (7.8-33.3%, BOD5 (14.7-50.6%by WAO process.The removal efficiency of 4.6-34% COD, 24-50% BOD, was observed in the reactor.Adding theGACto the reactor improved removal efficiency of all parameters.Combination Process (WAO/GAC removed 48% of COD, 31-43.6% of BOD.Combination process demonstrated higher efficiency than two other previous methods as BOD5/COD ratio of 90% achieved.Conclusion: The WAO process presented in this paper is efficient for pretreatment of leachate, And the modified WPO process remove organic materials and ammonia moreover WAO/GAC can be considered as an excellent alternative treatment for removing reluctant organic matter (COD, BOD5 and organic nitrogen compounds, which found in leachate.

  5. Interaction of Uranium Mill Tailings Leachate with Soils and Clay Liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, G. W.; Campbell, A. C.; Sherwood, D. R.; Strickert, R. G.; Phillips, S. J.

    1980-06-01

    This study evaluates leachate-soil interactions that will take place at the Morton Ranch for certain disposal alternatives. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the following: 1) physical and chemical characteristics of geologic materials from the Morton Ranch. 2) physical and chemical characteristics of acid leach tailings and tallings solution, 3) leaching tests with selected tailings materials and leach solutions to evaluate the leachability of contaminants with time under specific disposal alternatives, 4) adsorption studies measuring the sorption characteristics of heavy metals and radionuclides on the geologic materials at Morton Ranch, 5) clay liner stability tests to evaluate effects of acid leachate on clay mineralogy and clay permeability.

  6. The Characteristics of Leachate and Groundwater Pollution at Municipal Solid Waste Landfill of Ibb City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail A. Sabahi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Yemen one of the developing country suffering from water pollution. Landfill is one of the source of water pollution. There are several boreholes located close to Ibb landfill used for drinking water. A study of composition of landfill leachate and groundwater pollution was conducted at Ibb landfill, which is located at Al-Sahool area, north of Ibb City, Yemen. Approach: The leachate was sampled at three different locations of the landfill, at the landfill itself and 15 and 20 m downstream of this landfill. Groundwater samples collected from 5 boreholes to study possible impact of leachate percolation into groundwater. Leachate and groundwater samples were collected during dry season only, due to the excessive generation of leachate during this season. Objective of this study was significant to assess degree of groundwater pollution due to Ibb landfill leachate at Al-Sahool area. The leachate and groundwater were physically and chemically characterized by using spectrophotometer HACH, BOD Trak HACH, flame photometer (PFP 7 and Inductively Coupled Plasma of Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES model Vista MPX. Parameters measured were pH, temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Fluoride (F, Chloride (Cl, Sulphate (SO4, Nitrites (NO2, Nitrates (NO3, ammonia-N (NH3-N, heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Cu, major cations (Na, Mg, Ca, K, Fe and biological parameters (COD, BOD5 and coliform group bacteria. Results: The results showed that, leachate at landfill most likely in methanogenic phase, based on the alkaline pH value recorded (pH = 8.46. The results also showed that 4 out of 5 boreholes were contaminated, where concentration of physico-chemical parameters are above the standard acceptable levels which required for drinking water adapted by Yemen's ministry of water and environment and by word standard. Conclusion: Therefore, landfill is dangerous for environment so

  7. Assessment of soybean (Glycine max vigour by the seed leachate conductivity assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Knypl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conductivity of seed leachates is inversely correlated with germination and growth of soybean, Glycine max (L. Merr., at low temperatures. It is concluded that the seed leachate conductivity assay can be employed to assess soybean seed vigour. Cold tolerance of soybean can markedly be enhanced by increasing the hydration level of the seeds to at least 20% by means of exposure of the seeds to HRH (water saturated atmosphere for 4 days. It is suggested that increased vigour following HRH exposure is due to re-establishment of the cell membrane integrity in the course of exposure.

  8. Copper speciation in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash leachates; Kopparformer i lakvatten fraan energiaskor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Susanna; Gustafsson, Jon Petter [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden); Schaik, Joris van; Berggren Kleja, Dan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Hees, Patrick van [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The formation of copper (Cu) complexes with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) may increase the total amount of Cu released but at the same time reduce its toxicity. In this study, DOC in a MSWI bottom ash leachate was characterized and the Cu-binding properties of different DOC fractions in the ash leachate and in a soil solution were studied. This knowledge may be used for improved environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash in engineering applications. The Cu{sup 2+} activity at different pH values was measured potentiometrically using a Cu-ion selective electrode (Cu-ISE). Experimental copper complexation results were compared to speciation calculations made in Visual MINTEQ with the NICA-Donnan model and the Stockholm Humic Model (SHM). The MSWI bottom ash leachate contained a larger proportion of hydrophilic organic carbon than the investigated soil solution and other natural waters. The hydrophilic fraction of both samples showed Cu{sup 2+} binding properties similar to that of the bulk, cation-exchanged, leachate. For the ash leachate, the pH dependence of the Cu activity was not correctly captured by neither the SHM nor the NICA-Donnan model, but for the soil solution the model predictions of Cu speciation were in good agreement with the obtained results. The complex formation properties of the ash DOC appears to be less pH-dependent than what is assumed for DOC in natural waters. Hence, models calibrated for natural DOC may give inconsistent simulations of Cu-DOC complexation in MSWI bottom ash leachate. A Biotic Ligand Model for Daphnia Magna was used to provide an estimate of the copper concentrations at LC50 for a simulated bottom ash leachate. It was concluded that the Cu concentrations in certain bottom ash leachates are high enough to pose an ecotoxicological risk; however, after dilution and soil sorption, the risks for neighboring water bodies are most likely negligible. Three processes were

  9. Seasonal dynamics in leachate hydrochemistry and natural attenuation in surface run-off water from a tropical landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangimbulude, Jubhar C; van Breukelen, Boris M; Krave, Agna S; van Straalen, Nico M; Röling, Wilfred F M

    2009-02-01

    Open waste dump systems are still widely used in Indonesia. The Jatibarang landfill receives 650-700 tons of municipal waste per day from the city of Semarang, Central Java. Some of the leachate from the landfill flows via several natural and collection ponds to a nearby river. The objectives of the study were to identify seasonal landfill leachate characteristics in this surface water and to determine the occurrence of natural attenuation, in particular the potential for biodegradation, along the flow path. Monthly measurements of general landfill leachate parameters, organic matter-related factors and redox-related components revealed that leachate composition was influenced by seasonal precipitation. In the dry season, electrical conductivity and concentrations of BOD, COD, N-organic matter, ammonia, sulphate and calcium were significantly higher (1.1-2.3 fold) than during the wet season. Dilution was the major natural attenuation process acting on leachate. Heavy metals had the highest impact on river water quality. Between the landfill and the river, a fivefold dilution occurred during the dry season due to active springwater infiltration, while rainwater led to a twofold dilution in the wet season. Residence time of leachate in the surface leachate collection system was less than 70 days. Field measurements and laboratory experiments showed that during this period hardly any biodegradation of organic matter and ammonia occurred (less than 25%). However, the potential for biodegradation of organic matter and ammonia was clearly revealed during 700 days of incubation of leachate in the laboratory (over 65%). If the residence time of leachate discharge can be increased to allow for biodegradation processes and precipitation reactions, the polluting effects of leachate on the river can be diminished.

  10. Analysis of Bio-Obtainable Endocrine Disrupting Metals in River Water and Sediment, Sewage Influent/Effluent, Sludge, Leachate, and Concentrated Leachate, in the Irish Midlands Shannon Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette M. Reid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of an acid digestion and subsequent solid-phase extraction (SPE procedure were implemented as preliminary treatments prior to quantifying the levels of potentially endocrine disrupting metals (EDMs in a variety of solid and liquid matrices. These included (solid river sediment, leachate sediment and sewage sludge and also (liquid river water, landfill leachate, concentrated leachate, sewage influent, and sewage effluent, sampled in the Irish Midlands. The total concentrations of cobalt (Co, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, and manganese (Mn, after extraction and preconcentration, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. Mercury (Hg in sediment and sludge was determined using cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS. For sewage sludge maximum values (mg/kgdw of 4700 Ni, 1642 Mn, 100.0 Cd, 3400 Zn, 36.70 Co, 750.0 Pb, 485.8 Cr, and 1003 Cu were determined whilst in leachate sediment, maximum values (mg/kgdw of 32.10 Ni, 815.0 Mn, 32.78 Cd, 230.3 Zn, 26.73 Co, 3525 Pb, 124.9 Cr, and 50.13 Cu were found. Over several months, the data showed elevated levels in sewage influents, effluents, and sludges compared to a battery of adjacent river water samples and corresponding sediments. There was a definite trend for target values for sediments to be exceeded, while intervention values were only exceeded for cadmium. Overall the pattern in terms of concentration was sewage > leachate > river matrices. A nonparametric assessment of the effect of sewage treatment method on median metal levels in sludge revealed statistically significant differences at the 95% level of confidence for Co, Cr, and Hg and at the 90% level of confidence for Cd.

  11. 含砷金矿细菌氧化提金废渣综合回收砷%Comprehensive Recovery of Arsenic from Bio-oxidation Gold Ore Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙光勇; 王卫亭; 杨军; 杨譞; 张永奎

    2011-01-01

    With bio-oxidation gold ore slag as raw material, arsenic was recycled from the slag. In arsenic leaching test, four factors had been studied including the usage of sodium hydroxide, leaching temperature, ratio of liquid to solid(L/S), and leaching time. In arsenic precipitate test, three factors including the initial solution pH, mole ratio between Ca and As and the reaction time had been studied. The optimum conditions for arsenic leaching include the optimal amount of NaOH of 240 g/L, 60 ℃, L/S = 4/l, 2 h. Under the optimum conditions, the leaching rate of arsenic was 85%. The optimum conditions for arsenic precipitating include the initial solution pH of 12. 0 and the mole ratio between Ca and As of 2 :1, 30 min, under which more than 97% of arsenic would be precipitated.%以细菌氧化提金废渣为原料,对其中所含的砷进行回收.分别考察了碱用量、浸出温度、液固比和浸出时间对砷浸出率的影响及溶液初始pH、钙砷摩尔比和沉淀时间对砷沉淀率的影响.通过单因素条件试验确定了浸砷的较优条件为:氢氧化钠浓度240 g/L,反应温度60℃,液固比4∶1,搅拌浸出2h.在副优条件下砷浸出率达到85%.从浸出液中沉砷的较优条件为:溶液初始pH=12.0,钙砷摩尔比2∶ 1,沉淀时间30 min.在优化条件下砷沉淀率达到97%以上.

  12. Mechanism of Kenaf Retting Using Aerobes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢士森; 陈季华; 黄秀宝

    2001-01-01

    The experimental results showed that the duration of microbial retting processing of kenaf fibers by using aerobic microbe was four times shorter than that by using anaerobic microbe. The residual gum percentage,breaking strength, breaking elongation and linear density of aerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers did not show significantly difference with that of anaerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers by ANOVA-Tukey's studentized test at a = 5% except for the softness. The bioenergetic principle and the calculation of the amount of ATP produced during the decomposition processing of kenaf gums were used to explain why the retting duration in the case of using aerobic microbes was much shorter than that of using anaerobic microbes.

  13. Therapeutic aspects of aerobic dance participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivill, M

    1995-01-01

    An ethnographic analysis of aerobic dance exercise culture was conducted to determine the impact of the culture on the mind-body connection. After a review of the predominant theories on the relationship between vigorous exercise and elevated mood, aerobic dance participants' experiences are reported to illustrate how cognitive experience and self-esteem may be influenced. Interviews revealed that some participants achieved a pleasantly altered state of consciousness and respite from depression and stress. The relationship of the work ethic to achievement of participant satisfaction is underscored.

  14. Transmission electron microscopy investigation of colloids and particles from landfill leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matura, Marek; Ettler, Vojtech; Klementová, Mariana

    2012-05-01

    Leachates collected at two (active and closed) municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills were examined for colloids and particles by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, selected area electron diffraction and for the chemical compositions of the filtrates after the filtration to 0.1 µm and ultrafiltration to 1 kDa (~ 1 nm). Six groups of colloids/particles in the range 5 nm to 5 µm were determined (in decreasing order of abundance): carbonates, phyllosilicates (clay minerals and micas), quartz, Fe-oxides, organics and others (salts, phosphates). Inorganic colloids/particles in leachates from the active landfill predominantly consist of calcite (CaCO(3)) and minor clay minerals and quartz (SiO(2)). The colloids/particles in the leachates from the closed landfill consist of all the observed groups with dominant phyllosilicates. Whereas calcite, Fe-oxides and phosphates can precipitate directly from the leachates, phyllosilicates and quartz are more probably either derived from the waste or formed by erosion of the geological environment of the landfill. Low amounts of organic colloids/particles were observed, indicating the predominance of organic molecules in the 'truly dissolved' fraction (fulvic compounds). Especially newly formed calcite colloids forming particles of 500 nm and stacking in larger aggregates can bind trace inorganic contaminants (metals/metalloids) and immobilize them in landfill environments.

  15. Characterization of DOM in landfill leachate polluted groundwater with electrospary LC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, L.; Alsberg, T.; Odham, G.

    2001-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter in leachate polluted groundwater, downgradient a landfill, was analysed with electrospray mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the DOM change qualitatively in the gradient, becoming more uniform in functional groups and hydrofobicity. Those changes may affect...... the DOM facilitated transport of pollutants....

  16. Systematic model development for partial nitrification of landfill leachate in a SBR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganigue, R.; Volcke, E.I.P.; Puig, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor (PN-SBR) treating raw urban landfill leachate. In order to enhance process insight (e.g. quantify interactions between aeration, CO2 stripping, alkalinity, pH, nitrification kinetics), a mathematical model has been set up...

  17. Remediation of leachate by composite NZVI-activated carbon in packed column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Yusmartini Eka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improper solid waste management at final disposal site can cause in environtmental problem. The surrounding water bodies could be affected by leachate from the solid waste decomposition process because leachate contains high concentration of BOD5, COD, ammonia, hydrocarbon suspended solid, and heavy metals. This problem has affected a final disposal site (named Sukawinatan in Palembang, Indonesia, which did not implement leachate management system. This paper propose a method to reduce BOD5, COD, Ammonia concentrations of the leachate in by applying composite nano zero valent iron (NZVI – activated carbon for the remediation system of the surrounding area of Sukawinatan final disposal. The performance of the method was evaluated in this study using laboratory porous column apparatus. The results showed that the composite NZVI-activated carbon can be used to reduce concentration of pollutants from water bodies. The removal efficiency of this method on BOD5, COD and ammonia are 94.81 %, 92.81 % dan 95.58 % respectively.

  18. Treatment of landfill leachate by using lateritic soil as a natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafalni; Lim, Han Khim; Ismail, Norli; Abustan, Ismail; Murshed, Mohamad Fared; Ahmad, Anees

    2012-12-15

    In this research, the capability of lateritic soil used as coagulant for the treatment of stabilized leachate from the Penang-Malaysia Landfill Site was investigated. The evaluation of lateritic soil coagulant in comparison with commercialized chemical coagulants, such as alum, was performed using conventional jar test experiments. The optimum pH and coagulant dosage were identified for the lateritic soil coagulant and the comparative alum coagulant. It was found that the application of lateritic soil coagulant was quite efficient in the removal of COD, color and ammoniacal-nitrogen content from the landfill leachate. The optimal pH value was 2.0, while 14 g/L of lateritic soil coagulant was sufficient in removing 65.7% COD, 81.8% color and 41.2% ammoniacal-nitrogen. Conversely, the optimal pH and coagulant dosage for the alum were pH 4.8 and 10 g/L respectively, where 85.4% COD, 96.4% color and 47.6% ammoniacal-nitrogen were removed from the same leachate sample. Additionally, the Sludge Volume Index (SVI) ratio of alum and lateritic soil coagulant was 53:1, which indicated that less sludge was produced and was an environmentally friendly product. Therefore, lateritic soil coagulant can be considered a viable alternative in the treatment of landfill leachate.

  19. Leachates analysis of glass from black and white and color televisions sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Kukla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to determine the content of selected elements in the glass from color and black and white television (TV sets. The amount of back taken TV sets in the Czech Republic increases annualy, which is associated with higher production of the waste glass. Currently there is 1.4 television sets for each household and the number of it should increase in future, because of higher standard of living and new technologies used. Waste glass treatment or landfilling may present, because of composition of the waste glass threat to the environment. One of the indicators of the polution from waste glass is leachate analysis, which can show us the content of hazardous substances in the waste glass, which can be released to the environment. A qualitative analysis of leachate samples was carried out by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The results showed concentration of potencionaly hazardous substances contained in leachate samples. This was especially content of aluminum, cadmium, chromium, copper, molybdenum, nickel, lead, tin and zinc. Results of analyzes of the aqueous extract of glass were confronted with the limits specified in the currently valid legislation. Based on the results there is clear that in the case of landfilling of the glass from television sets, there is possibility of the contamination of landfill leachate by the elements, which are presented in the glass.

  20. Treatment of landfill leachate by white rot fungus in combination with zeolite filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Kwan; Park, Se-Kun; Kim, Seung-Do

    2003-04-01

    This article presents the experimental work for the treatment of landfill leachate in a combined process using the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the natural zeolite Clinoptilolite. Clinoptilolite was used in a pretreatment step as a sink for ammonia nitrogen and, on average it reduced the levels of ammonia nitrogen, soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color by 72, 4.7, and 25%, respectively. The reductions by fungal treatment alone were 16.6, 21.5, and 31.2%, respectively. However, a reduction in nitrogen loading greatly enhanced fungal treatment efficiency. A high C/N ratio in the leachate was found preferable for the fungal treatment. With the synergy created by pretreatment and fungal growth that was stimulated by the addition of a growth medium, the process could remove ammonia nitrogen, soluble COD (SCOD) and color at levels as high as 81.5, 65, and 59%, respectively. The ratio of SBOD5/SCOD increased from 0.1 to 0.17 upon treatment, indicating that the process rendered the leachate more amenable to the biological process. This result suggested that the preliminary reduction of ammonia nitrogen was essential in making the fungal process practicable for landfill leachate treatment.

  1. Reactive transport modelling of biogeochemical processes and carbon isotope geochemistry inside a landfill leachate plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breukelen, Boris M; Griffioen, Jasper; Röling, Wilfred F M; van Verseveld, Henk W

    2004-06-01

    The biogeochemical processes governing leachate attenuation inside a landfill leachate plume (Banisveld, the Netherlands) were revealed and quantified using the 1D reactive transport model PHREEQC-2. Biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was simulated assuming first-order oxidation of two DOC fractions with different reactivity, and was coupled to reductive dissolution of iron oxide. The following secondary geochemical processes were required in the model to match observations: kinetic precipitation of calcite and siderite, cation exchange, proton buffering and degassing. Rate constants for DOC oxidation and carbonate mineral precipitation were determined, and other model parameters were optimized using the nonlinear optimization program PEST by means of matching hydrochemical observations closely (pH, DIC, DOC, Na, K, Ca, Mg, NH4, Fe(II), SO4, Cl, CH4, saturation index of calcite and siderite). The modelling demonstrated the relevance and impact of various secondary geochemical processes on leachate plume evolution. Concomitant precipitation of siderite masked the act of iron reduction. Cation exchange resulted in release of Fe(II) from the pristine anaerobic aquifer to the leachate. Degassing, triggered by elevated CO2 pressures caused by carbonate precipitation and proton buffering at the front of the plume, explained the observed downstream decrease in methane concentration. Simulation of the carbon isotope geochemistry independently supported the proposed reaction network.

  2. Hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor for the treatment of high-strength landfill leachate

    KAUST Repository

    Rizkallah, Marwan

    2013-07-15

    Performance assessment of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for the treatability of high-strength landfill leachate is relatively limited or lacking. This study examines the feasibility of treating high-strength landfill leachate using a hollow-fiber MBR. For this purpose, a laboratory-scale MBR was constructed and operated to treat leachate with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 9000-11,000 mg/l, a 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of 4000-6,000 mg/l, volatile suspended solids (VSS) of 300-500 mg/l, total nitrogen (TN) of 2000-6000 mg/l, and an ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) of 1800-4000 mg/l. VSS was used with the BOD and COD data to simulate the biological activity in the activated sludge. Removal efficiencies > 95-99% for BOD5, VSS, TN and NH3-N were attained. The coupled experimental and simulation results contribute in filling a gap in managing high-strength landfill leachate and providing guidelines for corresponding MBR application. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test organisms Daphnia Similis, seeds of Eruca sativa (arugula, and Allium cepa roots (onion. Analyses of color, pH, turbidity, conductivity, hardness, nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX, and metals were also carried out. The main results for Eruca sativa (arugula and Allium cepa (onion indicated that the diluted leachate 50% presented similar toxicity to the phenol solution of 1000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion. With the solution of Cr+6 concentrations of 3000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion were found. For analyses with Daphnia Similis the EC50 was 9.3% on average. This way it was possible to observe that biological tests are necessary to evaluate the pollution in the effluents or water bodies. These tests serve to determine the toxic potential of a chemical agent or complex mixture.

  4. Occurrence and Removal of Organic Micropollutants in Landfill Leachates Treated by Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oturan, Nihal; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Zhang, Hui; Mazeas, Laurent; Budzinski, Hélène; Le Menach, Karyn; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2015-10-20

    In recent years, electrochemical advanced oxidation processes have been shown to be an effective alternative for the removal of refractory organic compounds from water. This study is focused on the effective removal of recalcitrant organic matter (micropollutants, humic substances, etc.) present in municipal solid waste landfill leachates. A mixture of eight landfill leachates has been studied by the electro-Fenton process using a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon felt cathode or by the anodic oxidation process with a BDD anode. These processes exhibit great oxidation ability due to the in situ production of hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH), a highly powerful oxidizing species. Both electrochemical processes were shown to be efficient in the removal of dissolved total organic carbon (TOC) from landfill leachates. Regarding the electro-Fenton process, the replacement of the classical anode Pt by the anode BDD allows better performance in terms of dissolved TOC removal. The occurrence and removal yield of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 15 volatile organic compounds, 7 alkylphenols, 7 polychlorobiphenyls, 5 organochlorine pesticides, and 2 polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate were also investigated. Both electrochemical processes allow one to reach a quasicomplete removal (about 98%) of these organic micropollutants.

  5. Mono- and diesters from o-phthalic acid in leachates from different European landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, S.; Eilertsson, J.; Ledin, Anna;

    2003-01-01

    Leachates from 17 different landfills in Europe were, analysed with respect to phthalates, i.e. phthalic acid diesters (PAEs) and their degradation products phthalic acid monoesters (PMEs) and ortho-phthalic acid (PA). Diesters are ubiquitous and the human possible exposure and potential to human...

  6. Selecting and utilizing Populus and Salix for landfill covers: implications for leachate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Edmund O. Bauer

    2007-01-01

    The success of using Populus and Salix for phytoremediation has prompted further use of leachate as a combination of irrigation and fertilization for the trees. A common protocol for such efforts has been to utilize a limited number of readily-available genotypes with decades of deployment in other applications, such as fiber or...

  7. APPLICATION OF THERMAL PLASMA FOR INERTIZATION OF SLUDGE PRODUCED DURING TREATMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Leal Vieira Cubas

    Full Text Available One of the outstanding issues of concern by governments and society in general relates to the final destination of solid waste, which can bring severe impacts on social, political, economic and environmental dimensions. The sustainable development of enterprises and industries goes for the care of the planet, thus ensuring the quality of life for future generations and the planet. The disposal of municipal waste in landfills is the technique most commonly employed for the remediation of solid residues. The residues undergo decomposition beneath the soil and in the presence of water this generates leachate, which percolates down to the bottom of the landfill through drainage. This drained liquid is collected from the landfill installations and subjected to treatment, which involves physico-chemical and biological processes. Landfill leachate commonly contains heavy metals due to the incorrect disposal of products such as fluorescent bulbs and batteries. In this context, a method for the treatment of sludge originating from the physicochemical remediation of leachate using thermal plasma is proposed in this paper. The efficiency of the method was verified by monitoring the total organic carbon content, water content and density of the sludge. The quantity of metals present in the samples was determined before and after pyrolysis by thermal plasma using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray fluorescence (XRF spectrometry techniques. The results show that the leachate treatment method used was efficient, presenting the best results for the samples of iron and zinc.

  8. Assessment of groundwater contamination by landfill leachate: a case in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-López, Jaime A; Ramírez-Hernández, Jorge; Lázaro-Mancilla, Octavio; Carreón-Diazconti, Concepción; Garrido, Miguel Martín-Loeches

    2008-01-01

    In México, uncontrolled landfills or open-dumps are regularly used as "sanitary landfills". Interactions between landfills/open-dumps and shallow unconfined aquifers have been widely documented. Therefore, evidence showing the occurrence of aquifer contamination may encourage Mexican decision makers to enforce environmental regulations. Traditional methods such as chemical analysis of groundwater, hydrological descriptions, and geophysical studies including vertical electrical sounding (VES) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) were used for the identification and delineation of a contaminant plume in a shallow aquifer. The Guadalupe Victoria landfill located in Mexicali is used as a model study site. This landfill has a shallow aquifer of approximately 1m deep and constituted by silty sandy soil that may favor the transport of landfill leachate. Geophysical studies show a landfill leachate contaminant plume that extends for 20 and 40 m from the SE and NW edges of the landfill, respectively. However, the zone of the leachate's influence stretches for approximately 80 m on both sides of the landfill. Geochemical data corroborates the effects of landfill leachate on groundwater.

  9. Investigation of organic, inorganic and synthetic adsorbents for the pretreatment of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, H; Fernandes, L; Tezel, F H

    2008-05-01

    An investigation into the use of organic, inorganic and synthetic adsorbents for the pretreatment of landfill leachate, generated by the City of Ottawa Trail Road Landfill, was carried out. The purpose of this project was to reduce the concentration of contaminants in order to meet the local Sewer Use By-Laws, prior to transporting the leachate from the generating site to the local municipal sewage treatment plant, and thereby reducing the disposal fees. Peat moss, compost, clinoptilolite, basalt and two types of activated carbon (DSR-A and F400) were investigated to determine the adsorption capacity for contaminants from leachate. Kinetic studies were also performed. The results based on batch adsorption isotherms show that peat moss has the highest adsorption capacity for boron (B) and barium (Ba), compared with the other adsorbents. Also peat moss has good removals of Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Total Organic Carbon (TOC), and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX), but these are lower than the removals obtained with activated carbon. Because of its relatively low cost and higher adsorption of B and Ba, peat moss was selected as the filter media for the column studies. The treated leachate was tested for B, Ba, TKN, carbonaceous biological oxygen demand (CBOD5) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The breakthrough curves for B and Ba showed the effectiveness of peat moss in removing these contaminants.

  10. Adsorption of valuable metals from leachates of mobile phone wastes using biopolymers and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazycki, Maria A; Tanabe, Eduardo H; Bertuol, Daniel A; Dotto, Guilherme L

    2017-03-01

    In this work, chitin (CTN), chitosan (CTS) and activated carbon (AC) were used as adsorbents to recover valuable metals from leachates of mobile phone wastes. The mobile phone wastes (contactors) were collected and characterized. The valuable metals were extracted by thiourea leaching. The adsorption of valuable metals from leachates was studied according to the kinetic and equilibrium viewpoints. It was found that the contactors were composed by Au, Ni, Cu and Sn. The thiourea leaching provided extraction percentages of 68.6% for Au, 22.1% for Ni and 2.8% for Cu. Sn was not extracted. The leachate presented 17.5 mg L(-1) of Au, 324.9 mg L(-1) of Ni and 573.1 mg L(-1) of Cu. The adsorption was fast, being the equilibrium attained within 120 min. The adsorption of Au, Ni and Cu onto CTN and AC followed the Langmuir model, while, the adsorption of these metals onto CTS, followed the Freundlich model. Removal percentages higher than 95% were obtained for all metals, depending of the type and amount of adsorbent. It was demonstrated that the adsorption onto chitin, chitosan and activated carbon can be an alternative to recover valuable metals from leachates of mobile phone wastes.

  11. Size charge fractionation of metals in municipal solid waste landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oygard, Joar Karsten; Gjengedal, Elin; Røyset, Oddvar

    2007-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfill leachates from 9 Norwegian sites were size charge fractionated in the field, to obtain three fractions: particulate and colloidal matter >0.45microm, free anions/non-labile complexes 0.45microm. Cr, Co and Ni were on the contrary present mostly as non-labile complexes (69-79%) 0.45microm. The particulate and colloidal matter >0.45microm was mainly inorganic; indicating that the metals present in this fraction were bound as inorganic compounds. The fractionation gives important information on the mobility and potential bioavailability of the metals investigated, in contrast to the total metal concentrations usually reported. To study possible changes in respective metal species in leachate in aerated sedimentation tanks, freshly sampled leachate was stored for 48h, and subsequently fractionated. This showed that the free heavy metals are partly immobilized during storage of leachate with oxygen available. The largest effects were found for Cd and Zn. The proportion of As and Cr present as particulate matter or colloids >0.45microm also increased.

  12. Characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in leachate with different landfill ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Shouliang; XI Beidou; YU Haichan; HE Liansheng; FAN Shilei; LIU Hongliang

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in leachate with different landfill ages through the chemical, spectroscopic, and elemental analysis. Humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and hydrophilic (HyI) fractions were isolated and purified by the XAD-8 resin combined with the cation exchange resin method. The analytical results of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs) revealed that the fluorescence peaks were protein-like fluorescence for young landfill leachate, while the fluorescence peaks for medium and old landfill leachate were humic-like and fulvic-like fluorescence, respectively. Elemental analysis showed that carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen content decreased with landfill age, while the oxygen content increased. Moreover, the nitrogen content in these isolated fractions followed: HA > HyI > FA. The results of elemental analysis, FT-IR, and fluorescence EEMs also confirmed that aromatic carbons and portions of aliphatic functional groups were more abundant in leachate samples with increasing landfill age.

  13. Mobilization of iron and arsenic from soil by construction and demolition debris landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sikora, Saraya; Kim, Hwidong; Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy

    2012-05-01

    Column experiments were performed to examine (a) the potential for leachate from construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills to mobilize naturally-occurring iron and arsenic from soils underlying such facilities and (b) the ability of crushed limestone to remove these aqueous phase pollutants. In duplicate columns, water was added to a 30-cm layer of synthetic C&D debris, with the resulting leachate serially passed through a 30-cm soil layer containing iron and arsenic and a 30-cm crushed limestone layer. This experiment was conducted for two different soil types (one high in iron (10,400mg/kg) and the second high in iron (5400mg/kg) and arsenic (70mg/kg)); also monitored were control columns for both soil types with water infiltration alone. Despite low iron concentrations in the simulated C&D debris leachate, elevated iron concentrations were observed when leachate passed through the soils; reductive dissolution was concluded to be the cause of iron mobilization. In the soil containing elevated arsenic, increased iron mobilization from the soil was accompanied by a similar but delayed arsenic mobilization. Since arsenic sorbs to oxidized iron soil minerals, reductive dissolution of these minerals results in arsenic mobilization. Crushed limestone significantly reduced iron (to values below the detection limit of 0.01mg/L in most cases); however, arsenic was not removed to any significant extent.

  14. EFEKTIVITAS ECENG GONDOK (Echhornia crassipes DALAM PENYERAPAN KADMIUM (Cd PADA LEACHATE TPA GUNUNG TUGEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lestari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Leachate is liquid of result organic garbage that contain substance is dissolved and suspension as decomposition by microorganism. Leachate contain material organic with high level and many formed at landfill with open dumping system. Material organic in leachate can be reduced by phytoremediation with water hyacinth (Echhornia crassipes. The aim of research are know large closure of water hyacinth, long residence time and the best interaction to reduce the levels of material organic in leachate. Method of research was designed experimental based on Completely Randomized Design (CRD with Factorial Design. The first factor are closing large percentage of water hyacinth (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% and the second factor are long residence time (4 days, 5 days and 6 days. Result of research showed that is closing large of 75% is the best treatment to reducing level of Cd that is 29,279%. and long residence time of 6 days is the best treatment to reducing level of Cd that is 27,211%. Interaction closing large of 75% and long residence time of 6 days is the best treatment to reducing level of Cd that is 39,770%

  15. Marine Microcosm Experiments on Effects of Copper and Tributylin-Based Antifouling Paint Leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    several years to examine the effects on benthos of common harbor pollutants, such as sewage nutrients, heavy metals, excess heat, fresh water, and...EFFECTS OF ANTIFOULING LEACHATES ON TWO SPECIES OF CORAL INTRODUCTION Many species of inshore stony corals are potentially useful as bioindicators of

  16. Geophysical monitoring of recirculation of leachate on landfill sites in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruiver, P.P.; Westerhoff, R.S.; Noorlandt, R.P.; Hoekstra, N.N.; Woelders, H.; Vossen, W.J. van

    2009-01-01

    Geophysical investigations were carried out on two modern landfill sites in the Netherlands. The objective of the geo-electrical and EM31 measurements was to reveal the effect of recirculation of leachate on homogenising moisture content in the waste to stimulate the process of attenuation. At Vlagh

  17. Limiting Factors for Microbial Fe(III)-Reduction In a Landfill Leachate Polluted Aquifer (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Heron, Gorm; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    Aquifer sediment samples from two locations within the anaerobic leachate plume of a municipal landfill were compared with respect to microbiology (especially Fe(III)-reduction) and geochemistry. The samples close to the landfill were characterized by low contents of Fe(III), whereas samples from...

  18. Cytogenetic effects of leachates from tannery solid waste on the somatic cells of Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Saurabh; Chauhan, L K S; Pande, P N; Gupta, S K

    2004-04-01

    The contamination of surface- and groundwater by the leaching of solid wastes generated by industrial activities as a result of water runoff and rainfall is a matter of great concern. The leachates from tannery solid waste (TSW), a major environmental pollutant, were examined for their possible genotoxic effects on the somatic cells of Vicia faba. Leachates were prepared from solid wastes procured from leather-tanning industrial sites, and V. faba seedlings were exposed to three test concentrations, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%, through soil and aqueous media for 5 days. The root tips examined for cytogenetic damage revealed that leachate of TSW significantly inhibited the mitotic index and induced significantly frequent chromosomal and mitotic aberrations (CA/MA) in a dose-dependent manner. The chemical analysis of TSW samples revealed that the chief constituents were chromium and nickel, which may cause genetic abnormalities. The frequency of aberrations was found to be higher in the root meristematic cells of Vicia faba exposed through the aqueous medium than those exposed through the soil medium. The results of the present study indicated that contamination of potable water bodies by leachates of TSW may cause genotoxicity. For the biomonitoring of complex mixtures of toxicants with the V. faba bioassay, the use of the aqueous medium seems to be a more promising method than the use of the soil medium.

  19. Comparison of long-term performances and final microbial compositions of anaerobic reactors treating landfill leachate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calli, B.; Mertoglu, B.; Roest, C.; Inanc, B.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory scale anaerobic upflow filter, sludge blanket and hybrid bed reactors were operated for 860 days in the treatment of high ammonia landfill leachate. Organic loading was gradually increased from 1.3 to 23.5 kg COD/m3 day in the start-up period and then fluctuated according to the COD conce

  20. Natural attenuation processes in landfill leachate plumes at three Danish sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Tuxen, Nina; Reitzel, Lotte;

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of comprehensive core and fringe field studies at three Danish landfill sites. The goal of the research activities is to provide a holistic description of core and fringe attenuation processes for xenobiotic organic compounds in landfill leachate plumes. The appr...

  1. Irrigating poplar energy crops with landfill leachate negatively affects soil micro- and meso-fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, David R; Zalesny, Jill A; Zalesny, Ronald S; Wiese, Adam H

    2011-10-01

    Increased municipal solid waste generated worldwide combined with substantial demand for renewable energy has prompted testing and deployment of woody feedstock production systems that reuse and recycle wastewaters as irrigation and fertilization. Populus selections are ideal for such systems given their fast growth, extensive root systems, and high water usage rates. Maintaining ecological sustainability (i.e., the capacity for an ecosystem to maintain its function and retain its biodiversity over time) during tree establishment and development is an important component of plantation success, especially for belowground faunal populations. To determine the impact of solid waste leachate on soil micro- and meso-fauna, we compared soilfrom eight different Populus clones receiving municipal solid waste landfill leachate irrigation with clones receiving fertilized (N, P K) well water irrigation. Microfauna (i.e., nematodes) communities were more diverse in control soils. Mesofauna (i.e., insects) were associated with all clones; however, they were four times more abundant around trees found within the control plot than those that received leachate treatments. Nematode and insect abundance varied among Populus clones yet insect diversity was greater in the leachate-treated soils. Phytotechnologies must allow for soil faunal sustainability, as upsetting this balance could lead to great reductions in phytotechnology efficacy.

  2. Removal of hydrogen sulfide gas and landfill leachate treatment using coal bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C Y; Hesu, P H; Yang, D H

    2001-06-01

    Coal bottom ashes produced from three thermal power plants were used in column and batch experiments to investigate the adsorption capacity of the coal ash. Hydrogen sulfide and leachates collected from three sanitary landfill sites were used as adsorbate gas and solutions, respectively. Experimental results showed that coal bottom ash could remove H2S from waste gas or reduce the concentrations of various pollutants in the leachate. Each gram of bottom ash could remove up to 10.5 mg of H2S. In treating the landfill leachate, increasing ash dosage increased the removal efficiency but decreased the adsorption amount per unit mass of ash. For these tested ashes, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH3-N, total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN), P, Fe3+, Mn2+, and Zn2+ were 36.4-50, 24.2-39.4, 27.0-31.1, 82.2-92.9, 93.8-96.5, 93.7-95.4, and 80.5-82.2%, respectively; the highest adsorption capacities for those parameters were 3.5-5.6, 0.22-0.63, 0.36-0.45, 0.027-0.034, 0.050-0.053, 0.029-0.032, and 0.006 mg/g of bottom ash, respectively. The adsorption of pollutants in the leachate conformed to Freundlich's adsorption model.

  3. Aerobic exercise training in modulation of aerobic physical fitness and balance of burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Zizi M. Ibrahim; El-Refay, Basant H.; Ali, Rania Reffat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the impact of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity, balance, and treadmill time in patients with thermal burn injury. [Subjects and Methods] Burned adult patients, aged 20–40 years (n=30), from both sexes, with second degree thermal burn injuries covering 20–40% of the total body surface area (TBSA), were enrolled in this trial for 3 months. Patients were randomly divided into; group A (n=15), which performed an aerobic exercise program 3 days/week for ...

  4. Characterizing the transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of organic wastes and digestates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Yang, E-mail: yang.zeng@irstea.fr [Irstea, UR GERE, 17 avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, F-35000 Rennes (France); Guardia, Amaury de; Daumoin, Mylene; Benoist, Jean-Claude [Irstea, UR GERE, 17 avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia emissions varied depending on the nature of wastes and the treatment conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen losses resulted from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification can be estimated from biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification was the main process contributing to N losses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrification rate was negatively correlated to stripping rate of ammonia nitrogen. - Abstract: The transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of seven wastes were studied in ventilated air-tight 10-L reactors at 35 Degree-Sign C. Studied wastes included distinct types of organic wastes and their digestates. Ammonia emissions varied depending on the kind of waste and treatment conditions. These emissions accounted for 2-43% of the initial nitrogen. Total nitrogen losses, which resulted mainly from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification, accounted for 1-76% of the initial nitrogen. Ammonification was the main process responsible for nitrogen losses. An equation which allows estimating the ammonification flow of each type of waste according to its biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio was proposed. As a consequence of the lower contribution of storage and leachate rates, stripping and nitrification rates of ammonia nitrogen were negatively correlated. This observation suggests the possibility of promotingnitrification in order to reduce ammonia emissions.

  5. Effects of exogenous aerobic bacteria on methane production and biodegradation of municipal solid waste in bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Sai; Liu, Lei; Xue, Qiang; Yuan, Zhiming

    2016-09-01

    Landfill is the most common and efficient ways of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and the landfill biogas, mostly methane, is currently utilized to generate electricity and heat. The aim of this work is to study the effects and the role of exogenous aerobic bacteria mixture (EABM) on methane production and biodegradation of MSW in bioreactors. The results showed that the addition of EABM could effectively enhance hydrolysis and acidogenesis processes of MSW degradation, resulting in 63.95% reduction of volatile solid (VS), the highest methane production rate (89.83Lkg(-1) organic matter) ever recorded and a threefold increase in accumulative methane production (362.9L) than the control (127.1L). In addition, it is demonstrated that white-rot fungi (WRF) might further promote the methane production through highly decomposing lignin, but the lower pH value in leachate and longer acidogenesis duration may cause methane production reduced. The data demonstrated that methane production and biodegradation of MSW in bioreactors could be significantly enhanced by EABM via enhanced hydrolysis and acidogenesis processes, and the results are of great economic importance for the future design and management of landfill.

  6. Use of additive and pretreatment to control odors in municipal kitchen waste during aerobic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Yang, Qingyuan; Zhang, Zhiye; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Wenhai; Zhang, Difang

    2015-11-01

    The effects of adding a bulking agent and chemically pretreating municipal kitchen waste before aerobic composting were studied using a laboratory-scale system. The system used 20-L reactors and each test lasted 28days. The objective was to decrease NH3 and H2S emissions during composting. The bulking agent, dry cornstalks, was mixed with the kitchen waste to give a mixture containing 15% (wet weight) bulking agent. A combined treatment was also conducted, in which kitchen waste mixed with the bulking agent was pretreated with ferric chloride (FeCl3). Less leachate was produced by the composted kitchen waste mixed with bulking agent than by the kitchen waste alone, when the materials had reached the required maturity. The presence of cornstalks also caused less H2S to be emitted, but had little impact on the amount of NH3 emitted. The FeCl3 was found to act as an effective chemical flocculant, and its presence significantly decreased the amounts of NH3 and H2S emitted. Kitchen waste mixed with cornstalks and treated with FeCl3 emitted 42% less NH3 and 76% less H2S during composting than did pure kitchen waste.

  7. Experimental evidence of colloids and nanoparticles presence from 25 waste leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre; Avellan, Astrid; Yan, Junfang; Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    The potential colloids release from a large panel of 25 solid industrial and municipal waste leachates, contaminated soil, contaminated sediments and landfill leachates was studied. Standardized leaching, cascade filtrations and measurement of element concentrations in the microfiltrate (MF) and ultrafiltrate (UF) fraction were used to easily detect colloids potentially released by waste. Precautions against CO(2) capture by alkaline leachates, or bacterial re-growth in leachates from wastes containing organic matter should be taken. Most of the colloidal particles were visible by transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersion spectrometry (TEM-EDS) if their elemental MF concentration is greater than 200 μgl(-1). If the samples are dried during the preparation for microscopy, neoformation of particles can occur from the soluble part of the element. Size distribution analysis measured by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) were frequently unvalid, particularly due to polydispersity and/or too low concentrations in the leachates. A low sensitivity device is required, and further improvement is desirable in that field. For some waste leachates, particles had a zeta potential strong enough to remain in suspension. Mn, As, Co, Pb, Sn, Zn had always a colloidal form (MF concentration/UF concentration>1.5) and total organic carbon (TOC), Fe, P, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni are partly colloidal for more than half of the samples). Nearly all the micro-pollutants (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, V and Zn) were found at least once in colloidal form greater than 100 μgl(-1). In particular, the colloidal forms of Zn were always by far more concentrated than its dissolved form. The TEM-EDS method showed various particles, including manufactured nanoparticles (organic polymer, TiO(2), particles with Sr, La, Ce, Nd). All the waste had at least one element detected as colloidal. The solid waste leachates contained significant amount of colloids different in elemental

  8. Attenuation of landfill leachate by UK Triassic sandstone aquifer materials. 2. Sorption and degradation of organic pollutants in laboratory columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Steven F.; Bright, Mildred I.; Lerner, David N.; Tellam, John H.

    2000-05-01

    The sorption and degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and 13 organic micropollutants (BTEX, aromatic hydrocarbons, chloro-aromatic and -aliphatic compounds, and pesticides) in acetogenic and methanogenic landfill leachate was studied in laboratory columns containing Triassic sandstone aquifer materials from the English Midlands. Solute sorption and degradation relationships were evaluated using a simple transport model. Relative to predictions, micropollutant sorption was decreased up to eightfold in acetogenic leachate, but increased up to sixfold in methanogenic leachate. This behaviour reflects a combination of interactions between the micropollutants, leachate DOM and aquifer mineral fraction. Sorption of DOM was not significant. Degradation of organic fractions occurred under Mn-reducing and SO 4-reducing conditions. Degradation of some micropollutants occurred exclusively under Mn-reducing conditions. DOM and benzene were not significantly degraded under the conditions and time span (up to 280 days) of the experiments. Most micropollutants were degraded immediately or after a lag phase (32-115 days). Micropollutant degradation rates varied considerably (half-lives of 8 to >2000 days) for the same compounds (e.g., TeCE) in different experiments, and for compounds (e.g., naphthalene, DCB and TeCA) within the same experiment. Degradation of many micropollutants was both simultaneous and sequential, and inhibited by the utilisation of different substrates. This mechanism, in combination with lag phases, controls micropollutant degradation potential in these systems more than the degradation rate. These aquifer materials have a potentially large capacity for in situ bioremediation of organic pollutants in landfill leachate and significant degradation may occur in the Mn-reducing zones of leachate plumes. However, degradation of organic pollutants in acetogenic leachate may be limited in aquifers with low pH buffering capacity and reducible Mn oxides

  9. Leachate plume delineation and lithologic profiling using surface resistivity in an open municipal solid waste dumpsite, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesekara, Hasintha Rangana; De Silva, Sunethra Nalin; Wijesundara, Dharani Thanuja De Silva; Basnayake, Bendict Francis Antony; Vithanage, Meththika Suharshini

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the use of direct current resistivity techniques (DCRT) for investigation and characterization of leachate-contaminated subsurface environment of an open solid waste dumpsite at Kandy, Sri Lanka. The particular dumpsite has no liner and hence the leachate flows directly to the nearby river via subsurface and surface channels. For the identification of possible subsurface flow paths and the direction of the leachate, DCRT (two-dimensional, three-dimensional and vertical electrical sounding) have been applied. In addition, the physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, hardness, chloride, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) of leachate collected from different points of the solid waste dumping area and leachate drainage channel were analysed. Resistivity data confirmed that the leachate flow is confined to the near surface and no separate plume is observed in the downstream area, which may be due to the contamination distribution in the shallow overburden thickness. The stratigraphy with leachate pockets and leachate plume movements was well demarcated inside the dumpsite via low resistivity zones (1-3 Ωm). The recorded EC, alkalinity, hardness and chloride contents in leachate were averaged as 14.13 mS cm⁻¹, 3236, 2241 and 320 mg L⁻¹, respectively, which confirmed the possible causes for low resistivity values. This study confirms that DCRT can be effectively utilized to assess the subsurface characteristics of the open dumpsites to decide on corridor placement and depth of permeable reactive barriers to reduce the groundwater contamination.

  10. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise trainin

  11. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise trainin

  12. Mineral and organic compounds in leachate from landfill with concentrate recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela Anna

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a reverse osmosis concentrate recirculation on the mineral and organic compounds in a landfill leachate was investigated. Investigated was the quality of a leachate from two landfills operated for different periods (a 20-year-old Cell A and a 1-year-old Cell B), where the concentrate was recirculated. Examined were general parameters (conductivity, pH), organic compounds (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic nitrogen, BOD/COD), and inorganic compounds (nitrogen ammonia, sulfite, sulfate, cyanide, boron, chloride, ferrous, zinc, chrome, copper). The findings from the first year of investigation showed that over the initial period of recirculation, the concentration of organic compounds (BOD, COD) increased, but after 6 months their values stabilized. It indicates that the concentrate recirculation accelerated organic decomposition, especially in the new landfill Cell. The analysis of inorganic parameters showed that recirculation landfills produce a leachate with a higher concentration of N-NH4, and Cl(-). In case of the old landfill Cell, an increase in B and Fe was also noticeable. These compounds are cyclically washed out from a waste dump and require an additional pretreatment in order to exclude them from recirculation cycle. The increased concentration of Cu, Zn, and Fe was noticed during the initial months of recirculation and in the season of intense atmospheric precipitation in the leachate from both Cells. Higher values of electro conductivity, Cl(-), N-NH4 (+), B, and Fe in the leachate from the old field indicate that the attenuation capacity of this landfill is close to exhaustion.

  13. A comparison of electronic and traditional cigarette butt leachate on the development of Xenopus laevis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Tatiana Tatum; Rayburn, James

    2017-01-01

    Potential developmental toxicities of three different cigarette butt leachates were evaluated using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to regular cigarette butt (RCB), menthol (MCB) and electronic (ECB) in concentrations ranging from 0 to 4 butts/l for RCB and MCB and 0-10 butts/l for ECB. The embryos were from stage 8 to 11 and were exposed for a 96-h period in static renewal test conditions. Median lethal concentration (LC50), malformation (EC50), non-observed adverse effect concentration (NOAEC), and lowest observed adverse effect concentration (LOAEC) were calculated. Results from these studies suggest that each tested leachate is teratogenic for X. laevis embryos. The lowest LC50 was determined for ECB exposure at 17.9 cigarette butts/L. The LC50 value was the highest with RCB and MCB having LC50 s of approximately 1 cigarette butt/L. There were notable EC50 differences with RCB having the highest and ECB the lowest. The NOAEC and LOAEC levels for RCB and MCB were below 1 cigarette butt/L for both mortality and malformations; over 8 butts/L for ECB mortality and over 4 butts/L for malformations. From these results, we conclude that RCB leachate is the most toxic compound, while MCB leachate has the higher teratogenicity. ECB leachate has the lowest toxic and teratogenic effects on embryos but there were still noticeable effects. The results confirmed that the FETAX assay can be useful in an integrated biological hazard assessment for the preliminary screening for ecological risks of cigarette butts, and electronic cigarettes, in aquatic environment.

  14. Adsorption of Lead Content in Leachate of Sukawinatan Landfill Using Solid Waste of Tofu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A study on the adsorption of lead content in the leachate from the landfill by using solid waste of tofu. This study assed the effects of weight of the solid waste of tofu and the contact time on the efficiency of the Pb adsorption. The sample used in this study was artificial sample of a solution of Pb metal ion and the sample of the leachate of the landfill waste. The study was carried out with a batch system, with the variables of weight of waste of tofu of 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 g. While the variables of the contact time were 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. To determine the optimum conditions, the waste of tofu was dissolved in 50 mL of Pb metal ion solution with a concentration of 20.27 mg/L and stirred with a shaker for 30 minutes at a speed of 180 rpm. The same thing was done by varying the contact time. When the optimum condition was obtained, it was applied with varying concentrations of Pb metal ion solution and garbage landfill leachate. The initial and the final levels of the Pb metal ion solution were analyzed by using the Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The initial and the final results of the heavy metals were analyzed for disclosing the adsorption efficiency. To reveal the effects of the weight of the waste of tofu and the contact time, the data were analyzed with graphs. The waste of tofu with a weight of 1.5 g and a contact time of 90 minutes, had an adsorption efficiency of 97.68% at a concentration of 20.27 mg / L for Pb ion solution and 28.57% for the leachate from the landfill waste in 100 mL of leachate.

  15. The removal of COD and color by Fenton oxidation from leachate of Erzurum municipal solid waste landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocakaplan, Nihal; Ertugay, Neşe; Malkoç, Emine

    2016-04-01

    The optimal conditions for treatment of leachate were determined as pH = 2.5, Fe2+= 2 mg/L and H2O2= 100 mg/L. Under the optimal conditions, approximately 90% color (at 620 nm), 84% color (at 525 nm), 74% color (at 436 nm) and 47.8% COD removal efficiency from leachate were achieved after 20 min of reaction. Depending on the results obtained experiments, Fenton process has been used successfully in removal of COD and color in landfill leachate.

  16. Environmental impact assessment of leachate recirculation in landfill of municipal solid waste by comparing with evaporation and discharge (EASEWASTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xu; Deng, Wenjing; Christensen, Thomas H

    2013-02-01

    In some arid regions where landfill produces minimal amount of leachate, leachate recirculation is suggested as a cost-effective option. However, its long-term impacts to environment remain disputed. For the purpose of revealing the environmental impacts of leachate recirculation in landfill, four scenarios were modeled using EASEWASTE, comparing the strategies of leachate recirculation (with or without gas management), evaporation and discharge. In the current situation (Scenario A), a total of 280 t of waste was generated and then transported to a conventional landfill for disposal. A number of contaminants derived from waste can be stored in the landfill for long periods, with 11.69 person equivalent (PE) for stored ecotoxicity in water and 29.62 PE for stored ecotoxicity in soil, considered as potential risks of releasing to the environment someday. Meanwhile, impacts to ecotoxicity and human toxicity in surface water, and those to groundwater, present relatively low levels. In Scenario B, leachate evaporation in a collecting pool has minimal impacts on surface water. However, this strategy significantly impacts groundwater (1055.16 PE) because of the potential infiltration of leachate, with major contaminants of As, ammonia, and Cd. A number of ions, such as Cl(-), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), may also contaminate groundwater. In Scenario C, the direct discharge of leachate to surface water may result in acidification (2.71 PE) and nutrient enrichment (2.88 PE), primarily attributed to soluble ammonia in leachate and the depositional ammonia from biogas. Moreover, the direct discharge of leachate may also result in ecotoxicity and human toxicity via water contaminated by heavy metals in leachate, with 3.96 PE and 11.64 PE respectively. The results also show that landfill gas is the main contributor to global warming and photochemical ozone formation due to methane emission. In Scenario D, landfill gas flaring was thus be modeled and proven to be efficient for reducing

  17. Integrated anaerobic and aerobic treatment of sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, K.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes results of investigations dealing with sequential concept of anaerobic-aerobic treatment of municipal wastewater. The main purposes of the study were 1) to develop a proper anaerobic hydrolytic pretreatment unit, consisting of a Hydrolysis Upflow Sludge Bed (HUSB-) rea

  18. Repeated-sprint ability and aerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault, Nicolas; Léger, Luc A; Passelergue, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to reinvestigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and fatigue indices of repeated-sprint ability (RSA), with special attention to methodological normalization. Soldiers were divided into low (n = 10) and high (n = 9) fitness groups according to a preset maximal aerobic speed (MAS) of 17 km·h(-1) (∼60 ml O2·kg(-1)·min) measured with the University of Montreal Track Test (UMTT). Subjects' assessment included the RSA test (3 sets of 5 40-m sprints with 1-minute rest between sprints and 1.5 minutes between sets), a 40-m sprint (criterion test used in the computation of fatigue indices for the RSA test), strength and power measurement of the lower limbs, and the 20-m shuttle run test (20-m SRT) and the UMTT, which are measures of maximal aerobic power. The highest correlation with the RSA fatigue indices was obtained with the 20-m SRT (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001, n = 19), a test with 180° direction changes and accelerations and decelerations. The lower correlation (r = 0.66, p repeated sprints and achieved better recovery between series. A MAS of at least 17 km·h(-1) favors constant and high speed level during repeated sprints. From a practical point of view, a high aerobic fitness is a precious asset in counteracting fatigue in sports with numerous sprint repetitions.

  19. Aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Schachter, Candice L; Overend, Tom J; Kim, Soo Y; Góes, Suelen M; Boden, Catherine; Foulds, Heather Ja

    2017-06-21

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review is one of a series of reviews about exercise training for people with fibromyalgia that will replace the "Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome" review first published in 2002. • To evaluate the benefits and harms of aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia• To assess the following specific comparisons ० Aerobic versus control conditions (eg, treatment as usual, wait list control, physical activity as usual) ० Aerobic versus aerobic interventions (eg, running vs brisk walking) ० Aerobic versus non-exercise interventions (eg, medications, education) We did not assess specific comparisons involving aerobic exercise versus other exercise interventions (eg, resistance exercise, aquatic exercise, flexibility exercise, mixed exercise). Other systematic reviews have examined or will examine these comparisons (Bidonde 2014; Busch 2013). We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry up to June 2016, unrestricted by language, and we reviewed the reference lists of retrieved trials to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia that compared aerobic training interventions (dynamic physical activity that increases breathing and heart rate to submaximal levels for a prolonged period) versus no exercise or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted

  20. Integrated anaerobic and aerobic treatment of sewage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaijun Wang,

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes results of investigations dealing with sequential concept of anaerobic-aerobic treatment of municipal wastewater. The main purposes of the study were 1) to develop a proper anaerobic hydrolytic pretreatment unit, consisting of a Hydrolysis Upflow Sludge Bed (HUSB-) reactor and

  1. Aerobic exercise in fibromyalgia: a practical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Eric N; Blotman, Francis

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the current evidence to support guidelines for aerobic exercise (AE) and fibromyalgia (FM) in practice, and to outline specific research needs in these areas. Data sources consisted of a PubMed search, 2007 Cochrane Data Base Systematic review, 2008 Ottawa panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, as well as additional references found from the initial search. Study selection included randomized clinical trials that compared an aerobic-only exercise intervention (land or pool based) with an untreated control, a non-exercise intervention or other exercise programs in patients responding to the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for FM. The following outcome data were obtained: pain, tender points, perceived improvement in FM symptoms such as the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire total score (FIQ), physical function, depression (e.g., Beck Depression Inventory, FIQ subscale for depression), fatigue and sleep were extracted from 19 clinical trials that considered the effects of aerobic-only exercise in FM patients. Data synthesis shows that there is moderate evidence of important benefit of aerobic-only exercise in FM on physical function and possibly on tender points and pain. It appears to be sufficient evidence to support the practice of AE as a part of the multidisciplinary management of FM. However, future studies must be more adequately sized, homogeneously assessed, and monitored for adherence, to draw definitive conclusions.

  2. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  3. Integrated anaerobic and aerobic treatment of sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, K.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes results of investigations dealing with sequential concept of anaerobic-aerobic treatment of municipal wastewater. The main purposes of the study were 1) to develop a proper anaerobic hydrolytic pretreatment unit, consisting of a Hydrolysis Upflow Sludge Bed (HUSB-)

  4. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulpa, C.F. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  5. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.;

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady...

  6. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza.

  7. Implication of anaerobic and aerobic decomposition of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth. on the carbon cycling in a subtropical reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Bianchini Junior

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing kinetic aspects of aerobic and anaerobic mineralization of Eicchornia azurea. The samples of aquatic macrophyte and water were collected in the Monjolinho Reservoir (22° 00′ S and 47° 54′ W. To determine the leachate potential, dried plant fragments were added to reservoir water, with sampling lasting for 4 months, where the particulate and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were measured. The kinetics of mass loss was obtained with 10 mineralization chambers for both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with the plant fragments and reservoir water. Two additional chambers were used to monitor the volume of gases produced from anaerobic mineralization, with bioassays to determine oxygen uptake. The results were fitted to a first-order kinetic model, from which 27.21% of detritus corresponded to labile/soluble fractions and 72.62% to the refractory fractions. The decay rates for the global mass losses of the labile/soluble components were 2.07 day–1. DOC mineralization was not verified for either condition. Under aerobic condition, the mass loss constant rate (0.0029 day–1 for the refractory fractions was 2.4 the value for the anaerobic one. Under anaerobic condition, the gases formation occurred in three phases. Based on these results, in the Monjolinho Reservoir, the decomposition of E. azurea that undergo within the water column and in upper layers of sediment is a faster process, favoring the mineralization. In contrast, in the lower layers of sediment the diagenetic processes (i.e. humus production and accumulation of organic matter are favored.

  8. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  9. Aerobic exercise training in modulation of aerobic physical fitness and balance of burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zizi M Ibrahim; El-Refay, Basant H; Ali, Rania Reffat

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the impact of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity, balance, and treadmill time in patients with thermal burn injury. [Subjects and Methods] Burned adult patients, aged 20-40 years (n=30), from both sexes, with second degree thermal burn injuries covering 20-40% of the total body surface area (TBSA), were enrolled in this trial for 3 months. Patients were randomly divided into; group A (n=15), which performed an aerobic exercise program 3 days/week for 60 min and participated in a traditional physical therapy program, and group B (n=15), which only participated in a traditional exercise program 3 days/week. Maximal aerobic capacity, treadmill time, and Berg balance scale were measured before and after the study. [Results] In both groups, the results revealed significant improvements after treatment in all measurements; however, the improvement in group A was superior to that in group B. [Conclusion] The results provide evidence that aerobic exercises for adults with healed burn injuries improve aerobic physical fitness and balance.

  10. The effect of sanitary landfill leachate aging on the biological treatment and assessment of photoelectrooxidation as a pre-treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Gabriel Timm [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Giacobbo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos Chiaramonte, Edson Abel dos [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira [Universidade FEEVALE, ICET, RS 239, 2755, CEP 93352-000 Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Meneguzzi, Alvaro [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bernardes, Andréa Moura, E-mail: amb@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Photoelectrooxidation (PEO) emerges as a new technology for leachate treatment. • Aging of sanitary landfills acts on leachate composition and biodegradability. • PEO is applied as leachate pretreatment before the biological processes. • PEO produced significant changes in the leachate matrix, easing biological process. - Abstract: The sanitary landfill leachate is a dark liquid, of highly variable composition, with recalcitrant features that hamper conventional biological treatment. The physical–chemical characteristics of the leachate along the landfill aging, as well as their effects on the efficiency of the conventional treatment, were evaluated at this paper. The feasibility of photoelectrooxidation process as an alternative technique for treatment of landfill leachates was also determined. Photoelectrooxidation experiments were conducted in a bench-scale reactor. Analysis of the raw leachate revealed many critical parameters demonstrating that the recalcitrance of leachate tends to increase with time, directly influencing the decline in efficiency of the conventional treatment currently employed. The effects of current density and lamp power were investigated. Using a 400 W power lamp and a current density of 31.5 mA cm{sup −2}, 53% and 61% efficiency for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand were respectively achieved by applying photoelectrooxidation process. With the removal of these pollutants, downstream biological treatment should be improved. These results demonstrate that photoelectrooxidation is a feasible technique for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, even considering this effluent’s high resistance to treatment.

  11. Variability of Parameters Involved in Leachate Pollution Index and Determination of LPI from Four Landfills in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfill sites are potential sources of human and environmental hazards. Leachate produced form these waste dumping sites is heterogeneous and exhibits huge temporal and seasonal variations. Leachate pollution index (LPI provides an overall pollution potential of a landfill site. The parameters required to calculate LPI from a landfill site are discussed in terms of their variations over time, and their significance has been highlighted in the context of LPI. The LPI values of two semiaerobic and two anaerobic landfill sites in Malaysia have been calculated in this study. Pulau Burung Landfill Site (PBLS was found to have the highest LPI score while Ampang Jajar Landfill Site (AJLS showed the lowest LPI as compared to other landfills. It is concluded that LPI value can be used as a tool to assess the leachate pollution potential from landfill sites particularly at places where there is a high risk of leachate migration and pollution of groundwater.

  12. Adsorption of As, B, Cr, Mo and Se from coal fly ash leachate by Fe3 modified bentonite clay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhahangwele, M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available leachates on Fe3(sup +)-modified bentonite (Fe-Bent); such modification improved the physicochemical properties of bentonite clay. For optimization of adsorption of the five elements, the effects of time, adsorbent dosage, adsorbate concentration, and p...

  13. Environmental impact assessment of leachate recirculation in landfill of municipal solid waste by comparing with evaporation and discharge (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhao, Yan

    2013-01-01

    in leachate and the depositional ammonia from biogas. Moreover, the direct discharge of leachate may also result in ecotoxicity and human toxicity via water contaminated by heavy metals in leachate, with 3.96 PE and 11.64 PE respectively. The results also show that landfill gas is the main contributor...... of contaminants derived from waste can be stored in the landfill for long periods, with 11.69 person equivalent (PE) for stored ecotoxicity in water and 29.62 PE for stored ecotoxicity in soil, considered as potential risks of releasing to the environment someday. Meanwhile, impacts to ecotoxicity and human...... scenarios were modeled using EASEWASTE, comparing the strategies of leachate recirculation (with or without gas management), evaporation and discharge. In the current situation (Scenario A), a total of 280t of waste was generated and then transported to a conventional landfill for disposal. A number...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium bifermentans Strain WYM, a Promising Biohydrogen Producer Isolated from Landfill Leachate Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y M; Juan, J C; Gan, H M; Austin, C M

    2014-03-06

    Clostridium bifermentans strain WYM is an effective biohydrogen producer isolated from landfill leachate sludge. Here, we present the assembly and annotation of its genome, which may provide further insights into the metabolic pathways involved in efficient biohydrogen production.

  15. Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity? An Aerobic Exercise Intervention among Healthy Old Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Flodin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64–78 years were randomized into either an aerobic exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI and arterial spin labeling (ASL. Additionally, a comprehensive battery of cognitive tasks assessing, e.g., executive function and episodic memory was administered. Both the aerobic and the control group improved in aerobic capacity (VO2-peak over 6 months, but a significant group by time interaction confirmed that the aerobic group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings. At baseline, VO2-peak was negativly related to BOLD-signal fluctuations (BOLDSTD in mid temporal areas. Over 6 months, improvements in aerobic capacity were associated with decreased connectivity between left hippocampus and contralateral precentral gyrus, and positively to connectivity between right mid-temporal areas and frontal and parietal regions. Independent component analysis identified a VO2-related increase in coupling between the default mode network and left orbitofrontal cortex, as well as a decreased connectivity between the sensorimotor network and thalamus. Extensive exploratory data analyses of global efficiency, connectome wide multivariate pattern analysis (connectome-MVPA, as well as ASL, did not reveal any relationships between aerobic fitness

  16. Leachates treatment with oxygen in Sanitary landfills of urban solid waste; Depuracion de lixiviados con oxigeno en vertederos de RSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, P.

    1999-11-01

    The leachate of spillways of solid waste is a product of the rain and of the humidity contributed by the residuals that is deposited in it. When water is filtered through the residuals in decompositions, biological materials and chemical compounds are dragged and dilute, being many of them very polluting. For their treatment, one must keep in mind that the composition chemistry of the leachates varies a lot according to the technique of exploitation and the antiquity of the spillway. (Author)

  17. Development of a geochemical model to predict leachate water quality associated with coal mining practices / Karl Nicolaus van Zweel

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    South Africa mines coal to supply in the growing energy demands of the country. A majority of these mines are opencast resulting in back filled pits and above ground disposal facilities. Leachate emanating from these disposal sites are saline and in most cases highly acidic. Currently the standard testing procedure to quantify expected leachate qualities include Acid Base Accounting (ABA), Net-acid Generating test (NAG), static-and kinetic leaching. The aim of this study is to model standa...

  18. A design for aerobic composting device%资源化好氧堆肥装置的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭光星; 张茜; 何子俊; 林将; 江娟

    2016-01-01

    in this paper,we designed an aerobic composting device with automatic mixing functions. In this device,feeding and gas gathering were performed at the top,temperature measurement and sampling at the middle part,and forced oxygen supply and leachate collection at the bottom. The ex-periments revealed that with this unique″rake″ stirrer and the conical design at the bottom,the fer-tilizer could be stirred more evenly and access to more oxygen,and leachate collection and refilling became more convenient. This smart device could be installed easily in university labs,institutions, rural households,and small-medium farms.%设计了具有自动搅拌功能的好氧堆肥装置,顶端集气、进料,中部测温、取样,底部鼓风机强制通氧、渗滤液收集。并利用该装置进行了好氧堆肥实验,最终堆肥数据表明:独有的“耙式”搅拌器与圆锥形底部设计使肥料搅拌更加均匀,接触氧气更充分,底部渗滤液收集、回灌更加方便。最终可为高校环境实验室、科研机构以及农村家庭和中小型养殖户提供可直接购买使用的自动化小型好氧堆肥装置。

  19. Removal and transformation of recalcitrant organic matter from stabilized saline landfill leachates by coagulation-ozonation coupling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje-Ramirez, I; Orta de Velásquez, M T

    2004-05-01

    The Bordo Poniente sanitary landfill in Mexico City currently receives 11,500 ton/day of solid wastes. The landfill has been in operation since 1985, in what was formerly Texcoco Lake, now a dried-up lakebed. The physico-chemical characteristics of the leachate generated by this particular landfill are altered by the incorporation of freatic saline water present in the area. This paper reports the results from a study evaluating coagulation and ozonation as alternative processes for removing and transforming recalcitrant organic matter from stabilized saline landfill leachate. Coagulation with ferric sulfate was found to remove up to 67% of COD and 96% of leachate color. The remaining 33% COD was removed with ozone. Recalcitrant organic matter removal by ozonation is limited by the reaction kinetic due mainly to ozone's low reactivity with the organic compounds present in the leachates (amines, amides, alcohols, aliphatic compounds, and carboxylic acids). However, ozone contributes greatly to changing the recalcitrant characteristics of organic matter. Leachate biodegradability was found to be significantly enhanced through ozonation: BOD(5) values reach 265%, and the BOD(5)/COD ratio increases from 0.003 to 0.015. Infrared analysis of ozonated leachates shows that the main by-products of recalcitrant organic matter ozonation are an increase in the hydroxyl and carboxylic groups, and the presence of aldehydes groups.

  20. Composting plant leachate treatment by a pilot-scale, three-stage, horizontal flow constructed wetland in central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshoodeh, Reza; Alavi, Nadali; Paydary, Pooya

    2017-09-02

    Handling and treatment of composting leachate is difficult and poses major burdens on composting facilities. The main goal of this study was to evaluate usage of a three-stage, constructed wetland to treat leachate produced in Isfahan composting facility. A pilot-scale, three-stage, subsurface, horizontal flow constructed wetland, planted with vetiver with a flow rate of 24 L/day and a 15-day hydraulic retention time, was used. Removal of organic matter, ammonia, nitrate, total nitrogen, suspended solids, and several heavy metals from Isfahan composting facility leachate was monitored over a 3-month period. Constructed wetland system was capable of efficiently removing BOD5 (87.3%), COD (74.5%), ammonia (91.5%), nitrate (87.9%), total nitrogen (87.8%), total suspended solids (85.5%), and heavy metals (ranging from 70 to 90%) from the composting leachate. High contaminant removal efficiencies were achieved, but effluent still failed to meet Iranian standards for treated wastewater. This study shows that although a three-stage horizontal flow constructed wetland planted with vetiver cannot be used alone to treat Isfahan composting facility leachate, but it has the potential to be used as a leachate pre-treatment step, along with another complementary method.

  1. Assessment of groundwater quality by unsaturated zone study due to migration of leachate from Abloradjei waste disposal site, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbi, Courage Davidson; Akiti, Tetteh Thomas; Osae, Shiloh; Dampare, Samuel Boakye; Abass, Gibrilla; Adomako, Dickson

    2015-06-01

    Leachate generated by open solid waste disposal sites contains substances likely to contaminate groundwater. The impact of potential contaminants migrating from leachate on groundwater can be quantified by monitoring their concentration and soil properties at specific points in the unsaturated zone. In this study, physical and chemical analyses were carried out on leachate, soil and water samples within the vicinity of the municipal solid waste disposal site at Abloradjei, a suburb of Accra, Ghana. The area has seen a massive increase in population and the residents depend on groundwater as the main source of water supply. Results obtained indicate alkaline pH for leachate and acidic conditions for unsaturated zone water. High EC values were recorded for leachate and unsaturated zone water. Major ions (Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+, NO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-, PO4 3- were analysed in leachate, unsaturated zone water, soil solution and groundwater while trace metals (Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb) were analysed in both soil and extracted soil solution. Concentrations of major ions were high in all samples indicating possible anthropogenic origin. Mean % gravel, % sand, % clay, bulk density, volumetric water content and porosity were 28.8, 63.93, 6.6, 1 g cm-3, 35 and 62.7 %, respectively. Distribution of trace elements showed Kd variation of Al > Cu > Fe > Pb > Zn in the order of sequential increasing solubility. It was observed that the quality of groundwater is not suitable for drinking.

  2. Removal of Refractory Organics from Biologically Treated Landfill Leachate by Microwave Discharge Electrodeless Lamp Assisted Fenton Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuyi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically treated leachate usually contains considerable amount of refractory organics and trace concentrations of xenobiotic pollutants. Removal of refractory organics from biologically treated landfill leachate by a novel microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL assisted Fenton process was investigated in the present study in comparison to conventional Fenton and ultraviolet Fenton processes. Conventional Fenton and ultraviolet Fenton processes could substantially remove up to 70% of the refractory organics in a membrane bioreactor treated leachate. MDEL assisted Fenton process achieved excellent removal performance of the refractory components, and the effluent chemical oxygen demand concentration was lower than 100 mg L−1. Most organic matters were transformed into smaller compounds with molecular weights less than 1000 Da. Ten different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in the biologically treated leachate, most of which were effectively removed by MDEL-Fenton treatment. MDEL-Fenton process provides powerful capability in degradation of refractory and xenobiotic organic pollutants in landfill leachate and could be adopted as a single-stage polishing process for biologically treated landfill leachate to meet the stringent discharge limit.

  3. Assessment of groundwater quality by unsaturated zone study due to migration of leachate from Abloradjei waste disposal site, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbi, Courage Davidson; Akiti, Tetteh Thomas; Osae, Shiloh; Dampare, Samuel Boakye; Abass, Gibrilla; Adomako, Dickson

    2017-05-01

    Leachate generated by open solid waste disposal sites contains substances likely to contaminate groundwater. The impact of potential contaminants migrating from leachate on groundwater can be quantified by monitoring their concentration and soil properties at specific points in the unsaturated zone. In this study, physical and chemical analyses were carried out on leachate, soil and water samples within the vicinity of the municipal solid waste disposal site at Abloradjei, a suburb of Accra, Ghana. The area has seen a massive increase in population and the residents depend on groundwater as the main source of water supply. Results obtained indicate alkaline pH for leachate and acidic conditions for unsaturated zone water. High EC values were recorded for leachate and unsaturated zone water. Major ions (Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+, NO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-, PO4 3- were analysed in leachate, unsaturated zone water, soil solution and groundwater while trace metals (Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb) were analysed in both soil and extracted soil solution. Concentrations of major ions were high in all samples indicating possible anthropogenic origin. Mean % gravel, % sand, % clay, bulk density, volumetric water content and porosity were 28.8, 63.93, 6.6, 1 g cm-3, 35 and 62.7 %, respectively. Distribution of trace elements showed Kd variation of Al > Cu > Fe > Pb > Zn in the order of sequential increasing solubility. It was observed that the quality of groundwater is not suitable for drinking.

  4. Evaluating pollution potential of leachate from landfill site, from the Tangier city and its impact on groundwater (Tangier - Northern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bader1

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leachate from municipalities’ landfills represents a potential health risk to ecosystems in generally and human populations in particularly. This study which was taken during year from 2010 to 2011was focused to study the physicochemical evaluation of the leachate from the landfill of the Tangier city (north of Morocco. The analyses of the sampled leachate revealed strong content of biodegradable organic matter (BOD =166.78 mg/l, COD=2397.25 mg/l and BOD/COD=0.069 and of SM (SM = 577.97 mg/l. Contents in nitrate (NO3=199.77 mg/l were also revealed. The discharge of the Tangier city is characterized by an old leachate. The long-term monitoring of the evaluation of physicochemical parameters in polluted leachate, on how environmental conditions change over time, could then lead to models useful in the prediction of natural attenuation in aquifers. Therefore, an adaptable and efficient treatment process must be used to eliminate the wide range of pollutants present in leachate.

  5. Application of column tests and electrical resistivity methods for leachate transport monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wychowaniak Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of the human civilization leads to the pollution of environment. One of the contamination which are a real threat to soil and groundwater are leachates from landfills. In this paper the solute transport through soil was considered. For this purpose, the laboratory column tests of chlorides tracer and leachates transport on two soil samples have been carried out. Furthermore, the electrical resistivity method was applied as auxiliary tool to follow the movements of solute through the soil column what allowed to compare between the results obtained with column test method and electrical resistivity measurements. Breakthrough curves obtained by conductivity and resistivity methods represents similar trends which leads to the conclusion about the suitability of electrical resistivity methods for contamination transport monitoring in soil-water systems.

  6. An anaerobic field injection experiment in a landfill leachate plume (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Ludvigsen, L.

    1999-01-01

    Redox conditions may be environmental factors which affect the fate of the xenobiotic organic compounds. Therefore the redox conditions were characterized in an anaerobic, leachate-contaminated aquifer 15–60 m downgradient from the Grindsted Landfill, Denmark, where an field injection experiment...... to the sediment samples. Samples were investigated with respect to groundwater chemistry, including hydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and sediment geochemistry, and bioassays were performed. The groundwater chemistry, including redox sensitive species for a large number of samples, varied over time during...... the experimental period of 924 days owing to variations in the leachate from the landfill. However, no indication of change in the redox environment resulting from the field injection experiment or natural variation was observed in the individual sampling points. The methane, Fe(II), hydrogen, and VFA groundwater...

  7. Ocean bacteria: performance on CODCr and NH4(+)-N removal in landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yali; Yi, Aifei; Li, Haoran; Wang, Weida; Du, Yunlong

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the performance of mixed ocean bacteria, isolated from the ocean sediment, on landfill leachate treatment. In this treatment, ocean bacteria were the only constituent added to remove organics and NH(4)(+)-N. Given their considerable influence on wastewater purification, factors such as inoculum, initial pH, processing time and oxygen condition, were directly involved in this research. As indicated by laboratory test results, chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) and NH(4)(+)-N removal could reach 94.45% and 67.87%, respectively, after 3 days of treatment, in conditions of natural pH 6.3 and with the application of oxygen. The volt-ampere characteristics of the bacteria solution verified the redox-active ability of the bacteria in landfill leachate treatment.

  8. Nitrogen removal from raw landfill leachate by an algae-bacteria consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniffen, Kaitlyn D; Sales, Christopher M; Olson, Mira S

    2016-01-01

    A remediation system for the removal of nitrogen from landfill leachate by a mixed algae-bacteria culture was investigated. This system was designed to treat leachate with minimal inputs and maintenance requirements, and was operated as an open semi-batch reactor in an urban greenhouse. The results of this study showed a maximum nitrogen removal rate of 9.18 mg N/(L·day) and maximum biomass density of 480 mg biomass/L. The ammonia removal rates of this culture increased with increasing initial ammonia concentration; maximum nitrogen removal occurred at an ammonia concentration of 80 mg N-NH3/L. At starting ammonia concentrations above 80 mg N-NH3/L a reduction in nitrogen removal was seen; this inhibition is hypothesized to be caused by ammonia toxicity. This inhibiting concentration is considerably higher than that of many other published studies.

  9. Laboratory and pilot plant scale study on the electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anglada, Angela; Urtiaga, Ana M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, E.T.S.I.I. y T., Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Ortiz, Inmaculada, E-mail: ortizi@unican.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, E.T.S.I.I. y T., Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Kinetic data regarding COD oxidation were measured in a laboratory scale cell and used to scale-up an electro-oxidation process for landfill leachate treatment by means of boron-doped diamond anodes. A pilot-scale reactor with a total BDD anode area of 1.05 m{sup 2} was designed. Different electrode gaps in the laboratory and pilot plant cells resulted in dissimilar reactor hydrodynamics. Consequently, generalised dimensionless correlations concerning mass transfer were developed in order to define the mass transfer conditions in both electrochemical systems. These correlations were then used in the design equations to validate the scale-up procedure. A series of experiments with biologically pre-treated landfill leachate were done to accomplish this goal. The evolution of ammonia and COD concentration could be well predicted.

  10. A new approach to characterize biodegradation of organics by molecular mass distribution in landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dong Yun; Cho, Soon Haing; Kim, Young Kwon; Leung, Solomon W

    2008-08-01

    This study provides biodegradability of organics in leachate according to their molecular mass distributions (10 KDa). Organics with molecular mass values lower than 0.5 KDa were the predominant species in the raw leachate filtrate, and the aerated lagoon process was very effective in treating these highly biodegradable organics; the Fenton's oxidation process was very effective in treating not-so-biodegradable organics with molecular mass values higher than 0.5 KDa, but a portion of these organics were converted into organics <0.5 KDa after Fenton's oxidation. An oxygen uptake measurement using a respirometer was more sensitive than a conventional biochemical oxygen demand measurement to evaluate bioactivities, especially when bioactivities were low.

  11. A study for the environmental impact assessment of the leachate migration in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y. S

    1999-12-01

    In Korea there are hundreds of landfill sites all over the peninsula and the leachate problem is one of the national concern. Heavy precipitation especially during hot summers creates the fast degradation of waste products in the site which accelerates the migration of the leachate. To assess the source term, in the second year study,the computational modeling to predict the potential infiltration rate of groundwater into the landfill were developed and tested for different geomembrane sets. These results shall be used to assess the total risk of the landfill site if combined with the results in the first year R and D and potential future R and D on the biosphere. In addition the generation, migration of LFG were studied and then approaches for the monitoring and controlling of LFG were discussed. (author)

  12. Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions by litchi pericarp and its leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘轶敏; 姜瑞雪; 杨继利; 郑昊; 尹儿琴

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption capacity of Pb(II) on litchi pericarps was investigated as a function of temperature, pH, and adsorbent dose using batch experiments. The experimental data obtained were evaluated using adsorption equilibrium isotherms and a kinetic model. Additionally, the removal of Pb(II) in leachate of litchi pericarps was also evaluated. The results show that litchi pericarps exhibit a high adsorption capacity to Pb(II), with the maximum removal efficiency occurring at a temperature of 25 °C, a pH of 6.0−7.0 and an adsorbent dosage of 10 g/L. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model can all fit the equilibrium adsorption satisfactorily, with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9935, 0.9918 and 1.0, respectively. An average removal efficiency of 66.65% is found for Pb(II) in leachate of litchi pericarps.

  13. Municipal landfill leachate treatment for metal removal using water hyacinth in a floating aquatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, A S; Biswas, N; Bewtra, J K

    2006-09-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to remove five heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and lead) commonly found in leachate. All experiments were conducted in batch reactors in a greenhouse. It was found that living biomass of water hyacinth was a good accumulator for copper, chromium, and cadmium. The plants accumulated copper, chromium, and cadmium up to 0.96, 0.83, and 0.50%, respectively, of their dry root mass. However, lead and nickel were poorly accumulated in water hyacinth. Also, nonliving biomass of water hyacinth dry roots showed ability to accumulate all metals, except Cr(VI), which was added in anionic form. The highest total metal sorption by nonliving dry water hyacinth roots was found to take place at pH 6.4. The current research demonstrates the potential of using water hyacinth for the treatment of landfill leachate containing heavy metals.

  14. May Ingestion of Leachate from Decomposed Corpses Cause Appendicitis? A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Domingues-Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The general consensus is that appendicitis is basically provoked by fecaliths or lymphoid hyperplasic obstruction. Several studies based on histological diagnosis have not confirmed this hypothesis. On the contrary, obstruction has been proved in only a minority of cases. Diverse infections by parasites, bacteria, fungus, and noninfective agents have been associated with appendicitis in the medical literature. We describe a firefighter, who ingested a small quantity of leachate from decomposing corpses while working and developed enteritis a few hours later, which lasted several days and evolved to appendicitis. This case raises the possibility that the high quantity of bacteria concentration present in the leachate could have provoked enteritis and the subsequent appendicitis due to a direct effect of the bacteria on the appendix.

  15. May Ingestion of Leachate from Decomposed Corpses Cause Appendicitis? A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues-Ferreira, Maurício; Saddi-Rosa, Pedro; dos Santos, André Luis

    2011-01-01

    The general consensus is that appendicitis is basically provoked by fecaliths or lymphoid hyperplasic obstruction. Several studies based on histological diagnosis have not confirmed this hypothesis. On the contrary, obstruction has been proved in only a minority of cases. Diverse infections by parasites, bacteria, fungus, and noninfective agents have been associated with appendicitis in the medical literature. We describe a firefighter, who ingested a small quantity of leachate from decomposing corpses while working and developed enteritis a few hours later, which lasted several days and evolved to appendicitis. This case raises the possibility that the high quantity of bacteria concentration present in the leachate could have provoked enteritis and the subsequent appendicitis due to a direct effect of the bacteria on the appendix. PMID:21541232

  16. Treatment of Leachate by Coagulation-Flocculation using different Coagulants and Polymer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Mao Rui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachate will be treated by using coagulation-flocculation. Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in a number of diverse disciplines, including biochemistry, cheese manufacturing, rubber manufacturing, and in water and waste water treatment. It is effective for removing high concentration organic pollutant and heavy metals in wastewater. However, coagulationflocculation examined the effectiveness of alum, ferric chloride and polyaluminum chloride (PAC1  as well as the use of synthetic polymers on the removal of suspended solid (SS, color, COD and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3N from leachate. The coagulant dosage has typically been determined through jar test, which requires a long experiment time in a field water treatment plant.

  17. Variations of dominant microbial populations in groundwater in response to the leachate from Laogang Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yang-jie; YANG Hong; LI Dao-tang; LIN Zhi-xin

    2005-01-01

    Temporal changes of dominant microbial populations in groundwater in response to the leachate from Shanghai Laogang Landfill were investigated. Concentrations of dissolved redox-relevant species in groundwater suggested that the dominating redox process had changed from denitrification to methane-production/sulfate-reduction due to landfilling. Dominant microbial populations were determined using restriction fragment length polymorphism(RFLP) analyses of 16S rRNA gene libraries, which were further studied by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that obvious shifts of dominant microbial populations had occurred in groundwater in response to the pollution of leachate. The closest relatives of some dominant clones are accordant with the dominating redox processes determined by hydrochemical analyses, based on the GenBank's indications on the ability to perform redox reactions.

  18. Characterization of the dissolved organic carbon in landfill leachate-polluted groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jette B.; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Grøn, Christian

    1998-01-01

    Samples of dissolved organic carbon (DOG) were obtained from landfill leachate-polluted groundwater at Vejen Landfill, Denmark. The humic acids, fulvic acids and the hydrophilic fraction were isolated and purified. Based on DOC measurements, the fulvic acid fraction predominated, accounting...... for about 60% of the total amount of DOC with an apparent molecular weight of about 1800 Da. The hydrophilic fraction constituted about 30% of the total amount of DOC with an apparent molecular weight of about 2100 Da, and the humic acid fraction made up about 10% of the total amount of DOC with an apparent...... molecular weight of about 2600 Da. The elemental compositions of the humic acids, fulvic acids and the hydrophilic fraction were in the ranges typical for humic substances from other origins. The O/C ratios for humic acids, fulvic acids and the hydrophilic fraction were similar in the leachate...

  19. Treatment of leachate from MSWI bottom ash landfilling with anaerobic sulphate-reducing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivula, Leena J; Väisänen, Ari O; Rintala, Jukka A

    2007-02-01

    Removal of sulphate and toxic elements from the leachate of a field landfill lysimeter (112m(3)), containing municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash, was studied. The leachate was treated in two parallel laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors without and with ethanol as additional carbon source. With ethanol more than 65% of sulphate was removed, while without ethanol removal was negligible. The treatment removed Ba, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, Sb, Se, Sr, and Zn of the studied 35 trace and other elements. The sequential extraction of the reactor sludge at the end of runs confirmed that with a few exceptions (Ba, Ca, and Cu) the main mechanism by which the elements were removed was precipitation as sulphides.

  20. DETERMINATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICITY CHARACTERISTICS OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTE FROM LANDFILL LEACHATE (CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dal Molin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental toxicity of hazardous industrial waste from landfill leachate of the one industrial solid waste center from the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The physical and chemical characteristics, as well as the ecotoxicity with Daphnia magna and toxicity and mutagenicity with Allium cepa were determined. The results of the row leachate sample indicated that the physical and chemical characteristics are compatible with the limit values imputed for treated wastewaters. Absence of acute ecotoxicity was also detected, however a significant (P<0.01 larger frequency of micronuclei was verified when compared with the results of the negative control, suggesting a genotóxico effect of this wast, although not significant alterations in the mitotic index and root growth was observed.

  1. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    OpenAIRE

    Renza Perini; Marta Bortoletto; Michela Capogrosso; Anna Fertonani; Carlo Miniussi

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cor...

  2. Experimental evidence for aerobic bio-denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrate pollution of groundwater is paid more and more attention for its hazardous to environments and human health. A strain of DN11 was isolated from soil and used in the laboratory columns filled with various media for nitrate removal. The experimental results showed that DN11could reduce nitrate at different rates in different media under the aerobic condition. The mechanism for nitrate removal with DN11 is explained meanwhile.

  3. Aerobic Exercise, Estrogens, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    include early age at menarche, late age at menopause and first childbirth, nulliparity, family history of breast cancer, benign breast disease, and non...et al. (24), a four-cycle intervention consisting of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in combination with a caloric restrictive diet resulted in...vigorous exercise intervention independent of diet restriction and weight loss. We specifically sought to determine if the exercise intervention would

  4. Testicular membrane lipid damage by complex mixture of leachate from municipal battery recycling site as indication of idiopathic male infertility in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintunde, Jacob K; Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Akintunde A

    2013-12-01

    Leachate from a municipal battery recycling site is a potent source of mixed-metal released into the environment. The present study investigated the degree at which mixed-metal exposure to the municipal auto-battery leachate (MABL) and to the Elewi Odo municipal auto-battery recycling site leachate (EOMABRL) affected the lipid membrane of the testes in in vitro experiment. The results showed elevated level of mixed-metals over the permissible levels in drinking water, as recommended by regulatory authorities. In the leachate samples, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a biomarker of lipid damage, was significantly (pbattery leachate (MABL) was significantly (pbattery recycling site (EOMABRL). The testicular lipid membrane capacity was compromised following treatment with leachate from the municipal battery recycling site, implicating mixed-metal exposure as the causative agent of testicular damage and male infertility.

  5. Altered steroid metabolism in several teleost species exposed to endocrine disrupting substances in refuse dump leachate

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Endocrine disruption associated with reproductive failure has been reported previously in female perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) from Lake Molnbyggen in Sweden and in female brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from Vadbäcken, a stream emptying into Molnbyggen. Both Molnbyggen and Vadbäcken have been contaminated by toxic leachate from a municipal refuse dump. In this study, female perch were caught in Molnbyggen and the reference lake, Lake Djursjön, to further investiga...

  6. Different Sorption Approaches and Leachate Fluxes Affecting on Mn2+ Transport through Lateritic Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srilert Chotpantarat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Contamination of the underlying aquifer beneath a mining area is usually of great concern even when a prevention plan has been implemented. Approach: To assess the potential risk of heavy metal contamination, the simulation of heavy metal transport was carried out with different leachate fluxes and sorption parameters derived from equilibrium models with linear and Langmuir isotherms and chemical non-equilibrium two-site model. The HYDRUS-2D numerical model was applied to simulate the transport of Mn2+ under single- and multi-metal systems with two variable leachate fluxes (0.002 and 0.0026 m day−1 through the lateritic aquifer, approximately 5 km down gradient of the tailing pond. The model assumed that the compacted clay layer of the Tailing Storage Facility (TSF had been cracked and led to contamination of the shallow ground water. Results: The simulation showed that the time required to reach the Thailand drinking water standard at a specific location of Mn2+ for multi-metal system were faster than those for single metal systems, although different models were applied. The Mn2+ concentration fronts derived from simulation with chemical non-equilibrium two-site model came earlier than those of both equilibrium models under single and multi-metal systems. In addition, with a 30% increase in the leachate flux, from 0.002- 0.0026 m/day, the time required to reach the drinking water standard at the nearest well, 1 km downgradient from the source (well 1 decreased. It took about 57 and 106 years (a 17 and 19% decrease, respectively for Mn2+ under multi- and single-metal systems, respectively. Conclusion: In conclusions, sorption parameters and leachate fluxes should be carefully determined and these predictive patterns used as a management tool for planning water well installations under field conditions.

  7. Antimicrobial and biological activity of leachate from light curable pulp capping materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Moliz, Maria Teresa; Farrugia, Cher; Lung, Christie Y K; Wismayer, Pierre Schembri; Camilleri, Josette

    2017-09-01

    Characterization of a number of pulp capping materials and assessment of the leachate for elemental composition, antimicrobial activity and cell proliferation and expression. Three experimental light curable pulp-capping materials, Theracal and Biodentine were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The elemental composition of the leachate formed after 24h was assessed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The antimicrobial activity of the leachate was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against multispecies suspensions of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 33478 and Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 33399. Cell proliferation and cell metabolic function over the material leachate was assessed by an indirect contact test using 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazolyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The hydration behavior of the test materials varied with Biodentine being the most reactive and releasing the highest amount of calcium ions in solution. All materials tested except the unfilled resin exhibited depletion of phosphate ions from the solution indicating interaction of the materials with the media. Regardless the different material characteristics, there was a similar antimicrobial activity and cellular activity. All the materials exhibited no antimicrobial activity and were initially cytotoxic with cell metabolic function improving after 3days. The development of light curable tricalcium silicate-based pulp capping materials is important to improve the bonding to the final resin restoration. Testing of both antimicrobial activity and biological behavior is critical for material development. The experimental light curable materials exhibited promising biological properties but require further development to enhance the antimicrobial characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Leachate Resulted from a Mineland in Elazig City on Maden Stream: I. Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Topal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of leachate which result from a mine area in Elazig city on Maden stream was investigated. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Mn, Co, Pb, Fe ve Mn resulting from mine area were compared with the water quality criteria reported in the Water Pollution Control Regulations (WPCR and it was determined that these concentrations adversely affected water quality.

  9. Bacterial Growth on Photochemically Transformed Leachates from Aquatic and Terrestrial Primary Producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anesio, A.M.; Nielsen, Jon Theil; Granéli, W.

    2000-01-01

    utilization was reduced by radiation of the leachates from aquatic macrophytes. In a separate experiment, the stable C and N isotope composition of bacteria grown on irradiated and non-irradiated DOM was estimated. Bacterial growth on UV-irradiated DOM was enriched in 13C relative to the bacteria in the non......-irradiated treatments; this result may be explained by selective assimilation of photochemically produced, isotopically enriched labile compounds....

  10. Photocatalysis applied in the studies of decolorization and COD removal of landfill leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisselma Batista

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper photocatalysis processes on titanium dioxide suspension in aqueous solution illuminated with UV light are described for decolorization and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal of landfill leachate. Several operational parameters to achieve optimum efficiency are presented. The properties of the decolorization and COD removal were enhanced and studied by spectrophotometer methods. The results indicate that the process can be used as a pretreatment to the conventional processes.

  11. Municipal landfill leachates: A significant source for new and emerging pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggen, Trine, E-mail: Trine.Eggen@bioforsk.no [Bioforsk, Vest Saerheim, Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Postveien 213, N-4353 Klepp st. (Norway); Moeder, Monika [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Arukwe, Augustine [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-10-01

    Landfills have historically remained the most common methods of organized waste disposal and still remain so in many regions of the world. Thus, they may contain wastes resulting from several decades of disposal and decomposition with subsequent release of organic compounds that may have environmental, wildlife and human health consequences. Products containing different types of additives with unique beneficial improvement properties are in daily use. However, when these products are decomposed, additives are release into the environment, some of which have been shown to have negative environmental impacts, resulting in the ban or at least restricted application of some chemicals. New and emerging compounds are continuously discovered in the environment. Herein, we report qualitative and quantitative data on the occurrence of new and emerging compounds with increasing environmental and public health concern in water- and particle phase of landfill leachates. Under normal environmental conditions, several of these chemicals are persistent high-volume products. Identified chemicals in the leachates at nanogram (ng) or microgram ({mu}g) per liter levels include - chlorinated alkylphosphates such as tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), N-butyl benzensulfonamide (NBBS), the insect repellent diethyl toluamide (DEET) and personal care products such as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen and polycyclic musk compounds. Among new and emerging contaminants, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in the water phase at concentrations up to 6231 ng/L. Compared with the other chemicals, PFCs were primarily distributed in water phase. An effective removal method for PFCs and other polar and persistent compounds from landfill leachates has been a major challenge, since commonly used treatment technologies are based on aeration and sedimentation. Thus, the present study has shown that municipal landfill leachates may represent a significant source of

  12. Sanitary Landfill Leachate Recycle and Environmental Problems at Selected Army Landfills: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Benson, M. J. Staub , and M. A. Kamlys, Characteristics, Control and Treatment of Leachate at Military Irnstallations, !nterim Report N- 97/ADA097035...D. Smith, R. Pileccia, J. Handy, G. Gerdes, S. Kloster, G. Schanche, _. .1. fJanson, M. J. Staub , and M. A. Kamiya, Characteri.tic.i Control, and...Learned N 1. Do not construct buildings on top of or close to a closed landfill until methane gas production has stopped.... - 2. Note that explosive

  13. Electrochemical oxidation of biological pretreated and membrane separated landfill leachate concentrates on boron doped diamond anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Bo, E-mail: 357436235@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yu, Zhiming, E-mail: zhiming@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wei, Qiuping, E-mail: qiupwei@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Long, HangYu, E-mail: 55686385@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Xie, Youneng, E-mail: 1187272844@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang, Yijia, E-mail: 503630433@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • High quality boron-doped diamond film electrodes were synthesized on Nb substrates. • Electrochemical oxidation on boron-doped diamond anode is an effective method for treating landfill leachate concentrates. • Optimal operating conditions for electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachate concentrates is determined. • 87.5% COD removal and 74.06% NH{sub 3}−N removal were achieved after 6 h treatment. - Abstract: In the present study, the high quality boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes with excellent electrochemical properties were deposited on niobium (Nb) substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. The electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachate concentrates from disc tube reverse osmosis (DTRO) process over a BDD anode was investigated. The effects of varying operating parameters, such as current density, initial pH, flow velocity and cathode material on degradation efficiency were also evaluated following changes in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium nitrogen (NH{sub 3}−N). The instantaneous current efficiency (ICE) was used to appraise different operating conditions. As a result, the best conditions obtained were as follows, current density 50 mA cm{sup −2}, pH 5.16, flow velocity 6 L h{sup −1}. Under these conditions, 87.5% COD and 74.06% NH{sub 3}−N removal were achieved after 6 h treatment, with specific energy consumption of 223.2 kWh m{sup −3}. In short, these results indicated that the electrochemical oxidation with BDD/Nb anode is an effective method for the treatment of landfill leachate concentrates.

  14. Biological sulfate removal from construction and demolition debris leachate: Effect of bioreactor configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck, E-mail: som_cheng00@hotmail.com [Pollution Prevention and Resource Recovery Chair Group, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Do, Anh Tien [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Annachhatre, Ajit P. [Environmental Engineering and Management, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Esposito, Giovanni [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy); Yeh, Daniel H. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Lens, Piet N.L. [Pollution Prevention and Resource Recovery Chair Group, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Novel biological technique for gypsum removal from CDD. • CDDS leachate treatment performed using different sulfate reducing bioreactors. • Gypsum in CDD can be used as a source of sulfate for sulfate reducing bacteria. • High calcium concentration (1000 mg L{sup −1}) did not affect the bioreactor performance. - Abstract: Due to the contamination of construction and demolition debris (CDD) by gypsum drywall, especially, its sand fraction (CDD sand, CDDS), the sulfate content in CDDS exceeds the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulfate present in building sand (1.73 g sulfate per kg of sand for the Netherlands). Therefore, the CDDS cannot be reused for construction. The CDDS has to be washed in order to remove most of the impurities and to obtain the right sulfate content, thus generating a leachate, containing high sulfate and calcium concentrations. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate reduction system for CDDS leachate treatment and compared three different reactor configurations for the sulfate reduction step: the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor and gas lift anaerobic membrane bioreactor (GL-AnMBR). This investigation demonstrated that all three systems can be applied for the treatment of CDDS leachate. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 75–85% was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15.5 h. A high calcium concentration up to 1000 mg L{sup −1} did not give any adverse effect on the sulfate removal efficiency of the IFB and GL-AnMBR systems.

  15. CONJUGATE TREATMENT OF LEACHATE FROM LANDFILL AND SEWAGE IN DOMESTIC STABILIZATION PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the per capita generation of municipal solid waste is approximately 0.80 kg hab-1 day-1, which implies daily production of 156 tons, whereas on average 50% of this quantity of waste is composed mainly of putrescible organic material that will contribute to the leachate generation process directly influencing the qualitative and quantitative aspects. Landfill leachate basically originates from the percolation process of different types of water and is considered a wastewater to cause in significant environmental impact on the environment, given in possession of high concentration of ammonia nitrogen, organic matter difficult to biodegradation, metals heavy and xenobiotics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a series of stabilization ponds, the treatment process conjugate of landfill leachate fresh more domestic sewage in the proportion of 1 plus 99% (volume percent, respectively. The experimental system consisted of four stabilization ponds in series, being a facultative pond, followed by three maturation ponds. . The applied surface charge (λs the series of stabilization ponds was 320 kg DBO5 ha-1 day-1 with hydraulic retention time (HRT of 17 days for the series. The average removal efficiency of BOD5 and ammonia was 69 and 86% respectively, while removing coliform efficiency always in the 99.9% threshold during the monitoring period was 220 days. Overall it can be concluded that treatment conjugate landfill leachate and sewage in stabilization ponds, in northeastern Brazil, is emerging as a promising technological alternative, given the comfortable area availability in northeastern Brazil, conditions climate favorable and the ponds system present low ratio cost / benefit when compared to other waste treatment systems of this nature.

  16. Aerobic and two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion with pure oxygen and air aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Gregor D; Ros, Milenko

    2008-01-01

    The degradability of excess activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant was studied. The objective was establishing the degree of degradation using either air or pure oxygen at different temperatures. Sludge treated with pure oxygen was degraded at temperatures from 22 degrees C to 50 degrees C while samples treated with air were degraded between 32 degrees C and 65 degrees C. Using air, sludge is efficiently degraded at 37 degrees C and at 50-55 degrees C. With oxygen, sludge was most effectively degraded at 38 degrees C or at 25-30 degrees C. Two-stage anaerobic-aerobic processes were studied. The first anaerobic stage was always operated for 5 days HRT, and the second stage involved aeration with pure oxygen and an HRT between 5 and 10 days. Under these conditions, there is 53.5% VSS removal and 55.4% COD degradation at 15 days HRT - 5 days anaerobic, 10 days aerobic. Sludge digested with pure oxygen at 25 degrees C in a batch reactor converted 48% of sludge total Kjeldahl nitrogen to nitrate. Addition of an aerobic stage with pure oxygen aeration to the anaerobic digestion enhances ammonium nitrogen removal. In a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion process within 8 days HRT of the aerobic stage, the removal of ammonium nitrogen was 85%.

  17. Removal of contaminants in leachate from landfill by waste steel scrap and converter slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Lee, Jai-Young; Yoon, Jeyong

    2007-08-01

    This study may be the first investigation to be performed into the potential benefits of recycling industrial waste in controlling contaminants in leachate. Batch reactors were used to evaluate the efficacy of waste steel scrap and converter slag to treat mixed contaminants using mimic leachate solution. The waste steel scrap was prepared through pre-treatment by an acid-washed step, which retained both zero-valent iron site and iron oxide site. Extensive trichloroethene (TCE) removal (95%) occurred by acid-washed steel scrap within 48 h. In addition, dehalogenation (Cl(-) production) was observed to be above 7.5% of the added TCE on a molar basis for 48 h. The waste steel scrap also removed tetrachloroethylene (PCE) through the dehalogenation process although to a lesser extent than TCE. Heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) were extensively removed by both acid-washed steel scrap and converter slag through the adsorption process. Among salt ions (NH (4)(+) , NO (3)(-) , and PO (4)(3-) ), PO (4)(3-) was removed by both waste steel scrap (100% within 8 h) and converter slag (100% within 20 min), whereas NO (3)(-) and NH (4)(+ ) were removed by waste steel scrap (100% within 7 days) and converter slag (up to 50% within 4 days) respectively. This work suggests that permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with waste steel scrap and converter slag might be an effective approach to intercepting mixed contaminants in leachate from landfill.

  18. Soil attenuation of leachates from low-rank coal combustion wastes: a literature survey. [116 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntt, R. O.; DeOtte, R. E.; Slowey, J. F.; McFarland, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    In parallel with pursuing the goal of increased utilization of low-rank solid fuels, the US Department of Energy is investigating various aspects associated with the disposal of coal-combustion solid wastes. Concern has been expressed relative to the potential hazards presented by leachates from fly ash, bottom ash and scrubber wastes. This is of particular interest in some regions where disposal areas overlap aquifer recharge regions. The western regions of the United States are characterized by relatively dry alkaline soils which may effect substantial attenuation of contaminants in the leachates thereby reducing the pollution potential. A project has been initiated to study the contaminant uptake of western soils. This effort consists of two phases: (1) preparation of a state-of-the-art document on soil attenuation; and (2) laboratory experimental studies to characterize attenuation of a western soil. The state-of-the-art document, represented herein, presents the results of studies on the characteristics of selected wastes, reviews the suggested models which account for the uptake, discusses the specialized columnar laboratory studies on the interaction of leachates and soils, and gives an overview of characteristics of Texas and Wyoming soils. 116 references, 10 figures, 29 tables.

  19. Temporal and spatial pore water pressure distribution surrounding a vertical landfill leachate recirculation well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadambala, Ravi; Townsend, Timothy G; Jain, Pradeep; Singh, Karamjit

    2011-05-01

    Addition of liquids into landfilled waste can result in an increase in pore water pressure, and this in turn may increase concerns with respect to geotechnical stability of the landfilled waste mass. While the impact of vertical well leachate recirculation on landfill pore water pressures has been mathematically modeled, measurements of these systems in operating landfills have not been reported. Pressure readings from vibrating wire piezometers placed in the waste surrounding a liquids addition well at a full-scale operating landfill in Florida were recorded over a 2-year period. Prior to the addition of liquids, measured pore pressures were found to increase with landfill depth, an indication of gas pressure increase and decreasing waste permeability with depth. When liquid addition commenced, piezometers located closer to either the leachate injection well or the landfill surface responded more rapidly to leachate addition relative to those far from the well and those at deeper locations. After liquid addition stopped, measured pore pressures did not immediately drop, but slowly decreased with time. Despite the large pressures present at the bottom of the liquid addition well, much smaller pressures were measured in the surrounding waste. The spatial variation of the pressures recorded in this study suggests that waste permeability is anisotropic and decreases with depth.

  20. The effect of urban landfill leachate characteristics on the coexistence of anammox bacteria and heterotrophic denitrifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscalleda, M; Puig, S; Mora, X; López, H; Ganigué, R; Balaguer, M D; Colprim, J

    2010-01-01

    Heterotrophic denitrification coexists with the anammox process contributing to N removal owing to the biodegradable organic matter supply from urban landfill leachate and the decay of microorganisms. Both biomasses consumed nitrite increasing the nitrite requirements of the system. The aim of this paper is the study of the causes which induce the system to decrease nitrogen removal efficiency. In this study, urban landfill leachate has been treated in an anammox Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for 360 days. The anammox reactor treated on average 0.24 kgN m(-3) d(-1) obtaining nitrogen removal efficiencies up to 89%. The results demonstrated that i) a suitable influent nitrite to ammonium molar ratio is a crucial factor to avoid troubles in the anammox reactor performance; ii) an excess of nitrite implied nitrite accumulation in the reactor; iii) a lower nitrite supply than the necessary for the system could force a loss of specific anammox activity due to nitrite competition with denitrifiers. These results pointed out the importance of the previous partial-nitritation process control in order to obtain a correct influent nitrite to ammonium molar ratio for the anammox reactor. In addition, sudden variation of the leachate characteristics must be avoided.

  1. Electro-Fenton treatment of mature landfill leachate in a continuous flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Ran, Xiaoni; Wu, Xiaogang

    2012-11-30

    The treatment of mature landfill leachate by EF-Fere (also called Fered-Fenton) method was carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) using Ti/RuO(2)-IrO(2)-SnO(2)-TiO(2) mesh anodes and Ti mesh cathodes. The effects of important parameters, including initial pH, inter-electrode gap, H(2)O(2) to Fe(2+) molar ratio, H(2)O(2) dosage and hydraulic retention time, on COD removal were investigated. The results showed that the complete mixing condition was fulfilled in the electrochemical reactor employed in this study and COD removal followed a modified pseudo-first order kinetic model. The COD removal efficiency increased with the decrease of H(2)O(2) to Fe(2+) molar ratio and hydraulic retention time. There existed an optimal inter-electrode gap or H(2)O(2) dosage so that the highest COD removal was achieved. Nearly the same COD removal was obtained at initial pH 3 and 5, but the steady state was quickly achieved at initial pH 3. The organic pollutants in the leachate were analyzed through a gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system. About 73 organics were detected in the leachate, and 52 of which were completely removed after EF-Fere process.

  2. Intermittent rainstorms cause pulses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper in leachate from compost in bioretention systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullane, Jessica M; Flury, Markus; Iqbal, Hamid; Freeze, Patrick M; Hinman, Curtis; Cogger, Craig G; Shi, Zhenqing

    2015-12-15

    Bioretention systems rely on vegetation and mixtures of soil, sand, and compost to filter stormwater runoff. However, bioretention systems can also leach metals and nutrients, and compost may be a major contributor to this leaching. To safely implement bioretention systems, it is crucial to determine the composition of compost leachate. We characterized and quantified the leachate composition of compost following intermittent, simulated storm events. Columns of municipal compost were irrigated to simulate 6-month, 24-hour rain storms in the Seattle-Tacoma region. Outflow was analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), particulate concentration, surface tension, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper. Results indicate a decrease of chemical concentrations over the course of individual storms and following repeated storms, but each new storm released another peak of constituents. The decrease in phosphorus, copper, and DOC concentrations with repeated storms was slower than for nitrate and EC. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the DOC consisted mainly of aliphatic and aromatic components typical of fulvic and humic acids. Less than 3% of the original copper content from the compost leached out even after nine storm events. Nonetheless, copper concentrations in the leachate exceeded regulatory discharge standards. Our results show that compost can serve as a sustained source of leaching of nutrients and metals.

  3. Amendment of biosolids with waste materials and lime: Effect on geoenvironmental properties and leachate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Claudia; Larkin, Tam; Singhal, Naresh

    2015-12-01

    Residuals from wastewater treatment operations (biosolids) were mixed with lime, fly ash, lime kiln dust, or two smelter slags to assess their efficacy as potential stabilisation agents by assessing their effects on the shear strength, compressibility, and solids content of mixtures. In addition, the minerals formed and leachate produced during stabilisation were determined. Tests were performed to explore the change of the geoenvironmental properties of the amended biosolids, while under pressure, at different scales using laboratory, pilot and field scale tests. The settlement characteristics of the amended biosolids under a range of applied pressures were determined using a consolidometer. All amended biosolids mixtures showed higher strength than the unamended biosolids, with mixtures containing a combination of 20% fly ash and 20% lime giving the highest (up to eightfold) increase in strength, and that with lime kiln dust and the smelter slags showing the lowest (up to twofold). The biosolids mixtures with only lime gave the second highest increase in strength (up to fourfold), but produced the largest amount of leachate, with higher level of dissolved calcium. The increase in strength correlated with availability of calcium oxide in the mixtures which lead to calcium carbonate formation, accompanied with higher leachate production and settlement during consolidation. Copper, nickel and zinc concentrations increased with alkaline additives and corresponded to higher pH and DOC levels. Nonetheless, concentrations were within the New Zealand regulatory limits for Class A landfills.

  4. Effects of leachate infiltration and desiccation cracks on hydraulic conductivity of compacted clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun HE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Both cracks in clay liner and the complex composition of landfill leachate might have effects on the hydraulic conductivity of a compacted clay liner. In this study, the hydraulic conductivities of natural clay and bentonite-modified clay with and without desiccation cracks were measured, respectively, using three types of liquids as permeating liquid: 2 500 mg/L acetic acid solution, 0.5 mol/L CaCl2 solution, and tap water. When tap water was adopted as the permeating liquid, desiccation cracks resulted in increases in the average value of hydraulic conductivity: a 25-fold increase for the natural clay and a 5.7-fold increase for the bentonite-modified clay. It was also found out that the strong self-healing capability of bentonite helped to reduce the adverse impact of cracks on hydraulic performance. In contrast to tap water, simulated leachates (acetic acid and CaCl2 solutions show no adverse effect on the hydraulic conductivities of natural and bentonite-modified clays. It is concluded that desiccation cracks and bentonite have more significant effects on hydraulic performance than simulated leachates.

  5. Dynamics of copper and zinc sedimentation in a lagooning system receiving landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigue, Julien; Mathieu, Olivier; Lévêque, Jean; Denimal, Sophie; Steinmann, Marc; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Grisey, Hervé

    2013-11-01

    This study characterises the sediment dredged from a lagooning system composed of a settling pond and three lagoons that receive leachates from a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in France. Organic carbon, carbonate, iron oxyhydroxides, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were measured in the sediment collected from upstream to downstream in the lagooning system. In order to complete our investigation of sedimentation mechanisms, leachates were sampled in both dry (spring) and wet (winter) seasonal conditions. Precipitation of calcite and amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides and sedimentation of organic matter occurred in the settling pond. Since different distributions of Zn and Cu concentrations are measured in sediment samples collected downstream in the lagooning system, it is suggested that these elements were not distributed in a similar way in the leachate fractions during the first stage of treatment in the settling pond, so that their sedimentation dynamics in the lagooning system differ. In the lagoons, it was found that organic carbon plays a major role in Cu and Zn mobility and trapping. The presence of macrophytes along the edges provided an input of organic matter that enhanced Cu and Zn scavenging. This edge effect resulted in a two-fold increase in Cu and Zn concentrations in the sediment deposited near the banks of the lagoons, thus confirming the importance of vegetation for the retention of Cu and Zn in lagooning systems.

  6. Effect of humic acid in leachate on specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengfei; Xian, Ping; Yang, Longhui; Liu, Xi; Zhan, Longhui; Bu, Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    In order to find out the effects of humic acid (HA) in anaerobic-treated landfill leachate on granular sludge, the anaerobic biodegradability of HA as well as the influences of HA on the total cumulative methane production, the anaerobic methanization process and the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of granular sludge are studied in this paper. Experimental results show that as a non-biodegradable organic pollutant, HA is also difficult to be decomposed by microbes in the anaerobic reaction process. Presence of HA and changes in the concentration have no significant influences on the total cumulative methane production and the anaerobic methanization process of granular sludge. Besides, the total cumulative methane production cannot reflect the inhibition of toxics on the methanogenic activity of granular sludge on the premise of sufficient reaction time. Results also show that HA plays a promoting role on SMA of granular sludge. Without buffering agent the SMA value increased by 19.2% on average due to the buffering and regulating ability of HA, while with buffering agent the SMA value increased by 5.4% on average due to the retaining effect of HA on the morphology of the sludge particles. However, in the presence of leachate the SMA value decreased by 27.6% on average, because the toxic effect of the toxics in the leachate on granular sludge is much larger than the promoting effect of HA.

  7. Changes in soil characteristics during landfill leachate irrigation of Populus deltoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Vesna; Justin, Maja Zupančič

    2010-11-01

    The effects of wastewater application on electrical conductivity, water retention and water repellency of soils planted with Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood) and irrigated with different concentrations of landfill leachate and compost wastewater, tap water and nutrient solution were evaluated. Substrate water content at field capacity (-0.033 MPa) and at permanent wilting point (-1.5 MPa) was determined with a pressure plate extractor to assess available water capacity of the substrate. A water drop penetration test was used to determine substrate water repellency. The biomass of nutrient and landfill leachate treatments was significantly (Pwater repellency after the experiment at field capacity and permanent wilting point comparing to the original substrate. The strongest influence on water repellency at both field capacity and permanent wilting point showed irrigation with compost wastewater and tap water. Pronounced influence on substrate's water repellency of compost wastewater could be contributed to a high content of dissolved organic carbon, whereas Mg and Ca cations caused flocculation and consequent water repellency of the substrate irrigated with tap water. The results indicate that soil physical characteristics must be closely monitored when landfill leachate and compost wastewater are used for irrigation to avoid long term detrimental effects on the soil, and consequently on the environment. Due to the complexity of the compost wastewater quality the latter should be applied on open fields only after prior pre-treatment to reduce dissolved organic carbons, or alternatively, compost wastewater should be added only intermittently and in diluted ratios. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitrogen removal optimization in a sequencing batch reactor treating sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagni, Alessandro; Lavagnolo, M Cristina; Scarpa, Carlotta; Vendrame, Paola; Rizzo, Andrea; Luccarini, Luca

    2007-05-01

    Biological nitrogen removal via nitrite may represent a promising process for the optimization of nitrogen removal, in particular in the presence of a low biodegradable COD/TKN ratio. In the present study a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was monitored for approximately 2 years to evaluate the use of dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) as monitoring parameters in order to optimize nitrogen removal via nitrite from leachate generated in old sanitary landfills. The SBR manifested a nitrification efficiency exceeding 99% whereas, due to the low biodegradability of the organic matter presents in the leachates, COD removal reached approximately 40% and the addition of external COD was required to accomplish denitrification process. Moreover, the results demonstrate that DO, pH and ORP are reliable parameters for use in the monitoring of nitritation and denitritation processes in SBRs treating landfill leachates. Through manual modification of the length of the SBR phases to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite, the nitritation and denitritation processes were rendered unstable leading to the saving of 20% in addition of external COD, almost half the theoretically achievable value. Furthermore, the low dissolved oxygen concentration applied during the oxic phases in an attempt to increase the nitritation process would appear to cause the settling characteristics of the activated sludge to deteriorate.

  9. Effects of aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae Hac; Ma, Zeyu; Jin, Xiao; Xu, Qiyong

    2016-12-01

    Research has been conducted to investigate the effects of daily aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste settlement in simulated hybrid landfill bioreactors. Four laboratory-scale reactors were constructed and operated for about 10 months to simulate different bioreactor operations, including one anaerobic bioreactor and three hybrid bioreactors with different aeration frequencies (one, two, and four times per day). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) reduced more than 96% of the initial concentrations in all aerated bioreactors. The differences of COD and BOD5 reductions among tested aeration frequencies were relatively small. For ammonia nitrogen, the higher aeration frequency (two or four times per day) resulted in the quicker reduction. Overall, the concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn) decreased over time except Cd and Pb. The reduction of redox-sensitive metal concentrations (Mn, Co, Ni, and Cu) was greater in aerated bioreactors than in anaerobic bioreactor. Settlement of municipal solid waste (MSW) was enhanced with higher frequency of aeration events (four times per day). In recent years, hybird bioreactor landfill technology has gained a lot of attention. Appropriate aeration rate is crucial for hybrid bioreactor operation, but few studies have been done and different results were obtained. Research was conducted to investigate the effects of daily aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste settlement. Results indicated that aeration can effectively accelerate waste stabilization and remove organic carbon concentration and total nitrogen in the leachate.

  10. Effects of ferric ions on the catalytic ozonation process on sanitary landfill leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messias Borges Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leachates exhibiting an unstable ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD of approximately 0.45 are typical of new landfills in the City of Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil. Although the organic matter portion is bio-treatable, the presence of refractory leached organic material requires unconventional effluent-treatment processes. Leachate treatment with ozone oxidation, in the presence of ferric ions, acts as catalyst in the formation of hydroxyl radicals. Ozone was obtained by corona-discharge from high-purity O2 gas. The treatment was performed in natura in a jacketed borosilicate glass reactor containing 900 ml of leachate. The analyzed response variable was expressed as the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. In order to determine the optimal proportions to produce the greatest degradation rate for organic materials, variations in experimental O2 flow-fed to the generator, the Fe(iii concentration, and the output of the ozonator were conducted over two experimental runs. Experimental models showed a DOC degradation on the order of 81.25%.

  11. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of microbial community shifts in leachate from animal carcass burial lysimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Young; Seo, Jiyoung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Shim, Bomi; Cha, Seok Mun; Yu, Seungho

    2017-02-26

    This study examined the use of microbial community structure as a bio-indicator of decomposition levels. High-throughput pyrosequencing technology was used to assess the shift in microbial community of leachate from animal carcass lysimeter. The leachate samples were collected monthly for one year and a total of 164,639 pyrosequencing reads were obtained and used in the taxonomic classification and operational taxonomy units (OTUs) distribution analysis based on sequence similarity. Our results show considerable changes in the phylum-level bacterial composition, suggesting that the microbial community is a sensitive parameter affected by the burial environment. The phylum classification results showed that Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) were the most influential taxa in earlier decomposition stage whereas Firmicutes (Clostridium, Sporanaerobacter, and Peptostreptococcus) were dominant in later stage under anaerobic conditions. The result of this study can provide useful information on a time series of leachate profiles of microbial community structures and suggest patterns of microbial diversity in livestock burial sites. In addition, this result can be applicable to predict the decomposition stages under clay loam based soil co