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Sample records for leach rate characterization

  1. Leach rate characterization of solid radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, K.F.; Barletta, R.E.; Jardine, L.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    Leach rates were measured using distilled water on four types of waste forms: spray calcined waste mixed with silica and borosilicate glass and sintered, the same pulverized, the same in a lead matrix, and waste glass containing U. Twenty isotopes ranging from 22 Na to 239 Np were measured using activation analysis. Leach rates were also measured for a variety of matrix materials (Zircaloy, Al, Pb, glass, Pb 3 RE 6 (SiO 4 ) 6 ), using one isotope each. 2 tables

  2. Measurement of leach rates: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    A historical perspective of the techniques that can be used to measure the leach rate of radioactive waste forms is presented. The achievement of leach rates that are as low as possible has been an important goal ever since the development of solidification processes for liquid radioactive wastes began in the 1950's. Leach tests can be divided into two major categories, dynamic and static, based on whether or not the leachant in contact with the test specimen is changed during the course of the test. Both types of tests have been used extensively. The results of leach tests can be used to compare waste forms, and that has been a major purpose of leach data heretofore; increasingly, however, the data now are needed for predicting long-term leaching behavior during geologic disposal. This requirement is introducing new complexities into leach testing methodology. 3 figures, 2 tables

  3. Research on the effect of alkali roasting of copper dross on leaching rate of indium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafang, Liu; Fan, Xingxiang; Shi, Yifeng; Yang, Kunbin

    2017-11-01

    The byproduct copper dross produced during refining crude lead was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence spectrometer (XRF), which showed that copper dross mainly contained lead, copper, zinc, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, sulfur and a small amount of indium and silver etc. The mineralogical phase change of oxidation roasting of copper dross by adding sodium hydroxide was analyzed with the help of XRD and SEM. The effects of water leaching, ratio of sodium hydroxide, roasting time, and roasting temperature on leaching rate of indium were investigated mainly. The experimental results showed that phase of lead metal and sulfides of lead, copper and zinc disappeared after oxidation roasting of copper dross by adding sodium hydroxide, new phase of oxides of lead, copper, zinc and sodium salt of arsenic and antimony appeared. Water leaching could remove arsenic, and acid leaching residue obtained was then leached with acid. The leaching rate of indium was higher 6.98% compared with alkali roasting of copper dross-acid leaching. It showed that removing arsenic by water leaching and acid leaching could increase the leaching rate of indium and be beneficial to reducing subsequent acid consumption of extracting indium by acid leaching. The roasting temperature had a significant effect on the leaching rate of indium, and leaching rate of indium increased with the rise of roasting temperature. When roasting temperature ranged from 450°C to 600°C, leaching rate of indium increased significantly with the rise of roasting temperature. When roasting temperature rose from 450°C to 600°C, leaching rate of indium increased by 60.29%. The amount of sodium hydroxide had an significant effect on the leaching rate of indium, and the leaching of indium increased with the increase of the amount of sodium hydroxide, and the leaching rate of indium was obviously higher than that of copper dross blank roasting and acid leaching.

  4. Long-term leach rates of glasses containing actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.R.; LeRoy, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Leach rates of borosilicate glasses that contained actual Savannah River Plant waste were measured. Leaching was done by water and by buffer solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9. Leach rates were then determined from the amount of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and Pu released into the leach solutions. The cumulative fractions leached were fit to a mathematical model that included leaching by diffusion and glass dissolution

  5. Long-term leach rates of glasses containing actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.R.; LeRoy, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Leach rates of borosilicate glasses that contained actual Savannah River Plant waste were measured. Leaching was done by water and by buffer solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9. Leach rates were then determined from the amount of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and plutonium released into the leach solutions. The cumulative fractions leached were fit to a mathematical model that included leaching by diffusion and glass dissolution. 5 figures, 3 tables

  6. Leach rate studies on glass containing actual radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.; Wiley, J.R.; Dukes, M.D.; LeRoy, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Borosilicate glass containing radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Plant have been leached for 900 days. The International Standards Organization's (ISO) static leach test procedure was used on glass buttons in various leachants. Leach rates based on 90 Sr and 137 Cs analyses were similar: 2 x 10 -8 to 3 x 10 -8 g/(cm 2 )(d) in distilled water, 1 x 10 -8 to 3 x 10 -7 g/(cm 2 )(d) in pH 7 buffer, 3 x 10 -7 to 7 x 10 -7 g/(cm 2 )(d) in pH 9 buffer, and 7 x 10 -6 to 8 x 10 -5 g/(cm 2 )(d) in pH 4 buffer. Rates based on Pu analyses were the same as above in distilled water and pH 9 buffer, but were lower by an order of magnitude in pH 4 and pH 7 buffers. Almost all leach rates remained constant between 200 and 900 days of leaching. Increasing the concentration of the buffering agents had no effect on the leach rates at pH 7 (phosphate) and pH 9 (carbonate), but dramatically increased the rates at pH 4 (acetate). Leach rates did not differ significantly between high aluminum and high iron waste glasses

  7. Comparative characterization of sewage sludge compost and soil: Heavy metal leaching characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen; Wei, Yonghong; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-06-05

    The leaching and accumulation of heavy metals are major concerns following the land application of sewage sludge compost (SSC). We comparatively characterized SSC, the reference soil, and the SSC amended soil to investigate their similarities and differences regarding heavy metal leaching behavior and then to evaluate the effect of SSC land application on the leaching behavior of soil. Results showed that organic matter, including both of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), were critical factors influencing heavy metal leaching from both of SSC and the soil. When SSC was applied to soil at the application rate of 48t/ha, the increase of DOM content slightly enhanced heavy metal leaching from the amended soil over the applicable pH domain (6leaching behavior of heavy metals. The geochemical speciation modeling revealed that heavy metal speciation in the solid phase were similar between the reference soil and the amended soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Solid State Characterizations of Long-Term Leached Cast Stone Monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, Robert M.; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Parker, Kent E.; Miller, Brian W.; Lee, Brady D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Washton, Nancy M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Lawter, Amanda R.; McElroy, Erin M.; Serne, R Jeffrey

    2016-09-30

    This report describes the results from the solid phase characterization of six Cast Stone monoliths from the extended leach tests recently reported on (Serne et al. 2016),that were selected for characterization using multiple state-of-the-art approaches. The Cast Stone samples investigated were leached for > 590 d in the EPA Method 1315 test then archived for > 390 d in their final leachate. After reporting the long term leach behavior of the monoliths (containing radioactive 99Tc and stable 127I spikes and for original Westsik et al. 2013 fabricated monoliths, 238U), it was suggested that physical changes to the waste forms and a depleting inventory of contaminants of potential concern may mean that effective diffusivity calculations past 63 d should not be used to accurately represent long-term waste form behavior. These novel investigations, in both length of leaching time and application of solid state techniques, provide an initial arsenal of techniques which can be utilized to perform such Cast Stone solid phase characterization work, which in turn can support upcoming performance assessment maintenance. The work was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to characterize several properties of the long- term leached Cast Stone monolith samples.

  9. Taoshan uranium ore fields in situ blasting heap leaching rate influence factors to investigate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wangnan; Dong Chunming

    2014-01-01

    Taoshan ore field ore in situ blasting heap leaching out build industrial test and production process, stope leaching rate and leaching cycle is large than that, after analysis, blasting method and cloth liquid way is to affect leaching rate and leaching cycle of the main factors. This paper holds that as far as possible using stratified deep hole blasting of squeezing up ways to reduce the building pile of in-situ leaching ore block rate; Adopting effective cloth tube way, increase the leaching agent and ore contact comprehensive; Introduction of bacterial leaching, and other means to improve leaching rate, shorten production cycle, etc to solve it. (authors)

  10. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  11. Relationship between reaction layer thickness and leach rate for nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chick, L.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1984-02-01

    Three leaching tests, devised to distinguish among several proposed nuclear waste glass leaching mechanisms, were carried out for four different waste glasses. In the first test, the influence of a pre-formed reaction layer on elemental release was evaluated. In the second test, glass specimens were replaced with fresh samples halfway through the leaching experiment, to evaluate the influence of the concentration of glass components in leaching. Finally, regular replacement of the leachant at fixed time intervals essentially removed the variable changing solution concentration, and allowed an assessment of the influence of reaction layer thickness on the leaching rate. Results for all glasses tested indicated that the reaction layer presented little or no barrier to leaching, and that most of the retardation on leaching rates generally observed are attributable to saturation effects. 20 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  12. Increasing flux rate to shorten leaching period and ramp-up production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngantung, Billy; Agustin, Riska; Ravi'i

    2017-01-01

    J Resources Bolaang Mongondow (JBRM) has operated a dynamic heap leach in its Bakan Gold Mine since late 2013. After successfully surpassing its name plate capacity of 2.6 MT/annum in 2014, the clayey and transition ore become the next operational challenge. The presence of transition and clayey ore requires longer leaching period, hence reducing the leach pad capacity which then caused reduced production. Maintaining or even increasing production with such longer leaching ore types can be done by expanding the leach pad area which means an additional capital investment, and/or shortening the leaching cycle which compromise a portion of gold extraction. JBRM has been successfully increasing the leach pad production from 2.6 MT/annum to 3.8 MT/annum, whilst improving the gold extraction from around 70% to around 80%. This was achieved by managing the operation of the leach pad which is shortening the leach cycle by identifying and combining the optimal flux rate application versus the tonne processed in each cell, at no capital investment for expanding the cell capacity.

  13. Leaching of irradiated polymers: solution characterization and actinides complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromentin, Elodie

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of this work is to study the degradation of an industrial poly-esterurethane (PURm) by radio-oxidation and then by leaching in an alkaline aqueous solution. The second aim is to measure the complexing power of hydro-soluble degradation products (HDP) with actinides. To reach these goals, PURm was first characterized and then radio-oxidized at room temperature with γ rays up to 10 MGy. Second, it was leached at pH 13.3 at different temperature values. Numerous analytical techniques were employed in order to characterize the HDP which were obtained. Europium(III) was used as an analogue of actinides(III) and the behavior of HDP with europium(III) was analyzed by time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy (TRLS). Whatever the dose received by PURm, adipic acid and butane-1,4-diol are the two main HDP in leachates. The leaching data acquired at 40 and 60 C, on the 1 MGy radio-oxidized PURm, correlate with the model given by Yoon et al. (1997). However, the data at room temperature (22 C in average) are not in agreement with the model. Nevertheless, it seems that the plateau which was reached at long-term leaching is the same whatever the temperature used in this study. The results allow to conclude that the predominant mechanism occurring during the leaching of unirradiated and radio-oxidized PURm in an alkaline medium is the hydrolysis of the soft segments ester groups. The complexation of europium(III) by HDP in alkaline medium was demonstrated. The measurement of the complexing power and the identification of ligands was achieved under certain conditions. (author) [fr

  14. Determining leach rates of monolithic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Dole, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The ANS 16.1 Leach Procedure provides a conservative means of predicting long-term release from monolithic waste forms, offering a simple and relatively quick means of determining effective solid diffusion coefficients. As presented here, these coefficients can be used in a simple model to predict maximum release rates or be used in more complex site-specific models to predict actual site performance. For waste forms that pass the structural integrity test, this model also allows the prediction of EP-Tox leachate concentrations from these coefficients. Thus, the results of the ANS 16.1 Leach Procedure provide a powerful tool that can be used to predict the waste concentration limits in order to comply with the EP-Toxicity criteria for characteristically nonhazardous waste. 12 refs., 3 figs

  15. Leaching of radionuclides from decaying blueberry leaves: Relative rate independent of concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada))

    Leaching of radionuclides from decaying vegetation has not been extensively investigated, especially for radionuclides other than {sup 137}Cs. The authors obtained leaves of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium {times} V. corymbosum) that contained over 25-fold ranges in Se, Cs, and I concentrations, as well as a small quantity of leaves containing detectable U. All were contaminated by way of root uptake. Leaching took place for a period of 1 yr in the laboratory, using leach water from forest litter. Monthly, measurements were made of the radionuclide contents and decaying leaf dry weights. The data conformed to an exponential decay model with two first-order components. In no case did the relative loss rates vary systematically with the initial tissue radionuclide concentrations. Loss rates decreased in the order Cs > I > U > dry wt. > Se. Because of the low leaching rate of Se relative to the loss of dry weight, decaying litter may actually accumulate elements such as Se. Accumulation of radionuclides in litter could have important implications for lateral transport, recycling, and direct incorporation into edible mushrooms.

  16. Leaching of radionuclides from decaying blueberry leaves: Relative rate independent of concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    Leaching of radionuclides from decaying vegetation has not been extensively investigated, especially for radionuclides other than 137 Cs. The authors obtained leaves of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium x V. corymbosum) that contained over 25-fold ranges in Se, Cs, and I concentrations, as well as a small quantity of leaves containing detectable U. All were contaminated by way of root uptake. Leaching took place for a period of 1 yr in the laboratory, using leach water from forest litter. Monthly, measurements were made of the radionuclide contents and decaying leaf dry weights. The data conformed to an exponential decay model with two first-order components. In no case did the relative loss rates vary systematically with the initial tissue radionuclide concentrations. Loss rates decreased in the order Cs > I > U > dry wt. > Se. Because of the low leaching rate of Se relative to the loss of dry weight, decaying litter may actually accumulate elements such as Se. Accumulation of radionuclides in litter could have important implications for lateral transport, recycling, and direct incorporation into edible mushrooms

  17. Effects Disposal Condition and Ground Water to Leaching Rate of Radionuclides from Solidification Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlan Martono; Wati

    2008-01-01

    Effects disposal condition and ground water to leaching rate of radionuclides from solidification products have been studied. The aims of leaching test at laboratory to get the best composition of solidified products for continuous process or handling. The leaching rate of radionuclides from the many kinds of matrix from smallest to bigger are glass, thermosetting plastic, urea formaldehyde, asphalt, and cement. Glass for solidification of high level waste, thermosetting plastic and urea formaldehyde for solidification of low and intermediate waste, asphalt and cement for solidification of low and intermediate level waste. In shallow land burial, ground water rate is fast, debit is high, and high permeability, so the probability contact between solidification products and ground water is occur. The pH of ground water increasing leaching rate, but cation in the ground water retard leaching rate. Effects temperature radiation and radiolysis to solidification products is not occur. In the deep repository, ground water rate is slow, debit is small, and low permeability, so the probability contact between solidification products and ground water is very small. There are effect cooling time and distance between pits to rock temperature. Alfa radiation effects can be occur, but there is no contact between solidification products and ground water, so that there is not radiolysis. (author)

  18. Polluted soil leaching: unsaturated conditions and flow rate effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chourouk Mathlouthi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soil samples are extracted from a polluted site at different depths. Soils texture and pollutant presence are different with depth. Preliminary analyzes showed pollution by heavy metals. To simulate soil leaching operation in static condition, a series of leaching tests are conducted in laboratory column under conditions of upflow unsaturated soil. Electrical conductivity and pH measurements on the recovered leachate are performed. Different flow rates are tested. Comparison of different profiles shows that the dissolved pollutants are concentrated in the upper soil levels and disperse weakly in the lower parts which confirm the nature of anthropogenic pollution of heavy metals. Water mobilizes a high amount of dissolved ionic substances up to 80% of the initial concentration. The increase in flow rate requires more pore volume injected to achieve the maximum clearance rate. The down flow condition extracts a small amount of dissolved substances.

  19. The effect of devitrification on leaching rate of glass containing simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryantoro; Sumarbagiono; Martono, H.

    1996-01-01

    Effect of devitrification on leaching rate of glass named G1 and G2 each contains 20 wt% and 30wt% of waste has been studied. devitrification of waste - glass has been carried out by heating those specimens at 850 o C for 10, 18, 26, 34, 42 and 50 hours respectively. The weight percentage of crystal in waste glass was determined by X-ray diffractometer and leaching rate was determined by soxhlet apparatus at 100 o C for 24 hours. The longer heating time, the more weight percentage of crystal is formed. The results show that leaching rate of G2 specimens are higher than those of G1. For G1 the leaching rate at 850 o C in 20 times than without heating, and for G2 leaching rate is 15.7 times than without heating. (author)

  20. Leach testing of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant final waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuman, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    A number of pellets and highly durable glasses prepared from nonradioactive-simulated high-level wasste calcines have been leach tested. The leach tests are patterned on the IAEA standard test and the proposed Materials Characterization Center tests. Most tests are made with static distilled water at 25, 70, 95, 250, and 350 0 C and in refluxing distilled water, Soxhlet, at 95 0 C. Leach rates are determined by analyzing the leachate by instrumental activation analysis or spectrochemical analysis and from weight loss. Leaches are run on glass using cast and core drilled cylinders, broken pieces and coarse ground material. Sample form has a considerable effect on leach rates; solid pieces gave higher leach rates than ground glass when expressed in g/cm 2 /day. Cesium, molybdenum and weight loss leach rates of cast glass cylinders in distilled water varied from -7 g/cm 7 /day at 25 0 C to approx. 10 -3 g/cm 2 /day at 250 0 C. The leach rates in static distilled water at 95 0 C were considerably lower than those in refluxing distilled water, Soxhlet, at the same temperature. Even at 25 0 C, sodium, cesium, and molybdenum readily leached from the porous pellets, but the pellets showed no visible attack, even at 250 0 C

  1. Characterization of dross and its recovery by sulphuric acid leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, S. A.; Meidianto, A.; Amal, M. I.; Wismogroho, A. S.; Widayatno, W. B.

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the characterization of dross from galvanizing process and its recovery using acidic leaching method. The diffraction profile of dross showed identical peaks with that of ZnO. The X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis identified the content of following metals: Zn, Fe, Mn, Ga, Co, and W. The thermal behaviour examination revealed the existence of some volatiles within the initial sample. The acidic leaching at various concentrations of sulphuric acid was conducted to determine the optimum concentration for zinc recovery and the highest yield of zinc sulphate. It is concluded that the optimum concentration of H2SO4 for this kind of dross is 4 M with 71.9% yield of ZnSO4. The result of leaching process was confirmed by infrared spectrum, where various absorptions corresponding to SO4 2- and Zn-O bands were observed.

  2. Characterization of Sumbawa manganese ore and recovery of manganese sulfate as leaching products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningrum, Retno; Rahmani, Siti Astari; Widayatno, Wahyu Bambang; Wismogroho, Agus Sukarto; Nugroho, Dwi Wahyu; Maulana, Syahrizal; Rochman, Nurul Taufiqu; Amal, M. Ikhlasul

    2018-05-01

    The aims of this research were to study the leaching process of manganese ore which originated from Sumbawa, Indonesia and its characterization. A high grade Indonesian manganese ore from Sumbawa, West of Nusa Tenggara was characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). The result showed composition of 78.8 % Mn, 17.77% Fe and the rest were trace elements such as Si, Co, Ti, Zn, V and Zr contents. X-Ray Diffraction analysis showed that the manganese ore was consisted of pyrolusite (MnO2), rhodonite (MnSiO3), rhodochrosite (MnCO3) and hematite (Fe2O3). Manganese ore was also analyzed by thermal analysis to observe their thermal decomposition character. In this study, sulphuric acid (H2SO4, 6 M) was deployed as leaching agent. The leaching process was performed at 90 °C for two hours with the addition of NH4OH to control pH. Recovery percentage of leaching process yielded of 87 % Mn extracted. The crystallization process result at heating temperature of 200 °C was confirmed by XRD as manganese sulfate.

  3. Low leach rate glasses for immobilization of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chick, L.A.; Buckwalter, C.Q.

    1980-10-01

    Improved defense and commercial waste glass have about one order of magnitude lower leach rates at 90 0 C in static deionized water than reference glasses. This durability difference diminishes as the leaching temperature is raised, but at repository temperature less than 150 0 C, the improved compositions would have considerable advantages over reference glases. At the melting temperatures necessary for most of the high-durability glasses, volatility was found to be higher than that experienced in processing current reference glases. Higher volatilities might be compensated for by specific design of the off-gas system for improved off-gas treatment and volatile materials recovery. 6 figures, 2 tables

  4. Investigations into Recycling Zinc from Used Metal Oxide Varistors via pH Selective Leaching: Characterization, Leaching, and Residue Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutknecht, Toni; Gustafsson, Anna; Forsgren, Christer; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxide varistors (MOVs) are a type of resistor with significantly nonlinear current-voltage characteristics commonly used in power lines to protect against overvoltages. If a proper recycling plan is developed MOVs can be an excellent source of secondary zinc because they contain over 90 weight percent zinc oxide. The oxides of antimony, bismuth, and to a lesser degree cobalt, manganese, and nickel are also present in varistors. Characterization of the MOV showed that cobalt, nickel, and manganese were not present in the varistor material at concentrations greater than one weight percent. This investigation determined whether a pH selective dissolution (leaching) process can be utilized as a starting point for hydrometallurgical recycling of the zinc in MOVs. This investigation showed it was possible to selectively leach zinc from the MOV without coleaching of bismuth and antimony by selecting a suitable pH, mainly higher than 3 for acids investigated. It was not possible to leach zinc without coleaching of manganese, cobalt, and nickel. It can be concluded from results obtained with the acids used, acetic, hydrochloric, nitric, and sulfuric, that sulfate leaching produced the most desirable results with respect to zinc leaching and it is also used extensively in industrial zinc production. PMID:26421313

  5. Investigations into Recycling Zinc from Used Metal Oxide Varistors via pH Selective Leaching: Characterization, Leaching, and Residue Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Gutknecht

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide varistors (MOVs are a type of resistor with significantly nonlinear current-voltage characteristics commonly used in power lines to protect against overvoltages. If a proper recycling plan is developed MOVs can be an excellent source of secondary zinc because they contain over 90 weight percent zinc oxide. The oxides of antimony, bismuth, and to a lesser degree cobalt, manganese, and nickel are also present in varistors. Characterization of the MOV showed that cobalt, nickel, and manganese were not present in the varistor material at concentrations greater than one weight percent. This investigation determined whether a pH selective dissolution (leaching process can be utilized as a starting point for hydrometallurgical recycling of the zinc in MOVs. This investigation showed it was possible to selectively leach zinc from the MOV without coleaching of bismuth and antimony by selecting a suitable pH, mainly higher than 3 for acids investigated. It was not possible to leach zinc without coleaching of manganese, cobalt, and nickel. It can be concluded from results obtained with the acids used, acetic, hydrochloric, nitric, and sulfuric, that sulfate leaching produced the most desirable results with respect to zinc leaching and it is also used extensively in industrial zinc production.

  6. Materials Characterization Center workshop on the leaching mechanisms of nuclear waste forms, December 7-8, 1982, Thousand Oaks, CA. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Harker, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Each of the six laboratories involved in the 3-yr leaching mechanism program presented a progress report on borosilicate glass studies. Presentations were made on various techniques for characterizing leached surfaces and on in situ characterization of leaching surfaces

  7. Reducing uranium and thorium level in Zircon: effect of heat treatment on rate of leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman

    2002-01-01

    Considerable amount of uranium and thorium are found in Malaysian zircon and the level is much higher than the minimum value adopted by many importing countries. Selective leaching had been applied as an important technique to reduce these elements. An initial study was carried out using hydrochloric acid leaching system but the result was not favourable. The rate of uranium and thorium leached can be further improved by introducing a heat pretreatment process prior to leaching (Author)

  8. Glass leaching performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chick, L.A.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1983-05-01

    Current understanding of the leaching performance of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass is summarized. The empirical model of waste glass leaching behavior developed shows that at high water flow rates the glass leach rate is kinetically limited to a maximum value. At intermediate water flow rates, leaching is limited by the solution concentration of silica and decreases with decreasing water flow rates. Release of soluble elements is controlled by silica dissolution because silica forms the binding network of the glass. At low water flow rates, mass loss rates reach values controlled by formation rates of alteration minerals, or by diffusion of dissolution products through essentially stagnant water. The parameters reviewed with respect to their quantifiable influence on leaching behavior include temperature, pH, leachant composition, glass composition, thermal history, and radiation. Of these, temperature is most important since the rate of mass loss approximately doubles with each 10 0 C increase in dilute solutions. The pH has small effects within the 4 to 10 range. The chemical composition of the leachant is most important with regard to its influence on alteration product formation. Glass composition exhibits the largest effects at high flow rates where improved glasses leach from ten to thirty times slower than glass 76 to 68. The effects of the thermal history (devitrification) of the glass are not likely to be significant. Radiation effects are important primarily in that radiolysis can potentially drive pH values to less than 4. Radiation damage to the glass causes insignificant changes in leaching performance

  9. Test of 134Cs, 85,89Sr leaching rate in a resemble vitrifiable cement waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Meiqiong; Wei Feng; Yin Qi; Fan Xianhua; Xu Shengli; Li Yongde

    2003-01-01

    A novel material--resemble vitrifiable cement for conditioning low and mediate level radioactive waste has been developed. Waste form has been characterized for their physical and chemical performance, phase composition. The cement formulation has been patented. In this experiment the cement is mixed with simulated wastes spiked with 134 Cs and 85,89 Sr by 5 min at least. The Ratio of the waste to the cement is 0.45-0.55. The mixture is packed into cylindrical molds which has the same dimension of diameter and height . The grouts are cured for a period of 28 d in a room temperature curing chamber at an atmospheric pressure. The cured waste form is then completely immersed into deionized water. According to standard GB7023-86, leaching rate of 134 Cs and 85,89 Sr are measured. The result shows that the leaching rate of the species 134 Cs and 85,89 Sr is to be on the order 10 -4 and 10 -5 on the 42 d immersion, respectively and is better than that of commercial cement

  10. Assessment of weathering and leaching rates of Thule hot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Outola, I. (STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)); Nygren, U.; Ramebaeck, H. (FOI CBRN Defence and Security (Sweden)); Sidhu, R. (Institute of Energy Technology, Environmental Monitoring Section, Health and Safety Dept. (Norway))

    2010-03-15

    Within the current project a methodology for separating actinide particles originating from the Thule 1968 accident has been developed. Particles were completely isolated in water using visual and radiometric methods. The particles were attached electrostatic to a plastic support and could easily be moved to any container for leaching studies or other type of studies. Leaching and dissolution studies performed within the project indicate that some particles are relatively easily destroyed or leached while others are more refractory. The results shows that even though the oxide particles are hard to completely dissolve they release material even when exposed to weak solvents like water and salt solutions. Exposures to lung simulant fluids show relatively slow dissolution rates comparable to what is found using only water. Sequential extraction of particles shows that variation between particles is very large; some dissolve easily while some does not. Of radiological importance is the disruption of particles when exposed to dissolution. (author)

  11. Assessment of weathering and leaching rates of Thule hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, P.; Outola, I.; Nygren, U.; Ramebaeck, H.; Sidhu, R.

    2010-03-01

    Within the current project a methodology for separating actinide particles originating from the Thule 1968 accident has been developed. Particles were completely isolated in water using visual and radiometric methods. The particles were attached electrostatic to a plastic support and could easily be moved to any container for leaching studies or other type of studies. Leaching and dissolution studies performed within the project indicate that some particles are relatively easily destroyed or leached while others are more refractory. The results shows that even though the oxide particles are hard to completely dissolve they release material even when exposed to weak solvents like water and salt solutions. Exposures to lung simulant fluids show relatively slow dissolution rates comparable to what is found using only water. Sequential extraction of particles shows that variation between particles is very large; some dissolve easily while some does not. Of radiological importance is the disruption of particles when exposed to dissolution. (author)

  12. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  13. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant

  14. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-07-10

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant.

  15. Chemical characterization, leach, and adsorption studies of solidified low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, M.B.; Serne, R.J.; Jones, T.L.; McLaurine, S.B.

    1986-12-01

    Laboratory and field leaching experiments are beig conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the performance of solidified low-level nuclear waste in a typical, arid, near-surface disposal site. Under PNL's Special Waste Form Lysimeters-Arid Program, a field test facility was constructed to monitor the leaching of commercial solidified waste. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the leaching and adsorption characteristics of the waste forms in contact with soil. Liquid radioactive wastes solidified in cement, vinyl ester-styrene, and bitumen were obtained from commercial boiling water and pressurized water reactors, and buried in a field leaching facility on the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State. Batch leaching, soil column adsorption, and soil/waste form column experiments were conducted in the laboratory, using small-scale cement waste forms and Hanford site ground water. The purpose of these experiments is to evaluate the ability of laboratory leaching tests to predict leaching under actual field conditions and to determine which mechanisms (i.e., diffusion, solubility, adsorption) actually control the concentration of radionuclides in the soil surrounding the waste form. Chemical and radionuclide analyses performed on samples collected from the field and laboratory experiments indicate strong adsorption of /sup 134,137/Cs and 85 Sr onto the Hanford site sediment. Small amounts of 60 Co are leached from the waste forms as very mobile species. Some 60 Co migrated through the soil at the same rate as water. Chemical constituents present in the reactor waste streams also found at elevated levels in the field and laboratory leachates include sodium, sulfate, magnesium, and nitrate. Plausible solid phases that could be controlling some of the chemical and radionuclide concentrations in the leachate were identified using the MINTEQ geochemical computer code

  16. The mineralogical phase transformation of invisible gold-concentrate by microwave heating, and enhancement of their gold leaching rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Geonyoung; Kim, Bongju; Choi, Nagchoul; Park*, Cheonyoung

    2015-04-01

    In this study, in order to obtain the maximum Au leaching rate, an invisible gold concentrate sample was microwave-treated and a thiourea leaching experiment was performed. It is found that gold exists as invisible as a result of observation with an optical microscope and an electron microscope. As the invisible gold concentrate sample was exposed to microwave longer, its temperature and weight loss were increased together and its S content was decreased. The conditions for the maximum Au leaching rate and the fast leaching effect were a particle size of -325×400 mesh, exposure to microwave for 70 minutes, 1.0 g of thiourea, 0.0504 g of sodium sulfite and 0.425 g of ferric sulfate. However, the condition under which Au was leached out to the maximum was applied to the control sample, but its Au leaching rate was just in a range of 78% to 88%. Such results suggest that the effect of sodium sulfite and ferric sulfate was more effective in the microwave-treated sample than in the control sample. Therefore, it was confirmed that the complete and very fast Au leaching can be achieved by means of the microwave pretreatment of invisible gold concentrate.

  17. Materials Characterization Center workshop on leaching of radioactive waste forms. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Strachan, D.M.; Turcotte, R.P.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    At the first Materials Characterization Center (MCC) workshop, on the leaching of radioactive waste forms, there was general agreement that, after certain revisions, the proposed leach test plan set forth by the MCC can be expected to meet most of the nuclear waste community's waste form durability data requirements. The revisions give a clearer definition of the purposes of each test and the end uses of the data. As a result of the workshop, the format of the test program has been recast to clarify the purposes, limitations, and interrelationships of the individual tests. There was also a recognition that the leach test program must be based on an understanding of the mechanistic principles of leaching, and that further study is needed to ensure that the approved data from the MCC leach tests will be compatible with mechanistic research needs. It was agreed that another meeting of the participants in Working Groups 3 and 4, and perhaps some other experts, should be held as soon as possible to focus just on the definition of leach test requirements for mechanistic research. The MCC plans to hold this meeting in April 1980. Many of the tests that will lead to increased understanding of mechanisms will of necessity be long-term tests, sometimes lasting for several years. But the MCC also faces pressing needs to produce approved data that can be used for the comparison of waste forms in the relative near-term, i.e., in the next 1 to 3 yr. Therefore, it was decided to initiate a round-robin test of the MCC short-term static leach procedure as soon as practicable. The MCC has tentative plans for organization of the round robin in May 1980

  18. Characterization of Tank 16H Annulus Samples Part II: Leaching Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.; Reboul, S.

    2012-01-01

    The closure of Tank 16H will require removal of material from the annulus of the tank. Samples from Tank 16H annulus were characterized and tested to provide information to evaluate various alternatives for removing the annulus waste. The analysis found all four annulus samples to be composed mainly of Si, Na, and Al and lesser amounts of other elements. The XRD data indicate quartz (SiO 2 ) and sodium aluminum nitrate silicate hydrate (Na 8 (Al 6 Si 6 O 24 )(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O) as the predominant crystalline mineral phases in the samples. The XRD data also indicate the presence of crystalline sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ), sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ), gibbsite (Al(OH) 3 ), hydrated sodium bicarbonate (Na 3 H(CO 3 ) 2 .2H 2 O), and muscovite (KAl 2 (AlSi 3 O 10 )(OH) 2 ). Based on the weight of solids remaining at the end of the test, the water leaching test results indicate 20-35% of the solids dissolved after three contacts with an approximately 3:1 volume of water at 45 C. The chemical analysis of the leachates and the XRD results of the remaining solids indicate sodium salts of nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, and possibly carbonate/bicarbonate make up the majority of the dissolved material. The majority of these salts were dissolved in the first water contact and simply diluted with each subsequent water contact. The water leaching removed large amounts of the uranium in two of the samples and approximately 1/3 of the 99 Tc from all four samples. Most of the other radionuclides analyzed showed low solubility in the water leaching test. The oxalic acid leaching test result indicate approximately 34-47% of the solids in the four annulus samples will dissolve after three contacts with an approximately 3:1 volume of acid to solids at 45 C. The same sodium salts found in the water leaching test comprise the majority of dissolved material in the oxalic acid leaching test. However, the oxalic acid was somewhat more effective in dissolving radionuclides than the water leach. In

  19. Study of the sulfuric acid leaching and bacterial leaching of low grade uranium ore by orbital shaker experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangyue; Liu Yulong; Wang Yongdong; Ding Dexin

    2009-01-01

    The sulphuric acid leaching and bacteria leaching by orbital shaker experiments were conducted for the low grade uranium ore from a uranium mine in Guangdong Province. The results show that, when the concentration of sulphuric acid and that of slurry were 30 g/L and 25%, respectively, the conditions were most favourable for sulphuric acid leaching and the rate of leaching reached 92.92%, that, when pH value was 1.5, inoculation amount, 10%, concentration of slurry, 10%, the conditions were most favourable for bacteria leaching and the rate of leaching reached 95.93%, that, compared with sulphuric acid leaching, bacteria leaching decreased sulphuric acid consumption by 17.2% and increased the rate of leaching by 3%, and that, under the most favourable conditions for suphuric acid leaching, if 1% natrium chlorate was added, the rate of leaching increased to 96.46%, but 10 kg of natrium chlorate was consumed for 1 ton of uranium ore. (authors)

  20. Long-term leaching from MSWI air-pollution-control residues: Leaching characterization and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Long-term leaching of Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Na, S, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mo, Sb, Si, Sri, Sr, Ti, V, P, Cl, and dissolved organic carbon from two different municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air-pollution-control residues was monitored during 24 months of column percolat......Long-term leaching of Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Na, S, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mo, Sb, Si, Sri, Sr, Ti, V, P, Cl, and dissolved organic carbon from two different municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air-pollution-control residues was monitored during 24 months of column...... percolation experiments; liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios of 200-250 L/kg corresponding to more than 10,000 years in a conventional landfill were reached. Less than 2% of the initially present As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Sb had leached during the Course of the experiments. Concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mg, Hg, Mn, Ni, Co......, Sn, Ti, and P were generally bellow 1 mu g/L; overall less than 1% of their mass leached. Column leaching data were further used in a two-step geochemical modeling in PHREEQC in order to (i) identify solubility controlling minerals and (ii) evaluate their interactions in a water-percolated column...

  1. Comparison of leaching tests and study of leaching mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarantos, S.G.; Papadokostaki, K.G.; Petropoulos, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    The present work is concerned first with the study of certain aspects of the leaching kinetics of Cs + and Sr ++ embedded in cement, as Cs 2 SO 4 and SrSO 4 , and in particular: (a) the comparative evaluation of leaching in (i) stagnant, (ii) stirred and (iii) continuously flowing (modified Soxhlet) water, (b) the effect of atmospheric CO 2 on elution, (c) the effect of temperature changes during leaching. Secondly, model kinetic studies were carried out using cellulose acetate incorporating SrSO 4 , CaSO 4 or NaCl. The main results obtained were: (1) Cs leaching rates were not significantly affected by the leaching method or by the presence of atmospheric CO 2 . The embedded Cs exists in relatively easily leachable and less rapidly leachable (most probably located within the gel regions) forms. (2) Elution of Sr is retarded by stagnant and infrequently renewed leachant (method (i)) and by the presence of atmospheric CO 2 ; leaching method (iii), which tends to minimize both of these effects, gave the highest elution rates. (3) The observed elution kinetics in the case of cellulose acetate-CaSO 4 or SrSO 4 conform to the Higuchi model, but a more elaborate theory is needed for the cellulose acetate-NaCl system. (author)

  2. Leaching behavior of simulated high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamizono, Hiroshi

    1987-03-01

    The author's work in the study on the leaching behavior of simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass were summarized. The subjects described are (1) leach rates at high temperatures, (2) effects of cracks on leach rates, (3) effects of flow rate on leach rates, and (4) an in-situ burial test in natural groundwater. In the following section, the leach rates obtained by various experiments were summarized and discussed. (author)

  3. Effect of irrigation and winery waste compost rates in nitrate leaching in vulnerable zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, Maria Isabel; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Villena, Raquel; Ribas, Francisco; Jesús Cabello, Maria; Arce, Augusto; Cartagena, Maria Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The winery industry is widespread in Spain (3,610,000 tonnes of wine in 2010 (FAO, 2010)), and generates wastes characterized by a high content of organic matter, a notable content in macronutrients and low heavy-metals. These organic wastes could be used for agricultural purposes after a correct stabilization process (e.g. composting).The addition of these organic wastes requires a correct management, especially on semiarid cropped areas of central Spain where environmental degradation of water supplies with high N loads is observed. An integrated optimization of both applied compost dose and amount of irrigation is important to ensure optimum yields and minimum nitrate leaching losses. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the application of winery waste compost as fertilizer in a melon crop cultivated with different drip irrigation rates. The field experiment was carried out in Ciudad Real, designated "vulnerable zone" by the "Nitrates Directive" 91/676/CEE. Melon crop has been traditionally cultivated in this area with high inputs of water and fertilizers, but no antecedents of application of winery wastes are known. Beside the control treatment (D0), three doses of compost were applied: 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 T/ha(D3).Irrigation treatments consisted of applying a 100% ETc and an excess irrigation of 120% ETc. The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Petrocalcic Palexeralfs), with 0.6 m depth and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.6 and 0.7 m. Drainage and nitrate concentration on the soil solution were measured weekly to determine N leached during the crop period. Crop yield was also followed by harvesting plots when a significant number of fruits were fully matured. A comparison between nitrate leached and crop production among different treatments and irrigation rates are presented. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01.

  4. Identifying critical nitrogen application rate for maize yield and nitrate leaching in a Haplic Luvisol soil using the DNDC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yitao; Wang, Hongyuan; Liu, Shen; Lei, Qiuliang; Liu, Jian; He, Jianqiang; Zhai, Limei; Ren, Tianzhi; Liu, Hongbin

    2015-05-01

    Identification of critical nitrogen (N) application rate can provide management supports for ensuring grain yield and reducing amount of nitrate leaching to ground water. A five-year (2008-2012) field lysimeter (1 m × 2 m × 1.2 m) experiment with three N treatments (0, 180 and 240 kg Nha(-1)) was conducted to quantify maize yields and amount of nitrate leaching from a Haplic Luvisol soil in the North China Plain. The experimental data were used to calibrate and validate the process-based model of Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC). After this, the model was used to simulate maize yield production and amount of nitrate leaching under a series of N application rates and to identify critical N application rate based on acceptable yield and amount of nitrate leaching for this cropping system. The results of model calibration and validation indicated that the model could correctly simulate maize yield and amount of nitrate leaching, with satisfactory values of RMSE-observation standard deviation ratio, model efficiency and determination coefficient. The model simulations confirmed the measurements that N application increased maize yield compared with the control, but the high N rate (240 kg Nha(-1)) did not produce more yield than the low one (120 kg Nha(-1)), and that the amount of nitrate leaching increased with increasing N application rate. The simulation results suggested that the optimal N application rate was in a range between 150 and 240 kg ha(-1), which would keep the amount of nitrate leaching below 18.4 kg NO₃(-)-Nha(-1) and meanwhile maintain acceptable maize yield above 9410 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, 180 kg Nha(-1) produced the highest yields (9837 kg ha(-1)) and comparatively lower amount of nitrate leaching (10.0 kg NO₃(-)-Nha(-1)). This study will provide a valuable reference for determining optimal N application rate (or range) in other crop systems and regions in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term leach testing of solidified radioactive waste forms (International Standard Publication ISO 6961:1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    2001-01-01

    Processes are developed for the immobilization of radionuclides by solidification of radioactive wastes. The resulting solidification products are characterized by strong resistance to leaching aimed at low release rates of the radionuclides to the environment. To measure this resistance to leaching of the solidified materials: glass, glass-ceramics, bitumen, cement, concrete, plastics, a long-term leach test is presented. The long-term leach test is aimed at: a) the comparison of different kinds or compositions of solidified waste forms; b) the intercomparison between leach test results from different laboratories on one product; c) the intercomparison between leach test results on products from different processes

  6. Porous glass with high silica content for nuclear waste storage : preparation, characterization and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aegerter, M.A.; Santos, D.I. dos; Ventura, P.C.S.

    1984-01-01

    Aqueous solutions simulating radioactive nuclear wastes (like Savanah River Laboratory) were incorporated in porous glass matrix with high silica content prepared by decomposition of borosilicate glass like Na 2 O - B 2 O 3 - SiO 2 . After sintering, the samples were submitted, during 28 days, to standard leaching tests MCC1, MCC5 (Soxhlet) and stagnating. The total weight loss, ph, as well as the integral and differential leaching rates and the accumulated concentrations in the leach of Si, Na, B, Ca, Mn, Al, Fe and Ni. The results are compared with the results from reference borosilicate glass, made by fusion, ceramic, synroc, concrets, etc... (E.G.) [pt

  7. Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate and Crop Management Effects on Nitrate Leaching from an Agricultural Field in Central Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H. Fox

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen pan lysimeters were installed at a depth of 1.2 m in a Hagerstown silt loam soil in a corn field in central Pennsylvania in 1988. In 1995, wick lysimeters were also installed at 1.2 m depth in the same access pits. Treatments have included N fertilizer rates, use of manure, crop rotation (continuous corn, corn-soybean, alfalfa-corn, and tillage (chisel plow-disk, no-till. The leachate data were used to evaluate a number of nitrate leaching models. Some of the highlights of the 11 years of results include the following: 1 growing corn without organic N inputs at the economic optimum N rate (EON resulted in NO3–-N concentrations of 15 to 20 mg l-1 in leachate; 2 use of manure or previous alfalfa crop as partial source of N also resulted in 15 to 20 mg l-1 of NO3–-N in leachate below corn at EON; 3 NO3–-N concentration in leachate below alfalfa was approximately 4 mg l-1; 4 NO3–-N concentration in leachate below soybeans following corn was influenced by fertilizer N rate applied to corn; 5 the mass of NO3–-N leached below corn at the EON rate averaged 90 kg N ha-1 (approx. 40% of fertilizer N applied at EON; 6 wick lysimeters collected approximately 100% of leachate vs. 40–50% collected by pan lysimeters. Coefficients of variation of the collected leachate volumes for both lysimeter types were similar; 7 tillage did not markedly affect nitrate leaching losses; 8 tested leaching models could accurately predict leachate volumes and could be calibrated to match nitrate leaching losses in calibration years, but only one model (SOILN accurately predicted nitrate leaching losses in the majority of validation treatment years. Apparent problems with tested models: there was difficulty estimating sizes of organic N pools and their transformation rates, and the models either did not include a macropore flow component or did not handle macropore flow well.

  8. Application of percolation leaching in Fuzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lang; Wang Haita; He Jiangming

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve these problems such as high cost by conventional agitation leaching, low permeability and low leaching rate by heap leach, a percolation leaching method was developed. Two-year's production results show that leaching rate of uranium is up to 90% by this method. Compared with conventional agitation leaching, the power, sulfuric acid and lime consumption by the percolation leaching decreased by 60%, 27% and 77% respectively. (authors)

  9. Leaching studies on SYNROC at 950C and 2000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.; Ringwood, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    Crushed samples of SYNROC containing 9%, 16% and 20% of simulated high-level nuclear waste were tested for leaching behavior in distilled water at 95 0 C and 200 0 . Leach solutions were analyzed for Cs, Ca, Ba, Sr, Ti, Zr, Nd and U. Results showed that leach rates based on these elements did not change significantly as the waste loading was increased from 9 to 20%. At both temperatures, leach rates showed a decrease as leaching progressed until a plateau level was reached. Plateau leach rates, which were between 10 and 100 times lower than initial leach rates, reflect the expected long term leaching behaviour of the samples. Plateau values of leach rates for SYNROC depend on the element being leached. Highest values are found for Cs and Ba (1 to 2 x 10 -7 g/cm 2 d at 95 0 C) and lowest values for U (5 x 10 -10 g/cm 2 d at 95 0 C). Increasing leaching temperature to 200 0 C produces higher leach rates for all elements except Nd. Comparison of SYNROC leach rate data with that for PNL 76-68 glass shows that at 200 0 C the leach rate for U from SYNROC is 3000 times less than that from glass. (Auth.)

  10. Immobilized waste leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The main mechanism by which the immobilized radioactive materials can return to biosphere is the leaching due to the intrusion of water into the repositories. Some mathematical models and experiments utilized to evaluate the leaching rates in different immobilization matrices are described. (author) [pt

  11. Single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass: some selected Bead Leach I results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass beads (7 mm dia) was concluded after 420 days of uninterrupted operation. Variables included in the experimental matrix were flow-rate, leachant composition, and temperature. Analysis was conducted on all leachate samples for 237 Np and 239 Pu as well as a number of nonradioactive elements. Results indicated that flow-rate and leachant systematically affected the leach rate, but only slightly. Temperature effects were significant. Plutonium leach rate was lower at higher temperature suggesting that Pu sorption onto the beads was enhanced at the higher temperature. The range of leach rates for all analyzed elements (except Pu), at both temperature, at all three flow rates, and with all three leachant compositions varied only three orders of magnitude. The range of variables used in this experiment covered those expected in many proposed repository environments. The preliminary interpretation of the results also indicated that matrix dissolution may be the dominant leaching mechanism, at least for Np in bicarbonate leachant. Regardless of the leaching mechanism the importance of this study is that it bounds the effects of repository environments when the ground water is oxidizing and when it doesn't reach the waste form until the waste has cooled to ambient rock temperature

  12. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-08-14

    concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before adding caustic. The work described in this report addresses the kinetics of caustic leach under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed at the lab-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to caustic leach chemistry to support a scale-up factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. The scale-up factor will take the form of an adjustment factor for the rate constant in the boehmite leach kinetic equation in the G2 model.

  13. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-01-01

    to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before adding caustic. The work described in this report addresses the kinetics of caustic leach under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed at the lab-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to caustic leach chemistry to support a scale-up factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. The scale-up factor will take the form of an adjustment factor for the rate constant in the boehmite leach kinetic equation in the G2 model

  14. The effect of feed rate and recycle rate variable on leaching process of Na2Zro3 with HCl in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palupi, Bekti; Supranto, Sediawan, Wahyudi Budi; Setyadji, Moch.

    2017-05-01

    This time, the natural resources of zircon sand is processed into several zirconium products which is utilized for various industries, such as ceramics, glass industry, metal industry and nuclear industry. The process of zircon sand into zirconium products through several stages, one of them is leaching process of Na2ZrO3 with HCl. In this research, several variations of recycle-rate/feed-rate had been done to determine the effect on leaching process. The leaching was processed at temperature of 90°C, ratio of Na2ZrO3:HCl = 1g:30mL, and 142 rotary per minute of stirring speed for 30 minutes with variation of recycle-rate/feed-rate such as 0.478, 0.299, 0.218, 0.171 and 0.141. The diameter size of Na2ZrO3 powder that used are 0.088 to 0.149 mm. This process was carried out in Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) series with recycle. Based on this research, the greater of the recycle-rate/feed-rate variable, the obtained Zr recovery decreased. The correlation between recycle-rate/feed-rate and Zr recovery is shown by the equation y = -146.91x + 103.51, where y is the Zr recovery and x is the recycle-rate/feed-rate. The highest Zr recovery was 90.52% obtained at recycle-rate/feed-rate 0.141. The mathematical modeling involving the probability model P(r) = 2β2r2 exp(-βr2) can be applied to this leaching process with Sum of Squared Errors (SSE) values in the range of 6×10-7 - 7×10-6.

  15. Thermophilic archaeal community succession and function change associated with the leaching rate in bioleaching of chalcopyrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Xia, Jin-lan; Yang, Yi; Nie, Zhen-yuan; Peng, An-an; Liu, Hong-chang; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2013-04-01

    The community succession and function change of thermophilic archaea Acidianus brierleyi, Metallosphaera sedula, Acidianus manzaensis and Sulfolobus metallicus were studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of amplifying 16S rRNA genes fragments and real-time qPCR analysis of amplifying sulfur-oxidizing soxB gene associated with chalcopyrite bioleaching rate at different temperatures and initial pH values. The analysis results of the community succession indicated that temperature and initial pH value had a significant effect on the consortium, and S. metallicus was most sensitive to the environmental change, A. brierleyi showed the best adaptability and sulfur oxidation ability and predominated in various leaching systems. Meanwhile, the leaching rate of chalcopyrite closely related to the consortium function embodied by soxB gene, which could prove a desirable way for revealing microbial sulfur oxidation difference and tracking the function change of the consortium, and for optimizing the leaching parameters and improving the recovery of valuable metals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of factors affecting the effect of stope leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wangnan; Dong Chunming

    2014-01-01

    The industrial test and industrial trial production of stope leaching were carried out at Taoshan orefield of Dabu deposit. The results of test and trial production showed obvious differences in leaching rate and leaching time. Compared with industrial trial production of stope leaching, the leaching rate of industrial test was higher, and leaching time was shorter. It was considered that the blasting method and liquid arrangement were the main factors affecting the leaching rate and leaching time according to analysis. So we put forward the following suggestions: the technique of deep hole slicing tight-face blasting was used to reduce the yield of lump ores, the effective liquid arrangement methods were adopted to make the lixiviant infiltrating throughout whole ore heap, and bacterial leaching was introduced. (authors)

  17. Laboratory study on leaching of a sandstone-type uranium deposit for acid in-situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zhenqian; Yao Yixuan; Zheng Jianping; Jiang Yan; Cui Xin; Xing Yongguo; Hao Jinting; Tang Huazhang

    2013-01-01

    Ore samples were took from in-situ leaching experiment boreholes in a sandstone-type uranium deposit. Technological mineralogy study, agitating leaching and column leaching experiments were carried. The results show that the content of minerals consuming acid and deoxidized minerals is low. When sulfuric acid concentration was 1O g/L, initial uranium content was 0.0224%, and liquid-to-solid ratio was l.91, leaching rate of column leaching experiments is 89.19%, acid consumption is 8.2 kg/t ore, acid consumption is 41.88 t/tU. Acid leaching, technology is recommend for field in-situ leaching experiment, sulfuric acid concentration in confecting solution is 10 g/L, and oxidizing agent is needless during leaching process. (authors)

  18. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  19. Determination of the leaching rate of radionuclide 134Cs from the solidified radioactive wastes in Syrian Portland cement and cement-microsilica matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Shaaban; Nasim Assi

    2010-01-01

    The suitability of Syrian Portland cement for disposal of solidified low-level radioactive waste was assessed by measuring the leaching rate of 134 Cs. In ordinary cement concrete, a leaching rate of 1.309 x 10 -3 g/cm 2 per day was measured. Mixing this concrete with microsilica reduced significantly the leaching rate to 3.106 x 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day for 1% mixing, and to 9.645 x 10 -5 g/cm 2 per day for 3% mixing. It was also found that the application of a latex paint reduced these leaching rates by about 10%. These results, along with mechanical strength tests (under radiation exposure, high temperature, long water immersion and freeze-thaw cycling) indicate that Syrian Portland cement is suited for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. (author)

  20. Long-term leaching behavior of vitrified high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Sonobe, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Noriaki; Kashihara, Hidechiyo

    1985-01-01

    A long-term Soxhlet leaching test, long-term static leaching test, solubility evaluation test and actual-scale glass solid leaching test were carried out for simulated vitrified wastes. Under high flow-rate leachate conditions, the leaching of high-solubility substances such as B and Na increases almost linearly with time while that of Fe, Ni and rare earth metals strongly depends on their solubility. The overall leaching rate changes (tends to decrease) with time under static conditions. The elution or diffusion is the rate determining step in the earlier region of the leaching process while the solubilities of major components have greater effects in the latter region. The change of the dominant leaching mechanism is delayed more largely as the surface-area to leachate-volume (SA/V) ratio decreases. Actual-scale glass specimens showed almost the same leaching behaviors as small-scale ones. If cracks exist in glass solid, the leaching in them is slow causing little effects on the overall leaching rate. This may be due to the fact that solubility-dependent leaching is occuring in the cracks. The long-term static leaching observations were not satisfactorily explained by the MCC-3 type solubility test results. It is important to clarify the solubility-dependent leaching behaviors at large SA/V ratios. (Nogami, K.)

  1. Continuous-flow leaching studies of crushed and cored SYNROC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Bazan, F.

    1982-01-01

    Both crushed (150- to 300- μm) and cored (1,8- mm-diam) samples of SYNROC have been leached with single-pass continuous-flow leaching equipment. Crushed samples of cesium-hollandite were also leached in a similar experiment. Temperatures used were 25 0 and 75 0 C and leachates were 0.03 N NaHCO 3 and distilled water. Leaching rates from SYNROC-C were ranked cesium > strontium greater than or equal to calcium > barium > zirconium. A comparison of leaching rates is made between crushed SYNROC, cored SYNROC, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory 76-68 glass beads. This comparison depends on how the surface areas are determined for each sample. Based on geometric surface areas for SYNROC cores and glass beads, cesium leach rates from SYNROC compare well with both sodium and neptunium leached from the glass. The other elements leached from SYNROC are lower than sodium and neptunium leached from glass. They also vary for each element, while glass shows nearly the same leach rate for both sodium and neptunium

  2. Continuous-flow leaching studies of crushed and cored SYNROC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Bazan, F.

    1981-01-01

    Both crushed (150 to 300 μm) and cored (1.8 mm diameter) samples of SYNROC have been leached with the single-pass continuous-flow leaching equipment. Crushed samples of Cs-hollandite were also leached in a similar experiment. Temperatures used were 25 and 75 0 C and leachates were 0.03 N NaHCO 3 and distilled water. Leaching rates from SYNROC C were ranked Cs > Sr greater than or equal to Ca > Ba > Zr. A comparison of leaching rates is made between crushed SYNROC, cored SYNROC, and PNL 76-68 glass beads. This comparison depends on how the surface areas are determined for each sample. Based on geometric surface areas for SYNROC cores and glass beads Cs leach rates from SYNROC compare well with both Na and Np leached from the glass. The other elements leached from SYNROC are lower than Na and Np leached from glass. They also vary for each element while glass shows nearly the same leach rate for both Na and Np

  3. Characterization, Washing, Leaching, and Filtration of C-104 Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KP Brooks; PR Bredt; GR Golcar; SA Hartley; LK Jagoda; KG Rappe; MW Urie

    2000-06-09

    Approximately 1,400 g of wet Hanford Tank C-104 Sludge was evaluated by Battelle for the high-level waste (HLW) pretreatment processes of ultrafiltration, dilute caustic washing, and elevated-temperature caustic leaching. The filterability of diluted C-104 sludge was measured with a 0.1-{micro}m sintered metal Mott filter using a 24-inch-long, single-element, crossflow filtration system (cells unit filter [CUF]). While the filtrate was being recirculated prior to washing and leaching, a 6.9 wt% solids slurry was evaluated with a matrix of seven 1-hour conditions of varying trans-membrane pressure (30 to 70 psid) and axial velocity (9 to 15 ft/s). The filtrate flux and backpulse efficiency were determined for each condition. The slurry was concentrated to 23 wt% solids, a second matrix of six 1-hour conditions was performed, and data analogous to that recorded in the first matrix were obtained. The low-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.038 to 0.083 gpm/ft{sup 2}. The high-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.0095 to 0.0172 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both cases, the optimum filtrate flux was at the highest axial velocity (15 ft/s) and transmembrane pressure had little effect. Nearly all of the measured filtrate fluxes were more than an order of magnitude greater than the required plant flux for C-104 of 0.00126 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both matrices, the filtrate flux appeared to be proportional to axial velocity, and the permeability appeared to be inversely proportional to the trans-membrane pressure. The first test condition was repeated as the last test condition for each matrix. In both cases, there was a significant decrease in filtrate flux, indicating some filter fouling during the test matrix that could not be removed by backpulsing alone, although the backpulse number and duration were not optimized. Following testing of these two matrices, the material was washed within the CUF by

  4. Continuous-flow leaching studies of crushed and cored SYNROC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Bazan, F.

    1980-01-01

    Both crushed (150 to 300 μm) and cored 1.8 mm diameter) samples of SYNROC have been leached with the single-pass continuous-flow leaching equipment. Crushed samples of Cs-hollandite were also leached in a similar experiment. Temperatures used were 25 0 C and 75 0 C and leachates were 0.03 N NaHCO 3 and distilled water. Leaching rates from SYNROC C were ranked Cs > Sr greater than or equal to Ca > Ba > Zr. A comparison of leaching rates is made between crushed SYNROC, cored SYNROC, and PNL 76-68 glass beads. Problems encountered when comparing the leaching rates of different waste forms are discussed

  5. Rates of leaching of radium from contaminated soils: an experimental investigation of radium bearing soils from Port Hope, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathwani, J.S.; Phillips, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    The leachability of Ra-226 from soil at Port Hope, Ontario contaminated by waste from a long established U refinery is described here. A small-scale static leach test was devised to provide information to permit an assessment of hazard due to leaching in the environment. Two different leaching solutions were prepared to simulate a range of infiltrating water quality in disposal environments: one by bubbling CO 2 into distilled water to pH 5.5, and another by bubbling SO 2 into water to pH 3.5. Narrow-range size fractions of the soils (i.e. 0.250 to 0.105 mm) were leached for 30 to 45 days (equivalent rainfall of 2 to 3 yr). It was found that leaching is significantly affected by soil texture, total amounts leached and the maximum concentrations reached being much greater for coarser, and intermediate size fractions than for fine soil fractions. Also, leachant acidity significantly increased leaching rates and resulted in enhanced mobility in soils. A straight line for the plot of Q/Q 0 (cumulative fraction released) vs. Tsup(1/2) (T is leaching time in days) indicated that leaching could be considered to be a diffusion phenomenon in accordance with Fick's law. Diffusion coefficients ranging from 5 X 10 -11 to 2 X 10 -13 cm 2 day -1 were found. These coefficients provide a basis for estimating the fraction that would be leached over longer periods. (Auth.)

  6. Spent LWR fuel leach tests: Waste Isolation Safety Assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.B.

    1979-04-01

    Spent light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels with burnups of 54.5, 28 and 9 MWd/kgU were leach-tested in deionized water at 25 0 C. Fuel burnup has no apparent effect on the calculated leach rates based upon the behavior of 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu. A leach test of 54.5 MWd/kgU spent fuel in synthetic sea brine showed that the cesium-based leach rate is lower in sea brine than in deionized water. A rise in the leach rate was observed after approximately 600 d of cumulative leaching. During the rise, the leach rate for all the measured radionuclides become nearly equal. Evidence suggests that exposure of new surfaces to the leachant may cause the increase. As a result, experimental work to study leaching mechanisms of spent fuel has been initiated. 22 figures

  7. Comparison of leach results from field and laboratory prepared samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblath, S.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The leach behavior of saltstone prepared in the laboratory agrees well with that from samples mixed in the field using the Littleford mixer. Leach rates of nitrates and cesium from the current reference formulation saltstone were compared. The laboratory samples were prepared using simulated salt solution; those in the field used Tank 50 decontaminated supernate. For both nitrate and cesium, the field and laboratory samples showed nearly identical leach rates for the first 30 to 50 days. For the remaining period of the test, the field samples showed higher leach rates with the maximum difference being less than a factor of three. Ruthenium and antimony were present in the Tank 50 supernate in known amounts. Antimony-125 was observed in the leachate and a fractional leach rate was calculated to be at least a factor of ten less than that of 137 Cs. No 106 Ru was observed in the leachate, and the release rate was not calculated. However, based on the detection limits for the analysis, the ruthenium leach rate must also be at least a factor of ten less than cesium. These data are the first measurements of the leach rates of Ru and Sb from saltstone. The nitrate leach rates for these samples were 5 x 10 -5 grams of nitrate per square cm per day after 100 days for the laboratory samples and after 200 days for the field samples. These values are consistent with the previously measured leach rates for reference formulation saltstone. The relative standard deviation in the leach rate is about 15% for the field samples, which all were produced from one batch of saltstone, and about 35% for the laboratory samples, which came from different batches. These are the first recorded estimates of the error in leach rates for saltstone

  8. Single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass: some selected Bead Leach I results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A single-pass continuous-flow leach test of PNL 76-68 glass beads (7 mm dia) was concluded after 420 days of uninterrupted operation. Variables included in the experimental matrix were flow-rate, leachant composition, and temperature. Analysis was conducted on all leachate samples for 237 Np and 239 Pu as well as a number of nonradioactive elements. Results indicated that flow-rate and leachant systematically affected the leach rate, but only slightly. Temperature effects were significant. Plutonium leach rate was lower at higher temperature suggesting that Pu sorption onto the beads was enhanced at the higher temperature. The range of leach rates for all analyzed elements (except Pu), at both temperatures, at all three flow rates, and with all three leachant compositions varied over only three orders of magnitude. The range of variables used in this experiment covered those expected in many proposed repository environments. The preliminary interpretation of the results aPPh 3 also reacted with Mn 2 (CO) 10 and Cp 2 Mo 2 (CO) 6 to give a variety of products at room temperature. A radical mechanism was suggested

  9. Optimizing conditions for an accelerated leach test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Heiser, J.; Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

    1988-01-01

    An accelerated leach test for low-level radioactive waste forms is being developed to provide, in a short time, data that can be extrapolated to long time periods. The approach is to provide experimental conditions that will accelerate leaching without changing the dominant release mechanism. Experimental efforts have focused on combining individual factors that have been observed to accelerate leaching. These include elevated temperature, increased leachant volume, and reduced specimen size. The response of diffusion coefficients to various acceleration factors have been evaluated and provide information on experimental parameters that need to be optimized to increase leach rates. Preliminary modeling using a diffusion mechanism (allowing for depletion) of a finite cylinder geometry indicates that during early portions of experiments (daily sampling intervals), leaching is diffusion controlled and more rapid than later in the same experiments (weekly or greater sampling intervals). For cement waste forms, this reduction in rate may be partially controlled by changes in physical structure and chemistry (sometimes related to environmental influences such as CO 2 ), but it is more likely associated with the duration of the sampling interval. By using a combination of mathematical modeling and by experimentally investigating various leach rate controlling factors, a more complete understanding of leaching processes is being developed. This, in turn, is leading to optimized accelerating conditions for a leach test

  10. Bacteria heap leaching test of a uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hui; Liu Jinhui; Wu Weirong; Han Wei

    2008-01-01

    Column bioleaching test of a uranium ore was carried out. The optimum acidity, spraying intensity, spray-pause time ratio were determined. The potential, Fe and U concentrations in the leaching process were investigated. The effect of bacteria column leaching was compared with that of acid column leaching. The results show that bacteria column leaching can shorten leaching cycle, and the leaching rate of uranium increases by 9.7%. (authors)

  11. Statistical evaluation of the analytical method involved in French nuclear glasses leaching rate determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broudic, V.; Marques, C.; Bonnal, M

    2004-07-01

    Chemical durability studies of nuclear glasses involves a large number of water leaching experiments at different temperatures and pressures on both, glasses doped with fission products and actinides and non radioactive surrogates. The leaching rates of these glasses are evaluated through ICPAES analysis of the leachate over time. This work presents a statistical evaluation of the analysis method used to determine the concentrations of various vitreous matrix constituents: Si, B, Na, Al, Ca, Li as major elements and Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Sr, Zn, Zr as minor elements. Calibration characteristics, limits of detection, limits of quantification and uncertainties quantification are illustrated with different examples of analysis performed on surrogates and on radioactive leachates in glove box. (authors)

  12. Statistical evaluation of the analytical method involved in French nuclear glasses leaching rate determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broudic, V.; Marques, C.; Bonnal, M.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical durability studies of nuclear glasses involves a large number of water leaching experiments at different temperatures and pressures on both, glasses doped with fission products and actinides and non radioactive surrogates. The leaching rates of these glasses are evaluated through ICPAES analysis of the leachate over time. This work presents a statistical evaluation of the analysis method used to determine the concentrations of various vitreous matrix constituents: Si, B, Na, Al, Ca, Li as major elements and Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Sr, Zn, Zr as minor elements. Calibration characteristics, limits of detection, limits of quantification and uncertainties quantification are illustrated with different examples of analysis performed on surrogates and on radioactive leachates in glove box. (authors)

  13. Bioleaching combined brine leaching of heavy metals from lead-zinc mine tailings: Transformations during the leaching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Maoyou; Yan, Pingfang; Sun, Shuiyu; Han, Dajian; Xiao, Xiao; Zheng, Li; Huang, Shaosong; Chen, Yun; Zhuang, Shengwei

    2017-02-01

    During the process of bioleaching, lead (Pb) recovery is low. This low recovery is caused by a problem with the bioleaching technique. This research investigated the bioleaching combination of bioleaching with brine leaching to remove heavy metals from lead-zinc mine tailings. The impact of different parameters were studied, including the effects of initial pH (1.5-3.0) and solid concentration (5-20%) for bioleaching, and the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (10-200 g/L) and temperature (25 and 50 °C) for brine leaching. Complementary characterization experiments (Sequential extraction, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM)) were also conducted to explore the transformation of tailings during the leaching process. The results showed that bioleaching efficiency was significantly influenced by initial pH and solid concentration. Approximately 85.45% of iron (Fe), 4.12% of Pb, and 97.85% of zinc (Zn) were recovered through bioleaching in optimum conditions. Increasing the brine concentration and temperature promoted lead recovery. Lead was recovered from the bioleaching residues at a rate of 94.70% at 25 °C and at a rate of 99.46% at 50 °C when the NaCl concentration was 150 g/L. The study showed that bioleaching significantly changed the speciation of heavy metals and the formation and surface morphology of tailings. The metals were mainly bound in stable fractions after bioleaching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, J.E. (compiler)

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

  15. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90 0 C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations

  16. Applying a statewide geospatial leaching tool for assessing soil vulnerability ratings for agrochemicals across the contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Seo Jin; Ray, Chittaranjan; Hantush, Mohamed M

    2015-06-15

    A large-scale leaching assessment tool not only illustrates soil (or groundwater) vulnerability in unmonitored areas, but also can identify areas of potential concern for agrochemical contamination. This study describes the methodology of how the statewide leaching tool in Hawaii modified recently for use with pesticides and volatile organic compounds can be extended to the national assessment of soil vulnerability ratings. For this study, the tool was updated by extending the soil and recharge maps to cover the lower 48 states in the United States (US). In addition, digital maps of annual pesticide use (at a national scale) as well as detailed soil properties and monthly recharge rates (at high spatial and temporal resolutions) were used to examine variations in the leaching (loads) of pesticides for the upper soil horizons. Results showed that the extended tool successfully delineated areas of high to low vulnerability to selected pesticides. The leaching potential was high for picloram, medium for simazine, and low to negligible for 2,4-D and glyphosate. The mass loadings of picloram moving below 0.5 m depth increased greatly in northwestern and central US that recorded its extensive use in agricultural crops. However, in addition to the amount of pesticide used, annual leaching load of atrazine was also affected by other factors that determined the intrinsic aquifer vulnerability such as soil and recharge properties. Spatial and temporal resolutions of digital maps had a great effect on the leaching potential of pesticides, requiring a trade-off between data availability and accuracy. Potential applications of this tool include the rapid, large-scale vulnerability assessments for emerging contaminants which are hard to quantify directly through vadose zone models due to lack of full environmental data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Column leaching from biomass combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of biomass combustion ashes for forest soil liming and fertilizing has been addressed in literature. Though, a deep understanding of the ash chemical composition and leaching behavior is necessary to predict potential benefits and environmental risks related to this practice....... In this study, a fly ash sample from an operating Danish power plant based on wood biomass was collected, chemically characterized and investigated for its leaching release of nutrients and heavy metals. A column leaching test was employed. The strongly alkaline pH of all the collected eluates suggested...

  18. Bacterial leaching of waste uranium materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbic, F F; Bracilović, D M; Krajincanić, B V; Lucić, J L

    1976-01-01

    The effect of ferrobacteria and thiobacteria on the leaching of waste uranium materials from which 70-80% of uranium was previously leached by classical chemical hydrometallurgical procedure has been investigated. The bacteria used are found in the ore and the mine water of Zletovska River locality, Yugoslavia. Parameters of biological leaching were examined in the laboratory. Leaching conditions were changed with the aim of increasing the amount of uranium leached. The effect of pyrite added to the waste materials before the beginning of leaching has also been examined. Uranium leaching is directly proportional to the composition and number of ferrobacteria and thiobacteria, and increased by almost twice the value obtained from the same starting materials without using bacteria. Increased sulphuric acid concentrations stimulate considerably the rate of leaching. Uranium leaching is increased up to 20% while sulphuric acid consumption is simultaneously decreased by the addition of pyrite. Uranium concentrations in starting waste materials used for leaching were extremely low (0.0278 and 0.372% U) but about 60% recovery of uranium was obtained, with relatively low consumption of sulphuric acid.

  19. Bacterial leaching of waste uranium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbic, F.F.; Bracilovic, D.M.; Krajincanic, B.V.; Lucic, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of ferrobacteria and thiobacteria on the leaching of waste uranium materials from which 70-80% of uranium was previously leached by classical chemical hydrometallurgical procedure has been investigated. The bacteria used are found in the ore and the mine water of Zletovska River locality, Yugoslavia. Parameters of biological leaching were examined in the laboratory. Leaching conditions were changed with the aim of increasing the amount of uranium leached. The effect of pyrite added to the waste materials before the beginning of leaching has also been examined. Uranium leaching is directly proportional to the composition and number of ferrobacteria and thiobacteria, and increased by almost twice the value obtained from the same starting materials without using bacteria. Increased sulphuric acid concentrations stimulate considerably the rate of leaching. Uranium leaching is increased up to 20% while sulphuric acid consumption is simultaneously decreased by the addition of pyrite. Uranium concentrations in starting waste materials used for leaching were extremely low (0.0278 and 0.0372% U) but about 60% recovery of uranium was obtained, with relatively low consumption of sulphuric acid. (author)

  20. Ultrasound-assisted HCl-NaCl leaching of lead-rich and antimony-rich oxidizing slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong Liang; Zhang, Xiao Fei; Tang, Shu Zhen; Huang, Ai Dong

    2015-11-01

    Lead-rich and antimony-rich oxidizing slag was subjected to regular HCl-NaCl leaching, with the experimental conditions optimized under which ultrasound was introduced. After only 15 min of ultrasound-assisted leaching, the leaching rate of Sb resembled that after 45 min of regular leaching. Ultrasonic treatment considerably elevated the leaching rates of Sb and Pb, and shortened the leaching time. With the decrease of particle size, the leaching rate of Sb and Pb increased gradually. Especially, as the particle size of the slag was greater than 0.217 mm, the ultrasonic leaching effects of Sb and Pb were significantly higher than that of regular leaching effects. The temperature exhibited great effect on ultrasonic leaching performance. As the temperature increased, the leaching rates of Sb and Pb increased step by step. In case the temperature was higher than 85°C, the increasing speed of the leaching rates for Sb and Pb tended to be slow. Increasing ultrasonic power could augment the leaching rate or accelerate the procedure till the same leaching rate. However, since ultrasound failed to energize the formation of new reaction pathways, the maximum leaching rates of Sb and Pb were determined by their phase compositions rather than by ultrasonic field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Leach behavior of hydrofracture grout incorporating radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    Rates at which Sr, Cs, Pu, and Cm are leached from hydrofracture grout were measured. The fraction of an isotope leached varied with the square root of time if the leachant was replaced more frequently than once per day, but was inhibited or depressed if replacement was made less often. The amount of Sr or Cs leached from the grout varied directly with the degree of drying during curing and inversely with the time of curing. Of the clay additives studied for enhancing cesium retention, Grundite, while satisfactory, was the least effective. In general, the isotope leach rate followed the order: Cs greater than Sr greater than Cm greater than Pu. The amount leached as a function of the leachant varied in the order: distilled water greater than tap water greater than grout water. Concentrating the waste by a factor of up to 4 before grouting had little effect on the leach rate. Comparison with results for other products indicates that the grout can provide leach rates comparable to those for wastes incorporated into borosilicate glass. Theoretical relationships that consider diffusion and instantaneous reaction (an equilibrium or time-dependent relationship between mobile and immobile forms of a species) were in good agreement with the data for the 28-day-cured grout when the leachant was initially replaced twice per day. The credibility of laboratory results with simulated waste was substantiated by a short-term continuous leach test made on a fragment of a core sample of actual hydrofracture grout. The modified effective diffusivities (10 -11 to 10 -10 cm 2 /s, equivalent to a leach rate of the order of 10 -7 g cm -2 day -1 ) for Sr and Cs calculated from these data are comparable to laboratory values. 17 figures, 5 tables

  2. Leach testing of SYNROC and glass samples at 85 and 200/degree/C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.; Ringwood, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Leach tests were conducted on 0.5 g disc samples of SYNROC and two glass types using distilled water at 85 and 200/degree/C. No leaching was detected for SYNROC at either temperature. Thus, the upper limit on leach rate for SYNROC is <0.005 g/m/sup 2/d. Waste glass PNL 76-68 had leach rates of 1.4 g/m/sup 2/ d at 85/degree/C and 8.9 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C, while 73-1 glass frit had a leach rate of 41 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C. The leach tests were repeated in the presence of rock powders. Again, no leaching was measurable for SYNROC. PNL 76-68 glass had leach rates between 4 and 23 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C and 73-1 frit leached at rates between 29 and 176 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C. Tests were also conducted on crushed glass samples (PNL 76-68, 100-200 /mu/m size fraction). Bulk leach rates were calculated based on measurement of Ca, Cs, and U in the leach solutions. The results of the leach tests show that SYNROC is several orders of magnitude more resistant to leaching than glass

  3. Package characterization by laboratory leaching and diffusion experiments using radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The leaching of solid inorganic waste from loaded concrete or cement by incoming water can be described in terms of a steady-state outward diffusion of the saturated solution, formed inside the pores. In this paper, the derived equations permit the prediction of long-term leaching behavior. Radiotracer experiments enable the determination of the parameters involved

  4. Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-09-01

    This report summarizes the work performed for the Accelerated Leach Test(s) Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 1985 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP). Programmatic activities were concentrated in three areas, as listed and described in the following paragraphs. (1) A literature survey of reported leaching mechanisms, available mathematical models and factors that affect leaching of LLW forms has been compiled. Mechanisms which have been identified include diffusion, dissolution, ion exchange, corrosion and surface effects. Available mathematical models are based on diffusion as the predominant mechanism. Although numerous factors that affect leaching have been identified, they have been conveniently categorized as factors related to the entire leaching system, to the leachant or to the waste form. A report has been published on the results of this literature survey. (2) A computerized data base of LLW leaching data and mathematical models is being developed. The data are being used for model evaluation by curve fitting and statistical analysis according to standard procedures of statistical quality control. (3) Long-term tests on portland cement, bitumen and vinyl ester-styrene (VES) polymer waste forms are underway which are designed to identify and evaluate factors that accelerate leaching without changing the mechanisms. Results on the effect of temperature on leachability indicate that the leach rates of cement and VES waste forms increase with increasing temperature, whereas, the leach rate of bitumen is little affected

  5. Antimony smelting process generating solid wastes and dust: characterization and leaching behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuejun; Wang, Kunpeng; He, Mengchang; Liu, Ziwei; Yang, Hailin; Li, Sisi

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of solid waste has been produced by the antimony smelting process in the "World Capital of Antimony", Xikuangshan area in China. This study comprehensively investigated the physical and chemical characteristics of the various solid wastes, as well as the leaching behavior of the solid wastes, which included water-quenched slag, arsenic-alkali residue, desulfurized slag and blast furnace dust. These four types of waste were enriched in a variety of heavy metals and metalloids and more specifically with As and Sb levels up to 8.6 × 10⁴ and 3.16×10⁵ mg/kg, respectively, in arsenic-alkali residue. For desulfurized slag and water-quenched slag, the leaching concentration of Sb significantly exceeded the acceptable limits during the leaching tests using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure. In addition, As leaching in arsenic-alkali residue was extraordinarily hazardous, being three orders of magnitude higher than the regulatory level of As. According to the results of the extraction tests, all the tested wastes were classified as hazardous waste. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Leaching of indaziflam applied at two rates under different rainfall situations in Florida Candler soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhala, Amit J; Ramirez, Analiza H M; Singh, Megh

    2012-03-01

    Indaziflam {N-[(1R, 2S)-2,3-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-1H-inden-1-yl]-6-[(1RS)-1fluoroethyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine} is a new pre-emergence herbicide recently registered for a broad spectrum weed control in Florida citrus. Experiments were conducted to evaluate leaching of indaziflam applied at 73 and 145 g ai ha(-1) in Florida Candler soil under simulated rainfall of 5, 10, and 15 cm ha(-1). Indaziflam leached the least (12.6 ± 0.6 cm) when applied at 73 g ai ha(-1) under 5 cm ha(-1) rainfall. Indaziflam leached furthest (30.2 ± 0.9 cm) when applied at 145 g ai ha(-1) under 15 cm ha(-1) rainfall. The visual control ratings of a bio-indicator species ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) was 97% at 15 cm ha(-1) rainfall when indaziflam applied at 145 g ai ha(-1) in the 26 to 30 cm horizon indicating the maximum movement and activity of indaziflam. A dose response experiment was conducted to determine the sensitivity of ryegrass to various doses of indaziflam that confirmed that application of indaziflam at 29.20 g ai ha(-1) was sufficient to prevent germination of ryegrass. There was no mortality of ryegrass plants beyond the 30 cm and the biomass of ryegrass was comparable with untreated control indicating that indaziflam did not leach beyond this distance even under 15 cm ha(-1) rainfall.

  7. Pilot test of bacterial percolation leaching at Fuzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Baotuan; Liu Jian; Jiang Yngqiong; Cai Chunhui; Jiang Lang; Zhou Renhua; Tong Changning; Zhang Hongli

    2006-01-01

    Total 18 t uranium ores of Fuzhou Uranium Mine packed in three or four columns in series were leached by bacterial percolation. The results show that without adding any other chemical oxidant such as sodium chlorate, the leaching rate measured by residue is 91.45%-94.48%, leaching time is 50-60 d, acid consumption is 6.17%-7.75%, and residue grade is 0.0149%-0.0208%. Compared with conventional percolation leaching process, the leaching rate is improved by 3%, leaching time is shorted by 26%, and acid consumption is saved by 34%. Accumulation pattern of ΣFe and F - in the process of leaching is discussed. Influence of F - on bacterial growth, regeneration of barren solution as well as correlative techniques are reviewed. (authors)

  8. Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework to Evaluate Beneficial Use and Disposal Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEAF test methods are available for use to characterize the leaching potential over a range of conditions (i.e., pH, liquid-to-solid ratio, and waste form). LEAF characterization tests can be used to evaluate a range of materials to identify leaching behavior across a range of ...

  9. Dynamic leaching test of personal computer components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yadong; Richardson, Jay B; Niu, Xiaojun; Jackson, Ollie J; Laster, Jeremy D; Walker, Aaron K

    2009-11-15

    A dynamic leaching test (DLT) was developed and used to evaluate the leaching of toxic substances for electronic waste in the environment. The major components in personal computers (PCs) including motherboards, hard disc drives, floppy disc drives, and compact disc drives were tested. The tests lasted for 2 years for motherboards and 1.5 year for the disc drives. The extraction fluids for the standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) were used as the DLT leaching solutions. A total of 18 elements including Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ni, Pd, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn were analyzed in the DLT leachates. Only Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were commonly found in the DLT leachates of the PC components. Their leaching levels were much higher in TCLP extraction fluid than in SPLP extraction fluid. The toxic heavy metal Pb was found to continuously leach out of the components over the entire test periods. The cumulative amounts of Pb leached out of the motherboards in TCLP extraction fluid reached 2.0 g per motherboard over the 2-year test period, and that in SPLP extraction fluid were 75-90% less. The leaching rates or levels of Pb were largely affected by the content of galvanized steel in the PC components. The higher was the steel content, the lower the Pb leaching rate would be. The findings suggest that the obsolete PCs disposed of in landfills or discarded in the environment continuously release Pb for years when subjected to landfill leachate or rains.

  10. Study of controlled leaching process of steel slag in Soxhlet extractor aiming employment in pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Kissyla Avila; Guimaraes, Antonio Carlos Rodrigues; Reis, Marcelo de Miranda; Santana, Claudeny Simone Alves

    2017-01-01

    This work addresses the characterization of physical, chemical and mechanical properties of steel slag as an alternative aggregation before and after leaching testing controlled Soxhlet extractor. The material it was characterized before going through the natural leaching process and after controlled leaching in different periods of 24, 56, 96, 120 hours. The steel slag was subjected in the laboratory to simulate the precipitation in Soxhlet equipment to evaluate its physical, chemical and mechanical properties after each period described. The study of the process of leaching in steel slag searched to understand the influence of the washing process in a slag behavior in such a process. The physical characterization occurred through traditional testing of coarse aggregates, the chemical characterization through the testing of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) completed by Dispersive Spectroscopy Energy (DSE) and X- ray diffraction and the mechanical characterization through testing of standardized expansion and adapted. The sample virgin, without receiving process of stabilization by controlled leaching, showed satisfactory results in the physics characterization when compared to conventional aggregates, the chemical characterization proved to be a steel slag with high contents of CaO, MgO and FeO, the mechanical characterization demonstrated that, although the degree of expansibility of the slag is low demonstrated that this should not be disregarded in the paving work. After controlled leaching the steel slag showed no significant loss of its physical properties. As the mechanical testing of expansion had decreased the potential of expansibility after leaching periods. It is concluded that the leaching process in a Soxhlet extractor is of importance in the study the properties of steel slag, once covering several days of leaching was reduced potential for expansion, limiting feature in the use of steel slag for paving. (author)

  11. Ultrasound augmented leaching of nickel sulfate in sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Li, Shiwei; Peng, Jinhui; Srinivasakannan, Chandrasekar; Zhang, Libo; Yin, Shaohua

    2018-01-01

    A new method of preparation high purity nickel sulfate assisted by ultrasonic was studied. The process mechanism was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS).The reaction mechanisms of oxidizing leaching and ultrasonic leaching were explored, respectively. Results showed that ultrasonic treatment peel off the oxide film on the surface of nickel. The leachate under strongly agitated, the yield rate of nickel sulfate was accelerate. And the reaction area was increased by the cavitation effect, the liquid-solid reaction was promoted, and the activation energy was reduced. The leaching rate of nickel reached 46.29% by conventional leaching, which takes about 5h. Under the same conditions, the ultrasonic leaching rate reached 40%, only half of the conventional leaching time. Concentration of leaching agent, reaction temperature, ultrasonic power, leaching time had significant effect on the enhancement of the leaching reaction with ultrasonic radiation. The leaching rate of 60.41% under the optimum experiment conditions as follows: sulfuric acid concentration 30%, hydrogen peroxide 10%, leaching temperature 333K, ultrasonic power 200W and leaching time 4h. The kinetic study of the system was investigated, and the reaction rates of conventional leaching and ultrasonic leaching were controlled by diffusion, and the apparent activation energies were 16.2kJ/mol and 11.83kJ/mol. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic-Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. The work described in this report addresses caustic leaching under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. Because gibbsite leaching kinetics are rapid (gibbsite is expected to be dissolved by the time the final leach temperature is reached), boehmite leach kinetics are the main focus of the caustic-leach tests. The tests were completed at the laboratory-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. Two laboratory-scale caustic-leach tests were performed for each of the PEP runs. For each PEP run, unleached slurry was taken from the PEP caustic-leach vessel for one batch and used as feed for both of the corresponding laboratory-scale tests.

  13. Long-term elevated temperature leaching of solid waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.; Murphy, K.D.; Levine, H.S.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term soxhlet leaching of simulated waste glass and ceramic materials was initiated to elucidate leaching behavior of complex wasteforms. A cyclic leaching pattern was found in all systems over a 20 month period. Maxima and minima were observed in the leaching rates of all components studied with the minima coinciding. The data suggested several mechanistic features which are described, but they did not conform with reported simple leaching mechanisms

  14. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimizing conditions for an accelerated leach test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Heiser, J.; Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

    1988-01-01

    An accelerated leach test for low-level radioactive waste forms is being developed to provide, in a short time, data that can be extrapolated to long time periods. The approach is to provide experimental conditions that will accelerate leaching without changing the dominant release mechanism. Experimental efforts have focused on combining individual factors that have been observed to accelerate leaching. These include elevated temperature, increased leachant volume, and reduced specimen size. The response of diffusion coefficients to various acceleration factors have been evaluated and provide information on experimental parameters that need to be optimized to increase leach rates. For example, these data show that large volumes of leachant are required when leaching portland cement waste forms at elevated temperatures because of high concentrations of dissolved species. Sr-85 leaching is particularly susceptible to suppression due to concentration effects while Cs-137 leaching is less so. Preliminary modeling using a diffusion mechanism (allowing for depletion) of a finite cylinder geometry indicates that during early portions of experiments (daily sampling intervals), leaching is diffusion controlled and more rapid than later in the same experiments (weekly or greater sampling intervals). For cement waste forms, this reduction in rate may be partially controlled by changes in physical structure and chemistry (sometimes related to environmental influences such as CO 2 ), but it is more likely associated with the duration of the sampling interval. 9 refs., 6 figs

  16. Current practices in corrosion, surface characterization, and nickel leach testing of cardiovascular metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Srinidhi; Di Prima, Matthew; Saylor, David; Takai, Erica

    2017-08-01

    In an effort to better understand current test practices and improve nonclinical testing of cardiovascular metallic implants, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) held a public workshop on Cardiovascular Metallic Implants: corrosion, surface characterization, and nickel leaching. The following topics were discussed: (1) methods used for corrosion assessments, surface characterization techniques, and nickel leach testing of metallic cardiovascular implant devices, (2) the limitations of each of these in vitro tests in predicting in vivo performance, (3) the need, utility, and circumstances when each test should be considered, and (4) the potential testing paradigms, including acceptance criteria for each test. In addition to the above topics, best practices for these various tests were discussed, and knowledge gaps were identified. Prior to the workshop, discussants had the option to provide feedback and information on issues relating to each of the topics via a voluntary preworkshop assignment. During the workshop, the pooled responses were presented and a panel of experts discussed the results. This article summarizes the proceedings of this workshop and background information provided by workshop participants. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1330-1341, 2017. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. The influence of moisture content of sand on leach rates from cement and bitumen radioactive waste forms in a shallow ground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovasic, Z.; Torok, J.; Buckley, L.P.

    1992-11-01

    Leaching rates from cement and bitumen-conditioned waste in contact with sand were determined with different water content of the sand up to and including saturation. A cylindrical waste form occupied one end of a column, with sand packed in the remainder. Axial radionuclide concentration profiles in the columns were determined several times during the experiment using an automated system consisting of a gamma spectrometer and an optical bench. The migration of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 60 Co was determined from concentration profiles with time. The diffusion coefficient for 137 Cs in cement varied more than expected with the change of moisture content of sand. The leaching of bitumen waste forms is complex, and has poor reproducibility. When the water content of the sand was below 0.067 mL/mL, no leaching was determined from bitumen waste forms in all of the specimens except one. No clear relationship could be established between leach rate and the water content of sand above 0.18 mL/mL water content

  18. Improving hydrolysis of food waste in a leach bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, James D.; Allen, Eoin; Murphy, Jerry D., E-mail: jerry.murphy@ucc.ie

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • This paper assesses leaching of food waste in a two phase digestion system. • Leaching is assessed with and without an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB). • Without the UASB, low pH reduces hydrolysis, while increased flows increase leaching. • Inclusion of the UASB increases pH to optimal levels and greatly improves leaching. • The optimal conditions are suggested as low flow with connection to the UASB. - Abstract: This paper examines the rate of degradation of food waste in a leach bed reactor (LBR) under four different operating conditions. The effects of leachate recirculation at a low and high flow rate are examined with and without connection to an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB). Two dilution rates of the effective volume of the leach bed reactors were investigated: 1 and 6 dilutions per LBR per day. The increase in dilution rate from 1 to 6 improved the destruction of volatile solids without connection to the UASB. However connection to the UASB greatly improved the destruction of volatile solids (by almost 60%) at the low recirculation rate of 1 dilution per day. The increase in volatile solids destruction with connection to the UASB was attributed to an increase in leachate pH and buffering capacity provided by recirculated effluent from the UASB to the leach beds. The destruction of volatile solids for both the low and high dilution rates was similar with connection to the UASB, giving 82% and 88% volatile solids destruction respectively. This suggests that the most efficient leaching condition is 1 dilution per day with connection to the UASB.

  19. Improving hydrolysis of food waste in a leach bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, James D.; Allen, Eoin; Murphy, Jerry D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper assesses leaching of food waste in a two phase digestion system. • Leaching is assessed with and without an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB). • Without the UASB, low pH reduces hydrolysis, while increased flows increase leaching. • Inclusion of the UASB increases pH to optimal levels and greatly improves leaching. • The optimal conditions are suggested as low flow with connection to the UASB. - Abstract: This paper examines the rate of degradation of food waste in a leach bed reactor (LBR) under four different operating conditions. The effects of leachate recirculation at a low and high flow rate are examined with and without connection to an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB). Two dilution rates of the effective volume of the leach bed reactors were investigated: 1 and 6 dilutions per LBR per day. The increase in dilution rate from 1 to 6 improved the destruction of volatile solids without connection to the UASB. However connection to the UASB greatly improved the destruction of volatile solids (by almost 60%) at the low recirculation rate of 1 dilution per day. The increase in volatile solids destruction with connection to the UASB was attributed to an increase in leachate pH and buffering capacity provided by recirculated effluent from the UASB to the leach beds. The destruction of volatile solids for both the low and high dilution rates was similar with connection to the UASB, giving 82% and 88% volatile solids destruction respectively. This suggests that the most efficient leaching condition is 1 dilution per day with connection to the UASB

  20. Measurement of the leaching rate of radionuclide 134Cs from the solidified radioactive sources in Portland cement mixed with microsilica and barite matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, Ismail; Assi, Nasim

    2011-01-01

    Portland cement was mixed with radionuclide 134 Cs to produce low-level radioactive sources. These sources were surrounded with cement mixed with different materials like microsilica and barite. The leaching rate of 134 Cs from the solidified radioactive source in Portland cement alone was found to be 4.481 x 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day. Mixing this Portland cement with microsilica and with barite reduced significantly the leaching rate to 1.091 x 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day and 3.153 x 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day for 1 wt.% mixing, and to 1.401 x 10 -5 g/cm 2 per day and 1.703 x 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day for 3 wt.% mixing, respectively. It was also found that the application of a latex paint reduced these leaching rates by about 6.5%, 20.3% and 13.3% for Portland cement, cement mixed with microsilica and with barite, respectively. The leaching data were also analyzed using the polynomial method. The obtained results showed that cement mixed with microsilica and with barite can be effectively used for radioactive sources solidification.

  1. Characterization of sediment in a leaching trench RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, M.G.; Kossik, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    Hazardous materials potentially were disposed of into a pair of leaching trenches from 1975 until Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations were imposed in 1985. These leaching trenches now are used for disposal of nonhazardous process water. The typical effluent (approximately 3 million gal/d) consisted of water with trace quantities of laboratory, maintenance, and fuel fabrication process chemicals. The largest constituent in the waste stream was uranium in low concentrations. This paper describes the project used to analyze and characterize the sediments in and below the leaching trenches. Two phases of sediment sampling were performed. The first phase consisted of taking samples between the bottom of the trenches and groundwater to locate contamination in the deep sediments under the trenches. To accomplish this sampling, a series of wells were drilled, and samples were obtained for every five feet in depth. The second phase consisted of samples taken at three depths in a series of positions along each trench. Sampling was completed to determine contamination levels in the shallow sediments and loose material washed into the trenches from the process sewer system. The project results were that no measurable contamination was found in the deep sediments. Measurable contamination from metals, such as chromium and nickel, was found in the shallow sediments. The primary contaminant in the shallow sediments was uranium. The concentration of contaminants decreased rapidly to near-background levels at shallow depths below the bottoms of the trenches

  2. Behavior of uranium and thorium isotopes in soils of the Boreon area, Mercantour Massif (S.E. France). Leaching and weathering rate modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezzoug, S.; Michel, H.; Barci-Funel, G.; Barci, V.; Fernex, F.

    2009-01-01

    Four cores were collected in weathered rocks and soils in the Boreon forest area (1765 m, Mercantour Massif, France). The samples were analyzed for the isotopes 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U and 238 U. The activity and isotopic ratio profiles suggest that uranium was mobilized (leaching and precipitation) during the weathering process, as well as thorium but in a much less proportion. A model was drawn up to evaluate the U leaching rate and the time that some levels of the weathered rocks have been subjected to weathering. It utilizes LATHAM and SCHWARCZ's two equations,15 expressed as 234 U/ 238 U and 230 Th/ 238 U activity ratios, which assume that the alpha recoil effect allows easier leaching for 234 U than 238 U and no Th mobility. But this last assumption does not correspond to the observations made in the Boreon area, since it appears that in some soil deeper layers 230 Th and 228 Th are in radioactive deficit relatively to their parents. As there are four unknown quantities (the time, the leaching rates of 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th), the problem to be solved requires two more equations; these can be obtained utilizing the U activity ratio in water, and taking into account the 232 Th behavior. In some sites the 238 U leaching rate is high in deeper soil levels (near the fresh rocks); this would correspond to a loss of half the U amount in less than 24 000 years. (author)

  3. Comparative studies on acid leaching of zinc waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnik, Ewa; Włoch, Grzegorz; Szatan, Leszek

    2017-11-01

    Three industrial waste materials were characterized in terms of their elemental and phase compositions, leaching behaviour in 10% sulfuric acid solution as well as leaching thermal effects. Slag from melting of mixed metallic scrap contained about 50% Zn and 10% Pb. It consisted mainly of various oxides and oxy-chlorides of metals. Zinc spray metallizing dust contained about 77% Zn in form of zinc and/or zinc-iron oxides, zinc metal and Zn-Fe intermetallic. Zinc ash from hot dip galvanizing was a mixture of zinc oxide, metallic zinc and zinc hydroxide chloride and contained about 80% Zn. Dissolution efficiency of zinc from the first material was 80% (independently on the solid to liquid ratio, 50-150 kg/m3), while decrease of the efficacy from 80% to 60% with increased solid to liquid ratio for the two remaining materials was observed. Both increase in the temperature (20 °C to 35 °C) and agitation rate (300 rpm to 900 rpm) did not improve seriously the leaching results. In all cases, transfer of zinc ions to the leachate was accompanied by different levels of solution contamination, depending on the type of the waste. Leaching of the materials was exothermic with the similar reaction heats for two high oxide-type products (slag, zinc ash) and higher values for the spray metallizing dust.

  4. Glass-surface area to solution-volume ratio and its implications to accelerated leach testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, L.R.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; McVay, G.L.; Riddle, B.L.

    1982-10-01

    The value of glass surface area to solution volume ratio (SA/V) can strongly influence the leaching rate of PNL 76-68 glass. The leaching rate is largely governed by silicon solubility constraints. Silicic acid in solution reduced the elemental release of all glass components. No components are leached to depths greater than that of silicon. The presence of the reaction layer had no measurable effect on the rate of leaching. Accelerated leach testing is possible since PNL 76-68 glass leaching is solubility-controlled (except at very low SA/V values). A series of glasses leached with SA/V x time = constant will yield identical elemental release

  5. Leaching behavior of microtektite glass compositions in sea water and the effect of precipitation on glass leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In the present study it was attempted to account for the slow corrosion rates of microtektite glass in nature by comparing the leach rates of synthetic microtektite glass samples in deionized water and in sea-water, respectively. In order to obtain systematic data about leachant composition effects, leach tests were also carried out with synthetic leachant compositions enriched with respect to silica or depleted with respect to certain major components of sea-water (Mg, Ca). 47 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  6. Kinetics of the Carbonate Leaching for Calcium Metavanadate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiyang Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The sodium salt roasting process was widely used for extracting vanadium due to its high yield rate of vanadium. However, the serious pollution was a problem. The calcium roasting process was environmentally friendly, but the yield rate of vanadium was relatively lower. Focusing on the calcium metavanadate produced in the calcium roasting process of vanadium minerals, the mechanism of the carbonate leaching for calcium metavanadate and its leaching kinetics of calcium metavanadate were studied. With the increase of the leaching agent content, the decrease of the particle size, the increase of the temperature and the increase of the reaction time, the leaching rate of vanadium increased, and the constant of reaction rate increased. In the carbonate leaching process, the calcium carbonate was globular and attached to the surface of calcium metavanadate. In the solution containing bicarbonate radical, lots of cracks formed in the dissolution process. However, the cracks were relatively fewer in the solution containing carbonate. In the present study, the carbonate leaching for calcium metavanadate was controlled by diffusion, the activation energy reached maximum and minimum in the sodium bicarbonate and the sodium carbonate solution, respectively. The activation energy value in the ammonium bicarbonate solution was between those two solutions. The kinetic equations of the carbonate leaching for calcium metavanadate were as follows: 1 − 2/3η − (1 − η2/3 = 4.39[Na2CO3]0.75/r0 × exp(−2527.06/Tt; 1 − 2/3η − (1 − η2/3 = 7.89[NaHCO3]0.53/r0 × exp(−2530.67/Tt; 1 − 2/3η − (1 − η2/3 = 6.78[NH4HCO3]0.69/r0 × exp(−2459.71/Tt.

  7. The experimental study of bacterial leaching at condition of different ore's diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinhui; Li Lin; Liu Yajie

    2006-01-01

    This papper compared the effect of leaching rate of uranium and the adaptability of bacteria with the condition of different ore's diameter (2-5 mm, 5-10 mm), which use the way of inleakage-leaching. The experiment use the way that firstly acid leaching, and then 2 bacterial leaching. As a reasult that the total leaching-rate of minute diameter ore are always high than the big diameter one. But for the quantum of consumed acid its just a opposition. During bacterial leaching the adaptability of bacteria in big diameter ore are high than in the minute one. So this experiment may offer a bases for a latter industry experiment which use big diameter ore's bacterial leaching. (authors)

  8. Development of improved leaching techniques for vitrified radioactive waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaswani, G.A.; Yeotikar, R.G.; Rastogi, R.C.; Sunder Rajan, N.S.

    1979-01-01

    A critical review of the current techniques for evaluating the leach resistance of vitrified radioactive wastes has been made. Inadequacy of the available leaching techniques, with respect to their adoption as standard technique on an international scale, has been brought out for the three broad catagories of aqueous attack viz., (i) simple contact with leachant at a particular temperature, (ii) once-through or recirculatory flow of leachant at variable temperatures and flow rates, and (iii) contact with freshly distilled hot water in soxhelet type of extractor. In an effort to evolve a standard leaching technique in the latter two categories of aqueous attack, development of two leaching units viz., 'Dynamic Leaching Unit' and 'Modified Soxhlet Unit' is described. Both these units offer good control and wide flexibility on the important parameters affecting leaching such as leachant temperature, flow rate of residence time of leachant and ratio of leachant volume to sample surface area. The dynamic leaching units also offers a good control and flexibility on the two additional parameters viz., the composition and pH of the leachant. In the modified soxhlet unit the composition and pH of the leachant remains near to that of distilled water. The leach rate results have been found to be reproducible. A need for framing the set of standard conditions for adoption of these units in evolution of standard leaching techniques has been indicated. (auth.)

  9. The leaching characteristics of vitrified slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinlong; Li, Yaojian; Tian, Junguo; Sheng, Hongzhi; Xu, Yongxiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text: Plasma-arc technology was developed to fix the heavy metal of flying ash by the Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS-IMECH). A direct current (DC) experimental facility of 30 kW with plasma-arc technology was setup to form vitrified slag. The additives (CaO, SiO 2 ) were added into the reactor to form vitrified slag and fix the heavy metal (Cr, Pb), under dissimilar condition (long and short heating-up time, natural and water cooling). Vitrified slag was broken into different particle size, from 0.1 mm to 1 cm. The particles with different specific surface area were used to study the leaching of heavy metals in vitrified slag rate of speed. The pH value of leaching solution are from 2 to 12, the experiment was kept at different external temperature, from 4 degree Celsius to 70 degree celsius, for 1 week to 1 month. Heavy metal leaching concentration was used to measure the chemical stability of vitrified slag. The results show that the higher specific surface area, the higher heavy metal leaching concentration, but when the specific surface area reaches a certain value, little change in leaching concentration. The impact of temperature on leaching concentration was not significant, from 4 degree Celsius to 70 degree Celsius. The leaching concentration increases with decreasing of the pH value of leaching solution when the pH value of leaching solution less than 7, and little change in concentration increases with pH value when the pH value of leaching solution more than 7. Compared with the leaching concentration after 1 month, the leaching concentration after 1 week has not changed significantly. (Author)

  10. Leaching of two fungicides in spent mushroom substrate amended soil: Influence of amendment rate, fungicide ageing and flow condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Martín, Alba; Sánchez-Martín, María J; Ordax, José M; Marín-Benito, Jesús M; Sonia Rodríguez-Cruz, M

    2017-04-15

    A study has been conducted on the leaching of two fungicides, tebuconazole and cymoxanil, in a soil amended with spent mushroom substrate (SMS), with an evaluation of how different factors influence this process. The objective was based on the potential use of SMS as a biosorbent for immobilizing pesticides in vulnerable soils, and the need to know how it could affect the subsequent transport of these retained compounds. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) for 14 C-fungicides, non-incubated and incubated over 30days, were obtained in columns packed with an unamended soil (S), and this soil amended with SMS at rates of 5% (S+SMS5) and 50% (S+SMS50) under saturated and saturated-unsaturated flows. The highest leaching of tebuconazole (>50% of the total 14 C added) was found in S when a saturated water flow was applied to the column, but the percentage of leached fungicide decreased when a saturated-unsaturated flow was applied in both SMS-amended soils. Also a significant decrease in leaching was observed for tebuconazole after incubation in the column, especially in S+SMS50 when both flows were applied. Furthermore, cymoxanil leaching was complete in S and S+SMS when a saturated flow was applied, and maximum peak concentrations were reached at 1pore volume (PV), although BTCs showed peaks with lower concentrations in S+SMS. The amounts of cymoxanil retained only increased in S+SMS when a saturated-unsaturated flow was applied. A more relevant effect of SMS for reducing the leaching of fungicide was observed when cymoxanil was previously incubated in the column, although mineralization was enhanced in this case. These results are of interest for extending SMS application on the control of the leaching of fungicides with different physicochemical characteristics after different ageing times in the soil and water flow conditions applied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Leaching behavior of solidified plastics radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yook, Chong Chul; Lee, Byung Hun; Jae, Won Mok; Kim, Kyung Eung

    1986-01-01

    It is highly needed to develope the solidification process to dispose safely the radioactive wastes increasing with the growth of the nuclear industry. The leaching mechanisms of the solidified plastic wastes were investigated and the leaching rates of the plastic wastes were also measured among the many solidification processes. In addition, the transport equation based on the diffusion or the diffusion-dissolution was compared with the empirical equation derived from the experimental data by graphical method. Consequently, leaching process of the solidified plastic wastes is quite well agreed with the mass transport theory, but it may be difficult to simulate leaching process by diffusion dissolution mechanism. But the theoretical equation could be applicable to the cumulative amount of radionuclides leached form the plastic wastes disposed into the environment. (Author)

  12. The effects of types of media on uranium leaching using metabolite of Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangyue; Ding Dexin; Wang Yongdong; Hu Nan

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the influences of different media to uranium leaching applying with metabolite of Aspergillus niger, PSA and glucose-steepwater medium were used for the culture of Aspergillus niger, and the metabolite of Aspergillus niger with different pH value produced in the diverse culture temperature were obtained which was applied on the tests of uranium leaching as leaching agent. The test results show that the maximum leaching rate is 83.05% when the leaching agent is the metabolite of Aspergillus niger produced by PSA, as for the glucose- steepwater medium, the maximum leaching rate is 68.20%. The pH value of the metabolite of Aspergillus niger of the two kinds of media has a significant effect on the leaching rate. When PSA is adopted, the best leaching rate appears at the pH value of metabolite ranging from 2.0 to 2.5, and as for the glucose-steepwater medium, the pH value is below 2.1. (authors)

  13. ISOTOPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC MATERIALS LEACHED FROM LEAVES IN WATER OF MUNDARING WEIR DAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Heryanto Langsa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the organic constituents aquatically leached from leaf components of two tree species (wandoo eucalyptus and pinus radiate. In particular this study aimed to assess the stable isotope composition behaviour of dissolved organic carbon (DOC from the residue leaves after leaching over five months. The changes in the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of the leached leaves materials were investigated using an elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-irMS. The stable isotope compositions were found to vary according to microbially-mediated alteration and decomposition. The average  d13C content of the raw plant elements was consistent with the  d13C values of terrestrial plants using a C3 photosynthetic pathway. The isotope compositions of leached materials of wandoo eucalyptus fresh leaf were continually depleted in d13C over the leaching period of three months. These variations correlated well with its DOC profile. Changes in  d13C values may also relate to the differential leaching of the macromolecular precursors of the original material. Lignin, for example, has a typically low  d13C and probably contributed to the decrease of  d13C in residue of the plant materials.   Keywords: isotope composition, leached materials, C3 plant

  14. Organic compounds leached from fast pyrolysis mallee leaf and bark biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Caroline; Mourant, Daniel; Gunawan, Richard; Hu, Xun; Wang, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Characterization of organic compounds leached from biochars is essential in assessing the possible toxicity of the biochar to the soils' biota. In this study the nature of the leached organic compounds from Mallee biochars, produced from pyrolysis of Mallee leaf and bark in a fluidised-bed pyrolyser at 400 and 580°C was investigated. Light bio-oil compounds and aromatic organic compounds were investigated. The 'bio-oil like' light compounds from leaf and bark biochars 'surfaces were obtained after leaching the chars with a solvent, suitable to dissolve the respective bio-oils. GC/MS was implemented to investigate the leachates. Phenolics, which are potentially harmful toxins, were detected and their concentration shown to be dependent on the char's origin and the char production temperature. Further, to simulate biochars amendment to soils, the chars were leached with water. The water-leached aromatic compounds from leaf and bark biochars were characterized using UV-fluorescence spectroscopy. Those results suggested that biochars contain leachable compounds of which the nature and amount is dependent on the biomass feedstock, pyrolysis temperature and leaching time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of an accelerated leach test(s) for low-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1986-01-01

    An accelerated leach test(s) is being developed to predict long-term leaching behavior of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) forms in their disposal environments. As necessary background, a literature survey of reported leaching mechanisms, available mathematical models and factors that affect leaching of LLW forms has been compiled. Mechanisms which have been identified include diffusion, dissolution, ion exchange, corrosion and surface effects. A computerized data base of LLW leaching data and mathematical models is being developed. The data is being used for model evaluation by curve fitting and statistical analysis according to standard procedures of statistical quality control. Long-term leach tests on portland cement, bitumen and vinyl ester-styrene (VES) polymer waste forms are underway which are designed to identify and evaluate factors that accelerate leaching without changing the mechanisms. Initial results on the effect of temperature on leachability indicate that the leach rates of cement and VES waste forms increase with increasing temperature, whereas, the leach rate of bitumen is little affected

  16. Leaching of irradiated CANDU UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergraaf, T.T.; Johnson, L.H.; Lau, D.W.P.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiated fuel, leached at room temperature with distilled water and with slightly chlorinated river water, releases approx. 4% of its cesium inventory over a comparatively sort period of a few days but releases its actinides and rare earths more slowly. The matrix itself dissolves at a rate conservatively calculated to be less than approx. 2 x 10 -6 g UO 2 /cm 2 day and, with time, the leach rates of the various nuclides approach this value

  17. Leaching of heavy metals from timah langat amang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri bin Othman

    1990-01-01

    Accelerated leaching studies of amang from Timah Langat for heavy metals showed that the material was rather stable. From almost 24 types of heavy metals contained in the material, the metal that leached out most was Al, followed by Pb, U, Cu, Mn, Fe, Mg, Y and La but at smaller quantities. The studies also showed that amang was very porous. The high seepage rate resulted in the solubilities of the metals not reaching equilibrium. In that situation, the leaching of heavy metals from amang was dependent on the seepage rate of water, the height of the material, the volume of water that seeped through and the solubility of the metals

  18. Experimental study on bio-leaching of high sulphuric acid consumption uranium ore by adding sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Yunsheng; Zheng Ying; Liu Hui; Cheng Hao; Zhou Lei; Liu Chao; Fan Baotuan; Li Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    In order to decrease acid consumption and increase leaching rate, an experiment on bio-leach-ing of low grade uranium ore by adding sulphide was done. Compared with conventional leaching method, the leaching rate of uranium is improved by 3% and the leaching period was reduced to 60 days from 90 days by bio-leaching method of adding sulphide. In order to decrease acid consumption with bio-leaching by adding sulphide obviously, robust bacteria to sulphide should be chosen. (authors)

  19. Leaching methods for conditioned radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentiero, R.; Bienvenu, P.; Huebra, A. G. de la; Dale, C.; Grec, D.; Gallego, C.; Rodriguez, M.; Vanderlinden, F.; Voors, P. I.; Welbergen, J.; May, R.; Fays, J.

    2005-01-01

    The physico-chemical characterization of solidified, real or simulated, radioactive waste is essential in determining their long-term stability in conditions close to that which could be encountered during disposal. The evaluation or prediction of the performance of conditioned waste passes through many suitable studies and experiments, according to a documented qualification programme. In this respect the leaching test is among the first important techniques to evaluate the feasibility of a waste form and for comparing and selecting the best waste form. So the leaching behaviour of an immobilized radioactive waste is a relevant property to be studied. The objective of the present report is to collect and describe the most representative leaching methods used in international laboratories, mainly at European level, whether standard or standard-derived. In this instance the work is a summary of the Network knowledge and applications on leaching processes in order to exchange information and scientific and technical experiences in this respect. The focus is to express all the relevant parameters of the test and its field of application. all this background is the needed starting point to clarify the similarities and shortcomings of the methods used in the EN-TRAP laboratories and, subsequently, the possible equalities or differences which can be attributed to the characteristic parameters of the different type of wastes treated. In order to comprise the significance and the effects of the parameters involved in leaching phenomena, an initial discussion on leaching mechanisms and on achievable results is made in this document. The international standardised methods are summarised as being the origin for all the network leaching procedures. This work in a preliminary way represents a comparative review ordered to introduce an unique leaching procedure to be tested in an interlaboratory comparative exercise. Further the unique method would be a quick internal reference

  20. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  1. Microbial leaching of low grade sandstone uranium ores: column leaching studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, T.M.; Malik, K.A.; Khalid, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Microbial leaching studies on a low-grade sandstone uranium ore from Baghalchur Ore Deposits, D. G. Khan, Pakistan, containing 0.027 % U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ for extraction of uranium, were conducted in columns. Baghalchur sandstone uranium ore which is alkaline in nature, contained 5.0% calcite [CaCo/sub 3/], 2-3 % Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and pyrite [FeS/sub 2/] less than 0.1 %. The ore amended with sulfur and/or sulfur slag as external energy source was found to leach with indigenous microflora mostly belonging to the genus Thiobacillus which are present in the uranium mine water. Column leaching studies revealed that when the ore was amended with elemental sulfur and irrigated with mine water (pH 3.5) 53 % U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ could be solubilized from it. However, when the natural mine water was used as such (pH 7.4) the solubilization of uranium was decreased to 41 % U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ in 90 days under similar conditions of percolation rate and temperature. The addition of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (3.0 g/L) in mine water was found to enhance the uranium leaching to 70 % U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ from the columns containing ore amended with sulfur slag. (author)

  2. Column leaching experiments of a uranium ore by atomizing irrigation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yingying; Lei Zeyong; Chen Haihui

    2007-01-01

    Column leaching experiments ora uranium ore were made by atomizing irrigation technique. The leaching results are compared with the results obtained by spray irrigation and drip irrigation techniques respectively under the same conditions of column leaching experiments. The results show that the atomizing irrigation technique has more uniform solution distribution, higher leaching rate, shorter leaching period, and less ratio of liquid to solid. Consequently, the atomizing irrigation technique is suitable to the ore. (authors)

  3. Leaching properties of solidified TRU waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, P.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Safety analysis of waste forms requires an estimate of the ability of these forms to retain activity in the disposal environment. This program of leaching tests will determine the leaching properties of TRU contaminated incinerator ash waste forms using hydraulic cement, urea--formaldehyde, bitumen, and vinyl ester--styrene as solidification agents. Three types of leaching tests will be conducted, including both static and flow rate. Five generic groundwaters will be used. Equipment and procedures are described. Experiments have been conducted to determine plate out of 239 Pu, counter efficiency, and stability of counting samples

  4. Leaching characteristics of trace elements in desulfurization gypsum from a coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.K.; Zhuo, Y.Q.; Zhu, Z.W.; Chen, C.H. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The contents and leaching characteristics of Cr, Cd, As, Pb and Se in FGD gypsum from a 200 MW coal-fired power plant were investigated in this study. Experimental results revealed that: the leaching characteristics of As and Se were similar, both leaching rates were not obviously affected by pH but increased with increase of the liquid-solid ratio. Pb and Cr had similar leaching characteristics, their leaching rates were closely related with the pH of leaching solution and increased with the lowering of pH and both increased with the increasing of solid-liquid ratio. Along with the increase of the liquid-solid ratio, the leaching gradually achieved balance, and the balanced liquid-solid ratio was bigger when pH of leaching solution was lower. Cd content of leaching solution was below detect limit, and thus failed to get its leaching characteristics. The order of trace element content in leaching solution is Pb < Cr < As < Se, and the order of leaching rates is Cr < As < Pb < Se. BCR extraction procedure revealed that trace elements in FGD gypsum were mainly existed as available fraction and migration ability was stronger than that of trace elements in fly ash from coal-fired power plants.

  5. Roasting and leaching behaviors of vanadium and chromium in calcification roasting-acid leaching of high-chromium vanadium slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Mi; Gao, Hui-yang; Liu, Jia-yi; Xue, Xiang-xin

    2018-05-01

    Calcification roasting-acid leaching of high-chromium vanadium slag (HCVS) was conducted to elucidate the roasting and leaching behaviors of vanadium and chromium. The effects of the purity of CaO, molar ratio between CaO and V2O5 ( n(CaO)/ n(V2O5)), roasting temperature, holding time, and the heating rate used in the oxidation-calcification processes were investigated. The roasting process and mechanism were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). The results show that most of vanadium reacted with CaO to generate calcium vanadates and transferred into the leaching liquid, whereas almost all of the chromium remained in the leaching residue in the form of (Fe0.6Cr0.4)2O3. Variation trends of the vanadium and chromium leaching ratios were always opposite because of the competitive reactions of oxidation and calcification between vanadium and chromium with CaO. Moreover, CaO was more likely to combine with vanadium, as further confirmed by thermodynamic analysis. When the HCVS with CaO added in an n(CaO)/ n(V2O5) ratio of 0.5 was roasted in an air atmosphere at a heating rate of 10°C/min from room temperature to 950°C and maintained at this temperature for 60 min, the leaching ratios of vanadium and chromium reached 91.14% and 0.49%, respectively; thus, efficient extraction of vanadium from HCVS was achieved and the leaching residue could be used as a new raw material for the extraction of chromium. Furthermore, the oxidation and calcification reactions of the spinel phases occurred at 592 and 630°C for n(CaO)/ n(V2O5) ratios of 0.5 and 5, respectively.

  6. Investigation of aeration rate on Uranium bio leaching in internal airlift bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolala, M. R.; Safdari, S. J.; Haghighi Asl, A.; Rashidi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium is leached from the uranium ore of the second anomaly of Saghand by the Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans bacteria in an internal airlift bio-reactor. This study has been made to find the effect of aeration rate as well as its optimal value. The experiments have been carried out at 4 aeration rates to find the best recovery results in the least possible time duration. The results showed that the most percentage of the uranium recovery is in the superficial gas velocity of 0.010 m/s. The recovery at this aeration rate has an efficiency of more than 95 p ercent i n 11 days. Also, the best range for aeration study in the airlift bio-reactor is calculated with a minimum value of 0.0065 m/s which is the critical value of the uranium particle suspension as well as the maximum value of 0.015 m/s. The stress on the bacteria increases the recovery time process in velocities of more than 0.015 m/s.

  7. Development of an accelerated leach test(s) for low-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-01-01

    An accelerated leach test(s) is being developed to predict long-term leaching behavior of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) forms in their disposal environments. As necessary background, a literature survey of reported leaching mechanisms, available mathematical models and factors that affect leaching of LLW forms has been compiled. Mechanisms which have been identified include diffusion, dissolution, ion exchange, corrosion and surface effects. A computerized data base of LLW leaching data and mathematical models is being developed. The data is being used for model evaluation by curve fitting and statistical analysis according to standard procedures of statistical quality control. Long-term leach tests on portland cement, bitumen and vinyl ester-styrene (VES) polymer waste forms are underway which are designed to identify and evaluate factors that accelerate leaching without changing the mechanisms. Initial results on the effect of temperature on leachability indicate that the leach rates of cement and VES waste forms increase with increasing temperature, whereas, the leach rate of bitumen is little affected. 10 refs., 5 figs

  8. Kinetics of acid leaching of ilmenite decomposed by KOH part 1: decomposition by KOH and leaching by HCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayl, A.A; Aly, H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Decomposition of ilmenite by KOH solutions, to convert titanium to potassium titanate, was first studied . This was followed by leaching titanium from the ilmenite paste using HCl solutions in the temperature range 50-150 degree C for different periods up to 3 hr. The significant factors affecting the leaching process were studied. The experimental data of the decomposition rate of ilmenite by KOH and of the formed KOH paste by HCl under the relevant operating variables were interpreted with the shrinking core model under chemically controlled process. The apparent activation energy for leaching of titanium in both cases bas been evaluated and discussed.

  9. Gold Leaching Characteristics and Intensification of a High S and As-Bearing Gold Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-bin; Liu, Xiao-liang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Qian; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Yan

    Some high sulfur and arsenic-bearing gold concentrate has a gold leaching rate less than 80% by oxidation roasting-pickling-cyanidation process. The characteristics and intensification of gold leaching were studied systemically. By combining chemical composition and phase analysis, the low gold leaching rate was found to lie in the capsulation of gold by iron-containing phases including iron oxides, arsenopyrite and pyrite. 96.66% of gold in the industrial leaching residue was capsulated and 95.88% of the capsulated turned out to be in the iron-containing phases. The results of laboratory pickling-cyanidation experiments on the calcine and industrial leaching residue presented further demonstration for the fact that gold capsulated in the iron-containing phases was hard to be leached. However, the gold cyanide leaching rate of calcine could be raised over 95% by a reduction roasting-pickling pretreatment which played such a significant role in exposing the capsulated gold that gold leaching was intensified remarkably.

  10. The current status of glass leaching studies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude, F.

    1983-11-01

    Glass has been selected in France as the material used to confine the activity of fission product solutions, and a continuous vitrification process has been developed at the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM), the first industrial plant. Borosilicate glass was chosen in various compositions for its properties: it is a homogeneous, non-porous material that incorporates appreciable quantities of most of the fission product oxides, and is only alterable at the surface interface layer. Glass thus constitutes the primary radioactivity containment barrier, and it is essential to determine its long-term behavior. Water constitutes the principal hazard during temporary or definitive storage of the glass blocks. Two types of inherent material properties are studied from the standpoint of glass stability under leaching conditions: - chemical durability; - radioactive containability with regard to the various radionuclides, fission products and especially the actinides. Durability tests are carried out in SOXHLET devices and the alteration rates are measured by the weight loss. The containability is measured by the leach rate, i.e. by the rate of activity loss into the water. Leaching tests are conducted for several major objectives: - selection of glass compositions (leach rates); - leaching mechanism studies (hydrolyzed layer characteristics, effects of temperature, pressure, pH, etc.); - long-term behavior studies (glass specimens doped with alpha-emitters); - simulation of geological repository environments [fr

  11. Influence of the segregation of the granulate from the radwaste-mortar mixture from on the {sup 137}Cs leach-rate; Uticaj segregacije granulata iz sastava betonske - RAO forme na izluzivanje Cs{sup 137}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peric, A; Plecas, I; Pavlovic, R; Pavlovic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences VINCA, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1994-07-01

    In this paper. influence of the segregation of the granulate, presented in the radwaste-mortar matrix formulation, on the {sup 137}Cs, immobilized in the waste form, leach-rate is presented. {sup 137}Cs leach-rates of the two inspected groups of the radwaste-mortar mixture samples were compared, where the first group of the orthocylinder shaped samples was treated due to the Standard Hespe's method and the second group was treated using modified Hespe's method. In the prolonged experimental time, both groups have obtained leach-rate values that are nearly the same, striving to the saturation leach-rate values. This fact indicates that the leaching of the radionuclide as a consequence of the granulate segregation process is in same way rebuilt, as a result of the completed hydratation of the mortar matrix, and 'self healing' of the new open pores and cavities (author)

  12. Reduced rates of controlled-release fertilizer lower potential nitrogen leaching from a Wisconsin bare-root tree nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryosuke Fujinuma; Nick J. Balster; Hyung-Kyung. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) typically increases nitrogen (N) fertilizer uptake and lowers N lost from the rooting zone via leaching. However, questions remain as to whether lower rates of CRF could further increase this efficiency, especially in sandy bare-root nurseries in Wisconsin. We hypothesized that: 1) a reduced CRF application at 60 percent of the...

  13. Cement based grouts - longevity laboratory studies: leaching behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Gray, M.; Roe, L.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a series of laboratory tests carried out to determine the possible leaching behaviour of cement-based grouts in repository environments. A reference high-performance cement-based grout, comprised of Canadian Type 50 (U.S. Type V) Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement, silica fume, potable water and superplasticizer, and a commercially available cement grout were subjected to leaching in distilled water and three simulated groundwaters of different ionic strength. Hardened, monolithic specimens of the grout were leached in static, pulsed-flow and continuous flow conditions at temperatures from 10 degrees C to 150 degrees C for periods of up to 56 days. The changes in concentration of ions in the leachants with time were determined and the changes in the morphology of the surfaces of the grout specimens were examined using electron microscopy. After a review of possible mechanisms of degradation of cement-based materials, the data from these experiments are presented. The data show that the grouts will leach when in contact with water through dissolution of more soluble phases. Comparison of the leaching performance of the two grouts indicates that, while there are some minor differences, they behaved quite similarly. The rate of the leaching processes were found to tend to decrease with time and to be accompanied by precipitation and/or growth of an assemblage of secondary alteration phases (i.e., CaCO 3 , Mg(OH) 2 ). The mechanisms of leaching depended on the environmental conditions of temperature, groundwater composition and water flow rate. Matrix dissolution occurred. However, in many of the tests leaching was shown to be limited by the precipitated/reaction layers which acted as protective surface coatings. (37 refs.) (au)

  14. Life cycle assessment and residue leaching: The importance of parameter, scenario and leaching data selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegrini, E., E-mail: elia@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Butera, S. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Kosson, D.S. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Box 1831 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Van Zomeren, A. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Department of Environmental Risk Assessment, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Van der Sloot, H.A. [Hans van der Sloot Consultancy, Dorpsstraat 216, 1721 BV Langedijk (Netherlands); Astrup, T.F. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Relevance of metal leaching in waste management system LCAs was assessed. • Toxic impacts from leaching could not be disregarded. • Uncertainty of toxicity, due to background activities, determines LCA outcomes. • Parameters such as pH and L/S affect LCA results. • Data modelling consistency and coverage within an LCA are crucial. - Abstract: Residues from industrial processes and waste management systems (WMSs) have been increasingly reutilised, leading to landfilling rate reductions and the optimisation of mineral resource utilisation in society. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic methodology allowing for the analysis of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens, due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system boundaries. The importance of data quality and parameter selection in the overall LCA results was evaluated, and an innovative method to assess metal transport into the environment was applied, in order to determine emissions to the soil and water compartments for use in an LCA. It was found that toxic impacts as a result of leaching were dominant in systems including only MSWI BA utilisation, while leaching appeared negligible in larger scenarios including the entire waste system. However, leaching could not be disregarded a priori, due to large uncertainties characterising other activities in the scenario (e.g. electricity production). Based on the analysis of relevant parameters relative to leaching, and on general results

  15. Using microbiological leaching method to remove heavy metals from sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuyu Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial leaching is one of the most effective methods to remove heavy metals from sludge. In the conducted researches, the sludge samples were processed with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans obtained via cultivation, extraction and purification processes. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were leached from sludge by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans within different substrate concentration and pH value conditions. It is defined that from the point of view of economy and efficiency the optimal concentration of FeSO4.7H2O and sulfur for bio-leaching process was 0.2 g. The leaching rates of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni of the same concentration were 74.72%, 81.54%, 70.46% and 77.35% respectively. However, no significant differences depending on the pH value among the leaching rates were defined, even for the pH value of 1.5. Along with the removal of heavy metals from sludge, the organic matter, N, P, K were also leached to some extent. The losing rate of phosphorus was the highest and reached 38.44%. However, the content of organic matter, N, P, K in the processed sludge were higher in comparison with level I of the National Soil Quality Standards of China. Ecological risk of heavy metals in sludge before and after leaching was assessed by Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and comprehensive potential risk (RI. The results of research defined that the content of heavy metals in sludge meets the level of low ecological risk after leaching and their contents is lower in comparison with the National Agricultural Sludge Standard of China. Sludge leached by biological methods is possible to use for treatment for increasing soil fertility.

  16. Salt as a mitigation option for decreasing nitrogen leaching losses from grazed pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgard, Stewart F; Welten, Brendon; Betteridge, Keith

    2015-12-01

    The main source of nitrogen (N) leaching from grazed pastures is animal urine with a high N deposition rate (i.e. per urine patch), particularly between late summer and early winter. Salt is a potential mitigation option as a diuretic to induce greater drinking-water intake, increase urination frequency, decrease urine N concentration and urine N deposition rate, and thereby potentially decrease N leaching. This hypothesis was tested in three phases: a cattle metabolism stall study to examine effects of salt supplementation rate on water consumption, urination frequency and urine N concentration; a grazing trial to assess effects of salt (150 g per heifer per day) on urination frequency; and a lysimeter study on effects of urine N rate on N leaching. Salt supplementation increased cattle water intake. Urination frequency increased by up to 69%, with a similar decrease in urine N deposition rate and no change in individual urination volume. Under field grazing, sensors showed increased urination frequency by 17%. Lysimeter studies showed a proportionally greater decrease in N leaching with decreased urine N rate. Modelling revealed that this could decrease per-hectare N leaching by 10-22%. Salt supplementation increases cattle water intake and urination frequency, resulting in a lower urine N deposition rate and proportionally greater decrease in urine N leaching. Strategic salt supplementation in autumn/early winter with feed is a practical mitigation option to decrease N leaching in grazed pastures. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Leach testing of waste forms: interrelationship of ISO and MCC type tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    Leach testing experiments were conducted on SYNROC-D material to examine the parameters which affect leaching results and to measure the activation energy for leaching of elements from SYNROC-D. Measured leach rates were found to be controlled by precipitation of insoluble phases for those tests where the sample surface area to volume of leachant (SA/V) multiplied by leaching time (t) exceeded 0.3 cm -1 d for leach tests at 90 0 C. In these cases the apparent activation energy for leaching was approximately 10 kcal/mole based on Na and Si data. For leach tests at 90 0 C with (Sa/V)(t) less than 0.2 cm -1 d, the activation energy for Na and Si dissolution was 18.5 kcal/mole for sample S29 and 14.5 kcal/mole for sample LSO4. The effect of sample geometry was investigated by leaching a series of crushed samples of different grain size. The results support the view that geometric surface area should be used in leach rate calculations rather than gas adsorption BET surface area. Comparison of results on S29 leaching of crushed samples and monoliths show that data from MCC-1 and ISO type leach tests may be directly compared when the data are examined at constant (SA/V)(t). 5 figures, 13 tables

  18. Leaching of radioactive nuclides from cement grouts. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, W.T.; Avgerinos, G.F.; Gonzalez, B.; Hemley, P.J.

    1974-01-01

    The determination of the leaching rate of radioactive 137 Cs from a cement grout should the grout be contacted by water is necessary for environmental protection. The effect of the leachant turnover rate on 137 Cs leaching rates was evaluated with batch and continuous (modified Soxhlet extractor) modes of experimentation. Three additives (Grundite, potter's clay, and Conasauga shale) were compared in terms of capability of radioactive isotope retention, while two leachants (tap and distilled water) were investigated. The Soxhlet extractor experiment resulted in the highest rate of leaching, and Conasauga shale was found the best additive for 137 Cs immobilization. Tap water used as leachant was more effective than distilled water. Data were analyzed using models involving isotopic diffusion in the grout and involving diffusion plus a time dependent boundary condition at the interface of grout specimen and leachant

  19. Life cycle assessment and residue leaching: the importance of parameter, scenario and leaching data selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, E; Butera, S; Kosson, D S; Van Zomeren, A; Van der Sloot, H A; Astrup, T F

    2015-04-01

    Residues from industrial processes and waste management systems (WMSs) have been increasingly reutilised, leading to landfilling rate reductions and the optimisation of mineral resource utilisation in society. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic methodology allowing for the analysis of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens, due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system boundaries. The importance of data quality and parameter selection in the overall LCA results was evaluated, and an innovative method to assess metal transport into the environment was applied, in order to determine emissions to the soil and water compartments for use in an LCA. It was found that toxic impacts as a result of leaching were dominant in systems including only MSWI BA utilisation, while leaching appeared negligible in larger scenarios including the entire waste system. However, leaching could not be disregarded a priori, due to large uncertainties characterising other activities in the scenario (e.g. electricity production). Based on the analysis of relevant parameters relative to leaching, and on general results of the study, recommendations are provided regarding the use of leaching data in LCA studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of hydrated Portland cement composition in regard to leaching resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, van R.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper addresses cement compositions that have an optimal resistance against acid attack and hence, low leaching rates and optimal waste containment. To this end a shrinking core leaching model is used that describes the leaching of metals from a cement sample. This process is directly

  1. LEACH-A: An Adaptive Method for Improving LEACH Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy has become one of the most important constraints on wireless sensor networks. Hence, many researchers in this field focus on how to design a routing protocol to prolong the lifetime of the network. The classical hierarchical protocols such as LEACH and LEACH-C have better performance in saving the energy consumption. However, the choosing strategy only based on the largest residue energy or shortest distance will still consume more energy. In this paper an adaptive routing protocol named “LEACH-A” which has an energy threshold E0 is proposed. If there are cluster nodes whose residual energy are greater than E0, the node of largest residual energy is selected to communicated with the base station; When all the cluster nodes energy are less than E0, the node nearest to the base station is select to communication with the base station. Simulations show that our improved protocol LEACH-A performs better than the LEACH and the LEACH-C.

  2. Modelling inorganic and organic biocide leaching from CBA-amine (Copper–Boron–Azole) treated wood based on characterisation leaching tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupsea, Maria [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F–31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, DEE/Environment and Life Cycle Engineering Team, 24 Rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Tiruta-Barna, Ligia, E-mail: ligia.barna@insa-toulouse.fr [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F–31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Schiopu, Nicoleta [Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, DEE/Environment and Life Cycle Engineering Team, 24 Rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Schoknecht, Ute [BAM — Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 4.1, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Numerical simulation of the leaching behaviour of treated wood is the most pertinent and less expensive method for the prediction of biocides' release in water. Few studies based on mechanistic leaching models have been carried out so far. In this work, a coupled chemistry-mass transport model is developed for simulating the leaching behaviour of inorganic (Cu, B) and organic (Tebuconazole) biocides from CBA-amine treated wood. The model is based on experimental investigations (lab-scale leaching tests coupled with chemical and structural analysis). It considers biocides' interactions with wood solid components and with extractives (literature confirmed reactions), as well as transport mechanisms (diffusion, convection) in different compartments. Simulation results helped at identifying the main fixation mechanisms, like (i) direct complexation of Cu by wood-phenolic and -carboxylic sites (and not via monoethanolamine; complex) on lignin and hemicellulose and strong dependence on extractives' nature, (ii) pH dependent binding of tebuconazole on polarized -OH moieties on wood. The role of monoethanolamine is to provide a pore-solution pH of about 7.5, when copper solubility is found to be weakest. The capability of the developed model to simulate the chemical and transport behaviour is the main result of this study. Moreover, it proved that characterization leaching tests (pH dependency and dynamic tests), combined with appropriate analytical methods are useful experimental tools. Due to its flexibility for representing and simulating various leaching conditions, chemical-transport model developed could be used to further simulate the leaching behaviour of CBA treated wood at larger scales. - Highlights: • Biocide and extractives leaching from ammonia-CBA treated wood were modelled. • The chemical-transport model identifies the main fixation/solubilisation mechanisms. • The model describes well the results of equilibrium and dynamic leaching

  3. Large Scale Leach Test Facility: Development of equipment and methods, and comparison to MCC-1 leach tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellarin, D.J.; Bickford, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the test equipment and methods, and documents the results of the first large-scale MCC-1 experiments in the Large Scale Leach Test Facility (LSLTF). Two experiments were performed using 1-ft-long samples sectioned from the middle of canister MS-11. The leachant used in the experiments was ultrapure deionized water - an aggressive and well characterized leachant providing high sensitivity for liquid sample analyses. All the original test plan objectives have been successfully met. Equipment and procedures have been developed for large-sample-size leach testing. The statistical reliability of the method has been determined, and ''bench mark'' data developed to relate small scale leach testing to full size waste forms. The facility is unique, and provides sampling reliability and flexibility not possible in smaller laboratory scale tests. Future use of this facility should simplify and accelerate the development of leaching models and repository specific data. The factor of less than 3 for leachability, corresponding to a 200,000/1 increase in sample volume, enhances the credibility of small scale test data which precedes this work, and supports the ability of the DWPF waste form to meet repository criteria

  4. Some factors affecting agitation leach test during in-situ leaching of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Wensheng; Jiang Yan; Wang Limin; Shi Zhenfeng; Zhao Qiaofu; MARMAR

    2014-01-01

    The agitation leaching test is one of the most fundamental research works in in-situ leaching of uranium. Some factors affecting the test results were analyzed including stirring, leaching time, oxidizer used in alkaline leach, washing solution, the amount and size of ore samples. The results indicate that stirring can enhance diffusion velocity. The leach time l or 2 days is suitable for the samples containing accessible uranium and low acid consumption minerals; whereas 3 or 4 days for those containing refractory ore to leach and slowly acid consuming minerals. For the oxidizer used in alkaline leach, potassium permanganate is better than hydrogen peroxide. Recovery calculated by the leach solution can be directly obtained by its uranium level and the original volume of lixiviant without analyzing and calculating the washing solution. The appropriate amount and size of ore samples for the agitation leaching test are 60 g and <1 mm. By controlling the above factors, the agitation leach test can improve the applicability of the different ore samples and give the more reliable data. (authors)

  5. Comparative Study on the Leaching Characteristics of Industrial Sludge and Fly Ash using KSLP and TCLP Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.K.; Hwang, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Leaching characteristics of industrial sludge and fly ash using Korean Standard Leaching Procedure (KSLP) and Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) were studied. Possibilities of re-adsorption of heavy metal ions on the surface of sludge and ash during the course of leaching were also investigated. KSLP looked relatively more aggressive than the TCLP in leaching heavy metal ions. Concentrations of metal ions leached in both the methods, however, were found very low in comparison to the concentration of ions present in the original samples. In case of sludge, heavy metal ions showed relatively high rate of leaching at fourth and fifth stages of sequential extraction while ash showed high rate of leaching at the first three stages of extraction. Some of the concentrations of heavy metal ions leached out in the tests also found to be adsorbed on the surface of sludge and ash. Heavy metal ions present in high concentrations in the sample showed lower rate of adsorption than their leaching rate. No distinct difference in the results of KSLP and TCLP was observed. However, variations in the leaching results could be due to the different nature of hazardous waste and leaching conditions. More information like kinetics of leaching, mineralogical characteristics of waste and site characteristics of landfill were required to predict more accurate leaching behavior of ions in natural conditions. (author)

  6. Commercial test on uranium ore percolation leaching in Fuzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Chunhui

    2002-01-01

    Commercial test on uranium ore percolation leaching was carried out according to ore characteristics of Fuzhou Uranium Mine and results from small test. Technological and economic indexes, such as leaching rate, acid consumption, leaching cycle, etc. are discussed. The general idea applying the test results to commercial production is presented, too

  7. Microbial leaching of iron from pyrite by moderate thermophile chemolithotropic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, S.; Niazi, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the bioleachability of iron from pyrite by the selected moderately thermophilic strains of acidophilic chemolithotrophic and acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria. These included Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans (chemolithotroph) and an un-identified strain of acidophilic heterotroph (code 6A1TSB) isolated from local environments. As compared to inoculated flasks, dissolution of metal (due to acid leaching) was significantly low in the un-inoculated control flasks in all the experiments in ore. A decrease in the bioleaching activity was observed at the later stages of bioleaching of metal from ore. Among the strategies adopted to enhance the metal leaching rates, a mixed consortium of the metal adapted cultures of the above-mentioned bacteria was found to exhibit the maximum metal leaching efficiency. In all the flasks where high metal leaching rates were observed, concomitantly biomass production rates were also high indicating high growth rates. It showed that the metal bioleaching capability of the bacteria was associated with their growth. Pyrite contained 42% iron. (author)

  8. Leaching of 14C and 36Cl from irradiated French graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.J.; Morgan, W.C.

    1989-08-01

    The leach rates of 14 C and 36 Cl were measured on solid cylindrical samples prepared from irradiated graphite blocks supplied by the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Static leach tests were conducted in deionized water at 20 degree C for 13 weeks. The graphite samples were completely submerged in the water, and the entire volume of water was changed and analyzed at weekly intervals for the first three weeks and biweekly thereafter. Large differences in the leach rates of both 14 C and 36 Cl were observed between samples machined from the different blocks. In general, the leach rates were much higher than those measured in an earlier study with graphite obtained from a block removed from one of the Hanford reactors. The data from this study are compared with those from the previous study using the Hanford-reactor graphite. Implications of the data from both studies regarding possible rate-limiting mechanisms are discussed. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Evaluation of gold and silver leaching from printed circuit board of cellphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petter, P M H; Veit, H M; Bernardes, A M

    2014-02-01

    Electronic waste has been increasing proportionally with the technology. So, nowadays, it is necessary to consider the useful life, recycling, and final disposal of these equipment. Metals, such as Au, Ag, Cu, Sn and Ni can be found in the printed circuit boards (PCB). According to this, the aims of this work is to characterize the PCBs of mobile phones with aqua regia; obtaining "reference" values of leaching, to gold and silver, with cyanide and nitric acid, respectively; and study the process of leaching of these metals in alternative leaching with sodium thiosulfate and ammonium thiosulfate. The metals were characterized by digesting the sample with aqua regia for 1 and 2h at 60°C and 80°C. The leaching of Au with a commercial reagent (cyanide) and the Ag with HNO3were made. The leaching of Au and Ag with alternative reagents: Na2S2O3, and (NH4)2S2O3 in 0.1M concentration with the addition of CuSO4, NH4OH, and H2O2, was also studied. The results show that the digestion with aqua regia was efficient to characterize the metals present in the PCBs of mobile phones. However, the best method to solubilize silver was by digesting the sample with nitric acid. The leaching process using sodium thiosulfate was more efficient when an additional concentration of 0.015 and 0.030 M of the CuSO4 was added. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of cropping system and rates of nitrogen in animal slurry and mineral fertilizer on nitrate leaching from a sandy loam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Hansen, Jørgen Frederik; Kjellerup, Viggo K.

    1993-01-01

    ammonium nitrate (CAN) or animal slurry according to recommended rates (1N) or 50% above recommended rates (1.5N). Compared with unfertilized crops, leaching of nitrate increased only slightly when 1N (CAN) was added. Successive annual additions of 1.5N (CAN) or IN and 1.5N (animal slurry) caused...

  11. Characterization of leached phosphorus from soil, manure, and manure-amended soil by physical and chemical fractionation and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia Andersen; Donner, Erica; Magid, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We are challenged to date to fully understand mechanisms controlling phosphorus (P) mobilization in soil. In this study we evaluated physical properties, chemical reactivity, and potential bioavailability of P mobilized in soil during a leaching event and examined how the amounts and properties...... with manure. Manure particles themselves were also largely retained by the soil. Combined physical (centrifugation) and chemical (molybdate reactiveness) fractionation of leached P showed that leachates in the manure treated soils were dominated by dissolved unreactive P (DUP), mainly originating from manure...... of leached P were influenced by surface application of cattle manure. Leaching experiments on manure itself, and on intact soil columns (14.1 cm inner dia., 25 cm height) before and after manure application, were carried out at an irrigation rate of 1 mm h−1 for 48 h. High concentrations of dissolved...

  12. Hydrodynamics and mass transfer in trickle leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Suoqing; Xiang Qinfang; Guo Jianzheng

    1995-01-01

    The initial research results of the hydrodynamic behavior and mass transfer of the trickle leaching process are summarized. It was shown that the dropping mode, the height of uranium ore heap and the flow rate of the dropping fluid affect the mass transfer of the trickle leaching process. Based on the concept of the keeping form of liquid in ore particle bed and the diffusion in porous medium, a mass transfer pattern, i.e. 'double-membrane transfer process' controlled by porous diffusion, was presented and proved for trickle leaching process

  13. Bacterial leaching of uranium ores - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowson, R.T.

    1975-11-01

    The bacterial leaching of uranium ores involves the bacterially catalysed oxidation of associated pyrite to sulphuric acid and Fe 3+ by autotrophic bacteria and the leaching of the uranium by the resulting acidic, oxidising solution. Industrial application has been limited to Thiobacillus thiooxidans and Thiobacillus ferrooxidans at pH 2 to 3, and examples of these are described. The bacterial catalysis can be improved with nutrients or prevented with poisons. The kinetics of leaching are controlled by the bed depth, particle size, percolation rate, mineralogy and temperature. Current work is aimed at quantitatively defining the parameters controlling the kinetics and extending the method to alkaline conditions with other autotrophic bacteria. (author)

  14. The use of biochar to reduce nitrogen and potassium leaching from soil cultivated with maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient leaching is often a problem especially in tropical areas with soil fertility constraints. This study aims to reveal the effect of biochars on leaching and uptake of nitrogen and potassium from degraded soils cultivated with maize. Each of three types of biochar originated from rice husk, wood, and coconut shell, was applied to the soil placed in PVC tube at four rates (0, 15, 30, and 45 t/ha. Maize was then planted in each pot. All pots received urea (135 kg N/ha, SP36 (36 kg P2O5/ha, and KCl (110 kg K2O/ha. Twelve treatments (three biochars and four application rates were arranged in a factorial randomized block design with three replicates. Results of the study showed interaction effects of biochar materials and biochar rates on nitrate leaching (except on day 1 to 30 and potassium, N uptake, and plant growth. On day 1-30, leaching of nitrate and potassium was reduced by biochar application. The lowest nitrate leaching was observed at rate of 45 t /ha of wood biochar, while application of 45 t coconut shell biochar / ha resulted in the highest K leaching. Beside, wood biochar resulted in a similar nitrate leaching with that of coconut shell biochar, but nitrate leaching increased with increasing rate of rice husk biochar on day 30-60. All biochar materials yielded similar potassium leaching at all rates. Application of 45 t rice husk biochar /ha resulted in the best maize growth.

  15. Full-scale leaching study of commercial reactor waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a full-scale leaching experiment which has been conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to study the release of radionuclides from actual commercial reactor waste forms. While many studies characterizing the leaching behavior of simulated laboratory-scale waste forms have been performed, this program represents one of the first attempts in the United States to quantify activity releases for real, full-scale waste forms. 5 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  16. Gamma radiolysis and post-irradiation leaching of ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traboulsi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of the behavior under irradiation and in presence of water of Ion Exchange Resins (IER) is very necessary to predict their impact on the environment during the storage phase and in a possible deep geological disposal. The IER studied are the MB400 mixed bed resin and its 'pure' anionic and cationic components. The experimental strategy used in this work was based on the use of chemometric tools permitting to estimate the effect of the irradiation atmosphere, the dose rate, the absorbed dose and the leaching temperature. The gaseous and water-soluble radiolysis products were analyzed by gas Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Ion Chromatography (IC). The IER generated principally H 2 g, CO 2 g and amines for which quantities depended of the resin nature and the irradiation conditions. The analysis of solid irradiated resins was investigated by Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 13 C NMR) techniques. The last ones revealed structural modifications of the IER solid matrix in function of the experimental conditions. Their behavior in presence of water was studied during 143 days by characterization of the organic matter released after their post-irradiation leaching. The kinetics showed that all the water-soluble components were releasing at the first contact with water. The Total Organic Carbon (TOC) quantity released depends, according to the resin nature, either on the dose, either on the irradiation atmosphere. The dose rate has no effect on the degradation and the leaching of the MB400 resin, which behaved differently than its pure components. (author) [fr

  17. Statistical tests applied as quality control measures to leaching of nuclear waste glasses and in the evaluation of the leach vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokelund, H.; Deelstra, K.

    1988-01-01

    Simple statistical tests, such as regression analysis and analysis of variance, have been applied to data obtained from leaching experiments carried out under various conditions of time and temperature. The precision and the accuracy of the overall leaching procedure were evaluated considering the short term within laboratory effects. The data originated from determinations of the mass losses of leached glass specimens and from measurements of the electrical conductivity and the pH of the leachants. The solution conductivity correlates highly with the normalized mass loss; hence it provides a consistency check on the measurements of the latter parameter. The overall relative precision of the leaching test method was found to be 5-12%, including the effects caused by inhomogeneity of the glass specimens. The conditions for the application of the teflon inserts often used in leaching devices have been investigated; a modified cleaning procedure is proposed to ascertain the absence of systematic errors by their repeated utilization (quality control). The operational limit of 190 0 C, as specified by the Materials Characterization Center, Richland, USA was confirmed experimentally. 8 refs.; 1 figure; 8 tabs

  18. Leaching of radioactive waste forms under saturated and unsaturated flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelka, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    To predict the environmental impact of shallow land burial sites for radioactive waste, the mobilization and migration of waste nuclides must be estimated. The theoretical understanding that in potential leaching mechanisms leach-rate variations may arise from changes in both moisture content and volumetric flow rate was tested in column flow leach experiments using labeled vermiculite particles as a simulated waste form. As far as possible, conditions of flow rate and solution ion concentration were chosen to roughly approximate expected field conditions. A modified pressure-plate apparatus was developed, tested, and found suitable for the production of steady-state unsaturated conditions with leachate flow. Water content was determined using the gamma-ray attenuation method. The effects of several parameters on leaching were studied, including moisture content and pore velocity. Pore velocity effects were found to be negligible. It was found that the leach rate depends on the fraction of the exposed waste surface that is wetted and varies with the mobile water content in a non-linear fashion. The experimental results indicate that the release rate of radionuclides placed within a properly sited low-level waste disposal site may be two to three times smaller than that predicted assuming saturated conditions. This study was performed using a homogeneous fine-grained synthetic waste form, at room temperature, with a near neutral pH leachant and oxidizing conditions

  19. Study of the relation between hydrated portland cement composition and leaching resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, van R.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The present paper addresses cement compositions that have an optimal resistance against acid attack and hence, low leaching rates and optimal waste containment. To this end a shrinking core leaching model is used that describes the leaching of metals from a cement sample. This process is directly

  20. Leach tests on grouts made with actual and trace metal-spiked synthetic phosphate/sulfate waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; McLaurine, S.B.; Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1989-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments to produce empirical leach rate data for phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) grout. Effective diffusivities were measured for various radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 14 C, 129 I, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 54 Mn, and U), stable major components (NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , H 3 BO 3 , K and Na) and the trace constituents Ag, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se. Two types of leach tests were used on samples of actual PSW grout and synthetic PSW grout: the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent replacement leach test and a static leach test. Grout produced from both synthetic and real PSW showed low leach rates for the trace metal constituents and most of the waste radionuclides. Many of the spiked trace metals and radionuclides were not detected in any leachates. None of the effluents contained measurable quantities of 137 Cs, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 109 Cd, 51 Cr, 210 Pb, 203 Hg, or As. For those trace species with detectable leach rates, 125 I appeared to have the greatest leach rate, followed by 99 Tc, 75 Se, and finally U, 14 C, and 110m Ag. Leach rates for nitrate are between those for I and Tc, but there is much scatter in the nitrate data because of the very low nitrate inventory. 32 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs

  1. Reduction of metal leaching in brown coal fly ash using geopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankowski, P.; Zou, L.; Hodges, R.

    2004-01-01

    Current regulations classify fly ash as a prescribed waste and prohibit its disposal in regular landfill. Treatment of the fly ash can reduce the leach rate of metals, and allow it to be disposed in less prescribed landfill. A geopolymer matrix was investigated as a potential stabilisation method for brown coal fly ash. Precipitator fly ash was obtained from electrostatic precipitators and leached fly ash was collected from ash disposal ponds, and leaching tests were conducted on both types of geopolymer stabilised fly ashes. The ratio of fly ash to geopolymer was varied to determine the effects of different compositions on leaching rates. Fourteen metals and heavy metals were targeted during the leaching tests and the results indicate that a geopolymer is effective at reducing the leach rates of many metals from the fly ash, such as calcium, arsenic, selenium, strontium and barium. The major element leachate concentrations obtained from leached fly ash were in general lower than that of precipitator fly ash. Conversely, heavy metal leachate concentrations were lower in precipitator fly ash than leached pond fly ash. The maximum addition of fly ash to this geopolymer was found to be 60 wt% for fly ash obtained from the electrostatic precipitators and 70 wt% for fly ash obtained from ash disposal ponds. The formation of geopolymer in the presence of fly ash was studied using 29Si MAS-NMR and showed that a geopolymer matrix was formed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed the interaction of the fly ash with the geopolymer, which was related to the leachate data and also the maximum percentage fly ash addition

  2. Leach test methodology for the Waste/Rock Interactions Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.; McVay, G.L.; Coles, D.G.

    1980-05-01

    Experimental leach studies in the WRIT Program have two primary functions. The first is to determine radionuclide release from waste forms in laboratory environments which attempt to simulate repository conditions. The second is to elucidate leach mechanisms which can ultimately be incorporated into nearfield transport models. The tests have been utilized to generate rates of removal of elements from various waste forms and to provide specimens for surface analysis. Correlation between constituents released to the solution and corresponding solid state profiles is invaluable in the development of a leach mechanism. Several tests methods are employed in our studies which simulate various proposed leach incident scenarios. Static tests include low temperature (below 100 0 C) and high temperature (above 100 0 C) hydrothermal tests. These tests reproduce nonflow or low-flow repository conditions and can be used to compare materials and leach solution effects. The dynamic tests include single-pass, continuous-flow(SPCF) and solution-change (IAA)-type tests in which the leach solutions are changed at specific time intervals. These tests simulate repository conditions of higher flow rates and can also be used to compare materials and leach solution effects under dynamic conditions. The modified IAEA test is somewhat simpler to use than the one-pass flow and gives adequate results for comparative purposes. The static leach test models the condition of near-zero flow in a repository and provides information on element readsorption and solubility limits. The SPCF test is used to study the effects of flowing solutions at velocities that may be anticipated for geologic groundwaters within breached repositories. These two testing methods, coupled with the use of autoclaves, constitute the current thrust of WRIT leach testing

  3. Leaching of saltstones containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.W.; Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of fly ash were incorporated in saltstones designed for potential encapsulation of Savannah River Plant low level defense waste. These fly ashes have some cementitious properties while at the same time their presence in substitution for cement slows early hydration. Class C fly ash has a high calcium content and is considered cementitious; Class F fly ash has a low calcium content and is not classified as cementitious. Leach tests were performed and physical properties were measured for saltstones containing each class, to see the differences in the effect of the fly ashes. The four waste ions nitrate, nitrite, sodium and sulfate were shown to leach by diffusion. Effective diffusivities were determined for these ions. Data for nitrate, the most important species from the environmental point of view, are shown in Table A. Saltstones made with Class C fly ash have substantially lower leach rates than those made with Class F fly ash. The leach rates, and therefore the square roots of the effective diffusivities, have been found to be proportional to the pore surface area per unit volume (or the ratio of pore volume to pore radius), to the fraction of waste containing solution, and to the inverse of the fraction of calcium in the saltstone. Rates and diffusivities are not proportional to the water to cement ratio, because this number depends on whether the fly ash is counted as cementitious, as in Class C cement, or not cementitious, as in Class F cement. In fact the relatively small amount of calcium in Class F cement contributes to the cementitious properties overall, though not so much as Class C cement. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Leaching of concrete : the leaching process : extrapolation of deterioration : effect on the structural stability

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerlund, Göran

    2000-01-01

    The leaching process when water attacks concrete, and the effect of leaching on the strength and durability of a concrete structure, is analysed theoretically. Technique for prediction of the future leaching and structural stability is outlined. The analysis is to a certain extent supported by data from literature. The leaching process is divided in five different types: 1: Pure surface leaching 2: Surface leaching involving erosion 3: Homogeneous leaching over the entire structure 4...

  5. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J.V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing

  6. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-02-28

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

  7. Leaching of wood ash - Laboratory and field studies; Lakning av vedaska - Laboratorie- och faeltstudier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Per-Erik

    2012-02-15

    High forest production leads to diminishing amounts of base cations and micro nutrients in forest soils. This is due to uptake in, and harvest of, the trees. Losses can be compensated for by spreading stabilized wood ash on the forest ground, which means recycling of base cations and micro nutrients. Chemical composition of wood ash can easily be described by standard methods in the laboratory. However, this does not include the process of leaching in nature, such as which components and leaching rate for different compounds. During field conditions several factors are added, which are not available in the laboratory. After almost 10 years in the forest soils there still remains large quantities of the original product. Only 10-30 % of the wood ash products and 5 % of the lime product has been leached. In the laboratory study the leached amount was slightly larger, at the most 35 % for wood ash and 20 % for lime. Both studies indicate long time for weathering of the products in forest soils. Slower leaching rate from pellets of wood ash compared to leaching rate from crushed wood ash in the laboratory study is not verified by the field study. This indicates limited possibilities to control rates of leaching in the environment

  8. Leach characterization of cement encapsulated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Scheetz, B.E.; Wakeley, L.D.; Barnes, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    Matrix encapsulation of defense nuclear waste as well as intermediate-level commercial wastes within a low-temperature cementitious composite were investigated. The cements for this study included both as-received and modified calcium silicate and calcium aluminate cements. Specimens were prepared following conventional formulation techniques designed to produce dense monoliths, followed by curing at 60 0 C. An alternative preparation procedure is contrasted in which the specimens were ''warm'' pressed in a uniaxial press at 150 0 C at 50,000 psi for 0.5 h. Specimens of the waste/cement composites were leached in deionized water following three different procedures which span a wide range of temperatures and solution saturation conditions. Aluminate and compositionally adjusted silicate cements exhibited a better retentivity for Cs and Sr than did the as-received silicate cement. 15 refs

  9. Leaching of actinides and technetium from simulated high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.; Harvey, C.O.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1979-08-01

    Leach tests were conducted using a modified version of the IAEA procedure to study the behavior of glass waste-solution interactions. Release rates were determined for Tc, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, and Si in the following solutions: WIPP B salt brine, NaCl (287 g/l), NaCl (1.76 g/1), CaCl 2 (1.66 g/l), NaHCO 3 (2.52 g/l), and deionized water. The leach rates for all elements decreased an order of magnitude from their initial values during the first 20 to 30 days leaching time. The sodium bicarbonate solution produced the highest elemental release rates, while the saturated salt brine and deionized water in general gave the lowest release. Technetium has the highest initial release of all elements studied. The technetium release rates, however, decreased by over four orders of magnitude in 150 days of leaching time. In the prepared glass, technetium was phase separated, concentrating on internal pore surfaces. Neptunium, in all cases except CaCl 2 solution, shows the highest actinide release rate. In general, curium and uranium have the lowest release rates. The range of actinide release rates is from 10 -5 to 10 -8 g/cm 2 /day. 25 figures, 7 tables

  10. Uranium leaching by fungal metabolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongdong; Li Guangyue; Ding Dexin; Hu Nan

    2012-01-01

    To explore new means of bioleaching, one strain of high-yielding fungi-Aspergillus niger which could produce organic acids was separated and purified from soil samples of uranium mine. The influence of cultural temperature, initial pH value, inoculum sizes on its growth characteristics were carried out. And the tests of uranium leaching of metabolin of Aspergillus niger were operated. On these tests, the effects of metabolin of Aspergillus niger with different pH value produced in the diverse culture temperature on uranium leaching were investigated. The results show that this strain of Aspergillus niger can grow best under the following conditions: the temperature is 37℃, the initial pH value is 7.0, the inoculum sizes is 2% (the OD value of the spores solution is 0.06). The uranium extraction effects relative to the final pH value of the cultures. and the maximum leaching rates is 83.05% when the pH value is 2.3. (authors)

  11. Comprehensive evaluation on effective leaching of critical metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenfang; Liu, Chenming; Cao, Hongbin; Zheng, Xiaohong; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Haijuan; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Zhi

    2018-05-01

    Recovery of metals from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has attracted worldwide attention because of issues from both environmental impacts and resource supply. Leaching, for instance using an acidic solution, is a critical step for effective recovery of metals from spent LIBs. To achieve both high leaching efficiency and selectivity of the targeted metals, improved understanding on the interactive features of the materials and leaching solutions is highly required. However, such understanding is still limited at least caused by the variation on physiochemical properties of different leaching solutions. In this research, a comprehensive investigation and evaluation on the leaching process using acidic solutions to recycle spent LIBs is carried out. Through analyzing two important parameters, i.e. leaching speed and recovery rate of the corresponding metals, the effects of hydrogen ion concentration, acid species and concentration on these two parameters were evaluated. It was found that a leachant with organic acids may leach Co and Li from the cathode scrap and leave Al foil as metallic form with high leaching selectivity, while that with inorganic acids typically leach all metals into the solution. Inconsistency between the leaching selectivity and efficiency during spent LIBs recycling is frequently noticed. In order to achieve an optimal status with both high leaching selectivity and efficiency (especially at high solid-to-liquid ratios), it is important to manipulate the average leaching speed and recovery rate of metals to optimize the leaching conditions. Subsequently, it is found that the leaching speed is significantly dependent on the hydrogen ion concentration and the capability of releasing hydrogen ions of the acidic leachant during leaching. With this research, it is expected to improve understanding on controlling the physiochemical properties of a leaching solution and to potentially design processes for spent LIBs recycling with high industrial

  12. Urban trees reduce nutrient leaching to groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidzgorski, Daniel A; Hobbie, Sarah E

    2016-07-01

    Many urban waterways suffer from excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), feeding algal blooms, which cause lower water clarity and oxygen levels, bad odor and taste, and the loss of desirable species. Nutrient movement from land to water is likely to be influenced by urban vegetation, but there are few empirical studies addressing this. In this study, we examined whether or not urban trees can reduce nutrient leaching to groundwater, an important nutrient export pathway that has received less attention than stormwater. We characterized leaching beneath 33 trees of 14 species, and seven open turfgrass areas, across three city parks in Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA. We installed lysimeters at 60 cm depth to collect soil water approximately biweekly from July 2011 through October 2013, except during winter and drought periods, measured dissolved organic carbon (C), N, and P in soil water, and modeled water fluxes using the BROOK90 hydrologic model. We also measured soil nutrient pools (bulk C and N, KCl-extractable inorganic N, Brays-P), tree tissue nutrient concentrations (C, N, and P of green leaves, leaf litter, and roots), and canopy size parameters (leaf biomass, leaf area index) to explore correlations with nutrient leaching. Trees had similar or lower N leaching than turfgrass in 2012 but higher N leaching in 2013; trees reduced P leaching compared with turfgrass in both 2012 and 2013, with lower leaching under deciduous than evergreen trees. Scaling up our measurements to an urban subwatershed of the Mississippi River (~17 400 ha, containing ~1.5 million trees), we estimated that trees reduced P leaching to groundwater by 533 kg in 2012 (0.031 kg/ha or 3.1 kg/km 2 ) and 1201 kg in 2013 (0.069 kg/ha or 6.9 kg/km 2 ). Removing these same amounts of P using stormwater infrastructure would cost $2.2 million and $5.0 million per year (2012 and 2013 removal amounts, respectively). © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. ALUMINUM AND CHROMIUM LEACHING WORKSHOP WHITEPAPER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-01-01

    A workshop was held on January 23-24, 2007 to discuss the status of processes to leach constituents from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. The objective of the workshop was to examine the needs and requirements for the HLW flowsheet for each site, discuss the status of knowledge of the leaching processes, communicate the research plans, and identify opportunities for synergy to address knowledge gaps. The purpose of leaching of non-radioactive constituents from the sludge waste is to reduce the burden of material that must be vitrified in the HLW melter systems, resulting in reduced HLW glass waste volume, reduced disposal costs, shorter process schedules, and higher facility throughput rates. The leaching process is estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of SRS by seven years and decrease the number of HLW canisters to be disposed in the Repository by 1000 [Gillam et al., 2006]. Comparably at Hanford, the aluminum and chromium leaching processes are estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of the Waste Treatment Plant by 20 years and decrease the number of canisters to the Repository by 15,000-30,000 [Gilbert, 2007]. These leaching processes will save the Department of Energy (DOE) billions of dollars in clean up and disposal costs. The primary constituents targeted for removal by leaching are aluminum and chromium. It is desirable to have some aluminum in glass to improve its durability; however, too much aluminum can increase the sludge viscosity, glass viscosity, and reduce overall process throughput. Chromium leaching is necessary to prevent formation of crystalline compounds in the glass, but is only needed at Hanford because of differences in the sludge waste chemistry at the two sites. Improving glass formulations to increase tolerance of aluminum and chromium is another approach to decrease HLW glass volume. It is likely that an optimum condition can be found by both performing leaching and improving

  14. Leaching mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    Sufficient data are lacking to provide a basis for adequately assessing the long term leaching behavior of solidified low level radioactive waste forms in their disposal environment. Although the release of radioactivity from a waste form to an aqueous environment is recognized to be due to one or more mechanisms such as diffusion, dissolution, corrosion or ion exchange, the leaching mechanisms and the factors which control the leaching behavior of waste forms are not fully understood. This study will determine the prevailing mechanisms for a variety of selected LLW solidification agents which are being considered for use by defense and commercial generators and which will cover the broadest possible number of mechanisms. The investigation will proceed by the postulation of mathematical models representative of the prevailing mechanism(s) and the use of statistically designed experiments to test the actual leaching behavior of laborattory samples against the postulated representations. Maximum use of existing leach data in the literature will be made by incorporating literature results into a computerized data base along with the experimental results generated in this task

  15. Leaching Test Relationships, Laboratory-to-Field Comparisons and Recommendations for Leaching Evaluation using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents examples of the relationships between the results of laboratory leaching tests, as defined by the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) or analogous international test methods, and leaching of constituents from a broad range of materials under di...

  16. Leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soils: An experimental and modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.J.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we characterize the leaching of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) from eight contaminated soils over a wide range of pH (pH 0.4-12) using an original approach based on batch pH-static leaching experiments in combination with selective chemical extractions and geochemical modeling.

  17. Leaching of Conductive Species: Implications to Measurements of Electrical Resistivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spragg, R; Jones, S; Bu, Y; Lu, Y; Bentz, D; Snyder, K; Weiss, J

    2017-05-01

    Electrical tests have been used to characterize the microstructure of porous materials, the measured electrical response being determined by the contribution of the microstructure (porosity and tortuosity) and the electrical properties of the solution (conductivity of the pore solution) inside the pores of the material. This study has shown how differences in concentration between the pore solution (i.e., the solution in the pores) and the storage solution surrounding the test specimen leads to significant transport (leaching) of the conductive ionic species between the pore solution and the storage solution. Leaching influences the resistivity of the pore solution, thereby influencing electrical measurements on the bulk material from either a surface or uniaxial bulk resistance test. This paper has three main conclusions: 1.) Leaching of conductive species does occur with concentration gradients and that a diffusion based approach can be used to estimate the time scale associated with this change. 2.) Leaching of ions in the pore solution can influence resistivity measurements, and the ratio of surface to uniaxial resistivity can be used as a method to assess the presence of leaching and 3.) An estimation of the magnitude of leaching for standardized tests of cementitious materials.

  18. Characterization of pigment-leached antifouling coatings using BET surface area measurements and mercury porosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    of antifouling coating behaviour because the active binder surface area and porosity of the leached layer are substantially increased. A similar effect was not observed for a coating with a mixture of ZnO and TiO2 pigments. The two experimental methods are expected to be useful for practical analysis of leaching...

  19. Basic and Acidic Leaching of Sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L., Egan, B.Z., Beahm, E.C., Chase, C.W., Anderson, K.K.

    1997-10-01

    Bench-scale leaching tests were conducted with samples of tank waste sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology processes for use in concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volume of waste for final disposal. This paper discusses the hot cell apparatus, the characterization of the sludge, the leaching methodology, and the results obtained from a variety of basic and acidic leaching tests of samples of sludge at ambient temperature. Basic leaching tests were also conducted at 75 and 95 deg C. The major alpha-,gamma., and beta-emitting radionuclides in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm {sup 90}Sr, Pu, U, and Th. The other major metals (in addition to the U and Th) and anions were Na, Ca, Al, K, Mg, NO{sub 3}{sup -},CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, and O{sup 2-} organic carbon content was 3.0 +/- 1.0%. The pH was 13. A surprising result was that about 93% of the {sup 137}Cs in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids was bound in the solids and could not be solubilized by basic leaching at ambient temperature and 75 deg C. However, the solubility of the {sup 137}Cs was enhanced by heating the sludge to 95 deg C. In one of the tests,about 42% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed by leaching with 6.3 M NaOH at 95 deg C.Removing {sup 137}Cs from the W-25 sludge with nitric acid was a slow process. About 13% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed in 16 h with 3.0 M HNO{sub 3}. Only 22% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed in 117 h usi 6.0 M HNO{sub 3}. Successive leaching of sludge solids with 0.5 M, 3.0 M, 3.0 M; and 6.0 M HNO{sub 3} for a total mixing time of 558 h removed 84% of the {sup 137}Cs. The use of caustic leaching prior to HNO{sub 3} leaching, and the use of HF with HNO{sub 3} in acidic leaching, increased the rate of {sup 137}Cs dissolution. Gel formation proved to be one of the biggest problems associated with HNO{sub 3

  20. Basic and Acidic Leaching of Sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Beahm, E.C.; Chase, C.W.; Anderson, K.K.

    1997-10-01

    Bench-scale leaching tests were conducted with samples of tank waste sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology processes for use in concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volume of waste for final disposal. This paper discusses the hot cell apparatus, the characterization of the sludge, the leaching methodology, and the results obtained from a variety of basic and acidic leaching tests of samples of sludge at ambient temperature. Basic leaching tests were also conducted at 75 and 95 deg C. The major alpha-,gamma., and beta-emitting radionuclides in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids were 137 Cs, 60 Co, 154 Eu, 241 Am, 244 Cm 90 Sr, Pu, U, and Th. The other major metals (in addition to the U and Th) and anions were Na, Ca, Al, K, Mg, NO 3 - ,CO 3 2- , OH - , and O 2- organic carbon content was 3.0 +/- 1.0%. The pH was 13. A surprising result was that about 93% of the 137 Cs in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids was bound in the solids and could not be solubilized by basic leaching at ambient temperature and 75 deg C. However, the solubility of the 137 Cs was enhanced by heating the sludge to 95 deg C. In one of the tests,about 42% of the 137 Cs was removed by leaching with 6.3 M NaOH at 95 deg C.Removing 137 Cs from the W-25 sludge with nitric acid was a slow process. About 13% of the 137 Cs was removed in 16 h with 3.0 M HNO 3 . Only 22% of the 137 Cs was removed in 117 h usi 6.0 M HNO 3 . Successive leaching of sludge solids with 0.5 M, 3.0 M, 3.0 M; and 6.0 M HNO 3 for a total mixing time of 558 h removed 84% of the 137 Cs. The use of caustic leaching prior to HNO 3 leaching, and the use of HF with HNO 3 in acidic leaching, increased the rate of 137 Cs dissolution. Gel formation proved to be one of the biggest problems associated with HNO 3 leaching of the W-25 sludge

  1. Recovery of Iron from Pyrolusite Leaching Slag by a Lab-Scale Circulation Process of Oxalic Acid Leaching and Ultraviolet Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Deng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolusite leaching slag is a Fe-containing slag generated from pyrolusite leaching process with SO2. Recovery of iron from the slag not only has economic benefit, but also prevents the secondary pollution to the environment. A novel lab-scale cyclic process for recovering iron from pyrolusite leaching slag was introduced. The process contains two steps: (1 iron was leached with oxalic acid and [Fe(C2O4n](3−2n+ solution was generated; (2 the [Fe(C2O4n](3−2n+ solution was irradiated by ultraviolet and ferrous oxalate precipitation were obtained. The effect of operation parameter on leaching and irradiation process were studied separately. In the leaching process, the optimal solid/liquid ratio, oxalic acid concentration, leaching temperature, stirring rate, and leaching time are 1:50, 0.40 mol/L, 95 °C, 300 r/min, and 3 h, respectively. In the irradiation process, the best irradiation wavelength, Fe/oxalic acid molar ratio and irradiation time are 254 nm, 1:4, and 30 min. Besides, a test of 9 continuous cycles was carried out and the performance and material balance of the combined process were investigated. The results showed that the cyclic process is entirely feasible and prove to be stable producing, and ferrous oxalate of 99.32% purity. Material balance indicated that 95.17% of iron was recovered in the form of FeC2O4·2H2O, and the recovery efficiency of oxalic acid was 58.52%.

  2. Chapter 14: Evaluating the Leaching of Biocides from Preservative-Treated Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Leaching of biocides is an important consideration in the long term durability and any potential for environmental impact of treated wood products. This chapter discusses factors affecting biocide leaching, as well as methods of evaluating rate and quantity of biocide released. The extent of leaching is a function of preservative formulation, treatment methods, wood...

  3. Evaluation of gold and silver leaching from printed circuit board of cellphones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petter, P.M.H., E-mail: patymhp@yahoo.com.br; Veit, H.M.; Bernardes, A.M.

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Printed circuit boards (PCB) of mobile phones have large amounts of metals with high economic value such as gold and silver. • Dissolution of gold was done with a cyanide-based reagent and silver with nitric acid. • Leaching of PCB with Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} to examine the feasibility of using these reagents was done. - Abstract: Electronic waste has been increasing proportionally with the technology. So, nowadays, it is necessary to consider the useful life, recycling, and final disposal of these equipment. Metals, such as Au, Ag, Cu, Sn and Ni can be found in the printed circuit boards (PCB). According to this, the aims of this work is to characterize the PCBs of mobile phones with aqua regia; obtaining “reference” values of leaching, to gold and silver, with cyanide and nitric acid, respectively; and study the process of leaching of these metals in alternative leaching with sodium thiosulfate and ammonium thiosulfate. The metals were characterized by digesting the sample with aqua regia for 1 and 2 h at 60 °C and 80 °C. The leaching of Au with a commercial reagent (cyanide) and the Ag with HNO{sub 3}were made. The leaching of Au and Ag with alternative reagents: Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3,} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} in 0.1 M concentration with the addition of CuSO{sub 4}, NH{sub 4}OH, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, was also studied. The results show that the digestion with aqua regia was efficient to characterize the metals present in the PCBs of mobile phones. However, the best method to solubilize silver was by digesting the sample with nitric acid. The leaching process using sodium thiosulfate was more efficient when an additional concentration of 0.015 and 0.030 M of the CuSO{sub 4} was added.

  4. Evaluation of gold and silver leaching from printed circuit board of cellphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petter, P.M.H.; Veit, H.M.; Bernardes, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Printed circuit boards (PCB) of mobile phones have large amounts of metals with high economic value such as gold and silver. • Dissolution of gold was done with a cyanide-based reagent and silver with nitric acid. • Leaching of PCB with Na 2 S 2 O 3 and (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 to examine the feasibility of using these reagents was done. - Abstract: Electronic waste has been increasing proportionally with the technology. So, nowadays, it is necessary to consider the useful life, recycling, and final disposal of these equipment. Metals, such as Au, Ag, Cu, Sn and Ni can be found in the printed circuit boards (PCB). According to this, the aims of this work is to characterize the PCBs of mobile phones with aqua regia; obtaining “reference” values of leaching, to gold and silver, with cyanide and nitric acid, respectively; and study the process of leaching of these metals in alternative leaching with sodium thiosulfate and ammonium thiosulfate. The metals were characterized by digesting the sample with aqua regia for 1 and 2 h at 60 °C and 80 °C. The leaching of Au with a commercial reagent (cyanide) and the Ag with HNO 3 were made. The leaching of Au and Ag with alternative reagents: Na 2 S 2 O 3, and (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 3 in 0.1 M concentration with the addition of CuSO 4 , NH 4 OH, and H 2 O 2 , was also studied. The results show that the digestion with aqua regia was efficient to characterize the metals present in the PCBs of mobile phones. However, the best method to solubilize silver was by digesting the sample with nitric acid. The leaching process using sodium thiosulfate was more efficient when an additional concentration of 0.015 and 0.030 M of the CuSO 4 was added

  5. Comparison of ultrasound-assisted and traditional caustic leaching of spent cathode carbon (SCC) from aluminum electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Yuan, Jie; Tian, Zhongliang; Yang, Kai; Yao, Zhen; Yu, Bailie; Zhang, Liuyun

    2018-01-01

    The spent cathode carbon (SCC) from aluminum electrolysis was subjected to caustic leaching to investigate the different effects of ultrasound-assisted and traditional methods on element fluorine (F) leaching rate and leaching residue carbon content. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) dissolved in deionized water was used as the reaction system. Through single-factor experiments and a comparison of two leaching techniques, the optimum F leaching rate and residue carbon content for ultrasound-assisted leaching process were obtained at a temperature of 70°C, residue time of 40min, initial mass ratio of alkali to SCC (initial alkali-to-material ratio) of 0.6, liquid-to-solid ratio of 10mL/g, and ultrasonic power of 400W, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the leaching residue carbon content was 94.72%, 2.19% larger than the carbon content of traditional leaching residue. Leaching wastewater was treated with calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) and bleaching powder and the treated wastewater was recycled caustic solution. All in all, benefiting from advantage of the ultrasonication effects, ultrasound-assisted caustic leaching on spent cathode carbon had 55.6% shorter residue time than the traditional process with a higher impurity removal rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synergistic Effect of Nanosilica Aerogel with Phosphorus Flame Retardants on Improving Flame Retardancy and Leaching Resistance of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilica (Nano-SiO2 sol fabricated by a sol-gel process was introduced into wood modification with phosphorus flame retardants to improve the flame retardancy and leaching resistance of wood. The obtained materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, cone calorimetric (CONE, and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The residual rate of flame retardants before and after leaching was determinated by a leaching resistance. The results showed that the phosphorus flame retardants and SiO2 sol could reside in the poplar wood and are widely distributed in the vessels, pits, wood timber, and the spaces between wood cells of poplar substrate. TGA and CONE results indicated that the introduction of nano-SiO2 aerogel with phosphorus flame retardants had a significantly synergistic effect on improving the flame retardancy and inhibiting the release of smoke and toxic gases. In addition, the leaching resistance test, combined with infrared analysis and EDS analysis, confirmed that the phosphorus flame retardants were able to be fixed by SiO2 aerogel in the wood.

  7. Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2013-01-01

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel sau...

  8. Comparison of Ultrasound-Assisted and Regular Leaching of Vanadium and Chromium from Roasted High Chromium Vanadium Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Gao, Huiyang; Liu, Yajing; Zheng, Xiaole; Xue, Xiangxin

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasound-assisted leaching (UAL) was used for vanadium and chromium leaching from roasted material obtained by the calcification roasting of high-chromium-vanadium slag. UAL was compared with regular leaching. The effect of the leaching time and temperature, acid concentration, and liquid-solid ratio on the vanadium and chromium leaching behaviors was investigated. The UAL mechanism was determined from particle-size-distribution and microstructure analyses. UAL decreased the reaction time and leaching temperature significantly. Furthermore, 96.67% vanadium and less than 1% chromium were leached at 60°C for 60 min with 20% H2SO4 at a liquid-solid ratio of 8, which was higher than the maximum vanadium leaching rate of 90.89% obtained using regular leaching at 80°C for 120 min. Ultrasonic waves broke and dispersed the solid sample because of ultrasonic cavitation, which increased the contact area of the roasted sample and the leaching medium, the solid-liquid mass transfer, and the vanadium leaching rate.

  9. The Effect of Initial Irrigation Conditions on Heap Leaching Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseño Arellano, A. D.; Milczarek, M.; Yao, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.

    2017-12-01

    Heap leaching is an unsaturated flow metal recovery process, in which mined ore is irrigated with a lixiviant to dissolve metal contained in the ore. The metal is then extracted from solution. Large scale operations involve stacking ore to depths of 6 to 18 meters on pads that may be hundreds of hectares in area. Heterogeneities within the stacked ore can lead to uneven wetting and the formation of preferential flow pathways, which reduces solution contact and lowers metal recovery. Furthermore, mineral dissolution can cause alteration of the porous media structure and loss of ore permeability. Many mine operators believe that slow initial irrigation rates help minimize permeability loss and increase metal recovery rates. However, this phenomenon has not been studied in detail. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of varying initial irrigation rates on leach ore stability. These were conducted with large columns (1.5 m high, 0.5 m in diameter) packed with crushed ore samples that are known to have permeability constraints. The columns were highly instrumented to assess potential changes in material properties both spatially and temporally. Water content was measured with three different methods: capacitance soil moisture sensors placed at 20-cm intervals; a neutron probe to periodically log every 30 cm from four different directions; and electrical resistivity sensors to create a 2-dimensional tomography profile of water content over time. Tensiometers were paired with the soil moisture sensors to measure matric suction and characterize moisture retention characteristics. A non-reactive tracer was used to characterize advective-dispersive transport under unsaturated conditions. A dye solution was introduced at the end of each experiment to map preferential pathways. Continuous monitoring of settling at the surface assisted in measuring consolidation and loss in permeability.

  10. Carbonate heap leach of uranium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, W.R.; Mason, C.F.V.; Longmire, P.

    1994-01-01

    A new approach to removal of uranium from soils based on existing heap leach mining technologies proved highly effective for remediation of soils from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) near Cincinnati, Ohio. In laboratory tests, remediation of uranium-contaminated soils by heap leaching with carbonate salt solutions was demonstrated in column experiments. An understanding of the chemical processes that occur during carbonate leach of uranium from soils may lead to enhancement of uranium removal. Carbonate leaching requires the use of an integrated and closed circuit process, wherein the leach solutions are recycled and the reagents are reused, resulting in a minimum secondary waste stream. Carbonate salt leach solution has two important roles. Primarily, the formation of highly soluble anionic carbonate uranyl species, including uranyl dicarbonate (UO 2 CO 32 = ) and uranyl tricarbonate (UO 2 CO 33 4- ), allows for high concentration of uranium in a leachate solution. Secondly, carbonate salts are nearly selective for dissolution of uranium from uranium contaminated soils. Other advantages of the carbonate leaching process include (1) the high solubility, (2) the selectivity, (3) the purity of the solution produced, (4) the relative ease with which a uranium product can be precipitated directly from the leachate solution, and (5) the relatively non-corrosive and safe handling characteristics of carbonate solutions. Experiments conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated the effectiveness of carbonate leach. Efficiencies of uranium removal from the soils have been as high as 92 percent. Higher molar strength carbonate solutions (∼0.5M) proved more effective than lower molar strength solutions (∼ 0.1M). Uranium removal is also a function of lixiviant loading rate. Furthermore, agglomeration of the soils with cement resulted in less effective uranium removal

  11. To accelerate technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching for mining mineral resources of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Mei

    1999-01-01

    Recently, in situ leaching and heap leaching are the most advanced technology for mining low-grade mineral resources in the world. The author briefly expounds the basic concept and advantages of in situ leaching and heap leaching and deals with the main research content of the hydrometallurgical technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching, its development and present application at home and abroad. Having expounded the gap existing between China's technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching and the foreign technology, the author forecasts the prospects of accelerating the mining of China's mineral resources by using the technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching

  12. Effect of low dose electron beam irradiation on the alteration layer formed during nuclear glass leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mougnaud, S., E-mail: sarah.mougnaud@gmail.com [CEA Marcoule, DEN, DTCD, SECM, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Tribet, M. [CEA Marcoule, DEN, DTCD, SECM, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Renault, J.-P. [NIMBE, CNRS, CEA, Université Paris Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Jollivet, P. [CEA Marcoule, DEN, DTCD, SECM, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Panczer, G. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306, Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Charpentier, T. [NIMBE, CNRS, CEA, Université Paris Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Jégou, C. [CEA Marcoule, DEN, DTCD, SECM, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France)

    2016-12-15

    This investigation concerns borosilicate glass leaching mechanisms and the evolution of alteration layer under electron beam irradiation. A simple glass doped with rare earth elements was selected in order to access mechanistic and structural information and better evaluate the effects of irradiation. It was fully leached in initially pure water at 90 °C and at high glass surface area to solution volume ratio (S/V = 20 000 m{sup −1}) in static conditions. Under these conditions, the system quickly reaches the residual alteration rate regime. A small particle size fraction (2–5 μm) was sampled in order to obtain a fairly homogeneous altered material enabling the use of bulk characterization methods. External irradiations with 10 MeV electrons up to a dose of 10 MGy were performed either before or after leaching, to investigate respectively the effect of initial glass irradiation on its alteration behavior and the irradiation stability of the alteration layer. Glass dissolution rate was analyzed by regular leachate samplings and the alteration layer structure was characterized by Raman, luminescence (continuous or time-resolved), and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR and EPR spectroscopy. It was shown that the small initial glass evolutions under irradiation did not induce any modification of the leaching kinetic nor of the structure of the alteration layer. The alteration process seemed to “smooth over” the created defects. Otherwise, the alteration layer and initial glass appeared to have different behaviors under irradiation. No Eu{sup 3+} reduction was detected in the alteration layer after irradiation and the defect creation efficiency was much lower than for initial glass. This can possibly be explained by the protective role of pore water contained in the altered material (∼20%). Moreover, a slight depolymerization of the silicon network of the altered glass under irradiation with electrons was evidenced, whereas in the initial glass it typically

  13. Speciation analysis and leaching behaviors of selected trace elements in spent SCR catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zejun; Wang, Lele; Tang, Hao; Sun, Zhijun; Liu, Wei; Sun, Yi; Su, Sheng; Hu, Song; Wang, Yi; Xu, Kai; Liu, Liang; Ling, Peng; Xiang, Jun

    2018-09-01

    This study investigated heavy metal chemical speciation and leaching behavior from a board-type spent selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst containing high concentrations of vanadium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead. A three-step sequential extraction method, standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and leaching characteristic tests have been performed. It was found that the mobility of six heavy metals in the spent SCR catalyst was significantly different. The mobility of the six heavy metals exhibited the following order: Ni > Zn > V > Cr > As > Cu. Meanwhile, TCLP test results revealed relatively high Zn and Cr leaching rate of 83.20% and 10.35%, respectively. It was found that leaching rate was positively correlated with available contents (sum of acid soluble, reducible and oxidizable fractions). Leaching characteristics tests indicated that pH substantially affected the leaching of these heavy metals. In particular, the leaching of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn was positively influenced by strong acid, while V and As were easily released in the presence of strong acid and strong alkali (pH 11). In terms of kinetics, the leaching of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and As within the spent catalyst was dominated by erosion and dissolution processes, which were rapid reaction processes. V was released in large amounts within 1 h, but its leaching amount sharply decreased with time due to readsorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In-situ uranium leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotson, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    This invention provides a method for improving the recovery of mineral values from ore bodies subjected to in-situ leaching by controlling the flow behaviour of the leaching solution. In particular, the invention relates to an in-situ leaching operation employing a foam for mobility control of the leaching solution. A foam bank is either introduced into the ore bed or developed in-situ in the ore bed. The foam then becomes a diverting agent forcing the leaching fluid through the previously non-contacted regions of the deposit

  15. Leaching behavior of heavy metals from municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI) fly ash used in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huisheng; Kan Lili

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, surface leaching toxicity and successive leaching concentration of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash-cement hardened pastes were studied. And, the relationships between leaching concentrations of heavy metals and leaching time were also discussed. Experimental results showed that immobilization effect of cement on MSWI fly ash is good. Even if MSWI fly ash-cement hardened pastes were damaged, the leaching toxicity is still in a safety range. In early leaching stage, the surface leaching rate is relatively a little high, up to 10 -5 -10 -4 cm d -1 order of magnitude, in the later time of leaching, its rate rapidly declined, down to 10 -7 . Most of leached heavy metals are produced at early ages. The leaching concentration of heavy metals and leaching time has strong positive relationships. In factual utilizing circumstances, heavy metals' leaching from MSWI fly ash-cement hardened pastes is a very slow and gradually diluting process. The leaching toxicity of heavy metals is far lower than that of the National Standard of China, and minimum harmful matters can be contained and released in the environment. Reusing of MSWI fly ash as partial replacement for cement in concrete mixes is potentially feasible.

  16. Study on Leaching of Hexavalent Chromium from Hardened Concretes Using Tank Leaching Test

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Shigeru; Sakai, Etsuo; Sugiyama, Takafumi

    2007-01-01

    Tank leaching tests were carried out to investigate the behavior of leaching trace elements from monolith samples. This study consists of two series, and the trace element used was hexavalent chromium. In Series I, the influence of the leachant/surface area of the specimen (L/S ratio) on the leaching amount was investigated. The leaching amount was found to increase with the amount of worked water. This shows that any L/S ratio can be selected in the tank leaching test. In Series II, th...

  17. Characterizing the release of different composition of dissolved organic matter in soil under acid rain leaching using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Song, Cunyi; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng

    2009-09-01

    Although excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM), there has no report that EEMS has been used to study the effects of acid rain on DOM and its composition in soil. In this work, we employed three-dimensional EEMS to characterize the compositions of DOM leached by simulated acid rain from red soil. The red soil was subjected to leaching of simulated acid rain of different acidity, and the leached DOM presented five main peaks in its EEMS: peak-A, related to humic acid-like (HA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 310-330/395-420nm; peak-B, related to UV fulvic acid-like (FA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 230-280/400-435nm; peak-C and peak-D, both related to microbial byproduct-like material, at Ex/Em of 250-280/335-355nm and 260-280/290-320nm, respectively; and peak-E, related to simple aromatic proteins, at Ex/Em of 210-240/290-340nm. EEMS analysis results indicated that most DOM could be lost from red soil in the early phase of acid rain leaching. In addition to the effects of the pH of acid rain, the loss of DOM also depended on the properties of its compositions and the solubility of their complexes with aluminum. HA-like and microbial byproduct-like materials could be more easily released from red soil by acid rain at both higher pH (4.5 and 5.6) and lower pH (2.5 and 3) than that at middle pH (3.5). On the contrary, FA-like material lost in a similar manner under the action of different acid rains with pH ranging from 2.5 to 5.6.

  18. Optimization of the factors that accelerate leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1989-03-01

    The prediction of long-term leachability of low-level radioactive waste forms is an essential element of disposal-site performance assessment. This report describes experiments and modeling techniques used to develop an accelerated leach test that meets this need. The acceleration in leaching rates caused by the combinations of two or more factors were experimentally determined. These factors were identified earlier as being able to individually accelerate leaching. They are: elevated temperature, the size of the waste form, the ratio of the volume of leachant to the surface area of the waste form, and the frequency of replacement of the leachant. The solidification agents employed were ones that are currently used to treat low-level radioactive wastes, namely portland type I cement, bitumen, and vinyl ester-styrene. The simulated wastes, sodium sulfate, sodium tetraborate, and incinerator ash, are simplified representatives of typical low-level waste streams. Experiments determined the leaching behavior of the radionuclides of cesium (Cs-137), strontium (Sr-85), and cobalt (Co-60 or Co-57) from several different formulations of solidification agents and waste types. Leaching results were based upon radiochemical and elemental analyses of aliquots of the leachate, and on its total alkalinity and pH at various times during the experiment (up to 120 days). Solid phase analyses were carried out by Scanning/Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy on the waste forms before and after some leaching experiments. 43 refs., 96 figs., 16 tabs

  19. Leaching behavior of various low-level waste solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akihiko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Matsuzuru, Hideo; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with the leaching of radioactive nuclides from low-level wastes solidified with cement, bitumen or plastics. Considerations are made on the effects of type of solidification matrix and waste; type, amount and exchange frequency of leachate; type and conditions of embedding soil; temperature and pressure; and secular deterioration. It is assumed that a waste composite is entirely immersed in leachate and that the amount of the leachate is large compared to the surface area of the waste. Cement solid is characterized by its high alkalinity and porosity while plastic and bitumen solids are dense and neutral. The content of waste in a composite is low for cement and high for plastics. It is generally high in bitumen solid though it should be reduced if the solid is likely to bulge. The leaching of 137 Cs from cement solid is slightly dependent on the waste-cement ratio while it increases with increasing waste content in the case of plastic or bitumen solid. For 60 Co, the leaching from cement solid depends on the alkalinity of the cement material used though it is not affected by the waste-cement ratio. In the case of plastics and bitumen, on the other hand, the pH value of the waste have some effects on the leaching of 60 Co; the leaching decreases with increasing pH. (Nogami, K.)

  20. Mathematical modelling in leaching studies of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Pavlovic, R.; Pavlovic, S.

    2001-01-01

    Transport phenomena involved in the leaching of a radioactive material from a composite matrix into surrounding water are investigated using three methods based on theoretical equations. These arc: diffusion equation derived for a plane source model, rate equation for diffusion coupled with a first-order reaction and an empirical method employing a polynomial equation. The obtained results are compared with respect to their applicability to the 60 Co and 137 Cs leaching data. (author)

  1. Organic reductants based leaching: A sustainable process for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangping; Guo, Chunxiu; Ma, Hongrui; Li, Jiazhu; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Ling; Kang, Duozhi

    2018-05-01

    It is significant to recover metal values from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for the alleviation or prevention of potential risks towards environmental pollution and public health, as well as for the conservation of valuable metals. Herein a hydrometallurgical process was proposed to explore the possibility for the leaching of different metals from waste cathodic materials (LiCoO 2 ) of spent LIBs using organics as reductant in sulfuric acid medium. According to the leaching results, about 98% Co and 96% Li can be leached under the optimal experimental conditions of reaction temperature - 95 °C, reaction time - 120 min, reductive agent dosage - 0.4 g/g, slurry density - 25 g/L, concentration of sulfuric acid-3 mol/L in H 2 SO 4  + glucose leaching system. Similar results (96% Co and 100% Li) can be obtained in H 2 SO 4  + sucrose leaching system under optimized leaching conditions. Despite a complete leaching of Li (∼100%), only 54% Co can be dissolved in the H 2 SO 4  + cellulose leaching system under optimized leaching conditions. Finally, different characterization methods, including UV-Vis, FT-IR, SEM and XRD, were employed for the tentative exploration of reductive leaching reactions using organic as reductant in sulfuric acid medium. All the leaching and characterization results confirm that both glucose and sucrose are effective reductants during leaching, while cellulose should be further degraded to organics with low molecular weights to achieve a satisfactory leaching performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Leaching behavior of some radionuclides from cement matrix incorporating exhausted polymeric resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Mesalam, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Exhausted poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid) impregnated with zirconium phosphate {P(AM-AA)-ZrP} produced from the treatment process of radioactive liquid waste was incorporated in different types of cement to prevent widespreading of radionuclides into the human environment. The rates at which 60 Co, 65 Zn and 152,154 Eu are leached from Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Blast Furnace Slag Cement (BFSC) were measured. From the leaching data the leach coefficients of 60 Co, 65 Zn and 152,154 Eu were determined and were found to vary between 1.62 x 10 -8 to 7.06 x 10 -10 cm 2 /day and 1.01 x 10 -8 to 8.93 x 10 -9 cm 2 /day in OPC and BFSC, respectively. In general, the radionuclide leaching rates followed the order: 152,154 Eu > 65 Zn > 60 Co. The leach coefficient was found to be dependent on the composition of the leachants and varied in the order: distilled water > ground water > synthetic sea water. The effect of NaNo 3 concentration in the wastes on the leach coefficient of 60 Co from OPC was also studied. (author)

  3. Commercial experimental on bacteria heap leaching of uranium ore from Caotaobei mining area in Ganzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Baotuan; Meng Yunsheng; Liu Jian; Xiao Jinfeng; Chen Sencai; Cao Jianbo; Wu Yichang; Liu Chengwu

    2002-01-01

    The author presents the result of commercial experiment on bacteria heap leaching of uranium ore from Caotaobei mining area in Ganzhou Uranium Mine and summarizes the heap situation, installation of spraying and sprinkling devices, and operation management of continuous oxidizing tank of bio-membrane. The leaching rate is 92.95% and 91.88% respectively by liquid and residue measurement during 85 d bacterial leaching experiment. The acid consumption is 2.1% and the total liquid-solid ratio is 2.9 m 3 /t. Compared with conventional heap leaching, the time of bacteria heap leaching shorted about 75 d, the acid consumption reduced by 0.35% and the leaching rate improved by 2%. It is an optimize plan to reform the heap leaching technology for Caotaobei ore

  4. Copper recovery from slag by indirect bio leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazuelos, A.; Iglesias, N.; Romero, R.; Forcat, O.; Carranza, F.

    2009-01-01

    The main source of copper loss from a smelter is copper in discard slag. Slag can contain Cu in concentrations very much higher than those of many ores. Cu is present in slag entrained in very small drops of matte, white metal and blister copper occluded in fayalitic phase. In this work, the technical viability of the BRISA process, that is based on the indirect bio leaching, for this residue has been proved. A sample of slag, containing 2 % of copper, has been chemical, granulometric and metallographic characterized and it has been leached with ferric sulphate solutions in agitated reactors. The influence of several variables have been investigated. Once the best operating conditions had been selecting and an economic estimation had been done (with very really attractive results), the leaching stage has been designed for a plant of 30 tonnes per hour capacity. Cu extractions higher than 70% can be achieved with a residence time of only five hours. Despite of Cu(II) concentration in fed is as high as 30 g/l, bio oxidation stage can supply Fe(III) demanded by ferric leaching stage. (Author) 17 refs

  5. Leach and EP [extraction procedure] toxicity tests on grouted waste from Tank 106-AN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Lokken, R.O.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting laboratory experiments to produce leach rate data for various waste species that will be contained in grout at Hanford. In the work reported here, grout made from Tank 106-AN liquid waste was used to produce empirical leach rate data for several radionuclides ( 60 Co, 90 Sr, 99Tc, 129I, 137Cs, and 241 Am), stable major components (NO 3 - , NO 2 - , F, Cl, and Na), and trace metals (Cr, Mo, and Ni). Two types of tests were used to produce leach rate data: an intermittent replacement leach test (ANS 16.1 leach test) and a static leach test. Measured effective diffusivities of key species are as follows: 4 to 6 x 10 -8 cm 2 /sec for 99 Tc, 3 to 7 x 10 -8 cm 2 /sec for 129 I, 4 to 6 x 10 -9 cm 2 /sec for nitrate, and 6 to 7 x 10 -9 cm 2 /sec for nitrite. The leach indices of all species studied are above (more favorable than) the waste form criteria. The leach indices for 99 Tc and 129 I are 7.4 ± 1.2 and 7.6 ± 0.4, respectively, and are being further investigated in continuing studies of double-shell slurry feed grouts. An Extraction Procedure (EP) toxicity test was also conducted and the grouted water is considered nontoxic per this test protocol. 19 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs

  6. Accelerated leach test development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Heiser, J.; Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

    1990-11-01

    In FY 1989, a draft accelerated leach test for solidified waste was written. Combined test conditions that accelerate leaching were validated through experimental and modeling efforts. A computer program was developed that calculates test results and models leaching mechanisms. This program allows the user to determine if diffusion controls leaching and, if this is the case, to make projections of releases. Leaching mechanisms other than diffusion (diffusion plus source term partitioning and solubility limited leaching) are included in the program is indicators of other processes that may control leaching. Leach test data are presented and modeling results are discussed for laboratory scale waste forms composed of portland cement containing sodium sulfate salt, portland cement containing incinerator ash, and vinyl ester-styrene containing sodium sulfate. 16 refs., 38 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Studying the iodine leaching from the compositions based on epoxide resin and lead iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, N.N.; Elizarova, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    When studying iodine leaching, the possibility to use solid compositions, produced by incorporation of dry powdered lead iodide and its aqueous suspension into epoxide resin for long-term immobilization of iodine-129 under conditions of monitored storage, is evaluated. Analysis of the results obtained has shown that leaching rate in the first 4 days has the maximum value and constitutes (4.2 - 2700.0) x 10 -6 cm/day. Then the process of leaching is determined by diffusion mechanism. For samples, prepared by wet lead iodide incorporation the rate of leaching is higher than that of the corresponding samples prepared by dry compound incorporation

  8. Heap leaching for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Denison Mines Ltd. is using two bacterial leaching processes to combat the high cost of extracting uranium from low grade ore in thin reefs. Both processes use thiobacillus ferro-oxidans, a bacterium that employs the oxidation of ferrous iron and sulphur as its source of energy for growth. The first method is flood leaching, in which ore is subjected to successive flood, drain and rest cycles. The second, trickle leaching, uses sprinklers to douse the broken muck continuously with leaching solution. In areas where grades are too low to justify the expense of hauling the ore to the surface, the company is using this biological process underground to recover uranium. In 1987 Denison recovered 840 000 lb of uranium through bacterial heap leaching. It plans to have biological in-place leaching contribute 25% of the total uranium production by 1990. (fig.)

  9. Present and future: heap leaching of uranium ore in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    Based on small and disperse uranium deposits, and low grade ores, heap leaching has been developed as the dominating technique in the uranium production of China. It is indicated that heap leaching technique has such advantages as less capital, low cost, low power consumption and water consumption. At the meanwhile, heap leaching technique presents shortcomings of poor adaptability and low recovery rate. In order to meet the oncoming enormous demand of nuclear power, great effort shall be put on research of new technology, new equipment, new material. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of glass leaching as nutrient source for microalgae growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabska, N.; Tamayo, A.; Mazo, M. A.; Pascual, L.; Rubio, J.

    2015-01-01

    Three glasses with an elemental composition similar to the nutrient ratio required for Spirulina platensis growth and with different SiO 2 content have been prepared. The glasses were crushed and sieved into 2 different fractions and the effect of the particle size has been studied in terms of the leaching kinetics of each element. The chemical analysis of the leaching water was used for obtaining the dissolution rate curves for each element taking part of the glass composition. From the calculation of the leaching rate constant and the exponential constant of the lixiviation reaction, it has been evaluated the Spirulina platensis growth in ambient normal conditions of light, temperature and pH of the growing media. It has been concluded that, either from the modification of the chemical composition of the glass or its particle size, it is possible to tune the delivery of the nutrients to match the growth rate of Spirulina platensis. (Author)

  11. Process for the in-situ leaching of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, E.T.; Vogt, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    Process for the in-situ leaching of uranium employing an alkaline lixiviant and an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent. The use of the hypochlorite oxidant results in significantly higher uranium recoveries and leaching rates than those attained by the use of conventional oxidants. The invention is particularly suitable for use in subterranean deposits in which the uranium mineral is associated with carbonaceous material which retards access to the uranium by the lixiviant

  12. Intercomparison of leach-testing methods and the effects of waste-form composition on test type and duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, K.B.; Jensen, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Several leach-testing methods were evaluated for their relevance as scoping tests appropriate to proposed Canadian conditions for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste, and a static, terminated leach test was chosen. For a particular glass composition, methods in which the leachant was replenished gave apparent leach rates up to ten times less than did the static test. Under static leaching conditions, the leach rate of a number of sodium borosilicate glasses was observed to first rise and then fall with leaching time. This behavior is explained in terms of a pH change in the leachant, which is itself a function of the glass composition. The implications of these observations on glass compositions and on leach-testing methods that are relevant to the needs of final disposal are briefly discussed

  13. Renewal of corrosion progress after long-term leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, I.

    1997-01-01

    Over the past 18 years a large inventory of glasses which have undergone leach testing has been built up at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America. These glasses include a very wide range of compositions, most from actual mixed wastes and many natural analogs. A variety in the test protocol have been used, including PCT, ANSI, TCLP, IAEA, Flow, Soxhlet, MCC1, MCC3, and DIN. Many of these tests have been conducted for over a decade and are still ongoing. The progress of the tests is monitored by periodic sampling with fluid replacement. Twenty different leachants (including groundwaters, humic acid and pH buffers) have been employed. Occasionally, some of the glass is removed from the leaching vessels to observe the altered layers forming on the glass and to identify reaction products. Slight variations in the composition of the glass, subjected to PCT leaching, exhibit widely differing leaching behaviors. The evolution of leachate composition over time often shows a basically stable leach rate followed by a dramatic increase, with times of onset varying considerably, primarily as a function of glass composition. The same rapid rise in leachate has also been observe for a given glass composition studied at different S/V ratio. The study of such non-linearity in glass leaching is the subject of this review. (author)

  14. Uranium leaching from phosphatic sandstone and shale of Qatrani using citrate as a new leaching reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium is found in Qatrani area (Southwest of Cairo and North of lake Qarun) in various forms in sedimentary rocks. Two important ore materials have been chosen for studying the recovery of their uranium contents namely; the phosphatic sandstone and the carbonaceous shale. The main emphasis in this thesis is the choice of an acid that would selectively leach uranium from thesis ores while leaving calcium phosphate and carbonate minerals minerals almost completely intact. Citric acid was indeed found advantageous due primarily to its strong ability to form stable complexes with uranium over a wide range of PH values beside the possibility of controlling thr solubility of calcium-bearing compounds by adding calcium citrate. The latter is actually characterized by its ability to exist in an unionized or associated from in citric acid solutions. From the general leaching characteristics of both uranium and P 2 O 5 from Qatrani phosphatic sandstone by citric acid, it was found that uranium could be completely leached beside the possibility of realizing a differential leaching percent values vs P 2 O 5 which is generally of limited solubility. Such a low solubility of P 2 O 5 has even been completely inhibited by providing calcium citrate to the citric acid solutions in amounts sufficient to exist in an optimum ionized non-associated state. Such a provision would render the solution unable to carry any further calcium ions thus the breakdown of the phosphate mineral was hindered while uranium has completely been selectively

  15. Leaching characteristics of actinides from simulated reactor waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed, H.C.; Coles, D.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Mensing, R.W.; Schweiger, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Two methods for measuring the leach rates of simulated high level waste glass are compared. One is a modification of the standard IAEA method and the other is a one-pass method in which fresh leachant solution is pumped over the sample at a controlled flow rate and temperature. For times up to 3 days, there is close agreement between results from the two methods at 25.0 0 C. Leach rates from the one-pass method show a correlation with flow rate only on day 1 at 25.0 0 C, whereas they show a correlation with flow rate for all three days at 75.0 0 C. 237 Np rates at 75.0 0 C are greater than those at 25.0 0 C, but 239 Pu rates at 75.0 0 C are less than or equal to those at 25.0 0 C

  16. Differential leaching of 137Cs from sediment core depth fractions of Bombay harbour bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemalatha, P.; Desai, M.V.M.

    1998-01-01

    Bombay harbour bay receives 137 Cs from the effluents of research reactors, fuel reprocessing plant and isotope laboratories. 137 Cs is strongly taken up by suspended particulates and sediments and is trapped in the layer lattices of the clay minerals. As the siltation rate is high in the bay, 137 Cs gets distributed vertically along the depth of sediment. NaCl solution has been proved to desorb 137 Cs from clay minerals effectively. NaCl solution of ionic strength 1.6 was used to desorb 137 Cs from depth fractions of a sediment core to obtain a possible gradient of leaching with the depth. A definite rate of leaching was observed for the 137 Cs in the core sediment depth fractions. About 13% to 56% of 137 Cs was leached. As the depth increases removal rate of cesium decreases. This is expected to bring out a relation between age of 137 Cs and rate of its leaching. (author)

  17. Leaching Studies on ACR-1000{sup R} Fuel Under Reactor Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunder, S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Fuel and Fuel Channel Safety Branch, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    ACR-1000{sup R} is the latest nuclear power reactor being developed by AECL. The ACR-1000 fuel uses a modified CANFLEX{sup R} fuel bundle that contains low-enriched uranium and pellets of burnable neutron absorbers (BNA) in a central element. Dysprosium and gadolinium are used as the burnable neutron absorbers and are present as oxides in a 'fully-stabilized' zirconia matrix. The BNA material in the centre element is designed to limit the coolant void reactivity of the reactor core during postulated loss-of-coolant accidents. As part of the ACR-1000 fuel development, the stability of the BNA material under conditions associated with defects of the Zircaloy sheathing of the BNA central element has been investigated. The results of these tests can be used to demonstrate the phase stability and leaching behaviour of the ACR-1000 fuel under reactor operating conditions. The samples were disks, about 3-4 mm thick, obtained from BNA pellets and Candu fuel (natural uranium UO{sub 2}) pellets (the UO{sub 2} measurements provide a reference point). Leaching tests were carried out in light water at 325 deg. C, above the maximum coolant temperature in an ACR-1000 fuel channel during normal operating conditions (319 deg. C). This temperature also bounds the maximum operating temperature for the current Candu reactors (311 deg. C). The initial pH of the solution (measured at room temperature) used in the leaching tests was 10.3. The leach rates were determined by monitoring the amount of metals leached into solutions. Leaching tests were also carried out with BNA pellet samples in the presence of Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tube coupons to determine the effects, if any, of the presence of pressure tube material on leach rates. Other leaching tests with BNA pellet samples and UO{sub 2} pellets were conducted at 80 deg. C to study the effects of temperature on the leach rates. The temperature of 80 deg. C was selected as representative of typical shutdown temperatures

  18. Study on gold concentrate leaching by iodine-iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-xia; Sun, Chun-bao; Li, Shao-ying; Fu, Ping-feng; Song, Yu-guo; Li, Liang; Xie, Wen-qing

    2013-04-01

    Gold extraction by iodine-iodide solution is an effective and environment-friendly method. In this study, the method using iodine-iodide for gold leaching is proved feasible through thermodynamic calculation. At the same time, experiments on flotation gold concentrates were carried out and encouraging results were obtained. Through optimizing the technological conditions, the attained high gold leaching rate is more than 85%. The optimum process conditions at 25°C are shown as follows: the initial iodine concentration is 1.0%, the iodine-to-iodide mole ratio is 1:8, the solution pH value is 7, the liquid-to-solid mass ratio is 4:1, the leaching time is 4 h, the stirring intensity is 200 r/mim, and the hydrogen peroxide consumption is 1%.

  19. Evaluating Nitrogen Management Options for Reducing Nitrate Leaching from Northeast U.S. Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Stout

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial amounts of nitrate nitrogen NO3-N can leach from intensively grazed pasture in the northeast U.S. where there is about 30 cm of groundwater recharge, annually. Management options for reducing NO3-N leaching were evaluated for this environment using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System Model and a recently developed nitrogen leaching index. Management options utilizing energy supplementation of grazing dairy cows could improve nitrogen efficiency within the cow, but would not necessarily reduce NO3-N leaching at the pasture scale if stocking rate was not controlled. The management option of using white clover to supply nitrogen to the pasture decreased NO3-N leaching, but produced less dry matter yield, which in turn reduced stocking rate. The economic returns of reducing NO3-N with these options need to be evaluated in light of milk prices and commodity and fertilizer nitrogen costs. At current prices and costs, the economic benefit from the energy supplementation options is substantial.

  20. Effects of high-pressure process on kinetics of leaching oil from soybean powder using hexane in batch systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Joo Tae; Yoon, Won Byong

    2011-08-01

    Mass transfer models of leaching oil from soybean (Glycine max) flour with hexane after high-pressure process (HPP) treatment were developed. High pressure (450 MPa) was applied to the soybean flour (mean diameter of flour particle: 365 μm) for 30 min before leaching the oil components in the solvent. The ratio of solvent (volume, mL) to soybean flour (mass, g), such as 1:10 and 1:20, was employed to characterize the effect of solvent ratio on the leaching rate in the batch type of extraction process. Ultraviolet absorbance at 300 nm was used to monitor the extraction rate. Saturation solubility (C(AS)) was determined to be 21.73 kg/m³. The mass transfer coefficients (k) were determined based on the 1st- and 2nd-order kinetic models. The 2nd kinetic model showed better fit. The HPP treatment showed a higher extraction rate and yield compared to the control, while the amount of solvent did not affect the extraction rate and yield. The scanning electron microscope showed that HPP-treated soybean particles included more pores than the untreated. The pores observed in the HPP-treated soybean flours might help increase the mass transfer rate of solvent and solute in the solid matrix. High-pressure processing can help increase the extraction rate of oil from the soybean flour operated in batch systems. The conventional solid to solvent ratio (1:20) used to extract oil composition from the plant seed did not help increase the amount of oil extracted from the soybean flour. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Exploration on trickle leaching of uranium ore by refreshed liquor of bacterial oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shian; Huang Xiangfu; Fan Baotuan

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the adaptation of the domesticated thiobacillus ferroxidans to the trickle leaching conditions of uranium ore. When the bacterial leaching liquor through multiple cycles of oxidation and regeneration was used to return to the trickle leaching, the following results were obtained: the extraction rate was more than 95%, the acid consumption was saved by 30%, and the consumed 2.0% pyrolusite (MnO 2 40%) was eliminated. The following problems are discussed: the basic principle, process and some factors influencing the process of the trickle leaching of uranium ore using regenerated liquor of bacterial oxidation, counter-current trickle leaching mode, oxidation and regeneration techniques of bacterial leaching liquor and other technological problems on the process of uranium extraction by thiobacillus ferroxidans

  2. Leaching Mechanisms Program. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.; Colombo, P.; Doty, R.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1984-09-01

    The primary goal of this work is to determine the leaching mechanisms of a variety of matrix materials either in use or being considered for the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes by defense and commercial waste generators. Since this program is new and did not formally begin until May of FY 84, the results reported here are few and preliminary. Efforts were concentrated in the following activities: (1) The literature search for leaching data and proposed leaching models and mechanisms for low-level waste. (2) Data base development for leaching data being compiled from the literature and from the leaching experiments in this program. (3) The selection of solidification agents for the experimental part of the program. (4) Fabrication of leach samples and initiation of leach testing. 28 references, 9 figures, 4 tables

  3. Leaching kinetic of Nd. Y, Pr and Sm in rare earth hydroxide (REOH) use nitric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwani, MV; Suyanti

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study were to determine the order of reaction, rate reaction constant and activation energy of reaction Y(OH)3, Nd(OH)3, Pr(OH)3 and Sm(OH)3 with HNO3. The rate reaction constant is necessary to determine the residence time in the design of continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The studied parameters were leaching temperature (60 - 90 °C) and leaching time (0-15 minutes). From the resulting data can be concluded that the leaching process were strongly influenced by the time and temperature process. Leaching rare earth hydroxide (REOH) using nitric acid follows second order. At leaching 10 grams of REOH using 40 ml HNO3 0.0576 mol were obtained maximum conversion at 90 °C and leaching time 15 minutes for Y was 0.95 (leaching efficiency was 95%), for Nd was 0.97 ( leaching efficiency was 97%), for Pr was 0.94 (leaching efficiency was 94%) and for Sm was 0.94 (leaching efficiency was 94%). The largest activation energy was Y of 23.34 kJ/mol followed by Pr of 20.00 kJ/mol, Sm of 17.94 kJ/mol and the smallest was Nd of 16.39 kJ/mol. The relationship between the rate constant of the reaction with T for Y was kY = 338.26 e-23,34/RT, for Nd was kNd = 33.69 e -16,39 / RT, for Pr was kPr = 102.04 e-20 / RT and for Sm adalah was kSm = 50.16 e-17,94/RT

  4. Microfluidic Leaching of Soil Minerals: Release of K+ from K Feldspar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceri, Davide; Allanore, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    The rate of K+ leaching from soil minerals such as K-feldspar is believed to be too slow to provide agronomic benefit. Currently, theories and methods available to interpret kinetics of mineral processes in soil fail to consider its microfluidic nature. In this study, we measure the leaching rate of K+ ions from a K-feldspar-bearing rock (syenite) in a microfluidic environment, and demonstrate that at the spatial and temporal scales experienced by crop roots, K+ is available at a faster rate than that measured with conventional apparatuses. We present a device to investigate kinetics of mineral leaching at an unprecedented simultaneous resolution of space (~101-102 μm), time (~101-102 min) and fluid volume (~100-101 mL). Results obtained from such a device challenge the notion that silicate minerals cannot be used as alternative fertilizers for tropical soils. PMID:26485160

  5. Long term leaching of silicate systems: testing procedure, actinides behaviour and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louwrier, K.; Matzke, H.; Ray, I.; Thiele, H.; Scheffler, K.; Riege, U.

    1977-06-01

    High-level waste borosilicate glasses and medium-level waste cement products have been leached with various aqueous solutions at ambient temperature. The leach rates of americium and plutonium are determined as well as the behaviour of the actinides in the boundary surface glass/leachant and in the leachant itself. Methods like light-scattering photometry and differential refractometry, molecular filtration, scanning electron microscopy and α-spectrometry of the energy-loss of α-particles in thin layers have been applied. From the experimental results a general model for the leaching mechanism has been established. A critical review of leach test procedures is accomplished aiming at the improvement of common tests with respect to the extrapolation of the obtained leach test data to final disposal safety considerations. (orig.) [de

  6. Modelling the Long Term Leaching Behaviour of 137CS from Different Stabilized Waste Matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kamash, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Leaching characteristics of ''1''3''7Cs from immobilized waste matrices in different cement-based grouts have been assessed to investigate the influence of the additives on the leaching behavior of the solid waste matrices. The International Atomic Energy's Agency (IAEA) standard leach method has been employed to study the leach pattern of 137 Cs radionuclide from the immobilized waste form. The examination of the leaching data revealed that clay additives reduces the leach rate for the studied radionuclide. The controlling leaching mechanism has been studied and the transport parameters were calculated for all studied waste matrices. Simplified analytical models have been derived to predict the Cumulative Leach Fraction (CLF) of radionuclides over the studied experimental period. These simplified research models could be used as a screening tool to assess the performance of the waste matrix under repository conditions. (author)

  7. Partitioning of elements during coal combustion and leaching experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wen-feng; Qin Yong; Song Dang-yu; Wang Jun-yi [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Resources and Earth Science

    2009-04-15

    The mineral component and content of sulfur and 42 major and trace elements of the feed coal, fly and bottom ashes collected from Shizuishan coal-fired power plant, Ningxia, China were analyzed using AFS, INAA, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, XRD. Based on the coal combustion and leaching experiments, the partitioning of these elements during coal combustion and the leaching behavior of the 11 potentially hazardous elements, including As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Th and U were investigated. The results show that the distribution of elements in the fly and bottom ashes is controlled by their volatilities and modes of occurrence in the coal. The degree of volatilization of elements may be mainly associated with boiling/melting points of these elements and their compounds. The elements easily volatilized, organically bound or associated with sub-micrometer and nano minerals (e.g. Al and Na) tend to be enriched in the fine fractions of fly ash, and most elements do not vaporize which are approximately equally partitioned in the fly and bottom ashes. The emission rates of As, Cr, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn are notably influenced by the temperature ranging from 877 to 1300{sup o}C. The leaching behavior of elements depend significantly on their geochemical properties and modes of occurrence. The elements with a low degree of volatilization are not easily leached, while volatile elements easily leached under the acid conditions. Arsenic, B Br, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, S, Sb and Se show a higher emission rate during coal combustion, and the leached concentrations of Cd, Co, Mo, Ni and U in the acid media exceed their limited concentrations recommended in relevant environment quality standards for water, which will harm the environment. 32 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. An active dealkalization of red mud with roasting and water leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Li, Wang; Guan, Xuemao

    2015-04-09

    The research has focused on the dealkalization of red mud after active roasting and water leaching, which is obtained from bauxite during alumina production. The main factors such as roasting temperature, roasting time, water leaching stage, leaching temperature, leaching reaction time and liquid to solid ratio were investigated. The mechanism of dealkalization was in-depth studied by using ICP-AES, XRD, TG-DSC, SEM-EDS and leaching kinetic. The results show that the dealkalization rate reached 82% under the condition of roasting temperature of 700 °C, roasting time of 30 min, four stage water leaching, liquid to solid ratio of 7 mL/g, leaching temperature of 90 °C and reaction time of 60 min. The diffraction peak of Na6CaAl6Si6(CO3)O24 · 2H2O in red mud was decreased during the active roasting process, whereas the mineral phases of NaOH · H2O and Na2Ca(CO3)2 were appeared. The content of alkali obviously decreased and the grade of other elements increased during the process of active roasting and water leaching, which was in favor of next application process of red mud. The water leaching was controlled by internal diffusion of SCM and the apparent activation energy was 22.63 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Leaching characteristics of actinides from simulated reactor waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weed, H.C.; Coles, D.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Mensing, R.W.; Schweiger, J.S.

    1979-01-18

    Two methods for measuring the leach rates of simulated high level waste glass are compared. One is a modification of the standard IAEA method and the other is a one-pass method in which fresh leachant solution is pumped over the sample at a controlled flow rate and temperature. For times up to 3 days, there is close agreement between results from the two methods at 25.0/sup 0/C. Leach rates from the one-pass method show a correlation with flow rate only on day 1 at 25.0/sup 0/C, whereas they show a correlation with flow rate for all three days at 75.0/sup 0/C. /sup 237/Np rates at 75.0/sup 0/C are greater than those at 25.0/sup 0/C, but /sup 239/Pu rates at 75.0/sup 0/C are less than or equal to those at 25.0/sup 0/C.

  10. Evaluation of long-term leaching of borosilicate glass in pure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, F.; Parnisari, E.

    1979-01-01

    In order to confirm the validity of the model of the dissolving sphere, a series of tests of leaching of borosilicate glasses has been performed. The leaching rate is followed by measurements of weight loss and analysis of the surface composition. An accumulation at the surface of the less soluble cations is observed

  11. A shrinking particle model at leaching of titanium in ilmenite use HCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MV Purwani; Suyanti

    2016-01-01

    The research of ilmenite leaching has conducted. Ilmenite was tailings of zircon sand processing. Zircon sand processing tailings containing Zr, Ti, Nb and Fe. This research will be conducted to determine the kinetic leaching of Ti in HCl based shrinking core models. From the research results ilmenite leaching of Ti in HCl wear, it can be concluded that the 50 grams of ilmenite leaching wear 11 M HCl leaching, the higher temperature was conducted the greater of the Ti conversion. The mechanism of the leaching process was controlled by Sphere Reaction with formula equation 1- (1-α)1/3 = "k"."C"/"r"_o"ρ t = klt, the relationship between temperature (T) with the reaction rate constant (k), k = 61.744.e- 4553.3 / T or ln k = - 4553.3 / T + 4.123, the frequency factor A = 61.744, the activation energy E = 37.856 kJ/mol. (author)

  12. Quantifying nitrogen leaching response to fertilizer additions in China's cropland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shuoshuo; Xu, Peng; Zhou, Feng; Yang, Hui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Cao, Wei; Tao, Shu; Piao, Shilong; Zhao, Yue; Ji, Xiaoyan; Shang, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural soils account for more than 50% of nitrogen leaching (L_N) to groundwater in China. When excess levels of nitrogen accumulate in groundwater, it poses a risk of adverse health effects. Despite this recognition, estimation of L_N from cropland soils in a broad spatial scale is still quite uncertain in China. The uncertainty of L_N primarily stems from the shape of nitrogen leaching response to fertilizer additions (N_r_a_t_e) and the role of environmental conditions. On the basis of 453 site-years at 51 sites across China, we explored the nonlinearity and variability of the response of L_N to N_r_a_t_e and developed an empirical statistical model to determine how environmental factors regulate the rate of N leaching (LR). The result shows that L_N-N_r_a_t_e relationship is convex for most crop types, and varies by local hydro-climates and soil organic carbon. Variability of air temperature explains a half (∼52%) of the spatial variation of LR. The results of model calibration and validation indicate that incorporating this empirical knowledge into a predictive model could accurately capture the variation in leaching and produce a reasonable upscaling from site to country. The fertilizer-induced L_N in 2008 for China's cropland were 0.88 ± 0.23 TgN (1σ), significantly lower than the linear or uniform model, as assumed by Food and Agriculture Organization and MITERRA-EUROPE models. These results also imply that future policy to reduce N leaching from cropland needs to consider environmental variability rather than solely attempt to reduce N_r_a_t_e. - Highlights: • L_N-N_r_a_t_e relationship is convex and varies by local hydro-climates and SOC. • Variability of temperature explains a half of spatial variation of N leaching rate. • L_N in 2008 were 0.88 ± 0.23 Tg, lower than the linear or uniform models. • Reducing L_N should consider background rather than decreasing N_r_a_t_e solely. - Variability of air temperature explains a half of

  13. Kinetics of steel slag leaching: Batch tests and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Windt, Laurent; Chaurand, Perrine; Rose, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Reusing steel slag as an aggregate for road construction requires to characterize the leaching kinetics and metal releases. In this study, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag were subjected to batch leaching tests at liquid to solid ratios (L/S) of 10 and 100 over 30 days; the leachate chemistry being regularly sampled in time. A geochemical model of the steel slag is developed and validated from experimental data, particularly the evolution with leaching of mineralogical composition of the slag and trace element speciation. Kinetics is necessary for modeling the primary phase leaching, whereas a simple thermodynamic equilibrium approach can be used for secondary phase precipitation. The proposed model simulates the kinetically-controlled dissolution (hydrolysis) of primary phases, the precipitation of secondary phases (C-S-H, hydroxide and spinel), the pH and redox conditions, and the progressive release of major elements as well as the metals Cr and V. Modeling indicates that the dilution effect of the L/S ratio is often coupled to solubility-controlled processes, which are sensitive to both the pH and the redox potential. A sensitivity analysis of kinetic uncertainties on the modeling of element releases is performed.

  14. Phosphorus vertical migration in aquic brown soil and light chernozem under different phosphorous application rate: a soil column leaching experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Muqiu; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi; Zhou, Quanlai; Lu, Caiyan

    2009-01-01

    A soil column leaching experiment was conducted to study the vertical migration of phosphorus in aquic brown soil and light chernozem under different phosphorus fertilization rates. The results showed that total dissolved phosphorus concentration in the leachates from the two soils was nearly the same, but dissolved inorganic phosphorus concentration was obviously different. In all fertilization treatments, aquic brown soil had a higher content of phosphorus in calcium chloride extracts compared with light chernozem. But Olsen phosphorus content was higher at the soil depth beneath 0-20 cm, and increased with increasing phosphorus application rate.

  15. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-01-01

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups - bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2) - are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467

  16. Characterization of phosphorus leaching from phosphate waste rock in the Xiangxi River watershed, Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Guo; Liang, Bing; Xue, Qiang; Yin, Cheng-Wei

    2016-05-01

    Phosphate mining waste rocks dumped in the Xiangxi River (XXR) bay, which is the largest backwater zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), are treated as Type I industry solid wastes by the Chinese government. To evaluate the potential pollution risk of phosphorus leaching from phosphate waste rocks, the phosphorus leaching behaviors of six phosphate waste rock samples with different weathering degrees under both neutral and acidic conditions were investigated using a series of column leaching experiments, following the Method 1314 standard of the US EPA. The results indicate that the phosphorus release mechanism is solubility-controlled. Phosphorus release from waste rocks increases as pH decreases. The phosphorus leaching concentration and cumulative phosphorus released in acidic leaching conditions were found to be one order of magnitude greater than that in neutral leaching conditions. In addition, the phosphorus was released faster during the period when environmental pH turned from weak alkalinity to slight acidity, with this accelerated release period appearing when L/S was in the range of 0.5-2.0 mL/g. In both neutral and acidic conditions, the average values of Total Phosphorus (TP), including orthophosphates, polyphosphates and organic phosphate, leaching concentration exceed the availability by regulatory (0.5 mg/L) in the whole L/S range, suggesting that the phosphate waste rocks stacked within the XXR watershed should be considered as Type II industry solid wastes. Therefore, the phosphate waste rocks deposited within the study area should be considered as phosphorus point pollution sources, which could threaten the adjacent surface-water environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimated water requirements for gold heap-leach operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a perspective on the amount of water necessary for conventional gold heap-leach operations. Water is required for drilling and dust suppression during mining, for agglomeration and as leachate during ore processing, to support the workforce (requires water in potable form and for sanitation), for minesite reclamation, and to compensate for water lost to evaporation and leakage. Maintaining an adequate water balance is especially critical in areas where surface and groundwater are difficult to acquire because of unfavorable climatic conditions [arid conditions and (or) a high evaporation rate]; where there is competition with other uses, such as for agriculture, industry, and use by municipalities; and where compliance with regulatory requirements may restrict water usage. Estimating the water consumption of heap-leach operations requires an understanding of the heap-leach process itself. The task is fairly complex because, although they all share some common features, each gold heap-leach operation is unique. Also, estimating the water consumption requires a synthesis of several fields of science, including chemistry, ecology, geology, hydrology, and meteorology, as well as consideration of economic factors.

  18. Life cycle assessment and residue leaching: The importance of parameter, scenario and leaching data selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Butera, Stefania; Kosson, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens......Residues from industrial processes and waste management systems (WMSs) have been increasingly reutilised, leading to landfilling rate reductions and the optimisation of mineral resource utilisation in society. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic methodology allowing for the analysis......, due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system...

  19. Nitrogen leaching from natural ecosystems under global change: a modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhekke, Maarten C.; Rebel, Karin T.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Smith, Benjamin; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Wassen, Martin J.

    2017-12-01

    To study global nitrogen (N) leaching from natural ecosystems under changing N deposition, climate, and atmospheric CO2, we performed a factorial model experiment for the period 1901-2006 with the N-enabled global terrestrial ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS (Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator). In eight global simulations, we used either the true transient time series of N deposition, climate, and atmospheric CO2 as input or kept combinations of these drivers constant at initial values. The results show that N deposition is globally the strongest driver of simulated N leaching, individually causing an increase of 88 % by 1997-2006 relative to pre-industrial conditions. Climate change led globally to a 31 % increase in N leaching, but the size and direction of change varied among global regions: leaching generally increased in regions with high soil organic carbon storage and high initial N status, and decreased in regions with a positive trend in vegetation productivity or decreasing precipitation. Rising atmospheric CO2 generally caused decreased N leaching (33 % globally), with strongest effects in regions with high productivity and N availability. All drivers combined resulted in a rise of N leaching by 73 % with strongest increases in Europe, eastern North America and South-East Asia, where N deposition rates are highest. Decreases in N leaching were predicted for the Amazon and northern India. We further found that N loss by fire regionally is a large term in the N budget, associated with lower N leaching, particularly in semi-arid biomes. Predicted global N leaching from natural lands rose from 13.6 Tg N yr-1 in 1901-1911 to 18.5 Tg N yr-1 in 1997-2006, accounting for reductions of natural land cover. Ecosystem N status (quantified as the reduction of vegetation productivity due to N limitation) shows a similar positive temporal trend but large spatial variability. Interestingly, this variability is more strongly related to vegetation type than N input

  20. Comparative study on copper leaching from waste printed circuit boards by typical ionic liquid acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengjun; Huang, Jinxiu; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhu, Nengming; Wang, Yan-min

    2015-07-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are attracting increasing concerns because the recovery of its content of valuable metallic resources is hampered by the presence of hazardous substances. In this study, we used ionic liquids (IL) to leach copper from WPCBs. [BSO3HPy]OTf, [BSO3HMIm]OTf, [BSO4HPy]HSO4, [BSO4HMim]HSO4 and [MIm]HSO4 were selected. Factors that affect copper leaching rate were investigated in detail and their leaching kinetics were also examined with the comparison of [Bmim]HSO4. The results showed that all six IL acids could successfully leach copper out, with near 100% recovery. WPCB particle size and leaching time had similar influences on copper leaching performance, while IL acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide addition, solid to liquid ratio, temperature, showed different influences. Moreover, IL acid with HSO4(-) was more efficient than IL acid with CF3SO3(-). These six IL acids indicate a similar behavior with common inorganic acids, except temperature since copper leaching rate of some IL acids decreases with its increase. The results of leaching kinetics studies showed that diffusion plays a more important role than surface reaction, whereas copper leaching by inorganic acids is usually controlled by surface reaction. This innovation provides a new option for recovering valuable materials such as copper from WPCBs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MODELLING CHALCOPYRITE LEACHING BY Fe+3 IONS WITH THE SHRINKING CORE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rangel Porcaro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chalcopyrite leaching by ferric iron is considered a slow process with low copper recovery; a phenomenon ascribed to the passivation of the mineral surface during leaching. Thus, the current study investigated the leaching kinetics of a high purity chalcopyrite sample in the presence of ferric sulfate as oxidant. The effects of the stirring rate, temperature, Eh and Fe3+ concentration on copper extraction were assessed. The leaching data could be described by the shirking core model (SCM for particles of unchanging size and indicated diffusion in the ash layer as the rate-controlling step with a high activation energy (103.9±6.5kJ/mol; likely an outcome of neglecting the effect of particle size distribution (PSD on the kinetics equations. Both the application of the quasi-steady-state assumption to solid-liquid systems and the effect of the particle size distribution on the interpretation of kinetics data are also discussed.

  2. Leaching of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid from an Agricultural Field over a Twelve-Year Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, Trine; Moldrup, Per; Ferré, Ty P A

    2014-01-01

    content at the time of application and the level of the groundwater table relative to the drain depth was essential for whether solutes were detected in the drainage runoff. We present a leaching risk chart to illustrate the dependence of glyphosate, AMPA, and soil particle leaching based on precipitation......, and particles. Glyphosate and AMPA leaching were highly event driven, controlled by the time and intensity of the first precipitation event after glyphosate application. A high similarity in time-accumulated curves for drainage and leached pesticide masses suggests near-constant drainage and leaching rates...

  3. Laboratory leach tests of phosphate/sulfate waste grout and leachate adsorption tests using Hanford sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; McLaurine, S.B.; Airhart, S.P.; LeGore, V.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1987-12-01

    An assessment of the long-term risks posed by grout disposal at Hanford requires data on the ability of grout to resist leaching of waste species contained in the grout via contact with water that percolates through the ground. Additionally, data are needed on the ability of Hanford sediment (soil) surrounding the grout and concrete vault to retard migration of any wastes released from the grout. This report describes specific laboratory experiments that are producing empirical leach rate data and leachate-sediment adsorption data for Phosphate-Sulfate Waste (PSW) grout. The leach rate and adsorption values serve as inputs to computer codes used to forecast potential risk resulting from the use of ground water containing leached species. In addition, the report discusses other chemical analyses and geochemical computer code calculations that were used to identify mechanisms that control leach rates and adsorption potential. Knowledge of the controlling chemical and physical processes provides technical defensibility for using the empirical laboratory data to extrapolate the performance of the actual grout disposal system to the long time periods of interest. 59 refs., 83 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Laboratory leach tests of phosphate/sulfate waste grout and leachate adsorption tests using Hanford sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; McLaurine, S.B.; Airhart, S.P.; LeGore, V.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1987-12-01

    An assessment of the long-term risks posed by grout disposal at Hanford requires data on the ability of grout to resist leaching of waste species contained in the grout via contact with water that percolates through the ground. Additionally, data are needed on the ability of Hanford sediment (soil) surrounding the grout and concrete vault to retard migration of any wastes released from the grout. This report describes specific laboratory experiments that are producing empirical leach rate data and leachate-sediment adsorption data for Phosphate-Sulfate Waste (PSW) grout. The leach rate and adsorption values serve as inputs to computer codes used to forecast potential risk resulting from the use of ground water containing leached species. In addition, the report discusses other chemical analyses and geochemical computer code calculations that were used to identify mechanisms that control leach rates and adsorption potential. Knowledge of the controlling chemical and physical processes provides technical defensibility for using the empirical laboratory data to extrapolate the performance of the actual grout disposal system to the long time periods of interest. 59 refs., 83 figs., 18 tabs

  5. In situ leaching of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for the in-situ leaching of uranium-containing ores employing an acidic leach liquor containing peroxymonosulphuric acid. Preferably, additionally, sulphuric acid is present in the leach liquor. (author)

  6. An active dealkalization of red mud with roasting and water leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaobo, E-mail: zhuxiaobo0119@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan 454000 (China); Henan Key Discipline Open Laboratory of Mining Engineering Materials, Henan 454000 (China); Li, Wang; Guan, Xuemao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan 454000 (China); Henan Key Discipline Open Laboratory of Mining Engineering Materials, Henan 454000 (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • The dealkalization of active roasting and water leaching from red mud was put forward. • The main factors on dealkalization during active roasting and water leaching were investigated. • The mechanism of dealkalization from red mud was in-depth studied in the process. - Abstract: The research has focused on the dealkalization of red mud after active roasting and water leaching, which is obtained from bauxite during alumina production. The main factors such as roasting temperature, roasting time, water leaching stage, leaching temperature, leaching reaction time and liquid to solid ratio were investigated. The mechanism of dealkalization was in-depth studied by using ICP–AES, XRD, TG-DSC, SEM–EDS and leaching kinetic. The results show that the dealkalization rate reached 82% under the condition of roasting temperature of 700 °C, roasting time of 30 min, four stage water leaching, liquid to solid ratio of 7 mL/g, leaching temperature of 90 °C and reaction time of 60 min. The diffraction peak of Na{sub 6}CaAl{sub 6}Si{sub 6}(CO{sub 3})O{sub 24}·2H{sub 2}O in red mud was decreased during the active roasting process, whereas the mineral phases of NaOH·H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}Ca(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} were appeared. The content of alkali obviously decreased and the grade of other elements increased during the process of active roasting and water leaching, which was in favor of next application process of red mud. The water leaching was controlled by internal diffusion of SCM and the apparent activation energy was 22.63 kJ/mol.

  7. An active dealkalization of red mud with roasting and water leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Li, Wang; Guan, Xuemao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The dealkalization of active roasting and water leaching from red mud was put forward. • The main factors on dealkalization during active roasting and water leaching were investigated. • The mechanism of dealkalization from red mud was in-depth studied in the process. - Abstract: The research has focused on the dealkalization of red mud after active roasting and water leaching, which is obtained from bauxite during alumina production. The main factors such as roasting temperature, roasting time, water leaching stage, leaching temperature, leaching reaction time and liquid to solid ratio were investigated. The mechanism of dealkalization was in-depth studied by using ICP–AES, XRD, TG-DSC, SEM–EDS and leaching kinetic. The results show that the dealkalization rate reached 82% under the condition of roasting temperature of 700 °C, roasting time of 30 min, four stage water leaching, liquid to solid ratio of 7 mL/g, leaching temperature of 90 °C and reaction time of 60 min. The diffraction peak of Na 6 CaAl 6 Si 6 (CO 3 )O 24 ·2H 2 O in red mud was decreased during the active roasting process, whereas the mineral phases of NaOH·H 2 O and Na 2 Ca(CO 3 ) 2 were appeared. The content of alkali obviously decreased and the grade of other elements increased during the process of active roasting and water leaching, which was in favor of next application process of red mud. The water leaching was controlled by internal diffusion of SCM and the apparent activation energy was 22.63 kJ/mol

  8. Thiosulfate leaching of gold from sulfide wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block-Bolten, A.; Torma, A.E.

    1986-07-01

    The kinetics of gold extraction from lead-zinc sulfide flotation tailings by thiosulfate leachants has been investigated. The order of reaction as well as the overall reaction rate constant were, with respect to thiosulfate concentration, calculated to be n=0.75 and k=1.05 x 10/sup -6/ mol/sup 1/4/ dm/sup 5/4/ min/sup -1/. The apparent activation energy was found to be ..delta..E/sub a/=48.53 kJ and the frequency factor A=7.5 x 10/sup 2/ mol dm/sup -3/ min/sup -1/. This activation energy value suggests chemical control of the reaction mechanism. Optimum leach temperature of 50/sup 0/C was established. Gold extractions as high as 99% have been realized in two step countercurrent leachings. Change in pH throughout the leaching process was found to be an excellent indicator for the progress of the extraction. A preliminary economic evaluation of the process is given.

  9. Cross-Comparison of Leaching Strains Isolated from Two Different Regions: Chambishi and Dexing Copper Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Ngom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia, was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different strains were characterized and compared at physiological level. The results revealed that, except for copper tolerance, strains within species presented almost similar physiological traits with slight advantages of Chambishi strains. However, in terms of leaching efficiency, native strains always achieved higher cell density and greater iron and copper extraction rates than the foreign microorganisms. In addition, microbial community analysis revealed that the different mixed cultures shared almost the same profile, and At. ferrooxidans strains always outcompeted the other strains.

  10. Chlorination leaching of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lach, E.; Pajak, I.; Bojanowska, A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the investigations on chlorination leaching of cadmium from dust coming from dry dust collector of sinter belt, that is leaching with water saturated with gaseous chlorine and leaching with solutions of ammonium chloride and sodium chloride were given. The optimum conditions for these processes were established. It was found, that the method of leaching in the presence of gaseous chlorine is more effective, as it allows to report into the solution over 90% cadmium contained in dust. Owing to technical difficulties, environmental protection and safety conditions more advantageous seems to be the use as leaching agent of the ammonium chloride solutions. When applying 20% NH 4 Cl and temperature of 60 0 C, the time of 2 hours and the ratio of solid to liquid of 1:5, 70% cadmium contained in the dust can be reported into the solution. (auth.)

  11. Nitrogen management and nitrification inhibitor effects on nitrogen-15 urea: 2. Nitrogen leaching and balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, D.T.; Malzer, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Nitrification inhibitors (NI) may reduce N leaching losses, and should have the greatest effect on sandy soils where leaching potential is high. This study used 27 lysimeters to evaluate the effect of a NI, nitrapyrin [2-chloro-6(trichloromethyl) pyridine], on soil water percolation (SWP) and N leaching losses from an irrigated sandy loam soil (Typic Hapludoll) planted with corn (Zea mays L.), and monitor the fate of a single application of 15 N-enriched urea over a multiyear period. Urea was applied at 90 and 180 kg N ha -1 yr -1 for a 3-yr period, with and without NI, and with and without incorporation. Urea + NI reduced SWP between planting and silking in 2 out of 3 yr when growing degree days (GDD) were high. After silking, SWP was reduced when urea + NI was incorporated and leaching load was high. A twofold increase in N rate resulted in an average of 3.4 times more N leached over 3 yr. The NI influenced time of N loss but not total N loss. Leaching losses of fertilizer-derived N (FDN) were delayed 25 to 50d when urea + NI were incorporated. The leaching load required to reach the maximum rate of FDN loss was higher with urea + NI. Leaching losses of fertilizer N were three times greater when determined by the difference method than by isotope-ratio analysis. Differing results with these two calculations are attributed to isotope dilution with indigenous soil N as a result of microbial activity. Nitrification inhibitors may reduce the potential for nonpoint-source pollution by delaying NO 3 leaching, but will be most effective if coupled with proper N rates and conservative irrigation water management

  12. [Mixture Leaching Remediation Technology of Arsenic Contaminated Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun-feng; Li, Xiao-ming; Chen, Can; Yang, Qi; Deng, Lin-jing; Xie, Wei-qiang; Zhong, Yui; Huang, Bin; Yang, Wei-qiang; Zhang, Zhi-bei

    2016-03-15

    Soil contamination of arsenic pollution has become a severely environmental issue, while soil leaching is an efficient method for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soil. In this study, batch tests were primarily conducted to select optimal mixture leaching combination. Firstly, five conventional reagents were selected and combined with each other. Secondly, the fractions were analyzed before and after the tests. Finally, to explore the feasibility of mixed leaching, three soils with different arsenic pollution levels were used to compare the leaching effect. Comparing with one-step washing, the two-step sequential washing with different reagents increased the arsenic removal efficiency. These results showed that the mixture of 4 h 0.5 mol · L⁻¹ NaOH + 4 h 0.1 mol · L⁻¹ EDTA was found to be practicable, which could enhance the removal rate of arsenic from 66.67% to 91.83%, and the concentration of arsenic in soil was decreased from 186 mg · kg⁻¹ to 15.2 mg · kg⁻¹. Furthermore, the results indicated that the distribution of fractions of arsenic in soil changed apparently after mixture leaching. Leaching process could significantly reduce the available contents of arsenic in soil. Moreover, the mixture of 0.5 mol · L⁻¹ NaOH + 0.1 mol L⁻¹ EDTA could well decrease the arsenic concentration in aluminum-type soils, while the mixture of 0.5 mol · L⁻¹ OX + 0.5 mol · L⁻¹ NaOH could well decrease the arsenic concentration in iron-type soils.

  13. Acid leaching of mixed spent Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Nayl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Acid leaching for different types of mixed spent Li-ion mobile batteries is carried out after alkali decomposition using NH4OH followed by H2SO4 + H2O2 leaching. In the alkali decomposition step, the effects of reaction time, NH4OH concentration, liquid/solid mass ratio and reaction temperature on the decomposition process are investigated to remove Al, Cu, Mn, Ni, Co, and Li. After alkaline treatment, the alkali paste is treated to leach the remaining metals using H2SO4 + H2O2. The significant effects of reaction time, acid concentration, H2O2 concentration, liquid/solid mass ratios and reaction temperature on the leaching rate are studied. More than 97% of Al, Mn, Ni, Co, and Li and about 65% Cu are leached in two stages. Kinetic analysis shows that, the data fit with chemical reaction control mechanism and the activation energies for the investigated metals using the Arrhenius equation ranged from 30.1 to 41.4 kJ/mol. Recovered metals are precipitated from the leaching liquor at varying pH values using NaOH solution and Na2CO3. Firstly, Mn is precipitated as MnCO3 at pH = 7.5. Secondly, at pH = 9.0, nickel is precipitated as NiCO3. Thirdly, as the pH of the leaching liquor reaches 11–12, Co(OH2 is precipitated and the remaining Li is readily precipitated as Li2CO3 using a saturated Na2CO3 solution. Based on the experimental data, a flow sheet is developed and tested for the recovery process.

  14. Leaching of Titanium and Silicon from Low-Grade Titanium Slag Using Hydrochloric Acid Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Longsheng; Wang, Lina; Qi, Tao; Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Hongxin; Liu, Yahui; Wang, Weijing

    2018-05-01

    Acid-leaching behaviors of the titanium slag obtained by selective reduction of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite concentrates were investigated. It was found that the optimal leaching of titanium and silicon were 0.7% and 1.5%, respectively. The titanium and silicon in the titanium slag were firstly dissolved in the acidic solution to form TiO2+ and silica sol, and then rapidly reprecipitated, forming hydrochloric acid (HCl) leach residue. Most of the silicon presented in the HCl leach residue as floccules-like silica gel, while most of the titanium was distributed in the nano-sized rod-like clusters with crystallite refinement and intracrystalline defects, and, as such, 94.3% of the silicon was leached from the HCl leach residue by alkaline desilication, and 96.5% of the titanium in the titanium-rich material with some rutile structure was then digested by the concentrated sulfuric acid. This provides an alternative route for the comprehensive utilization of titanium and silicon in titanium slag.

  15. Leaching and recovery of zinc and copper from brass slag by sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, I.M.; Nayl, A.A.; Daoud, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Leaching and recovery processes for zinc and copper from brass slag by sulfuric acid were carried out and iron and aluminum were also precipitated as hydroxides in addition to silica gel. The factors affecting the performance and efficiency of the leaching processsuch as agitation rate, leaching time, acid concentration and temperature were separately investigated. The results obtained revealed that zinc and copper are successfully recovered from these secondary resources, where the percent r...

  16. Nanoscale Coloristic Pigments: Upper Limits on Releases from Pigmented Plastic during Environmental Aging, In Food Contact, and by Leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubauer, Nicole; Scifo, Lorette; Navratilova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The life cycle of nanoscale pigments in plastics may cause environmental or human exposure by various release scenarios. We investigated spontaneous and induced release with mechanical stress during/after simulated sunlight and rain degradation of polyethylene (PE) with organic and inorganic...... pigments. Additionally, primary leaching in food contact and secondary leaching from nanocomposite fragments with an increased surface into environmental media was examined. Standardized protocols/methods for release sampling, detection, and characterization of release rate and form were applied......: Transformation of the bulk material was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray-tomography and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); releases were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), single-particle-ICP-MS (sp-ICP-MS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM...

  17. Leaching Tc-99 from SRP glass in simulated tuff and salt groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    Results of leach tests with Tc-99 doped SRP borosilicate waste glass are presented. The glass was prepared by melting a mixture of SRP 165 powdered frit doped with a carrier free solution of Tc-99 at 1150 0 C. Dissolution of portions of the resulting glass indicated that the Tc-99 was distributed homogeneously throughout the glass. Static leach tests up to 90 days were performed at 90 0 C in J-13 tuff groundwater or WIPP brine A at a SA/V of 100m -1 . Normalized mass losses were calculated for Tc-99 as well as all the major elements in the glass. Results indicated that under ambient oxidizing conditions Tc-99 leached no faster than the glass-forming elements of the glass. In J-13 water, Tc-99 leached congruently with B. In WIPP brine A, it leached congruently with Si. Leach rates for Li were higher in both groundwaters, probably due to a contribution from an ion exchange mechanism. Leach tests were performed under reducing conditions in J-13 water by adding Zn/Hg amalgam to the leachate. In these tests the pH increased significantly, probably because of the reaction of the amalgam with the water. In a 21-day test, the pH increased to 13 and leach rates for the glass were very high. Even though there was signifcant dissolution of the glass, the normalized mass loss based on Tc-99 was only 0.02g/m 2 . This result and the fact that reducing conditions at normal pH values do not significantly affect the dissolution of the glass, indicate that the low concentrations for Tc-99 obtained under reducing conditions are due to is solubility and not due to an increased durability of the glass. 14 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Multiple heavy metals extraction and recovery from hazardous electroplating sludge waste via ultrasonically enhanced two-stage acid leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuncheng; Xie, Fengchun; Ma, Yang; Cai, Tingting; Li, Haiying; Huang, Zhiyuan; Yuan, Gaoqing

    2010-06-15

    An ultrasonically enhanced two-stage acid leaching process on extracting and recovering multiple heavy metals from actual electroplating sludge was studied in lab tests. It provided an effective technique for separation of valuable metals (Cu, Ni and Zn) from less valuable metals (Fe and Cr) in electroplating sludge. The efficiency of the process had been measured with the leaching efficiencies and recovery rates of the metals. Enhanced by ultrasonic power, the first-stage acid leaching demonstrated leaching rates of 96.72%, 97.77%, 98.00%, 53.03%, and 0.44% for Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Fe respectively, effectively separated half of Cr and almost all of Fe from mixed metals. The subsequent second-stage leaching achieved leaching rates of 75.03%, 81.05%, 81.39%, 1.02%, and 0% for Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Fe that further separated Cu, Ni, and Zn from mixed metals. With the stabilized two-stage ultrasonically enhanced leaching, the resulting over all recovery rates of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr and Fe from electroplating sludge could be achieved at 97.42%, 98.46%, 98.63%, 98.32% and 100% respectively, with Cr and Fe in solids and the rest of the metals in an aqueous solution discharged from the leaching system. The process performance parameters studied were pH, ultrasonic power, and contact time. The results were also confirmed in an industrial pilot-scale test, and same high metal recoveries were performed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Heavy metal leaching from mine tailings as affected by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, D.; Schwab, A.P.; Banks, M.K.

    1999-12-01

    A column experiment was conducted to determine the impact of soil cover and plants on heavy metal leaching from mine tailings and heavy metal contaminated soil. Columns made of PVC were constructed with 30 cm subsoil covered by 30 cm of mine tailings followed by 0, 30, or 60 cm subsoil covered by 30 cm of mine tailings followed by 0, 30, or 60 cm of clean topsoil. Two grasses, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), were grown in the columns. The columns were leached at a slow rate for 1 yr with a 0.001 M CaCl{sub 2} solution under unsaturated conditions. The presence of both tall fescue and big bluestem increased Zn and Cd concentrations in the leachate. Lead concentrations in leachates were not affected by the presence of plants. Although plants generally reduced the total amount of water leached, total mass of Zn and Cd leached generally was not impacted by plants. Total mass of Pb leached was positively correlated with total leachate collected from each column. Covering the mine tailings with 60 cm of topsoil increased the mass of Zn and Cd leached relative to no topsoil. When the subsoil was absent, Zn and Cd leaching increased by as much as 20-fold, verifying the ability of soil to act as a sink for metals. Mine tailing remediation by establishing vegetation can reduce Pb movement but may enhance short-term Cd and Zn leaching. However, the changes were relatively small and do not outweigh the benefits of using vegetation in mine tailings reclamation.

  20. Leaching of uranium and thorium from monazite: III. Leaching of radiogenic daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.; Eyal, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The solid-state diffusion model of actinide leaching developed in Part II of this series is applied to leaching of radiogenic daughters of the actinide decay chains. For an untreated natural monazite, the direct leaching component of 228 Th release is larger than that for 232 Th because of enhanced solid-state mobility for 228 Th provided by 228 Ra-recoil tracks. A significant portion of the 228 Th which appears in the leachate, however, is attributed to decay of insoluble 228 Ra which is continually released from the mineral by matrix dissolution and recoil ejection. For a monazite sample that was annealed at 800 degree C prior to leaching, the bulk of the 228 Th in solution was supplied by decay of 228 Ra rejected from the mineral matrix during annealing. The radiogenic 234 U daughter of the 238 U decay chain did not exhibit similarly enhanced leaching because the long half-life of 234 U permitted local radiation damage to be annealed out at ambient temperature prior to 234 U decay

  1. Nitrate Leaching Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrate (NO3) leaching is a significant nitrogen (N) loss process for agriculture that must be managed to minimize NO3 enrichment of groundwater and surface waters. Managing NO3 leaching should involve the application of basic principles of understanding the site’s hydrologic cycle, avoiding excess ...

  2. Nitrate leaching index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  3. Arsenic removal from alkaline leaching solution using Fe (III) precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongliang; Lv, Cuicui; Xiao, Li; Fu, Guoyan; Liu, Ya; Ye, Shufeng; Chen, Yunfa

    2018-02-02

    The alkaline leaching solution from arsenic-containing gold concentrate contains a large amount of arsenate ions, which should be removed because it is harmful to the production process and to the environment. In this study, conventional Fe (III) precipitation was used to remove arsenic from the leaching solution. The precipitation reaction was carried out at the normal temperature, and the effects of pH value and Fe/As ratio on the arsenic removal were investigated. The results show that the removal rate of arsenic is distinctive at different pH values, and the effect is best within the pH range of 5.25-5.96. The removal rate can be further increased by increasing the ratio of Fe/As. When the pH = 5.25-5.96 and Fe/As > 1.8, the arsenic in the solution can be reduced to below 5 mg/L. However, the crystallinity of ferric arsenate is poor, and the particle size is small, most of which is about 1 μm. The leaching toxicity test shows the leaching toxicity of precipitates gradually decreased by the increase of Fe/As. The precipitates can be stored safely as the ratio of Fe/As exceeded 2.5.

  4. Comparison of leaching characteristics of heavy metals from bottom and fly ashes in Korea and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Young-Sook; Rhee, Seung-Whee; Lee, Woo-Keun

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the leaching characteristics of heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, etc., in Korean and Japanese municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash. The rate of leaching of heavy metal was measured by KSLT and JTL-13, and the amount of heavy metals leached was compared with the metal content in each waste component. Finally, bio-availability testing was performed to assess the risks associated with heavy metals leached from bottom ash and fly ash. From the results, the value of neutralization ability in Japanese fly ash was four times higher than that in Korean fly ash. The reason was the difference in the content of Ca(OH)(2) in fly ash. The amount of lead leached exceeded the regulatory level in both Japanese and Korean fly ash. The rate of leaching was relatively low in ash with a pH in the range of 6-10. The bio-availability test in fly ash demonstrated that the amount of heavy metals leached was Pb>Cd>Cr, but the order was changed to Pb>Cr>Cd in the bottom ash. The leaching concentration of lead exceeded the Japanese risk level in all fly ashes from the two countries, but the leaching concentration of cadmium exceeded the regulatory level in Korean fly ash only.

  5. Comparison of leaching characteristics of heavy metals from bottom and fly ashes in Korea and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Young-Sook; Rhee, Seung-Whee; Lee, Woo-Keun

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the leaching characteristics of heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, etc., in Korean and Japanese municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash. The rate of leaching of heavy metal was measured by KSLT and JTL-13, and the amount of heavy metals leached was compared with the metal content in each waste component. Finally, bio-availability testing was performed to assess the risks associated with heavy metals leached from bottom ash and fly ash. From the results, the value of neutralization ability in Japanese fly ash was four times higher than that in Korean fly ash. The reason was the difference in the content of Ca(OH) 2 in fly ash. The amount of lead leached exceeded the regulatory level in both Japanese and Korean fly ash. The rate of leaching was relatively low in ash with a pH in the range of 6-10. The bio-availability test in fly ash demonstrated that the amount of heavy metals leached was Pb > Cd > Cr, but the order was changed to Pb > Cr > Cd in the bottom ash. The leaching concentration of lead exceeded the Japanese risk level in all fly ashes from the two countries, but the leaching concentration of cadmium exceeded the regulatory level in Korean fly ash only

  6. Leaching of biocides from building facades: Upscaling of a local two-region leaching model to the city scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, S.; Rota, C.; Rossi, L.; Barry, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Facades are protected by paints that contain biocides as protection against degradation. These biocides are leached by rainfall (albeit at low concentrations). At the city scale, however, the surface area of building facades is significant, and leached biocides are a potential environmental risk to receiving waters. A city-scale biocide-leaching model was developed based on two main steps. In the first step, laboratory experiments on a single facade were used to calibrate and validate a 1D, two-region phenomenological model of biocide leaching. The same data set was analyzed independently by another research group who found empirically that biocide leachate breakthrough curves were well represented by a sum of two exponentials. Interestingly, the two-region model was found analytically to reproduce this functional form as a special case. The second step in the method is site-specific, and involves upscaling the validated single facade model to a particular city. In this step, (i) GIS-based estimates of facade heights and areas are deduced using the city's cadastral data, (ii) facade flow is estimated using local meteorological data (rainfall, wind direction) and (iii) paint application rates are modeled as a stochastic process based on manufacturers' recommendations. The methodology was applied to Lausanne, Switzerland, a city of about 200,000 inhabitants. Approximately 30% of the annually applied mass of biocides was estimated to be released to the environment.

  7. Basic and acidic leaching of Melton Valley Storage Tank sludge at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Beahm, E.C.

    1995-01-01

    Basic and acidic leaching tests were conducted with samples of sludge taken from an underground storage tank at the US Department of Energy Melton Valley Storage Tank facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The tests evaluated separation technologies for use in sludge processing to concentrate the radionuclides and reduce the volumes of storage tank waste for final disposal. Study results of sludge characterization, caustic leaching of sludge samples at ambient temperature and at 95 degrees C, and acid leaching of sludge samples at ambient temperature are reported in detail

  8. Nutrient leaching from extensive green roofs with different substrate compositions: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhong, Xing; Che, Wu

    2018-02-01

    To investigate nutrient leaching from extensive green roofs, green roof platforms were established to investigate the effluent quantity and quality during artificial rainfall. When the influent volume reached three times the empty bed volume, for which the cumulative rainfall was around 300 mm, the effluent TP and COD concentrations of green roof platforms filled with peat soil did not tend to stabilize. For a long-term operation, the substrate depths had little significant influence on TN, TP and COD concentrations of the green roof effluents. A normalized cumulative emission process method was proposed to discuss the difference in various pollutant leaching processes. Obvious differences in the leaching process of different contaminants for green roof platforms filled with various substrates were observed. For the green roof filled with modified substrates, the nitrogen and phosphorus pollutant leaching rates were relatively high in the initial stage of green roof operation and the phosphorus leaching rate was higher than that of nitrogen. The green roof is a sink for TN, but not for TP and COD in this study. The outcomes are critical for the selection of green roof substrates and also contribute to green roof maintenance.

  9. Intensification Behavior of Mercury Ions on Gold Cyanide Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanidation is the main method used to extract gold from gold raw materials; however, a serious problem with this method is the low leaching rate. In order to improve gold leaching, the intensification behavior of mercury ions on gold cyanide leaching, for two types of materials, sulphide gold concentrate and oxide gold ore, was investigated. The results showed that mercury ions, with only a 10−5 M dosage, could significantly intensify leaching and gold recovery. The dissolution behavior of gold plate was also intensified by 10−5 M mercury ions. Microstructure analysis showed that mercury ions intensified the cyanidation corrosion of the gold surface, resulting in a loose structure, where a large number of deep ravines and raised particles were evident across the whole gold surface. The loose structure added contact surface between the gold and cyanide, and accelerated gold dissolution. Moreover, mercury ions obstructed the formation of insoluble products, such as AuCN, Au(OHCN, and Au(OHx, that lead to a passivation membrane on the gold surface, reducing contact between the gold and cyanide. These effects, brought about by mercury ions, change the structure and product of the gold surface during gold cyanidation and promote gold leaching.

  10. Main ways and suitable technologies of improving economic benefits for uranium ore heap leaching in China (the end)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Zibin

    2001-01-01

    Combining with practice of China's uranium ore heap leaching, the author proposes main ways and suitable technologies in the fields of emphasizing feasibility research, adopting strengthened technologies, improving equipment level, optimizing control technological factors and developing application range and so on, which include adopting acid-currying and ferric sulphate-trickle leaching process, bacteria heap leaching, countercurrent heap leaching, selecting advanced material of heap bottom, developing large mechanized heap construction equipment and methods, popularizing drip irrigation distributing solution, optimizing heap leaching process parameters, as well as developing recovery equipment suited to heap leaching, etc, in order to increase leaching rate, reduce heap leaching period and achieve more economic benefits

  11. Synthesis of novel ionic liquids and evaluation of their leaching performance in the recovery of copper and zinc from industrial brass slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahina, A.K.; Atalaya, T.S.; Atbakarb, M.; Ocalb, N.; Saridede, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    Imidazolium-based ionic liquids, 1,3-dibenzylimidazolium trifluoroacetate, 1-benzyl-3-ethylimidazolium trifluoroacetate and 1-benzyl-3-propylimidazolium trifluoroacetate were prepared by simple methods, when compared with those in literature sources, and characterized by IR, NMR and GC-MS and LC-MS. These ILs (Ionic Liquids) were employed as leaching agents in the treatment of industrial copper and zinc bearing slag for the recovery of metals. Results showed that synthesized all novel ionic liquids meet the standard specifications of an ionic liquid. Metal recovery rates decrease with time except for zinc dissolution in 1,3-dibenzylimidazolium trifluoroacetate. 1,3-dibenzylimidazolium trifluoroacetate, when compared with others, is a more effective leaching agent for the treatment of copper and zinc bearing brass slag. Metal recovery rates achieved with this IL are 62.58% for zinc and 24.95% for copper. (Author)

  12. Synthesis of novel ionic liquids and evaluation of their leaching performance in the recovery of copper and zinc from industrial brass slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfer Kilicarslan Sahin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Imidazolium-based ionic liquids, 1,3-dibenzylimidazolium trifluoroacetate, 1-benzyl-3-ethylimidazolium trifluoroacetate and 1-benzyl-3-propylimidazolium trifluoroacetate were prepared by simple methods, when compared with those in literature sources, and characterized by IR, NMR and GC-MS and LC-MS. These ILs (Ionic Liquids were employed as leaching agents in the treatment of industrial copper and zinc bearing slag for the recovery of metals. Results showed that synthesized all novel ionic liquids meet the standard specifications of an ionic liquid. Metal recovery rates decrease with time except for zinc dissolution in 1,3-dibenzylimidazolium trifluoroacetate. 1,3-dibenzylimidazolium trifluoroacetate, when compared with others, is a more effective leaching agent for the treatment of copper and zinc bearing brass slag. Metal recovery rates achieved with this IL are 62.58% for zinc and 24.95% for copper.

  13. Synthesis of novel ionic liquids and evaluation of their leaching performance in the recovery of copper and zinc from industrial brass slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahina, A.K.; Atalaya, T.S.; Atbakarb, M.; Ocalb, N.; Saridede, M.N.

    2016-07-01

    Imidazolium-based ionic liquids, 1,3-dibenzylimidazolium trifluoroacetate, 1-benzyl-3-ethylimidazolium trifluoroacetate and 1-benzyl-3-propylimidazolium trifluoroacetate were prepared by simple methods, when compared with those in literature sources, and characterized by IR, NMR and GC-MS and LC-MS. These ILs (Ionic Liquids) were employed as leaching agents in the treatment of industrial copper and zinc bearing slag for the recovery of metals. Results showed that synthesized all novel ionic liquids meet the standard specifications of an ionic liquid. Metal recovery rates decrease with time except for zinc dissolution in 1,3-dibenzylimidazolium trifluoroacetate. 1,3-dibenzylimidazolium trifluoroacetate, when compared with others, is a more effective leaching agent for the treatment of copper and zinc bearing brass slag. Metal recovery rates achieved with this IL are 62.58% for zinc and 24.95% for copper. (Author)

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Co3O4 prepared from atmospheric pressure acid leach liquors of nickel laterite ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Long; Guo, Zhan-cheng; Qu, Jing-kui; Qi, Tao; Guo, Qiang; Hou, Gui-hua; Dong, Peng-yu; Xi, Xin-guo

    2018-01-01

    A chemical precipitation-thermal decomposition method was developed to synthesize Co3O4 nanoparticles using cobalt liquor obtained from the atmospheric pressure acid leaching process of nickel laterite ores. The effects of the precursor reaction temperature, the concentration of Co2+, and the calcination temperature on the specific surface area, morphology, and the electrochemical behavior of the obtained Co3O4 particles were investigated. The precursor basic cobaltous carbonate and cobaltosic oxide products were characterized and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area analysis, and electrochemical analysis. The results indicate that the specific surface area of the Co3O4 particles with a diameter of 30 nm, which were obtained under the optimum conditions of a precursor reaction temperature of 30°C, 0.25 mol/L Co2+, and a calcination temperature of 350°C, was 48.89 m2/g. Electrodes fabricated using Co3O4 nanoparticles exhibited good electrochemical properties, with a specific capacitance of 216.3 F/g at a scan rate of 100 mV/s.

  15. Environmental Hazard Assessment of Jarosite Waste Using Batch Leaching Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kerolli – Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jarosite waste samples from Trepça Zinc Industry in Kosovo were subjected to two batch leaching tests as an attempt to characterize the leaching behavior and mobility of minor and major elements of jarosite waste. To achieve this, deionized water and synthetic acidic rain leaching tests were employed. A two-step acidic treatment in microwave digestion system were used to dissolve jarosite waste samples, followed by determination of Al, Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Si, Sr, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of two geochemical reference materials, S JR-3 and S Jsy-1. Two toxicity leaching tests revealed a high metal releasing of Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, Zn, and As, and the metal release risk for these elements is still very high due the low pH and acid rain. The statistical analysis showed useful data information on the relationship between elements in jarosite samples in two different extraction conditions (deionized water and synthetic acid rain.

  16. Effect of uniaxially pressing ordinary Portland cement pastes containing metal hydroxides on porosity, density, and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheeseman, C.R.; Asavapisit, S.; Knight, J.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic metal hydroxide wastes containing Zn and Pb have been mixed with partially hydrated cement and uniaxially pressed. The effect on porosity, pore size distribution, and bulk and skeletal densities has been characterized using mercury intrusion porosimetry. Ca(OH) 2 formation has been determined using differential thermal analysis and metal leaching has been assessed in a series of static leach tests completed on monolithic samples. Pressed solidified materials have increased density, reduced porosity, and reduced Ca(OH) 2 . They exhibit increased resistance to acid attack in terms of sample weight loss during leaching due to reduced release of alkalis. Leaching of Zn and Pb is primarily determined by pH. A peak observed in Zn leaching from pressed samples is due to the effect of changing leachate pH on the dominant Zn species present

  17. Titanium leaching from red mud by diluted sulfuric acid at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agatzini-Leonardou, S.; Oustadakis, P.; Tsakiridis, P.E.; Markopoulos, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-scale research has focused on the recovery of titanium from red mud, which is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production. The leaching process is based on the extraction of this element with diluted sulfuric acid from red mud under atmospheric conditions and without using any preliminary treatment. Statistical design and analysis of experiments were used, in order to determine the main effects and interactions of the leaching process factors, which were: acid normality, temperature and solid to liquid ratio. The titanium recovery efficiency on the basis of red mud weight reached 64.5%. The characterization of the initial red mud, as well as this of the leached residues was carried out by X-ray diffraction, TG-DTA and scanning electron microscopy

  18. Leaching Behavior of Heavy Metals from Cement Pastes Using a Modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minrui; Feng, Huajun; Shen, Dongsheng; Li, Na; Chen, Yingqiang; Shentu, Jiali

    2016-03-01

    As the standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) can not exhaust the acid neutralizing capacity of the cement rotary kiln co-processing solid wastes products which is particularly important for the assessment of the leaching concentrations of heavy metals. A modified TCLP was proposed. The extent of leaching of heavy metals is low using the TCLP and the leaching performance of the different metals can not be differentiated. Using the modified TCLP, however, Zn leaching was negligible during the first 180 h and then sharply increased (2.86 ± 0.18 to 3.54 ± 0.26 mg/L) as the acidity increased (pH leaching is enhanced using the modified TCLP. While Pb leached readily during the first 126 h and then leachate concentrations decreased to below the analytical detection limit. To conclude, this modified TCLP is a more suitable method for these cement rotary kiln co-processing products.

  19. Development of differential quadrature based computational scheme in cylindrical geometry and its application to simulate radionuclide leaching from radioactive waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, T.K.; Bajpai, R.K.; Datta, D.

    2016-01-01

    Differential Quadrature Method (DQM) based computational scheme is developed to solve diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinate. In this scheme, time derivative is approximated using forward difference and the spatial derivatives using polynomial based DQM. This developed scheme is applied to simulate test problem on radionuclide leaching from radioactive waste form. Leach rate is calculated after simulating the leaching process. DQM based results are compared with the analytical solutions and good agreements between the two results are established. The developed tool is used as a numerical tool for computationally intensive calculations, such as regression analysis and correlation analysis etc. Multivariate regression analysis is carried out to establish a linear relationship between leach rate and model parameters e.g., diffusion coefficient, porosity and linear sorption coefficient. Study of correlation analysis carried out in this study shows that diffusion coefficient is positively more correlated with leach rate compared to porosity whereas, K_d is negatively correlated with leach rate. (author)

  20. Estimating subsoil resistance to nitrate leaching from easily measurable pedological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Keiti Nakagawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leaching of nitrate (NO3- can increase the groundwater concentration of this anion and reduce the agronomical effectiveness of nitrogen fertilizers. The main soil property inversely related to NO3- leaching is the anion exchange capacity (AEC, whose determination is however too time-consuming for being carried out in soil testing laboratories. For this reason, this study evaluated if more easily measurable soil properties could be used to estimate the resistance of subsoils to NO3- leaching. Samples from the subsurface layer (20-40 cm of 24 representative soils of São Paulo State were characterized for particle-size distribution and for chemical and electrochemical properties. The subsoil content of adsorbed NO3- was calculated from the difference between the NO3- contents extracted with 1 mol L-1 KCl and with water; furthermore, NO3- leaching was studied in miscible displacement experiments. The results of both adsorption and leaching experiments were consistent with the well-known role exerted by AEC on the nitrate behavior in weathered soils. Multiple regression analysis indicated that in subsoils with (i low values of remaining phosphorus (Prem, (ii low soil pH values measured in water (pH H2O, and (iii high pH values measured in 1 moL L-1 KCl (pH KCl, the amounts of surface positive charges tend to be greater. For this reason, NO3- leaching tends to be slower in these subsoils, even under saturated flow condition.

  1. A New Generation of Leaching Tests – The Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides an overview of newly released leaching tests that provide a more accurate source term when estimating environmental release of metals and other constituents of potential concern (COPCs). The Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) methods have been (1) develo...

  2. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, M. G. Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita

    2016-01-01

    at a rate of 50 t ha(-1) and followed with four irrigation events: 3.5-h period at 10 mm h(-1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The disturbed columns delayed the leaching of a conservative tracer and microorganisms in the first irrigation event compared to the intact columns due to the effect of disturbed...... macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect...... of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils...

  3. Leaching process for recovering valuable metals from the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode of lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Po; Sun, Shu-Ying; Song, Xing-Fu; Yu, Jian-Guo

    2017-06-01

    In view of the importance of environmental protection and resource recovery, recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and electrode scraps generated during manufacturing processes is quite necessary. An environmentally sound leaching process for the recovery of Li, Ni, Co, and Mn from spent LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 -based LIBs and cathode scraps was investigated in this study. Eh-pH diagrams were used to determine suitable leaching conditions. Operating variables affecting the leaching efficiencies for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn from LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 , such as the H 2 SO 4 concentration, temperature, H 2 O 2 concentration, stirring speed, and pulp density, were investigated to determine the most efficient conditions for leaching. The leaching efficiencies for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn reached 99.7% under the optimized conditions of 1M H 2 SO 4 , 1vol% H 2 O 2 , 400rpm stirring speed, 40g/L pulp density, and 60min leaching time at 40°C. The leaching kinetics of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 were found to be significantly faster than those of LiCoO 2 . Based on the variation in the weight fraction of the metal in the residue, the "cubic rate law" was revised as follows: θ(1-f) 1/3 =(1-kt/r 0 ρ), which could characterize the leaching kinetics optimally. The activation energies were determined to be 64.98, 65.16, 66.12, and 66.04kJ/mol for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn, respectively, indicating that the leaching process was controlled by the rate of surface chemical reactions. Finally, a simple process was proposed for the recovery of valuable metals from spent LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 -based LIBs and cathode scraps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Leaching assessment of road materials containing primary lead and zinc slags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, R; Moszkowicz, P; Gervais, C

    2004-01-01

    Characterisation of the leaching behaviour of waste-containing materials is a crucial step in the environmental assessment for reuse scenarios. In our research we applied the multi-step European methodology ENV 12-920 to the leaching assessment of road materials containing metallurgical slag. A Zn slag from an imperial smelting furnace (ISF) and a Pb slag from a lead blast furnace (LBF) are investigated. The two slags contain up to 11.2 wt% of lead and 3.5 wt% of zinc and were introduced as a partial substitute for sand in two road materials, namely sand-cement and sand-bitumen. At the laboratory scale, a leaching assessment was performed first through batch equilibrium leaching tests. Second, the release rate of the contaminants was evaluated using saturated leaching tests on monolithic material. Third, laboratory tests were conducted on monolithic samples under intermittent wetting conditions. Pilot-scale tests were conducted for field testing of intermittent wetting conditions. The results show that the release of Pb and Zn from the materials in a saturated scenario was controlled by the pH of the leachates. For the intermittent wetting conditions, an additional factor, blocking of the pores by precipitation during the drying phase is proposed. Pilot-scale leaching behaviour only partially matched with the laboratory-scale test results: new mass transfer mechanisms and adapted laboratory leaching tests are discussed.

  5. Defining Effective Salt Leaching Regions Between Drains

    OpenAIRE

    ANAPALI, Ömer; ŞAHİN, Üstün; ÖZTAŞ, Taşkın; HANAY, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    The application of sufficient amounts of leaching water by means of an effective method is very important in the management and reclamation of saline and sodic soils. Reclamation cannot be achieved with insufficient leaching water application, while excess water application may cause severe problems in soil. Knowledge of the leaching regions and intensities may help to control the amounts of leaching water through effective leaching methods in areas of limited leaching. This study was und...

  6. Discussion on the impact of uranium ore heap leaching to environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Guoxiu; Liu Qingcheng; Chen Xin; Deng Shengshui; Yang Qinghua

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of uranium ore heap leaching on the environment were studied with the case of two long production uranium mines. According to the basic requirements of the radiation environment assessment of the nuclear industry, the surface radon exhalation rate of the mine waste, the concentration of radionuclide of the waste water and the γ radiation level and concentration of radionuclide of the waste were investigated and compared to that of the early conventional hydrometallurgical production of the two uranium mines. The merits and disadvantage of the heap leaching was evaluated, and measures and suggestions were proposed for the improvement of heap leaching techniques. (authors)

  7. Mechanism of Na2SO4 Promoting Nickel Extraction from Sulfide Concentrates by Sulfation Roasting-Water Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangshi; Cheng, Hongwei; Chen, Sha; Lu, Xionggang; Xu, Qian; Lu, Changyuan

    2018-06-01

    As a more environmentally friendly and energy-efficient route, the sulfation roasting-water leaching technique has been developed for highly effective extraction of non-ferrous metals from nickel sulfide concentrate in the presence of a Na2SO4 additive. The effects of several important roasting parameters—the roasting temperature, the addition of Na2SO4, the holding time, and the heating rate in particular—have been investigated. The results suggest that about 90 pct Ni, 92 pct Co, 95 pct Cu, and leached from the calcine roasted under the optimum conditions. Furthermore, the behavior and mechanism of the Na2SO4 additive in the roasting process have been well addressed by detailed characterization of the roasted product and leaching residue using quantitative phase analysis (QPA) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. The Na2SO4 additive was observed to play a noticeable role in promoting the sulfation degree of valuable metals by forming liquid phases [Na2Me(SO4)2] at the outermost layer, which can create a suitable dynamic environment for sulfation. Thus, addition of Na2SO4 might be conducive to an alternative metallurgical process involving complex sulfide ores.

  8. Phosphorus, nitrogen, and radionuclide retention and leaching from a Joel sand amended with red mud/gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPharlin, L.R.; Jeffery, R.C.; Toussaint, L.F.; Cooper, M.

    1994-01-01

    The leaching of phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), and radionuclides 232 Th, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 40 K from Joel sands amended with red mud/gypsum (RMG) at 9 rates (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, and 256 t/ha) was measured using columns. Intense leaching conditions (34 mm/day for 12 days) and a high rate of applied P (320 kg/ha as superphosphate) and N (680 kg/ha as ammonium nitrate) were used to simulate extremes of irrigated vegetable production on the Swan Coastal Plain. Addition of the highest rate of RMG (256 t/ha) reduced leaching of fertiliser P and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) by 85% and 50%, respectively, compared with 0 t/ha after 12 days. At 64 t RMG/ha P leaching was reduced 50% compared with 0 t/ha. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching was not affected by addition of RMG. Reduced leaching of NH4-N was attributed to an increase in cation exchange capacity of the soil with the addition of RMG. Bicarbonate-extractable P in the soil increased with rate of RMG to >50 μg P/g soil at 256 t/ha. This indicates that soil testing of residual P could be used to reduce P inputs to vegetable crops after soils were amended with RMG. This would further reduce the impact of vegetable production on the water systems of the Swan Coastal Plain and extend the period of effectiveness of RMG amended soils. The increase in 232 Th specific activity in Joel sand amended with RMG was well below statutory limits even at the highest rate. Neither 40 K nor 226 Ra were detectable in RMG amended sands up to 256 t RMG/ha. There was no evidence of leaching of 226 Ra or 228 Ra at any rate of RMG. These results suggest that the use of RMG amendment on commercial horticultural properties on the Swan Coastal Plain could be feasible. 30 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Use of low-cost heat sources to improve the efficiency of heap leaching of uranium ores. Part of a coordinated programme on bacterial leaching of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajuria, S.

    1977-12-01

    Basic technical parameters are given of two solar heaters designed for use in heap leaching of uranium ores. Inexpensive and easily available materials such as flat glass panes, glass tubing and corrugated metal sheets were used in the construction of the heaters. Under optimum conditions, the heaters can produce temperature differentials of 52 0 C (50 0 C) at the flow rate of 30ml/min. The dependence of percent recovery on the temperature of solutions in heap leaching of ore from 'El Nopal' was studied. Even though no precise correlation was found, an increase in the temperature of solutions seems to improve the efficiency of heap leaching

  10. Vat leaching of gold ores and utilization of the tailings; Kinkoseki no vat leaching to koshi no yuko riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosooka, T. [Nippon Clay Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Miyagawa, H. [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-25

    Mitsui Kushikino Mine previously processed two gold ores from Kushikino and Iwato ore deposits by the all slime cyanidation method, where the ores were ground to fine size smaller than 75 {mu}m and leached with sodium, cyanide. A large amount of slimes were produced as waste and discarded in tailings ponds. To save the costs of grinding and waste treatment it is desirable to process coarse sized ores. The Iwato ore is gold and silver bearing silicified porous rock. As most gold and silver in the Iwato ore are concentrated in the pores, leaching of coarse sized ore is expected to be possible. Laboratory tests and pilot plant tests of vat leaching for the Iwato ore were carried out using 0.15-8.0 mm feed. These results showed that the gold dissolution rate was similar to that by the all slime cyanidation and the decrease in gold recovery was a few %. The properties of these tailings can be used in fine aggregate of concrete. Based on the results vat leaching of the Iwato ore was adopted in the plant. The tailings are sold and used as fine aggregate. Utilization of slime tailings from the other ores was also developed and they are used as flux in copper smelters. Now, there is no tailings pond at Mitsui Kushikino Mine. 9 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Leaching mechanisms of constituents from fly ash under the influence of humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shengxin; Chen, Zhonglin; Shen, Jimin; Kang, Jing; Zhang, Jin; Shen, Yanqing

    2017-01-05

    As a low-cost material for adsorption, FA is one of the most efficient adsorbents of HA. However, the leaching of elements from FA is problematic during utilization in water treatment. In this investigation, the potential leaching behaviors of Calcium, Arsenic, Born, Chromium, and other elements from FA in HA solution were studied via batch test. The data show that HA had an effect on the leaching of each element of FA, depending on the pH, the initial concentration of HA and the addition of calcium oxide (CaO). The Langmuir isotherm could better fit the equilibrium data in different initial concentrations of HA from 10 to 100mg/L. Because of the interaction between HA and the FA leaching elements, multi-layer adsorption occurred when the initial concentration of HA was more than 100mg/L. The pH and free CaO content played major roles in HA adsorption and FA leaching. Using SEM and XRD to characterize the solid of FA being mixed with CaO treated in solution, the results demonstrated that the reaction between FA and CaO could generate crystal minerals, such as portlandite, gismondine, ettringite (AFt) and calcite, which effectively restrained the leaching of elements, reduced secondary pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Kinetic and Mechanism Study of Vanadium Acid Leaching from Black Shale Using Microwave Heating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-peng; Zhang, Yi-min; Huang, Jing; Liu, Tao

    2018-04-01

    The leaching kinetics of the vanadium leaching process were investigated by the comparison of microwave heating and conventional heating methods. Microwave heating with CaF2 had a synergistic effect and improved the vanadium leaching efficiency. In contrast to conventional heating leaching, microwave heating accelerated the vanadium leaching rate by approximately 1-3% and by approximately 15% when CaF2 was also used. The kinetics analysis showed that the calculated activation energy decreased in the microwave heating method in the presence and absence of CaF2. The control procedure of leaching also changed from a chemical reaction control step to a mixed chemical diffusion control step upon the addition of CaF2. Microwave heating was shown to be suitable for leaching systems with diffusion or mixed chemical diffusion control steps when the target mineral does not have a microwave absorbing ability.

  13. Kinetic and Mechanism Study of Vanadium Acid Leaching from Black Shale Using Microwave Heating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-peng; Zhang, Yi-min; Huang, Jing; Liu, Tao

    2018-06-01

    The leaching kinetics of the vanadium leaching process were investigated by the comparison of microwave heating and conventional heating methods. Microwave heating with CaF2 had a synergistic effect and improved the vanadium leaching efficiency. In contrast to conventional heating leaching, microwave heating accelerated the vanadium leaching rate by approximately 1-3% and by approximately 15% when CaF2 was also used. The kinetics analysis showed that the calculated activation energy decreased in the microwave heating method in the presence and absence of CaF2. The control procedure of leaching also changed from a chemical reaction control step to a mixed chemical diffusion control step upon the addition of CaF2. Microwave heating was shown to be suitable for leaching systems with diffusion or mixed chemical diffusion control steps when the target mineral does not have a microwave absorbing ability.

  14. Passivation of chalcopyrite during the leaching with sulphuric acid solution in presence of sodium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić Miroslav D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the process of the chalcopyrite leaching in sulphuric acid solution was investigated. Sodium nitrate was used as oxidant in the leaching process. Chemical reactions of leaching and their thermodynamic possibilities are predicted based on the calculated Gibbs energies and analysis of E−pH diagrams. The negative values of the Gibbs energy show that all chemical reactions are thermodynamically feasible at atmospheric pressure and in a temperature range 25-90°C. At high electrode potential and low pH values, Cu2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions exist in water solutions. The increase of temperature reduces the probability of Fe3+ ion existence in the system. The chalcopyrite concentrate, enriched in the “Rudnik” flotation plant, with 27.08% Cu, 25.12% Fe, 4.15% Zn and 2.28% Pb was used in the work. XRD and DTA analysis of the concentrate reveals that the sample contains mainly the chalcopyrite with small amount of sphalerite. For the description of the reaction of leaching process the leach residuals, obtained at different conditions, were chosen for XRD, TG/DTA and SEM/EDX analyses. The elemental sulphur and chalcopyrite phases identified in leach residuals confirm our prediction that the elemental sulphur is formed during the leaching process. Accordingly, elemental sulphur is the main product of the reaction, while a minor amount of sulphide sulphur is oxidized to sulphate during the leaching. The sulphur formed during the reaction was precipitated at the particle surfaces, and slowed down the leaching rate in the final stage of leaching process. In the initial stage, the reaction rate was controlled by the surface reaction. The mechanism, latter has been changed into a diffusion controlled one.

  15. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita; Veith, Tamie L; Laegdsmand, Mette

    2016-12-15

    Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns at a rate of 50 t ha -1 and followed with four irrigation events: 3.5-h period at 10 mm h -1 after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The disturbed columns delayed the leaching of a conservative tracer and microorganisms in the first irrigation event compared to the intact columns due to the effect of disturbed macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils. In contrast, NO 3 -N leaching from the intact soil was higher for all events except the first event, probably due to a lower nitrification rate in the disturbed soil. A week after the last irrigation event, the redistribution of all slurry constituents except NO 3 -N in most of the sections of the soil column was higher for the disturbed soil. Total recovery of E. coli was significantly higher from the disturbed soil and total leaching of mineral nitrogen was significantly

  16. Stainless steel leaches nickel and chromium into foods during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerud, Kristin L; Hobbie, Kevin A; Anderson, Kim A

    2013-10-02

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan, cooking times of 2-20 h, 10 consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After 6 h of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold, respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34-fold and Cr increased approximately 35-fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, although significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage.

  17. Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan; cooking times of 2 to 20 hours, ten consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After six hours of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34 fold and Cr increased approximately 35 fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, though significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle, resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage. PMID:23984718

  18. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields - long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbom, Annette E; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

    2015-06-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Brüsch, Walter Michael; Juhler, Rene K.

    In 1998, the Danish Parliament initiated the Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme (PLAP), an intensive monitoring programme aimed at evaluating the leaching risk of pesticides under field conditions. The objective of the PLAP is to improve the scientific foundation for decision......-making in the Danish regulation of pesticides. The specific aim is to analyse whether pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations leach to groundwater in unacceptable concentrations. The programme currently evaluates the leaching risk of 41 pesticides and 40 degradation products at five agricultural......, thiamethoxam, tribenuronmethyl, and triasulfuron) did not leach during the 1999-2009 monitoring period. 13 of the applied pesticides exhibited pronounced leaching of the pesticide and/or their degradation product(-s) 1 m b.g.s. in yearly average concentrations exceeding 0.1 μg/l (maximum allowable...

  20. Investigation of leaching of an antifouling agent from marine paint formulations using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.; Sharma, V.K.; Gursharan Singh; Kalgutkar, D.B.; Patil, S.P.; Jayachandran, N.; Unni, V.K.P.

    2012-01-01

    A radiotracer technique was used to investigate the leaching of an antifouling agent from different marine paint formulations with an objective to select the best paint formulation for bulk production. The antifouling agent (Diuron) itself was labeled with carbon-14 (half-life: 5,730 years, β-energy: 156 keV) and used as a radiotracer. The different paint formulations added with radiolabeled Diuron were applied onto suitably selected substrates and measured for initial intensity of β-radiation using a Geiger-Muller detector connected to a ratemeter. The painted substrates were subjected to shower tests for a pre-decided time and subsequently measured for β-radiations. The comparison of intensity of β-radiations in substrates prior and post shower tests provides information about leaching of antifouling agent Diuron from the paint formulation. The high leaching percentage of antifouling agent Diuron post shower tests indicates non-suitability of paint formulation for marine and civil structures. However, low leaching rate of Diuron will make a paint formulation more efficient and suitable. Based on the results of investigation, a paint formulation with minimum leaching rate was identified and selected for bulk production by a paint company. (author)

  1. Leaching of solidified TRU-contaminated incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    Leach rate and cumulative fractional releases of plutonium were determined for a series of laboratory-scale waste forms containing transuranic (TRU) contaminated incinerator ash. The solidification agents from which these waste forms were produced are commercially available materials for radioactive waste disposal. The leachants simulate groundwaters with chemical compositions that are indiginous to different geological media proposed for repositories. In this study TRU-contaminated ash was incorporated into waste forms fabricated with portland type I cement, urea-formaldehyde, polyester-styrene or Pioneer 221 bitumen. The ash was generated at the dual-chamber incinerator at the Rocky Flats Plant. These waste forms contained between 1.25 x 10 -2 and 4.4 x 10 -2 Ci (depending on the solidification agent) of mixed TRU isotopes comprised primarily of 239 Pu and 240 Pu. Five leachant solutions were prepared consisting of: (1) demineralized water, (2) simulated brine, (3) simplified sodium-dominated groundwater (30 meq NaCl/liter), (4) simplified calcium-dominated groundwater (30 meq CaCl 2 /liter), and (5) simplified bicarbonate-dominated groundwater (30 meq NaHCO 3 /liter). Cumulative fractional releases were found to vary significantly with different leachants and solidification agents. In all cases waste forms leached in brine gave the lowest leach rates. Urea-formaldehyde had the greatest release of radionuclides while polyester-styrene and portland cement had approximately equivalent fractional releases. Cement cured for 210 days retained radionuclides three times more effectively than cement cured only 30 days

  2. Evolution of the local environment of lanthanum during simplified SON68 glass leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jollivet, P.; Delaye, J.M.; Den Auwer, C.; Simoni, E.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of the short- and medium-range local environment of lanthanum was determined by L-III-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) during leaching of simplified SON68-type glasses. In glass without phosphorus, lanthanum is found in a silicate environment, and its first coordination sphere comprises eight oxygen atoms at a mean distance of 2.51 angstrom. When this glass was leached at a high renewal rate, the lanthanum local environment was significantly modified: it was present at hydroxy-carbonate and silicate sites with a mean La-O distance of 2.56 angstrom, and the second neighbors consisted of La atoms instead of Si for the glass. Conversely, in the gel formed at low renewal rates, lanthanum was found in a silicate environment similar to that of the glass. In phosphorus-doped glass, lanthanum is found in a phosphate environment, although the Si/P atomic ratio is 20:1. Lanthanum is surrounded by seven oxygen atoms at a mean distance of 2.37 angstrom. When phosphorus-doped glass is leached, regardless of the leaching solution flow rate, the short- and medium-range lanthanum local environment remains almost constant; the most significant change is a 0.05 angstrom increase in the La-O distance. (authors)

  3. Groundwater leaching of neutralized and untreated acid-leached uranium-mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Begej, C.W.; Campbell, A.C.; Sauter, N.N.; Opitz, B.E.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Tailings neutralization was examined to determine the effect of neutralization on contaminant release. Column leaching of acid extracted uranium mill tailings from Exxon Highland Mill, Wyoming, Pathfinder Gas Hills Mill, Wyoming, and the Dawn Midnite Mill, Washington, resulted in the flushing of high concentrations of salts in the first four pore volumes of leachate, followed by a steady decrease to the original groundwater salt concentrations. Neutralization decreased the concentration of salts and radionuclides leaching from the tailings and decreased the volume of solution required to return the solution to the groundwater pH and EC. Radium-226 and uranium-238 leached quickly from the tailings in the initial pore volumes of both neutralized and unneutralized tailings, and then decreased significantly. 6 figures, 5 tables

  4. Pressure leaching of chalcopyrite concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksei, Kritskii; Kirill, Karimov; Stanislav, Naboichenko

    2018-05-01

    The results of chalcopyrite concentrate processing using low-temperature and high-temperature sulfuric acid pressure leaching are presented. A material of the following composition was used, 21.5 Cu, 0.1 Zn, 0.05 Pb, 0.04 Ni, 26.59 S, 24.52 Fe, 16.28 SiO2 (in wt.%). The influence of technological parameters on the degree of copper and iron extraction into the leach solution was studied in the wide range of values. The following conditions were suggested as the optimal for the high-temperature pressure leaching: t = 190 °C, PO2 = 0.5 MPa, CH2SO4 = 15 g/L, L:S = 6:1. At the mentioned parameters, it is possible to extract at least 98% Cu from concentrate into the leaching solution during 100 minutes. The following conditions were suggested as optimal for the low-temperature pressure leaching: t = 105 °C, PO2 = 1.3-1.5 MPa, CH2SO4 = 90 g/L, L:S = 10:1. At the mentioned parameters, it is possible to extract up to 83% Cu from the concentrate into the leach solution during 300-360 minutes.

  5. Leaching and recovery of zinc and copper from brass slag by sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaching and recovery processes for zinc and copper from brass slag by sulfuric acid were carried out and iron and aluminum were also precipitated as hydroxides in addition to silica gel. The factors affecting the performance and efficiency of the leaching processsuch as agitation rate, leaching time, acid concentration and temperature were separately investigated. The results obtained revealed that zinc and copper are successfully recovered from these secondary resources, where the percent recovery amounts to 95% and 99% for zinc and copper, respectively. The experimental data of this leaching process were well interpreted with the shrinking core model under chemically controlled processes. The apparent activation energy for the leaching of zinc has been evaluated using the Arrhenius expression. Based on the experimental results, a separation method and a flow sheet were developed and tested to separate zinc, copper, iron, aluminum and silica gel from the brass slag.

  6. Study of controlled leaching process of steel slag in Soxhlet extractor aiming employment in pavements; Estudo do processo de lixiviacao controlada da escoria de aciaria em extrator Soxhlet visando emprego em pavimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Kissyla Avila; Guimaraes, Antonio Carlos Rodrigues; Reis, Marcelo de Miranda; Santana, Claudeny Simone Alves, E-mail: kissyla.avila@gmail.com.br, E-mail: cap-guimaraes@hotmail.com, E-mail: marceloreis@ime.eb.br, E-mail: cl_deny@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work addresses the characterization of physical, chemical and mechanical properties of steel slag as an alternative aggregation before and after leaching testing controlled Soxhlet extractor. The material it was characterized before going through the natural leaching process and after controlled leaching in different periods of 24, 56, 96, 120 hours. The steel slag was subjected in the laboratory to simulate the precipitation in Soxhlet equipment to evaluate its physical, chemical and mechanical properties after each period described. The study of the process of leaching in steel slag searched to understand the influence of the washing process in a slag behavior in such a process. The physical characterization occurred through traditional testing of coarse aggregates, the chemical characterization through the testing of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) completed by Dispersive Spectroscopy Energy (DSE) and X- ray diffraction and the mechanical characterization through testing of standardized expansion and adapted. The sample virgin, without receiving process of stabilization by controlled leaching, showed satisfactory results in the physics characterization when compared to conventional aggregates, the chemical characterization proved to be a steel slag with high contents of CaO, MgO and FeO, the mechanical characterization demonstrated that, although the degree of expansibility of the slag is low demonstrated that this should not be disregarded in the paving work. After controlled leaching the steel slag showed no significant loss of its physical properties. As the mechanical testing of expansion had decreased the potential of expansibility after leaching periods. It is concluded that the leaching process in a Soxhlet extractor is of importance in the study the properties of steel slag, once covering several days of leaching was reduced potential for expansion, limiting feature in the use of steel slag for paving. (author)

  7. Sorption and leaching of benzalkonium chlorides in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adnan Hossain; Macfie, Sheila M; Ray, Madhumita B

    2017-07-01

    The adsorption and leaching characteristics of two commonly used benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), benzyl dimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride (BDDA) and benzyl dimethyl tetradecyl ammonium chloride (BDTA) using three agricultural soils with varied proportions of silt, sand, clay, and organic matter were determined. BACs are cationic surfactants used in large quantities for sanitary and personal care products and are abundant in environmental samples. Adsorption isotherm data (aqueous concentration in the range of 25-150 mg L -1 ) fitted the Langmuir model better than the Freundlich model. BDTA with a longer alkyl chain adsorbed more to soil compared to BDDA, and the soil with the highest percentage of clay adsorbed the most. Column tests conducted using soils amended with lime stabilised biosolids and artificial rain water at a flow rate of 0.2 mL min -1 indicate very low leaching of BACs. Less than 1% of the available BDDA leached through sandy loam soil column with a depth of 9 cm. Therefore, the possibility of BACs to become bioavailable through leaching is very low at environmentally relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Extraction of Vanadium from Vanadium Slag Via Non-salt Roasting and Ammonium Oxalate Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Du, Hao; Zheng, Shili; Wang, Shaona; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Biao; Dreisinger, David Bruce; Zhang, Yi

    2017-10-01

    A clean method featuring non-salt roasting followed by (NH4)2C2O4 leaching to recover vanadium from vanadium slag was proposed. The carcinogenic Cr6+ compounds and exhaust gases were avoided, and the water generated from vanadate precipitation may be recycled and reused in this new leaching process. The leaching residues may be easily used by a blast furnace. Moreover, (NH4)2C2O4 solution was used as a leaching medium to avoid expensive and complicated ammonium controlling operations as a result of the stability of (NH4)2C2O4 at a high temperature. The transformation mechanisms of vanadium- and chromium-bearing phases were systematically investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy-disperse x-ray spectrometry, respectively. In addition, the effects of oxygen concentration, roasting temperature, and holding time on vanadium recovery were investigated. Finally, the effects of leaching variables on the vanadium leaching rate were also examined.

  9. Bubbles and Dust: Dissolution Rates of Unhydrated Volcanic Ash as a Function of Morphology, Composition, and Particle Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygel, C. M.; Sahagian, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are natural hazards due to their explosive nature and widespread transportation and deposition of ash particles. After deposition and subsequent leaching in soils or water bodies, ash deposition positively (nutrients) and negatively (contaminants) impacts the health of flora and fauna, including humans. The effects of ash leachates have been difficult to replicate in field and laboratory studies due to the many complexities and differences between ash particles. Ash morphology is characteristic for each eruption, dependent upon eruption energy, and should play a critical role in determining leaching rates. Morphology reflects overall particle surface area, which is strongly influenced by the presence of surface dust. In addition, ash composition, which in part controls morphology and particle size, may also affect leaching rates. This study determines the extent to which ash morphology, surface area, composition, and particle size control ash dissolution rates. Further, it is necessary to determine whether compound vesicular ash particles permit water into their interior structures to understand if both the internal and external surface areas are available for leaching. To address this, six fresh, unhydrated ash samples from diverse volcanic environments and a large range in morphology, from Pele's spheres to vesicular compound ash, are tested in the laboratory. Ash morphology was characterized on the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) before and after leaching and surface area was quantified by Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) analysis and with geometric calculations. Column Leachate Tests (CLT) were conducted to compare leaching rates over a range of basaltic to silicic ashes as a function of time and surface area, to recreate the effects of ash deposition in diverse volcanic environments. After the CLT, post-leaching water analyses were conducted by Ion Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Ion Chromatography (IC). We find that leaching

  10. Acid mine drainage simulated leaching behavior of goethite and cobalt substituted goethite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penprase, S. B.; Kimball, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Though most modern day mining aims to eliminate the seepage of acid mine drainage (AMD) to the local watershed, historical mines regularly receive little to no remediation, and often release acidic, metal-rich drainage and particles to the environment. Treatment of AMD often includes neutralizing pH to facilitate the precipitation of Fe-oxides and dissolved trace metals, thereby forming Trace Metal Substituted (TMS) forms of known minerals, such as goethite (α-FeOOH). The stability of TMS precipitates is not fully understood. As a result, we conducted a 20 day leach experiment using laboratory synthesized pure (Gt) and cobalt-substituted (CoGt) goethites with a dilute ultrapure HCl solution (pH = 3.61) at T = 23.3±2.5ºC. Leached solids were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy paired with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Leach solutions were sampled for pH and conductivity, and dissolved chemistry was determined with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Preliminary results indicate Gt and CoGt filtered leach solutions experienced constant pH (Gt = 3.9 ± 0.1, CoGt = 6.8 ± 0.2) and conductivity (Gt = 69 ± 6.6 μS/cm, CoGt = 81 ± 16 μS/cm) for t = 0-20 days. Micro-focused XRD results indicate that leached solids did not change in mineralogy throughout the experiment, and SEM images show minor disintegration along mineral grain edges, but little overall change in shape. Preliminary ICP-MS results show lower dissolved Fe concentrations for CoGt (1.1 ± 1.1 ppb) compared to Gt (17 ± 8.9 ppb) over time. Dissolved Co concentrations ranged from 560 - 830 ppb and increased over time. Compared to leaching of pure Gt, leaching of CoGt generated significantly higher pH, slightly higher conductivity, and significantly less dissolved Fe. During the CoGt leach, Co was preferentially leached over Fe. The differences in leaching behavior between pure and TMS goethite in the laboratory have implications for

  11. Effects of structural and textural grain characteristics on leaching of sulphide minerals from a polymetallic concentrate by sodium nitrate and sulphuric acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić Miroslav D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of structural and textural characteristics of sulfide minerals on their leaching from a polymetallic concentrate by sulfuric acid and sodium nitrate solution is presented. The starting material was Pb–Zn–Cu sulphide polymetallic concentrate enriched during the flotation of a polymetallic ore in the "Rudnik" flotation plant (Rudnik – Serbia. Leaching experiments were carried out in a closed glass reactor, which provides stable hermetic conditions and allows heating at constant temperature. Chemical, XRD, qualitative and quantitative microscopic and SEM/EDX analyses were used to characterizes samples of the polymetallic concentrate and leach residue. It was determined that chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, pyrrhotite and quartz were present in the polymetallic concentrate. The content of sulphide minerals was 69.5%, of which 60.9% occurred as liberated grains: 88.3% of chalcopyrite, 59.3% of sphalerite, 25.1% of galena and 51.6% of pirrhotite. The rest of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena and pirrhotite grains were in the forms of inclusions, impregnations, and simple and complex intergrowths. During the leaching process by sodium nitrate and sulphuric acid solution, it was shown previously that the leaching rate of sulphide minerals decreased with time while a part of the sulphide minerals remained in the leach residue. After leaching at 80°C for 120 min, the yields were 69.8, 82.7 and 67.1% for Cu, Zn and Fe, respectively. Lead, in the form of insoluble anglesite, remained in the leach residue. In addition to the anglesite, unleached sulfide minerals and quartz, elemental sulfur was found in the solid residue. The content of sulphide minerals was 35% of which 33.7% minerals occur independently. In specific, 54.7% of chalcopyrite, 31.9% of sphalerite, 8.2% of galena and 37.6% of pyrrhotite appear as separate grains with highly corroded surfaces. Therefore, the structural assembly of sulphide grains in the

  12. Improvement on LEACH Agreement of Mine Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-xiang Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of wireless sensor network communication in mine, LEACH protocol clustering is optimized, and the factors of energy and distance are considered fully. The selection of cluster head nodes is optimized, and a routing algorithm based on K-means ++ clustering is proposed. The problem of uneven distribution of cluster head nodes, uneven energy consumption and network stability in LEACH algorithm is improved effectively. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the energy consumption of the whole network and improve the energy utilization rate, extending the network life cycle effectively.

  13. Investigation of the leaching behavior of lead in stabilized/solidified waste using a two-year semi-dynamic leaching test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qiang; Wang, Ping; Li, Jiang-Shan; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Shan-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Long-term leaching behavior of contaminant from stabilization/solidification (S/S) treated waste stays unclear. For the purpose of studying long-term leaching behavior and leaching mechanism of lead from cement stabilized soil under different pH environment, semi-dynamic leaching test was extended to two years to investigate leaching behaviors of S/S treated lead contaminated soil. Effectiveness of S/S treatment in different scenarios was evaluated by leachability index (LX) and effective diffusion coefficient (D e ). In addition, the long-term leaching mechanism was investigated at different leaching periods. Results showed that no significant difference was observed among the values of the cumulative release of Pb, D e and LX in weakly alkaline and weakly acidic environment (pH value varied from 5.00 to 10.00), and all the controlling leaching mechanisms of the samples immersed in weakly alkaline and weakly acidic environments turned out to be diffusion. Strong acid environment would significantly affect the leaching behavior and leaching mechanism of lead from S/S monolith. The two-year variation of D e appeared to be time dependent, and D e values increased after the 210 th day in weakly alkaline and weakly acidic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The kinetics of titanium leaching of ilmenite using HCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MV Purwani; Herry Poernomo

    2015-01-01

    The research of ilmenite leaching of tailings processing zircon sand has been done. Tailings of processing zircon sand contain Zr, Ti, Nb and Fe. Determination of leaching kinetics of Ti on ilmenite using HCl was done on this research. Determination of reaction rate consist the influence of weight ratio of HCl to ilmenite, HCl molarity and temperature reaction. The experiment of kinetics was done by varying the temperature reaction from 70°C to 108°C and time parameter range 0 to 200 minutes. From data of research can be concluded that the greater of weight ratio of HCl with ilmenite, M HCl and reaction temperature, the faster rate of reaction. On weight ratio of HCl with ilmenite varied 4 - 20, average reaction rate along 50 minutes and instantaneous reaction rate in the first 50 minutes ranged from 0.0021 to 0.0032 gmol/(l.minute). Average reaction rate along 250 minutes ranged from 0.0005 to 0.0007 gmol/(l.minute) and instantaneous reaction rate at 50 minutes latest ranged from 0.0000 to 0.0001 gmol/(l.minute). For M HCl = 8 to 12.23 M, average reaction rate and instantaneous reaction rate in the first 50 minutes ranged from 0.0012 to 0.0026 gmol/(l.minute). Average reaction rate along 250 minutes ranged from 0.0004 to 0.0006 gmol/(l.minute) and instantaneous reaction rate at 50 minutes latest ranged from 0.0000 to 0.0001 gmol/(l.minute). On reaction temperature = 70 - 108°C, average reaction rate along 50 minutes and instantaneous reaction rate in the first 50 minutes ranged from 0.0012 to 0.0032 gmol/(l.minute). Average reaction rate along 250 minutes ranged from 0.0002 to 0.0006 gmol/(l.minute) and instantaneous reaction rate at 50 minutes latest ranged from 0.0000 to 0.0001 gmol/(l.minute). The leaching reaction of Ti in ilmenite was second order reaction. The relationship between temperature (T) with the reaction rate constant (k) are - ln k = 3333.2/T - 1.3685 or k = 1.3685. e-3333,2/T , frequency factor A = 1446 and activation energy E = 27.712 k

  15. Heap leaching procedure for the Uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishahbore, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    Heap leaching of Uranium ores is currently in use in several countries. Before taking any decision for construction of heap in industrial scale, it is necessary to obtain the main factors that influence the heap leaching process, such as acid construction, acid solution flowrate, temperature of reaction, or size, ration of liquid to solid, permeability and suitable oxidant. To achieve the above parameters, small scale column leaching is usually recommended. In this project column leaching were carried out in 6 plexiglass column with 43.5 cm an height and 7.4 cm inner diameter. In each column closely 2.00 kg Uranium ore were leached by sulfuric acid. Leaching operation on Iranian ores from two different anomalies from the same area were investigated. In this project, six column were leached at different flowrate of eluent and effect of oxidant were investigated. Acid consumption were in the range of 60 - 144 kg per ton ore and recovery between 73.07% - 99.97%. Finally according to the results obtained, investigated that over are suitable to heap leaching technique. Al tough, to enforce of heap leaching project need to more experiments

  16. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields – Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbom, Annette E.; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K.; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios. - Highlights: • Field-results reveal shortcomings in the EU authorization procedure for pesticides. • The plough layer can be bypassed via preferential transport in e.g. wormholes. • Pesticides properties are decisive for leaching pattern on the sandy fields. • The hydrogeological settings control the leaching patterns on the loamy fields. • Pesticide detection frequency seems to be independent of the month of the year. - Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveals shortcomings in the European Union authorization procedure for pesticides

  17. Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2012-09-30

    The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

  18. The characterization of insoluble dissolver residues and the development of treatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, H.T.; Brown, P.E.; Pateman, R.J.; Wilkinson, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    Characterization studies have been carried out on the insoluble residue arising from laboratory scale dissolution of single pins of mixed oxide fuel irradiated in the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR). Similar characterization work has also been completed on six samples of insoluble residue recovered from the reprocessing of complete sub-assemblies of mixed oxide fuel irradiated in PFR. Treatment methods for the dissolver insolubles have consisted of preparing immobilized samples in sand/ordinary portland cement (OPC), sand/pulverized fly ash (PFA)/OPC, and blast furnace slag (BFS)/OPC. A programme of leach testing has been carried out according to the conditions laid down in the international Standard Organization Test. Four samples of DFR originated insoluble residues and six samples of PFR originated insoluble residues have been immobilized and leach tested. Variations have included experiments to evaluate the leach rate under temperature influence and to acid wash prior to immobilization

  19. Process for controlling calcium in a leach operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A method for controlling calcium, e.g. calcite, build-up in the leach solution of a uranium and/or related values recovery operation wherein the leach solution is flowed through a value bearing ore to dissolve the desired values. A soluble fluoride, e.g. sodium fluoride, is added to the leach solution after it has passed through the ore to thereby precipitate calcium fluoride from the leach solution and lower the calcium content of the leach solution. The soluble fluoride may be added to the leach solution before the leach solution passes through the process equipment which is used to remove the values from the leach solution or the soluble fluoride may be added after the leach solution passes through the process equipment. If added before, it is preferable to also add a carbonate/bicarbonate solution along with the soluble fluoride to prevent coprecipitation of uranyl/desired value fluoride or to redissolve coprecipitated fluoride back into the leach solution

  20. Hydrometallurgical Process and Kinetics of Leaching Manganese from Semi-Oxidized Manganese Ores with Sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of manganese from a semi-oxidized manganese ore was investigated with sucrose as the reducing agent in dilute sulfuric acid medium. The kinetics of leaching manganese from the complex ore containing MnCO3 and MnO2 was also investigated. The effects of sucrose and sulfuric acid concentrations, leaching temperature and reaction time on the total Mn (TMn, MnO2 and MnCO3 leaching were investigated. Results showed that MnCO3 could more easily react with hydrogen ions than MnO2 in ores, and MnO2 decomposition could be advantageous for MnCO3 leaching. The leaching efficiencies of 91.8% for total Mn, 91.4% for MnO2 and 96.9% for MnCO3 were obtained under the following optimized conditions: 0.035 mol/L sucrose concentration, 5 mol/L sulfuric acid concentration, 60 min of reaction time and 363.2 K of leaching temperature. In addition, it was found that the leaching process of semi-oxidized manganese ore follows the shrinking core model and the leaching rate was controlled by chemical reaction and diffusion. The apparent activation energy of the total manganese, MnO2, and MnCO3 leaching were 40.83, 40.59, and 53.33 kJ·mol−1, respectively.

  1. Sulfur dioxide leaching of spent zinc-carbon-battery scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avraamides, J.; Senanayake, G.; Clegg, R. [A.J. Parker Cooperative Research Centre for Hydrometallurgy, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150 (Australia)

    2006-09-22

    Zinc-carbon batteries, which contain around 20% zinc, 35% manganese oxides and 10% steel, are currently disposed after use as land fill or reprocessed to recover metals or oxides. Crushed material is subjected to magnetic separation followed by hydrometallurgical treatment of the non-magnetic material to recover zinc metal and manganese oxides. The leaching with 2M sulfuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide recovers 93% Zn and 82% Mn at 25{sup o}C. Alkaline leaching with 6M NaOH recovers 80% zinc. The present study shows that over 90% zinc and manganese can be leached in 20-30min at 30{sup o}C using 0.1-1.0M sulfuric acid in the presence of sulfur dioxide. The iron extraction is sensitive to both acid concentration and sulfur dioxide flow rate. The effect of reagent concentration and particle size on the extraction of zinc, manganese and iron are reported. It is shown that the iron and manganese leaching follow a shrinking core kinetic model due to the formation of insoluble metal salts/oxides on the solid surface. This is supported by (i) the decrease in iron and manganese extraction from synthetic Fe(III)-Mn(IV)-Zn(II) oxide mixtures with increase in acid concentration from 1M to 2M, and (ii) the low iron dissolution and re-precipitation of dissolved manganese and zinc during prolonged leaching of battery scrap with low sulfur dioxide. (author)

  2. Influencing factors and kinetics analysis on the leaching of iron from boron carbide waste-scrap with ultrasound-assisted method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Xing, Pengfei; Du, Xinghong; Gao, Shuaibo; Chen, Chen

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the ultrasound-assisted leaching of iron from boron carbide waste-scrap was investigated and the optimization of different influencing factors had also been performed. The factors investigated were acid concentration, liquid-solid ratio, leaching temperature, ultrasonic power and frequency. The leaching of iron with conventional method at various temperatures was also performed. The results show the maximum iron leaching ratios are 87.4%, 94.5% for 80min-leaching with conventional method and 50min-leaching with ultrasound assistance, respectively. The leaching of waste-scrap with conventional method fits the chemical reaction-controlled model. The leaching with ultrasound assistance fits chemical reaction-controlled model, diffusion-controlled model for the first stage and second stage, respectively. The assistance of ultrasound can greatly improve the iron leaching ratio, accelerate the leaching rate, shorten leaching time and lower the residual iron, comparing with conventional method. The advantages of ultrasound-assisted leaching were also confirmed by the SEM-EDS analysis and elemental analysis of the raw material and leached solid samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. FIELD-SCALE LEACHING OF ARSENIC, CHROMIUM AND COPPER FROM WEATHERED TREATED WOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A. Rasem; Hu, Ligang; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Fieber, Lynne; Cai, Yong; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies documented the loss of wood preservatives from new wood. The objective of this study was to evaluate losses from weathered treated wood under field conditions by collecting rainfall leachate from 5 different wood types, all with a surface area of 0.21 m2. Wood samples included weathered chromate copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood at low (2.7 kg/m3), medium (4.8 kg/m3) and high (35.4 kg/m3) retention levels, new alkaline copper quat (ACQ) treated wood (1.1 kg/m3 as CuO) and new untreated wood. Arsenic was found to leach at a higher rate (100 mg in 1 year for low retention) than chromium and copper (leached at the highest rate from the ACQ sample (670 mg). Overall results suggest that metals’ leaching is a continuous process driven by rainfall, and that the mechanism of release from the wood matrix changes as wood weathers. PMID:20053493

  4. Statistical comparison of leaching behavior of incineration bottom ash using seawater and deionized water: Significant findings based on several leaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Dou, Xiaomin; Ren, Fei; Chan, Wei-Ping; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung

    2018-02-15

    Bottom ashes generated from municipal solid waste incineration have gained increasing popularity as alternative construction materials, however, they contains elevated heavy metals posing a challenge for its free usage. Different leaching methods are developed to quantify leaching potential of incineration bottom ashes meanwhile guide its environmentally friendly application. Yet, there are diverse IBA applications while the in situ environment is always complicated, challenging its legislation. In this study, leaching tests were conveyed using batch and column leaching methods with seawater as opposed to deionized water, to unveil the metal leaching potential of IBA subjected to salty environment, which is commonly encountered when using IBA in land reclamation yet not well understood. Statistical analysis for different leaching methods suggested disparate performance between seawater and deionized water primarily ascribed to ionic strength. Impacts of leachant are metal-specific dependent on leaching methods and have a function of intrinsic characteristics of incineration bottom ashes. Leaching performances were further compared on additional perspectives, e.g. leaching approach and liquid to solid ratio, indicating sophisticated leaching potentials dominated by combined geochemistry. It is necessary to develop application-oriented leaching methods with corresponding leaching criteria to preclude discriminations between different applications, e.g., terrestrial applications vs. land reclamation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Leaching properties and chemical compositions of calcines produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, B.A.; Paige, B.E.; Rhodes, D.W.; Wilding, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    No significant chemical differences were determined between retrieved and fresh calcine based on chemical and spectrochemical analyses. Little can be derived from the amounts of the radioisotopes present in the retrieved calcine samples other than the ratios of strontium-90 to cesium-137 are typical of aged fission product. The variations in concentrations of radionuclides within the composite samples of each bin also reflect the differences in compositions of waste solutions calcined. In general the leaching characteristics of both calcines by distilled water are similar. In both materials the radionuclides of cesium and strontium were selectively leached at significant rates, although cesium leached much more completely from the alumina calcine than from the zirconia calcine. Cesium and strontium are probably contained in both calcines as nitrate salts and also as fluoride salts in zirconia calcine, all of which are at least slightly soluble in water. Radionuclides of cerium, ruthenium, and plutonium in both calcines were highly resistant to leaching and leached at rates similar to or less than those of the matrix elements. These elements exist as polyvalent metal ions in the waste solutions before calcination and they probably form insoluble oxides and fluorides in the calcine. The relatively slow leaching of nitrate ion from zirconia calcine and radiocesium from both calcines suggests that the calcine matrix in some manner prevents complete or immediate contact of the soluble ions with water. Whether radiostrontium forms slightly fluoride salts or forms nitrate salts which are protected in the same manner as radiocesium is unknown. Nevertheless, selective leaching of cesium and strontim is retarded in some manner by the calcine matrix

  6. Removal of radium-226 from radium-contaminated soil using humic acid by column leaching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esther Phillip; Muhamad Samudi Yasir

    2012-01-01

    In this study, evaluation of radium-226 removal from radium-contaminated soil using humic acid extracted from peat soil by column leaching method was carried out. Humic acid of concentration 100 ppm and pH 7 was leached through a column packed with radium-contaminated soil and leachates collected were analysed with gamma spectrometer to determine the leached radium-226. Results obtained indicated low removal of radium-226 between 1 - 4 %. Meanwhile, leaching profile revealed that radium-226 was bound to soil components with three different strength, thus resulting in three phases of radium-226 removal. It was estimated that the total removal of radium-226 from 10 g radium-contaminated soil sample studied could be achieved using approximately 31500 - 31850 ml HA solutions with leaching rate of 1 ml/ min. (author)

  7. Directions of development of research methods in the assessment of leaching of heavy metals from mineral waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Król Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many test methods to assess the level of the release of heavy metals into the environment from mineral waste materials. Leaching methods can be different depending on the leaching time periods, leaching dynamics, sample preparation method or the pH of the elution medium. In Poland, little attention is paid to the research on the relationship between the leaching of particular heavy metals from mineral wastes and changes in environmental conditions, including the pH of the environment. Tests being carried out abroad have started to pay great attention to the pH-dependent impact of the environment and the liquid being in contact with the material on the degree of leaching contaminants from wastes. The solubility of all metals depends on the value of the pH. Authors of the paper will try to prove that Polish methods of waste characterization is incomplete and inconsistent with opinions prevailing in the global literature. The procedure described in the Polish standards are insufficient to determine the actual level of leaching of heavy metals having regard to the impact of multiple external conditions on the level of leaching of heavy metals. Paper will present a directions of development of research methods in the assessment of leaching of heavy metals from mineral waste.

  8. Kinetics and mechanism of sphalerite leaching by sodium nitrate in sulphuric acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest for application of hydrometallurgical processes in a processing of complex sulphide ores and concentrates has increased in recent years. Their application provides better metal recoveries and reduced emission of gaseous and toxic ageneses in the environment. The kinetics and mechanism of sphalerite leaching from complex sulphide concentrate with sulphuric acid and sodium nitrate solution at standard conditions was presented in this paper. The influences of temperature and time on the leaching degree of zinc were investigated and kinetic analysis of the process was accomplished. With temperature increasing from 60 to 90°C, the zinc leaching increased from 25.23% to 71.66% after 2 hours, i.e. from 59.40% to 99.83% after 4 hours. The selected kinetic model indicated that the diffusion through the product layer was the rate-controlling step during the sphalerite leaching. The activation energy was determined to be 55 kJ/mol in the temperature range 60-90°C. XRD, light microscopy and SEM/EDX analyses of the complex concentrate and leach residue confirmed formation of elemental sulphur and diffusion-controlled leaching mechanism.

  9. The influence of mechanical activation of chalcopyrite on the selective leaching of copper by sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achimovičová, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper chalcopyrite, CuFeS2, has been selective leached by H2SO4 as leaching agent (170 g/dm3 in procedure of hydrometallurgical production of copper. Mechanical activation of the chalcopyrite resulted in mechanochemical surface oxidation as well as in the mineral surface and bulk disordering. Furthermore, the formation of agglomerates during grinding was also occured. Surface changes of the samples using infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods were investigated before and after leaching. The leaching rate, specific surface area, structural disorder as well as copper extraction increased with the mechanical activation of mineral.

  10. Standard test method for accelerated leach test for diffusive releases from solidified waste and a computer program to model diffusive, fractional leaching from cylindrical waste forms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides procedures for measuring the leach rates of elements from a solidified matrix material, determining if the releases are controlled by mass diffusion, computing values of diffusion constants based on models, and verifying projected long-term diffusive releases. This test method is applicable to any material that does not degrade or deform during the test. 1.1.1 If mass diffusion is the dominant step in the leaching mechanism, then the results of this test can be used to calculate diffusion coefficients using mathematical diffusion models. A computer program developed for that purpose is available as a companion to this test method (Note 1). 1.1.2 It should be verified that leaching is controlled by diffusion by a means other than analysis of the leach test solution data. Analysis of concentration profiles of species of interest near the surface of the solid waste form after the test is recommended for this purpose. 1.1.3 Potential effects of partitioning on the test results can...

  11. The structure of leached sodium borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunker, B.C.; Tallant, D.R.; Headley, T.J.; Turner, G.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy, solid state 29 Si, 11 B, 17 O, and 23 Na nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy have been used to investigate how the structures of sodium borosilicate glasses change during leaching in water at pH 1, 9, and 12. Results show that the random network structure present prior to leaching is transformed into a network of small condensed ring structures and/or colloidal silica particles. The restructuring of leached glass can be rationalised on the basis of simple hydrolysis (depolymerisation) and condensation (repolymerisation) reactions involving Si-O-Si and Si-O-B bonds. The structural changes that occur during leaching influence the properties of the leached layer, including leaching kinetics, crazing and spalling, and slow crack growth. (author)

  12. Leaching of radiostrontium in undisturbed columns of calcareous alluvial soil as affected by level of activity applied and rate of high calcium water of Tigris river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahad, A.A.; Razaq, I.B.; Ali, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Leaching of 85 Sr in calcareous alluvial medium textured soil was undertaken for 126 days. Radiostrontium in three levels of 4.62(L1), 9.25(L2), and 18.50(L3) MBq column -1 was applied to undisturbed soil columns, 110cm long and 12cm inner diameter. Irrigation water of Tigris river was used as a leaching solution supplied automatically in 1.4, 2.0, and 3.0cm day -1 by rain simulator systems. Gamma radiation along the soil columns was scanned periodically during the course of leaching. Leaching of Sr from the surface layer was in two stages. The first stage covered the first 22 days and the second included the following 104 days. Strontium retained (y) as a function of time (x) fitted reasonably well (r>0.96) to the equations y=a+mlnx and lny=a+mx for the first and the second stage, respectively. Tigris river irrigation water was found as effective as the dilute Ca solution (proposed by some investigators) in displacing Sr. The leaching with 3.0cm day -1 for 126 days resulted in 23, 23, and 21 per cent of total Sr remaining in the upper 5 cm of soil columns under L1, L2 and L3, respectively. However, the area under the distribution curves followed the ratio 1.0:2.4:3.7 under L1, L2, and L3, respectively. The pattern of Sr distribution in calcareous alluvial soil depended not only on the rate and amount of water application but also on the level of Sr applied. Although the soil columns were leached with 378 cm of water for 126 days, the Sr front did not pass the 30 cm depth. This finding indicates the high retention of this soil for Sr and the potential hazard of radiostrontium arising from its existence in the layer of maximum root density. (author). 18 refs., 2 figures, 2 tables

  13. Recovery of nickel and cobalt as MHP from limonitic ore leaching solution: Kinetics analysis and precipitate characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, Nina; Mubarok, M. Zaki; Winarko, Ronny; Tanlega, Zela

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, precipitation of nickel and cobalt as mixed hydroxide precipitate (MHP) from pregnant leach solution of nickel limonite ore from Soroako after iron removal stage was carried out. A series of MHP precipitation experiments was conducted by using MgO slurry as neutralizing agent and the effects of pH, temperature, duration of precipitation and the addition of MHP seed on the precipitation behavior of nickel, cobalt, as well as iron and manganese was studied. Characterization of MHP product was performed by particle size analyzer (PSA) as well as X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analyses. Kinetics analysis was made by using differential-integral method for the rate of homogenous reaction. Precipitation at pH 7, temperature 50°C for 30 minute, without seed addition resulted in nickel and cobalt recoveries of 82.8% and 92%, respectively with co-precipitated iron and manganese of 70% and 24.2%, respectively. The seed addition increases nickel and cobalt precipitations significantly to 99.9% and 99.1%, respectively. However, the addition of seed into led to a significant increase of manganese co-precipitation from 24.2% without seed addition to 39.5% at the addition of 1 g seed per 200 mL of PLS. Kinetics analysis revealed that Ni precipitation to form MHP follows the second-order reaction kinetics with activation energy of 94.6 kJ/mol.

  14. Investigation of the effect of some parameters on the degree of leaching antimony from stibnite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remeteiová Dagmar

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experiments of agitation leaching of antimony from stibnite in alkaline solutions of Na2S +NaOH. The influence of different solution solutions ratio of the reacting phases and of different rate of stirring on the degree of leaching of antimony was investigated.

  15. Membrane-based assay for iodide ions based on anti-leaching of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Wei; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Unnikrishnan, Binesh; Li, Yu-Jia; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2014-02-26

    We report a label-free colorimetric strategy for the highly selective and sensitive detection of iodide (I(-)) ions in human urine sample, seawater and edible salt. A poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-stabilized Au nanoparticle (34.2-nm) was prepared to detect I(-) ions using silver (Ag(+)) and cyanide (CN(-)) ions as leaching agents in a glycine-NaOH (pH 9.0) solution. For the visual detection of the I(-) ions by naked eye, and for long time stability of the probe, Au nanoparticles (NPs) decorated mixed cellulose ester membrane (MCEM) was prepared (Au NPs/MCEM). The Au NPs-based probe (CN(-)/Ag(+)-Au NPs/MCEM) operates on the principle that Ag(+) ions form a monolyar silver atoms/ions by aurophilic/argentophilic interactions on the Au NPs and it accelerates the leaching rate of Au atoms in presence of CN(-) ions. However, when I(-) is introduced into this system, it inhibits the leaching of Au atoms because of the strong interactions between Ag/Au ions and I(-) ions. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to characterize the surface properties of the Au NPs in the presence of Ag(+) and I(-). Under optimal solution conditions, the CN(-)/Ag(+)-Au NPs/MCEM probe enabled the detection of I(-) by the naked eye at nanomolar concentrations with high selectivity (at least 1000-fold over other anions). In addition, this cost-effective probe allowed the determination of I(-) ions in complex samples, such as urine, seawater, and edible salt samples.

  16. Effects of Pregnant Leach Solution Temperature on the Permeability of Gravelly Drainage Layer of Heap Leaching Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi amini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In copper heap leaching structures, the ore is leached by an acidic solution. After dissolving the ore mineral, the heap is drained off in the acidic solution using a drainage system (consisting of a network of perforated polyethylene pipes and gravelly drainage layers and is, then, transferred to the leaching plant for copper extraction where the copper is extracted and the remaining solution is dripped over the ore heap for re-leaching. In this process, the reaction between the acidic solution and copper oxide ore is exothermal and the pregnant leach solution (PLS, which is drained off the leaching heap, has a higher temperature than the dripped acidic solution. The PLS temperature variations cause some changes in the viscosity and density which affect the gravelly drainage layer's permeability. In this research, a special permeability measuring system was devised for determining the effects of the PLS temperature variations on the permeability coefficient of the gravelly drainage layer of heap leaching structures. The system, consisting of a thermal acid resistant element and a thermocouple, controls the PLS temperature, which helps measure the permeability coefficient of the gravelly drainage layer. The PLS and gravelly drainage layer of Sarcheshmeh copper mine heap leaching structure No. 1 were used in this study. The permeability coefficient of the gravelly soil was measured against the PLS and pure water at temperatures varying between 3°C to 60°C. Also, the viscosity and density of the PLS and pure water were measured at these temperatures and, using existing theoretical relations, the permeability coefficient of the gravel was computed. A comparison between the experimental and theoretical results revealed a good conformity between the two sets of results. Finally, a case (Taft heap leaching structure, Yazd, Iran was studied and its gravelly drainage layer was designed based on the results of the present research.

  17. Uranium extraction history using pressure leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, K.S.; Thomas, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 60 years of uranium process development only a few commercial uranium plants have adopted a pressure leaching process in their flowsheet. The selection of acid versus alkaline pressure leaching is related to the uranium and gangue mineralogy. Tetravalent (U"+"4) uranium has to be oxidized to hexavalent (U"+"6) uranium to be soluble. Refractory tetravalent uranium requires higher temperature and pressure, as practised in pressure leaching, for conversation to soluble hexavalent uranium. This paper chronicles the history of these uranium pressure leaching facilities over the past 60 years, with specific details of each design and operation. (author)

  18. A new Leaching System, Sheta Extractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheta, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Moving of crushed solid ores against leaching solution in a continuous countercurrent arises a true technical problem. This invented system introduces a practical solution for such problem. Inside the system, the crushed ore is driving against gravity, whereas the leaching solution moves in the opposite direction. Contact between the two phases occurs with gentle stirring. After contact, discharging of the processed phases takes place automatically out the system. The system was investigated for uranium leaching from a coarse grained fraction (+2 --- -- -30 mm) of uranium mineralized granite sample. Uranium leaching percent reached to nearly 50% using sulfuric acid

  19. Certain aspects of leaching kinetics of solidified ''radioactive wastes'' - Laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarantos, S.G.; Petropoulos, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    A laboratory study of the kinetics of leaching of Cs + and Sr ++ incorporated as sulphates in cement (Portland type) or base asphalt with distilled water as leachant is reported. The comparison of different leaching methods (including stagnant or stirred leachant with periodic renewal and a new method of ''continuous leachant renewal'') and the study of the effect of temperature were among the particular objectives of this work. The results for the cemented salts indicate that the new method of ''continuous leachant renewal'' is more efficient than the others. Is has been also found that the other leaching methods, including the widely used stagnant, periodically renewed leachant, can be seriously affected in certain circumstances by factors which have hitherto been left uncontrolled. An observed sharp diminution in the elution rate of Sr ++ from cement samples appears to be attributable to the action of atmospheric CO 2 . It has been observed that temperature affects the acceleration in the earlier and later stages of cement-Cs 2 SO 4 leaching. (T.A.)

  20. PRESERVATIVE LEACHING FROM WEATHERED CCA-TREATED WOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disposal of discarded CCA-treated wood in landfills raises concerns with respect to leaching of preservative compounds. When unweathered CCA-treated wood is leached using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), arsenic concentrations exceed the toxicity characteris...

  1. Treatment of metallurgical wastes : recovery of metal values from smelter slags by pressure oxidative leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Perederiy, I.; Papangelakis, V.G. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Vast quantities of slag are produced and dumped as waste by-products during the production of base metals by smelting operations. These slags contain large amounts of valuable metals which lead to a decrease in metal yield and, combined with the entrapped sulphur, pose a danger to the environment. The dissolution of fayalite is important for the selective recovery of valuable metals and the cleanup of slags in high pressure oxidative leaching. The nature of base metals and iron in solidified slag must be investigated in order to understand the mechanism of the process. This paper discussed the application of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the characterization of a smelter slag microstructure. The study used leaching tests with the same smelter slag to measure and monitor the results of leaching, including metal extraction levels, the extent of iron dissolution as well as impurity contents. The paper provided information on the experiment with particular reference to slag leaching, chemical analysis, and characterization. It was concluded that slag consists of several solid phases with base metal sulfide and oxide droplets entrapped in the fayalite matrix or silica regions. Therefore, nickel, copper, cobalt, and zinc need to be exposed either chemically or mechanically to promote their recovery. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  2. Comparison of the layer structure of vapor phase and leached SRL glass by use of AEM [analytical electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biwer, B.M.; Bates, J.K.; Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Bradley, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Test samples of 131 type glass that have been reacted for extended time periods in water vapor atmospheres of different relative humidities and in static leaching solution have been examined to characterize the reaction products. Analytical electron microscopy (AEM) was used to characterize the leached samples, and a complicated layer structure was revealed, consisting of phases that precipitate from solution and also form within the residual glass layer. The precipitated phases include birnes-site, saponite, and an iron species, while the intralayer phases include the U-Ti containing phase brannerite distributed within a matrix consisting of bands of an Fe rich montmorillonite clay. Comparison is made between samples leached at 40 degrees C for 4 years with those leached at 90 degrees C for 3-1/2 years. The samples reacted in water vapor were examined with scanning electron microscopy and show increasing reaction as both the relative humidity and time of reaction increases. These samples also contain a layered structure with reaction products on the glass surface. 15 refs., 5 figs

  3. Mechanism for elevated temperature leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.; Murphy, K.D.

    1979-01-01

    Long-term, elevated temperature leaching and subsequent electron microprobe analysis of simulated waste glass and ceramic materials have been completed. A cyclic leaching pattern was found in all systems over a 20-month period. It appears that the leaching of mobile ions by simple diffusional processes is modified by more complex chemical interactions. The release of immobile ions is primarily a function of their chemical interactions in the matrix which suggests that these ions may be complex species when released into solution. A mechanism is proposed which incorporates these ideas and the cyclic phenomenon observed

  4. Bicarbonate leaching of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, C.

    1998-01-01

    The alkaline leach process for extracting uranium from uranium ores is reviewed. This process is dependent on the chemistry of uranium and so is independent on the type of mining system (conventional, heap or in-situ) used. Particular reference is made to the geochemical conditions at Crownpoint. Some supporting data from studies using alkaline leach for remediation of uranium-contaminated sites is presented

  5. Bicarbonate leaching of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.

    1998-12-31

    The alkaline leach process for extracting uranium from uranium ores is reviewed. This process is dependent on the chemistry of uranium and so is independent on the type of mining system (conventional, heap or in-situ) used. Particular reference is made to the geochemical conditions at Crownpoint. Some supporting data from studies using alkaline leach for remediation of uranium-contaminated sites is presented.

  6. Development and characterization of basalt-glass ceramics for the immobilization of transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.; Chick, L.A.; Thomas, L.E.

    1982-09-01

    Basalt-based waste forms were developed for the immobilization of transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes. The specific waste studied is a 3:1 blend of process sludge and incinerator ash. Various amounts of TRU blended waste were melted with Pomona basalt powder. The vitreous products were subjected to a variety of heat treatment conditions to form glass ceramics. The total crystallinity of the glass ceramic, ranging from 20 to 45 wt %, was moderately dependent on composition and heat treatment conditions. Three parent glasses and four glass ceramics with varied composition and heat treatment were produced for detailed phase characterization and leaching. Both parent glasses and glass ceramics were mainly composed of a continuous, glassy matrix phase. This glass matrix entered into solution during leaching in both types of materials. The Fe-Ti rich dispersed glass phase was not significantly degraded by leaching. The glass ceramics, however, exhibited four to ten times less elemental releases during leaching than the parent glasses. The glass ceramic matrix probably contains higher Fe and Na and lower Ca and Mg relative to the parent glass matrix. The crystallization of augite in the glass ceramics is believed to contribute to the improved leach rates. Leach rates of the basalt glass ceramic are compared to those of other TRU nuclear waste forms containing 239 Pu

  7. Uranium recovery from acid leach liquors: Ix or Sx?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tonder, D.; Kotze, M.

    2007-01-01

    Various technologies for uranium recovery from sulphuric acid leach solutions were compared. Although the main consideration was the economics (Capex, recovery and Opex) of the various technologies and associated unit operations, other factors, such as flexibility, reliability, ease of operation, fire risk, stability with regards to feed flow variations, and feed solids content, would also need to be considered in the overall analysis. The design basis used for the comparison was a production rate or 200 kg/h U 3 O8 over a solution concentration range of 40 to 1500 mg/L U 3 O8. The technologies to be compared included Resin-in-pulp (RIP), Fixed-bed Ion Exchange (FBIX), Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX, e.g. NIMCIX), and Solvent Extraction (Sx) using Bateman Pulsed Columns (BPC) and Bateman Settlers. Countercurrent Decantation (CCD) and clarification would be required for the Sx and FBIX technologies. The preliminary economic evaluation indicated that a flowsheet, comprising RIP for bulk uranium extraction and upgrade, followed by Sx, employing the BPC for purification of the RIP eluate stream, was the most economic option at leach liquor concentrations below 900 mg/L. Above 900 mg/L the economic evaluation suggested that CCDs followed by Sx in the BPC was the most economical processing option. For applications where the ore is abrasive and not amenable to RIP, due to the rate of resin consumption, Paste Thickeners to remove the bulk of the solids, followed by RIP, was found to be the most economic processing option at leach liquor concentrations below 200 mg/L. However, for leach liquor concentrations above 200 mg/L, a CCD-circuit followed by Sx using BPC was again the most economic favourable route

  8. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.

    2008-02-15

    Leaching of pollutants from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) residues has been investigated combining a range of laboratory leaching experiments with geochemical modeling. Special attention was paid to assessing the applicability of laboratory data for subsequent modeling with respect to presumed full-scale conditions; both sample pretreatment and actual influence of leaching conditions on the results of laboratory experiments were considered. It was shown that sample pretreatment may have large impact on leaching test data. In particular, a significant fraction of Pb was shown mobile during the washing of residues with water. In addition, drying of residues (i.e. slow oxidation) prior to leaching experiments increased the leaching of Cr significantly. Significant differences regarding the leaching behavior of individual elements with respect to (non)equilibrium conditions in column percolation experiments were observed in the study. As a result, three groups of elements were identified based on the predominant leaching control and the influence of (non)equilibrium on the results of the laboratory column experiments: I. Predominantly availability-controlled elements (e.g. Na, K, Cl) II. Solubility-controlled elements (e.g. Ca, S, Si, Al, Ba, and Zn) III. Complexation-controlled elements (e.g. Cu and Ni) With respect to the above groups it was suggested that results of laboratory column experiments can, with consideration, be used to estimate full-scale leaching of elements from Group I and II. However, in order to avoid large underestimations in the assessment of leaching from Group III, it is imperative to describe the time-dependent transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the tested system or to minimize the physical non-equilibrium during laboratory experiments (e.g. bigger column, slower flow velocity). Forward geochemical modeling was applied to simulate long-term release of elements from a MSWI air-pollution-control residue. Leaching of a

  9. Leaching of saltstone: Laboratory and field testing and mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, M.W.; Langton, C.A.; Oblath, S.B.; Pepper, D.W.; Wallace, R.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Yau, W.W.F.

    1987-01-01

    A low-level alkaline salt solution will be a byproduct in the processing of high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This solution will be incorporated into a wasteform, saltstone, and disposed of in surface vaults. Laboratory and field leach testing and mathematical modeling have demonstrated the predictability of contaminant release from cement wasteforms. Saltstone disposal in surface vaults will meet the design objective, which is to meet drinking water standards in shallow groundwater at the disposal area boundary. Diffusion is the predominant mechanism for release of contaminants to the environment. Leach testing in unsaturated soil, at soil moisture levels above 1 wt %, has shown no difference in leach rate compared to leaching in distilled water. Field leach testing of three thirty-ton blocks of saltstone in lysimeters has been underway since January 1984. Mathematical models were applied to assess design features for saltstone disposal. One dimensional infinite-composite and semi-infinite analytical models were developed for assessing diffusion of nitrate from saltstone through a cement barrier. Numerical models, both finite element and finite difference, were validated by comparison of model predictions with the saltstone lysimeter results. Validated models were used to assess the long-term performance of the saltstone stored in surface vaults. The maximum concentrations of all contaminants released from saltstone to shallow groundwater are predicted to be below drinking water standards at the disposal area boundary. 5 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Chlorine-assisted leaching of Key Lake uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, K.E.

    1981-04-01

    Bench-scale chlorine-assisted leach tests were conducted on the Key Lake uranium ore. Leach tests conducted at 80 0 C on a slurry containing 50% solids during 10 hours of agitation gave the maximum extraction of uranium - 96% and radium-226 - 91%. Chlorine was added at 23.0 Kg Cl 2 /tonne of ore to maintain the leach slurry pH in the range of 1.5-1.0. To obtain residue almost free of radionuclides, hydrochloric acid leaches were conducted on the first stage leach residues. The second stage leach residue still was found to contain uranium - 0.0076% and radium-226 - 200 pCi/g of solids

  11. Characterization and leach investigations of sodium silicate matrices used for immobilization of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharaf El-Deen, A N; El-Dessouky, M M; Helmy, M A [Petroleum Research Institue, Academy of Scientific Research, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Abed Raouf, M W; El-Dessouky, M I [Hot Lab. Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    In this study, simulated liquid waste and radioactive tracers of Cs-137 and Co-60 were used to represent the high-level liquid waste (HLLW). immobilization of the liquid waste was performed by its interaction with commercial sodium silicate hydrosol to the gel point, at room temperature. The candidate waste forms forms were fabricated from the obtained hydrogel through several steps including: drying the hydrogel to a solid gel form, crushing the solid to be in a powder from, pressing the powder to the green disk form using a cold pressing technique and finally the heat treatment of the green disks to the sintered form. Characterization for the obtained waste forms was carried out using: thermal analysis (TGA and DTA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques and porosity investigation. The leach tests for the prepared forms were conducted according to the international atomic energy agency (IAEA) standard test (static and accelerated). The static test was carried out for simulated and radioactive waste in distilled, bidistilled and ground water for 28 days. The accelerated (Soxhlet) test was conducted for simulated waste in deionized water for 72 hours. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. A kinetics study of acetic acid on cobalt leaching of spent LIBs: Shrinking Core Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawan Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs are secondary rechargeable power sources which increasing production also leads to large amount of waste. In order to environmentally friendly reduce the waste, this work aimed to use acetic acid as a substitute leaching agent to leach Co metals which constitutes about 72.39% wt of the battery cathode. The leaching process was done in a three-necked-flask where calcined LIB cathode powder was mixed with acetic acid solution. The variables of the leaching process under investigation were solution pH, concentration of H2O2 in the solution, S/L ratio, temperature and reaction time. Experimental results showed that only temperature significantly influenced the leaching rate of Co. Since the process was exothermic, the maximum recovery decreased as temperature increased. Conventional shrinking core model that considers diffusion and irreversible surface reaction resistances was found not sufficient to predict the kinetics of the Co leaching with acetic acid. A more representative kinetics model that considers a reversible reaction of Co complex formation needs to be further developed.

  13. Mechanisms that control aqueous leaching of nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.H.; Barkatt, A.; Macedo, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    The development of predictive models and risk calculations for the time evolution of radioactive isotope leaching from fixation solids depends on many factors, including measurement accuracy, measurement relevance, a complete understanding of possible dissolution mechanisms, and the ability to project worst case conditions for all appropriate mechanisms. Some of the mechanisms observed and understood at present are the mechanisms of dissolution of glasses in neutral unbuffered water, the effects of structural disintegration of the glass protective layer, the effects of slowly flowing bath waters and possibly, the mechanisms of leach-rate reduction by solution saturation. The mechanisms that control radiation and temperature effects including alpha particle emission and nuclear transmutations are as yet little understood or investigated

  14. Implementation of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    New leaching tests are available in the U.S. for developing more accurate source terms for use in fate and transport models. For beneficial use or disposal, the use of the leaching environmental assessment framework (LEAF) will provide leaching results that reflect field condit...

  15. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  16. Evaluation of the leaching behavior of incineration bottom ash using seawater: A comparison with standard leaching tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenlin Yvonne; Heng, Kim Soon; Nguyen, Minh Quan; Ho, Jin Rui Ivan; Mohamed Noh, Omar Ahmad Bin; Zhou, Xue Dong; Liu, Alec; Ren, Fei; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Batch and column tests were conducted on untreated incineration bottom ash (IBA) samples from two incineration plants in Singapore, using seawater as the leachant. The main objective of this study was to investigate the change in the leaching behavior of certain elements (i.e. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and Zn) when IBA comes into contact with seawater. Such an investigation using seawater as leachant was not commonly carried out when investigating leaching behavior in IBA. The leaching tests were then carried out on the same IBA samples using DI water, as a comparison. Lower level of leaching was observed for Pb and Zn when seawater was used as the leachant. Cr and Sb showed significant cumulative release at Liquid-to-Solids (L/S) ratio 5 in the seawater column leaching. The influence of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) on Cu leaching seems to decrease after L/S 2 when using seawater in the column test. Although the leaching behavior of IBA was affected when seawater was used, for the column test, there was no significant difference during the initial release when compared to DI water. The initial L/S fractions collected were important as the low L/S ratios represent the pore water concentration and the maximum output in an actual application. The results from this study would be useful for the future study on using IBA in marine applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Method for accelerated leaching of solidified waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Heiser, J.H.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

    1990-11-01

    An accelerated leach test method has been developed to determine the maximum leachability of solidified waste. The approach we have taken is to use a semi-dynamic leach test; that is, the leachant is sampled and replaced periodically. Parameters such as temperature, leachant volume, and specimen size are used to obtain releases that are accelerated relative to other standard leach tests and to the leaching of full-scale waste forms. The data obtained with this test can be used to model releases from waste forms, or to extrapolate from laboratory-scale to full-scale waste forms if diffusion is the dominant leaching mechanism. Diffusion can be confirmed as the leaching mechanism by using a computerized mathematical model for diffusion from a finite cylinder. We have written a computer program containing several models including diffusion to accompany this test. The program and a Users' Guide that gives screen-by-screen instructions on the use of the program are available from the authors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Characterization of leached surface layers on simulated high-level waste glasses by sputter-induced optical emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houser, C.; Tsong, I.S.T.; White, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    The leaching process in simulated waste encapsulant glasses was studied by measuring the compositional depth-profiles of H (from water), the glass framework formers Si and B, the alkalis Na and Cs, the alkaline earths Ca and Sr, the transition metals Mo and Fe, the rare-earths La, Ce, and Nd, using the technique of sputter-induced optical emission. The leaching process of these glasses is highly complex. In addition to alkali/hydrogen exchange, there is breakdown of the glass framework, build-up of barrier layers on the surface, and formation of layered reaction zones of distinctly different chemistry all within the outer micrometer of the glass

  19. Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owais, Ashour [Suez Canal Univ., Suez (Egypt). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.

    2012-11-15

    Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor obtained from secondary lead slag leached in hydrochloric acid is the main aim of this work. The resulted lead chloride solution (leachate) containing 2.2 wt.-% Pb and 1.24 wt.-% HCl was electrowon in an electrolytic cell containing one graphite plate as inert anode and two lead sheets as starting permanent cathodes. Different electrolysis parameters such as current density, electrolyte temperature and electrolyte stirring rate were studied. As indicated by SEM, EDX and XRD analyses, fine and pure (100 % Pb) powders with a dispersed and needle-like shape were formed with cathodic current efficiency up to 67.9 % and electrical energy demand ranges from 0.809 to 4.998 kWh/kg Pb with productivity up to 2.63 g/Ah. (orig.)

  20. Effects of Sodium Citrate on the Ammonium Sulfate Recycled Leaching of Low-Grade Zinc Oxide Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-wei; Zhang, Li-bo; Peng, Jin-hui; Ma, Ai-yuan; Wang, Bao-bao

    2016-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate on ammonium sulfate recycled leaching of low-grade zinc oxide ores were studied. By applying various kinds of detection and analysis techniques such as chemical composition analysis, chemical phase method, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR), zinc raw ore, its leaching slag and the functional mechanism of sodium citrate were investigated. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it can be concluded that in contrast to hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O), amorphous smithsonite (ZnCO3) and zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) prove to be refractory phases under ammonium sulfate leaching, while sodium citrate has a better chelating action with the refractory phases, resulting in a higher zinc leaching rate. Under conditions of [NH3]/[NH3]T molar ratio being 0.5, [NH3]T being 7.5 mol/L, [Na3C6H5O7] being 0.2 mol/L, S/L ratio being 1:5, temperature being 303 K, holding time being 1 h in each of the two stages, and stirring rate being 300 rpm, the leaching rate of zinc reached 93.4%. In this article, sulfate ammonium recycled technology also reveals its unique advantage in processing low-grade zinc oxide ores accompanied by high silicon and high alkaline gangue.

  1. Co-treatment of spent cathode carbon in caustic and acid leaching process under ultrasonic assisted for preparation of SiC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jie; Xiao, Jin; Li, Fachuang; Wang, Bingjie; Yao, Zhen; Yu, Bailie; Zhang, Liuyun

    2018-03-01

    Spent cathode carbon (SCC) from aluminum electrolysis has been treated in ultrasonic-assisted caustic leaching and acid leaching process, and purified SCC used as carbon source to synthesize silicon carbide (SiC) was investigated. Chemical and mineralogical properties have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC). Various experimental factors temperature, time, liquid-solid ratio, ultrasonic power, and initial concentration of alkali or acid affecting on SCC leaching result were studied. After co-treatment with ultrasonic-assisted caustic leaching and acid leaching, carbon content of leaching residue was 97.53%. SiC power was synthesized by carbothermal reduction at 1600 °C, as a result of yield of 76.43%, and specific surface area of 4378 cm 2 /g. This is the first report of using purified SCC and gangue to prepare SiC. The two industrial wastes have been used newly as secondary sources. Furthermore, ultrasonic showed significant effect in SCC leaching process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Study on indium leaching from mechanically activated hard zinc residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, changes in physicochemical properties and leachability of indium from mechanically activated hard zinc residue by planetary mill were investigated. The results showed that mechanical activation increased specific surface area, reaction activity of hard zinc residue, and decreased its particle size, which had a positive effect on indium extraction from hard zinc residue in hydrochloric acid solution. Kinetics of indium leaching from unmilled and activated hard zinc residue were also investigated, respectively. It was found that temperature had an obvious effect on indium leaching rate. Two different kinetic models corresponding to reactions which are diffusion controlled, [1-(1- x1/3]2=kt and (1-2x/3-(1-x2/3=kt were used to describe the kinetics of indium leaching from unmilled sample and activated sample, respectively. Their activation energies were determined to be 17.89 kJ/mol (umilled and 11.65 kJ/mol (activated within the temperature range of 30°C to 90°C, which is characteristic for a diffusion controlled process. The values of activation energy demonstrated that the leaching reaction of indium became less sensitive to temperature after hard zinc residue mechanically activated by planetary mill.

  3. Leaching TC-99 from DWPF glass in simulated geologic repository groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose was to determine if DWPF glass in geologic groundwaters would immobilize Tc-99 as well as it does other elements. A previous study (using a borosilicate glass of a very different composition from DWPF glass) indicated that Tc-99 leached rapidly from the glass suggesting that glass may not be a good matrix for immobilizing Tc-99. It was suggested that the Tc-99 had migrated to vesicles in the glass while the glass was still molten. To determine if borosilicate glass was a good immobilizing matrix for Tc-99, this study was performed using DWPF glass. The leaching of Tc-99 was compared to other elements in the glass. It was shown that rapid leaching will not occur with SRP glass. The leach rate for Tc-99 was nearly identical to that for B, a matrix element in the glass. Another objective was to compare the release of Tc-99 under oxidizing and reducing conditions with other elements in the glass. In the tests described here, even though the glass was dissolving more under reducing conditions as a result of abnormally high pH values, less Tc-99 appeared in solution

  4. Calculated leaching of certain fission products from a cylinder of French glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, G.

    1977-07-01

    The probable total leaching of the most important fission products and actinides have been tabulated for a cylinder of French HLW glass with approximately 9 percent fission products. The calculations cover the period between 30 and 10000 years after removal from the reactor. The cylinder is of the type planned for the introduction of the HLW into Swedish crystalline rocks. All the components are supposed to have the same leach rate. The calculations also include the probable thickness of eroded glass layer/year. (author)

  5. Alternative leaching processes for uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory studies have been carried out to compare the extraction of uranium from Australian ores by conventional leaching in sulphuric acid with that obtained using hydrochloric acid and acidified ferric sulphate solutions. Leaching with hydrochloric acid achieved higher extractions of radium-226 but the extraction of uranium was reduced considerably. The use of acidified ferric sulphate solution reduced acid consumption by 20-40% without any detrimental effect on uranium extraction. The ferric ion, which is reduced during leaching, can be reoxidized and recycled after the addition of acid makeup. Hydrogen peroxide was found to be an effective oxidant in conventional sulphuric acid leaching. It is more expensive than alternative oxidants, but it is non-polluting, lesser quantities are required and acid consumption is reduced

  6. A Mineralogical Assessment on Residues after Acidic Leaching of Bauxite Residue (Red Mud for Titanium Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Alkan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its alkalinity, red mud produced by the Bayer process may affect both the environment and human health. For this reason, its further utilization instead of disposal is of great importance. Numerous methods have already been studied for hydrometallurgical treatment of red mud, especially for the recovery of various metallic components such as iron, aluminum, titanium or rare earth elements. This study focuses on the extraction of titanium from red mud and in particular the mineralogical changes, induced by leaching. Sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and their combination have been utilized as leaching agents with the same leaching parameters. It has been determined that sulfuric acid is the best candidate for the red mud treatment in terms of titanium leaching efficiency at the end of 2 h with a value of 67.3%. Moreover, samples from intermediate times of reaction revealed that leaching of Ti exhibit various reaction rates at different times of reaction depending on acid type. In order to explain differences, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and QEMSCAN techniques were utilized. Beside titanium oxide (TiO2 with available free surface area, a certain amount of the TiO2 was detected as entrapped in Fe dominating oxide. These associations between Ti and Fe phases were used to explain different leaching reaction rates and a reaction mechanism was proposed to open a process window.

  7. Leaching behaviour of strontium-90 in cement composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, H.; Ito, A.

    1977-01-01

    The leaching of 90 Sr from a cement composite into an aqueous phase has been studied by the method recommended by IAEA. The amount leached was measured as functions of waste to cement ratio (Wa/C), salt content of waste, temperature of leachant and curing time of specimens. The leach coefficient of 90 Sr varies from ca. 6 x 10 -8 to 4 x 10 -7 cm 2 /day depending on the composition of specimen and the leaching conditions. The leachability depends on such factors as Wa/C, temperature of leachant and curing time. The Portland cement composite gives a higher leaching fraction than the slag cement one. Additives used have no significant effect on the leachability. The amount leached in deionized water as a leachant is higher than in synthetic sea water. On the basis of the results obtained, the amount of 90 Sr leached from a composite of 200 1 drum size for an extended period was estimated. (author)

  8. Leaching characteristics of calcium-based compounds in MSWI Residues: From the viewpoint of clogging risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Yi; Zhang, Hua; Phoungthong, Khamphe; Shi, Dong-Xiao; Shen, Wen-Hui; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The leaching behavior of Ca-based compounds commonly in MSWI residues was studied. • pH is the crucial factor for calcium leaching process. • CaCO 3 was the most sensitive to leaching temperature and Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 was the least. • Ca leaching of MSWIBA and SAPCR attributed to CaCO 3 and Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 respectively. • Potential clogging ability of MSWI residues leachate in open air was calculated. - Abstract: Leachate collection system (LCS) clogging caused by calcium precipitation would be disadvantageous to landfill stability and operation. Meanwhile, calcium-based compounds are the main constituents in both municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA) and stabilized air pollution control residues (SAPCR), which would increase the risk of LCS clogging once these calcium-rich residues were disposed in landfills. The leaching behaviors of calcium from the four compounds and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues were studied, and the influencing factors on leaching were discussed. The results showed that pH was the crucial factor in the calcium leaching process. CaCO 3 and CaSiO 3 began leaching when the leachate pH decreased to less than 7 and 10, respectively, while Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 leached at pH < 12. CaSO 4 could hardly dissolve in the experimental conditions. Moreover, the sequence of the leaching rate for the different calcium-based compounds is as follows: CaSiO 3 > Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 > CaCO 3 . The calcium leaching from the MSWIBA and SAPCR separately started from pH < 7 and pH < 12, resulting from CaCO 3 and Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 leaching respectively, which was proven by the X-ray diffraction results. Based on the leaching characteristics of the different calcium compounds and the mineral phase of calcium in the incineration residues, simulated computation of their clogging potential was conducted, providing the theoretical basis for the risk assessment pertaining to LCS clogging in landfills

  9. The leaching kinetics of cadmium from hazardous Cu-Cd zinc plant residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Zheng, Shili; Liu, Biao; Du, Hao; Dreisinger, David Bruce; Tafaghodi, Leili; Zhang, Yi

    2017-07-01

    A large amount of Cu-Cd zinc plant residues (CZPR) are produced from the hydrometallurgical zinc plant operations. Since these residues contain substantial amount of heavy metals including Cd, Zn and Cu, therefore, they are considered as hazardous wastes. In order to realize decontamination treatment and efficient extraction of the valuable metals from the CZPR, a comprehensive recovery process using sulfuric acid as the leaching reagent and air as the oxidizing reagent has been proposed. The effect of temperature, sulfuric acid concentration, particle size, solid/liquid ratio and stirring speed on the cadmium extraction efficiency was investigated. The leaching kinetics of cadmium was also studied. It was concluded that the cadmium leaching process was controlled by the solid film diffusion process. Moreover, the order of the reaction rate constant versus H 2 SO 4 concentration, particle size, solid/liquid ratio and stirring speed was calculated. The XRD and SEM-EDS analysis results showed that the main phases of the secondary sulfuric acid leaching residues were lead sulfate and calcium sulfate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of six pesticides leaching indexes using field data of herbicide application in Casablanca Valley, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M; Rojas, S; Gómez, P; Suárez, F; Muñoz, J F; Alister, C

    2007-01-01

    A field study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of six pesticide screening leaching indexes for herbicide movement. Adsorption, dissipation and soil movement were studied in a vineyard in a sandy loam soil during 2005 season. Simazine, diuron, pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen and flumioxazin were applied to bare soil at rates commonly used, and their soil concentrations throughout soil profile were determined at 0, 10, 20, 40 and 90 days after application (DAA). Herbicides were subjected to two pluviometric regimens, natural field condition and modified conditions (plus natural rainfall 180 mm). Leaching indexes utilized were: Briggs's Rf, Hamaker's Rf, LEACH, LPI, GUS and LIX. Simazine reached 120 cm, diuron 90 cm, flumioxazin 30 cm soil depth respectively. Pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen were retained up to 5 cm. None of the herbicides leaching was affected by rainfall regimen. Only flumioxazin field dissipation was clearly affected by pluviometric condition. The best representation of the herbicide soil depth movement and leaching below 15 cm soil depth were: Hamaker's Rf < Briggs's Rf < GUS < LPI, < LEACH < LIX. Field results showed a good correlation between herbicides K(d) and their soil depth movement and mass leached below 15 cm soil depth.

  11. Aqueous-chlorine leaching of typical Canadian uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory-scale aqueous-chlorine leaches were conducted on quartz-pebble conglomerates, pegmatite and vein-type ores. Optimum leach temperatures, pulp density and retention times were determined. Uranium extraction of 98 per cent was obtained from the Elliot Lake, Madawaska Mines of Bancroft and Rabbit Lake ores, 96 per cent from the Key Lake ore and 86 per cent from the Agnew Lake ore. However, tailings containing 15-20 pCi g -1 of radium-226 were obtained only from the Elliot Lake and Agnew lake quartz-pebble conglomerates and Bancroft pegmatite-type ores by second-stage leaches with HCl. The second-stage leach results indicate that multistage (3 or 4) acid-chloride or salt-chloride leaches might be effective to obtain tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the high-grade vein-type ores. Comparative reagent-cost estimates show that the sulphuric-acid leach process is far less expensive than aqueous chlorine leaching. Nevertheless, only the aqueous chlorine and acid-chloride leaches in stages are effective in producing tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the typical Canadian uranium ores. (Auth.)

  12. Bacterial Leaching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and studies microbial biotechnology and ... foundation for subsequent research into the role of microorgan- ... are more readily accesible, for example those in solution, rather .... Vat leaching as currently applied to oxide ores involves the.

  13. Leaching of tritium from a cement composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, Hideo; Ito, Akihiko

    1978-10-01

    Leaching of tritium from cement composites into an aqueous phase has been studied to evaluate the safety of incorporation of the tritiated liquid waste into cement. Leaching tests were performed by the method recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Leaching fraction was measured as functions of waste-cement ratio (Wa/C), temperature of leachant and curing time. The tritium leachability of cement in the long term test follows the order: alumina cement portland cement slag cement. The fraction of tritium leached increases with increasing Wa/C and temperature and decreasing curing period. A deionized water as a leachant gives a slightly higher leachability than synthetic sea water. The amount leached of tritium from a 200 l drum size specimen was estimated on the basis of the above results. (author)

  14. Study on copper kinetics in processing sulphide ore mixed with copper and zinc with sulfuric acid leaching under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-bo, LUO; Ji-kun, WANG; Yin, GAN

    2018-01-01

    Sulphide ore mixed with copper and zinc is processed with pressure acid leaching. Research is conducted on the copper kinetic. The stirring rate is set at 600 rpm which could eliminate the influence of external diffusions. Research is conducted on the factors affecting the copper leaching kinetic are temperature, pressure, concentration of sulfuric acid, particle size. The result shows that the apparent activity energy is 50.7 KJ/mol. We could determine that the copper leaching process is shrinking core model of chemical reaction control and work out the leaching equation.

  15. Effect of precipitation pattern on leaching of preservative from treated wood and implications for accelerated testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to develop improved accelerated test methods for evaluating the leaching of wood preservatives from treated wood exposed to precipitation. In this study the effects of rate of rainfall and length of intervals between rainfall events on leaching was evaluated by exposing specimens to varying patterns of simulated rainfall under controlled laboratory...

  16. Origin and evolution of cup-shaped structures on leached nuclear waste containment glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, C.; Villa, F.; Chambaudet, A.; Vernaz, E.

    1994-01-01

    A three-dimensional surface microanalysis system equipped with a sensitive topographical probe was used to quantify the evolution of cup-shaped structures formed by aqueous leaching of nuclear waste containment glass. A model of the dissolution phenomenon provides satisfactory correlation between calculated and measured cup radius and depth. Dissolution cups form from cracks on the initially cut glass surface. Large cracks control the phenomenon by forming the largest cups, which gradually absorb smaller ones. The evolution of the size and shape of the dissolution cups was described by a model that assumes a constant dissolution rate on the surface, diminishing with crack depth. The best fit with the experimental data was obtained with a dissolution rate one hundred times lower at the bottom of the crack than at the surface. Moreover, it is predictable that all the cups will gradually disappear as they grow larger and flatter over a leaching period of some 2 years, for the glass composition and experimental leaching procedures used in this work

  17. Standard leach tests for nuclear waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; Barnes, B.O.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    Five leach tests were conducted to study time-dependent leaching of waste forms (glass). The first four tests include temperature as a variable and the use of three standard leachants. Three of the tests are static and two are dynamic (flow). This paper discusses the waste-form leach tests and presents some representative data. 4 figures

  18. Leaching of radionuclides out of some novelly formed products extracted from the reactor zone of the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogozin, Yu.M.; Smirnova, E.A.; Savonenko, V.G.; Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Avdeev, V.A.; Sagajdachenko, E.Yu.

    1991-01-01

    Data are presented on leaching of radionuclides from two samples of glass-like products (brown and gree glass) by 0.01 mol/l solution of sodium chloride. The level and rate of radionuclide leaching are determined. It is ascertained that green glass features a higher resistance to leaching

  19. Leaching characteristics of toxic constituents from coal fly ash mixed soils under the influence of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komonweeraket, Kanokwan [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cetin, Bora, E-mail: bora.cetin@sdsmt.edu [College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Benson, Craig H., E-mail: chbenson@wisc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Aydilek, Ahmet H., E-mail: aydilek@umd.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Edil, Tuncer B., E-mail: edil@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The impact of pH on the leaching of elements and metals from fly ash mixed soils. • Generally Ca, Cd, Mg, and Sr follows a cationic leaching pattern. • The leaching of As and Se shows an oxyanionic leaching pattern. • The leaching behavior of elements does not change based on material type. • Different fly ash types show different abilities in immobilizing trace elements. - Abstract: Leaching behaviors of Arsenic (As), Barium (Ba), Calcium (Ca), Cadmium (Cd), Magnesium (Mg), Selenium (Se), and Strontium (Sr) from soil alone, coal fly ash alone, and soil-coal fly ash mixtures, were studied at a pH range of 2–14 via pH-dependent leaching tests. Seven different types of soils and coal fly ashes were tested. Results of this study indicated that Ca, Cd, Mg, and Sr showed cationic leaching pattern while As and Se generally follows an oxyanionic leaching pattern. On the other hand, leaching of Ba presented amphoteric-like leaching pattern but less pH-dependent. In spite of different types and composition of soil and coal fly ash investigated, the study reveals the similarity in leaching behavior as a function of pH for a given element from soil, coal fly ash, and soil-coal fly ash mixtures. The similarity is most likely due to similar controlling mechanisms (e.g., solubility, sorption, and solid-solution formation) and similar controlling factors (e.g., leachate pH and redox conditions). This offers the opportunity to transfer knowledge of coal fly ash that has been extensively characterized and studied to soil stabilized with coal fly ash. It is speculated that unburned carbon in off-specification coal fly ashes may provide sorption sites for Cd resulting in a reduction in concentration of these elements in leachate from soil-coal fly ash mixture. Class C fly ash provides sufficient CaO to initiate the pozzolanic reaction yielding hydrated cement products that oxyanions, including As and Se, can be incorporated into.

  20. Effect of irradiation on the evolution of alteration layer formed during nuclear glass leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mougnaud, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) remaining after spent nuclear fuel reprocessing is immobilized within a glass matrix, eventually destined for geological disposal. Water intrusion into the repository is expected after several thousand years. The alteration of a non-radioactive surrogate for nuclear glass has been extensively studied and it has been determined that successive leaching mechanisms lead to the formation of a 'passivating' alteration layer and to the establishment of a residual rate regime in the long term. However, glass packages are submitted to the radioactivity of confined radioelements. This work focuses on the influence of irradiation on the alteration layer formed during the residual rate regime, in a structural and mechanistic point of view. Three focal areas have been selected. Non-radioactive simple glasses have been leached and externally irradiated in order to determine modifications induced by electronic effects (irradiations with electrons and alpha particles). The same type of glass samples have been previously irradiated with heavy ions and their leaching behavior have been studied in order to assess the impact of ballistic dose cumulated by the glass before water intrusion. Leaching behavior of a complex radioactive glass, doped with an alpha-emitter, has been studied to consider a more realistic situation. (author) [fr

  1. Leaching of gallium from gaiter granite, eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, M.A.; Mahmoud, KH.F.; Mahdy, M.A.; Abd El-Hamid, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary leaching tests of gallium from some Egyptian granite rocks such as those of Gabal Gattar area was investigated by using 8 M HCl acid and sodium perchlorate as oxidant. To achieve the optimum leaching conditions, the factors affecting the leaching efficiency as the acid type and concentration, oxidant type and amount, leaching temperature, agitation time, solid / liquid ratio and the effect of grain size were studied. The complete chemical analysis of the collected samples was firstly carried out to determine the chemical features of the Gattarian granite. More than 97% of gallium content was leached when applying these optimum leaching conditions

  2. Leaching of nano-ZnO in municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakallioglu, T.; Bakirdoven, M.; Temizel, I. [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Bogazici University, 34342 Istanbul (Turkey); Demirel, B., E-mail: burak.demirel@boun.edu.tr [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Bogazici University, 34342 Istanbul (Turkey); Copty, N.K.; Onay, T.T.; Uyguner Demirel, C.S. [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Bogazici University, 34342 Istanbul (Turkey); Karanfil, T. [Environmental Engineering and Earth Science, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Leaching potential of 3 different types of nano-ZnO in real fresh MSW was investigated. • Batch tests were conducted at different pH, ionic strength and ZnO concentrations. • Most of the added nano-ZnO mass was retained within the solid waste matrix. • The pH and IS conditions did not significantly influence the leaching behavior of ZnO. • A kinetic particle deposition/detachment model was developed to analyze ZnO behavior. - Abstract: Despite widespread use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in commercial products and their potential disposal in landfills, the fate of ENMs in solid waste environments are still not well understood. In this study, the leaching behavior of nano ZnO -one of the most used ENMs- in fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) was investigated. Batch reactors containing municipal solid waste samples were spiked with three different types of nano ZnO having different surface stabilization. The leaching of ZnO was examined under acidic, basic and elevated ionic strength (IS) conditions. The results of the 3-day batch tests showed that the percent of the added nano-ZnO mass retained within the solid waste matrix ranged between 80% and 93% on average for the three types of nano-ZnO tested. The pH and IS conditions did not significantly influence the leaching behavior of ZnO. To further analyze the behavior of ZnO in the MSW matrix, a kinetic particle deposition/detachment model was developed. The model was able to reproduce the main trends of the batch experiments. Reaction rate constants for the batch tests ranged from 0.01 to 0.4 1/hr, reflecting the rapid deposition of nano-ZnO within the MSW matrix.

  3. Pesticide sorption and leaching potential on three Hawaiian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kathleen E; Ray, Chittaranjan; Ki, Seo Jin; Spokas, Kurt A; Koskinen, William C

    2015-08-15

    On the Hawaiian Islands, groundwater is the principal source of potable water and contamination of this key resource by pesticides is of great concern. To evaluate the leaching potential of four weak acid herbicides [aminocyclopyrachlor, picloram, metsulfuron-methyl, biologically active diketonitrile degradate of isoxaflutole (DKN)] and two neutral non-ionizable herbicides [oxyfluorfen, alachlor], their sorption coefficients were determined on three prevalent soils from the island of Oahu. Metsulfuron-methyl, aminocylcopyrachlor, picloram, and DKN were relatively low sorbing herbicides (K(oc) = 3-53 mL g(-1)), alachlor was intermediate (K(oc) = 120-150 mL g(-1)), and oxyfluorfen sorbed very strongly to the three soils (K(oc) > 12,000 mL g(-1)). Following determination of K(oc) values, the groundwater ubiquity score (GUS) indices for these compounds were calculated to predicted their behavior with the Comprehensive Leaching Risk Assessment System (CLEARS; Tier-1 methodology for Hawaii). Metsulfuron-methyl, aminocyclopyrachlor, picloram, and DKN would be categorized as likely leachers in all three Hawaiian soils, indicating a high risk of groundwater contamination across the island of Oahu. In contrast, oxyfluorfen, regardless of the degradation rate, would possess a low and acceptable leaching risk due to its high sorption on all three soils. The leaching potential of alachlor was more difficult to classify, with a GUS value between 1.8 and 2.8. In addition, four different biochar amendments to these soils did not significantly alter their sorption capacities for aminocyclopyrachlor, indicating a relatively low impact of black carbon additions from geologic volcanic inputs of black carbon. Due to the fact that pesticide environmental risks are chiefly dependent on local soil characteristics, this work has demonstrated that once soil specific sorption parameters are known one can assess the potential pesticide leaching risks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. An approximation method for diffusion based leaching models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, B.S.; Dignam, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    In connection with the fixation of nuclear waste in a glassy matrix equations have been derived for leaching models based on a uniform concentration gradient approximation, and hence a uniform flux, therefore requiring the use of only Fick's first law. In this paper we improve on the uniform flux approximation, developing and justifying the approach. The resulting set of equations are solved to a satisfactory approximation for a matrix dissolving at a constant rate in a finite volume of leachant to give analytical expressions for the time dependence of the thickness of the leached layer, the diffusional and dissolutional contribution to the flux, and the leachant composition. Families of curves are presented which cover the full range of all the physical parameters for this system. The same procedure can be readily extended to more complex systems. (author)

  5. Status report: Pretreatment chemistry evaluation FY1997 -- Wash and leach factors for the single-shell tank waste inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colton, N.G.

    1997-08-01

    The wash factors will be used to partition the single-shell tank (SST) inventory into soluble and insoluble portions. The leach factors will be used to estimate the further removal of bulk analytes, such as chromium, aluminum, and phosphate, as well as minor components. Wash and leach factors are given here for 18 analytes, elements expected to drive the volume of material disposed of as high-level waste (HLW). These factors are determined by a weighting methodology developed earlier by this task. Tank-specific analyte inventory values depicted in Tank Waste Data Summary Worksheets, are calculated from concentrations obtained from characterization reports; the waste density; and the tank waste volume. The experimentally determined percentage of analytes removed by washing and leaching in a particular tank waste are translated into a mass (metric tons) in Experimental Washing and Leaching Data Summary Worksheets.

  6. Status report: Pretreatment chemistry evaluation FY1997 - Wash and leach factors for the single-shell tank waste inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, N.G.

    1997-08-01

    The wash factors will be used to partition the single-shell tank (SST) inventory into soluble and insoluble portions. The leach factors will be used to estimate the further removal of bulk analytes, such as chromium, aluminum, and phosphate, as well as minor components. Wash and leach factors are given here for 18 analytes, elements expected to drive the volume of material disposed of as high-level waste (HLW). These factors are determined by a weighting methodology developed earlier by this task. Tank-specific analyte inventory values depicted in Tank Waste Data Summary Worksheets, are calculated from concentrations obtained from characterization reports; the waste density; and the tank waste volume. The experimentally determined percentage of analytes removed by washing and leaching in a particular tank waste are translated into a mass (metric tons) in Experimental Washing and Leaching Data Summary Worksheets

  7. Measurement of leached hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, T.D.

    1979-07-01

    Leached hulls are the short lengths of fuel rod cladding and fuel element hardware which constitute a major waste product of a reprocessing plant employing a chop-and-leach head-end process. The small, undissolved fuel residue (0.1 to 1.0% of original fuel content) which is discarded with this waste must be measured for safeguards, material accountability, and process control reasons. This report gives a critical analysis of hull measurement techniques involving the analysis of fission product gamma rays, spontaneous fission neutrons from curium, and delayed neutron activation. Major emphasis is given to the measurement of 2186-keV gamma rays from 144 Ce-- 144 Pr. A detailed description of typical leached hull characteristics is presented at the beginning of the report. An extensive review of experience gained from existing hull measurement systems in the United Kingdom, France, Japan, Germany, Italy, and the United States is presented

  8. Effect of the leaching of calcium hydroxide from cement paste on mechanical and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carde, C.; Francois, R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the leaching process of cement based materials on their mechanical and physical properties. In order to characterize this effect, the authors have performed experiments on cement paste samples. The leaching process was achieved by the use of a 50% concentrate solution of ammonium nitrate. Both compression tests and water porosity tests were conducted on micro-cylinder samples (10, 12, 14 and 20 mm of diameter) because of the slow kinetics of degradation due to the leaching. The deterioration of the cement paste and the mortar exposed to the action of the ammonium nitrate was manifested by a peripheral zone of less resistance. This process induces mainly a total leaching of Ca(OH) 2 and a progressive decalcification of C-S-H which leads to a gradient of C/S ratio in the leaching zone. Both mechanical tests and water porosity tests show that there is a linear variation of the loss of strength and the increase in porosity in relation to the ratio of degraded area over total area of the sample A d /A t . It means that both compressive resistance and water porosity of the leaching zone are constant whatever the size of the degraded zone and then whatever the time of exposure to the chemical attack. So the authors could venture the hypothesis that the dissolution of calcium hydroxide is the essential parameter governing both decrease in strength and increase in porosity

  9. Disposal of leached residual in heap leaching by neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingmin

    1993-01-01

    The disposal results of leached residual with lime are described. Using the ratio of residual to lime being 100 : 1 the ideal disposal results were obtained with the effluent of the neutralized residual close to neutral

  10. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  11. Leaching characteristics of calcium-based compounds in MSWI Residues: From the viewpoint of clogging risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi; Zhang, Hua; Phoungthong, Khamphe; Shi, Dong-Xiao; Shen, Wen-Hui; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2015-08-01

    Leachate collection system (LCS) clogging caused by calcium precipitation would be disadvantageous to landfill stability and operation. Meanwhile, calcium-based compounds are the main constituents in both municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA) and stabilized air pollution control residues (SAPCR), which would increase the risk of LCS clogging once these calcium-rich residues were disposed in landfills. The leaching behaviors of calcium from the four compounds and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues were studied, and the influencing factors on leaching were discussed. The results showed that pH was the crucial factor in the calcium leaching process. CaCO3 and CaSiO3 began leaching when the leachate pH decreased to less than 7 and 10, respectively, while Ca3(PO4)2 leached at pHleaching rate for the different calcium-based compounds is as follows: CaSiO3>Ca3(PO4)2>CaCO3. The calcium leaching from the MSWIBA and SAPCR separately started from pHleaching respectively, which was proven by the X-ray diffraction results. Based on the leaching characteristics of the different calcium compounds and the mineral phase of calcium in the incineration residues, simulated computation of their clogging potential was conducted, providing the theoretical basis for the risk assessment pertaining to LCS clogging in landfills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Method of continuous pressure leaching of ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiala, P.; Baloun, S.; Polansky, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ore leaching, especially suspensions of ground ore or fine ore fractions from physical treatment was divided into two operations. The former, i.e., ore mixing with technical grade concentrated sulfuric acid proceeded in a separate mixer. The mixture was then transported into an autoclave where the actual leaching proceeded for 2 to 4 hours. The extracted mixture was discharged through the autoclave bottom. The leaching autoclave used can be without any inner structures. The separation of mixing from the actual leaching allows processing ores with high levels of clay components, increasing operating reliability of the facility, reducing consumption of special structural materials and energy, and increasing process efficiency. (E.S.)

  13. COPPER LEACHING FROM WASTE ELECTRIC CABLES BY BIOHYDROMETALLURGY

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Fanny; Bastin, David; Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan; Léonard, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the leaching of copper from waste electric cables by chemical leaching and leaching catalysed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in terms of leaching kinetics and reagents consumption. Operational parameters such as the nature of the oxidant (Fe3+, O2), the initial ferric iron concentration (0-10 g/L) and the temperature (21-50°C) were identified to have an important influence on the degree of copper solubilisation. At optimal process conditions, copper extraction above 90%...

  14. A relationship between leach rate of nuclear waste glass and residual amount of sodium on the glass surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamizono, Hiroshi; Banba, Tsunetaka

    1984-12-01

    Leach tests of simulated high-level waste glass were carried out in order to examine the quantitative relationship between the amount of elements on the sample surface and that in the leachate. An experimental equation was obtained expressing the relationship between the amount of Na on the sample surface and that in the leachate. This shows that it is possible in some cases to estimate the amount of Na in the leachate by measuring the amount of Na on the sample surface. One example of such an estimation was observed with the simulated high-level waste glass leached at 100 0 C in the presence of a backfill material. (author)

  15. Leaching of copper concentrates using NaCl and soluble copper contributed by the own concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, O.; Bernal, N.; Quiroz, R.; Fuentes, G.; Vinals, J.

    2005-01-01

    Leaching of copper concentrates using cupric chloro complexes, generated in situ by the reaction between Cu(II), aported by the soluble copper content of the concentrate, and sodium chloride in acid media was studied. The concentrate samples were obtained from mineral processing plants from Antofagasta, Chile. Chemical and mineralogical characterization from original concentrates was made. Typical variable such as a chloride concentration, soluble copper concentration, leaching time, solid percentage and temperature were studied. DRX and EDS analyzed some of the residues. the experimental results indicated that it is possible to obtain solutions having high copper content (15 to 35 g/L) and 2 to 5 g/L free acid in order to submit this solution directly to a solvent extraction stage. The leaching tests use common reactive and low cost such as sodium chloride and sulfuric acid. (Author) 16 refs

  16. Radiocesium leaching from contaminated litter in forest streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Naito, Risa S.; Negishi, Junjiro N.; Sasaki, Michiko; Toda, Hiroto; Nunokawa, Masanori; Murase, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    In Japanese forests suffering from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, litter fall provides a large amount of radiocesium from forests to streams. Submerged litter is processed to become a vital food resource for various stream organisms through initial leaching and subsequent decomposition. Although leaching from litter can detach radiocesium similarly to potassium, radiocesium leaching and its migration are poorly understood. We examined both radiocesium and potassium leaching to the water column and radiocesium allocation to minerals (glass beads, silica sand, and vermiculite) in the laboratory using soaked litter with and without minerals on a water column. The mineral types did not affect radiocesium leaching from litter, but soaking in water for 1, 7, and 30 days decreased the radiocesium concentration in litter by ×0.71, ×0.66, and ×0.56, respectively. Meanwhile, the 1-, 7-, and 30-day experiments decreased potassium concentration in litter by ×0.17, ×0.11, and ×0.09, respectively. Leached radiocesium remained in a dissolved form when there was no mineral phases present in the water, whereas there was sorption onto the minerals when they were present. In particular, vermiculite adsorbed radiocesium by two to three orders of magnitude more effectively than the other minerals. Because radiocesium forms (such as that dissolved or adsorbed to organic matter or minerals) can further mobilize to ecosystems, our findings will increase our understanding regarding the dynamics of radiocesium in stream ecosystems. - Highlights: • Radiocesium in contaminated litter was leached when soaked in water. • Radiocesium in litter leached slowly compared to potassium. • Minerals adsorbed dissolved radiocesium that was leached from litter. • Vermiculite effectively adsorbed radiocesium leached from litter

  17. Electrochemical Corrosion of Stainless Steel in Thiosulfate Solutions Relevant to Gold Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Lokesh; Wang, Wei; Alfantazi, Akram

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the electrochemical corrosion behavior of stainless steel in the ammoniacal thiosulfate gold leaching solutions. Electrochemical corrosion response was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, while the semi-conductive properties and the chemical composition of the surface film were characterized using Mott-Schottky analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The morphology of the corroded specimens was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The stainless steel 316L showed no signs of pitting in the ammoniacal thiosulfate solutions.

  18. Impacts of climate and management on water balance and nitrogen leaching from montane grassland soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jin; Gasche, Rainer; Wang, Na; Lu, Haiyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of climate and management on the water balance and nutrient leaching of montane grasslands have rarely been investigated, though such ecosystems may represent a major source for ground and surface water nitrates. In this study nitrogen (nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic nitrogen) and dissolved organic carbon leaching as well as water balance components (precipitation, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge) were quantified (2012-2014) by means of replicated (N=3 per site/ treatment) measurements of weighable grassland lysimeters (1 m2 area, 1.2 m soil depth) at three sites (E860: 860 m a.s.l., E770: 770 m a.s.l. and E600: 600 m a.s.l.) in the pre-alpine region of S-Germany. Two grassland management strategies were investigated: a) intensive management with 5 cuts per year and cattle slurry application rates of 280 kg N ha-1 yr-1, and b) extensive management with 3 cuts per year and cattle slurry application rates of 56 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Our results show that at E600, the site with highest air temperature (8.6 °C) and lowest precipitation (981.9 mm), evapotranspiration losses were 100.7 mm higher as at the E860 site, i.e. the site with lowest mean annual air temperature (6.5 °C) and highest precipitation (1359.3 mm). On the other hand groundwater recharge was substantial lower at E600 (-440.9 mm) as compared to E860. Compared to climate, impacts of grassland management on water balance components were negligible. However, intensive management significantly increased mean total nitrogen leaching rates across sites as compared to extensive management from 2.6 kg N ha-1 year-1 (range: 0.5-6.0 kg N ha-1 year-1) to 4.8 kg N ha-1 year-1 (range: 0.9-12.9 kg N ha-1 year-1). N leaching losses were dominated by nitrate (64.7 %) and equally less by ammonium (14.6 %) and DON (20.7 %). The rather low rates of N leaching (0.8 - 6.9 % of total applied N) suggest a highly efficient nitrogen uptake by plants as measured by plant total N content at harvest

  19. Leaching and mechanical properties of cabal glasses developed as matrices for immobilization high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezz-Eldin, F.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the leaching behavior of simulated high-level-waste cabal glass (CaO-B 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 ) as a bulk specimen. During leach tests, the glass is immersed in either deionized water or in groundwater for up to 57 days at 70 deg. C. Based on the results, mechanisms observed with the leaching of the glass in deionized water or groundwater are discussed. Three factors, i.e., time of immersion, type of leaching solution and irradiation effect, are extensively studied. The corrosion was found to be linear with time in the limit of investigation (1-57 days) but with different rates depending on the type of solution and glass composition. Effects of γ-irradiation on the glass together with groundwater were found to decrease the glass durability. The evolution of the damage on mechanical and physical properties of the glass before and after leaching or irradiation was also discussed. The addition of waste oxide changes the properties of the glass matrix, so the influence of the guest oxides on the properties of host materials is also discussed

  20. Secondary wastes and treatment of effluents from leaching of uranium from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ally, M.R.; Wilson, J.H.; Francis, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Feed Materials and Production Center at Fernald, Ohio has over two million cubic meters of soil contaminated with Uranium which must be cleaned. Soil characterization studies show that Uranium is unevenly distributed between the clay, sand and silt fractions. This paper examines the option of using leaching agents to remove Uranium from the soil and the treatment of secondary wastes. Results of the effects of various leachants in removing Uranium and the complications of co-leaching minerals/organic matter that are important for maintaining soil integrity and structure shall be discussed. Candidate leachants must remove the Uranium level below 35pCi/g of soil and produce a secondary waste that is amenable to on-site treatment at reasonable cost

  1. Removal of chlorine from Illinois coal by high-temperature leaching: Final report, March 1--December 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Han Lin

    1988-03-01

    The objectives of this research are to: (1) conduct experimental investigations of the removal of chlorine from coal by high- temperature leaching; (2) identify important factors affecting the chlorine removal process; (3) understand the mechanisms involved; and (4) develop a mathematical model to describe the process. A generalized mathematical model based on diffusion and relaxation has been developed for water leaching of chlorine from coal. The model has been fitted to four different samples of Illinois No. 6 coal: C22175, C22651, C8601, and C8602. The weight percent of chlorine ranged from 0.42 to 0.82. The experimental data on these samples covered a temperature range of 297 to 370K and a particle size range of 60 to 325 mesh. Based on the type of coal and the conditions of leaching, it was found that 40 to 80% of the original chlorine could be leached from the coal matrix. The model based on diffusion-relaxation concept predicted the leaching data within +-5% average absolute deviation. The diffusion rate constants at different temperatures were correlated to Arrhenius type relations. Attempts made to correlate the constants in the Arrhenius equations with the chlorine content in coal and with particle size have been discussed. The water leaching data were used to extract Fickian diffusivities based on the time required for 50% desorption. The calculated diffusivity values ranged from 0.6 to 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/11/ cm/sup 2//sec. The effect of chemical additives on the rate of leaching has also been studied. Both HNO/sub 3/ and NH/sub 4/OH were used as additives. 28 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Leaching characteristics of calcium-based compounds in MSWI Residues: From the viewpoint of clogging risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Phoungthong, Khamphe [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shi, Dong-Xiao; Shen, Wen-Hui [Changzhou Domestic Waste Treatment Center, Changzhou 213000 (China); Shao, Li-Ming [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Center for the Technology Research and Training on Household Waste in Small Towns & Rural Area, Ministry of Housing and Urban–Rural Development of PR China (MOHURD), Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pin-Jing, E-mail: solidwaste@tongji.edu.cn [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Center for the Technology Research and Training on Household Waste in Small Towns & Rural Area, Ministry of Housing and Urban–Rural Development of PR China (MOHURD), Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The leaching behavior of Ca-based compounds commonly in MSWI residues was studied. • pH is the crucial factor for calcium leaching process. • CaCO{sub 3} was the most sensitive to leaching temperature and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} was the least. • Ca leaching of MSWIBA and SAPCR attributed to CaCO{sub 3} and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} respectively. • Potential clogging ability of MSWI residues leachate in open air was calculated. - Abstract: Leachate collection system (LCS) clogging caused by calcium precipitation would be disadvantageous to landfill stability and operation. Meanwhile, calcium-based compounds are the main constituents in both municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA) and stabilized air pollution control residues (SAPCR), which would increase the risk of LCS clogging once these calcium-rich residues were disposed in landfills. The leaching behaviors of calcium from the four compounds and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues were studied, and the influencing factors on leaching were discussed. The results showed that pH was the crucial factor in the calcium leaching process. CaCO{sub 3} and CaSiO{sub 3} began leaching when the leachate pH decreased to less than 7 and 10, respectively, while Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} leached at pH < 12. CaSO{sub 4} could hardly dissolve in the experimental conditions. Moreover, the sequence of the leaching rate for the different calcium-based compounds is as follows: CaSiO{sub 3} > Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} > CaCO{sub 3}. The calcium leaching from the MSWIBA and SAPCR separately started from pH < 7 and pH < 12, resulting from CaCO{sub 3} and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} leaching respectively, which was proven by the X-ray diffraction results. Based on the leaching characteristics of the different calcium compounds and the mineral phase of calcium in the incineration residues, simulated computation of their clogging potential was conducted, providing the

  3. Nitrate leaching from a potato field using adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shekofteh, Hosein; Afyuni, Majid M; Hajabbasi, Mohammad-Ali

    2013-01-01

    and to maximize nutrient use efficiency and production. Design and operation of a drip fertigation system requires understanding of nutrient leaching behavior in cases of shallow rooted crops such as potatoes which cannot extract nutrient from a lower soil depth. This study deals with neuro-fuzzy modeling......The conventional methods of application of nitrogen fertilizers might be responsible for the increased nitrate concentration in groundwater of areas dominated by irrigated agriculture. Appropriate water and nutrient management strategies are required to minimize groundwater pollution...... of nitrate (NO3) leaching from a potato field under a drip fertigation system. In the first part of the study, a two-dimensional solute transport model was used to simulate nitrate leaching from a sandy soil with varying emitter discharge rates and fertilizer doses. The results from the modeling were used...

  4. Recycling of spent lithium-ion battery cathode materials by ammoniacal leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Heesuk; Jung, Yeojin; Jo, Minsang; Park, Sanghyuk; Kim, Sookyung; Yang, Donghyo; Rhee, Kangin; An, Eung-Mo; Sohn, Jeongsoo; Kwon, Kyungjung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ammoniacal leaching is used to recover spent Li-ion battery cathode materials. • Leaching agents consist of ammonia, ammonium sulfite and ammonium carbonate. • Ammonium sulfite is a reductant and ammonium carbonate acts as pH buffer. • Co and Cu can be fully leached while Mn and Al are not leached. • Co recovery via ammoniacal leaching is economical compared to acid leaching. - Abstract: As the production and consumption of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) increase, the recycling of spent LIBs appears inevitable from an environmental, economic and health viewpoint. The leaching behavior of Ni, Mn, Co, Al and Cu from treated cathode active materials, which are separated from a commercial LIB pack in hybrid electric vehicles, is investigated with ammoniacal leaching agents based on ammonia, ammonium carbonate and ammonium sulfite. Ammonium sulfite as a reductant is necessary to enhance leaching kinetics particularly in the ammoniacal leaching of Ni and Co. Ammonium carbonate can act as a pH buffer so that the pH of leaching solution changes little during leaching. Co and Cu can be fully leached out whereas Mn and Al are hardly leached and Ni shows a moderate leaching efficiency. It is confirmed that the cathode active materials are a composite of LiMn_2O_4, LiCo_xMn_yNi_zO_2_, Al_2O_3 and C while the leach residue is composed of LiNi_xMn_yCo_zO_2, LiMn_2O_4, Al_2O_3, MnCO_3 and Mn oxides. Co recovery via the ammoniacal leaching is believed to gain a competitive edge on convenitonal acid leaching both by reducing the sodium hydroxide expense for increasing the pH of leaching solution and by removing the separation steps of Mn and Al.

  5. Nanosized zero-valent iron as Fenton-like reagent for ultrasonic-assisted leaching of zinc from blast furnace sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.mikhailov@misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, 4 Leninskiy prospekt, Moscow, 119049 (Russian Federation); Komarov, Sergey [Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8576 (Japan); Levina, Vera; Gusev, Alexander; Issi, Jean-Paul; Kuznetsov, Denis [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, 4 Leninskiy prospekt, Moscow, 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • nZVI is used as Fenton-like reagent for activation of Zn leaching from the BFS. • nZVI has positive effect on kinetics of Zn leaching though with some loss of efficiency. • A complex ultrasonic-assisted method for BFS recycling is proposed. - Abstract: Ultrasonic-assisted sulphuric acid leaching combined with a Fenton-like process, utilizing nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI), was investigated to enhance the leaching of zinc from the blast furnace sludge (BFS). The leaching of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) from the sludge was investigated using Milli-Q water/BFS ratio of 10 and varying the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, sulphuric acid, the temperature, the input energy for ultrasound irradiation, and the presence or absence of nZVI as a Fenton reagent. The results showed that with 1 g/l addition of nZVI and 0.05 M of hydrogen peroxide, the kinetic rate of Zn leaching increased with a maximum dissolution degree of 80.2%, after 5 min treatment. In the absence of nZVI, the maximum dissolution degree of Zn was 99.2%, after 15 min treatment with 0.1 M of hydrogen peroxide. The rate of Zn leaching at several concentrations of hydrogen peroxide is accelerated in the presence of nZVI although a reduction in efficiency was observed. The loss of Fe was no more than 3%. On the basis of these results, the possible route for BFS recycling has been proposed (BFS slurry mixed with sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide is recirculated under ultrasonic irradiation then separated).

  6. Leaching of heavy metals from steelmaking slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J. F. P.; Pino, C. G.

    2006-01-01

    Leaching tests with EAF and Ladle slags were performed, using a flow through tests and the standard batch test DIN 38414-S4. The previous method was used to simulate the leaching behaviour of steel slags under landfill. the chemical analysis of the leachates during this period shows, in general, for both types of slag, and increase of heavy metal releases with ageing. Standard test method DIN 38414-S4 was used to evaluate leachability of heavy metals by water in unprocessed slags. After more than one year of trials, slang samples submitted to these trials presented very low total leaching levels. The most extracted elements are calcium and magnesium. Nevertheless, in flow-though test, calcium and magnesium leached from solid slags are below 0.5% and all other metals below 0.1%. Leachates obtained with DIN 38414-S4 present, as expected, higher leaching values; however, these are inferior to 5% (Ca) and 1% (other elements). (Author) 12 refs

  7. Development of an accelerated leaching method for incineration bottom ash correlated to toxicity characteristic leaching protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengxuan; Zhou, Xuedong; Ge, Liya; Ng, Sum Huan; Zhou, Xiaodong; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung

    2016-10-01

    Heavy metals and some metalloids are the most significant inorganic contaminants specified in toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) in determining the safety of landfills or further utilization. As a consequence, a great deal of efforts had been made on the development of miniaturized analytical devices, such as Microchip Electrophoresis (ME) and μTAS for on-site testing of heavy metals and metalloids to prevent spreading of those pollutants or decrease the reutilization period of waste materials such as incineration bottom ash. However, the bottleneck lied in the long and tedious conventional TCLP that requires 18 h of leaching. Without accelerating the TCLP process, the on-site testing of the waste material leachates was impossible. In this study, therefore, a new accelerated leaching method (ALM) combining ultrasonic assisted leaching with tumbling was developed to reduce the total leaching time from 18 h to 30 min. After leaching, the concentrations of heavy metals and metalloids were determined with ICP-MS or ICP-optical emission spectroscopy. No statistical significance between ALM and TCLP was observed for most heavy metals (i.e., cobalt, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, silver, strontium, and tin) and metalloids (i.e., arsenic and selenium). For the heavy metals with statistical significance, correlation factors derived between ALM and TCLP were 0.56, 0.20, 0.037, and 0.019 for barium, cadmium, chromium, and lead, respectively. Combined with appropriate analytical techniques (e.g., ME), the ALM can be applied to rapidly prepare the incineration bottom ash samples as well as other environmental samples for on-site determination of heavy metals and metalloids. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Stability and leaching of cobalt smelter fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vítková, Martina; Hyks, Jiri; Ettler, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    The leaching behaviour of fly ash from a Co smelter situated in the Zambian Copperbelt was studied as a function of pH (5–12) using the pH-static leaching test (CEN/TS 14997). Various experimental time intervals (48h and 168h) were evaluated. The leaching results were combined with the ORCHESTRA...... modelling framework and a detailed mineralogical investigation was performed on the original FA and leached solid residues. The largest amounts of Co, Cu, Pb and Zn were leached at pH 5, generally with the lowest concentrations between pH 9 and 11 and slightly increased concentrations at pH 12. For most...... detected using SEM/EDS and/or TEM/EDS. The leaching of metals was mainly attributed to the dissolution of metallic particles. Partial dissolution of silicate and glass fractions was assumed to significantly influence the release of Ca, Mg, Fe, K, Al and Si as well as Cu, Co and Zn. The formation of illite...

  9. Effects of solution chemistry and atmosphere on leaching of alkali borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, H.P.; Christensen, H.; Clark, D.E.; Werme, L.

    1983-01-01

    The leaching behavior of two alkali-borosilicate glasses containing 9 wt % simulated fission products and 1.6 wt % uranium oxide has been studied. Samples were exposed to one of eight types of leachants including doubly distilled water, simulated ground silicate water, a brine solution, and solutions containing various concentrations of iron, aluminum or sodium maintained at either 25 0 C, 40 0 C or 90 0 C for up to 182 days. The most aggressive leachants were the solutions containing sodium (excluding brine) and simulated ground silicate water. These solutions increased the extent of leaching by a factor of 2 to 3 over that for distilled water for one of the glasses. A partially protective surface film rich in magnesium, potassium, and chlorine was formed on the glasses exposed to the brine solution. In order to evaluate the effects of atmosphere on leaching, samples were also immersed in doubly distilled water over which the relative concentrations of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide were varied. Increasing the carbon dioxide concentration from 0 to 50% resulted in a factor of 3 increase in the leaching rate

  10. Diagnosis of the generation, harvesting and leached treatment of the Relleno Sanitario Rio Azul and proposal of technological alternatives for its improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Gonzalez, Ileana

    2007-01-01

    An environmental diagnosis was conduced in the Relleno Sanitario Rio Azul to evaluate the state of the generation, the harvesting and the leached treatment system. Besides, the corrective measures for each case were determined. The physicochemical characterization of the leached generated has been established through the collection of historical analysis conduced and the implementation of an environmental monitoring plan. As a consequence of said characterization, it was concluded that the leached generated at present possesses the specific characteristics of backfills that are found in mature stage (methanogenic), to know: low relation DBO/DQO, slightly basic pH, low concentration of heavy metals and low biodegradability. Even so these liquids must be treated to fulfill the permissible maximum parameters that establish the Reglamento de Uso y Vertido de Aguas Residuales. A seasonal variation linked with the generation of leached was determined, by effects of infiltration, toward the mass of waste and the combination of pluvial water with leached, mainly due to the absence of adequate infrastructure and unfinished works. The amount of leached that was generated and that will be generated until year 2025 it was managed to consider by means of the modeling a hydric balance. The volume is significant and is due to adopt the respective sanitary measures to guarantee to long term the adapted treatment of the leached and the fulfillment of the effective legislation. A series of improvements are proposed to the leached treatment system that functions at present, as a consequence of the diagnosis carried out to achieve that the quality of the effluent treated comply with the parameters of poured established; such as: filtration of heavy particles, implementation of a physicochemical treatment and treatment of muds. (author) [es

  11. Heap Leaching Technology. Moving the Frontier for Treatment: Applications in Niger and Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiry, Jacques; Bustos, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    • Uranium is being successfully extracted from low grade ores by heap leaching operations; • The response of the reaction system both at acid or alkaline leaching conditions is well know; • Proper characterization of ore feed is required to anticipate agglomeration quality, heap permeability and stability, and uranium dissolution kinetics and final recovery; • Many laboratory, bench scale tests and pilot plant demonstration at proper scale are necessary to provide suitable design parameters and to fit modeling efforts to actual results; • Large space for optimization opportunities to reduce ore throughput, water and reagents consumption; • Proper effluent solution management and control as well as proper residue disposal are required for safe and clean operation

  12. Leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, H.J.; McClelland, G.E.; Lindstrom, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A gold and uranium ore is heap leached in accordance with the process comprising initial agglomeration of fines in the feed by means of a binding agent and cyanide solution. The lixiviant comprises a compatible mixture of sodium cyanide and sodium bicarbonate

  13. Leaching process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinen, H J; McClelland, G E; Lindstrom, R E

    1982-10-18

    A gold and uranium ore is heap leached in accordance with the process comprising initial agglomeration of fines in the feed by means of a binding agent and cyanide solution. The lixiviant comprises a compatible mixture of sodium cyanide and sodium bicarbonate.

  14. Leaching of potassium in a lysimeter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.

    1996-11-01

    Leaching of potassium was studied in the lysimeter plant in Seibersdorf/Austria (Pannonian climate). Averaged over three years, gravitational water amounted to 15.7% of the sum of precipitation (mean 485 mm) and irrigation (mean 138 mm). Differences between the four soils with respect to drainage were explained by the specific percentage of the soil skeleton. The average yearly potassium leaching ranged from 3.64 kg K/ha·yr (Dystric-Cambisol) to 22.7 kg K/ha·yr (drained Gleysol). Correlation between gravitational water volume and potassium leaching were only significant for one out of four soil types. No correlation was observed between extractable potassium in the soil profiles and potassium leaching. (author)

  15. Practice of the counter-current trickle leaching of uranium ore by refreshed liquor of bacterial oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shian; Huang Xiangfu; Fan Baotuan

    1995-01-01

    The uranium ore of the Mine No. 753 is a high-silicate type primary one, in which the tetravalent uranium accounts for 85%, and the uranium grade is in the range of 0.36% to 0.442%. To reduce the engineering investment and the operating cost a four-stage counter-current trickle leaching pilot-plant test was carried out with the leaching time 50 days and acid consumption 38 kg per ton of ore, and the recovery of more than 95% was obtained. Using the counter-current trickle leaching mode and controlling the limit concentration of the harmful matters in the bacterial leaching liquor, the latter can be effectively oxidized by the synchronical regeneration. A trickle leaching comparative test of 25 ton ore single heap also gave a good result of more than 95% in extraction rate, and 30% acid consumption was saved and the 2.0% pyrolusite (containing MnO 2 40%) was eliminated. This process is feasible in technology and worth-while in economy for treating the uranium ore of Mine No. 753, and provides a new method of uranium ore trickle leaching

  16. Experiment on bio-leaching of associated molybdenum and uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ying; Fan Baotuan; Liu Jian; Meng Yunsheng; Liu Chao

    2007-01-01

    Column leaching experiment results on associated molybdenum uranium ore by bacteria (T. f) are introduced. The ore are leached for 210 days using bacteria domesticated to tolerate molybdenum, the leaching of uranium is of 98% and leaching of molybdenum is of 41%. Sulphuric acid produced by bio-oxidation of sulfides in ore can meet the demand of ore leaching. (authors)

  17. Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Soil Nitrogen Availability, Corn Yield, and Nitrate Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kuo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L., annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L. yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation since 1987. In addition to the cover crop treatments, there were four N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, and 201 kg N ha-1, referred to as N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively applied to corn. The experiment was a randomized split-block design with three replications for each treatment. Lysimeters were installed in 1987 at 0.75 m below the soil surface for leachate collection for the N0, N2, and N3 treatments. The result showed that vetch monoculture had the most influence on soil N availability and corn yield, followed by the bicultures. Rye or ryegrass monoculture had either no effect or an adverse effect on corn yield and soil N availability. Leachate NO3-N concentration was highest where vetch cover crop was planted regardless of N rates, which suggests that N mineralization of vetch N continued well into the fall and winter. Leachate NO3-N concentration increased with increasing N fertilizer rates and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking water standard of 10 mg N l�1 even at recommended N rate for corn in this region (coastal Pacific Northwest. In comparisons of the average NO3-N concentration during the period of high N leaching, monocultured rye and ryegrass or bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch very effectively decreased N leaching in 1998 with dry fall weather. The amount of N available for leaching (determined based on the presidedress nitrate test, the amount of N fertilizer applied, and N uptake correlated well with average NO3

  18. Effect of winter cover crops on soil nitrogen availability, corn yield, and nitrate leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, S; Huang, B; Bembenek, R

    2001-10-25

    Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L.) yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation since 1987. In addition to the cover crop treatments, there were four N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, and 201 kg N ha(-1), referred to as N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively) applied to corn. The experiment was a randomized split-block design with three replications for each treatment. Lysimeters were installed in 1987 at 0.75 m below the soil surface for leachate collection for the N 0, N 2, and N 3 treatments. The result showed that vetch monoculture had the most influence on soil N availability and corn yield, followed by the bicultures. Rye or ryegrass monoculture had either no effect or an adverse effect on corn yield and soil N availability. Leachate NO3-N concentration was highest where vetch cover crop was planted regardless of N rates, which suggests that N mineralization of vetch N continued well into the fall and winter. Leachate NO3-N concentration increased with increasing N fertilizer rates and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water standard of 10 mg N l(-1) even at recommended N rate for corn in this region (coastal Pacific Northwest). In comparisons of the average NO3-N concentration during the period of high N leaching, monocultured rye and ryegrass or bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch very effectively decreased N leaching in 1998 with dry fall weather. The amount of N available for leaching (determined based on the presidedress nitrate test, the amount of N fertilizer applied, and N uptake) correlated well with average NO3-N during

  19. Water leaching of borosilicate glasses: experiments, modeling and Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledieu, A.

    2004-10-01

    This work is concerned with the corrosion of borosilicate glasses with variable oxide contents. The originality of this study is the complementary use of experiments and numerical simulations. This study is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the corrosion of nuclear waste confinement glasses. First, the corrosion of glasses containing only silicon, boron and sodium oxides has been studied. The kinetics of leaching show that the rate of leaching and the final degree of corrosion sharply depend on the boron content through a percolation mechanism. For some glass contents and some conditions of leaching, the layer which appears at the glass surface stops the release of soluble species (boron and sodium). This altered layer (also called the gel layer) has been characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Second, additional elements have been included in the glass composition. It appears that calcium, zirconium or aluminum oxides strongly modify the final degree of corrosion so that the percolation properties of the boron sub-network is no more a sufficient explanation to account for the behavior of these glasses. Meanwhile, we have developed a theoretical model, based on the dissolution and the reprecipitation of the silicon. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have been used in order to test several concepts such as the boron percolation, the local reactivity of weakly soluble elements and the restructuring of the gel layer. This model has been fully validated by comparison with the results on the three oxide glasses. Then, it has been used as a comprehensive tool to investigate the paradoxical behavior of the aluminum and zirconium glasses: although these elements slow down the corrosion kinetics, they lead to a deeper final degree of corrosion. The main contribution of this work is that the final degree of corrosion of borosilicate glasses results from the competition of two opposite mechanisms

  20. ESCA studies on leached glass forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawkins, B.G.

    1979-01-01

    Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) results for frit, obsidian, NBS standard, and Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) glass forms that have been subjected to cumulative water leachings of 36 hours show that [Na] exhibits the largest and fastest change of all the elements observed. Leaching of surface Na occurred within minutes. Surface Na depletion increased with leach time. Continuous x-ray irradiation and argon ion milling induced Na mobility, precluding semiquantitative ESCA analysis at normal operating temperatures. However, the sample stage has been equipped with a liquid nitrogen supply and alkali mobility should be eliminated in future work

  1. Laboratory studies on leaching of low grade uranium ores and treatment of low level liquid waste generated by leaching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palabrica, O.T.; Antonino, E.J.; Caluag, L.A.; Villamater, D.

    1980-07-01

    Acid leaching experiments of preconcentrated uranium ore were carried out at a pulp density of 50% solids, using sulfuric acid with sodium chlorate as oxidant. The different leaching parameters considered in this work were temperature, oxidant level and leaching time. In the experimental procedure, the concentration of oxidant and the temperature were varied to determine how they affect the leaching process. Experimental results are illustrated in tabulated form for better interpretation. Uranium analyses were done by fluorimetric and delayed-neutron activation analysis. An anion exchange method using Dowex 1 x 8, 200-400 mesh (Cl - ) was used in treating the low-level liquid waste generated by leaching experiments. The purpose of this treatment was to minimize radioactive contamination in the waste materials and also to recover some of the uranium left in the liquid waste. (author)

  2. On the possibility of determining rates of removal of uranium from crystalline igneous rocks using U - series disequilibria - 1: a U-leach model, and its applicability to whole-rock data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, A.G.; Schwarcz, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    The removal of U from granitic rocks is characterised by 234 U/ 238 U 230 Th/ 234 U > 1. It is notable, from weathered Eye-Dashwa lakes (Canada) granite samples and from the published data, that 230 Th/ 234 U ratios seldom exceed a limiting value of about 2. A U-leach model is discussed in detail which may account for these observations. The model assumes that 230 Th is practically immobile and that the removal of U can then be measured against the decay rate of the unsupported 230 Th. A property of the model is that the isotope ratios reach constant values reflecting a kind of ''secular equilibrium'', and this implies that U is seldom removed faster than the decay of 230 Th. If the limited 230 Th/ 234 U ratios from the data correspond to ''secular equilibrium'' ratios then this allows simple calculation of U-leach rates from any given subsurface sample. (author)

  3. Analysis of SPR salt cavern remedial leach program 2013.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Paula D.; Gutierrez, Karen A.; Lord, David L.; Rudeen, David Keith

    2013-09-01

    The storage caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) exhibit creep behavior resulting in reduction of storage capacity over time. Maintenance of oil storage capacity requires periodic controlled leaching named remedial leach. The 30 MMB sale in summer 2011 provided space available to facilitate leaching operations. The objective of this report is to present the results and analyses of remedial leach activity at the SPR following the 2011 sale until mid-January 2013. This report focuses on caverns BH101, BH104, WH105 and WH106. Three of the four hanging strings were damaged resulting in deviations from normal leach patterns; however, the deviations did not affect the immediate geomechanical stability of the caverns. Significant leaching occurred in the toes of the caverns likely decreasing the number of available drawdowns until P/D ratio criteria are met. SANSMIC shows good agreement with sonar data and reasonably predicted the location and size of the enhanced leaching region resulting from string breakage.

  4. Behaviour of metalloids and metals from highly polluted soil samples when mobilized by water--evaluation of static versus dynamic leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennrich, Rainer; Daus, Birgit; Müller, Karsten; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Brüggemann, Lutz; Morgenstern, Peter

    2012-06-01

    The mobilization behaviour of metalloids and metals when leached by water from highly polluted soil/sediment samples was studied using static and dynamic approaches employing batch methodology and rotating coiled columns (RCC), respectively. Increasing the solution-to-solid ratios during batch leaching resulted in different enhanced mobilization rates, which are element-specific and matrix-specific. When dynamic leaching is employed with continuous replacement of the eluent, a higher portion is mobilized than when using batch elution with an identical solid-to-water ratio. Using RCC the time-resolved leaching of the elements was monitored to demonstrate the leaching patterns. For the majority of elements a significant decrease could be shown in the mobilized portion of the elements with ongoing leaching process. The data were discussed targeted at solid liquid partitioning coefficients of the metal(loid)s. The capabilities in application of K(d) values was demonstrated for dynamic leaching which is relevant for environmental processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recycling of spent lithium-ion battery cathode materials by ammoniacal leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, Heesuk; Jung, Yeojin; Jo, Minsang; Park, Sanghyuk [Department of Energy & Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 05006 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sookyung [Urban Mine Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Donghyo, E-mail: ydh@kigam.re.kr [Urban Mine Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Kangin; An, Eung-Mo; Sohn, Jeongsoo [Urban Mine Department, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kyungjung, E-mail: kfromberk@gmail.com [Department of Energy & Mineral Resources Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 05006 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Ammoniacal leaching is used to recover spent Li-ion battery cathode materials. • Leaching agents consist of ammonia, ammonium sulfite and ammonium carbonate. • Ammonium sulfite is a reductant and ammonium carbonate acts as pH buffer. • Co and Cu can be fully leached while Mn and Al are not leached. • Co recovery via ammoniacal leaching is economical compared to acid leaching. - Abstract: As the production and consumption of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) increase, the recycling of spent LIBs appears inevitable from an environmental, economic and health viewpoint. The leaching behavior of Ni, Mn, Co, Al and Cu from treated cathode active materials, which are separated from a commercial LIB pack in hybrid electric vehicles, is investigated with ammoniacal leaching agents based on ammonia, ammonium carbonate and ammonium sulfite. Ammonium sulfite as a reductant is necessary to enhance leaching kinetics particularly in the ammoniacal leaching of Ni and Co. Ammonium carbonate can act as a pH buffer so that the pH of leaching solution changes little during leaching. Co and Cu can be fully leached out whereas Mn and Al are hardly leached and Ni shows a moderate leaching efficiency. It is confirmed that the cathode active materials are a composite of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCo{sub x}Mn{sub y}Ni{sub z}O{sub 2,} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and C while the leach residue is composed of LiNi{sub x}Mn{sub y}Co{sub z}O{sub 2}, LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnCO{sub 3} and Mn oxides. Co recovery via the ammoniacal leaching is believed to gain a competitive edge on convenitonal acid leaching both by reducing the sodium hydroxide expense for increasing the pH of leaching solution and by removing the separation steps of Mn and Al.

  6. Numerical simulation of vertical infiltration for leaching fluid in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinxuan; Shi Weijun; Zhang Weimin

    1998-01-01

    Based on the analysis of movement law of leaching fluid in breaking and leaching experiment in situ, the movement of leaching fluid can be divided into two main stages in the leaching process in situ: Vertical Infiltration in unsaturation zone and horizontal runoff in saturation zone. The corresponding mathematics models are sep up, and the process of vertical infiltration of leaching fluid is numerically simulated

  7. Leaching of TCIPP from furniture foam is rapid and substantial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbings, William A; Harrad, Stuart

    2018-02-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were conducted, in which waste furniture polyurethane foam samples containing tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) were contacted with a range of leaching fluids, formulated to simulate the composition of landfill leachate. Leaching was examined under a number of different scenarios, such as: dissolved humic matter concentration, pH, and temperature, as well as the effect of agitation, and waste:leaching fluid contact duration. In addition to single batch (no replenishment of leaching fluid), serial batch (draining of leachate and replenishment with fresh leaching fluid at various time intervals) experiments were conducted. Leaching of TCIPP from PUF appears to be a first order process. Concentrations of TCIPP in leachate generated by the experiments in this study ranged from 13 mg L -1 to 130 mg L -1 . In serial batch leaching experiments, >95% of TCIPP was depleted from PUF after 168 h total contact with leaching fluid. Our experiments indicate leaching is potentially a very significant pathway of TCIPP emissions to the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Remediation of hazardous waste sites by heap leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samani, Z.; Hanson, A.; Dwyer, B.

    1994-01-01

    Efforts are being made to devise technologies and treatment systems to remediate contaminated soil-on site without generating significant wastes for off-site disposal. Heap leaching, a technique used extensively in the mining industry, has been investigated as a method for remediation of hazardous chemical contamination of the vadose zone. In the mining industry, metal-bearing ore is excavated and mounded on a pad. The metals are removed by passing a special leaching solution through the ore. In this study, the removal of chromium(VI) from the New Mexico soils (sand, sandy loam, and clay) using heap leaching was evaluated at a column scale. The heap leaching study demonstrated greater than 99% removal of Cr(VI) from all three soils using tap water as the leaching agent. (author) 13 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs

  9. Comparison of oxidants in alkaline leaching of uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, T.; Rajan, K.C.; Srinivas, K.; Anand Rao, K.; Manmadha Rao, M.; Venkatakrishnan, R.R.; Padmanabhan, N.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The uranium minerals occurring in various ore deposits consists of predominantly uranous ion (U +4 ), necessitating use of an oxidant and other lixiviants for efficient dissolution during leaching. Unlike acid leaching route, where uranium minerals dissolution could be achieved efficiently with cheaper lixiviants, processing of ores by alkaline leaching route involve expensive lixiviants and drastic leaching conditions. Alkaline leaching of uranium ores becomes economical only upon using cheaper and efficient oxidants and conservation of other reagents by their recycle. The present paper gives efficacy of various oxidants - KMnO 4 , NaOCl, Cu - NH 3 , air and oxygen, in the leaching of uranium from a low-grade dolostone hosted uranium ore of India. A comparison based on technical merits and cost of the oxidant chemicals is discussed. (author)

  10. Physical and chemical mechanism underlying ultrasonically enhanced hydrochloric acid leaching of non-oxidative roasting of bastnaesite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongliang; Li, Mei; Gao, Kai; Li, Jianfei; Yan, Yujun; Liu, Xingyu

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we investigated an alternative to the conventional hydrochloric acid leaching of roasted bastnaesite. The studies suggested that the rare earth oxyfluorides in non-oxidatively roasted bastnaesite can be selectively leached only at elevated temperatures Further, the Ce(IV) in oxidatively roasted bastnaesite does not leach readily at low temperatures, and it is difficult to induce it to form a complex with F - ions in order to increase the leaching efficiency. Moreover, it is inevitably reduced to Ce(III) at elevated temperatures. Thus, the ultrasonically-assisted hydrochloric acid leaching of non-oxidatively roasted bastnaesite was studied in detail, including, the effects of several process factors and the, physical and chemical mechanisms underlying the leaching process. The results show that the leaching rate for the ultrasonically assisted process at 55°C (65% rare earth oxides) is almost the same as that for the conventional leaching process at 85°C. Based on the obtained results, it is concluded that ultrasonic cavitation plays a key role in the proposed process, resulting not only in a high shear stress, which damages the solid surface, but also in the formation of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Standard electrode potential analysis and experimental results indicate that Ce(III) isoxidized by the hydroxyl radicals to Ce(IV), which can be leached with F - ions in the form of a complex, and that the Ce(IV) can subsequently be reduced to Ce(III) by the H 2 O 2. This prevents the Cl - ions in the solution from being oxidized to form chlorine. These results imply that the ultrasonically-assisted process can be used for the leaching of non-oxidatively roasted bastnaesite at low temperatures in the absence of a reductant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Saltstone Matrix Characterization And Stadium Simulation Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.

    2009-01-01

    SIMCO Technologies, Inc. was contracted to evaluate the durability of the saltstone matrix material and to measure saltstone transport properties. This information will be used to: (1) Parameterize the STADIUM(reg s ign) service life code, (2) Predict the leach rate (degradation rate) for the saltstone matrix over 10,000 years using the STADIUM(reg s ign) concrete service life code, and (3) Validate the modeled results by conducting leaching (water immersion) tests. Saltstone durability for this evaluation is limited to changes in the matrix itself and does not include changes in the chemical speciation of the contaminants in the saltstone. This report summarized results obtained to date which include: characterization data for saltstone cured up to 365 days and characterization of saltstone cured for 137 days and immersed in water for 31 days. Chemicals for preparing simulated non-radioactive salt solution were obtained from chemical suppliers. The saltstone slurry was mixed according to directions provided by SRNL. However SIMCO Technologies Inc. personnel made a mistake in the premix proportions. The formulation SIMCO personnel used to prepare saltstone premix was not the reference mix proportions: 45 wt% slag, 45 wt% fly ash, and 10 wt% cement. SIMCO Technologies Inc. personnel used the following proportions: 21 wt% slag, 65 wt% fly ash, and 14 wt% cement. The mistake was acknowledged and new mixes have been prepared and are curing. The results presented in this report are assumed to be conservative since the excessive fly ash was used in the SIMCO saltstone. The SIMCO mixes are low in slag which is very reactive in the caustic salt solution. The impact is that the results presented in this report are expected to be conservative since the samples prepared were deficient in slag and contained excess fly ash. The hydraulic reactivity of slag is about four times that of fly ash so the amount of hydrated binder formed per unit volume in the SIMCO saltstone samples

  12. Pollution potential leaching index as a tool to assess water leaching risk of arsenic in excavated urban soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jining; Kosugi, Tomoya; Riya, Shohei; Hashimoto, Yohey; Hou, Hong; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2018-01-01

    Leaching of hazardous trace elements from excavated urban soils during construction of cities has received considerable attention in recent years in Japan. A new concept, the pollution potential leaching index (PPLI), was applied to assess the risk of arsenic (As) leaching from excavated soils. Sequential leaching tests (SLT) with two liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios (10 and 20Lkg -1 ) were conducted to determine the PPLI values, which represent the critical cumulative L/S ratios at which the average As concentrations in the cumulative leachates are reduced to critical values (10 or 5µgL -1 ). Two models (a logarithmic function model and an empirical two-site first-order leaching model) were compared to estimate the PPLI values. The fractionations of As before and after SLT were extracted according to a five-step sequential extraction procedure. Ten alkaline excavated soils were obtained from different construction projects in Japan. Although their total As contents were low (from 6.75 to 79.4mgkg -1 ), the As leaching was not negligible. Different L/S ratios at each step of the SLT had little influence on the cumulative As release or PPLI values. Experimentally determined PPLI values were in agreement with those from model estimations. A five-step SLT with an L/S of 10Lkg -1 at each step, combined with a logarithmic function fitting was suggested for the easy estimation of PPLI. Results of the sequential extraction procedure showed that large portions of more labile As fractions (non-specifically and specifically sorbed fractions) were removed during long-term leaching and so were small, but non-negligible, portions of strongly bound As fractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on the leach mechanism of 90-19/U glass form in underground water of disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Jiawei; Luo Shanggeng; Tang Baolong

    1996-01-01

    The leach behavior of 90-19/U glass form in underground water (UW) of disposal site and in the deionized water (DIW) is studied. The total mass losses of glass form and the normalized element mass losses of B, Li and Si in UW are presented and compared to DIW. It is found that the ions in UW affect the leach behavior of 90-19/U glass. At the beginning of the reaction the reaction rate of the glass is smaller in UW than in DIW due to the low glass dissolution affinity in UW which is defined as (1-c/K). The rate determining step of leach reaction of 90-19/U glass in UW during the entire reaction period is the ion-exchange reaction. The apparent activation energy of glass reaction in UW is 51.6 kJ/mol

  14. Influences of clinoptilolite and surfactant-modified clinoptilolite zeolite on nitrate leaching and plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekian, Raheleh; Abedi-Koupai, Jahangir; Eslamian, Sayed Saeid

    2011-01-01

    The increasing demands for environmental protection and sustainable food production require an increase in the use of natural and non-toxic materials for agriculture. In this study, the feasibility of using surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) in comparison with zeolite clinoptilolite (Cp) application to reduce nitrate leaching and enhance crop growth was investigated. The effects of size (millimeter and nanometer) and application rate (20 g kg -1 and 60 g kg -1 ) of Cp and SMZ on nitrate leaching and crop response were also evaluated. Using soil lysimeters, it was determined that the maximum and mean nitrate concentration in the leachate of SMZ-amended soil were significantly (p 3 -N leached from SMZ- and Cp-amended lysimeters at the higher application rate (60 g kg -1 ) was approximately 26% and 22% lower, respectively, than that from the control system. The mean grain yield, grain nitrogen content, stover dry matter, and N uptake were significantly greater in Cp-amended than SMZ-amended lysimeters. There was no significant effect due to the particle size of the two soil amendments. The results implicitly suggest that plants may have a better response if Cp is used as a fertilizer carrier rather than SMZ when applied at a rate of 60 g kg -1 .

  15. Nitrate leaching from short-hydroperiod floodplain soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Huber

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown the importance of riparian zones to reduce nitrate (NO3 contamination coming from adjacent agricultural land. Much less is known about nitrogen (N transformations and nitrate fluxes in riparian soils with short hydroperiods (1–3 days of inundation and there is no study that could show whether these soils are a N sink or source. Within a restored section of the Thur River in NE Switzerland, we measured nitrate concentrations in soil solutions as an indicator of the net nitrate production. Samples were collected along a quasi-successional gradient from frequently inundated gravel bars to an alluvial forest, at three different depths (10, 50 and 100 cm over a one-year period. Along this gradient we quantified N input (atmospheric deposition and sedimentation and N output (leaching to create a nitrogen balance and assess the risk of nitrate leaching from the unsaturated soil to the groundwater. Overall, the main factor explaining the differences in nitrate concentrations was the field capacity (FC. In subsoils with high FCs and VWC near FC, high nitrate concentrations were observed, often exceeding the Swiss and EU groundwater quality criterions of 400 and 800 μmol L−1, respectively. High sedimentation rates of river-derived nitrogen led to apparent N retention up to 200 kg N ha−1 yr−1 in the frequently inundated zones. By contrast, in the mature alluvial forest, nitrate leaching exceeded total N input most of the time. As a result of the large soil N pools, high amounts of nitrate were produced by nitrification and up to 94 kg N-NO3 ha−1 yr−1 were leached into the groundwater. Thus, during flooding when water fluxes are high, nitrate from soils can contribute up to 11% to the total nitrate load in groundwater.

  16. Acid agglomeration heap leaching: present status, principle and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yijun

    2004-01-01

    For extracting valuable metal from clay-bearing acidic ores of poor permeability, agglomerated acid heap leaching appears to be the most effective method, whereas conventional leaching and general heap leaching bring about unsatisfactory recovery and poor economic returns. The present state of research work on acid agglomeration worldwide and its basic principle are discussed. The first commercial application employing acid agglomeration-heap leaching in China is also introduced

  17. Leaching tendencies of uranium and regulated trace metals from the Hanford Site 300 Area North Process Pond sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Mattigod, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Data are presented that address the leaching tendencies and the total chemical composition of metals in feed materials and soil-washed fines generated by Alternative Remediation Technology, Inc. during a pilot-scale soil physical separation test performed at the 300 Area North Process Pond (Facility 316-2) on the Hanford Site in the spring of 1994. Four 300 Area North Process Pond sediments and one sediment from outside the pond's fenced area were leach-tested using the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) and other modified US Environmental Protection Agency and American Society for Testing and Materials protocols. Finally, leachate from the most contaminated sediment was used to load the Hanford sediment obtained outside the facility to evaluate the potential for contaminant adsorption onto natural sediments. The sediment characterization, leach, and adsorption results will be used in the evaluation of remedial alternatives in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study

  18. Printed circuit board recycling: Physical processing and copper extraction by selective leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvas, Flávia P C; Correa, Mónica M Jiménez; Caldas, Marcos P K; de Moraes, Viviane T; Espinosa, Denise C R; Tenório, Jorge A S

    2015-12-01

    Global generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is about 40 million tons per year. Constant increase in WEEE generation added to international legislations has improved the development of processes for materials recovery and sustainability of electrical and electronic industry. This paper describes a new hydrometallurgical route (leaching process) to recycle printed circuit boards (PCBs) from printers to recover copper. Methodology included PCBs characterization and a combined route of physical and hydrometallurgical processing. Magnetic separation, acid digestion and chemical analysis by ICP-OES were performed. On leaching process were used two stages: the first one in a sulfuric media and the second in an oxidant media. The results showed that the PCBs composition was 74.6 wt.% of non-magnetic material and 25.4 wt.% of magnetic one. The metallic fraction corresponded to 44.0 wt.%, the polymeric to 28.5 wt.% and the ceramic to 27.5 wt.%. The main metal was copper and its initial content was 32.5 wt.%. On sulfuric leaching 90 wt.% of Al, 40 wt.% of Zn and 8.6 wt.% of Sn were extracted, whereas on oxidant leaching tests the extraction percentage of Cu was 100 wt.%, of Zn 60 wt.% and of Al 10 wt.%. At the end of the hydrometallurgical processing was obtained 100% of copper extraction and the recovery factor was 98.46%, which corresponds to a 32 kg of Cu in 100 kg of PCB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of soil type on leaching and runoff transport of rare earth elements and phosphorous in laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao; Chong, Zhongyi; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2011-01-01

    Through leaching experiments and simulated rainfall experiments, characteristics of vertical leaching of exogenous rare earth elements (REEs) and phosphorus (P) and their losses with surface runoff during simulated rainfall in different types of soils (terra nera soil, cinnamon soil, red soil, loess soil, and purple soil) were investigated. Results of the leaching experiments showed that vertical transports of REEs and P were relatively low, with transport depths less than 6 cm. The vertical leaching rates of REEs and P in the different soils followed the order of purple soil > terra nera soil > red soil > cinnamon soil > loess soil. Results of the simulated rainfall experiments (83 mm h⁻¹) revealed that more than 92% of REEs and P transported with soil particles in runoff. The loss rates of REEs and P in surface runoff in the different soil types were in the order of loess soil > terra nera soil > cinnamon soil > red soil > purple soil. The total amounts of losses of REEs and P in runoff were significantly correlated.

  20. Silylation of leached-vermiculites following reaction with imidazole and copper sorption behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Saloana S.G.; Pereira, Mariana B.B. [Chemistry Department of Paraíba Federal University, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Almeida, Ramon K.S. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Souza, Antônio G. [Chemistry Department of Paraíba Federal University, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Fonseca, Maria G., E-mail: mgardennia@quimica.ufpb.br [Chemistry Department of Paraíba Federal University, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Jaber, M. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8220, Laboratoire d' archéologie moléculaire et structurale (LAMS), Boîte courrier 225, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Silylated vermiculites reacted covalently with imidazole. • Modified vermiculites adsorbed copper from aqueous solution. • Copper retention in all solids occurred at rapid time of 80 min. • Higher organic content on the solid improved the copper adsorption. - Abstract: Organically modified vermiculites were synthesized by previous silylation of three leached vermiculites, V0.3Cl, V0.5Cl and V0.8Cl, under anhydrous conditions following reaction with imidazole (Im), which acted as chelating agent for copper retention. Elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, {sup 29}Si and {sup 13}C NMR and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements were used to characterize pristine, leached and organofunctionalized solids. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to evaluate the surface after copper sorption. Parameters such as contact time, pH and initial cation concentration for the adsorption of Cu(II) ions were investigated. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted using the Langmuir isotherm model and the monolayer adsorption capacities were 2.38, 2.52 and 2.69 mmol g{sup −1} for V0.5Cl-Im, V0.3Cl-Im and V0.8Cl-Im, respectively, at pH 6.0 and 298 K for a time reaction of 80 min. The sorption rates were described by pseudo-second-order kinetics. The chloropropyl imidazole vermiculites are promising adsorbents for the rapid removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution.

  1. ALKALINE CARBONATE LEACHING PROCESS FOR URANIUM EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Rabbitts, A.T.

    1957-11-12

    A process for the leaching of uranium from high carbonate ores is presented. According to the process, the ore is leached at a temperature of about 200 deg C and a pressure of about 200 p.s.i.g. with a solution containing alkali carbonate, alkali permanganate, and bicarbonate ion, the bicarbonate ion functionlng to prevent premature formation of alkali hydroxide and consequent precipitation of a diuranate. After the leaching is complete, the uranium present is recovered by precipitation with NaOH.

  2. Technique for in situ leach simulation of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, D.C.; Seidel, D.C.; Nichols, I.L.

    1985-01-01

    In situ uranium mining offers the advantages of minimal environmental disturbance, low capital and operating costs, and reduced mining development time. It is becoming an increasingly attractive mining method for the recovery of uranium from secondary ore deposits. In order to better understand the process, a laboratory technique was developed and used to study and simulate both the chemical and physical phenomena occurring in ore bodies during in situ leaching. The laboratory simulation technique has been used to determine effects of leaching variables on permeability, uranium recovery, and post-leach aquifer restoration. This report describes the simulation system and testing procedure in sufficient detail to allow the construction of the system, and to perform the desired leaching tests. With construction of such a system, in situ leaching of a given ore using various leach conditions can be evaluated relatively rapidly in the laboratory. Not only could optimum leach conditions be selected for existing ore bodies, but also exploitation of new ore bodies could be accelerated. 8 references, 8 figures, 2 tables

  3. Leach testing of waste glasses under near-saturation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; Grambow, B.

    1983-11-01

    Two waste glasses, MCC 76 to 68 and C31 to 3, were leached in deionized water and 0.001 M MgCl 2 for periods up to 158 days. At 57 days the gel layer was removed from some of the specimens and leaching continued for up to 100 days. Results from leaching in deionized water showed that the gel layer was not protective. Results from leaching in 0.001 M MgCl 2 are in good agreement with the predicted results obtained from the use of the PHREEQE geochemical code and with sepiolite [Mg 2 Si 3 O 6 (OH) 4 ] as the Mg-bearing precipitate. Both B and Si were predicted and observed to increase with increasing glass dissolution while maintaining sepiolite solubility. Both MCC 76 to 68 and C31 to 3 glasses showed increased leaching in 0.001 M MgCl 2 upon removal of the layer. This suggests a leaching mechanism whereby leaching is driven by the formation of an alteration product

  4. Hydrochloric acid leach of Agnew Lake uranium concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, K.E.; Ipekoglue, B.

    1981-10-01

    Hydrochloric acid leaching was conducted on the radioactive mineral concentrate separated from the Agenw Lake uranium ore. Leach tests conducted at the optimum conditions (75 0 C; 36 hours; 66.0 Kg HCl/tonne; solid:liquid -1:1) resulted in the extraction of 87% uranium and 84% radium. The radionuclide level of the residue was U-0.016%, Th-0.24% and Ra-65 pCi/g solids. However to obtain a residue almost free of radium (i.e., Ra level at the detection limit: 4-6 pCi/g solids), the first stage leach residue was further treated with hydrochloric acid. The radium level in the best second stage leach residue was also above the target level. Therefore, multistage (3 or 4) hydrochloric acid and/or neutral chloride leaching is recommended to obtain tailings almost free of radionuclide

  5. Densification of salt-occluded zeolite a powders to a leach-resistant monolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.A.; Fischer, D.F.; Murhpy, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    Pyrochemical processing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) yields a salt waste of LiCl-KCl that contains approximately 6 wt% fission products, primarily as CsCl and SrCl 2 . Past work has shown that zeolite A will preferentially sorb cesium and strontium and will encapsulate the salt waste in a leach-resistant, radiation-resistant aluminosilicate matrix. However, a method is sill needed to convert the salt-occluded zeolite powders into a form suitable for geologic disposal. We are thus investigating a method that forms bonded zeolite by hot pressing a mixture of glass frit and salt-occluded zeolite powders at 990 K (717 degree C) and 28 MPa. The leach resistance of the bonded zeolite was measured in static leach tests run for 28 days in 363 K (90 degree C) deionized water. Normalized release rates of all elements in the bonded zeolite were low, 2 d. Thus, the bonded zeolite may be a suitable waste form for IFR salt waste

  6. Thiosulfate leaching of gold from waste mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Vinh Hung; Lee, Jae-chun; Jeong, Jinki; Hai, Huynh Trung; Jha, Manis K

    2010-06-15

    The present communication deals with the leaching of gold from the printed circuit boards (PCBs) of waste mobile phones using an effective and less hazardous system, i.e., a copper-ammonia-thiosulfate solution, as an alternative to the conventional and toxic cyanide leaching of gold. The influence of thiosulfate, ammonia and copper sulfate concentrations on the leaching of gold from PCBs of waste mobile phones was investigated. Gold extraction was found to be enhanced with solutions containing 15-20 mM cupric, 0.1-0.14 M thiosulfate, and 0.2-0.3 M ammonia. Similar trends were obtained for the leaching of gold from two different types of scraps and PCBs of waste mobile phones. From the scrap samples, 98% of the gold was leached out using a solution containing 20 mM copper, 0.12 M thiosulfate and 0.2 M ammonia. Similarly, the leaching of gold from the PCBs samples was also found to be good, but it was lower than that of scrap samples in similar experimental conditions. In this case, only 90% of the gold was leached, even with a contact time of 10h. The obtained data will be useful for the development of processes for the recycling of gold from waste mobile phones. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The theory and method of two-well field test for in-situ leaching uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yixuan; Huo Jiandang; Xiang Qiulin; Tang Baobin

    2007-01-01

    Because leaching area in field test for in-situ leaching uranium is not accounted exactly, the reliability of obtaining parameters by calculating can not be ensured, and the whole test needs a long time and great investment. In two-well field test, lixiviant is injected from one well, pregnant solution is pumped out from the other, flow rate of the production well is more than that of the injection well, and uranium is not recoveried. In the case of keeping invariable ratio of pumping capacity to injecting capacity during the testing process, leaching area is not variable, can be exactly calculated. The full field test needs six months to one year. Two-well test is a scientific, rapid, minimal spending field test method, and is widely used in Commonwealth of Independent States. (authors)

  8. Gamma radiolysis effects on leaching behavior of ceramic materials for nuclear fuel waste immobilization containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Raine, D.K.; Hocking, W.H.; George, K.; Betteridge, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The leaching behavior of ceramic materials for nuclear fuel waste immobilization containers, under the influence of a moderate gamma dose rate (4 Gy/h), has been investigated. Samples of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, stabilized ZrO/sub 2/, TiO/sub 2/, cermet (70% Al/sub 2/O-30% TiC), porcelain (with high Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ content), and concrete (with sulfate-resisting portland cement plus silica fume) have been leached in Standard Canadian Shield Saline Solution (SCSSS), and SCSSS plus clay and sand (components of the disposal system), at 100 0 and 150 0 C for 231 and 987 days, respectively. Leaching solutions were analyzed and the surfaces of the leached samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Radiolysis did not appear to enhance the leaching, with or without bentonite and sand in the system. Analysis of the gas phase from sealed capsules showed O/sub 2/ depletion and production of CO/sub 2/ in all experiments containing bentonite. The decrease in O/sub 2/ is attributed to the leaching from the clay of Fe(II) species, which can participate in redox reactions with radicals generated by radiolysis. The CO/sub 2/ is produced from either the organic or inorganic fraction in the bentonite

  9. Recycling of spent lithium-ion battery cathode materials by ammoniacal leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Heesuk; Jung, Yeojin; Jo, Minsang; Park, Sanghyuk; Kim, Sookyung; Yang, Donghyo; Rhee, Kangin; An, Eung-Mo; Sohn, Jeongsoo; Kwon, Kyungjung

    2016-08-05

    As the production and consumption of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) increase, the recycling of spent LIBs appears inevitable from an environmental, economic and health viewpoint. The leaching behavior of Ni, Mn, Co, Al and Cu from treated cathode active materials, which are separated from a commercial LIB pack in hybrid electric vehicles, is investigated with ammoniacal leaching agents based on ammonia, ammonium carbonate and ammonium sulfite. Ammonium sulfite as a reductant is necessary to enhance leaching kinetics particularly in the ammoniacal leaching of Ni and Co. Ammonium carbonate can act as a pH buffer so that the pH of leaching solution changes little during leaching. Co and Cu can be fully leached out whereas Mn and Al are hardly leached and Ni shows a moderate leaching efficiency. It is confirmed that the cathode active materials are a composite of LiMn2O4, LiCoxMnyNizO2, Al2O3 and C while the leach residue is composed of LiNixMnyCozO2, LiMn2O4, Al2O3, MnCO3 and Mn oxides. Co recovery via the ammoniacal leaching is believed to gain a competitive edge on convenitonal acid leaching both by reducing the sodium hydroxide expense for increasing the pH of leaching solution and by removing the separation steps of Mn and Al. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Connections among soil, ground, and surface water chemistries characterize nitrogen loss from an agricultural landscape in the upper Missouri River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, W. Adam; Ewing, Stephanie A.; Jones, Clain A.; Payn, Robert A.; Brookshire, E. N. Jack; Klassen, Jane K.; Jackson-Smith, Douglas; Weissmann, Gary S.

    2018-01-01

    Elevated nitrate in shallow aquifers is common in agricultural areas and remediation requires an understanding of nitrogen (N) leaching at a variety of spatial scales. Characterization of the drivers of nitrate leaching at the mesoscale level (102-103 km2) is needed to bridge from field-scale observations to the landscape-scale context, allowing informed water resource management decisions. Here we explore patterns in nitrate leaching rates across a depositional landform in the northern Great Plains within the Upper Missouri Basin, where the predominant land use is non-irrigated small grain production, and nitrate-N concentrations above 10 mg L-1 are common. The shallow Moccasin terrace (260 km2) aquifer is bounded in vertical extent by underlying shale and is isolated from mountain front stream recharge, such that aquifer recharge is dominated by infiltration of precipitation through agricultural soils. This configuration presents a simple landform-scale water balance that we leveraged to estimate leaching rates using groundwater nitrate concentrations and surface water discharge, and quantify uncertainty using a Monte Carlo approach based on spatial variation in observations of groundwater nitrate concentrations. A participatory research approach allowed local farmer knowledge of the landscape to be incorporated into the study design, improved selection of and access to sample sites, and enhanced prospects for addressing nitrate leaching through collaborative understanding of system hydrology. Mean landform-scale nitrate-N leaching rates were 11 and 18 kg ha-1 yr-1 during the 2012-2014 study for the two largest catchments draining the terrace. Over a standard three-year crop rotation, these leaching rates represent 19-31% of typical fertilizer N application rates; however, leaching losses are likely derived not only from fertilizer but also from soil organic N mineralization, and are apparently higher during the post-fallow phase of the crop rotation. Groundwater

  11. Microstructural characteristics of PWR [pressurized water reactor] spent fuel relative to its leaching behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1986-01-01

    Microstructural, compositional and thermochemical properties of spent nuclear fuel are discussed relative to its potential performance as a high-level waste form under proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project tuff repository conditions. Pressurized water reactor spent fuel specimens with various artificially induced cladding defects were leach tested in deionized water and in a reference tuff groundwater under ambient hot cell air and temperature conditions. Greater fractional actinide release was observed with bare fuel than with clad fuel leached through a cladding defect. Congruent actinide release and preferential release of cesium and technetium were observed in both water types. Selected summary radionuclide release data are presented and correlated to pre- and post-test microstructural characterization data

  12. Long-term leaching behavior of simulated Savannah River Plant waste glass: Part 1, MCC-1 leachability results, four-year leaching data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Stone, J.A.; Chandler, G.T.; Williams, S.

    1986-08-01

    Long-term leaching data were obtained on SRP 131/TDS waste glass using MCC-1 or slightly modified MCC-1 standard leaching tests. Experiments were conducted out to four years at 40 0 C and 3-1/2 years at 90 0 C. These experiments have produced the longest standardized leaching data currently available in the waste management community. Long-term leaching data provide important input to modeling of waste glass behavior and ultimate prediction of waste glass performance. In this study, the leaching behavior of SRP waste glass was found to be excellent; leachates based on a variety of elements were not only very low, but also improved with increasing time. In addition to these data, results are also reported from another independent Savannah River study. Leaching behavior at 40 0 C and 90 0 C was assessed not only for a similar SRP 131 waste glass composition, but also for extreme waste glass compositions involving high-iron and high-aluminum waste. In addition, these experiments were performed using not only a standard deionized water leachant, but also simplified brine and silicate groundwater simulations. These two large data bases will be summarized and correlated along with some of the more interesting results recently reported in another study, a two-year leaching program performed on a similar SRP waste glass composition at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories

  13. Dynamics of leaching a uniformly fissured ore body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A.A.; Proskurin, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Mathematical simulation was used to study the dynamics of mass transfer during the percolation of a reagent solution through a packing of coarse ore particles. The uniformly fissured ore body was represented by a cubic packing of spherical particles of constant radius, formed from a chemically inert silicate cement with a uniformly distributed soluble mineral component. The rate of percolation of the reagent through the packing was constant. The proposed model can be used to find the conditions for underground hydrodynamic leaching. The rate of non-catalytic solid-liquid reaction was deduced on the basis of both the kinetics of dissolution of the mineral component of the ore and the rate of diffusion of the dissolved substance

  14. Enhancements of LEACH Algorithm for Wireless Networks: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madheswaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH protocol is the first hierarchical cluster based routing protocol successfully used in the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. In this paper, various enhancements used in the original LEACH protocol are examined. The basic operations, advantages and limitations of the modified LEACH algorithms are compared to identify the research issues to be solved and to give the suggestions for the future proposed routing algorithms of wireless networks based on LEACH routing algorithm.

  15. Implementation of the Leaching Environmental Assessment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEAF provides a uniform and integrated approach for evaluating leaching from solid materials (e.g., waste, treated wastes such as by solidification/stabilization, secondary materials such as blast furnace slags, energy residuals such as coal fly ash, soil, sediments, mining and mineral processing wastes). Assessment using LEAF applies a stepwise approach that considers the leaching behavior of COPCs in response to chemical and physical factors that control and material properties across a range of plausible field conditions (US EPA, 2010). The framework provides the flexibility to tailor testing to site conditions and select the extent of testing based on assessment objectives and the level of detailed information needed to support decision-making. The main focus will be to discuss the implementation of LEAF in the US and the How to Guide that has recently been completed. To present the How To Guide for the implementation of the leaching environmental assessment framework to an international audience already familiar with comparable leaching tests in use in Europe. Will be meeting with European colleagues on their interest in expanding methods to include organics.

  16. Nitrate leaching in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation on a calcareous soil as affected by nitrogen and straw management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Ju, Xiaotang; Yang, Hao

    2017-02-08

    Nitrate leaching is one of the most important pathways of nitrogen (N) loss which leads to groundwater contamination or surface water eutrophication. Clarifying the rates, controlling factors and characteristics of nitrate leaching is the pre-requisite for proposing effective mitigation strategies. We investigated the effects of interactions among chemical N fertilizer, straw and manure applications on nitrogen leaching in an intensively managed calcareous Fluvo-aquic soil with winter wheat-summer maize cropping rotations on the North China Plain from October 2010 to September 2013 using ceramic suction cups and seepage water calculations based on a long-term field experiment. Annual nitrate leaching reached 38-60 kg N ha -1 from conventional N managements, but declined by 32-71% due to optimum N, compost manure or municipal waste treatments, respectively. Nitrate leaching concentrated in the summer maize season, and fewer leaching events with high amounts are the characteristics of nitrate leaching in this region. Overuse of chemical N fertilizers, high net mineralization and nitrification, together with predominance of rainfall in the summer season with light soil texture are the main controlling factors responsible for the high nitrate leaching loss in this soil-crop-climatic system.

  17. Probable leaching mechanisms for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.; Katayama, Y.B.

    1981-01-01

    At the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, researchers in the Waste/Rock Interaction Technology Program are studying spent fuel as a possible waste form for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation. This paper presents probable leaching mechanisms for spent fuel and discusses current progress in identifying and understanding the leaching process. During the past year, experiments were begun to study the complex leaching mechanism of spent fuel. The initial work in this investigation was done with UO 2 , which provided the most information possible on the behavior of the spent-fuel matrix without encountering the very high radiation levels associated with spent fuel. Both single-crystal and polycrystalline UO 2 samples were used for this study, and techniques applicable to remote experimentation in a hot cell are being developed. The effects of radiation are being studied in terms of radiolysis of water and surface activation of the UO 2 . Dissolution behavior and kinetics of UO 2 were also investigated by electrochemical measurement techniques. These data will be correlated with those acquired when spent fuel is tested in a hot cell. Oxidation effects represent a major area of concern in evaluating the stability of spent fuel. Dissolution of UO 2 is greatly increased in an oxidizing solution because the dissolution is then controlled by the formation of hexavalent uranium. In solutions containing very low oxygen levels (i.e., reducing solutions), oxidation-induced dissolution may be possible via a previously oxidized surface, through exposure to air during storage, or by local oxidants such as O 2 and H 2 O 2 produced from radiolysis of water and radiation-activated UO 2 surfaces. The effects of oxidation not only increase the dissolution rate, but could lead to the disintegration of spent fuel into fine fragments

  18. Leaching of FGD Byproducts Using a CSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kairies, C.L.; Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.

    2005-09-01

    Leaching studies of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) are often performed to determine the compatibility of the material in a particular end-use or disposal environment. Typically, these studies are conducted using either a batch or a fixed-bed column technique. Fixed-bed columns offer the advantage of a continuous flow of effluent that provides elution profiles with changing elution volume and pH. Unfortunately, clogs can form in fixed-bed leaching columns, either because of cementitious properties of the material itself, such as is seen for fluidized bed combustion (FBC) fly ash, or because of precipitate formation, such as can occur when a high-calcium ash is subjected to sulfate-containing leachates. Also, very fine-grained materials, such as gypsum, do not provide sufficient permeability for study in a fixed-bed column. A continuous, stirred-tank extractor (CSTX) is being used as an alternative technique that can provide the elution profile of column leaching but without the low permeability problems. The CSTX has been successfully employed in the leaching of flue gas desulfurization products that would not be sufficiently permeable under traditional column leaching conditions. The results indicate that the leaching behavior depends on a number of factors, including (but not limited to) solubility and neutralization capacity of the mineral phases present, sorption properties of these phases, behavior of the solubilized material in the tank, and the type of species in solution. In addition, leaching to near-exhaustion of a wallboard produced from FGD gypsum has allowed the isolation of a highly adsorptive phase. This phase appears to be present in at least some FGD gypsums and accounts for the immobilization of trace metals such as arsenic, cobalt, lead, and mercury.

  19. Leaching of RA-226 contaminated gravel using different aqueous treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamoon, A; Abulfaraj, W H; Sohsah, M A [King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arbabia (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-12-31

    Investigation of the efficiencies of different aqueous leaching treatments was carried out on gravel artificially contaminated with Ra-226. The extent of leaching efficiency was determined in terms of Ra-226 and its daughter Rn-222. Liquid scintillation counting using high efficiency mineral oil based liquid scintillator was the technique adopted for measuring Ra-226 and Rn-222 leached off the contaminated gravel. Water, dilute solutions of barium chloride and HCl were used as leachants. Different masses of gravel were leached with 200 mL of leachant for various contact time periods. The leached Rn-222 activity measured was plotted vs the decay factor e; from which Rn-222 and Ra-226 originally present in the sample were determined. Several leaching parameters were tested; namely type of leachant, leachant volume/gravel mass ratio, leachant contact time, effect of varying Ba Cl{sub 2} concentration, and successive leaching. Optimization of the leaching parameters for desorption of Ra-226 off the contaminated gravel under laboratory conditions may help determine the ideal conditions for remediating soil contaminated with radium or chemically similar radionuclides. 7 figs.

  20. LEACHING BOUNDARY IN CEMENT-BASED WASTE FORMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cement-based fixation systems are among the most commonly employed stabilization/solidification techniques. These cement haste mixtures, however, are vulnerable to ardic leaching solutions. Leaching of cement-based waste forms in acetic acid solutions with different acidic streng...

  1. Bottle roll leach test for Temrezli uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çetin, K.; Bayrak, M.; Turan, A. İsbir; Üçgül, E.

    2014-01-01

    The bottle roll leach test is one of the dynamic leaching procedure which can meet in-situ mining needs for determining suitable working conditions and helps to simulate one of the important parameter; injection well design. In this test, the most important parameters are pulp density, acidic or basic concentration of leach solution, time and temperature. In recent years, bottle roll test is used not only for uranium but also gold, silver, copper and nickel metals where in situ leach (ISL) mining is going to be applied. For this purpose for gold and silver metal cyanide bottle roll tests and for uranium metal; acidic and basic bottle roll tests could be applied. The new leach test procedure which is held in General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey is mostly suitable for determining metal extraction conditions and recovery values in uranium containing ore bodies. The tests were conducted with samples taken from Temrezli Uranium Ore located in approximately 200 km east of Turkey’s capital, Ankara. Mining rights of Temrezli Ore is controlled 100% by Anatolia Energy Ltd. The resource estimate includes an indicated mineral resource of 10.827 Mlbs U_3O_8 [~4160 t U] at an average grade of 1426 ppm [~1210 ppm U] and an additional inferred resource of 6.587 Mlbs of U_3O_8 [~2530 t U] at an average grade of 904 ppm [~767 ppm U]. In accordance with the demand from Anatolia Energy bottle roll leach tests have been initiated in MTA laboratories to investigate the recovery values of low-grade uranium ore under in-situ leach conditions. Bottle roll leaching tests are performed on pulverized samples with representative lixiviant solution at ambient pressure and provide an initial evaluation of ore leachability with a rough estimate of recovery value. At the end of the tests by using 2 g/L NaHCO_3 and 0.2 g/L H_2O_2 more than 90% of uranium can pass into leach solution in 12 days. (author)

  2. Effect of different glass and zeolite A compositions on the leach resistance of ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.A.; Hash, M.; Glandorf, D.

    1996-01-01

    A ceramic waste form is being developed for waste generated during electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste is generated when fission products are removed from the electrolyte, LiCl-KCl eutectic. The waste form is a composite fabricated by hot isostatic pressing a mixture of glass frit and zeolite occluded with fission products and salt. Normalized release rate is less than 1 g/m 2 d for all elements in MCC-1 leach test run for 28 days in deionized water at 90 C. This leach resistance is comparable to that of early Savannah River glasses. We are investigating how leach resistance is affected by changes in cationic form of zeolite and in glass composition. Composites were made with 3 forms of zeolite A and 6 glasses. We used 3-day ASTM C1220-92 (formerly MCC-1) leach tests to screen samples for development purposes only. The leach test results show that the glass composites of zeolites 5A and 4A retain fission products equally well. Loss of Cs is small (0.1-0.5 wt%), while the loss of divalent and trivalent fission products is one or more orders of magnitude smaller. Composites of 5A retain chloride ion better in these short-term screens than 4A and 3A. The more leach resistant composites were made with durable glasses rich in silica and poor in alkaline earth oxides. XRD show that a salt phase was absent in the leach resistant composites of 5A and the better glasses but was present in the other composites with poorer leach performance. Thus, absence of salt phase corresponds to improved leach resistance. Interactions between zeolite and glass depend on composition of both

  3. Optimization of an oil leaching process to reduce the level of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fishmeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oterhals, Åge; Kvamme, Bjørn

    2013-05-01

    Fishmeal produced from fish caught in polluted fishing areas might contain dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above maximum permitted levels (MPL) for use in feed. Decontamination of the fishmeal can be achieved by hexane extraction. The principal objective of this study was to optimize a more environmentally friendly alternative based on oil leaching of the moist presscake intermediate product during fishmeal manufacturing. A central composite design and response surface methodology was used to study the influence of the process variables temperature (T), presscake moisture content (MC) and leaching time (LT) on the decontamination process. A significant squared MC effect was observed, resulting in an optimum leaching rate at 27% MC. This corresponds to 5% improved dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzo furan (PCDD/F)-PCB toxic equivalent (TEQ) reduction compared to normal presscake (55% MC). The initial leaching rate was fast, with a TEQ reduction of 69% after only 2 min at 87 °C and 55% MC. Under the best experimental conditions (87 °C, 38% MC, 12 min LT) a TEQ reduction of 82% was achieved. Excess oil in the presscake after the leaching operation could be removed by use of a water washing step. No reduction in protein quality measured by mink digestibility could be observed. The results confirm that the oil leaching process is robust and offers easily achievable TEQ levels well below present MPLs based on process conditions normally used by the industry. Comparative effects on non-dioxin-like PCBs are expected. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effect of Nutrient Management Planning on Crop Yield, Nitrate Leaching and Sediment Loading in Thomas Brook Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon-Armah, Frederick; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.; Ahmad, Nafees H. M.; Hebb, Dale; Jamieson, Rob; Burton, David; Madani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    Government priorities on provincial Nutrient Management Planning (NMP) programs include improving the program effectiveness for environmental quality protection, and promoting more widespread adoption. Understanding the effect of NMP on both crop yield and key water-quality parameters in agricultural watersheds requires a comprehensive evaluation that takes into consideration important NMP attributes and location-specific farming conditions. This study applied the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to investigate the effects of crop and rotation sequence, tillage type, and nutrient N application rate on crop yield and the associated groundwater leaching and sediment loss. The SWAT model was applied to the Thomas Brook Watershed, located in the most intensively managed agricultural region of Nova Scotia, Canada. Cropping systems evaluated included seven fertilizer application rates and two tillage systems (i.e., conventional tillage and no-till). The analysis reflected cropping systems commonly managed by farmers in the Annapolis Valley region, including grain corn-based and potato-based cropping systems, and a vegetable-horticulture system. ANOVA models were developed and used to assess the effects of crop management choices on crop yield and two water-quality parameters (i.e., leaching and sediment loading). Results suggest that existing recommended N-fertilizer rate can be reduced by 10-25 %, for grain crop production, to significantly lower leaching ( P > 0.05) while optimizing the crop yield. The analysis identified the nutrient N rates in combination with specific crops and rotation systems that can be used to manage leaching while balancing impacts on crop yields within the watershed.

  5. Utilization of low grade and waste uranium ores by means of biological processes. Part of a coordinated programme on bacterial leaching of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czegledi, B.

    1978-01-01

    Investigation of the possible affect of bacteria in leaching uranium using alkaline carbonate medium has been investigated. Eleven strains of bacteria were isolated from the alkaline percolation solutions. Most belonged to the genus Thiobacillus. Each strain was characterized by growth under aerobic conditions in Levinthal - bouillon medium and under vaseline (semi-anaerobic in Hetehens medium. Growth of the bacteria was optimum at pH range 7 to 8 but a significant population was found to exist in alkaline leaching solutions of about pH 9 to 9.5 in heap leaching experiments. It was concluded that microbiological processes can play a role in alkaline heap leaching although the quantitative measure is yet uncertain

  6. Essays of leaching in cemented products containing simulated waste from evaporator concentrated of PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haucz, Maria Judite A.; Calabria, Jaqueline A. Almeida; Tello, Cledola Cassia O.; Candido, Francisco Donizete; Seles, Sandro Rogerio Novaes

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluated the results from leaching resistance essays of cemented products, prepared from three distinct formulations, containing simulated waste of concentrated from the PWR reactor evaporator. The leaching rate is a parameter of qualification of solidified products containing radioactive waste and is determined in accordance with regulation ISO 6961. This procedure evaluates the capacity of transfer organic and inorganic substances presents in the waste through dissolution in the extractor medium. For the case of radioactive waste it is reached the more retention of contaminants in the cemented product, i.e.the lesser value of lixiviation rate. Therefore, this work evaluated among the proposed formulation that one which attend the criterion established in the regulation CNEN-NN-6.09

  7. Leaching of both calcium hydroxide and C-S-H from cement paste: Modeling the mechanical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carde, C.; Torrenti, J.M.; Francois, R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the leaching process of cement based materials on their mechanical properties. This process induces mainly a total leaching of Ca(OH) 2 and a progressive decalcification of C-S-H which leads to a gradient of C/S ratio in the leaching zone. In a previous work, the authors venture the hypothesis that the dissolution of calcium hydroxide was the essential parameter governing both decrease in strength and increase in porosity in the case of a paste sample made with an OPC cement which leads to a 20% content of calcium. In order to quantify the effect of the decrease of C/S ratio in C-S-H, the authors have performed experiments on paste samples with the admixture of silica fume to reduce the content of calcium hydroxide and thus emphasize the effect of C/S ratio decrease of the C-S-H. The leaching process was achieved by the use of a 50% concentrate solution of ammonium nitrate. Compression tests were conducted on micro-cylinder samples (10, 12, 14, 20 and 30 mm of diameter) because of the slow kinetics of degradation due to the leaching. The deterioration of the cement paste and the mortar exposed to the action of the ammonium nitrate was indicated by a peripheral zone of less resistance. The experimental results allow the modeling of the mechanical behavior of cement pastes in relation to the ratio of degraded area over total area of the sample A d /A t . The model thus defined allows separation of the effect of calcium hydroxide leaching and C-S-H leaching, and shows the importance of the first one. The current research program tries to characterize the deterioration of the mechanical properties of the concrete surrounding radioactive wastes, due to the water flow during storage

  8. Thermal treatment and ammoniacal leaching for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongming; Liu, Nannan; Hu, Fang; Ye, Longgang; Xi, Yan; Yang, Shenghai

    2018-05-01

    The recycling of spent commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) generates numerous environmental and economic benefits. In this research, a thermal treatment-ammoniacal leaching process is proposed to recover valuable metals from cathode active powder. Based on the thermal behavior by TG-DSC analysis, the cathode active powder is calcined at 300 °C and 550 °C in air atmosphere, and the crystalline phase characterization indicates that a new phase of Co 3 O 4 appears in the cathode active powder calcined at 550 °C, which signifies that the layer structure of LiCoO 2 collapses. The valence of manganese increases to form Li 4 Mn 5 O 12 in spinel structure of LiMn 2 O 4 . Using calcined cathode powder as feed material, ammoniacal leaching is carried out in (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -(NH 4 ) 2 SO 3 solution. Under the optimum conditions, Ni, Co, Mn and Li can be completely leached out with efficiencies of 98%, 81%, 92% and 98%, respectively. However, with the increase of ammonia concentration, the leaching efficiency of Mn decreases dramatically to 4% due to the formation of double salts. It is found that Co and Mn can be precipitated into residues in the form of (NH 4 ) 2 Co(SO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O, (NH 4 ) 2 Mn(SO 3 ) 2 ·H 2 O and (NH 4 ) 2 Mn(SO 4 ) 2 ·6H 2 O under different leaching parameters. Based on the corresponding relationship between the leaching efficiency and phase evolution of object element, selective leaching can be achieved by controlling the formation of double salts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Arora, H.; Clinton, J.C.; Milian, L.

    1985-01-01

    A research program has been under way at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the radionuclide release behavior of ion exchange bead resin waste solidified in Portland cement. An important aspect of this program is to develop and evaluate testing procedures and methodologies which enable the long-term performance evaluation of waste forms under simulated field conditions. Cesium and strontium release behavior using a range of testing procedures, including intermittent leachant flow conditions, has been investigated. For cyclic wet/dry leaching tests, extended dry periods tend to enhance the release of Cs and suppress the release of Sr. Under extended wet period leaching conditions, however, both Cs and Sr exhibit suppressed releases. In contrast, radionuclide releases observed under continuously saturated leaching conditions, as represented by conventional leaching tests, are significantly different. The relevance and aplicability of these laboratory data obtained under a wide range of leaching conditions to the performance evaluation of waste forms under anticipated field conditions is discussed. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Method for evaluating leaching from LSA-III material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, H.; Satoh, K.; Ozaki, S.; Watabe, N.; Iida, T.; Akamatsu, H.

    1989-01-01

    The IAEA transport regulations are scheduled to be introduced in Japan. New regulations are supposed to be set forth for low specific activity (LSA) material and industrial packaging (IP) as solidified concentrated waste water should correspond to the LSA material. Solidified concentrated waste water should be transported in accordance with the new transport regulations which reflect the IAEA transport regulations. As one of the regulations for LSA material, the leaching test for LSA-III materials states that the radioactive loss due to leaching without the packaging should not exceed 0.1 A 2 when left in the water for 7 days. This test method is called Transport regulations hereafter. Since the test had not been conducted in Japan before now, there was no available data. Consequently, it is necessary to make an assessment on whether the current solidified concentrated waste water can satisfy the leaching amount of radioactive nuclide specified in the IAEA transport regulations. If the test is performed in accordance with the IAEA transport regulations, however, it is necessary to measure the amount of radioactive nuclide actually leached from the solidified concentrated waste water. Since the solidified concentrated waste water is put in a drum cam, it is necessary to prepare large-scale hot test equipment. In this study, therefore, the leaching test was conducted on the solidified concentrated waste water to propose the means of a leaching assessment which can be conducted with ordinary equipment to evaluate the leaching for assessment of the adaptability to IAEA transport regulations. In addition, the leaching test was performed in accordance with the IAEA method to examine the co-relation between the transport regulations and the IAEA method. Many test results have been reported for the IAEA method in Japan, which will be detailed later on

  11. Accelerated leach testing of radionuclides from solidified low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J. III; Colombo, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes some of the work performed to develop an accelerated leach test designed to provide data that show long-term leaching behavior of solidified waste in a relatively short period of testing (1,2). The need for an accelerated leach test stems from the fact that the response of an effectively solidified waste form to the leaching process is so slow that a very long time is required to complete a test which shows the long-term leaching behavior of a waste form. Because of time limitations, as well as economic considerations, most studies have been limited to the early stages of the leaching process which is predominantly controlled by diffusion, although acknowledged to be due to also dissolution, corrosion or ion-exchange

  12. Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Timothy; Tolaymat, Thabet; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Dubey, Brajesh; Stook, Kristin; Wadanambi, Lakmini

    2004-01-01

    Leaching of arsenic, chromium, and copper from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood poses possible environmental risk when disposed. Samples of un-weathered CCA-treated wood were tested using a variety of the US regulatory leaching procedures, including the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), extraction procedure toxicity method (EPTOX), waste extraction test (WET), multiple extraction procedure (MEP), and modifications of these procedures which utilized actual MSW landfill leachates, a construction and demolition (C and D) debris leachate, and a concrete enhanced leachate. Additional experiments were conducted to assess factors affecting leaching, such as particle size, pH, and leaching contact time. Results from the regulatory leaching tests provided similar results with the exception of the WET, which extracted greater quantities of metals. Experiments conducted using actual MSW leachate, C and D debris leachate, and concrete enhanced leachate provided results that were within the same order of magnitude as results obtained from TCLP, SPLP, and EPTOX. Eleven of 13 samples of CCA-treated dimensional lumber exceeded the US EPA's toxicity characteristic (TC) threshold for arsenic (5 mg/L). If un-weathered arsenic-treated wood were not otherwise excluded from the definition of hazardous waste, it frequently would require management as such. When extracted with simulated rainwater (SPLP), 9 of the 13 samples leached arsenic at concentrations above 5 mg/L. Metal leachability tended to increase with decreasing particle size and at pH extremes. All three metals leached above the drinking water standards thus possibly posing a potential risk to groundwater. Arsenic is a major concern from a disposal point of view with respect to ground water quality

  13. Study of radionuclide leaching from the residues of K Basin sludge dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    The sludges remaining in the K Basins after removal of the spent N Reactor nuclear fuel will be conditioned for disposal. After conditioning, an acid-insoluble residue will remain that may require further leaching to properly condition it for disposal. This document presents a literature study to identify and recommend one or more chemical leaching treatments for laboratory testing, based on the likely compositions of the residues. The processes identified are a nitric acid cerate leach, a silver-catalyzed persulfate leach, a nitric hydrofluoric acid leach, an oxalic citric acid reactor decontamination leach, a nitric hydrochloric acid leach, a ammonium fluoride nitrate leach, and a HEOPA formate dehydesulfoxylate leach. All processes except the last two are recommended for testing in that order

  14. Leaching of vanadium from sulphuric acid manufacture spent catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Diego Juan

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of vanadium contained in spent catalysts from the manufacture of sulphuric acid has been studied in this work, resulting in an industrial multistage process for the treatment of them avoiding direct deposition or dumping. Characterization of supplied spent catalysts samples, confirmed vanadium levels showed in the literature. The study of variables influencing leaching process: type of leaching agent, leaching agent concentration, S/L ratio, stirring speed and temperature, allows to fix the most advantageous conditions using industrial application criterion and verifying that the process is difusión controlled. The work is completed by developing an industrial leaching cycle simulation with the aim of reproducing real performance of spent catalyst, proposing operating conditions, and verifying the non-toxic character of the final residue obtained.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la recuperación del vanadio contenido en los catalizadores agotados procedentes de la fabricación del ácido sulfúrico, planteando un proceso industrial multietapa para el tratamiento de estos residuos, evitando su deposición o vertido directos. La caracterización de las muestras de catalizadores agotados disponibles confirmó los valores encontrados en la bibliografía. Se estudiaron las variables que influyen en el proceso de lixiviación (tipo de agente de lixiviación y concentración del mismo, relación S/L, velocidad de agitación y temperatura definiendo las condiciones más adecuadas desde el punto de vista industrial y verificando que el proceso está controlado por mecanismos difusionales. El trabajo se completa con la simulación de un ciclo industrial de lavado del catalizador y la verificación de la nula toxicidad de los lixiviados obtenidos por degradación del residuo final. 24 Aplicación de la resistencia de ruido al estudio de pinturas ricas en zinc Noise resistance applied to the study of zinc rich paints

  15. New phosphate-based binder for stabilization of soils contaminated with heavy metals: leaching, strength and microstructure characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-Jun; Wei, Ming-Li; Reddy, Krishna R; Jin, Fei; Wu, Hao-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Bin

    2014-12-15

    Cement stabilization is used extensively to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals. However, previous studies suggest that the elevated zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) concentrations in the contaminated soils would substantially retard the cement hydration, leading to the deterioration of the performance of cement stabilized soils. This study presents a new binder, KMP, composed of oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock, monopotassium phosphate and reactive magnesia. The effectiveness of stabilization using this binder is investigated on soils spiked with Zn and Pb, individually and together. Several series of tests are conducted including toxicity characteristic leaching (TCLP), ecotoxicity in terms of luminescent bacteria test and unconfined compressive strength. The leachability of a field Zn- and Pb- contaminated soil stabilized with KMP is also evaluated by TCLP leaching test. The results show that the leached Zn concentrations are lower than the China MEP regulatory limit except when Zn and Pb coexist and for the curing time of 7 days. On the other hand, the leached Pb concentrations for stabilized soils with Pb alone or mixed Zn and Pb contamination are much lower than the China MEP or USEPA regulatory limit, irrespective of the curing time. The luminescent bacteria test results show that the toxicity of the stabilized soils has been reduced considerably and is classified as slightly toxic class. The unconfined compressive strength of the soils decrease with the increase in the Zn concentration. The stabilized soils with mixed Zn and Pb contaminants exhibit notably higher leached Zn concentration, while there is lower unconfined compressive strength relative to the soils when contaminated with Zn alone. The X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope analyses reveal the presence of bobierrite (Mg3(PO4)2·8H2O) and K-struvite (MgKPO4·6H2O) as the main products formed in the KMP stabilized uncontaminated soils; the formation of hopeite (Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O

  16. A two-step leaching method designed based on chemical fraction distribution of the heavy metals for selective leaching of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb from metallurgical sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Yu, Junxia; Xiong, Wanli; Xu, Yuanlai; Chi, Ru-An

    2018-01-01

    For selective leaching and highly effective recovery of heavy metals from a metallurgical sludge, a two-step leaching method was designed based on the distribution analysis of the chemical fractions of the loaded heavy metal. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used as a leaching agent in the first step to leach the relatively labile heavy metals and then ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was applied to leach the residual metals according to their different fractional distribution. Using the two-step leaching method, 82.89% of Cd, 55.73% of Zn, 10.85% of Cu, and 0.25% of Pb were leached in the first step by 0.7 M HCl at a contact time of 240 min, and the leaching efficiencies for Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were elevated up to 99.76, 91.41, 71.85, and 94.06%, by subsequent treatment with 0.2 M EDTA at 480 min, respectively. Furthermore, HCl leaching induced fractional redistribution, which might increase the mobility of the remaining metals and then facilitate the following metal removal by EDTA. The facilitation was further confirmed by the comparison to the one-step leaching method with single HCl or single EDTA, respectively. These results suggested that the designed two-step leaching method by HCl and EDTA could be used for selective leaching and effective recovery of heavy metals from the metallurgical sludge or heavy metal-contaminated solid media.

  17. A crystal-structure refinement of synthetic brannerite, UTi2O6, and its bearing on rate of alkaline-carbonate leaching of brannerite in ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, J.T.; Scott, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The crystal structure of synthetic, stoichiometric brannerite, UTi 2 O 6 , has been refined to R=2.23% from MoKα radiation. Monoclinic, with space group C2/m, a 9.8123(15), b 3.7697(6), c 6.9253(9) A, β 118.957(6) 0 , brannerite is isostructural with thoruitite, ThTi 2 O 6 (Ruh β Wadsley 1966). The co-ordination of U by O is distorted octahedral, the bond distances being 2 x 2.252(2), 4 x 2.296(1) A. There is an additional pair of short nonbonded U-O contacts, 2 x 2.824(2) A. The co-ordination around Ti is also distorted octahedral, with the Ti-O distance between 1.854(3) and 2.104(3) A. The depth of penetration of an alkaline-carbonate leaching solution into natural brannerite from Eldorado, Saskatchewan, has been found to vary nonuniformly with both time and crystallographic direction of leaching attack. The rate of dissolution for a free crystal is 1.33 cubic micrometers per second or, using the density calculated from the cell data, 8.5 x 10 -12 g/s

  18. Processing, microstructure, leaching, and long-term stability studies related to titanate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.; Headley, T.J.; Northrup, C.J.; Hlava, P.F.

    1983-05-01

    A process leading to titanate-based waste forms for commercial high-level nuclear waste is described. Radionuclides are fixed on hydrous calcium titanate by ion exchange/sorption reactions and the material is converted to a dense, ceramic form by hot pressing. Transmission electron microscopy-electron microprobe characterization was done to determine the effects of compositional changes and process variations on microstructure. Leaching studies in the range of 22 to 150 0 C and pH 2 to 12 were done to assess the effects of the same variables on leaching behavior. Samples of a reference borosilicate glass waste form were leached under the same conditions to provide a direct comparison between the two waste forms. Lead-ion implantation was used to simulate long-term α-recoil damage in the crystalline titanate phases. Comparison of α-recoil damage in natural minerals with damage induced in synthesized samples of the same mineral suggest that Pb-ion implantation is a valid technique for simulating α-recoil effects. All the titanate phases sustained significant lattice damage at equivalent α-doses of 1 x 10 19 /cm 3 ; however, Rutherford backscattering and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that the damage did not result in significant matrix dissolution in these leaching tests

  19. Fabrication and evaluation of porous Ti–HA bio-nanomaterial by leaching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Omran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A porous surface of Ti–HA composite was successfully fabricated by pulsed current activated sintering (PCAS, followed by leaching using diluted H3PO4. The Ti and HA powders were mixed at different contents of the HA, Ti-5, 10, 30 and 40 wt% HA powders. The mixed powders were pressed in a coated graphite die using pulsed current activated sintering (PCAS under pressure of 60 MPa at temperature of 1000 °C for 5 min. The sintered Ti–HA specimens were immersed in the eight kinds of leaching solutions at room temperature for 24 h. The leached specimen’s surfaces were characterized using XRD, SEM, EDX and Rockwell hardness. The XRD patterns after sintering show that many phases were detected at the sintered specimen surfaces such as; Ti2O, CaO, CaTiO3, TixPy in addition to the remaining Ti and HA. Furthermore, the high concentration H3PO4 leaching solution is more efficient than the low concentration. Also the produced porous surfaces of Ti–HA materials containing more than 30% HA have a low relative density and hardness than the commercial Ti–6Al–4V ELI alloy. In a word, the presence of porous surface coated by HA will promote the nucleation of the biological apatite created with the human tissue and increase the bonding between them. So, the produced porous materials are considered so easy for the muscle cells to permeate after transplanted with high coherence.

  20. HEPA filter leaching concept validation trials at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravartty, A.C.

    1995-04-01

    The enclosed report documents six New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) HEPA filter leaching trials conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant using a filter leaching system to validate the filter leaching treatment concept. The test results show that a modified filter leaching system will be able to successfully remove both hazardous and radiological constituents to RCRA disposal levels. Based on the success of the filter leach trials, the existing leaching system will be modified to provide a safe, simple, effective, and operationally flexible filter leaching system

  1. Chemical leaching of rapidly solidified Al-Si binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, I.; Takahara, K.; Tanaka, T.; Matsubara, K.

    2005-01-01

    Various particulate precursors of Al 100-x Si x (x = 5-12) alloys were prepared by a rapid solidification process. The rapidly solidified structures of the precursors were examined by XRD, DSC and SEM. Most of Si atoms were dissolved into the α-Al(fcc) phase by rapid solidification though the solubility of Si in the α-Al phase is negligibly small in conventional solidification. In the case of 5 at.% Si alloy, a single α-Al phase was only formed. The amount of the primary Si phase increased with increase of Si content for the alloys beyond 8 at.% Si. Rapid solidification was effective to form super-saturated α-Al precursors. These precursors were chemically leached by using a basic solution (NaOH) or a hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. All Al atoms were removed by a HCl solution as well as a NaOH solution. Granules of the Si phase were newly formed during leaching. The specific surface area was about 50-70 m 2 /g independent of Si content. The leaching behavior in both solutions was slightly different. In the case of a NaOH solution, the shape of the precursor often degenerated after leaching. On the other hand, it was retained after leaching by a HCl solution. Fine Si particles precipitated in the α-Al phase by annealing of as-rapidly solidified precursors at 773 K for 7.2 x 10 3 s. In this case, it was difficult to obtain any products by NaOH leaching, but a few of Si particles were obtained by HCl leaching. Precipitated Si particles were dissolved by the NaOH solution. The X-ray diffraction patterns of leached specimens showed broad lines of the Si phase and its lattice constant was slightly larger than that of the pure Si phase. The microstructures of the leached specimens were examined by transmission electron microscopy. It showed that the leached specimens had a skeletal structure composed of slightly elongated particles of the Si phase and quite fine pores. The particle size was about 30-50 nm. It was of comparable order with that evaluated by Scherer

  2. Thermal treatment of stabilized air pollution control residues in a waste incinerator pilot plant. Part 2: Leaching characteristics of bottom ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baun, Dorthe L; Christensen, Thomas H; Bergfeldt, Brita; Vehlow, Jürgen; Mogensen, Erhardt P B

    2004-02-01

    With the perspective of generating only one solid residue from waste incineration, co-feeding of municipal solid waste and air pollution control residues stabilized by the Ferrox process was investigated in the TAMARA pilot plant incinerator as described in Bergfeldt et al. (Waste Management Research, 22, 49-57, 2004). This paper reports on leaching from the combined bottom ashes. Batch leaching test, pH-static leaching tests, availability tests and column leaching tests were used to characterize the leaching properties. The leaching properties are key information in the context of reuse in construction or in landfilling of the combined residue. In general, the combined bottom ashes had leaching characteristics similar to the reference bottom ash, which contained no APC residue. However, As and Pb showed slightly elevated leaching from the combined bottom ashes, while Cr showed less leaching. The investigated combined bottom ashes had contents of metals comparable to what is expected at steady state after continuous co-feeding of APC residues. Only Cd and Pb were partly volatilized (30-40%) during the incineration process and thus the combined bottom ashes had lower contents of Cd and Pb than expected at steady state. Furthermore, a major loss of Hg was, not surprisingly, seen and co-feeding of Ferrox-products together with municipal solid waste will require dedicated removal of Hg in the flue gas to prevent a build up of Hg in the system. In spite of this, a combined single solid residue from waste incineration seems to be a significant environmental improvement to current technology.

  3. Hanford Tank 241-S-112 Residual Waste Composition and Leach Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2008-08-29

    This report presents the results of laboratory characterization and testing of two samples (designated 20406 and 20407) of residual waste collected from tank S-112 after final waste retrieval. These studies were completed to characterize the residual waste and assess the leachability of contami¬nants from the solids. This is the first report from this PNNL project to describe the composition and leach test data for residual waste from a salt cake tank. All previous PNNL reports (Cantrell et al. 2008; Deutsch et al. 2006, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) describing contaminant release models, and characterization and testing results for residual waste in single-shell tanks were based on samples from sludge tanks.

  4. Thiosulphate leaching of gold-, silver-, copper flotation concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samikhov, Sh.R.; Zinchenko, Z.A.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to thiosulphate leaching of gold-, silver-, copper flotation concentrates. For the purpose to improve the process of thiosulphate leaching the ore samples were calcined at temperature 600 ℃ during two hours. During the calcination process of gold-sulphide ores and concentrates the minerals pyrite and arsenopyrite oxidize which lead to opening of gold contains in them. It was defined that thiosulphate leaching can be recommended as an alternative to cyanic process.

  5. Winter cover crops as a best management practice for reducing nitrogen leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, W. F.; Scarborough, R. W.; Chirnside, A. E. M.