WorldWideScience

Sample records for layered organic-inorganic hybrid

  1. Preparation and properties of UV curable organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shichang Lv; Wenfang Shi

    2007-01-01

    The organo-modified layered double hydroxides (LDHs), M-LDH and N-LDH, were obtained by the ionic exchange reaction of a magnesium-aluminium nitrate LDH with modifiers. The LDHs/acrylate organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites were prepared from organo-modified LDHs, and aliphatic polyurethane acrylate oligomer and an acrylate monomer, through a bulk photopolymerization process at the presence of a photoinitiator. The effects of LDHs content in the resin on the dispersion, and the properties of UV cured nanocomposites film were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, FTIR, thermal analysis, pendulum/pencil hardness measurement. With the good solubility in acrylate resins, the organo-modified LDHs are hopefully to be used in adhesives, coating, inks as toughness modifiers, fire-retardant additives. (Author)

  2. A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer protected lithium metal anode for long-cycle lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2017-10-01

    A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer (OIHL) is direct fabricated on lithium metal surface by the interfacial reaction of lithium metal foil with 1-chlorodecane and oxygen/carbon dioxide mixed gas. This favorable OIHL is approximately 30 μm thick and consists of lithium alkyl carbonate and lithium chloride. The lithium-oxygen batteries with OIHL protected lithium metal anode exhibit longer cycle life (340 cycles) than those with bare lithium metal anode (50 cycles). This desirable performance can be ascribed to the robust OIHL which prevents the growth of lithium dendrites and the corrosion of lithium metal.

  3. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Interfacial Layer for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Cong, Shan; Lou, Yanhui; Han, Liang; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Yinghui; Zou, Guifu

    2017-09-20

    4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) is an efficient electron transport and hole blocking material in organic photoelectric devices. Here, we report cesium carbonate (Cs 2 CO 3 ) doped Bphen as cathode interfacial layer in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3-x Cl x based planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Investigation finds that introducing Cs 2 CO 3 suppresses the crystallization of Bphen and benefits a smooth interface contact between the perovskite and electrode, resulting in the decrease in carrier recombination and the perovskite degradation. In addition, the matching energy level of Bphen film in the PSCs effectively blocks the holes diffusion to cathode. The resultant power conversion efficiency (PCE) achieves as high as 17.03% in comparison with 12.67% of reference device without doping. Besides, experiments also demonstrate the stability of PSCs have large improvement because the suppressed crystallization of Bphen by doping Cs 2 CO 3 as a superior barrier layer blocks the Ag atom and surrounding moisture access to the vulnerable perovskite layer.

  4. Luminescence mechanisms of organic/inorganic hybrid organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing a Zn2SiO4:Mn color-conversion layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, D.C.; Ahn, S.D.; Jung, H.S.; Kim, T.W.; Lee, J.Y.; Park, J.H.; Kwon, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn phosphor layers used in this study were synthesized by using the sol-gel method and printed on the glass substrates by using a vehicle solution and a heating process. Organic/inorganic hybrid organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) utilizing a Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn color-conversion layer were fabricated. X-ray diffraction data for the synthesized Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn phosphor films showed that the Zn ions in the phosphor were substituted into Mn ions. The electroluminescence (EL) spectrum of the deep blue OLEDs showed that a dominant peak at 461 nm appeared. The photoluminescence spectrum for the Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn phosphor layer by using a 470 nm excitation source showed that a dominant peak at 527 nm appeared, which originated from the 4 T 1 - 6 A 1 transitions of Mn ions. The appearance of the peak around 527 nm of the EL spectra for the OLEDs fabricated utilizing a Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn phosphor layer demonstrated that the emitted blue color from the deep blue OLEDs was converted into a green color due to the existence of the color-conversion layer. The luminescence mechanisms of organic/inorganic hybrid OLEDs fabricated utilizing a Zn 2 SiO 4 :Mn color-conversion layer are described on the basis of the EL and PL spectra.

  5. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Zhou, Huanping; Li, Liang

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials garner enormous attention for a wide range of optoelectronic devices. Due to their attractive optical and electrical properties including high optical absorption coefficient, high carrier mobility, and long carrier diffusion length, perovskites have opened up a great opportunity for high performance photodetectors. This review aims to give a comprehensive summary of the significant results on perovskite-based photodetectors, focusing on the relationship among the perovskite structures, device configurations, and photodetecting performances. An introduction of recent progress in various perovskite structure-based photodetectors is provided. The emphasis is placed on the correlation between the perovskite structure and the device performance. Next, recent developments of bandgap-tunable perovskite and hybrid photodetectors built from perovskite heterostructures are highlighted. Then, effective approaches to enhance the stability of perovskite photodetector are presented, followed by the introduction of flexible and self-powered perovskite photodetectors. Finally, a summary of the previous results is given, and the major challenges that need to be addressed in the future are outlined. A comprehensive summary of the research status on perovskite photodetectors is hoped to push forward the development of this field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Anticorrosive organic/inorganic hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tongzhai

    Organic/inorganic hybrid coating system was developed for anticorrosion applications using polyurea, polyurethane or epoxide as the organic phase and polysiloxane, formed by sol-gel process, as the inorganic phase. Polyurea/polysiloxane hybrid coatings were formulated and moisture cured using HDI isocyanurate, alkoxysilane-functionalized HDI isocyanurate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) oligomers. Two urethanes were prepared using the same components as abovementioned in addition to the oligoesters derived from either cyclohexane diacids (CHDA) and 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) or adipic acid (AA), isophthalic acid (IPA), 1,6-hexanediol (HD), and trimethylol propane (TMP). Accelerated weathering and outdoor exposure were performed to study the weatherability of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coating system. FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR revealed that the degradation of the hybrid coatings occurred at the urethane and ester functionalities of the organic phase. DMA and DSC analyses showed the glass transition temperature increased and broadened after weathering. SEM was employed to observe the change of morphology of the hybrid coatings and correlated with the gloss variation after weathering. Rutile TiO2 was formulated into polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings in order to investigate the effect of pigmentation on the coating properties and the sol-gel precursor. Chemical interaction between the TiO2 and the sol-gel precursor was investigated using solid-state 29Si NMR and XPS. The morphology, mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal properties of the pigmented coatings were evaluated as a function of pigmentation volume concentration (PVC). Using AFM and SEM, the pigment were observed to be well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The thermal stability, the tensile modulus and strength of the coatings were enhanced with increasing PVC, whereas the pull-off adhesion and flexibility were reduced with increasing PVC. Finally, the pigmented coatings were

  7. A hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chiho; Huan, Tran Doan; Krishnan, Sridevi; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) have been attracting a great deal of attention due to their versatility of electronic properties and fabrication methods. We prepare a dataset of 1,346 HOIPs, which features 16 organic cations, 3 group-IV cations and 4 halide anions. Using a combination of an atomic structure search method and density functional theory calculations, the optimized structures, the bandgap, the dielectric constant, and the relative energies of the HOIPs are uniformly prepared and validated by comparing with relevant experimental and/or theoretical data. We make the dataset available at Dryad Digital Repository, NoMaD Repository, and Khazana Repository (http://khazana.uconn.edu/), hoping that it could be useful for future data-mining efforts that can explore possible structure-property relationships and phenomenological models. Progressive extension of the dataset is expected as new organic cations become appropriate within the HOIP framework, and as additional properties are calculated for the new compounds found.

  8. Highly reliable photosensitive organic-inorganic hybrid passivation layers for a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermundo, Juan Paolo; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Yamazaki, Haruka; Nonaka, Toshiaki; Fujii, Mami N.; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2015-07-01

    We report the fabrication of a photosensitive hybrid passivation material on amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) that greatly enhance its stability and improve its electrical characteristics. The hybrid passivation based on polysilsesquioxane is transparent and fabricated using a simple solution process. Because the passivation is photosensitive, dry etching was never performed during TFT fabrication. TFTs passivated with this material had a small threshold voltage shift of 0.5 V during positive bias stress, 0.5 V during negative bias stress, and -2.5 V during negative bias illumination stress. Furthermore, TFTs passivated by this layer were stable after being subjected to high relative humidity stress — confirming the superb barrier ability of the passivation. Analysis of secondary ion mass spectrometry showed that a large amount of hydrogen, carbon, and fluorine can be found in the channel region. We show that both hydrogen and fluorine reduced oxygen vacancies and that fluorine stabilized weak oxygen and hydroxide bonds. These results demonstrate the large potential of photosensitive hybrid passivation layers as effective passivation materials.

  9. Preparation and characterization of a layered perovskite-type organic-inorganic hybrid compound (C8NH6-CH2CH2NH3)2CuCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yingying; Wu Gang; Deng Meng; Chen Hongzheng; Wang Mang; Tang, B.-Z.

    2006-01-01

    The organic-inorganic hybrid compound (C 8 NH 6 -CH 2 CH 2 NH 3 ) 2 CuCl 4 (AEI-CuCl 4 ) was synthesized from ethanol solution containing copper chloride and 3-2-(aminoethyl) indole hydrochloride (AEI-HCl). High order diffraction peaks corresponding to (0 0 l; l = 2, 4, 6, ...) observed in the X-ray diffraction profile of AEI-CuCl 4 indicated the formation of hybrid crystal with layered perovskite structure. The organic-inorganic hybrid crystal thin film can be easily prepared by spin-coating method from the ethanol solution of the AEI-CuCl 4 perovskite and it showed characteristic absorptions of CuCl-based layered perovskite centered at 288 and 388 nm, as well as the photoluminescence peak at around 420 nm. The unaided-eye-detectable blue fluorescence emission comes from the cooperation of AEI-HCl and AEI-CuCl 4 perovskite, in which protonized aminoethyl indole dominates the shape of the spectrum and the enhancement of emission intensity is due to the formation of the perovskite structure. The thermal analysis presented that the AEI-CuCl 4 perovskite started to melt at 182 deg. C, together with the beginning of the decomposition of the hybrids. Compared with the organic-inorganic perovskite hybrids reported previously, the AEI-CuCl 4 perovskite shows a novel stepwise decomposition behavior

  10. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Thiol-ene-Based Photopolymerized Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Schreck, Kathleen M.; Leung, Diana; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    The thiol-ene reaction serves as a more oxygen tolerant alternative to traditional (meth)acrylate chemistry for forming photopolymerized networks with numerous desirable attributes including energy absorption, optical clarity, and reduced shrinkage stress. However, when utilizing commercially available monomers, many thiol-ene networks also exhibit decreases in properties such as glass transition temperature (Tg) and crosslink density. In this study, hybrid organic/inorganic thiol-ene resins ...

  11. Organic-inorganic hybrid material SUNCONNECT® for photonic integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Hideyuki; Oshima, Juro; Kashino, Tsubasa

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we report the feature and properties about organic-inorganic hybrid material, "SUNCONNECT®" for photonic integrated circuit. "SUNCONNECT®" materials have low propagation loss at 1310nm (0.29dB/cm) and 1550nm (0.45dB/cm) respectively. In addition, the material has high thermal resistance both high temperature annealing test at 300°C and also 260°C solder heat resistance test. For actual device application, high reliability is required. 85°C /85% test was examined by using multi-mode waveguide. As a result, it indicated that variation of insertion loss property was not changed significantly after high temperature / high humidity test. For the application to photonic integrated circuit, it was demonstrated to fabricate polymer optical waveguide by using three different methods. Single-micron core pattern can be fabricated on cladding layer by using UV lithography with proximity gap exposure. Also, single-mode waveguide can be also fabricated with over cladding. On the other hands, "Mosquito method" and imprint method can be applied to fabricate polymer optical waveguide. Remarkably, these two methods can fabricate gradedindex type optical waveguide without using photo mask. In order to evaluate the optical performance, NFP's observation, measurement of insertion loss and propagation loss by cut-back methods were carried out by using each waveguide sample.

  12. Conducting Layered Organic-inorganic Halides Containing -Oriented Perovskite Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, D B; Wang, S; Feild, C A; Chess, C A; Guloy, A M

    1995-03-10

    Single crystals of the layered organic-inorganic perovskites, [NH(2)C(I=NH(2)](2)(CH(3)NH(3))m SnmI3m+2, were prepared by an aqueous solution growth technique. In contrast to the recently discovered family, (C(4)H(9)NH(3))(2)(CH(3)NH(3))n-1SnnI3n+1, which consists of (100)-terminated perovskite layers, structure determination reveals an unusual structural class with sets of m -oriented CH(3)NH(3)SnI(3) perovskite sheets separated by iodoformamidinium cations. Whereas the m = 2 compound is semiconducting with a band gap of 0.33 +/- 0.05 electron volt, increasing m leads to more metallic character. The ability to control perovskite sheet orientation through the choice of organic cation demonstrates the flexibility provided by organic-inorganic perovskites and adds an important handle for tailoring and understanding lower dimensional transport in layered perovskites.

  13. Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunctions for photovoltaic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dietmüller, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic bulk heterojunction solar cells based on silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) have been realized and investigated. A photo-induced charge transfer could be demonstrated in composites made of silicon nanocrystals and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) or [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) via light-induced electron spin resonance measurements. With bulk heterojunction solar cells made of P3HT/Si-nc composites in a sandwich structure, open-circuit voltages of up to 0....

  14. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on hydroxyapatite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, Sana Ben; Bachouâ, Hassen [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Gruselle, Michel, E-mail: michel.gruselle@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Beaunier, Patricia [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7197, Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, F-75005 Paris (France); Flambard, Alexandrine [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Badraoui, Béchir [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2017-04-15

    The present article details the formation of calcium hydroxyapatite synthesized by the hydrothermal way, in presence of glycine or sarcosine. The presence of these amino-acids during the synthetic processes reduces the crystalline growthing through the formation of hybrid organic-inorganic species The crystallite sizes are decreasing and the morphology is modified with the increase of the amino-acid concentration. - Graphical abstract: Formation of Ca carboxylate salt leading to the grafting of glycine and sarcosine on the Ca=Hap surface (R= H, CH3).

  15. Atomically thin two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Letian; Wong, Andrew B.; Yu, Yi; Lai, Minliang; Kornienko, Nikolay; Eaton, Samuel W.; Fu, Anthony; Bischak, Connor G.; Ma, Jie; Ding, Tina; Ginsberg, Naomi S.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Yang, Peidong

    2015-09-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which have proved to be promising semiconductor materials for photovoltaic applications, have been made into atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) sheets. We report the solution-phase growth of single- and few-unit-cell-thick single-crystalline 2D hybrid perovskites of (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4 with well-defined square shape and large size. In contrast to other 2D materials, the hybrid perovskite sheets exhibit an unusual structural relaxation, and this structural change leads to a band gap shift as compared to the bulk crystal. The high-quality 2D crystals exhibit efficient photoluminescence, and color tuning could be achieved by changing sheet thickness as well as composition via the synthesis of related materials.

  16. Organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots for cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Hongwen; Li, Jiayu; Tang, Yuying; Cao, Yu; Jiang, Yan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, nitrogen-doped carbon dots (CDs) had been synthesized directly by one-step ultrasonic treatment under mild conditions. During the functionalization process, Octa-aminopropyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane hydrochloride salt (OA-POSS) was used as stabilizing and passivation agent, which lead to self-assembling of CDs in aqueous medium solution. OA-POSS was obtained via hydrolytic condensation of γ-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APTES). The average size of CDs prepared was approximately 3.3 nm with distribution between 2.5 nm and 4.5 nm. The prepared organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots have several characteristics such as photoluminescence emission wavelength, efficient cellular uptake, and good biocompatibility. The results indicate that OA-POSS can maintain the fluorescence properties of the carbon dots effectively, and reduced cytotoxicity provides the possibility for biomedical applications. More than 89% of the Hela cells were viable when incubated with 2 mg ml‑1 or lesser organic-inorganic hybrid carbon dots. Thus, it provides a potential for multicolor imaging with HeLa cells.

  17. Hybrid organic/inorganic position-sensitive detectors based on PEDOT:PSS/n-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Mohammad; Gholami, Mahdiyeh; Torbatiyan, Hadis; Abdi, Yaser

    2018-03-01

    Various configurations like p-n junctions, metal-semiconductor Schottky barriers, and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures have been widely used in position-sensitive detectors. In this report, we propose a PEDOT:PSS/n-Si heterojunction as a hybrid organic/inorganic configuration for position-sensitive detectors. The influence of the thickness of the PEDOT:PSS layer, the wavelength of incident light, and the intensity of illumination on the device performance are investigated. The hybrid PSD exhibits very high sensitivity (>100 mV/mm), excellent nonlinearity (0.995) with a response time of heterojunction are very promising for developing a new class of position-sensitive detectors based on the hybrid organic/inorganic junctions.

  18. Hybrid organic-inorganic rotaxanes and molecular shuttles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Fa; Leigh, David A; Pritchard, Robin G; Schultz, David; Teat, Simon J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2009-03-19

    The tetravalency of carbon and its ability to form covalent bonds with itself and other elements enables large organic molecules with complex structures, functions and dynamics to be constructed. The varied electronic configurations and bonding patterns of inorganic elements, on the other hand, can impart diverse electronic, magnetic, catalytic and other useful properties to molecular-level structures. Some hybrid organic-inorganic materials that combine features of both chemistries have been developed, most notably metal-organic frameworks, dense and extended organic-inorganic frameworks and coordination polymers. Metal ions have also been incorporated into molecules that contain interlocked subunits, such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and structures in which many inorganic clusters encircle polymer chains have been described. Here we report the synthesis of a series of discrete rotaxane molecules in which inorganic and organic structural units are linked together mechanically at the molecular level. Structural units (dialkyammonium groups) in dumb-bell-shaped organic molecules template the assembly of essentially inorganic 'rings' about 'axles' to form rotaxanes consisting of various numbers of rings and axles. One of the rotaxanes behaves as a 'molecular shuttle': the ring moves between two binding sites on the axle in a large-amplitude motion typical of some synthetic molecular machine systems. The architecture of the rotaxanes ensures that the electronic, magnetic and paramagnetic characteristics of the inorganic rings-properties that could make them suitable as qubits for quantum computers-can influence, and potentially be influenced by, the organic portion of the molecule.

  19. Frequency Dependence of Electrical Parameters of an Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Composite Based Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Akram

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study highlights the interdependence of ambient humidity levels on the electrical parameters of organic-inorganic hybrid composite based humidity sensor at varied AC frequencies of input signal. Starting from the bottom, the layer stack of the fabricated humidity sensor was 200-nm silver (Ag thin film and 4 μm spun-coated PEPC+NiPC+Cu2O active layer. Silver thin films were deposited by thermal evaporator on well cleaned microscopic glass slides, which served as a substrate. Conventional optical lithography procedure was adapted to define pairs of silver-silver surface electrodes with two sorts of configurations, i.e., interdigitated and rectangular. Humidity-sensitive layers of organic-inorganic composite were then spun-cast upon the channel between the silver electrodes. The changes in relative humidity levels induced variation in capacitance and impedance of the sensors. These variations in electrical parameters of sensors were also found to be highly dependent upon frequency of input AC signal. Our findings reveal that the organic-inorganic composite shows higher humidity sensitivity at smaller orders of frequency. This finding is in accordance with the established fact that organic semiconductors-based devices are not applicable for high frequency applications due to their lower charge carrier mobility values. Two distinct geometries of semiconducting medium between the silver electrodes were investigated to optimize the sensing parameters of the humidity sensor. Furthermore, the effect of temperature change on the resistance of organic composite has also been studied.

  20. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Thiol-ene-Based Photopolymerized Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Kathleen M; Leung, Diana; Bowman, Christopher N

    2011-09-15

    The thiol-ene reaction serves as a more oxygen tolerant alternative to traditional (meth)acrylate chemistry for forming photopolymerized networks with numerous desirable attributes including energy absorption, optical clarity, and reduced shrinkage stress. However, when utilizing commercially available monomers, many thiol-ene networks also exhibit decreases in properties such as glass transition temperature (T(g)) and crosslink density. In this study, hybrid organic/inorganic thiol-ene resins incorporating silsesquioxane (SSQ) species into the photopolymerized networks were investigated as a route to improve these properties. Thiol- and ene-functionalized SSQs (SH-SSQ and allyl-SSQ, respectively) were synthesized via alkoxysilane hydrolysis/condensation chemistry, using a photopolymerizable monomer [either pentaerythriol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP) or 1,3,5-triallyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (TATATO)] as the reaction solvent. The resulting SSQ-containing solutions (SSQ-PETMP and SSQ-TATATO) were characterized, and their incorporation into photopolymerized networks was evaluated.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Hydrogel Electrolyte Using Alkaline Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Chiku

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes were prepared by mixing hydrotalcite, cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate and 6 M KOH solution. The organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes had high ionic conductivity (0.456–0.540 S cm−1 at 30 °C. Moreover, the mechanical strength of the hydrogel electrolytes was high enough to form a 2–3 mm thick freestanding membrane because of the reinforcement with hydrotalcite.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Hydrogel Electrolyte Using Alkaline Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Chiku, Masanobu; Tomita, Shoji; Higuchi, Eiji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes were prepared by mixing hydrotalcite, cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate) and 6 M KOH solution. The organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes had high ionic conductivity (0.456–0.540 S cm−1) at 30 °C. Moreover, the mechanical strength of the hydrogel electrolytes was high enough to form a 2–3 mm thick freestanding membrane because of the reinforcement with hydrotalcite.

  3. Hybrid resonant organic-inorganic nanostructures for novel light emitting devices and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agranovich, Vladimir M. [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chemistry Department, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas (United States); Rupasov, Valery I. [ANTEOS, Inc., Shrewsbury, Massachusetts 01545 (United States); Silvestri, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The energy transfer from an inorganic layer to an organic component of resonant hybrid organic/inorganic nanos-tructures can be used for creation of new type of LED. We mentioned the problem of electrical pumping which has to be solved. As was first suggested in 1979 by Dexter the transfer energy in opposite direction from organic part of nanostructure to semiconductor layer can be used for the creation of new type of solar cells. In this note we stress the importance of the idea by Dexter for photovoltaics and solar cells. We argue that the organic part in such hybrid structures can play a role of an effective organic collector of the light energy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Photophysical Properties of Novel Organic, Inorganic, and Hybrid Semiconductor Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela Yenchi

    For the past 200 years, novel materials have driven technological progress, and going forward these advanced materials will continue to deeply impact virtually all major industrial sectors. Therefore, it is vital to perform basic and applied research on novel materials in order to develop new technologies for the future. This dissertation describes the results of photophysical studies on three novel materials with electronic and optoelectronic applications, namely organic small molecules DTDCTB with C60 and C70, colloidal indium antimonide (InSb) nanocrystals, and an organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite with the composition CH3NH3PbI 3-xClx, using transient absorption (TA) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In chapter 2, we characterize the timescale and efficiency of charge separation and recombination in thin film blends comprising DTDCTB, a narrow-band gap electron donor, and either C60 or C70 as an electron acceptor. TA and time-resolved PL studies show correlated, sub-picosecond charge separation times and multiple timescales of charge recombination. Our results indicate that some donors fail to charge separate in donor-acceptor mixed films, which suggests material manipulations may improve device efficiency. Chapter 3 describes electron-hole pair dynamics in strongly quantum-confined, colloidal InSb nanocrystal quantum dots. For all samples, TA shows a bleach feature that, for several picoseconds, dramatically red-shifts prior to reaching a time-independent position. We suggest this unusual red-shift relates transient population flow through two energetically comparable conduction band states. From pump-power-dependent measurements, we also determine biexciton lifetimes. In chapter 4, we examine carrier dynamics in polycrystalline methylammonium lead mixed halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3-xCl x) thin films as functions of temperature and photoexcitation wavelength. At room temperature, the long-lived TA signals stand in contrast to PL dynamics, where the

  5. Effect of Nonionic Surfactant Additive in PEDOT:PSS on PFO Emission Layer in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Light-Emitting Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong Rae; Porte, Yoann; Kim, Yun Cheol; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2018-03-21

    Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) has attracted significant interests owing to its versatility in electronic devices. However, changes in its optical properties caused by its various phases and the formation of oxidation defects limit the application of PFO in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We investigated the effects of the addition of Triton X-100 (hereinafter shortened as TX) in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to induce interlayer diffusion between PEDOT:PSS and PFO to enhance the stability of the PFO phase and suppress its oxidation. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement on PFO/TX-mixed PEDOT:PSS layers revealed that, upon increasing the concentration of TX in the PEDOT:PSS layer, the β phase of PFO could be suppressed in favor of the glassy phase and the wide PL emission centered at 535 nm caused by ketone defects formed by oxidation was decreased considerably. LEDs were then fabricated using PFO as an emission layer, TX-mixed PEDOT:PSS as hole-transport layer, and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods as electron-transport layer. As the TX concentration reached 3 wt %, the devices exhibited dramatic increases in current densities, which were attributed to the enhanced hole injection due to TX addition, along with a shift in the dominant emission wavelength from a green electroluminescence (EL) emission centered at 518 nm to a blue EL emission centered at 448 nm. The addition of TX in PEDOT:PSS induced a better hole injection in the PFO layer, and through interlayer diffusion, stabilized the glassy phase of PFO and limited the formation of oxidation defects.

  6. Improving the Morphology of the Perovskite Absorber Layer in Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Halide Perovskite MAPbI3 Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Ogundana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, perovskite solar cells have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent power conversion efficiency, low cost, simple fabrications, and high photovoltaic performance. Furthermore, the perovskite solar cells are lightweight and possess thin film and semitransparency. However, the nonuniformity in perovskite layer constitutes a major setback to the operation mechanism, performance, reproducibility, and degradation of perovskite solar cells. Therefore, one of the main challenges in planar perovskite devices is the fabrication of high quality films with controlled morphology and least amount of pin-holes for high performance thin film perovskite devices. The poor reproducibility in perovskite solar cells hinders the accurate fabrication of practical devices for use in real world applications, and this is primarily as a result of the inability to control the morphology of perovskites, leading to large variability in the characteristics of perovskite solar cells. Hence, the focus of research in perovskites has been mostly geared towards improving the morphology and crystallization of perovskite absorber by selecting the optimal annealing condition considering the effect of humidity. Here we report a controlled ambient condition that is necessary to grow uniform perovskite crystals. A best PCE of 7.5% was achieved along with a short-circuit current density of 15.2 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.81 V, and a fill factor of 0.612 from the perovskite solar cell prepared under 60% relative humidity.

  7. Enhancing Optically Pumped Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Amplified Spontaneous Emission via Compound Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite has attracted intensive attention from researchers as the gain medium in lasing devices. However, achieving electrically driven lasing remains a significant challenge. Modifying the devices’ structure to enhance the optically pumped amplified spontaneous emission (ASE is the key issue. In this work, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs are first doped into PEDOT: PSS buffer layer in a slab waveguide device structure: Quartz/PEDOT: PSS (with or w/o Au NPs/CH3NH3PbBr3. As a result, the facile device shows a significantly enhanced ASE intensity and a narrowed full width at half maximum. Based on experiments and theoretical simulation data, the improvement is mainly a result of the compound surface plasmon resonance, including simultaneous near- and far-field effects, both of which could increase the density of excitons excited state and accelerate the radiative decay process. This method is highly significant for the design and development and fabrication of high-performance organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite lasing diodes.

  8. Toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules: bio-organometallics and its toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Tomoya; Hara, Takato; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Bio-organometallics is a research strategy of biology that uses organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. The molecules are expected to exhibit useful bioactivities based on the unique structure formed by interaction between the organic structure and intramolecular metal(s). However, studies on both biology and toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules have been incompletely performed. There can be two types of toxicological studies of bio-organometallics; one is evaluation of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules and the other is analysis of biological systems from the viewpoint of toxicology using organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. Our recent studies indicate that cytotoxicity of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is nontoxic in inorganic forms can be more toxic than that of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is toxic in inorganic forms when the structure of the ligand is the same. Additionally, it was revealed that organic-inorganic hybrid molecules are useful for analysis of biological systems important for understanding the toxicity of chemical compounds including heavy metals.

  9. Electronic Structure Approach to Tunable Electronic Properties of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Garnett; Huhn, William; Mitzi, David B.; Kanai, Yosuke; Blum, Volker

    We present a study of the electronic structure of layered hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) materials using all-electron density-functional theory. Varying the nature of the organic and inorganic layers should enable systematically fine-tuning the carrier properties of each component. Using the HSE06 hybrid density functional including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), we validate the principle of tuning subsystem-specific parts of the electron band structures and densities of states in CH3NH3PbX3 (X=Cl, Br, I) compared to a modified organic component in layered (C6H5C2H4NH3) 2PbX4 (X=Cl, Br, I) and C20H22S4N2PbX4 (X=Cl, Br, I). We show that tunable shifts of electronic levels indeed arise by varying Cl, Br, I as the inorganic components, and CH3NH3+ , C6H5C2H4NH3+ , C20H22S4N22 + as the organic components. SOC is found to play an important role in splitting the conduction bands of the HOIP compounds investigated here. The frontier orbitals of the halide shift, increasing the gap, when Cl is substituted for Br and I.

  10. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells. PMID:28788591

  11. Organic-inorganic hybrid thin film solar cells using conducting polymer and gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwan Jung, Hyung; Ho Kim, Dong; Su Kim, Chang; Bae, Tae-Sung; Bum Chung, Kwun; Yoon Ryu, Seung

    2013-05-01

    We employed poly(styrenesulfonate)-doped poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT:PSS) as a p-layer on textured fluorine-tin-oxide (FTO) glass in pin-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells (a-Si:H SCs). An amorphous tungsten oxide (WO3) layer and gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) 10 nm in size were included to prevent the degradation and to increase short-circuit current by the Plasmon effect, respectively, between the PEDOT:PSS and intrinsic-Si layer. The energy band between PEDOT:PSS and WO3 was meaningfully adjusted by Au-NPs. The p-type PEDOT:PSS layer in these organic-inorganic hybrid a-Si:H SCs results in an increased conversion efficiency from ˜2.42% to ˜5.49% and an increased open-circuit voltage from ˜0.29 V to ˜0.56 V. PEDOT:PSS on textured FTO glass is sufficiently showing that it can replace the p-type Si layer in pin-type a-Si:H SCs.

  12. Coexisting Ferromagnetic and Ferroelectric Order in a CuCl4-based Organic-Inorganic Hybrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polyakov, Alexey O.; Arkenbout, Anne H.; Baas, Jacob; Blake, Graeme R.; Meetsma, Auke; Caretta, Antonio; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the structural, magnetic, and dielectric properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid material CuCl4(C6H5CH2CH2NH3)(2) and demonstrate that spontaneous ferroelectric order sets in below 340 K, which coexists with ferromagnetic ordering below 13 K. We use X-ray diffraction to show that

  13. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials as semiconducting channels in thin-film field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan; Mitzi; Dimitrakopoulos

    1999-10-29

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials promise both the superior carrier mobility of inorganic semiconductors and the processability of organic materials. A thin-film field-effect transistor having an organic-inorganic hybrid material as the semiconducting channel was demonstrated. Hybrids based on the perovskite structure crystallize from solution to form oriented molecular-scale composites of alternating organic and inorganic sheets. Spin-coated thin films of the semiconducting perovskite (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4) form the conducting channel, with field-effect mobilities of 0.6 square centimeters per volt-second and current modulation greater than 10(4). Molecular engineering of the organic and inorganic components of the hybrids is expected to further improve device performance for low-cost thin-film transistors.

  14. Excitonic Properties of Chemically Synthesized 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Chu, Leiqiang; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Wei; Eda, Goki

    2018-05-01

    2D organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs) represent a unique class of materials with a natural quantum-well structure and quasi-2D electronic properties. Here, a versatile direct solution-based synthesis of mono- and few-layer OIHP nanosheets and a systematic study of their electronic structure as a function of the number of monolayers by photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy are reported. The monolayers of various OIHPs are found to exhibit high electronic quality as evidenced by high quantum yield and negligible Stokes shift. It is shown that the ground exciton peak blueshifts by ≈40 meV when the layer thickness reduces from bulk to monolayer. It is also shown that the exciton binding energy remains effectively unchanged for (C 6 H 5 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 with the number of layers. Similar trends are observed for (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 in contrast to the previous report. Further, the photoluminescence lifetime is found to decrease with the number of monolayers, indicating the dominant role of surface trap states in nonradiative recombination of the electron-hole pairs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Hydrogen Bonding and Stability of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa

    2016-09-08

    In the past few years, the efficiency of solar cells based on hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has exceeded the level needed for commercialization. However, existing perovskites solar cells (PSCs) suffer from several intrinsic instabilities, which prevent them from reaching industrial maturity, and stabilizing PSCs has become a critically important problem. Here we propose to stabilize PSCs chemically by strengthening the interactions between the organic cation and inorganic anion of the perovskite framework. In particular, we show that replacing the methylammonium cation with alternative protonated cations allows an increase in the stability of the perovskite by forming strong hydrogen bonds with the halide anions. This interaction also provides opportunities for tuning the electronic states near the bandgap. These mechanisms should have a universal character in different hybrid organic–inorganic framework materials that are widely used.

  16. Hydrogen Bonding and Stability of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Marzouk, Asma; Bentria, El Tayeb; Rashkeev, Sergey N.; Kais, Sabre; Alharbi, Fahhad H.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the efficiency of solar cells based on hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has exceeded the level needed for commercialization. However, existing perovskites solar cells (PSCs) suffer from several intrinsic instabilities, which prevent them from reaching industrial maturity, and stabilizing PSCs has become a critically important problem. Here we propose to stabilize PSCs chemically by strengthening the interactions between the organic cation and inorganic anion of the perovskite framework. In particular, we show that replacing the methylammonium cation with alternative protonated cations allows an increase in the stability of the perovskite by forming strong hydrogen bonds with the halide anions. This interaction also provides opportunities for tuning the electronic states near the bandgap. These mechanisms should have a universal character in different hybrid organic–inorganic framework materials that are widely used.

  17. Pure white-light emitting ultrasmall organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunis, Meghan B; Lawrence, Katie N; Dutta, Poulami; Siegel, Amanda P; Sardar, Rajesh

    2016-10-14

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, direct band-gap semiconductors, have shown tremendous promise for optoelectronic device fabrication. We report the first colloidal synthetic approach to prepare ultrasmall (∼1.5 nm diameter), white-light emitting, organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoclusters. The nearly pure white-light emitting ultrasmall nanoclusters were obtained by selectively manipulating the surface chemistry (passivating ligands and surface trap-states) and controlled substitution of halide ions. The nanoclusters displayed a combination of band-edge and broadband photoluminescence properties, covering a major part of the visible region of the solar spectrum with unprecedentedly large quantum yields of ∼12% and photoluminescence lifetime of ∼20 ns. The intrinsic white-light emission of perovskite nanoclusters makes them ideal and low cost hybrid nanomaterials for solid-state lighting applications.

  18. Effect of halide-mixing on the switching behaviors of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bohee; Gu, Chungwan; Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2017-03-01

    Mixed halide perovskite materials are actively researched for solar cells with high efficiency. Their hysteresis which originates from the movement of defects make perovskite a candidate for resistive switching memory devices. We demonstrate the resistive switching device based on mixed-halide organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx (x = 0, 1, 2, 3). Solvent engineering is used to deposit the homogeneous CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx layer on the indium-tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The memory device based on CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx exhibits write endurance and long retention, which indicate reproducible and reliable memory properties. According to the increase in Br contents in CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx the set electric field required to make the device from low resistance state to high resistance state decreases. This result is in accord with the theoretical calculation of migration barriers, that is the barrier to ionic migration in perovskites is found to be lower for Br- (0.23 eV) than for I- (0.29-0.30 eV). The resistive switching may be the result of halide vacancy defects and formation of conductive filaments under electric field in the mixed perovskite layer. It is observed that enhancement in operating voltage can be achieved by controlling the halide contents in the film.

  19. Hybrid heterojunction solar cell based on organic-inorganic silicon nanowire array architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaojuan; Sun, Baoquan; Liu, Dong; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-12-07

    Silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) on a planar silicon wafer can be fabricated by a simple metal-assisted wet chemical etching method. They can offer an excellent light harvesting capability through light scattering and trapping. In this work, we demonstrated that the organic-inorganic solar cell based on hybrid composites of conjugated molecules and SiNWs on a planar substrate yielded an excellent power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.70%. The high efficiency was ascribed to two aspects: one was the improvement of the light absorption by SiNWs structure on the planar components; the other was the enhancement of charge extraction efficiency, resulting from the novel top contact by forming a thin organic layer shell around the individual silicon nanowire. On the contrary, the sole planar junction solar cell only exhibited a PCE of 6.01%, due to the lower light trapping capability and the less hole extraction efficiency. It indicated that both the SiNWs structure and the thin organic layer top contact were critical to achieve a high performance organic/silicon solar cell. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for Cancer Nanomedicine

    KAUST Repository

    Fatieiev, Yevhen

    2017-10-01

    It is well established that cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally. Its complete eradication requires early detection and intensive drug treatment. In many cases it might also require surgery. Unfortunately, current medicine is still more focused on cancer treatment rather than elimination of its reason. The mechanism of tumor emergence and development is quite complicated, although, we are constantly advancing in this field. Nanomedicine is envisioned as the silver bullet against cancer. Thus, nanoscale systems with therapeutic and diagnostic modalities can simultaneously perform several functions: accurate detection of tumor site, precise targeting, and controlled drug release inside abnormal cells and tissues while being nontoxic to healthy ones. Moreover, surface modification of such nanoparticles allows them to be invisible to the immune system and have longer blood circulating time. The performed research in this dissertation is completely based on hybrid organicinorganic bridged silsesquioxane (also known as organosilica) nanomaterials, therefore comprising "soft" organic/bioorganic part which can imitate certain biorelevant structures and facilitates successful escape from the immune system for more efficient accumulation in cancer cells, while "hard" inorganic part serves as a rigid and stable basis for the creation of cargo nanocarriers and imaging agents. This dissertation discusses the 5 critical points of safe biodegradable nanoplatforms, delivery of large biomolecules, and cytotoxicity regarding the shape of nanoparticles. As a result novel fluorescent biodegradable oxamide-based organosilica nanoparticles were developed, light-triggered surface charge reversal for large biomolecule delivery was applied with hollow bridged silsesquioxane nanomaterials, and biocompatibility of periodic mesoporous organosilicas with different morphologies was studied. Furthermore, the current achievements and future perspectives of mesoporous silica

  1. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for Cancer Nanomedicine

    KAUST Repository

    Fatieiev, Yevhen

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally. Its complete eradication requires early detection and intensive drug treatment. In many cases it might also require surgery. Unfortunately, current medicine is still more focused on cancer treatment rather than elimination of its reason. The mechanism of tumor emergence and development is quite complicated, although, we are constantly advancing in this field. Nanomedicine is envisioned as the silver bullet against cancer. Thus, nanoscale systems with therapeutic and diagnostic modalities can simultaneously perform several functions: accurate detection of tumor site, precise targeting, and controlled drug release inside abnormal cells and tissues while being nontoxic to healthy ones. Moreover, surface modification of such nanoparticles allows them to be invisible to the immune system and have longer blood circulating time. The performed research in this dissertation is completely based on hybrid organicinorganic bridged silsesquioxane (also known as organosilica) nanomaterials, therefore comprising "soft" organic/bioorganic part which can imitate certain biorelevant structures and facilitates successful escape from the immune system for more efficient accumulation in cancer cells, while "hard" inorganic part serves as a rigid and stable basis for the creation of cargo nanocarriers and imaging agents. This dissertation discusses the 5 critical points of safe biodegradable nanoplatforms, delivery of large biomolecules, and cytotoxicity regarding the shape of nanoparticles. As a result novel fluorescent biodegradable oxamide-based organosilica nanoparticles were developed, light-triggered surface charge reversal for large biomolecule delivery was applied with hollow bridged silsesquioxane nanomaterials, and biocompatibility of periodic mesoporous organosilicas with different morphologies was studied. Furthermore, the current achievements and future perspectives of mesoporous silica

  2. Crystal orientations in nacreous layers of organic-inorganic biocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Woo, E-mail: jacklee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Abalone shell comprises a bio-composite material, combining the properties of inorganic calcite intergrown with organic nacre. This paper reports about the microstructure of this composite. By examining the Kikuchi patterns obtained for nacre (Haliotis discus hannai) using transmission electron microscopy, we have shown that the tiles within nacre have specific orientations. The stereographic projection spheres for the tiles of nacre can be divided into two main types, namely a right oriented region and a left oriented region with respect to the c axis as a reference plane (001). The cluster character of nacre can be explained in terms of the growth mechanism of the 'Christmas tree' pattern. The orientation of the c-axis in the nacreous layer is elucidated for the first time. We demonstrate the use of the soluble protein obtained from the tiles of nacre in in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization.

  3. Crystal orientations in nacreous layers of organic-inorganic biocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo

    2009-01-01

    Abalone shell comprises a bio-composite material, combining the properties of inorganic calcite intergrown with organic nacre. This paper reports about the microstructure of this composite. By examining the Kikuchi patterns obtained for nacre (Haliotis discus hannai) using transmission electron microscopy, we have shown that the tiles within nacre have specific orientations. The stereographic projection spheres for the tiles of nacre can be divided into two main types, namely a right oriented region and a left oriented region with respect to the c axis as a reference plane (001). The cluster character of nacre can be explained in terms of the growth mechanism of the 'Christmas tree' pattern. The orientation of the c-axis in the nacreous layer is elucidated for the first time. We demonstrate the use of the soluble protein obtained from the tiles of nacre in in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization.

  4. Organic-inorganic semiconductor hybrid systems. Structure, morphology, and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Helou, Mira

    2012-08-22

    This dissertation addresses the preparation and characterization of hybrid semiconducting systems combining organic with inorganic materials. Characterization methods used included to determine the structure, morphology, and thermal stability comprised X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). One organic-inorganic semiconducting system was pentacene (C{sub 22}H{sub 14}) and zinc oxide. This interface was investigated in detail for pentacene on an oxygen-terminated zinc oxide surface, i.e. ZnO(000 anti 1). An extended study on the promising p-n junction was carried out for pentacene on ZnO with different orientations which exhibit different chemical and structural characteristics: ZnO(000 anti 1), ZnO(0001), and ZnO(10 anti 10). Moreover, the organic crystal structure of pentacene was selectively tuned by carefully choosing the substrate temperature. This defined interface with a physisorbed pentacene layer on ZnO was characterized by optical absorption which depends on the temperature of the measured system, the pentacene film thickness, and the molecular orientation and packing. The high quality of the pentacene films allowed in one case to characterize the Davydov splitting by linear polarized light focused on a single crystallite. Another subject in the field of organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprised conjugated dithiols used as self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for immobilizing semiconducting CdS nanoparticles (NPs) on Au substrates. It was demonstrated that an appropriate selection and preparation of the conjugated SAMs is crucial for building up a light-addressable potentiometric sensor with a sufficient efficiency. An optimized electron transfer was achieved with SAMs of long range ordering, high stability, and adequate conductivity. This was examined for different linkers and was best for stilbenedithiol immobilized in solution at higher temperatures. Due

  5. Autonomic healable waterborne organic-inorganic polyurethane hybrids based on aromatic disulfide moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Aguirresarobe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic disulfide dynamic structures were incorporated as chain extenders in waterborne organic-inorganic polyurethane hybrids in order to provide autonomic healable characteristics. The synthesis was carried out following the acetone process methodology and the influence of the introduction of the healing agents in the polymer dispersion stability was analyzed. After the crosslinking process at room temperature, organic-inorganic hybrid films, which presented autonomic healing characteristics, were obtained. These features were evaluated by means of stress-strain tests and the films showed repetitive healing abilities. Thus, the optimum healing time at room temperature (25 °C as well as the influence of different parameters in the healing efficiency, such the aromatic disulfide concentration or the physical properties of the polymer matrix were analyzed.

  6. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymers as Adsorbents for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Solutions: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiey, Babak; Cheng, Chil-Hung; Wu, Jiangning

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, organic-inorganic hybrid polymers have been applied in different fields, including the adsorption of pollutants from wastewater and solid-state separations. In this review, firstly, these compounds are classified. These compounds are prepared by sol-gel method, self-assembly process (mesopores), assembling of nanobuilding blocks (e.g., layered or core-shell compounds) and as interpenetrating networks and hierarchically structures. Lastly, the adsorption characteristics of heavy metals of these materials, including different kinds of functional groups, selectivity of them for heavy metals, effect of pH and synthesis conditions on adsorption capacity, are studied. PMID:28788483

  7. Plausible carrier transport model in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite resistive memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nayoung; Kwon, Yongwoo; Choi, Jaeho; Jang, Ho Won; Cha, Pil-Ryung

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate thermally assisted hopping (TAH) as an appropriate carrier transport model for CH3NH3PbI3 resistive memories. Organic semiconductors, including organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, have been previously speculated to follow the space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) model. However, the SCLC model cannot reproduce the temperature dependence of experimental current-voltage curves. Instead, the TAH model with temperature-dependent trap densities and a constant trap level are demonstrated to well reproduce the experimental results.

  8. Organic-inorganic perovskites containing trivalent metal halide layers: the templating influence of the organic cation layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, D B

    2000-12-25

    Thin sheetlike crystals of the metal-deficient perovskites (H2AEQT)M2/3I4 [M = Bi or Sb; AEQT = 5,5"'-bis-(aminoethyl)-2,2':5',2'':5'',2'''-quaterthiophene] were formed from slowly cooled ethylene glycol/2-butanol solutions containing the bismuth(III) or antimony(III) iodide and AEQT.2HI salts. Each structure was refined in a monoclinic (C2/m) subcell, with the lattice parameters a = 39.712(13) A, b = 5.976(2) A, c = 6.043(2) A, beta = 92.238(5) degrees, and Z = 2 for M = Bi and a = 39.439(7) A, b = 5.952(1) A, c = 6.031(1) A, beta = 92.245(3) degrees, and Z = 2 for M = Sb. The trivalent metal cations locally adopt a distorted octahedral coordination, with M-I bond lengths ranging from 3.046(1) to 3.218(3) A (3.114 A average) for M = Bi and 3.012(1) to 3.153(2) A (3.073 A average) for M = Sb. The new organic-inorganic hybrids are the first members of a metal-deficient perovskite family consisting of (Mn+)2/nV(n-2)/nX4(2-) sheets, where V represents a vacancy (generally left out of the formula) and the metal cation valence, n, is greater than 2. The organic layers in the AEQT-based organic-inorganic hybrids feature edge-to-face aromatic interactions among the rigid, rodlike quaterthiophene moieties, which may help to stabilize the unusual metal-deficient layered structures.

  9. Optical studies of photoactive states in mixed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites stabilized in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardynal, Beata; Xi, Lifei; Salim, Teddy; Borghardt, Sven; Stoica, Toma; Lam, Yeng Ming

    2015-03-01

    Mixed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites MAX-PbY2(X,Y =I, Br,Cl) have been demonstrated as very attractive materials for absorbers of solar cells and active layers of light emitting diodes and optically driven lasers. The bandgap of the perovskites can be tuned by mixing halogen atoms in different ratios. In this presentation we study mixed MAX-PbY2(X,Y =I, Br, Cl) particles synthesized directly in protective polymer matrices as light emitters. Both, time integrated and time resolved photoluminescence have been used to study the materials. So synthesized MAX-PbX2 are very stable when measured at room temperature and in air with radiative recombination of photogenerated carriers as the main decay path. In contrast, MAX-PbY2 with mixed halogen atoms display luminescence from sub-bandgap states which saturate at higher excitation levels. The density of these states depends on the used polymer matrix and increases upon illumination. We further compare the MAX-PbY2 synthesized in polymers and as films and show that these states are inherent to the material rather than its microstructure. This works has been supported by EU NWs4LIGHT grant.

  10. Development of hybrid organic-inorganic optical coatings to prevent laser damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compoint, Francois

    2015-01-01

    The optical devices (lents, mirrors, portholes...) that are set on the chains of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) may be damaged by the high energy laser beam especially around the UV wavelength of 351 nm. The damages are micronic craters on the rear of the optics that grows exponentially after each laser shots. The study aims at developing some optical thin coatings on the rear of the optical substrates to prevent the growth of the damage by amortizing the laser shock wave, self-healing the craters that has appeared, or repairing the laser hole after the damage occurs. The thin coatings have been prepared by a sol-gel method by using silica precursor and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. The two species reacted together to get a hybrid organic-inorganic Ormosil (organically modified silica) material, by creating a silica network linked to the PDMS species with covalent and hydrogen bounds. The thin layers are obtained from the sol-gel solution by using a dip and spin coating method. The coatings have an excellent optical transmission around the UV (351 nm) wavelength. They also have some self-healing properties by using mechanical (viscoelastic) mechanism and chemical reversible hydrogen bounds action in the materials. The silica-PDMS coatings prove to be resistant to the laser beam at 351 nm, despite some optimizations that still need to be done to reach the sought laser damage threshold. (author) [fr

  11. Self-organization of a tetrasubstituted tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) in a silica based hybrid organic-inorganic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveau, Geneviève; Corriu, Robert J P; Lerouge, Frédéric; Bellec, Nathalie; Lorcy, Dominique; Nobili, Maurizio

    2004-02-21

    A hybrid organic inorganic nanostructured material containing a TTF core substituted by four arms exhibited a high level of both condensation at silicon (96%) and self-organization as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and an unprecedented birefringent behaviour.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrids formed between conducting polymers and crystalline antimonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beleze Fábio A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the synthesis and characterization of novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials between the crystalline antimonic acid (CAA and two conductive polymers: polypyrrole and polyaniline. The hybrids were obtained by in situ oxidative polymerization of monomers by the Sb(V present in the pyrochlore-like CAA structure. The materials were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, CHN elemental analysis and electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that both polymers were formed in their oxidized form, with the CAA structure acting as a counter anion.

  13. Design of novel hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructured biomaterials for immunoassay applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, G [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, PO Box 486, 31270.901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barbosa-Stancioli, E F [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, PO Box 486, 31270.901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Piscitelli Mansur, A A [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vasconcelos, W L [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mansur, H S [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer chemically crosslinked network to be tested as solid support on bovine herpesvirus immunoassay. Hybrids were synthesized by reacting PVA with three different alkoxysilanes modifying chemical groups: tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). PVA-derived hybrids were also modified by chemically crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (GA) during the synthesis reaction. In order to investigate the structure in the nanometer-scale, PVA-derived hybrids were characterized by using small-angle x-ray scattering synchrotron radiation (SAXS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). PVA hybrids' chemical functionalities and their interaction with herpesviruses were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The bioactivity assays were tested through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SAXS results have indicated nano-ordered disperse domains for PVA hybrids with different x-ray scattering patterns for PVA polymer and PVA-derived hybrids. FTIR spectra have shown major vibration bands associated with organic-inorganic chemical groups present in the PVA, PVA-derived by silane modifier and PVA chemically crosslinked by GA. The immunoassay results have shown that PVA hybrids with chemically functionalized structures regulated to some extent the specific bioimmobilization of herpesvirus onto solid phase. We think that it is due to the overall balance of forces associated with van der Waals interaction, hydrophilic and hydrophobic forces and steric hindrance acting at the surface. PVA and PVA-derived hybrid materials were successfully produced with GA crosslinking in a nanometer-scale network. Also, such a PVA-based material could be advantageously used in immunoassays with enhanced specificity for diagnosis.

  14. Design of novel hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructured biomaterials for immunoassay applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, G [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, PO Box 486, 31270.901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barbosa-Stancioli, E F [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, PO Box 486, 31270.901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Piscitelli Mansur, A A [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vasconcelos, W L [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mansur, H S [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer chemically crosslinked network to be tested as solid support on bovine herpesvirus immunoassay. Hybrids were synthesized by reacting PVA with three different alkoxysilanes modifying chemical groups: tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). PVA-derived hybrids were also modified by chemically crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (GA) during the synthesis reaction. In order to investigate the structure in the nanometer-scale, PVA-derived hybrids were characterized by using small-angle x-ray scattering synchrotron radiation (SAXS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). PVA hybrids' chemical functionalities and their interaction with herpesviruses were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The bioactivity assays were tested through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SAXS results have indicated nano-ordered disperse domains for PVA hybrids with different x-ray scattering patterns for PVA polymer and PVA-derived hybrids. FTIR spectra have shown major vibration bands associated with organic-inorganic chemical groups present in the PVA, PVA-derived by silane modifier and PVA chemically crosslinked by GA. The immunoassay results have shown that PVA hybrids with chemically functionalized structures regulated to some extent the specific bioimmobilization of herpesvirus onto solid phase. We think that it is due to the overall balance of forces associated with van der Waals interaction, hydrophilic and hydrophobic forces and steric hindrance acting at the surface. PVA and PVA-derived hybrid materials were successfully produced with GA crosslinking in a nanometer-scale network. Also, such a PVA-based material could be advantageously used in immunoassays with enhanced specificity for diagnosis.

  15. Evaluation of Surface Characteristics of Denture Base Using Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Coating: An SEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aa, Jafari; Mh, Lotfi-Kamran; M, Ghafoorzadeh; Sm, Shaddel

    2017-06-01

    Despite the numerous positive features of acrylic denture base, there are a number of undeniable associated disadvantages. The properties of denture base have been improved through various interventions including application of different types of filler and coatings. This study aimed to evaluate the surface roughness, thickness and coating quality of organic-inorganic coating on the denture base through scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the colour change was evaluated visually. The organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared. Acrylic discs of 10×10 mm were fabricated. The test discs were dipped in the hybrid coating and cured. In order to evaluate the surface roughness and coating thickness, the surface and cross-section of the samples in both coated and control groups were subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The colour change and transparency were visually evaluated with naked eyes. The data were statistically analyzed by student's t test. The hybrid materials perfectly covered all the surfaces of acrylic resin and established proper thickness. The coated group seemed smoother and flatter than the control group; however, the difference was not statistically significant ( for all parameters p > 0.05). It was quite a thin coating and no perceptible colour change was observed. The hybrid coating maintained good binding, caused no noticeable discoloration, and thoroughly covered the acrylic resin surface with uniform delicate thickness. It also slightly improved the acrylic resin surface roughness.

  16. Controllable synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid MoOx/polyaniline nanowires and nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sinong; Gao, Qingsheng; Zhang, Yahong; Gao, Jing; Sun, Xuhui; Tang, Yi

    2011-02-01

    A novel chemical oxidative polymerization approach has been proposed for the controllable preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid MoO(x)/polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites based on the nanowire precursor of Mo(3)O(10)(C(6)H(8)N)(2)·2H(2)O with sub-nanometer periodic structures. The nanotubes, nanowires, and rambutan-like nanoparticles of MoO(x)/PANI were successfully obtained through simply modulating the pH values to 2.5-3.5, ≈2.0 and ≈1.0, respectively. Through systematic physicochemical characterization, such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and so forth, the composition and structure of MoO(x)/PANI hybrid nanocomposites are well confirmed. It is found that the nanowire morphology of the precursor is the key to achieve the one-dimensional (1D) structures of final products. A new polymerization-dissolution mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of such products with different morphologies, in which the match between polymerization and dissolution processes of the precursor plays the important role. This approach will find a new way to controllably prepare various organic-inorganic hybrid 1D nanomaterials especially for polymer-hybrid nanostructures. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Advances in Organic and Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymeric Supports for Catalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Pia Salvo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the most recent advances (2014–2016 on the synthesis of new polymer-supported catalysts are reported, focusing the attention on the synthetic strategies developed for their preparation. The polymer-supported catalysts examined will be organic-based polymers and organic-inorganic hybrids and will include, among others, polystyrenes, poly-ionic liquids, chiral ionic polymers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, as well as silica and halloysite-based catalysts. Selected examples will show the synthesis and application in the field of organocatalysis and metal-based catalysis both for non-asymmetric and asymmetric transformations.

  18. Efficient Flexible Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Graphene Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Hobeom; Lee, Jaeho; Park, Min-Ho; Jeong, Su-Hun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kwon, Sung-Joo; Han, Tae-Hee; Yoo, Seunghyup; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2017-03-01

    Highly efficient organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) based on graphene anode are developed for the first time. Chemically inert graphene avoids quenching of excitons by diffused metal atom species from indium tin oxide. The flexible PeLEDs with graphene anode on plastic substrate show good bending stability; they provide an alternative and reliable flexible electrode for highly efficient flexible PeLEDs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The First Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Luminescent Multiferroic: (Pyrrolidinium)MnBr3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Fu, Da-Wei; Ye, Heng-Yun; Liu, Cai-Ming; Chen, Zhong-Ning; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2015-07-08

    A hybrid organic-inorganic compound, (pyrrolidinium)MnBr3 , distinguished from rare earth (RE)-doped inorganic perovskites, is discovered as a new member of the ferroelectrics family, having excellent luminescent properties and relatively large spontaneous polarization of 6 μC cm(-2) , as well as a weak ferromagnetism at about 2.4 K. With a quantum yield of >28% and emission lifetime >0.1 ms, such multiferroic photoluminescence is a suitable candidate for future applications in luminescence materials, photovoltaics, and magneto-optoelectronic devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Plausible carrier transport model in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite resistive memory devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayoung Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate thermally assisted hopping (TAH as an appropriate carrier transport model for CH3NH3PbI3 resistive memories. Organic semiconductors, including organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, have been previously speculated to follow the space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC model. However, the SCLC model cannot reproduce the temperature dependence of experimental current-voltage curves. Instead, the TAH model with temperature-dependent trap densities and a constant trap level are demonstrated to well reproduce the experimental results.

  1. Patterning and photoluminescent properties of perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid luminescent films by soft lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Z. Y.; Wang, Z.; Xing, R. B.; Han, Y. C.; Lin, J.

    2003-07-01

    Perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid layered compound (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbI 4 was synthesized. The patterning of (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbI 4 thin films on silicon substrate was realized by the micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC) process, a kind of soft lithography. Bright green luminescent stripes with different widths (50, 15, 0.8 μm) have been obtained. The structure and optical properties of (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbI 4 films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra, respectively. It is shown that the organic-inorganic layered (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbI 4 film was c-axis oriented, paralleling to the substrate plane. Green exciton emission at 525 nm was observed in the film, and the explanations for it were given.

  2. Low-Threshold Lasing from 2D Homologous Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskite Single Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Chinnambedu Murugesan; Chen, Tzu-Pei; Li, Shao-Sian; Chen, Wei-Liang; Lo, Chao-Yuan; Liao, Yu-Ming; Haider, Golam; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Chia-Chun; Sankar, Raman; Chang, Yu-Ming; Chou, Fang-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Wei

    2018-05-09

    Organic-inorganic hybrid two-dimensional (2D) perovskites have recently attracted great attention in optical and optoelectronic applications due to their inherent natural quantum-well structure. We report the growth of high-quality millimeter-sized single crystals belonging to homologous two-dimensional (2D) hybrid organic-inorganic Ruddelsden-Popper perovskites (RPPs) of (BA) 2 (MA) n-1 Pb n I 3 n+1 ( n = 1, 2, and 3) by a slow evaporation at a constant-temperature (SECT) solution-growth strategy. The as-grown 2D hybrid perovskite single crystals exhibit excellent crystallinity, phase purity, and spectral uniformity. Low-threshold lasing behaviors with different emission wavelengths at room temperature have been observed from the homologous 2D hybrid RPP single crystals. Our result demonstrates that solution-growth homologous organic-inorganic hybrid 2D perovskite single crystals open up a new window as a promising candidate for optical gain media.

  3. Flexible organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells based on conjugated polymer and ZnO nanorod array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Fei; Kim, Kyusang; Martinez, Daniel; Thapa, Resham; Ahyi, Ayayi; Williams, John; Park, Minseo; Kim, Dong-Joo; Lee, Sungkoo; Lim, Eunhee; Lee, Kyeong K

    2012-01-01

    We report on the photovoltaic characteristics of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells fabricated on ‘flexible’ transparent substrates. The solar cell device is composed of ZnO nanorod array and the bulk heterojunction structured organic layer which is the blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The ZnO nanorod array was grown on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates via a low-temperature (85 °C) aqueous solution process. The blend solution consisting of conjugated polymer P3HT and fullerene PCBM was spin coated at a low spinning rate of 400 rpm on top of the ZnO nanorod array structure and then the photoactive layer was slow dried at room temperature in air to promote its infiltration into the nanorod network. As a top electrode, silver was sputtered on top of the photoactive layer. The flexible solar cell with the structure of PET/ITO/ZnO thin film/ZnO nanorods/P3HT:PCBM/Ag exhibited a photovoltaic performance with an open circuit voltage (V OC ) of 0.52 V, a short circuit current density (J SC ) of 9.82 mA cm −2 , a fill factor (FF) of 35% and a power conversion efficiency (η) of 1.78%. All the measurements were performed under 100 mW cm −2 of illumination with an air mass 1.5 G filter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of investigation into the fabrication and characterization of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells based on bulk heterojunction structured conjugated polymer/fullerene photoactive layer and ZnO nanorod array constructed on flexible transparent substrates. (paper)

  4. Preparation of chitosan/nano hydroxyapatite organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingdi; Pan, Panpan; Zhang, Yujue; Zhong, Shengnan; Zhang, Qiqing

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we encapsulated icariin (ICA) into chitosan (CS)/nano hydroxyapatite (nHAP) composite microspheres to form organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres for drug delivery carrier. The composition and morphology of composite microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry- thermogravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA). Moreover, we further studied the performance of swelling properties, degradation properties and drug release behavior of the microspheres. ICA, the extract of traditional Chinese medicine-epimedium, was combined to study drug release properties of the microspheres. ICA loaded microspheres take on a sustained release behavior, which can be not only ascribed to electrostatic interaction between reactive negative hydroxyl (OH) of ICA and positive amine groups (NH₂) of CS, but also depended on the homogeneous dispersion of HAP nanoparticles inside CS organic matrix. In addition, the adhesion and morphology of osteoblasts were detected by inverted fluorescence microscopy. The biocompatibility of CS/nHAP/ICA microspheres was evaluated by the MTT cytotoxicity assay, Hoechst 33258 and PI fluorescence staining. These studies demonstrate that composite microspheres provide a suitable microenvironment for osteoblast attachment and proliferation. It can be speculated that the ICA loaded CS-based organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres might have potential applications in drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Organic-inorganic hybrid foams with diatomite addition: Effect on functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdolotti, L.; D'Auria, M.; Lavorgna, M.; Vollaro, P.; Iannace, S.; Capasso, I.; Galzerano, B.; Caputo, D.; Liguori, B.

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams were prepared by using metakaolin, diatomite as a partial (or total) replacement of metakaolin, as matrix, silicon and whipped protein as pore forming. The foamed systems were hardened at defined temperature and time and then characterized by mechanical point of view through compression tests and by functional point of view through fire reaction and acoustic tests. The experimental findings highlighted that the replacement of diatomite in the formulation affected the morphological structure of the foams and consequently their mechanical properties. In particular, the consolidation mechanism in the diatomite based-hybrid foams changed from geopolymerization to a silicate polycondensation mechanism. Therefore, mechanical performances enhanced with increasing of the diatomite content. Fire reaction tests, such as non-combustibility and cone calorimeter tests, showed positive thermal inertia of samples regardless of the content of diatomite.

  6. Sol-gel Process in Preparation of Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macan, J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are a sort of nanostructured material in which the organic and inorganic phases are mixed at molecular level. The inorganic phase in hybrid materials is formed by the sol-gel process, which consists of reactions of hydrolysis and condensation of metal (usually silicon alkoxides. Flexibility of sol-gel process enables creation of hybrid materials with varying organic and inorganic phases in different ratios, and consequently fine-tuning of their properties. In order to obtain true hybrid materials, contact between the phases should be at molecular level, so phase separation between thermodynamically incompatible organic and inorganic phases has to be prevented. Phase interaction can be improved by formation of hydrogen or covalent bonds between them during preparation of hybrid materials. Covalent bond can be introduced by organically modified silicon alkoxides containing a reactive organic group (substituent capable of reacting with the organic phase. In order to obtain hybrid materials with desired structures, a detailed knowledge of hydrolysis and condensation mechanism is necessary. The choice of catalyst, whether acid or base, has the most significant influence on the structure of the inorganic phase. Other important parameters are alkoxide concentration, water: alkoxide ratio, type of alkoxide groups, solvent used, temperature, purity of chemicals used, etc. Hydrolysis and condensation of organically modified silicon alkoxides are additionally influenced by nature and size of the organic supstituent.

  7. Degradation and Its Control of Ultraviolet Avalanche Photodiodes Using PEDOT:PSS/ZnSSe Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomoki; Uchida, Shigeto; Tanaka, Keita; Fujisawa, Takanobu; Kasada, Hirofumi; Ando, Koshi; Akaiwa, Kazuaki; Ichino, Kunio

    2018-05-01

    We investigated device degradation in PEDOT:PSS/ZnSSe organic-inorganic hybrid ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes (UV-APDs). ZnSSe/n-GaAs wafers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and PEDOT:PSS window layers were formed by inkjet technique. We observed rapid degradation with APD-mode stress (˜ 30 V) in the N2 (4 N) atmosphere, while we observed no marked change in forward bias current stress and photocurrent stress. In the case of a vacuum condition, we observed no detectable degradation in the dark avalanche current with APD-mode stress. Therefore, the degradation in the PEDOT:PSS/ZnSSe interface under the APD-mode stress was caused by the residual water vapor or oxygen in the N2 atmosphere and could be controlled by vacuum packaging.

  8. Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Nanosheets with Bright, Tunable Photoluminescence and High Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuang; Niu, Wenxin; Wang, An-Liang; Fan, Zhanxi; Chen, Bo; Tan, Chaoliang; Lu, Qipeng; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-03

    Two-dimensional (2D) organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanosheets (NSs) are attracting increasing research interest due to their unique properties and promising applications. Here, for the first time, we report the facile synthesis of single- and few-layer free-standing phenylethylammonium lead halide perovskite NSs, that is, (PEA) 2 PbX 4 (PEA=C 8 H 9 NH 3 , X=Cl, Br, I). Importantly, their lateral size can be tuned by changing solvents. Moreover, these ultrathin 2D perovskite NSs exhibit highly efficient and tunable photoluminescence, as well as superior stability. Our study provides a simple and general method for the controlled synthesis of 2D perovskite NSs, which may offer a new avenue for their fundamental studies and optoelectronic applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Embedded Metal Electrode for Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanowire Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Han-Don; Choi, Deokjae; Choi, Ahreum; Seo, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kwanyong

    2017-06-27

    We demonstrate here an embedded metal electrode for highly efficient organic-inorganic hybrid nanowire solar cells. The electrode proposed here is an effective alternative to the conventional bus and finger electrode which leads to a localized short circuit at a direct Si/metal contact and has a poor collection efficiency due to a nonoptimized electrode design. In our design, a Ag/SiO 2 electrode is embedded into a Si substrate while being positioned between Si nanowire arrays underneath poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), facilitating suppressed recombination at the Si/Ag interface and notable improvements in the fabrication reproducibility. With an optimized microgrid electrode, our 1 cm 2 hybrid solar cells exhibit a power conversion efficiency of up to 16.1% with an open-circuit voltage of 607 mV and a short circuit current density of 34.0 mA/cm 2 . This power conversion efficiency is more than twice as high as that of solar cells using a conventional electrode (8.0%). The microgrid electrode significantly minimizes the optical and electrical losses. This reproducibly yields a superior quantum efficiency of 99% at the main solar spectrum wavelength of 600 nm. In particular, our solar cells exhibit a significant increase in the fill factor of 78.3% compared to that of a conventional electrode (61.4%); this is because of the drastic reduction in the metal/contact resistance of the 1 μm-thick Ag electrode. Hence, the use of our embedded microgrid electrode in the construction of an ideal carrier collection path presents an opportunity in the development of highly efficient organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  10. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Perovskite–Polymer Nanocomposites: Toward the Enhancement of Structural and Electrical Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Privitera, Alberto

    2017-11-30

    Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskite nanoparticles (NPs) have garnered remarkable research attention because of their promising photophysical properties. New and interesting properties emerge after combining perovskite NPs with semiconducting materials. Here, we report the synthesis and investigation of a composite material obtained by mixing CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals with the semiconducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By the combination of structural techniques and optical and magnetic spectroscopies we observed multiple effects of the perovskite NPs on the P3HT: (i) an enlargement of P3HT crystalline domains, (ii) a strong p-doping of the P3HT, and (iii) an enhancement of interchain order typical of H-aggregates. These observations open a new avenue toward innovative perovskite NP-based applications.

  11. Synthesis and optical properties of novel organic-inorganic hybrid nanolayer structure semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sanjun; Lanty, Gaetan; Lauret, Jean-Sebastien; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Audebert, Pierre; Galmiche, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of some novel organic-inorganic hybrid 2D perovskite semiconductors (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 ) 2 PbX 4 . These semiconductors are self-assembled intercalation nanolayers and have a multi-quantum-well energy level structure. We systematically vary the characteristic of organic groups (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 + ) to study the relationship between their structures and the optical properties of (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 ) 2 PbX 4 . From optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments performed on series of samples, we find some trends of choosing the organic groups to improve the optical performance of (R-(CH 2 ) n NH 3 ) 2 PbX 4 . A new organic group, which allows synthesis of nanolayer perovskite semiconductors with quite high photoluminescence efficiency and better long-term stability, has been found.

  12. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Perovskite–Polymer Nanocomposites: Toward the Enhancement of Structural and Electrical Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Privitera, Alberto; Righetto, Marcello; de Bastiani, Michele; Carraro, Francesco; Rancan, Marzio; Armelao, Lidia; Granozzi, Gaetano; Bozio, Renato; Franco, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskite nanoparticles (NPs) have garnered remarkable research attention because of their promising photophysical properties. New and interesting properties emerge after combining perovskite NPs with semiconducting materials. Here, we report the synthesis and investigation of a composite material obtained by mixing CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals with the semiconducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By the combination of structural techniques and optical and magnetic spectroscopies we observed multiple effects of the perovskite NPs on the P3HT: (i) an enlargement of P3HT crystalline domains, (ii) a strong p-doping of the P3HT, and (iii) an enhancement of interchain order typical of H-aggregates. These observations open a new avenue toward innovative perovskite NP-based applications.

  13. Anomalous photovoltaic effect in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongbo; Li, Tao; Wang, Qi; Xing, Jie; Gruverman, Alexei; Huang, Jinsong

    2017-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs) have been demonstrated to be highly successful photovoltaic materials yielding very-high-efficiency solar cells. We report the room temperature observation of an anomalous photovoltaic (APV) effect in lateral structure OIHP devices manifested by the device's open-circuit voltage ( V OC ) that is much larger than the bandgap of OIHPs. The persistent V OC is proportional to the electrode spacing, resembling that of ferroelectric photovoltaic devices. However, the APV effect in OIHP devices is not caused by ferroelectricity. The APV effect can be explained by the formation of tunneling junctions randomly dispersed in the polycrystalline films, which allows the accumulation of photovoltage at a macroscopic level. The formation of internal tunneling junctions as a result of ion migration is visualized with Kelvin probe force microscopy scanning. This observation points out a new avenue for the formation of large and continuously tunable V OC without being limited by the materials' bandgap.

  14. Surface modification of polyamide reverse osmosis membrane with organic-inorganic hybrid material for antifouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wan, Ying; Pan, Guoyuan; Yan, Hao; Yao, Xuerong; Shi, Hongwei; Tang, Yujing; Wei, Xiangrong; Liu, Yiqun

    2018-03-01

    A series of thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes based on polyamide have been modified by coating the polyvinyl alcohol and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane aqueous solution prepared by a sol-gel process on the membrane surface, followed by thermal crosslinking treatment. In order to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified TFC membranes, the membranes were then immersed into H2O2 aqueous solution to convert -SH into -SO3H. The resulting TFC membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, ATR-FTIR, streaming potential, XPS as well as static contact angle. After surface modification with the organic-inorganic hybrid material, the TFC membranes show increased NaCl rejection and decreased water flux with increasing 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane content in coating solution. The optimal modification membrane (PA-SMPTES-0.8) exhibits a NaCl rejection of 99.29%, higher than that (97.20%) of the virgin PA membrane, and a comparable water flux to virgin PA membrane (41.7 L/m2 h vs 47.9 L/m2 h). More importantly, PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane shows much more improved fouling resistance to BSA than virgin PA and PVA modified PA (PA-PVA-1.0) membranes. PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane loses about 13% of the initial flux after BSA fouling for 12 h, which is lower than that of virgin PA and PA-PVA-1.0 membranes (42% and 18%). Furthermore, the flux recovery of PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane reaches 94% after cleaning. Thus the TFC membranes modified by this organic-inorganic hybrid technology show potential applications as antifouling RO membrane for desalination and purification.

  15. Temperature Dependent Surface Structures and Electronic Properties of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, M.-H.; Teague, M. L.; Huang, J.-S.; Tseng, W.-S.; Yeh, N.-C.

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, arising from research of low-cost high performance photovoltaics, have become promising materials not only for solar cells but also for various optoelectronic and spintronic applications. An interesting aspect of the hybrid perovskites is that their material properties, such as the band gap, can be easily tuned by varying the composition, temperature, and the crystalline phases. Additionally, the surface structure is critically important for their optoelectronic applications. It is speculated that different crystalline facets could show different trap densities, thus resulting in microscopically inhomogeneous performance. Here we report direct studies of the surface structures and electronic properties of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS). We found long-range spatially homogeneous tunneling conductance spectra with a well-defined energy gap of (1.55 +/- 0.1) eV at 300 K in the tetragonal phase, suggesting high quality of the single crystals. The energy gap increased to (1.81 +/- 0.1) eV in the orthorhombic phase, below the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition temperature at 150 K. Detailed studies of the temperature evolution in the spatially resolved surface structures and local density of states will be discussed to elucidate how these properties may influence the optoelectronic performance of the hybrid perovskites. We thank the support from NTU in Taiwan and from NSF in the US.

  16. The Formation of Exciplex and Improved Turn-on Voltage in a Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Light-Emitting Diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yan-Fei; Zhao Su-Ling; Xu Zheng; Kong Chao

    2012-01-01

    In order to take advantage of organic and inorganic materials, we chose the polymer MEH-PPV as the luminous layer and ZnS as the electron transporting layer to prepare hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes (HOILEDs): ITO/MEH-PPV(∼70 nm)/ZnS(20 nm)/Al by thermal evaporation and spin coating. Compared with the single-layer device ITO/MEH-PPV(∼70 nm)/Al, spectral broadening and a slightly red shift are observed. Compared with the pure organic device ITO/MEH-PPV(∼70 nm)/BCP (20 nm)/Al and combined with the energy level structure diagram, it is concluded that the spectral broadening and red shift are due to the exciplex luminescence at the interface between MEH-PPV and ZnS or BCP. In addition, the hybrid inorganic-organic device shows a lower turn-on voltage, but the current efficiency is lower than that of the pure organic device with the same structure

  17. Photochromic dynamics of organic-inorganic hybrids supported on transparent and flexible recycled PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R. P.; Nalin, M.; Ribeiro, S. J. L.; Molina, C.

    2017-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrids (OIH) synthesized by sol gel process containing phosphotungstic acid (PWA) entrapped have been attracted much attention for ultraviolet sensitive materials. However, the limitations for practical photochromic application of these materials are the poor interaction with flexible polymer substrates such as Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) and also photo response under ultraviolet radiation. This paper describes the use of the d-ureasil HOI, based on siliceous network grafted through linkages to both ends of polymer chain containing 2.5 poly(oxyethylene) units with PWA entrapped prepared as films on recycled PET. Films were characterized by IR-ATR, XRD, TG/DTG, UV-Vis and Contact angle. XRD patterns showed that both pristine hybrid matrix and those containing PWA are amorphous. IR showed that PWA structure is preserved in the matrix and interactions between them occur by intermolecular forces. Films are thermally stable up to 325 °C and contact angle of 25.1° showed a good wettability between substrate and hybrid matrix. Furthermore, films showed fast photochromic response after 1 min of ultraviolet exposure time. The bleaching process revealed that the relaxation process is dependent of the temperature and the activation energy of 47.2 kJ mol-1 was determined. The properties of these films make them potential candidates for applications in flexible photochromic materials.

  18. Organic-inorganic field effect transistor with SnI-based perovskite channel layer using vapor phase deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Yasuda, Takeshi; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Tsutsui, Tetsuo

    2003-11-01

    High field-effect hole mobility of (formula available in paper)and threshold voltage is -3.2 V) in organic-inorganic layered perovskite film (formula available in paper)prepared by a vapor phase deposition technique have been demonstrated through the octadecyltrichlorosilane treatment of substrate. Previously, the (formula available in paper)films prepared on the octadecyltrichlorosilane-covered substrates using a vapor evaporation showed not only intense exciton absorption and photoluminescence in the optical spectroscopy but also excellent crystallinity and large grain structure in X-ray and atomic force microscopic studies. Especially, the (formula available in paper)structure in the region below few nm closed to the surface of octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayer was drastically improved in comparison with that on the non-covered substrate. Though our initial (formula available in paper)films via a same sequence of preparation of (formula available in paper)and octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayer did not show the field-effect properties because of a lack of spectral, structural, and morphological features. The unformation of favorable (formula available in paper)structure in the very thin region, that is very important for the field-effect transistors to transport electrons or holes, closed to the surface of non-covered (formula available in paper)dielectric layer was also one of the problems for no observation of them. By adding further optimization and development, such as deposition rate of perovskite, substrate heating during deposition, and tuning device architecture, with hydrophobic treatment, the vacuum-deposited (formula available in paper)have achieved above-described high performance in organic-inorganic hybrid transistors.

  19. Preparation and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (C4H9NH3)2CuCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zelong; Chen Hongzheng; Shi Minmin; Wu Gang; Zhou Renjia; Yang Zhisheng; Wang Mang; Tang Benzhong

    2005-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 CuCl 4 was prepared via the reaction between copper chloride and butylammonium chloride. Its chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR and elemental analysis. Its thin film was obtained by spin-coating, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated the formation of two-dimensional layered perovskites structure, with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. The electronic structure, thermal properties and electrical properties of the hybrid perovskite (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 CuCl 4 were also studied by UV-vis, photoluminescience (PL), TGA, DSC, and Hall measurement

  20. A hybrid organic-inorganic electrode for enhanced charge injection or collection in organic optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Omer F; Chaudhary, Sumit; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2006-01-01

    Here we report a novel hybrid organic-inorganic anode for organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photovoltaic (PV) cells. This hybrid anode structure is realized from a composite of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with polystyrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) and indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles. Owing to the phase separation, this anodic structure leads to a graded work function from patterned ITO to the photoactive polymer, which in turn reduces the barrier height for holes by ∼70%. The resulting devices based on this design show up to 67% reduction in turn-on voltage (for polymer LEDs) and up to 40% increase in short-circuit current and power conversion efficiency (for PV cells). Current-voltage characteristics, Fowler-Nordheim analysis, SEM imaging and energy band diagram analysis are employed to characterize the improved performance of our devices. The reported approach is expected to be immensely useful for the molecular design of next-generation efficient organic devices

  1. Rashba and Dresselhaus Effects in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: From Basics to Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepenekian, Mikaël; Robles, Roberto; Katan, Claudine; Sapori, Daniel; Pedesseau, Laurent; Even, Jacky

    2015-12-22

    We use symmetry analysis, density functional theory calculations, and k·p modeling to scrutinize Rashba and Dresselhaus effects in hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites. These perovskites are at the center of a recent revolution in the field of photovoltaics but have also demonstrated potential for optoelectronic applications such as transistors and light emitters. Due to a large spin-orbit coupling of the most frequently used metals, they are also predicted to offer a promising avenue for spin-based applications. With an in-depth inspection of the electronic structures and bulk lattice symmetries of a variety of systems, we analyze the origin of the spin splitting in two- and three-dimensional hybrid perovskites. It is shown that low-dimensional nanostructures made of CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Br) lead to spin splittings that can be controlled by an applied electric field. These findings further open the door for a perovskite-based spintronics.

  2. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings based on alkoxy-terminated macromonomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaddami, H. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon---Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Cuney, S. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon---Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)]|[BSN Emballage-Centre de Recherche de Saint-Romain-en-Gier, 69700 Givors Cedex (France); Pascault, J.P. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon-Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Gerard, J.F. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon-Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    1996-01-01

    From the use of alkoxysilane-terminated macromonomers based on hydrogenated polybutadiene and polycaprolactone oligomers and by using the polyurethane chemistry, hybrid organic{emdash}inorganic materials are prepared. These ones are two-phases systems in which the continuous phase is organic reinforced by silicon rich dispersed particles. These nanosized dispersed particles are formed {ital in} {ital situ} during the hydrolysis and condensation of the sol-gel process according to the phase separation process occurring between the organic and inorganic phases. The gelation process and the final morphologies were found to be very dependent on the acid(catalyst)-to-silicon ratio, on the molar mass of the oligomers, and on the solubility parameter of the soft segment. In fact, during the synthesis, there is a competition between the gelation and the phase separation process which could be perturbated by the vitrification of the silicon-rich clusters. The final morphologies observed by TEM and SAXS are discussed on the basis of the microstructural model proposed by Wilkes and Huang. Such hybrid organic-inorganic materials are applied as coatings on glass float plates tested in a bi-axial mode. The reinforcement is discussed as a function of the morphology of the coatings. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Reduced energy offset via substitutional doping for efficient organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Zhang, Qin; Ruan, Kelian; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xu, Haijiao; Xu, Zhongyuan; Li, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    Charge carrier transport in bulk heterojunction that is central to the device performance of solar cells is sensitively dependent on the energy level alignment of acceptor and donor. However, the effect of energy level regulation induced by nickel ions on the primary photoexcited electron transfer and the performance of P3HT/TiO2 hybrid solar cells remains being poorly understood and rarely studied. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of the versatile nickel ions into TiO2 nanocrystals can significantly elevate the conduction and valence band energy levels of the acceptor, thus resulting in a remarkable reduction of energy level offset between the conduction band of acceptor and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor. By applying transient photoluminescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopies, we demonstrate that the electron transfer becomes more competitive after incorporating nickel ions. In particular, the electron transfer life time is shortened from 30.2 to 16.7 ps, i.e., more than 44% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor, thus leading to a notable increase of power conversion efficiency in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. This work underscores the promising virtue of engineering the reduction of 'excess' energy offset to accelerate electron transport and demonstrates the potential of nickel ions in applications of solar energy conversion and photon detectors.

  4. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles controlled delivery system for anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Antonio; Guselnikova, Olga A; Trusova, Marina E; Postnikov, Pavel S; Sedlarik, Vladimir

    2017-06-30

    The use of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocarriers for controlled release of anticancer drugs has been gained a great interest, in particular, to improve the selectivity and efficacy of the drugs. In this study, iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared then surface modified via diazonium chemistry and coated with chitosan, and its derivative chitosan-grafted polylactic acid. The purpose was to increase the stability of the nanoparticles in physiological solution, heighten drug-loading capacity, prolong the release, reduce the initial burst effect and improve in vitro cytotoxicity of the model drug doxorubicin. The materials were characterized by DLS, ζ-potential, SEM, TGA, magnetization curves and release kinetics studies. Results confirmed the spherical shape, the presence of the coat and the advantages of using chitosan, particularly its amphiphilic derivative, as a coating agent, thereby surpassing the qualities of simple iron oxide nanoparticles. The coated nanoparticles exhibited great stability and high encapsulation efficiency for doxorubicin, at over 500μg per mg of carrier. Moreover, the intensity of the initial burst was clearly diminished after coating, hence represents an advantage of using the hybrid system over simple iron oxide nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity studies demonstrate the increase in cytotoxicity of doxorubicin when loaded in nanoparticles, indirectly proving the role played by the carrier and its surface properties in cell uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Structure of hybrid organic-inorganic sols for the preparation of hydrothermally stable membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castricum, H.L.; Sah, A; Blank, D.H.A.; Ten Elshof, J.E. [Inorganic Materials Science, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Geenevasen, J.A.J. [Van ' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kreiter, R.; Vente, J.F. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    A procedure for the preparation of hybrid sols for the synthesis of organic-inorganic microporous materials and thin film membranes is reported. We describe silane reactivity and sol structure for acid-catalysed colloidal sols from mixtures of either tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), or bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTESE) and MTES. Early-stage hydrolysis and condensation rates of the individual silane precursors were followed with 29Si liquid NMR and structural characteristics of more developed sols were studied with Dynamic Light Scattering. Condensation was found to proceed at more or less similar rates for the different precursors. Homogeneously mixed hybrid colloids can therefore be formed from precursor mixtures. The conditions of preparation under which clear sols with low viscosity could be formed from BTESE/MTES were determined. These sols were synthesised at moderate water/silane and acid/silane ratios and could be applied for the coating of defect-free microporous membranes for molecular separations under hydrothermal conditions.

  6. Organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes based on polyether diamine, alkoxysilane, and trichlorotriazine: Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Diganta; Wu, Cheng-Gang; Fang, Jason; Tsai, Li-Duan; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2014-12-01

    A new type of highly conductive organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes has been synthesized by the reaction of poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol) bis(2-aminopropyl ether), 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine and alkoxysilane precursor 3-(glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane, followed by doping of LiClO4. The 13C and 29Si solid-sate NMR results confirm the successful synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid structure. The solid hybrid electrolyte thus obtained exhibits a maximum ionic conductivity of 1.6 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 30 °C, which is the highest among the organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes. The hybrid electrolytes are electrochemically stable up to 4.2 V. The prototype electrochromic device with such a solid hybrid electrolyte demonstrates a good coloration efficiency value of 183 cm2 C-1 with a cycle life over 200 cycles. For the lithium-ion battery test, the salt free solid hybrid membrane is swelled with a LiPF6-containing electrolyte solution to reach an acceptable ionic conductivity value of 6.5 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 30 °C. The battery cell carries an initial discharge capacity of 100 mAh g-1 at 0.2C-rate and a coulombic efficiency of about 95% up to 30 cycles without the sign of cell failure. The present organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes hold promise for applications in electrochromic devices and lithium ion batteries.

  7. Nearly Perfect Triplet-Triplet Energy Transfer from Wannier Excitons to Naphthalene in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Quantum-Well Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, K.; Inomata, M.; Kato, Y.; Kunugita, H.; Era, M.

    2008-06-01

    We report the observation of extremely efficient energy transfer (greater than 99%) in an organic-inorganic hybrid quantum-well structure consisting of perovskite-type lead bromide well layers and naphthalene-linked ammonium barrier layers. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements confirm that the transfer is triplet-triplet Dexter-type energy transfer from Wannier excitons in the inorganic well to the triplet state of naphthalene molecules in the organic barrier. Using measurements in the 10 300 K temperature range, we also investigated the temperature dependence of the energy transfer.

  8. Flexible single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks towards precise nano-size separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liang; Wang, Shan; Zhou, Ding; Zhang, Hao; Li, Bao; Wu, Lixin

    2016-02-01

    Consecutive two-dimensional frameworks comprised of molecular or cluster building blocks in large area represent ideal candidates for membranes sieving molecules and nano-objects, but challenges still remain in methodology and practical preparation. Here we exploit a new strategy to build soft single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks via electrostatic interaction without preferential binding direction in water. Upon consideration of steric effect and additional interaction, polyanionic clusters as connection nodes and cationic pseudorotaxanes acting as bridging monomers connect with each other to form a single-layer ionic self-assembled framework with 1.4 nm layer thickness. Such soft supramolecular polymer frameworks possess uniform and adjustable ortho-tetragonal nanoporous structure in pore size of 3.4-4.1 nm and exhibit greatly convenient solution processability. The stable membranes maintaining uniform porous structure demonstrate precisely size-selective separation of semiconductor quantum dots within 0.1 nm of accuracy and may hold promise for practical applications in selective transport, molecular separation and dialysis systems.

  9. Local coordination of Eu(III) in organic/inorganic amine functionalized hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, L.D.; Sa Ferreira, R.A.; Goncalves, M.C.; Zea Bermudez, V. de

    2004-01-01

    The sol-gel method was used to prepare two families of organic/inorganic hybrids incorporating europium triflate, classed as di-urethanesils and aminosils. A siliceous network to which short polyether chains are covalently bonded through urethane linkages, composes the di-urethanesil host. A siliceous network containing pendant amine terminated propyl chains, forms the aminosils. The xerogels were investigated by photoluminescence, particularly the local interaction between the Eu 3+ ions and the host matrix. The Eu 3+ local coordination was modelled in terms of a local-field perturbation representing the ion's nearest ligands interaction potential. While for the aminosils the Eu 3+ ions occupy one low-symmetry local site--crystal-field strength of ca. 760.5 cm -1 and 5 D 0 lifetime of 0.6-0.7 ms--two local Eu 3+ environments with distinct point symmetry group, 5 D 0 lifetimes (ca. 0.2-0.3 and 1.4-1.8 ms, respectively) and covalent nature--crystal-field strengths of ca. 540 and 740-780 cm -1 , respectively--were identified in the di-urethanesils

  10. Synthesis and optical properties of novel organic-inorganic hybrid nanolayer structure semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Sanjun; Lanty, Gaetan; Lauret, Jean-Sebastien [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan (France); Deleporte, Emmanuelle, E-mail: Emmanuelle.Deleporte@lpqm.ens-cachan.fr [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan (France); Audebert, Pierre; Galmiche, Laurent [Laboratoire de Photophysique et Photochimie Supramoleculaires et Macromoleculaires de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan (France)

    2009-06-15

    We report on the synthesis of some novel organic-inorganic hybrid 2D perovskite semiconductors (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbX{sub 4}. These semiconductors are self-assembled intercalation nanolayers and have a multi-quantum-well energy level structure. We systematically vary the characteristic of organic groups (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}{sup +}) to study the relationship between their structures and the optical properties of (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbX{sub 4}. From optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments performed on series of samples, we find some trends of choosing the organic groups to improve the optical performance of (R-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbX{sub 4}. A new organic group, which allows synthesis of nanolayer perovskite semiconductors with quite high photoluminescence efficiency and better long-term stability, has been found.

  11. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Liguori, Barbara; Capasso, Ilaria; Caputo, Domenico; Lavorgna, Marino; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a "meringue" type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (˜500 Kg/m3) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the "meringue" approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  12. Visible Photodetectors Based on Organic-Inorganic Hybrids Using Electrostatic Spraying Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Wen Ji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an organic-inorganic hybrid white photodetector with the structure of ITO /AZO/ZnO NWs:P3HT: PCBM/PEDOT: PSS/Al produced with an electrostatic spraying method. The method of production was as follows: First, different spraying methods (continuous spraying, discontinuous spraying and different spraying times were tested before the final electrostatic spraying. Then, different annealing times (10 min and 20 min were tested to anneal the coated film. Lastly, we investigated the photoelectric properties, including transparency analysis of the film surface topography through XRD, OM, FE-SEM, AFM and UV-VIS. The results showed that the detector with discontinuous spraying and 20 mins annealing had a photocurrent of approx. 22.1×10-4A, dark current (drain current of approx. 1.94×10-7A, and a ratio of photocurrent to dark current of approximately 1.14×104, which produced optimal photoelectric characteristics.

  13. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings including nanocontainers for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy ZK30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsonakis, I. A.; Koumoulos, E. P.; Charitidis, C. A.; Kordas, G.

    2013-08-01

    This study is focused on the fabrication, characterization, and application of corrosion protective coatings to magnesium alloy ZK30. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings were synthesized using organic-modified silicates together with resins based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. Cerium molybdate nanocontainers (ncs) with diameter 100 ± 20 nm were loaded with corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and incorporated into the coatings in order to improve their anticorrosion properties. The coatings were investigated for their anticorrosion and nanomechanical properties. The morphology of the coatings was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The composition was estimated by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The mechanical integrity of the coatings was studied through nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques. Scanning probe microscope imaging of the coatings revealed that the addition of ncs creates surface incongruity; however, the hardness to modulus ratio revealed significant strengthening of the coating with increase of ncs. Studies on their corrosion behavior in 0.5 M sodium chloride solutions at room temperature were made using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Artificial defects were formatted on the surface of the films in order for possible self-healing effects to be evaluated. The results showed that the coated magnesium alloys exhibited only capacitive response after exposure to corrosive environment for 16 months. This behavior denotes that the coatings have enhanced barrier properties and act as an insulator. Finally, the scratched coatings revealed a partial recovery due to the increase of charge-transfer resistance as the immersion time elapsed.

  14. Structure and optical properties of several organic-inorganic hybrids containing corner-sharing chains of bismuth iodide octahedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, D B; Brock, P

    2001-04-23

    Two organic-inorganic bismuth iodides of the form (H3N-R-NH3)BiI5 are reported, each containing long and relatively flexible organic groups, R. The norganic framework in each case consists of distorted BiI6 octahedra sharing cis vertexes to form zigzag chains. Crystals of (H3NC18H24S2NH3)BiI5 were grown from a slowly cooled ethylene glycol/2-butanol solution containing bismuth(III) iodide and AETH.2HI, where AETH = 1,6-bis[5'-(2' '-aminoethyl)-2'-thienyl]hexane. The new compound, (H2AETH)BiI5, adopts an orthorhombic (Aba2) cell with the lattice parameters a = 20.427(3) A, b = 35.078(5) A, c = 8.559(1) A, and Z = 8. The structure consists of corrugated layers of BiI5(2-) chains, with Bi-I bond lengths ranging from 2.942(3) to 3.233(3) A, separated by layers of the organic (H2AETH)(2+) cations. Crystals of the analogous (H3NC12H24NH3)BiI5 compound were also prepared from a concentrated aqueous hydriodic acid solution containing bismuth(III) iodide and the 1,12-dodecanediamine (DDDA) salt, DDDA.2HI. (H2DDDA)BiI5 crystallizes in an orthorhombic (Ibam) cell with a = 17.226(2) A, b = 34.277(4) A, c = 8.654(1) A, and Z = 8. The Bi-I bonds range in length from 2.929(1) to 3.271(1) A. While the inorganic chain structure is nearly identical for the two title compounds, as well as for the previously reported (H3NC6H12NH3)BiI5 [i.e., (H2DAH)BiI5] structure, the packing of the chains is strongly influenced by the choice of organic cation. Optical absorption spectra for thermally ablated thin films of the three organic-inorganic hybrids containing BiI5(2-) chains are reported as a function of temperature (25-290 K). The dominant long-wavelength feature in each case is attributed to an exciton band, which is apparent at room temperature and, despite the similar inorganic chain structure, varies in position from 491 to 541 nm (at 25 K).

  15. Scratch, wear and corrosion resistant organic inorganic hybrid materials for metals protection and barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, M.; Gisario, A.; Puopolo, M.; Vesco, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Polysiloxane coatings as protective barriers to delay erosion/corrosion of Fe 430 B metal substrates. • Methyl groups feature a very small steric hindrance and confer ductility to the Si–O–Si backbone. • Phenyl groups feature a larger steric hindrance, but they ensure stability and high chemical inertness. • Remarkable adhesion to the substrate, good scratch resistance and high wear endurance. • Innovative ways to design of long lasting protective barriers against corrosion and aggressive chemicals. - Abstract: Polysiloxanes are widely used as protective barriers to delay erosion/corrosion and increase chemical inertness of metal substrates. In the present work, a high molecular weight methyl phenyl polysiloxane resin was designed to manufacture a protective coating for Fe 430 B structural steel. Methyl groups feature very small steric hindrance and confer ductility to the Si–O–Si backbone of the organic inorganic hybrid resin, thus allowing the achievement of high thickness. Phenyl groups feature larger steric hindrance, but they ensure stability and high chemical inertness. Visual appearance and morphology of the coatings were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy and contact gauge surface profilometry. Micro-mechanical response of the coatings was analyzed by instrumented progressive load scratch, while wear resistance by dry sliding linear reciprocating tribological tests. Lastly, chemical inertness and corrosion endurance of the coatings were evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry in aggressive acid environment. The resulting resins yielded protective materials, which feature remarkable adhesion to the substrate, good scratch resistance and high wear endurance, thus laying the foundations to manufacture long lasting protective barriers against corrosion and, more in general, against aggressive chemicals

  16. Self-assembled organic-inorganic magnetic hybrid adsorbent ferrite based on cyclodextrin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Angelo M L; De Sousa, Frederico B; Passos, Joel J; Guatimosim, Fernando C; Barbosa, Kirla D; Burgos, Ana E; de Oliveira, Fernando Castro; da Silva, Jeann C; Neves, Bernardo R A; Mohallem, Nelcy D S; Sinisterra, Rubén D

    2012-01-01

    Organic-inorganic magnetic hybrid materials (MHMs) combine a nonmagnetic and a magnetic component by means of electrostatic interactions or covalent bonds, and notable features can be achieved. Herein, we describe an application of a self-assembled material based on ferrite associated with β-cyclodextrin (Fe-Ni/Zn/βCD) at the nanoscale level. This MHM and pure ferrite (Fe-Ni/Zn) were used as an adsorbent system for Cr(3+) and Cr(2)O(7) (2-) ions in aqueous solutions. Prior to the adsorption studies, both ferrites were characterized in order to determine the particle size distribution, morphology and available binding sites on the surface of the materials. Microscopy analysis demonstrated that both ferrites present two different size domains, at the micro- and nanoscale level, with the latter being able to self-assemble into larger particles. Fe-Ni/Zn/βCD presented smaller particles and a more homogeneous particle size distribution. Higher porosity for this MHM compared to Fe-Ni/Zn was observed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherms and positron-annihilation-lifetime spectroscopy. Based on the pKa values, potentiometric titrations demonstrated the presence of βCD in the inorganic matrix, indicating that the lamellar structures verified by transmission electronic microscopy can be associated with βCD assembled structures. Colloidal stability was inferred as a function of time at different pH values, indicating the sedimentation rate as a function of pH. Zeta potential measurements identified an amphoteric behavior for the Fe-Ni/Zn/βCD, suggesting its better capability to remove ions (cations and anions) from aqueous solutions compared to that of Fe-Ni/Zn.

  17. Characterization, phase change and conductivity crossover of new luminescent ferroelectric Mn (II) organic-inorganic hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, Mohga F., E-mail: Mohga40@yahoo.com; El Dean, Thana Sh., E-mail: th_sh2000@yahoo.com; Tammam, Ahmed K., E-mail: physicsoman@yahoo.com

    2016-09-01

    Synthesis and characterization of new luminescent ferroelectric [(CH{sub 3})(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 3}P]{sub 2}MnBr{sub 4} organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH) are reported. Powder x-ray diffraction showed the following phases: {sup P2/m} {sup (280 K)} Phase (IV) {sup P21} {sup (298 K)} Phase (III) {sup Pna21} {sup (350 K)} Phase (II) {sup Pnma} {sup (370 K)} Phase (I). Room temperature lattice parameters are a = 9.6233 (Å), b = 12.5653 (Å) c = 16.4503 (Å) and β = 105.6° (T = 298 K). UV-VIS and Ac magnetic susceptibility confirm tetrahedral symmetry of [MnBr{sub 4}]{sup 2−}. DSC and dielectric measurements showed four phase transitions at T{sub 4peak} = 279.1 ± 1 K (ΔS = 1.03 J/mol K), T{sub 3peak} = 300.1 ± 2 K (ΔS = 2.33 J/mol K), T{sub 2peakt} = 353.2 ± 3 K (ΔS = 2.68 J/mol K) and T{sub 1peak} = 379.1 ± 3 K (ΔS = 2.43 J/mol K). Calculated lattice potential energy values vary from 827 (kJ/mol) at 280 K to (797 kJ/mol) at 370 K. Ac conductivity measurements (220 < T(K) < 400) and (0.081 < f (kHz) < 30) are presented. It is ferroelectric with Curie temperature T{sub c} = 309 K. Hybrid is semiconductor in the temperature range 309 ± 14 K, where conductivity follows Jonscher’s universal dielectric response otherwise it is an insulator where crossover to super-linear power law prevails. Comparison to the corresponding chloride is discussed. - Graphical abstract: Plot of real part of permittivity [ln(ε′)] versus temperature (K). - Highlights: • Conductivity crossover from SlPL to UDR is confirmed. • Change from semiconductor to insulator. • Structural phase transformation.

  18. Improved efficiency in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells by interfacial modification of ZnO nanowires with small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sehoon; Park, Hyesung; Cheng, Jayce J; Rekemeyer, Paul H; Gradečak, Silvija

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate improved photovoltaic performance of ZnO nanowire/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanofiber hybrid devices using an interfacial modification of ZnO nanowires. Formation of cascade energy levels between the ZnO nanowire and P3HT nanofiber was achieved by interfacial modification of ZnO nanowires using small molecules tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic bisbenzimidazole (PTCBI). The successful demonstration of improved device performance owing to the cascade energy levels by small molecule modification is a promising approach toward highly efficient organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. (paper)

  19. Bi-hybrid coatings: polyaniline-montmorillonite filler in organic-inorganic polymer matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Bober, Patrycja; Kotek, Jiří; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 1020-1027 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * montmorillonite * organic-inorganic composite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  20. Understanding the Slow Transient Optoelectronic Response of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Daniel Louis

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites, particularly methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3), have emerged within the past decade as an exciting class of photovoltaic materials. In less than ten years, MAPbI3-based photovoltaic devices have seen unprecedented performance growth, with photoconversion efficiency increasing from 3% to over 22%, making it competitive with traditional high-efficiency solar cells. Furthermore, the fabrication of MAPbI3 devices utilize low-temperature solution processing, which could facilitate ultra low cost manufacturing. However, MAPbI3 suffers from significant instabilities under working conditions that have limited their applications outside of the laboratory. The instability of the MAPbI3 material can be generalized as a complex, slow transient optoelectronic response (STOR). The mechanism of the generalized STOR is dependent on the native defects of MAPbI3, but detailed understanding of the material defect properties is complicated by the complex ionic bonding of MAPbI3. Furthermore, characterization of the intrinsic material's response is complicated by the diverse approach to material processing and device architecture across laboratories around the world. In order to understand and mitigate the significant problems of MAPbI3 devices, a new approach focused on the material response, rather than the full device response, must be pursued. This dissertation highlights the work to analyze and mitigate the STOR intrinsic to MAPbI3. An experimental platform was developed based on lateral interdigitated electrode (IDE) arrays capable of monitoring the current and photoluminescence response simultaneously. By correlating the dynamics of the current and photoluminescence (PL) responses, both charge trapping and ion migration mechanisms were identified to contribute to the STOR. Next, a novel fabrication technique is introduced that is capable of reliably depositing MAPbI3 thin films with grain sizes at least an order of magnitude

  1. Quantum confinement and dielectric profiles of colloidal nanoplatelets of halide inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapori, Daniel; Kepenekian, Mikaël; Pedesseau, Laurent; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky

    2016-03-01

    Quantum confinement as well as high frequency ε∞ and static εs dielectric profiles are described for nanoplatelets of halide inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D HOP are currently being sought for their impressive photovoltaic ability. Prior to this sudden popularity, 2D HOP materials were driving intense activity in the field of optoelectronics. Such developments have been enriched by the recent ability to synthesize colloidal nanostructures of controlled sizes of 2D and 3D HOP. This raises the need to achieve a thorough description of the electronic structure and dielectric properties of these systems. In this work, we go beyond the abrupt dielectric interface model and reach the atomic scale description. We examine the influence of the nature of the halogen and of the cation on the band structure and dielectric constants. Similarly, we survey the effect of dimensionality and shape of the perovskite. In agreement with recent experimental results, we show an increase of the band gap and a decrease of ε∞ when the size of a nanoplatelet reduces. By inspecting 2D HOP, we find that it cannot be described as a simple superposition of independent inorganic and organic layers. Finally, the dramatic impact of ionic contributions on the dielectric constant εs is analysed.Quantum confinement as well as high frequency ε∞ and static εs dielectric profiles are described for nanoplatelets of halide inorganic perovskites CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) and hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP) in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures. 3D HOP are currently being sought for their impressive photovoltaic ability. Prior to this sudden popularity, 2D HOP materials were driving intense activity in the field of optoelectronics. Such developments have been enriched by the recent ability to synthesize colloidal nanostructures of controlled

  2. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites Open a New Era for Low-Cost, High Efficiency Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiming Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ramping solar energy to electricity conversion efficiencies of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells during the last five years have opened new doors to low-cost solar energy. The record power conversion efficiency has climbed to 19.3% in August 2014 and then jumped to 20.1% in November. In this review, the main achievements for perovskite solar cells categorized from a viewpoint of device structure are overviewed. The challenges and prospects for future development of this field are also briefly presented.

  3. Density Functional Theory Simulations of Semiconductors for Photovoltaic Applications: Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites and III/V Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Even

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentialities of density functional theory (DFT based methodologies are explored for photovoltaic materials through the modeling of the structural and optoelectronic properties of semiconductor hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites and GaAs/GaP heterostructures. They show how the properties of these bulk materials, as well as atomistic relaxations, interfaces, and electronic band-lineups in small heterostructures, can be thoroughly investigated. Some limitations of available standard DFT codes are discussed. Recent improvements able to treat many-body effects or based on density-functional perturbation theory are also reviewed in the context of issues relevant to photovoltaic technologies.

  4. Research Update: Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films and solar cells by vapor phase reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Shen Shen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid progress in deposition techniques for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films, this new class of photovoltaic (PV technology has achieved material quality and power conversion efficiency comparable to those established technologies. Among the various techniques for HOIP thin films preparation, vapor based deposition technique is considered as a promising alternative process to substitute solution spin-coating method for large-area or scale-up preparation. This technique provides some unique benefits for high-quality perovskite crystallization, which are discussed in this research update.

  5. Characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for corrosion protection of galvanized steel and electroplated ZnFe steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliziane Pires de Souza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of hybrids materials has been extensively investigated in recent years. The combination of a wide variety of compositions and production processes had permitted the use of these materials in different applications like coatings for corrosion protection of metals. In this work organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been prepared from the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate and silanol-terminated polidymetilmetoxysilane using a sol-gel process. These materials have been applied on galvanized steel and on steel electroplated with a ZnFe. In order to evaluate the degradation behavior of these coatings, electrochemical techniques (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Potentiodynamic Polarization were used. EIS data was fitted to an equivalent circuit from which the electrochemical parameters were obtained. Results show a good protective character of the hybrid films, when compared with uncovered specimens. The overall performance of the coating systems appears to be highly dependent on the kind of metallic coating applied to the steel.

  6. Quantum confinement of zero-dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic polaritons at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. S.; Han, Z.; Abdel-Baki, K.; Lafosse, X.; Amo, A.; Lauret, J.-S.; Deleporte, E.; Bouchoule, S.; Bloch, J.

    2014-02-01

    We report on the quantum confinement of zero-dimensional polaritons in perovskite-based microcavity at room temperature. Photoluminescence of discrete polaritonic states is observed for polaritons localized in symmetric sphere-like defects which are spontaneously nucleated on the top dielectric Bragg mirror. The linewidth of these confined states is found much sharper (almost one order of magnitude) than that of photonic modes in the perovskite planar microcavity. Our results show the possibility to study organic-inorganic cavity polaritons in confined microstructure and suggest a fabrication method to realize integrated polaritonic devices operating at room temperature.

  7. Quantum confinement of zero-dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic polaritons at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, H. S.; Lafosse, X.; Amo, A.; Bouchoule, S.; Bloch, J.; Han, Z.; Abdel-Baki, K.; Lauret, J.-S.; Deleporte, E.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the quantum confinement of zero-dimensional polaritons in perovskite-based microcavity at room temperature. Photoluminescence of discrete polaritonic states is observed for polaritons localized in symmetric sphere-like defects which are spontaneously nucleated on the top dielectric Bragg mirror. The linewidth of these confined states is found much sharper (almost one order of magnitude) than that of photonic modes in the perovskite planar microcavity. Our results show the possibility to study organic-inorganic cavity polaritons in confined microstructure and suggest a fabrication method to realize integrated polaritonic devices operating at room temperature

  8. Quasiparticle band gap of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites: Crystal structure, spin-orbit coupling, and self-energy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weiwei; Gao, Xiang; Abtew, Tesfaye A.; Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai; Zhang, Peihong

    2016-02-01

    The quasiparticle band gap is one of the most important materials properties for photovoltaic applications. Often the band gap of a photovoltaic material is determined (and can be controlled) by various factors, complicating predictive materials optimization. An in-depth understanding of how these factors affect the size of the gap will provide valuable guidance for new materials discovery. Here we report a comprehensive investigation on the band gap formation mechanism in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites by decoupling various contributing factors which ultimately determine their electronic structure and quasiparticle band gap. Major factors, namely, quasiparticle self-energy, spin-orbit coupling, and structural distortions due to the presence of organic molecules, and their influences on the quasiparticle band structure of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are illustrated. We find that although methylammonium cations do not contribute directly to the electronic states near band edges, they play an important role in defining the band gap by introducing structural distortions and controlling the overall lattice constants. The spin-orbit coupling effects drastically reduce the electron and hole effective masses in these systems, which is beneficial for high carrier mobilities and small exciton binding energies.

  9. Soft templating strategies for the synthesis of mesoporous materials: inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim

    2013-03-01

    With the discovery of MCM-41 by Mobil researchers in 1992 the journey of the research on mesoporous materials started and in the 21st century this area of scientific investigation have extended into numerous branches, many of which contribute significantly in emerging areas like catalysis, energy, environment and biomedical research. As a consequence thousands of publications came out in large varieties of national and international journals. In this review, we have tried to summarize the published works on various synthetic pathways and formation mechanisms of different mesoporous materials viz. inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids via soft templating pathways. Generation of nanoscale porosity in a solid material usually requires participation of organic template (more specifically surfactants and their supramolecular assemblies) called structure-directing agent (SDA) in the bottom-up chemical reaction process. Different techniques employed for the syntheses of inorganic mesoporous solids, like silicas, metal doped silicas, transition and non-transition metal oxides, mixed oxides, metallophosphates, organic-inorganic hybrids as well as purely organic mesoporous materials like carbons, polymers etc. using surfactants are depicted schematically and elaborately in this paper. Moreover, some of the frontline applications of these mesoporous solids, which are directly related to their functionality, composition and surface properties are discussed at the appropriate places. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of Selected Parameters of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Membranes Based on Various Polymers and Nd-Fe-B Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybak A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper magnetic organic-inorganic hybrid membranes based on EC, PPO polymer matrices and various magnetic powder microparticles were synthesized and studied. Constant pressure permeation technique and the Time Lag method were used to obtain the gas transport coefficients. The mechanical, rheological and magnetic parameters of magnetic hybrid membranes were examined. It was found that their separation and gas transport properties (D, P, S and α were improved with the decrease in powder particle size and the increase of membrane’s remanence, saturation magnetization and magnetic particle filling. The increase of the magnetic powder addition and a decrease of its granulation improved also mechanical and rheological parameters of the tested membranes. This improvement also had a positive effect on their gas separation properties and their potential usage in the future.

  11. Organic/inorganic hybrid filters based on dendritic and cyclodextrin "nanosponges" for the removal of organic pollutants from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkas, Michael; Allabashi, Roza; Tsiourvas, Dimitris; Mattausch, Eva-Maria; Perfler, Reinhard

    2006-04-15

    Long-alkyl chain functionalized poly(propylene imine) dendrimer, poly(ethylene imine) hyperbranched polymer, and beta-cyclodextrin derivatives, which are completely insoluble in water, have the property of encapsulating organic pollutants from water. Ceramic porous filters can be impregnated with these compounds resulting in hybrid organic/ inorganic filter modules. These hybrid filter modules were tested for the effective purification of water, by continuous filtration experiments, employing a variety of water pollutants. It has been established that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be removed very efficiently (more than 95%), and final concentrations of several ppb (microg/ L) are easily obtained. Representatives of the pollutant group of trihalogen methanes (THMs), monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTX), and pesticides (simazine) can also be removed (>80%), although the filters are saturated considerably faster in these cases.

  12. White light emission from organic-inorganic hererostructure devices by using CdSe quantum dots as emitting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Aiwei; Teng Feng; Gao Yinhao; Li Dan; Zhao Suling; Liang Chunjun; Wang Yongsheng

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, white light emission was obtained from organic-inorganic heterostructure devices by using CdSe quantum dots as emitting layer, in which CdSe quantum dots were synthesized via a colloidal chemical approach by using CdO and Se powder as precursors. Photoluminescence of CdSe quantum dots demonstrated a white emission with a full wavelength at half maximum (FWHM) of about 200 nm under ambient conditions, and the white emission could be observed in both multilayer device ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CdSe/BCP/Alq 3 /Al and single-layer device: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CdSe/Al. The broad emission was attributed to the inhomogeneous broadening. The CIE coordinates of the multilayer device were x=0.35 and y=0.40. The white-light-emitting diodes with CdSe quantum dots as the emitting layer are potentially useful in lighting applications

  13. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2010-10-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene] (MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  14. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2010-01-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy )-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene](MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  15. Syntheses, structures and properties of four organic-inorganic hybrid nicotinate-bridging rare-earth-containing phosphotungstates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Peijun; Pang, Jingjing; Zhai, Cuiping; Zhao, Junwei

    2018-04-01

    Four novel organic-inorganic hybrid nicotinate-bridging dimeric rare-earth (RE)-containing phosphotungstates [H2N(CH3)2]8[RE(H2O)(NA)(α-HPW11O39)]2·24H2O (RE = HoIII for 1, ErIII for 2, TbIII for 3, DyIII for 4; HNA = nicotinic acid) have been synthesized from the reaction of trivacant Keggin precursor Na9[α-PW9O34]•16H2O, RE(NO3)3·6H2O, HNA by employing dimethylamine hydrochloride as organic solubilizing agent in the conventional aqueous solution system, which have been further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, thermogravimetric analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analysis indicates that the hybrid dimeric {[RE(H2O)(NA)(α-HPW11O39)]2}8- polyoxoanion in 1-4 can be considered as two head-to-head mono-RE-containing Keggin [RE(H2O)(NA)(α-HPW11O39)]4- subunits bridged by two (η2,μ-1,1)-nicotinate linkers, which stands for the first organic-inorganic hybrid RE-containing phosphotungstates functionalized by nicotinate ligands. What's more, the solid-state photoluminescence properties and lifetime decay behaviors of 1-4 have been measured at room temperature and their photoluminescence spectra display the characteristic emission bands of corresponding trivalent RE cations.

  16. Organic-inorganic hybrid polyionic liquid based polyoxometalate as nano porous material for selective oxidation of sulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Ezzat; Shahebrahimi, Shabnam

    2017-07-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid nano porous materials based on poly(ionic liquid)-polyoxometalate (PIL-POM) were reported. These hybrid materials were synthesized by the reaction of 4-vinyl pyridine with 1,3-propanesultone, followed by the polymerization and also sulfonate-functionalized cross-linked poly(4-vinylpyridine) and combining these polymers with H5PMo10V2O40 (PMo10V2). Activity of prepared PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids were investigated as catalysts for oxidation of sulfides with H2O2 as oxidant. For understanding catalytic activities of the PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids in oxidation of sulfides, effect of catalyst composition, substrate, and reaction conditions were studied. The results show that the PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids are active as selective heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of sulfides and can be recovered and reused. The catalyst was characterized by FT-IR, TGA-DSC, XRD, SEM/EDX, BET, CV and zeta potential measurement. Also, average molecular weight of prepared catalysts were measured.

  17. Full color stop bands in hybrid organic/inorganic block copolymer photonic gels by swelling-freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changjoon; Kim, Eunjoo; Baek, Heeyoel; Hwang, Kyosung; Kwak, Dongwoo; Kang, Youngjong; Thomas, Edwin L

    2009-06-10

    We report a facile way of fabricating hybrid organic/inorganic photonic gels by selective swelling and subsequent infiltration of SiO(2) into one type of lamellar microdomain previously self-assembled from modest-molecular-weight block copolymers. Transparent, in-plane lamellar films were first prepared by assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP), and subsequently the P2VP domains were swollen with a selective solvent, methanol. The swollen structures were then fixated by synthesizing SiO(2) nanoparticles within P2VP domains. The resulting frozen photonic gels (f-photonic gels) exhibited strong reflective colors with stop bands across the visible region of wavelengths.

  18. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Structural Diversity and Opportunities for Semiconductor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices based on three-dimensional perovskites, (Cs, MA, FA)Pb(I, Br)3 (MA =methylammonium, FA =formamidinium), have attracted substantial recent interest, because of the unprecedented rise in power conversion efficiency to values above 20%, which in turn is made possible by the near ideal band gap, strong optical absorption, high carrier mobilities, long minority carrier lifetimes, and relatively benign defects and grain boundaries for the absorbers. Some of the same properties that render these materials near-ideal for PV, also make them attractive for LED and other optoelectronic applications. Despite the high levels of device performance, the incorporation of the heavy metal lead, coupled with issues of device stability and electrical hysteresis pose challenges for commercializing these exciting technologies. This talk will provide a perspective on and discuss recent advances related to the broader perovskite family, focusing on the extraordinary structural/chemical diversity, including ability to control structural/electronic dimensionality, substitute on the organic cation, metal or halogen sites, and prospects of multi-functionality arising from separately engineered organic/inorganic structural components (e.g., see). Further exploration within this perovskite structural and chemical space offers exciting opportunities for future energy and electronic materials design. This work has been financially supported by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Dept. of Energy, under Award Number DE-EE0006712.

  19. Methylammonium Bismuth Iodide as a Lead-Free, Stable Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Solar Absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Robert L Z; Brandt, Riley E; Osherov, Anna; Stevanović, Vladan; Stranks, Samuel D; Wilson, Mark W B; Kim, Hyunho; Akey, Austin J; Perkins, John D; Kurchin, Rachel C; Poindexter, Jeremy R; Wang, Evelyn N; Bawendi, Moungi G; Bulović, Vladimir; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-02-18

    Methylammonium lead halide (MAPbX3 ) perovskites exhibit exceptional carrier transport properties. But their commercial deployment as solar absorbers is currently limited by their intrinsic instability in the presence of humidity and their lead content. Guided by our theoretical predictions, we explored the potential of methylammonium bismuth iodide (MBI) as a solar absorber through detailed materials characterization. We synthesized phase-pure MBI by solution and vapor processing. In contrast to MAPbX3, MBI is air stable, forming a surface layer that does not increase the recombination rate. We found that MBI luminesces at room temperature, with the vapor-processed films exhibiting superior photoluminescence (PL) decay times that are promising for photovoltaic applications. The thermodynamic, electronic, and structural features of MBI that are amenable to these properties are also present in other hybrid ternary bismuth halide compounds. Through MBI, we demonstrate a lead-free and stable alternative to MAPbX3 that has a similar electronic structure and nanosecond lifetimes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Multiple-Stage Structure Transformation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Liu, Henan; Kim, Hui-Seon; Liu, Yucheng; Yang, Mengjin; Yue, Naili; Ren, Gang; Zhu, Kai; Liu, Shengzhong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Zhang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    By performing spatially resolved Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy with varying excitation wavelength, density, and data acquisition parameters, we achieve a unified understanding towards the spectroscopy signatures of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, transforming from the pristine state (CH3NH3PbI3 ) to the fully degraded state (i.e., PbI2 ) for samples with varying crystalline domain size from mesoscopic scale (approximately 100 nm) to macroscopic size (centimeters), synthesized by three different techniques. We show that the hybrid perovskite exhibits multiple stages of structure transformation occurring either spontaneously or under light illumination, with exceptionally high sensitivity to the illumination conditions (e.g., power, illumination time, and interruption pattern). We highlight four transformation stages (stages I-IV, with stage I being the pristine state) along either the spontaneous or photoinduced degradation path exhibiting distinctly different Raman spectroscopy features at each stage, and point out that previously reported Raman spectra in the literature reflect highly degraded structures of either stage III or stage IV. Additional characteristic optical features of partially degraded materials under the joint action of spontaneous and photodegradation are also given. This study offers reliable benchmark results for understanding the intrinsic material properties and structure transformation of this unique category of hybrid materials, and the findings are pertinently important to a wide range of potential applications where the hybrid material is expected to function in greatly different environment and light-matter interaction conditions.

  1. New organic-inorganic hybrid molecular systems and highly organized materials in catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustov, L. M.

    2015-11-01

    Definitions of hybrid materials are suggested, and applications of these materials are considered. Particular attention is focused on the application of hybrid materials in hydrogenation, partial oxidation, plant biomass conversion, and natural gas reforming, primarily on the use of core-shell nanoparticles and decorated metal nanoparticles in these reactions. Application prospects of various hybrid materials, particularly those of metal-organic frameworks, are discussed.

  2. Oxide Semiconductor-Based Flexible Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Polydimethylsiloxane Elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soon-Won; Choi, Jeong-Seon; Park, Jung Ho; Koo, Jae Bon; Park, Chan Woo; Na, Bock Soon; Oh, Ji-Young; Lim, Sang Chul; Lee, Sang Seok; Chu, Hye Yong

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate flexible organic/inorganic hybrid thin-film transistors (TFTs) on a polydimethysilox- ane (PDMS) elastomer substrate. The active channel and gate insulator of the hybrid TFT are composed of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) and blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF- TrFE)] with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), respectively. It has been confirmed that the fabri- cated TFT display excellent characteristics: the recorded field-effect mobility, sub-threshold voltage swing, and I(on)/I(off) ratio were approximately 0.35 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), 1.5 V/decade, and 10(4), respectively. These characteristics did not experience any degradation at a bending radius of 15 mm. These results correspond to the first demonstration of a hybrid-type TFT using an organic gate insulator/oxide semiconducting active channel structure fabricated on PDMS elastomer, and demonstrate the feasibility of a promising device in a flexible electronic system.

  3. 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Thin Films for Flexible UV-Visible Photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Velusamy, Dhinesh Babu

    2017-02-13

    Flexible 2D inorganic MoS and organic g-CN hybrid thin film photodetectors with tunable composition and photodetection properties are developed using simple solution processing. The hybrid films fabricated on paper substrate show broadband photodetection suitable for both UV and visible light with good responsivity, detectivity, and reliable and rapid photoswitching characteristics comparable to monolayer devices. This excellent performance is retained even after the films are severely deformed at a bending radius of ≈2 mm for hundreds of cycles. The detailed charge transfer and separation processes at the interface between the 2D materials in the hybrid films are confirmed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy with broadband capability.

  4. Near infrared photodetector based on polymer and indium nitride nanorod organic/inorganic hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Wei-Jung; Li, Shao-Sian; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Chun-Chiang; Chen, Chun-Wei; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2010-01-01

    We propose a nanostructured near infrared photodetector based on indium nitride (InN) nanorod/poly(3-hexylthiophene) hybrids. The current-voltage characteristic of the hybrid device demonstrates the typical p-n heterojunction diode behavior, consisting of p-type polymer and n-type InN nanorods. The device shows a photoresponse range of 900-1260 nm under various reverse biases. An external quantum efficiency of 3.4% at 900 nm operated at -10 V reverse bias was obtained, which is comparable with devices based on lead sulfide and lead selenide hybrid systems.

  5. Synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid gel with acid activated clay after γ-ray radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Hoik; Sohn, Daewon

    2014-08-01

    A hybrid gel was prepared from acid activated clay (AA clay) and acrylic acid by gamma ray irradiation. Irradiated inorganic particles which have peroxide groups act as initiator because it generates oxide radicals by increasing temperature. Inorganic nanoparticles which are rigid part in hybrid gel also contribute to increase the mechanical property as a crosslinker. We prepared two hybrid gels to compare the effect of acid activated treatment of clay; one is synthesized with raw clay particles and another is synthesized with AA clay particles. The composition and structure of AA clay particles and raw clay particles were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence instrument and surface area analyzer. And chemical and physical property of hybrid gel with different ratios of acrylic acid and clay particle was tested by Raman spectroscope and universal testing machine (UTM). The synthesized hydrogel with 76% gel contents can elongated approximately 1000% of its original size.

  6. Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, J. N.; Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D.; Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41 S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f ∼ 2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires

  7. Photophysics of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskite Single Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Honghua; Raissa, Raissa; Abdu-Aguye, Mustapha; Adjokatse, Sampson; Blake, Graeme R.; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid organometal halide perovskites have been demonstrated to have outstanding performance as semiconductors for solar energy conversion. Further improvement of the efficiency and stability of these devices requires a deeper understanding of their intrinsic photophysical properties. Here, the

  8. Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyman, J. N., E-mail: heyman@macalester.edu; Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D. [Physics Department, Macalester College, St. Paul, Minnesota 55105 (United States); Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J. [The Molecular Foundry, Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41 S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f ∼ 2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires.

  9. Determination of Carrier Lifetimes in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells Based on Sb2S3 by Using the Time-Resolved Photocurrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Mun, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Su; Kim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sang-Ju; Sung, Shi-Joon; Kim, Dae-Hwan

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells (SCs) based on ZnO/Sb2S3/P3HT heterojunctions. The ZnO and the Sb2S3 layers were grown using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Although four cells were fabricated on one substrate by using the same process, their open-circuit voltages ( V OC ) and short-circuit current densities ( J SC ) were different. The SC with a high V OC has a low J SC . The causes of the changes in the V OC and the JSC were investigated by using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and optically-biased time-resolved photocurrent (TRPC) measurements. The PL results at 300 K showed that the emission positions of the Sb2S3 layers in all cells were similar at approximately 1.71 eV. The carrier lifetime of the SCs was calculated from the TRPC results. The lifetime of cell 4 with the highest J SC decreased drastically with increasing intensity of the continuous-wave optical bias beam. Therefore, the defect states in the ZnO layer contribute to the J SC , but degrade the V OC .

  10. The electronic structure of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds : (NH4)(2)CuCl4, (CH3NH3)(2)CuCl4 and (C2H5NH3)(2)CuCl4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zolfaghari, P.; de Wijs, G. A.; de Groot, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic compounds are an intriguing class of materials that have been experimentally studied over the past few years because of a potential broad range of applications. The electronic and magnetic properties of three organic-inorganic hybrid compounds with compositions

  11. Biofilm formed from organic-inorganic hybrid tri-ureasil PPO for transdermal drug delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Eduardo F.; Jesus, Natana Aparecida; Oliveira, Pollyana Francielli; Furtado, Ricardo A.; Tavares, Denise Crispim, E-mail: eduardo.molina@unifran.edu.br [Universidade de Franca (UNIFRAN), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In this work we evaluated the viability of the tri-ureasil PPO hybrid as biofilm forming for release of active substances such as lignans. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). The swelling degree and the influence of the catalyst on time of formation of a hybrid biofilm were evaluated. The cytotoxicity of the materials were evaluated using the XTT colorimetric assay where GM07492A strain was treated with different concentrations of the hybrid. The time of film formation depends on the quantity of the catalyst used in the synthesis. By varying the catalyst quantity during the synthesis, a good flexible film can be obtained, which is easy to be coated on the skin surface and in situ formed a very thin and comfortable film with an aesthetical appearance. Moreover, the hybrid films were colorless and transparent. The toxicity/viability of all samples has also been studied using normal human cells for future applications. The hybrid matrices did not significantly reduce cell viability, demonstrating that siloxane-polyether materials were biocompatible. All the materials presenting a amorphous structure (XRD) and the characteristic bands of vibrations (FTIR) of the polymer chain do not change after incorporation of lignans. (author)

  12. Biofilm formed from organic-inorganic hybrid tri-ureasil PPO for transdermal drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Eduardo F.; Jesus, Natana Aparecida; Oliveira, Pollyana Francielli; Furtado, Ricardo A.; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In this work we evaluated the viability of the tri-ureasil PPO hybrid as biofilm forming for release of active substances such as lignans. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). The swelling degree and the influence of the catalyst on time of formation of a hybrid biofilm were evaluated. The cytotoxicity of the materials were evaluated using the XTT colorimetric assay where GM07492A strain was treated with different concentrations of the hybrid. The time of film formation depends on the quantity of the catalyst used in the synthesis. By varying the catalyst quantity during the synthesis, a good flexible film can be obtained, which is easy to be coated on the skin surface and in situ formed a very thin and comfortable film with an aesthetical appearance. Moreover, the hybrid films were colorless and transparent. The toxicity/viability of all samples has also been studied using normal human cells for future applications. The hybrid matrices did not significantly reduce cell viability, demonstrating that siloxane-polyether materials were biocompatible. All the materials presenting a amorphous structure (XRD) and the characteristic bands of vibrations (FTIR) of the polymer chain do not change after incorporation of lignans. (author)

  13. Organic-inorganic hybrid membranes in separation processes: a 10-year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In relation to some inorganic membranes, polymeric membranes have relatively low separation performance. However, the processing flexibility and low cost of polymers still make them highly attractive for many industrial separation applications. Polymer-inorganic hybrid membranes constitute an emerging research field and have been recently developed to improve the separation properties of polymer membranes because they possess properties of both organic and inorganic membranes such as good hydrophilicity, selectivity, permeability, mechanical strength, and thermal and chemical stability. The structures and processing of polymer-inorganic nanocomposite hybrid membranes, as well as their use in the fields of ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, pervaporation, gas separation and separation mechanism are reviewed.

  14. Crafting semiconductor organic-inorganic nanocomposites via placing conjugated polymers in intimate contact with nanocrystals for hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lei; Lin, Zhiqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-08-22

    Semiconductor organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells incorporating conjugated polymers (CPs) and nanocrystals (NCs) offer the potential to deliver efficient energy conversion with low-cost fabrication. The CP-based photovoltaic devices are complimented by an extensive set of advantageous characteristics from CPs and NCs, such as lightweight, flexibility, and solution-processability of CPs, combined with high electron mobility and size-dependent optical properties of NCs. Recent research has witnessed rapid advances in an emerging field of directly tethering CPs on the NC surface to yield an intimately contacted CP-NC nanocomposite possessing a well-defined interface that markedly promotes the dispersion of NCs within the CP matrix, facilitates the photoinduced charge transfer between these two semiconductor components, and provides an effective platform for studying the interfacial charge separation and transport. In this Review, we aim to highlight the recent developments in CP-NC nanocomposite materials, critically examine the viable preparative strategies geared to craft intimate CP-NC nanocomposites and their photovoltaic performance in hybrid solar cells, and finally provide an outlook for future directions of this extraordinarily rich field. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Integrated Optical Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Based on Organic-Inorganic Hybrids for Photonics-on-a-Chip Biosensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ana R; Vicente, Carlos M S; Oliveira-Silva, Rui; Silva, Nuno J O; Tacão, Marta; Costa, João P da; Lima, Mário; André, Paulo S; Ferreira, Rute A S

    2018-03-12

    The development of portable low-cost integrated optics-based biosensors for photonics-on-a-chip devices for real-time diagnosis are of great interest, offering significant advantages over current analytical methods. We report the fabrication and characterization of an optical sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to monitor the growing concentration of bacteria in a liquid medium. The device pattern was imprinted on transparent self-patternable organic-inorganic di-ureasil hybrid films by direct UV-laser, reducing the complexity and cost production compared with lithographic techniques or three-dimensional (3D) patterning using femtosecond lasers. The sensor performance was evaluated using, as an illustrative example, E. coli cell growth in an aqueous medium. The measured sensitivity (2 × 10 -4 RIU) and limit of detection (LOD = 2 × 10 -4 ) are among the best values known for low-refractive index contrast sensors. Furthermore, the di-ureasil hybrid used to produce this biosensor has additional advantages, such as mechanical flexibility, thermal stability, and low insertion losses due to fiber-device refractive index mismatch (~1.49). Therefore, the proposed sensor constitutes a direct, compact, fast, and cost-effective solution for monitoring the concentration of lived-cells.

  16. Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Khan, Sajid; Göbel, Ole

    2010-01-01

    This review gives an overview of the progress made in recent years in the development of low-cost parallel patterning techniques for ceramic materials, silica, and organic–inorganic silsesquioxane-based hybrids from wet-chemical solutions and suspensions on the micrometer and nanometer-scale. The

  17. Advances in organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants in different types of food and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nyuk-Ting; Kamaruddin, Amirah Farhan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Abdul Keyon, Aemi S

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of the extraction and removal of pollutants from food and the environment has been an important issue in analytical science. By incorporating inorganic species into an organic matrix, a new material known as an organic-inorganic hybrid material is formed. As it possesses high selectivity, permeability, and mechanical and chemical stabilities, organic-inorganic hybrid materials constitute an emerging research field and have become popular to serve as sorbents in various separaton science methods. Here, we review recent significant advances in analytical solid-phase extraction employing organic-inorganic composite/nanocomposite sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants from various types of food and environmental matrices. The physicochemical characteristics, extraction properties, and analytical performances of sorbents are discussed; including morphology and surface characteristics, types of functional groups, interaction mechanism, selectivity and sensitivity, accuracy, and regeneration abilities. Organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combined with extraction techniques are highly promising for sample preparation of various food and environmental matrixes with analytes at trace levels. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. UV/Vis visible optical waveguides fabricated using organic-inorganic nanocomposite layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Giuseppina; Perozziello, Gerardo

    2011-03-01

    Nanocomposite layers based on silica nanoparticles and a methacrylate matrix are synthesized by a solvent-free process and characterized in order to realize UV/Vis transparent optical waveguides. Chemical functionalization of the silica nanoparticles permits to interface the polymers and the silica. The refractive index, roughness and wettability and the machinability of the layers can be tuned changing the silica nanoparticle concentration and chemical modification of the surface of the nanoparticles. The optical transparency of the layers is affected by the nanoparticles organization between the organic chains, while it increased proportionally with respect to silica concentration. Nanocomposite layers with a concentration of 40 wt% in silica reached UV transparency for a wavelength of 250 nm. UV/Vis transparent waveguides were micromilled through nanocomposite layers and characterized. Propagation losses were measured to be around 1 dB cm(-1) at a wavelength of 350 nm.

  19. Strontium-doped organic-inorganic hybrids towards three-dimensional scaffolds for osteogenic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Łukasz, E-mail: lukasz.john@chem.uni.wroc.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wrocław, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wrocław (Poland); Podgórska, Marta [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wrocław, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wrocław (Poland); Nedelec, Jean-Marie [Université Clermont Auvergne, SIGMA Clermont, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, ICCF, F-63178 Aubiere (France); Cwynar-Zając, Łucja [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wrocław Medical University, 6a Chałubińskiego, 50-368 Wrocław (Poland); Dzięgiel, Piotr [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wrocław Medical University, 6a Chałubińskiego, 50-368 Wrocław (Poland); Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy in Conservative and Interventional Medicine, 35 Paderewskiego, 51-612 Wrocław (Poland)

    2016-11-01

    Biomimetic organic–inorganic hybrid bioscaffolds are developed to complement or replace damaged fragments in bone tissue surgery. The aim of this work was to develop a simple and fast method to prepare composite material for bone engineering, avoiding time consuming and complex methodologies. The resulting materials (also called in this work as hybrid composites or hybrid scaffolds) have a three-dimensional macroporous polymer-like network derived from triethoxyvinylsilane (TEVS) and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) monomers, with incorporated calcium, strontium, and phosphate ions. The materials were fully characterized using FT-IR, biomineralization studies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scratch tests, Young's modulus and compressive strength tests, and gas physisorption. We report a comprehensive study on the in vitro effect of novel strontium doped materials on human bone cells. In vitro investigations were conducted using a normal human osteoblast cell line that mimics the cellular events of the in vivo intramembranous bone formation process. The materials do not have a negative impact on the survival of the normal human osteoblasts; moreover, materials doped with strontium show that not only are cells able to survive, but they also attach to and grow on a bioscaffolds surface. For this reason, they may be used in future in vivo experiments. - Highlights: • New hybrid scaffolds derived from TEVS and HEMA doped with Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ions have been developed. • A comprehensive characterization of the scaffolds for regenerative medicine was performed. • The incorporation of Sr{sup 2+} ions into the scaffolds was non-cytotoxic to the osteoblasts.

  20. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings and films containing conducting polyaniline nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Prokeš, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 212, č. 1 (2004), s. 343-348 ISSN 1022-1360. [Electrical and Related Properties of Polymers and Other Organic Solids /9./. Prague, 14.07.2002-18.07.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111; GA ČR GA203/01/0735 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : atomic force microscopy * films * hybrid networks Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.691, year: 2004

  1. Organic inorganic hybrid coating (poly(methyl methacrylate)/monodisperse silica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, E.; Almaral, J.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Castaño, V.; Rodríguez, V.

    2005-04-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate-silica hybrid coatings were prepared from methyl methacrylate and monodisperse colloidal silica prepared by the Stöber method. The surfaces of the spheres were successfully modified by chemical reaction with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMSPM) to compatibilise the organic and inorganic components of the precursor solution mixture. The coatings were deposited by dip-coating on glass substrates. They result with good properties of homogeneity, optical transparence, hardness and adhesion.

  2. Organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Chang Jin; Wan, Qing, E-mail: wanqing@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wan, Xiang; Shi, Yi, E-mail: wanqing@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-01-25

    The idea of building a brain-inspired cognitive system has been around for several decades. Recently, electric-double-layer transistors gated by ion conducting electrolytes were reported as the promising candidates for synaptic electronics and neuromorphic system. In this letter, indium-zinc-oxide transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose electrolyte films were experimentally demonstrated with synaptic plasticity including paired-pulse facilitation and spatiotemporal-correlated dynamic logic. More importantly, a model based on proton-related electric-double-layer modulation and stretched-exponential decay function was proposed, and the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimentally measured synaptic behaviors.

  3. Organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Chang Jin; Wan, Qing; Zhu, Li Qiang; Wan, Xiang; Shi, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The idea of building a brain-inspired cognitive system has been around for several decades. Recently, electric-double-layer transistors gated by ion conducting electrolytes were reported as the promising candidates for synaptic electronics and neuromorphic system. In this letter, indium-zinc-oxide transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose electrolyte films were experimentally demonstrated with synaptic plasticity including paired-pulse facilitation and spatiotemporal-correlated dynamic logic. More importantly, a model based on proton-related electric-double-layer modulation and stretched-exponential decay function was proposed, and the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimentally measured synaptic behaviors

  4. Piezoelectric scattering limited mobility of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites CH3NH3PbI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-Bo; Kong, Xianghua; Chen, Xiaobin; Cooke, David G.; Guo, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Carrier mobility is one of the most important parameters for semiconducting materials and their use in optoelectronic devices. Here we report a systematic first principles analysis of the acoustic phonon scattering mechanism that limits the mobility of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskites. Due to the unique hybrid organic-inorganic structure, the mechanical, electronic and transport properties are dominated by the same factor, i.e. the weak interatomic bond and the easy rotation of methylammonium (MA) molecules under strain. Both factors make MAPbI3 soft. Rotation of MA molecule induces a transverse shift between Pb and I atoms, resulting in a very low deformation potential and a strong piezoelectricity in MAPbI3. Hence the carrier mobility of pristine MAPbI3 is limited by the piezoelectric scattering, which is consistent to the form of its temperature dependence. Our calculations suggest that in the pristine limit, a high mobility of about several thousand cm2 V−1 S−1 is expected for MAPbI3. PMID:28150743

  5. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Hollow Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles for Efficient Ultrasound-Based Imaging and Controlled Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel anticancer drug delivery system with contrast-enhanced ultrasound-imaging performance was synthesized by a typical hard-templating method using monodispersed silica nanoparticles as the templates, which was based on unique molecularly organic/inorganic hybrid hollow periodic mesoporous organosilicas (HPMOs. The highly dispersed HPMOs show the uniform spherical morphology, large hollow interior, and well-defined mesoporous structures, which are very beneficial for ultrasound-based theranostics. The obtained HPMOs exhibit excellent performances in contrast-enhanced ultrasonography both in vitro and in vivo and can be used for the real-time determination of the progress of lesion tissues during the chemotherapeutic process. Importantly, hydrophobic paclitaxel- (PTX- loaded HPMOs combined with ultrasound irradiation show fast ultrasound responsiveness for controlled drug release and higher in vitro and in vivo tumor inhibition rates compared with free PTX and PTX-loaded HPMOs, which is due to the enhanced ultrasound-triggered drug release and ultrasound-induced cavitation effect. Therefore, the achieved novel HPMOs-based nanoparticle systems will find broad application potentials in clinically ultrasound-based imaging and auxiliary tumor chemotherapy.

  6. Broadband-Emitting 2 D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Based on Cyclohexane-bis(methylamonium) Cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Ishita; Bruno, Annalisa; Bahulayan, Damodaran; Goh, Teck Wee; Ghosh, Biplab; Ganguly, Rakesh; Cortecchia, Daniele; Sum, Tze Chien; Soci, Cesare; Mathews, Nripan; Mhaisalkar, Subodh Gautam

    2017-10-09

    A new broadband-emitting 2 D hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (CyBMA)PbBr 4 based on highly flexible cis-1,3-bis(methylaminohydrobromide)cyclohexane (CyBMABr) core has been designed, synthesized, and investigated, highlighting the effects of stereoisomerism of the templating cation on the formation and properties of the resulting perovskite. The new 2 D material has high exciton binding energy of 340 meV and a broad emission spanning from 380 to 750 nm, incorporating a prominent excitonic band and a less intense broad peak at room temperature. Significant changes in the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum were observed at lower temperatures, showing remarkable enhancement in the intensity of the broadband at the cost of excitonic emission. Temperature-dependent PL mapping indicates the effective role of only a narrow band of excitonic absorption in the generation of the active channel for emission. Based on the evidences obtained from the photophysical investigations, we attributed the evolution of the broad B-band of (CyBMA)PbBr 4 to excitonic self-trapped states. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Magnetically modulated electroluminescence from hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diodes based on electron donor-acceptor exciplex blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhiyong; Baniya, Sangita; Zhang, Chuang; Sun, Dali; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2016-03-01

    We report room temperature magnetically modulated electroluminescence from a hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diode (h-OLED), in which an inorganic magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with large room temperature magnetoresistance is coupled to an N,N,N ',N '-Tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)benzidine (MeO-TPD): tris-[3-(3-pyridyl)mesityl]borane (3TPYMB) [D-A] based OLED that shows thermally activated delayed luminescence. The exciplex-based OLED provides two spin-mixing channels: upper energy channel of polaron pairs and lower energy channel of exciplexes. In operation, the large resistance mismatch between the MTJ and OLED components is suppressed due to the non-linear I-V characteristic of the OLED. This leads to enhanced giant magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) at room temperature. We measured MEL of ~ 75% at ambient conditions. Supported by SAMSUNG Global Research Outreach (GRO) program, and also by the NSF-Material Science & Engineering Center (MRSEC) program at the University of Utah (DMR-1121252).

  8. Application of hybrid organic/inorganic polymers as coatings on metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinho, T. R.; Motz, G.; Ihlow, S.; Machado, R. A. F.

    2016-09-01

    Acrylic polymers, particularly poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), have certain specific properties, such as good film formation, transparency, and good mechanical properties, which have been widely used in paints, coatings and adhesives. However, the limited chemical and physical stability of these pure polymers limits their applications when exposed to hostile conditions, as in ship hulls, for example. A suitable way to enhance PMMA properties is the addition of silicon polymers with very good protective characteristics. In this study, a PMMA and HTT 1800 (commercial silazane) copolymer were applied on metallic substrate and compared to pure PMMA and HTT 1800. All the materials were applied as coatings. They were applied on stainless steel via dip-coating to investigate the coating properties. Thermal cycling was employed to analyze coating durability at high temperatures (50 °C to 600 °C). Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the coated surfaces, and the adhesion of pure PMMA, pure HTT 1800 and PMMA/HTT 1800 coatings on metallic substrate was investigated by Cross-Cut-Test (ASTM D 3359). The sessile drop method was used to determine the contact angle. PMMA coatings presented complete degradation from 250 °C, while hybrid coatings of PMMA and HTT 1800 have good protection until 400 °C. The adherence of the coating on metallic substrate showed improvement in all synthesized materials when compared to pure PMMA, obtaining the best adherence possible. The contact angle test showed that the hydrophobicity of the hybrid coatings is higher than that of the pure coatings.

  9. The effect of dimensionality of nanostructured carbon on the architecture of organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, R D K; Depan, D; Shah, J

    2013-08-21

    The natural tendency of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to agglomerate is an underlying reason that prevents the realization of their full potential. On the other hand, covalent functionalization of CNTs to control dispersion leads to disruption of π-conjugation in CNTs and the non-covalent functionalization leads to a weak CNT-polymer interface. To overcome these challenges, we describe the characteristics of fostering of direct nucleation of polymers on nanostructured carbon (CNTs of diameters (~2-200 nm), carbon nanofibers (~200-300 nm), and graphene), which culminates in interfacial adhesion, resulting from electrostatic and van der Waals interaction in the hybrid nanostructured carbon-polymer architecture. Furthermore, the structure is tunable through a change in undercooling. High density polyethylene and polypropylene were selected as two model polymers and two sets of experiments were carried out. The first set of experiments was carried out using CNTs of diameter ~2-5 nm to explore the effect of undercooling and polymer concentration. The second set of experiments was focused on studying the effect of dimensionality on geometrical confinements. The periodic crystallization of polyethylene on small diameter CNTs is demonstrated to be a consequence of the geometrical confinement effect, rather than epitaxy, such that petal-like disks nucleate on large diameter CNTs, carbon nanofibers, and graphene. The application of the process is illustrated in terms of fabricating a system for cellular uptake and bioimaging.

  10. Hybrid organic-inorganic porous semiconductor transducer for multi-parameters sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliò, Alessandro; Cassinese, Antonio; Casalino, Maurizio; Rea, Ilaria; Barra, Mario; Chiarella, Fabio; De Stefano, Luca

    2015-07-06

    Porous silicon (PSi) non-symmetric multi-layers are modified by organic molecular beam deposition of an organic semiconductor, namely the N,N'-1H,1H-perfluorobutyldicyanoperylene-carboxydi-imide (PDIF-CN2). Joule evaporation of PDIF-CN2 into the PSi sponge-like matrix not only improves but also adds transducing skills, making this solid-state device a dual signal sensor for chemical monitoring. PDIF-CN2 modified PSi optical microcavities show an increase of about five orders of magnitude in electric current with respect to the same bare device. This feature can be used to sense volatile substances. PDIF-CN2 also improves chemical resistance of PSi against alkaline and acid corrosion. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Organic-inorganic hybrid rare earth complexes based on polymolybdates with intrinsic photosensitive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Ma, Pengtao; Niu, Jingyang

    2015-03-14

    A series of organic–inorganic hybrid rare earth complexes {[RE2(PO)2(H2O)10][H2Mo36O112(OH2)12(PO)4]}·5PO·2(CH3CN)·nH2O [n = 23–42, RE(III) = Nd(III), 1; Sm(III), 2; Eu(III), 3; Gd(III), 4; Dy(III), 5; Er(III), 6; Tm(III), 7; Yb(III), 8; Lu(III), 9; Y(III), 10; PO = piperidin-2-one] have been synthesized and fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectra, thermogravimetric analysis and UV-vis spectra. Structural analysis reveals that compounds 1-10 are isostructural and crystallize in the monoclinic P2(1)/n space group. Each compound contains a centrosymmetric anionic cluster [Mo36O112(OH2)12(PO)4](8-), which could be described as the derivative of [Mo36O112(OH2)16](8-) with four water molecules substituted by organic PO molecules. Each {Mo18} subunit connects with one RE(III) ion via its two terminal O atoms from two independent {MoO6} octahedra. The eight coordinated RE(III) ion with a distorted tetragonal antiprism coordination geometry is also surrounded by another six oxygen atoms, five of them from five water molecules and the final one from one PO molecule. Compounds 1-10 show considerable photosensitive behavior under visible light excitation. In addition, compound 3 exhibits three emission bands at 580, 595 and 617 nm in the solid state, which could be assigned to (5)D0→(7)F0, (5)D0→(7)F1 and (5)D0→(7)F2 transitions of Eu(III) ions, respectively.

  12. Chemical sensors of benzene and toluene based on inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers elaborated by a sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo Munoz, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    As mono-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAH) are a matter of concern in terms of pollution, and are to be monitored due to new regulations regarding air quality control, this research thesis first aims at explaining why these compounds are to be monitored, at recalling their sources, at outlining what we know about their negative impact on health and how this impact is determined, which are the means implemented to monitor these compounds and which are their drawbacks, and at recalling which requirements are defined by European directives. The author then reports a literature survey of the current technology regarding chemical sensors, and identifies the required characteristics of an ideal sensor. The author proposes a review of studied performed on sol-gel process and of inorganic polymer synthesis methods based on sol-gel process. He reports the synthesis and characterization of inorganic or hybrid organic-inorganic host matrices, monolithic or in thin layers, used to produce MAH sensors. A matrix pore local polarity study is reported. Benzene and toluene trapping is studied with respect to the polarity and thickness of the host matrix. Pollutant trapping is directly monitored by their absorption in the near-UV and visible range. The author finally reports the study of interactions between fluorescent probe molecules and pollutants, as well as the effect of an interfering gas (oxygen) on the fluorescence of probe molecules [fr

  13. Cu-containing Keggin-type polyoxometalates-based organic-inorganic hybrids with double electro-catalytic behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wanli; Zheng, Yanping; Peng, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Four new organic-inorganic hybrids consisting of Keggin-type polyoxometalates: [Cu5(bimpy)5(α-BW12O40)]·4H2O (1), [Cu4(bimpy)4(α-SiW12O40)]·2H2O (2), [Cu4(bimpy)4(α-HPMo12O40)2]·2H2O (3), [Cu2(bimpy)4(H2O)2(α-HPW12O40)2]·8H2O (4) (bimpy = 2,5-bis(1H-imidazol-1-yl)pyridine), have been hydrothermally synthesized. Compounds 1-4 are constructed from Cu/bimpy segments modified different types of Keggin POMs. The 1D double chains of compound 1 are featured by {-Cu/bimpy-POM-Cu/bimpy-}n chains and {-Cu-bimpy-Cu-}n metal-organic chains; compound 2 with 1D "ladder-like" structure stemmed from {-Cu-bimpy-Cu-}n wave-like chains and α-SiW12 clusters; In compound 3, [Cu4(bimpy)4]4+ motifs are linked by α-PMo12 clusters to give rise to a (3,4)-connected two-dimensional architecture with the (83)(86) topology, while compound 4 has a (3,4,5)-connected 3D framework with the (42,6)(42,6,83)(42,65,83) topology. Cyclic voltammetries of compounds 1-4 show discrepant double electro-catalytic properties for reduction of nitrite and oxidation of ascorbic acid owing to variant Keggin-type POMs and Cu/bimpy complexes.

  14. Mechanism of charge recombination in meso-structured organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells: A macroscopic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao, E-mail: yaoyao@fudan.edu.cn; Wu, Chang-Qin, E-mail: cqw@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-04-21

    In the currently popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and high open circuit voltages, but the underlying recombination mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we investigate the bimolecular recombination (BR) and the trap-assisted monomolecular recombination (MR) in meso-structured perovskite solar cells under steady state working condition, and try to reveal their roles on determining the device performance. Some interfacial effects such as the injection barriers at the selective contacts are examined as well. Based on the macroscopic device modeling, the recombination resistance-voltage (R{sub rec}−V) and the current density-voltage (J–V) curves are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism and describe the device performance, respectively. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy extracted R{sub rec} data, it is found that under the typical BR reduction factor and deep trap densities observed in experiments, the MR dominates the charge recombination in the low voltage regime, while the BR dominates in the high voltage regime. The short circuit current and the fill factor could be reduced by the significant MR but the open circuit voltage is generally determined by the BR. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can change the BR rate and induce different patterns for the R{sub rec}–V characteristics. For the perovskites of increased band gaps, the R{sub rec}'s are significantly enhanced, corresponding to the high open circuit voltages. Finally, it is revealed that the reduced effective charge mobility due to the transport in electron and hole transporting material makes the R{sub rec} decrease slowly with the increasing voltage, which leads to increased open circuit voltage.

  15. Advances and Promises of Layered Halide Hybrid Perovskite Semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedesseau, Laurent; Sapori, Daniel; Traore, Boubacar; Robles, Roberto; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Tsai, Hsinhan; Nie, Wanyi; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Neukirch, Amanda; Tretiak, Sergei; Mohite, Aditya D.; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky; Kepenekian, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Layered halide hybrid organic inorganic perovskites (HOP) have been the subject of intense investigation before the rise of three-dimensional (3D) HOP and their impressive performance in solar cells. Recently, layered HOP have also been proposed as attractive alternatives for photostable solar cells

  16. Synthesis and stabilization of oxide-based colloidal suspensions in organic media: application in the preparation of hybrids organic-inorganic materials for very high laser damage threshold coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchet, N.

    2008-02-01

    Multilayer coatings are widely used in optic and particular in the field of high power laser on the components of laser chains. The development of a highly reflective coating with a laser damage resistance requires the fine-tuning of a multilayer stack constituted by a succession alternated by materials with low and high refractive index. In order to limit the number of layers in the stack, refractive indexes must be optimized. To do it, an original approach consists in synthesizing new organic-inorganic hybrid materials satisfying the criteria of laser damage resistance and optimized refractive index. These hybrid materials are constituted by nano-particles of metal oxides synthesized by sol-gel process and dispersed in an organic polymer with high laser damage threshold. Nevertheless, this composite system requires returning both compatible phases between them by chemical grafting of alc-oxy-silanes or carboxylic acids. We showed that it was so possible to disperse in a homogeneous way these functionalized nano-particles in non-polar, aprotic solvent containing solubilized organic polymers, to obtain time-stable nano-composite solutions. From these organic-inorganic hybrid solutions, thin films with optical quality and high laser damage threshold were obtained. These promising results have permitted to realize highly reflective stacks, constituted by 7 pairs with optical properties in agreement with the theoretical models and high laser damage threshold. (author)

  17. Characteristics of oxidative homolytic alkylation of imidazoles and organic-inorganic hybrid extended networks from large aromatic building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunhao

    The discovery of the dramatic in vitro antimalarial activity of 2-iodo-L-histidine and 2-fluoro-L-histidine, as well as their in vivo limitations, has prompted a systematic search for novel 2-substituted imidazoles and bioimidazoles as agents against human malaria. Previous research has shown that the regioselective alkyl free radical substitution on imidazoles and bioimidazoles could serve as a simple and efficient route to a wide variety of 2-alkylimidazoles. In this research, this methodology was successfully extended to include alkyl radicals substituted with various functional groups such as amide or ester. While this novel methodology should be of some synthetic utility when tertiary radicals are used, poorer yields are usually encountered in the cases of primary radicals. In the second part of this dissertation, a series of novel ligands containing multiple ortho-bis(organothio) groups were synthesized and their coordination and network forming properties were studied in the context of crystalline organic-inorganic hybrid extended networks. For the syntheses of HRTTs [2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakis(alkylthio)triphenylenes], a simpler, safer and higher yielding one-pot process was developed. Quenching the hexa-anions (formed when sodium methylthiolate was refluxed with hexabromotriphenylene) with alkyl halides or acid chlorides afforded HRTTs. This newly developed process was also successfully expanded to the pyrene system. In the syntheses of unsymmetrically substituted triphenlyenes, it was shown for the first time that the oxidative cyclization process is applicable to thioether containing systems, pointing to a novel strategy for the preparation of this type of unsymmetrically substituted triphenlyenes. Treating these novel ligands with various metal salts [i.e. bismuth(III) chloride and bismuth(III) bromide] under carefully controlled conditions resulted in a series of air-stable semiconductive coordination networks. Their single crystal structures were

  18. Pressure effects on the magnetic behaviour of copper (II) compounds: magnetic ordering of layered organic/inorganic magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchenko, G; Varyukhin, V N; Berezhnaya, L V; Rusakov, V F

    2012-01-01

    The high hydrostatic pressure effect on the magnetic properties of the layered hybrid compounds Cu 2 (OH) 3 (C n H 2n+1 CO 2 )⋅mH 2 O with distance between magnetic layers of up to 40 Å is studied. It is shown that the temperature of the ferromagnetic ordering decreases linearly with pressure increase. From measurements of susceptibility in the paramagnetic region, using both quantum Heisenberg and Ising exchange coupling models in layers and dipole interaction between layers, the in- and interlayer interactions are deduced. The dipole interactions are calculated and are shown to coincide with the model of Ising interactions in the layers. The value and decrease of T c under pressure are mainly driven by the value and decrease of the in-plane interactions. The formation of the long range ordering in the layered sample with dipolar interaction between layers is analysed. As a conclusion it is suggested that for designing high temperature ferromagnetism in layer compounds it is enough to have large in-plane interactions of ions with specific symmetry in layers and weak dipole interactions between layers. (paper)

  19. Optimization of hybrid organic/inorganic poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Martin; Sanders, Simon; Stümmler, Dominik; Pfeiffer, Pascal; Vescan, Andrei; Kalisch, Holger

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, hybrid organic/silicon solar cells have attracted great interest in photovoltaic research due to their potential to become a low-cost alternative for the conventionally used silicon pn-junction solar cells. This work is focused on hybrid solar cells based on the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), which was deposited on n-doped crystalline silicon via spin-coating under ambient conditions. By employing an anisotropic etching step with potassium hydroxide (KOH), the reflection losses at the silicon surface were reduced. Hereby, the short-circuit current density of the hybrid devices was increased by 31%, leading to a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.1% compared to a PCE of 10.7% for the devices without KOH etching. In addition, the contacts were improved by replacing gold with the more conductive silver as top grid material to reduce the contact resistance and by introducing a thin (˜0.5 nm) lithium fluoride layer between the silicon and the aluminum backside contact to improve electron collection and hole blocking. Hereby, the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of the hybrid solar cells were further improved and devices with very high PCE up to 14.2% have been realized.

  20. Sb(III)-Imprinted Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Sorbent Prepared by Hydrothermal-Assisted Surface Imprinting Technique for Selective Adsorption of Sb(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Hong-Bo

    2018-03-01

    Sb(III)-imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent was prepared by hydrothermal-assisted surface imprinting technique and was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled to an energy dispersive spectrometer and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms. Hydrothermal-assisted process can improve the selectivity of the Sb(III)-imprinted hybrid sorbent for Sb(III) due to stable control of temperature and pressure. The Sb(III)-imprinted hybrid sorbent IIS indicated higher selectivity for Sb(III), had high static adsorption capacity of 37.3 mg g-1 for Sb(III), displayed stable adsorption capacity in pH range from 4 to 8, reached an rapid adsorption equilibrium within 30 min. According to the correlation coefficient ( r 2 > 0.99), the experimental data fitted better the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir equilibrium isotherm.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic materials of polyamide-imide (PAI) and copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarchi, A.A.; Pezzin, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained by adding copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES), prepared by sol-gel, to the polyamide-imide (PAI). The synthesis of PAI oligomer from trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and 4,4-diphenyl-methane diisocyanate (MDI), was monitored by FTIR, noting that two steps of 80 deg C and 120 deg C for 2 h each are sufficient to obtain it. PAI-copolysilsesquioxanes hybrids were characterized by FTIR, viscometry, thermogravimetry, NMR and microscopy. The spectrum of the PAI and PAI-hybrid copolysilsesquioxanes show the formation of amide and imide. Copolysilsesquioxanes with high levels of APES increased the viscosity and generated the PAI oligomer gelatinization, hindering the formation of uniform films. Gelatinization did not occur with copolysilsesquioxanes rich PTES, allowing the formation of homogeneous films improvements in thermal resistance. (author)

  2. Synthesis, vibrational and optical properties of a new three-layered organic-inorganic perovskite (C4H9NH3)4Pb3I4Br6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammak, T.; Elleuch, S.; Bougzhala, H.; Mlayah, A.; Chtourou, R.; Abid, Y.

    2009-01-01

    An organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 4 Pb 3 I 4 Br 6 was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopies, optical transmission and photoluminescence. The title compound, abbreviated (C 4 ) 4 Pb 3 I 4 Br 6 , crystallises in a periodic two-dimensional multilayer structure with P2 1 /a space group. The structure is built up from alternating inorganic and organic layers. Each inorganic layer consists of three sheets of PbX 6 (X=I, Br) octahedra. Raman and infrared spectra of the title compound were recorded in the 100-3500 and 400-4000 cm -1 frequency ranges, respectively. An assignment of the observed vibration modes is reported. Optical transmission measurements, performed on thin films of (C 4 ) 4 Pb 3 I 4 Br 6 , revealed two absorption bands at 474 and 508 nm. Photoluminescence measurements have shown a green emission peak at 519 nm.

  3. Revealing the properties of defects formed by CH3NH2 molecules in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite MAPbBr3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Zhang, Ao; Yan, Jun; Li, Dan; Chen, Yunlin

    2017-03-01

    The properties of defects in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite are widely studied from the first-principles calculation. However, the defects of methylamine (methylamine = CH3NH2), which would be easily formed during the preparation of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, are rarely investigated. Thermodynamic properties as well as defect states of methylamine embedded MAPbX3 (MA = methyl-ammonium = CH3NH3, X = Br, I) are studied based on first-principles calculations of density functional theory. It was found that there is a shallow defect level near the highest occupied molecular orbital, which induced by the interstitial methylamine defect in MAPbBr3, will lead to an increase of photoluminescence. The calculation results showed that interstitial defect states of methylamine may move deeper due to the interaction between methylamine molecules and methyl-ammonium cations. It was also showed that the interstitial methylamine defect is stable at room temperature, and the defect can be removed easily by annealing.

  4. Stability and carrier mobility of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 in two-dimensional limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kui; Lai, Kang; Yan, Chang-Lin; Zhang, Wei-Bing

    2017-10-01

    Recently, atomically thin organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have been synthesized experimentally, which opens up new opportunities for exploring their novel properties in the 2D limit. Based on the comparative density functional theory calculation with and without spin-orbit coupling effects, the stability, electronic structure, and carrier mobility of the two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites MAPbI3 (MA = CH3NH3) have been investigated systemically. Two single-unit-cell-thick 2D MAPbI3 terminated by PbI2 and CH3NH3I are constructed, and their thermodynamic stabilities are also evaluated using the first-principles constrained thermodynamics method. Our results indicate that both 2D MAPbI3 with different terminations can be stable under certain conditions and have a suitable direct bandgap. Moreover, they are also found to have termination-dependent band edge and carrier mobility. The acoustic-phonon-limited carrier mobilities estimated using the deformation theory and effective mass approximation are on the order of thousands of square centimeters per volt per second and also highly anisotropic. These results indicate that 2D MAPbI3 are competitive candidates for low-dimensional photovoltaic applications.

  5. Hybrid Silicon-Based Organic/Inorganic Block Copolymers with Sol-Gel Active Moieties: Synthetic Advances, Self-Assembly and Applications in Biomedicine and Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Sebastian; Bertin, Annabelle

    2018-03-07

    Hybrid silicon-based organic/inorganic (multi)block copolymers are promising polymeric precursors to create robust nano-objects and nanomaterials due to their sol-gel active moieties via self-assembly in solution or in bulk. Such nano-objects and nanomaterials have great potential in biomedicine as nanocarriers or scaffolds for bone regeneration as well as in materials science as Pickering emulsifiers, photonic crystals or coatings/films with antibiofouling, antibacterial or water- and oil-repellent properties. Thus, this Review outlines recent synthetic efforts in the preparation of these hybrid inorganic/organic block copolymers, gives an overview of their self-assembled structures and finally presents recent examples of their use in the biomedical field and material science. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Electrolyte to Enable LiFePO4 Quasi-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries Performed Highly around Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rui; Gao, Rongtan; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Mingjian; Xu, Junyi; Yang, Jinlong; Pan, Feng

    2016-11-16

    A novel type of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes with high electrochemical performances around room temperature is formed by hybrid of nanofillers, Y-type oligomer, polyoxyethylene and Li-salt (PBA-Li), of which the T g and T m are significantly lowered by blended heterogeneous polyethers and embedded nanofillers with benefit of the dipole modification to achieve the high Li-ion migration due to more free-volume space. The quasi-solid-state Li-ion batteries based on the LiFePO 4 /15PBA-Li/Li-metal cells present remarkable reversible capacities (133 and 165 mAh g -1 @0.2 C at 30 and 45 °C, respectively), good rate ability and stable cycle performance (141.9 mAh g -1 @0.2 C at 30 °C after 150 cycles).

  7. Synthesis and characterizations of anion exchange organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shaoling; Wu Cuiming; Xu Tongwen; Gong Ming; Xu Xiaolong

    2005-01-01

    A series of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials for anion exchange were prepared through sol-gel process of polymer precursors PPO-Si(OCH 3 ) 3 . PPO-Si(OCH 3 ) 3 were obtained from the reaction of bromomethylated PPO with 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (A1110). These polymer precursors then underwent hydrolysis and condensation with additional A1110 to generate hybrid materials. The reaction to produce polymer precursors was identified by FTIR; while FTIR, TGA, XRD, SEM, as well as conventional ion exchange capacity (IEC) measurements were conducted for the structures and properties of the prepared hybrids. TGA results show that this series of hybrid materials possess high thermal stability; XRD and SEM indicate that the prepared hybrid materials are amorphous and the inorganic and organic contents show good compatibility if the ratio between them is proper. The IEC values of the hybrid materials due to the amine groups range from 1.13 mmol/gBPPO (material i) to 4.80 mmol/gBPPO (material iv)

  8. Synthesis optimisation and characterisation of the organic-inorganic layered materials ZnS(m-xylylenediamine){sub 1/2} and ZnS(p-xylylenediamine){sub 1/2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luberda-Durnaś, K. [Institute of Geological Sciences PAS, Research Centre in Krakow, Senacka 1, Krakow 31-002 (Poland); Guillén, A. González [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, Krakow 30-060 (Poland); Łasocha, W., E-mail: lasocha@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry PAS, Niezapominajek 8, Krakow 30-239 (Poland); Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, Krakow 30-060 (Poland)

    2016-06-15

    Hybrid organic-inorganic layered materials of the type ZnS(amine){sub 1/2}, where amine=m-xylylenediamine (MXDA) or p-xylylenediamine (PXDA), were synthesised using a simple solvothermal method. Since the samples crystallised in the form of very fine powder, X-ray powder diffraction techniques were used for structural characterisation. The crystal structure studies, involving direct methods, show that both compounds crystallised in the orthorhombic crystal system, but in different space groups: ZnS(MXDA){sub 1/2} in non-centrosymmetric Ccm2{sub 1}, ZnS(PXDA){sub 1/2} in centrosymmetric Pcab. The obtained materials are built according to similar orders: semiconducting monolayers with the formula ZnS, parallel to the (010) plane, are separated by diamines. The organic and inorganic fragments are connected by covalent bonds between metal atoms of the layers and nitrogen atoms of the amino groups. The optical properties of the hybrid materials differ from those of their bulk counterpart. In both compounds a blue-shift of about 0.8 or 0.9 eV was observed with reference to the bulk phase of ZnS. - Highlights: • New hybrid compounds: ZnS(MXDA){sub 1/2} and ZnS(PXDA){sub 1/2} were obtained. • Hybrids were studied using XRD, TG/DSC, XRK, SEM, UV–vis spectroscopy. • Structures of both materials were solved by powder diffraction methods.

  9. Growth and optical, magnetic and transport properties of (C4H9NH3)2MCl4 organic-inorganic hybrid films (M = Cu, Sn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruta, C.; Licci, F.; Zappettini, A.; Bolzoni, F.; Rastelli, F.; Ferro, P.; Besagni, T.

    2005-10-01

    Films of (C4H9NH3)2MCl4 (M=Cu and Sn) organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have been deposited in-situ by a single-source thermal ablation technique on glassy, crystalline and polymeric substrates. Independently of the substrate, the films were well crystallized, c-axis oriented and with a narrow rocking curve of the (0010) reflection (full width at half maximum photoluminescence spectra of typical (C4H9NH3)2SnCl4 films at 12 K had a broad yellow band, which did not correspond to any significant peak in the absorption spectrum. The films were semiconducting down to 250 K or, in the case of the best samples, down to 200 K and became insulating at lower temperature. The resistivity of the best films was (5±1) 104 Ω cm at 300 K, and the energy gap was 1.11 eV.

  10. Sol-gel approach to the novel organic-inorganic hybrid composite films with ternary europium complex covalently bonded with silica matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Dewen; Yang Yongsheng; Jiang Bingzheng

    2006-01-01

    Novel organic-inorganic hybrid composite films with ternary lanthanide complex covalently bonded with silica matrix were prepared in situ via co-ordination of N-(3-propyltriethoxysilane)-4-carboxyphthalimide (TAT) and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) with europium ion (Eu 3+ ) during a sol-gel approach and characterized by the means of spectrofluorimeter, phosphorimeter and infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The resulting transparent films showed improved photophysical properties, i.e. increased luminescence intensity and longer luminescence lifetime, compared with the corresponding binary composite films without Phen. All the results revealed that the intense luminescence of the composite film was attributed to the efficient energy transfer from ligands, especially Phen, to chelated Eu 3+ and the reduced non-radiation through the rigid silica matrix and 'site isolation'

  11. Energy storage in hybrid organic-inorganic materials hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole as cathode in reversible lithium cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Gomez, G,; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2000-01-01

    A study of the hybrid oganic-inorganic hexacyanoferrate-polypyrrole material as a cathode in rechargeable lithium cells is reported as part of a series of functional hybrid materials that represent a new concept in energy storage. The effect of synthesis temperatures of the hybrid in the specific...

  12. Organic-inorganic hybrid optical foils with strong visible reflection, excellent near infrared-shielding ability and high transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yijie; Huang, Aibin; Zhou, Huaijuan; Ji, Shidong; Jin, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Research on functional flexible films has recently been attracting widespread attention especially with regards to foils, which can be designed artificially on the basis of the practical requirements. In this work, a foil with high visible reflection and a strong near infrared shielding efficiency was prepared by a simple wet chemical method. In the process of making this kind of optical foil, emulsion polymerization was first introduced to synthesize polymer opals, which were further compressed between two pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foil under polymer melting temperature to obtain a photonic crystal film with a strong reflection in the visible region to block blue rays. The following step was to coat a layer of the inorganic nano paint, which was synthesized by dispersing Cs-doped WO3 (CWO) nanoparticles homogenously into organic resin on the surface of the PET to achieve a high near infrared shielding ability. The final composite foil exhibited unique optical properties such as high visible reflectance (23.9%) to block blue rays, and excellent near infrared shielding efficiency (98.0%), meanwhile it still maintained a high transparency meaning that this foil could potentially be applied in energy-saving window films. To sum up, this study provides new insight into devising flexible hybrid films with novel optical properties, which could be further extended to prepare other optical films for potential use in automobile, architectural and other decorative fields.

  13. Flame retardant and hydrophobic properties of novel sol-gel derived phytic acid/silica hybrid organic-inorganic coatings for silk fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xian-Wei; Liang, Cheng-Xi; Guan, Jin-Ping; Yang, Xu-Hong; Tang, Ren-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a novel phosphorus-rich hybrid organic-inorganic silica coating for improving the flame retardancy of silk fabric was prepared using naturally occurring phytic acid as phosphorus precursor and catalyst for the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. In addition, three silane coupling agents, namely 3-aminopropyldimethoxymethylsilane, 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, were added in the hybrid sol as cross-linkers with the aim of developing hydrophobic coatings and improving the washing durability of the treated silk fabric. The condensation degree of the hybrid sol was characterized by solid-state 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The flammability and thermal degradation properties of the treated silk fabrics were determined in terms of limiting oxygen index, vertical burning, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyses. The surface morphology and hydrophobicity of the treated silk fabrics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and water contact angle tests. The flammability tests revealed that the silicon sol could endow silk fabric with excellent flame retardancy when doped with phytic acid, and the treated silk fabrics self-extinguished immediately when the ignition source was removed. The silk fabrics treated with the modified hybrid sols exhibited hydrophobic surface and also better durability to washing.

  14. Synthesis of boronate-functionalized organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column for the separation of cis-diol containing compounds at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heqing; Lyu, Haixia; Qin, Wenfei; Xie, Zenghong

    2018-04-01

    In this work, an organic-inorganic hybrid boronate affinity monolithic column was prepared via "one-pot" process using 4-vinylphenylboronic acid as organic monomer and divinylbenzene as cross-linker. The effects of reaction temperature, solvents and composition of organic monomers on the column properties (e.g. morphology, permeability, and mechanical stability) were investigated. A series of test compounds including small neutral molecules, aromatic amines, and cis-diol compounds were used to evaluate the retention behaviors of the prepared hybrid monolithic column. The results demonstrated that the prepared hybrid monolith exhibited mixed-interactions including hydrophilicity, cation exchange, and boronate affinity interaction. The run-to-run, day-to-day and batch-to-batch reproducibilities of the prepared hybrid monolith for thiourea's retention time were satisfactory with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 0.09, 1.45 and 4.05% (n = 3), respectively, indicating the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. PLASMA SPRAYED Al₂O₃-13 WT.%TiO₂ COATING SEALED WITH ORGANIC-INORGANIC HYBRID AGENT AND ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE IN ACID ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehua Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel organic-inorganic hybrid material of γ-methacryloxypropyltrime-thoxysilane (KH570 -SiO₂ was fabricated by Sol-Gel method. The hybrid material was used as the sealing agent for the plasma sprayed Al₂O₃-13 wt.% TiO₂ coating. Infrared spectrum and grafted mechanism of the hybrid agent (HA were studied. Moreover, morphology and porosity, as well as characteristics of immersion plus electrochemical corrosion in acid environment of the coating with and without sealing treatment were evaluated, compared with those of the coating sealed with the conventional silicone resin agent (SRA. The results reveal that KH570 was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO₂. The HA film sealed on the surface of the coating presents a little better quality than the SRA film. The porosities of the coatings after the sealing treatment decreased. Furthermore, the sealing treatment can improve efficiently the corrosion resistance of the coating in 5 vol.% HCl solution. The hybrid sealing agent can become a candidate for the plasma sprayed Al₂O₃-13 wt.% TiO₂ coating used in acid environment to overcome some disadvantages of organic agents such as severely environmental pollution.

  16. Dehydration of an ethanol/water azeotrope by novel organic-inorganic hybrid membranes based on quaternized chitosan and tetraethoxysilane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uragami, Tadashi; Katayama, Takuya; Miyata, Takashi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Shiraiwa, Tadashi; Higuchi, Akon

    2004-01-01

    To control swelling of quaternized chitosan (q-Chito) membranes, mixtures of q-Chito as an organic component and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as an inorganic component were prepared using the sol-gel reaction, and novel q-Chito/TEOS hybrid membranes were formed. In the separation of an ethanol/water azeotrope by pervaporation, the effect of TEOS content on the water/ethanol selectivity of q-Chito/TEOS hybrid membranes was investigated. Hybrid membranes containing up to 45 mol % TEOS exhibited higher water/ethanol selectivity than the q-Chito membrane. This resulted from depressed swelling of the membranes by formation of a cross-linked structure. However, introduction of excess TEOS led to greater swelling of the hybrid membranes. Therefore, the water/ethanol selectivity of the hybrid membranes containing more than 45 mol % TEOS was lower than that of the q-Chito membrane. The relationship between the structure of q-Chito/TEOS hybrid membranes and their permeation and separation characteristics during pervaporation of an ethanol/water azeotrope is discussed in detail.

  17. Novel kaolin/polysiloxane based organic-inorganic hybrid materials: Sol-gel synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Glaydson Simões; Lima, Eder Cláudio; Sampaio, Carlos Hoffmann; Rodembusch, Fabiano Severo; Petter, Carlos Otávio; Cazacliu, Bogdan Grigore; Dotto, Guillherme Luiz; Hidalgo, Gelsa Edith Navarro

    2018-04-01

    New hybrid materials using kaolin and the organosilicas methyl-polysiloxane (MK), methyl-phenyl-polysiloxane (H44), tetraethyl-ortho-silicate (TEOS) and 3-amino-propyl-triethoxysilane (APTES) were obtained by sol-gel process. These materials presented specific surfaces areas (SBET) in the range of 20-530 m2 g-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed remarkable differences between the kaolin and hybrid structures. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the hybrid materials presented higher thermal stability when compared with their precursors. The electronic properties of the materials were also studied by Ultraviolet-Visible Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (DRUV) and Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (DR), where a new absorption band was observed located around 400-660 nm. In addition, these materials exhibit a decrease in DR from 30% to 70% in the blue-cyan green region and are significantly more transparent in the UV region than the kaolin, which could be useful for photocatalysis applications. These results show that the electronic structure of the final material was changed, indicating a significant interaction between the kaolin and the respective silica derivative. These findings support the main idea of the hybridization afforded by pyrolysis between kaolin and organosilica precursors. In addition, as a proof of concept, these hybrid materials were successfully employed as photocatalyst in the photoreduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III).

  18. Synthesis and luminescence properties of hybrid organic-inorganic transparent titania thin film activated by in-situ formed lanthanide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yige; Wang Li; Li Huanrong; Liu Peng; Qin Dashan; Liu Binyuan; Zhang Wenjun; Deng Ruiping; Zhang Hongjie

    2008-01-01

    Stable transparent titania thin films were fabricated at room temperature by combining thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA)-modified titanium precursors with amphiphilic triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) copolymers. The obtained transparent titania thin films were systematically investigated by IR spectroscopy, PL emission and excitation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. IR spectroscopy indicates that TTFA coordinates the titanium center during the process of hydrolysis and condensation. Luminescence spectroscopy confirms the in-situ formation of lanthanide complexes in the transparent titania thin film. TEM image shows that the in-situ formed lanthanide complexes were homogeneously distributed throughout the whole thin film. The quantum yield and the number of water coordinated to lanthanide metal center have been theoretically determined based on the luminescence data. - Graphical abstract: Novel stable luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid titania thin film with high transparency activated by in-situ formed lanthanide complexes have been obtained at room temperature via a simple one-pot synthesis approach by using TTFA-modified titanium precursor with amphiphilic triblock copolymer P123. The obtained hybrid thin film displays bright red (or green), near-monochromatic luminescence due to the in-situ formed lanthanide complex

  19. BaZrO3 perovskite nanoparticles as emissive material for organic/inorganic hybrid light-emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevičius, S.; Ivaniuk, K.; Cherpak, V.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work we have demonstrated double-channel emission from organic exciplexes coupled to inorganic nanoparticles. The process is demonstrated by yellow-green emission in light-emitting diodes based on organic exciplexes hybridized with perovskite-type dispersed BaZrO3 nanoparticles...

  20. Direct Observation of Electron-Phonon Coupling and Slow Vibrational Relaxation in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado Parra, Sebastian; Straus, Daniel; Iotov, Natasha; Fichera, Bryan; Gebhardt, Julian; Rappe, Andrew; Subotnik, Joseph; Kikkawa, James; Kagan, Cherie

    Quantum and dielectric confinement effects in Ruddlesden-Popper 2D hybrid perovskites create excitons with a binding energy exceeding 150 meV. We exploit the large exciton binding energy to study exciton and carrier dynamics as well as electron-phonon coupling (EPC) in hybrid perovskites using absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. At temperatures 75 K, excitonic absorption and PL exhibit homogeneous broadening. While absorption remains homogeneous, PL becomes inhomogeneous at temperatures <75K, which we speculate is caused by the formation and subsequent dynamics of a polaronic exciton. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences Grant DE-SC0002158 and the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Grant DGE-1321851.

  1. Solution processeable organic-inorganic hybrids based on pyrene functionalized mixed cubic silsesquioxanes as emitters in OLEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2012-01-01

    Traditional materials for application in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are primarily based on small molecules and polymers, with much fewer examples of intermediate molecular weight materials. Our interest lies in this intermediate molecular weight range, specifically in hybrids based on 3-dimensional silsesquioxane (SSQ) cores that represents a new class of versatile materials for application in solution processable OLEDs. We report here various SSQ based hybrids that are easily prepared in one high-yield step from the Heck coupling of commercially available 1-bromopyrene, and 1-bromo-4-heptylbenzene with octavinyl-T8-SSQ, and a mixture of octavinyl-T8-, decavinyl-T10- and dodecavinyl-T12-SSQ. The resulting materials offer numerous advantages for OLEDs including amorphous properties, high-glass-transition temperatures (T g), low polydispersity, solubility in common solvents, and high purity via column chromatography. Solution processed OLEDs prepared from the SSQ hybrids provide sky-blue emission with external quantum efficiencies and current efficiencies of 3.64% and 9.56 cd A -1 respectively. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Nonhydrolytic sol-gel approach to facile creation of surface-bonded zirconia organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for sample preparation. Ι. Capillary microextraction of catecholamine neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhendal, Abdullah; Mengis, Stephanie; Matthews, Jacob; Malik, Abdul

    2016-10-14

    Nonhydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) route was used for the creation of novel zirconia-polypropylene oxide (ZrO 2 -PPO) sol-gel hybrid sorbents in the form of surface coatings for the extraction and preconcentration of catecholamine neurotransmitters and molecules structurally related to their deaminated metabolites. In comparison to other sorbents made of inorganic transition metal oxides, the presented hybrid organic-inorganic sorbents facilitated reversible sorption properties that allowed for efficient desorption of the extracted analytes by LC-MS compatible mobile phases. The presented sol-gel hybrid sorbents effectively overcame the major drawbacks of traditional silica- or polymer-based sorbents by providing superior pH stability (pH range: 0-14), and a variety of intermolecular interactions. Nonaqueous sol-gel treatment of PPO with ZrCl 4 was employed for the derivatization of the terminal hydroxyl groups on PPO, providing zirconium trichloride-containing end groups characterized by enhanced sol-gel reactivity. NHSG ZrO 2 -PPO sorbent provided excellent microextraction performance for catecholamines, low detection limits (5.6-9.6pM), high run-to-run reproducibility (RSD 0.6-5.1%), high desorption efficiency (95.0-99.5%) and high enrichment factors (∼1480-2650) for dopamine and epinephrine, respectively, extracted from synthetic urine samples. The presented sol-gel sorbents provided effective alternative to conventional extraction media providing unique physicochemical characteristics and excellent extraction capability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural, vibrational, and gasochromic properties of porous WO sub 3 films templated with a sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Opara-Krasovec, U; Orel, B; Grdadolnik, J; Drazic, G

    2002-01-01

    The structure and the gasochromic properties of sol-gel-derived WO sub 3 films with a monoclinic structure (m-WO sub 3) were studied by focusing attention on the size of the monoclinic grains. The size of the m-WO sub 3 grains is modified by the addition of an organic-inorganic hybrid to the initial peroxopolytungstic acid (W-PTA) sols which are based on chemically bonded poly-(propylene glycol) to triethoxysilane end-capping groups (ICS-PPG). The results obtained with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that the heat treatment (500 sup o C) of WO sub 3 /ICS- IPG (0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10 mol%) composite films results in a change of their morphology, and nanodimensional pores are formed between the grains. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) analysis revealed the presence of an amorphous phase on the outside of the m-WO sub 3 grains, whereas energy-dispersive x-ray spectra (EDXS) showed that this amorphous phase contained W and Si. Impregnation of the WO sub 3 /ICS-PPG film ...

  4. Crystal structure, thermochromic and magnetic properties of organic-inorganic hybrid compound: (C7H7N2S)2CuCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Ashok K.; Kumari, Reema; Ghalsasi, Prasanna S.; Arulsamy, Navamoney

    2017-08-01

    The synthesis, thermal analysis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of (2-aminobenzothiazolium)2CuCl4, organic-inorganic hybrid compound, have been described. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with two formula units in a unit cell of dimensions a = 6.9522(4) Å, b = 9.6979(4) Å, c = 13.9633(6) Å, β = 97.849(3)° and volume 930.83(8) Å3 at 150(2) K. The structure consists of isolated nearly square planer [CuC14]2- units, with somewhat longer than normal Cusbnd Cl bond lengths [Cusbnd Cl (average) = 2.2711 Å]. The magnetic measurements of (2-aminobenzothiazolium)2CuCl4 using SQUID magnetometer show paramagnetic nature of the compound. Thermal measurements (TG-DTA and DSC) on this compound showed reversible phase transition at 83 °C. This transition is accompanied by the reversible change in colour of the prismatic crystal from green to dark brown, thermochromic behaviour. Temperature dependent EPR measurements on powdered sample ascertain change in coordination sphere around Cu(II) with shift in g|| = 2.150 and g⊥ = 2.071 at room temperature, typical of square planar, to g|| = 2.201 and g⊥ = 2.182 at 170 °C, typical of distorted tetrahedral geometry.

  5. Chemical, electrical and electrochemical characterization of hybrid organic/inorganic polypyrrole/PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} coating deposited on polyester fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, J.; Fernandez, J.; Rio, A.I. del; Bonastre, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, EPS de Alcoy, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Cases, F., E-mail: fjcases@txp.upv.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, EPS de Alcoy, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    A study of the stability of conducting fabrics of polyester (PES) coated with polypyrrole/PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} (organic/inorganic hybrid material) in different pH solutions (1, 7, 13) has been done. Washing tests were also done in views of its possible application in electronic textiles such as antistatic clothing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies have been done to quantify the amount of counter ion that remains in the polymer matrix and determine the doping ratio (N{sup +}/N) after the different tests. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also used to observe morphological differences after the different tests. Surface resistivity changes were measured by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was employed to measure changes in electroactivity after the different tests. Higher pHs caused a decrease of the doping ratio (N{sup +}/N), the loss of part of the counter ions and the decrease of its conducting and electrocatalytic properties. The stability in acid media and neutral media and after the washing test was good. Only at pH 13 the loss of the counter ion was widespread and there was a decrease of its conducting and catalytic properties; although the fabrics continued acting mainly as a conducting material.

  6. Bacterial self-defense antibiotics release from organic-inorganic hybrid multilayer films for long-term anti-adhesion and biofilm inhibition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingwen; Li, Xi; Jin, Yingying; Sun, Lin; Ding, Xiaoxu; Liang, Lin; Wang, Lei; Nan, Kaihui; Ji, Jian; Chen, Hao; Wang, Bailiang

    2017-12-14

    Implant-associated bacterial infections pose serious medical and financial issues due to the colonization and proliferation of pathogens on the surface of the implant. The as-prepared traditional antibacterial surfaces can neither resist bacterial adhesion nor inhibit the development of biofilm over the long term. Herein, novel (montmorillonite/poly-l-lysine-gentamicin sulfate) 8 ((MMT/PLL-GS) 8 ) organic-inorganic hybrid multilayer films were developed to combine enzymatic degradation PLL for on-demand self-defense antibiotics release. Small molecule GS was loaded into the multilayer films during self-assembly and the multilayer films showed pH-dependent and linear growth behavior. The chymotrypsin- (CMS) and bacterial infections-responsive film degradation led to the peeling of the films and GS release. Enzyme-responsive GS release exhibited CMS concentration dependence as measured by the size of the inhibition zone and SEM images. Notably, the obtained antibacterial films showed highly efficient bactericidal activity which killed more than 99.9% of S. aureus in 12 h. Even after 3 d of incubation in S. aureus, E. coli or S. epidermidis solutions, the multilayer films exhibited inhibition zones of more than 1.5 mm in size. Both in vitro and in vivo antibacterial tests indicated good cell compatibility, and anti-inflammatory, and long-term bacterial anti-adhesion and biofilm inhibition properties.

  7. A study of the Chinese organic-inorganic hybrid sealing material used in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient wooden ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Shiqiang [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zhang, Hui [Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Zhang, Bingjian, E-mail: zhangbiji@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Wei, Guofeng [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Guoqing [Museum of Overseas Communication History Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Zhou, Yang [China National Silk Museum, Hangzhou 310002 (China)

    2013-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composition of ancient sealing material was analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The excellent performance of this sealing material comes from the compact structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This structure is established through coordination and oxidative polymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation of ancient relies to a knowledge on their materials and crafts. - Abstracts: Chu-nam putty is a special organic-inorganic hybrid material invented by ancient Chinese people. It was prepared by mixing tung-oil, lime and oakum (plant fibers like jute, ramie and so on) with excellent sealing performance. The invention and application of Chu-nam putty in wooden ship lead to improvement in sailing technology and ship safety issue. In this paper, the analytical results of a piece of chu-nam putty which was discovered in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient ship are presented. The results show that the components of chu-nam putty are calcite, carboxylate and unsaturated esters by means of FT-IR, XRD and TGA/DSC. And the FT-IR and cross-section microscopic analysis confirm that the oakum was from jute. Comparing with the modeling putty samples it is found that the outstanding sealing performance of chu-nam putty comes from the coordination reaction of Ca{sup 2+} from the Ca(OH){sub 2} and the oxidation aggregation reaction of C=C double bonds in unsaturated fatty acid.

  8. First determination of the valence band dispersion of CH3NH3PbI3 hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-I.; Barragán, Ana; Nair, Maya N.; Jacques, Vincent L. R.; Le Bolloc'h, David; Fertey, Pierre; Jemli, Khaoula; Lédée, Ferdinand; Trippé-Allard, Gaëlle; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Tejeda, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    The family of hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites is in the limelight because of their recently discovered high photovoltaic efficiency. These materials combine photovoltaic energy conversion efficiencies exceeding 22% and low-temperature and low-cost processing in solution; a breakthrough in the panorama of renewable energy. Solar cell operation relies on the excitation of the valence band electrons to the conduction band by solar photons. One factor strongly impacting the absorption efficiency is the band dispersion. The band dispersion has been extensively studied theoretically, but no experimental information was available. Herein, we present the first experimental determination of the valence band dispersion of methylammonium lead halide in the tetragonal phase. Our results pave the way for contrasting the electronic hopping or the electron effective masses in different theories by comparing to our experimental bands. We also show a significant broadening of the electronic states, promoting relaxed conditions for photon absorption, and demonstrate that the tetragonal structure associated to the octahedra network distortion below 50 °C induces only a minor modification of the electronic bands, with respect to the cubic phase at high temperature, thus minimizing the impact of the cubic-tetragonal transition on solar cell efficiencies.

  9. Enhanced emission from Eu(III) beta-diketone complex combined with ether-type oxygen atoms of di-ureasil organic-inorganic hybrids

    CERN Document Server

    Molina, C; Messaddeq, Y; Ribeiro, S J L; Silva, M A P; Zea-Bermudez, V D; Carlos, L D

    2003-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrids, named di-ureasils and described by polyether-based chains grafted to both ends to a siliceous backbone through urea cross linkages, were used as hosts for incorporation of the well-known coordination complex of trivalent europium (Eu sup 3 sup +) ions described by the formula [Eu(TTA) sub 3 (H sub 2 O) sub 2] (where TTA stands for thenoyltrifluoroacetone). By comparing with Eu sup 3 sup + -doped di-ureasil without complex form the new materials prepared here enhanced the quantum efficiency for photoemission of Eu sup 3 sup + ions. The enhancement can be explained by the coordination ability of the organic counterpart of the host structure which is strong enough to displace water molecules in [Eu(TTA) sub 3 (H sub 2 O) sub 2] from the rare earth neighbourhood after the incorporation process. High intensity of Eu sup 3 sup + emission was observed with a low non-radiative decay rate under ultraviolet excitation. The quantum efficiency calculated from the decay of sup 5 D sub 0 emission...

  10. Enhanced luminescence properties of hybrid Alq{sub 3}/ZnO (organic/inorganic) composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuba, M.; Muralidharan, G., E-mail: muraligru@gmail.com

    2014-12-15

    Pristine tris-(8-hydroxyquionoline)aluminum(Alq{sub 3}) and (Alq{sub 3}/ZnO hybrid) composites containing different weight percentages (5 wt%, 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%, 40 wt% and 50 wt%) of ZnO in Alq{sub 3} were synthesized and coated on to a glass substrate using the dip coating method. The optimum concentration of ZnO in Alq{sub 3} films to get the best luminescence yield has been identified. XRD pattern reveals the amorphous nature of pure Alq{sub 3} film. The Alq{sub 3} films containing different weight percentages of ZnO show the presence of crystalline ZnO in Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite films. The FTIR spectrum confirms the formation of quinoline with absorption in the region 600−800 cm{sup −1}. The hybrid Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite films indicate the presence of Zn−O vibration band along with the corresponding Alq{sub 3} band. The band gap (HOMO–LUMO) of Alq{sub 3} film was calculated using absorption spectra and it is 2.87 eV for pristine films while it is 3.26 eV, 3.21 eV, 3.14 eV, 3.10 eV, 3.13 eV and 3.20 eV for the composite films containing 5–50 wt% of ZnO. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Alq{sub 3} films show a maximum PL intensity at 514 nm when excited at 390 nm. The ZnO incorporated composite films (Alq{sub 3}/ZnO) exhibit an emission in 485 nm and 514 nm. The composite films containing 30 wt% of ZnO exhibit maximum luminescence yield. - Highlights: • The pure Alq{sub 3} and Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite were synthesized and coated on to a glass substrate using dip coating method. • Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite film containing 30 wt% of ZnO exhibits two fold increases in luminescence intensity. • The shielding effect of ZnO on the Alq{sub 3} material suppresses the interactions among the host molecules in the excited state. • This leads to enhance the luminescence intensity in composite films.

  11. Pressure-induced phase transitions and templating effect in three-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongjae; Mitzi, David; Barnes, Paris; Vogt, Thomas

    2003-07-01

    Pressure-induced structural changes of conducting halide perovskites (CH3NH3)SnI3, (CH3NH3)0.5(NH2CH=NH2)0.5SnI3, and (NH2CH=NH2)SnI3, have been investigated using synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction. In contrast to low-temperature structural changes, no evidence of an increased ordering of the organic cations was observed under pressure. Instead, increase in pressure results first in a ReO3-type doubling of the primitive cubic unit cell, followed by a symmetry distortion, and a subsequent amorphization above 4 GPa. This process is reversible and points towards a pressure-induced templating role of the organic cation. Bulk compressions are continuous across the phase boundaries. The compressibilities identify these hybrids as the most compressible perovskite system ever reported. However, the Sn-I bond compressibility in (CH3NH3)SnI3 shows a discontinuity within the supercell phase. This is possibly due to an electronic localization.

  12. Preparation and characterization of an organic/inorganic hybrid sorbent (PLE) to enhance selectivity for As(V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Byungryul; Kim, Hakchan; Park, Chanhyuk; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Choi, Jae-Woo

    2015-05-30

    For the selective removal of arsenate (As(V)) a hybrid sorbent was prepared using a non-toxic natural organic material, chitosan, by loading a transition metal, nickel. The immobilization of nickel was achieved by coordination with a deprotonated amino group (NH2) in the chitosan polymer chain. The amount of nickel was directly correlated to the presence of the amino group and was calculated to be 62 mg/g. FTIR spectra showed a peak shift from 1656 to 1637 cm(-1) after Ni(2+) loading, indicating the complexation between the amino group and nickel, and a peak of As(V) was observed at 834 cm(-1). An increase of sulfate concentration from 100 mg/L to 200 mg/L did not significantly affect As(V) sorption, and an increase in the concentration of bicarbonate reduced the As(V) uptake by 33%. The optimal pH of the solution was determined at pH 10, which is in accordance with the fraction of HAsO4(2-) and AsO4(-3). According to a fixed column test, a break through behavior of As(V) revealed that selectivity for As(V) was over sulfate. Regeneration using 5% NaCl extended the use of sorbent to up to uses without big loss of sorption capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An organic-inorganic hybrid coagulant containing Al, Zn and Fe (HOAZF: preparation, efficiency and mechanism of removing organic phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric-Al-Zn-Fe (PAZF coagulant showing high removal of pollutants has been successfully developed using a galvanized slag in earlier works, but it gave less elimination of phosphorus. To improve phosphorus removal, a hybrid organic-Al-Zn-Fe (HOAZF coagulant was prepared using PAZF and polyacrylamide (PAM as an organic additive, and then was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, infrared spectroscopy (IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Zeta potential, respectively. Removing efficiency and mechanism of organophosphorus by HOAZF was probed using jar tests in treating a simulated pesticide wastewater containing dichlorvos (DDVP, compared to that by PAZF and polyaluminum chloride. The results displayed that HOAZF having relative lower Zeta potential (compared to PAZF exhibited complex surface morphology composited by Al, Zn and Fe and PAM, forming some new crystalline and amorphous substances different from that in PAZF. HOAZF gave higher removal of organophosphorus and far lower dosage than PAZF, and also posed a suitable wider pH range (pH = 7–12 for HOAZF and 10–11 for PAZF, respectively and suitable wider organophosphorus level range than PAZF. Removing organophosphorus by HOAZF was a simultaneous complex process involving a non-phase transfer of adsorption/bridging/sweeping and a phase transfer of chemical precipitation.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive pigment was synthesized and characterized. • Chemical structure and morphology of the hybrid complex were characterized. • Zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica showed effective inhibition action in saline solution on carbon steel. • The synergistic effect between Zn 2+ cations and inhibitive compounds existed in U.D resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface. - Abstract: This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn 2+ and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh@aut.ac.ir [Department of Surface Coatings and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • An organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive pigment was synthesized and characterized. • Chemical structure and morphology of the hybrid complex were characterized. • Zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica showed effective inhibition action in saline solution on carbon steel. • The synergistic effect between Zn{sup 2+} cations and inhibitive compounds existed in U.D resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface. - Abstract: This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn{sup 2+} and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  16. Synthesis and structural characterization of a new chiral porous hybrid organic-inorganic material based on γ-zirconium phosphates and L-(+)-phosphoserine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhendawi, Hussein M. H.

    2013-05-01

    In the present work, a chiral layered derivative of γ-zirconium phosphate (γ-ZrP) containing L-(+)-phosphoserine (γ-ZrP-PS*) covalently attached to inorganic layers has been prepared by means of topotactic exchange reaction. This organic-inorganic derivative is characterized by X-ray diffractometry, Solid 13C-NMR and FT-IR spectrophotometries and thermal analyses. A maximum level of topotactic replacement of 20% is achieved. Under both the acidic environment of the interlayer region of γ-ZrP and the acidic synthesis conditions, the hydrolysis of the ester bond of PS* is expected to take place to some extent. For this reason, it was impossible to exceed the recent percentage, which in turn reflects the relative moderate stability of the above mentioned bond under these conditions. In order to be more certain with regard to an expected further hydrolysis for this bond after separation, a sample of γ-ZrP-PS* was stored in a desiccator over a saturated solution of BaCl2 (90% relative humidity) for three months, and then the sample re-analyzed once again. Surprisingly, the results show that the sample still keeps almost the same level of exchange (i.e., 20%). Second, it is revealed that the sample almost gives the same spectroscopic and thermal behavior. This could be attributed to the less acidic character of the partially exchanged inorganic layers of the sample in comparison with that of the precursor γ-ZrP. Therefore, the PS* molecules persist and stay there into the interlayer gallery without further hydrolysis.

  17. Enhanced performance of P(VDF-HFP)-based composite polymer electrolytes doped with organic-inorganic hybrid particles PMMA-ZrO2 for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhiyan; Zhang, Yan; Fang, Rui; Yuan, Zun; Miao, Chang; Yan, Xuemin; Jiang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    To improve the ionic conductivity as well as enhance the mechanical strength of the gel polymer electrolyte, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoroprolene) (P(VDF-HFP))-based composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) membranes doped with the organic-inorganic hybrid particles poly(methyl methacrylate) -ZrO2 (PMMA-ZrO2) are prepared by phase inversion method, in which PMMA is successfully grafted onto the surface of the homemade nano-ZrO2 particles via in situ polymerization confirmed by FT-IR. XRD and DSC patterns show adding PMMA-ZrO2 particles into P(VDF-HFP) can significantly decrease the crystallinity of the CPE membrane. The CPE membrane doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can not only present a homogeneous surface with abundant interconnected micro-pores, but maintain its initial shape after thermal exposure at 160 °C for 1 h, in which the ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number at room temperature can reach to 3.59 × 10-3 S cm-1 and 0.41, respectively. The fitting results of the EIS plots indicate the doped PMMA-ZrO2 particles can significantly lower the interface resistance and promote lithium ions diffusion rate. The Li/CPE-sPZ/LiCoO2 and Li/CPE-sPZ/Graphite coin cells can deliver excellent rate and cycling performance. Those results suggest the P(VDF-HFP)-based CPE doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can become an exciting potential candidate as polymer electrolyte for the lithium ion battery.

  18. Characterization of the surface organization of nanostructured hybrid organic-inorganic materials by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveau; Corriu; Dabosi; Fischmeister-Lepeytre; Combarieu

    1999-01-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has been used to analyse the surface composition of organic-inorganic hybrid solids obtained by a sol-gel process. Gels of type O(1.5)Si-R-SiO(1. 5), obtained from bis-silylated precursors (R'O)(3)-R-Si(OR')(3) (R' = Me, Et and R = (-CH(2))(n)-, n = 1, 2, 6, 10, 12;--CH=CH-; (-CH(2))(3)NH(CH(2))(3)-; 1, 1'-ferrocenyl; (CH(2))(n)-Ph-(CH(2))(n)- with Ph = 1,4-phenylene and n = 0, 1, 2; Ph = 1,3,5-phenyl and n = 0) were analysed. The results were highly dependent on the nature of the organic group. When the organic group was small or 'rigid', the main peaks detected corresponded to SiOH and SiOR' residual groups. Fragment ions from the organic group were poorly detected in this case. When the organic group was larger and more 'flexible', characteristic mass fragment ions were detected at higher relative intensities, indicative of a different organization of the organic units in the solid. TOF-SIMS clearly showed the differences between the xerogels derived from mono- and bis-silylated organic precursors : the organic group is present at the surface of mono-silylated xerogels, whereas for bis-silylated ones, the organization is dependent on the length and the flexibility of the organic units. These TOF-SIMS results are in agreement with other features already reported. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Resistive switching characteristics of solution-processed organic-inorganic blended films for flexible memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Il-Jin; Cho, Won-Ju

    2018-02-01

    We developed a hybrid organic-inorganic resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device that uses a solution-process to overcome the disadvantages of organic and inorganic materials for flexible memory applications. The drawbacks of organic and inorganic materials are a poor electrical characteristics and a lack of flexibility, respectively. We fabricated a hybrid organic-inorganic switching layer of ReRAM by blending HfOx or AlOx solution with PMMA solution and investigated the resistive switching behaviour in Ti/PMMA/Pt, Ti/PMMA-HfOx/Pt and Ti/PMMA-AlOx/Pt structures. It is found that PMMA-HfOx or PMMA-AlOx hybrid switching layer has a larger memory window, more stable durability and retention characteristics, and a better set/reset voltage distribution than PMMA layer. Further, it is confirmed that the flexibility of the PMMA-HfOx and PMMA-AlOx blended films was almost similar to that of the organic PMMA film. Thus, the solution-processed organic-inorganic blended films are considered a promising material for a non-volatile memory device on a flexible or wearable electronic system.

  20. Sub-Band Gap Turn-On Near-Infrared-to-Visible Up-Conversion Device Enabled by an Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Photovoltaic Absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, By Hyeonggeun; Cheng, Yuanhang; Li, Menglin; Tsang, Sai-Wing; So, Franky

    2018-05-09

    Direct integration of an infrared (IR) photodetector with an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) enables low-cost, pixel-free IR imaging. However, the operation voltage of the resulting IR-to-visible up-conversion is large because of the series device architecture. Here, we report a low-voltage near-IR (NIR)-to-visible up-conversion device using formamidinium lead iodide as a NIR absorber integrated with a phosphorescent OLED. Because of the efficient photocarrier injection from the hybrid perovskite layer to the OLED, we observed a sub-band gap turn-on of the OLED under NIR illumination. The device showed a NIR-to-visible up-conversion efficiency of 3% and a luminance on/off ratio of 10 3 at only 5 V. Finally, we demonstrate pixel-free NIR imaging using the up-conversion device.

  1. Hexatungstate subunit as building block in the hydrothermal synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid materials: synthesis, structure and optical properties of Co2(bpy)6 (W6O19)2 (bpy=4,4'-bipyridine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lijuan; Wei Yongge; Wang Chongchen; Guo Hongyou; Wang Ping

    2004-01-01

    A hydrothermal reaction of WO 3 , CoCl 2 and 4,4'-bipyridine, yields a novel organic-inorganic hybrid compound, Co 2 (bpy) 6 (W 6 O 19 ) 2 , at 170 deg. C. X-ray single crystal structure determination reveals a two-dimensional covalent structure belonging to monoclinic crystal system, space group C2/c, with cell parameters a=19.971(4) A, b=11.523(2) A, c=16.138(3) A, β=96.49(3) deg., V=3690.0 A 3 and Z=2. The hexatungstate, [W 6 O 19 ] 2- , acts as a building block in bidentate fashion to bridge the Co(II) centers in the crystal structure. The title compound is found to have an optical energy gap of 2.2 eV from UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectra

  2. Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite quantum dots with high PLQY and enhanced carrier mobility through crystallinity control by solvent engineering and solid-state ligand exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo Choi, Jin; Woo, Hee Chul; Huang, Xiaoguang; Jung, Wan-Gil; Kim, Bong-Joong; Jeon, Sie-Wook; Yim, Sang-Youp; Lee, Jae-Suk; Lee, Chang-Lyoul

    2018-05-22

    The photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and charge carrier mobility of organic-inorganic perovskite QDs were enhanced by the optimization of crystallinity and surface passivation as well as solid-state ligand exchange. The crystallinity of perovskite QDs was determined by the Effective solvent field (Esol) of various solvents for precipitation. The solvent with high Esol could more quickly countervail the localized field generated by the polar solvent, and it causes fast crystallization of the dissolved precursor, which results in poor crystallinity. The post-ligand adding process (PLAP) and post-ligand exchange process (PLEP) increase the PLQY of perovskite QDs by reducing non-radiative recombination and the density of surface defect states through surface passivation. Particularly, the post ligand exchange process (PLEP) in the solid-state improved the charge carrier mobility of perovskite QDs in addition to the PLQY enhancement. The ligand exchange with short alkyl chain length ligands could improve the packing density of perovskite QDs in films by reducing the inter-particle distance between perovskite QDs. The maximum hole mobility of 6.2 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1, one order higher than that of pristine QDs without the PLEP, is obtained at perovskite QDs with hexyl ligands. By using PLEP treatment, compared to the pristine device, a 2.5 times higher current efficiency in perovskite QD-LEDs was achieved due to the improved charge carrier mobility and PLQY.

  3. Photoconducting hybrid perovskite containing carbazole moiety as the organic layer: Fabrication and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Meng; Wu Gang; Cheng Siyuan; Wang Mang; Borghs, Gustaaf; Chen Hongzheng

    2008-01-01

    PbCl 2 -based thin films of perovskite structure with hole-transporting carbazole derivatives as the organic layer were successfully prepared by spin-coating from dimethylformamide solution containing stoichiometric amounts of organic and inorganic moieties. The crystal structure and optical property of the hybrid perovskite were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL). FT-IR spectra confirmed the formation of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite structure. UV-vis spectra of hybrid perovskite thin films exhibited a wide absorption band in ultraviolet region as well as a sharp peak at 330 nm characteristic of PbCl 2 -based layered perovskite. X-ray diffraction profiles indicated that the layered structure was oriented parallel to the silica glass slide plane. Meanwhile, double-layer photoreceptors of the hybrid perovskite were also fabricated, which showed the enhancement of photoconductivity by carbazole chromophore

  4. Surface Modifier-Free Organic-Inorganic Hybridization To Produce Optically Transparent and Highly Refractive Bulk Materials Composed of Epoxy Resins and ZrO2 Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Kazushi; Kikuchi, Moriya; Narumi, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Seigou

    2018-04-25

    Surface modifier-free hybridization of ZrO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) with epoxy-based polymers is demonstrated for the first time to afford highly transparent and refractive bulk materials. This is achieved by a unique and versatile hybridization via the one-pot direct phase transfer of ZrO 2 NPs from water to epoxy monomers without any aggregation followed by curing with anhydride. Three types of representative epoxy monomers, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate (CEL), and 1,3,5-tris(3-(oxiran-2-yl)propyl)-1,3,5-triazinane-2,4,6-trione (TEPIC), are used to produce transparent viscous dispersions. The resulting ZrO 2 NPs are thoroughly characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and solid-state 13 C CP/MAS NMR measurements. The results from DLS and TEM analyses indicate nanodispersion of ZrO 2 into epoxy monomers as a continuous medium. A surface modification mechanism and the binding fashion during phase transfer are proposed based on the FT-IR and solid-state 13 C CP/MAS NMR measurements. Epoxy-based hybrid materials with high transparency and refractive index are successfully fabricated by heat curing or polymerizing a mixture of monomers containing epoxy-functionalized ZrO 2 NPs and methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride in the presence of a phosphoric catalyst. The TEM and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of the hybrids show a nanodispersion of ZrO 2 in the epoxy networks. The refractive index at 594 nm ( n 594 ) increases up to 1.765 for BADGE-based hybrids, 1.667 for CEL-based hybrids, and 1.693 for TEPIC-based hybrids. Their refractive indices and Abbe's numbers are quantitatively described by the Lorentz-Lorenz effective medium expansion theory. Their transmissivity is also reasonably explained using Fresnel refraction, Rayleigh scattering, and the Lambert-Beer theories. This surface modifier-free hybridization

  5. Lead-free/rare earth-free Green-light-emitting crystal based on organic-inorganic hybrid [(C10H16N)2][MnBr4] with high emissive quantum yields and large crystal size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xing-Wei; Zhao, Yu-Yuan; Li, Hong; Huang, Cui-Ping; Zhou, Zhen

    2018-06-01

    With the flourishing development of emitting materials, tremendous technological progress has been accomplished. However, they still face great challenges in convenient economical environmental-friendly large-scale commercial production. Herein we designed this organic-inorganic hybrid lead-free compound, an emerging class of high-efficiency emitting materials, [(C10H16N)2][MnBr4] (1), which emits intense greenish photoluminescence with a high emissive quantum yields of 72.26%, was prepared through the convenient economical solution method. What's more, compared with rare earth fluorescent materials (especially green-emitting Tb), Mn material is rich in natural resources and low commercial cost, which would possess an increasingly predominant advantage in the preparation of luminescent materials. Additionally, the exceptional thermal stability as well as the low-cost/convenient preparation process makes crystal 1 with the large size of more than 1 cm to be an ideal technologically important green-emitting material and it would open up a new route towards the commercialization process of lead-free/rare earth-free hybrid emitting materials in display and sensing.

  6. Monolayer field effect transistor as a probe of electronic defects in organic semiconducting layers at organic/inorganic hetero-junction interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoungnam

    2016-01-01

    The origin of a large negative threshold voltage observed in monolayer (ML) field effect transistors (FETs) is explored using in-situ electrical measurements through confining the thickness of an active layer to the accumulation layer thickness. Using ML pentacene FETs combined with gated multiple-terminal devices and atomic force microscopy, the effect of electronic and structural evolution of a ML pentacene film on the threshold voltage in an FET, proportional to the density of deep traps, was probed, revealing that a large negative threshold voltage found in ML FETs results from the pentacene/SiO_2 and pentacene/metal interfaces. More importantly, the origin of the threshold voltage difference between ML and thick FETs is addressed through a model in which the effective charge transport layer is transitioned from the pentacene layer interfacing with the SiO_2 gate dielectric to the upper layers with pentacene thickness increasing evidenced by pentacene coverage dependent threshold voltage measurements. - Highlights: • The origin of a large negative threshold voltage in accumulation layer is revealed. • Electronic localized states at the nanometer scale are separately probed from the bulk. • The second monolayer becomes the effective charge transport layer governing threshold voltage.

  7. Monolayer field effect transistor as a probe of electronic defects in organic semiconducting layers at organic/inorganic hetero-junction interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoungnam, E-mail: metalpbn@hongik.ac.kr

    2016-01-01

    The origin of a large negative threshold voltage observed in monolayer (ML) field effect transistors (FETs) is explored using in-situ electrical measurements through confining the thickness of an active layer to the accumulation layer thickness. Using ML pentacene FETs combined with gated multiple-terminal devices and atomic force microscopy, the effect of electronic and structural evolution of a ML pentacene film on the threshold voltage in an FET, proportional to the density of deep traps, was probed, revealing that a large negative threshold voltage found in ML FETs results from the pentacene/SiO{sub 2} and pentacene/metal interfaces. More importantly, the origin of the threshold voltage difference between ML and thick FETs is addressed through a model in which the effective charge transport layer is transitioned from the pentacene layer interfacing with the SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric to the upper layers with pentacene thickness increasing evidenced by pentacene coverage dependent threshold voltage measurements. - Highlights: • The origin of a large negative threshold voltage in accumulation layer is revealed. • Electronic localized states at the nanometer scale are separately probed from the bulk. • The second monolayer becomes the effective charge transport layer governing threshold voltage.

  8. Robust platforms for creating organic-inorganic nanocomposite microspheres: decorating polymer microspheres containing mussel-inspired adhesion layers with inorganic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, H; Saito, Y; Yabu, H

    2014-12-07

    We describe a method for creating robust and stable core-shell polymer microspheres decorated with inorganic (IO) nanoparticles (NPs) by a self-organization process and heterocoagulation using a mussel-inspired polymer adhesive layer between the IO NPs and the microspheres.

  9. Coordenação local do Eu(III em híbridos orgânicos/inorgânicos emissores de luz branca Eu(III local coordination in white light emitters organic-inorganic hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís D. Carlos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Eu3+ luminescence and EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure results are presented for organic-inorganic hybrid gel hosts composed of a siliceous network to which small chains of oxyethylene units are covalently grafted by means of urea bridges. Coordination numbers for Eu3+ ions range from 12.8 to 9.7 with increasing Eu3+ concentration while the Eu3+-first neighbours mean distance is found to be constant at 2.48-2.49 Å in the same concentration range. Emission spectra display a broad band in the green/blue spectral region superposed to narrow lines appearing in the yellow/red region in such a way that for the eyes emission appears white. The broad band is assigned to intrinsic NH groups emission and also to electron-hole recombination in the nanosised siliceous domains. The narrow lines are assigned to intra-4f6, 5D0->7F0-4 Eu3+ transitions and from the energy position of the 7F0-4 levels a mean distance could be calculated for the Eu3+-first neighbours. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones obtained from EXAFS analysis.

  10. Evidence and detailed study of a second-order phase transition in the (C6H11NH3)2[PbI4] organic-inorganic hybrid material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yangui, A.; Pillet, S.; Garrot, D.; Boukheddaden, K.; Triki, S.; Abid, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid material (C 6 H 11 NH 3 ) 2 [PbI 4 ] are investigated using diffuse reflectivity, spectroscopic ellipsometry, differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The diffuse reflectivity, performed in heating mode, clearly evidences the presence of a singularity at 336 K. This is confirmed by the temperature dependence of the spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra, which points out a second-order phase transition at 336 K with a critical exponent ∼0.5. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements on a polycrystalline powder of (C 6 H 11 NH 3 ) 2 [PbI 4 ] show a reversible phase transition detected at T C  = 336 K without hysteresis. Raman spectroscopy data suggest that this transition arises from a change in the interactions between inorganic sheets (([PbI 4 ] 2− ) ∞ ) and organic protonated molecules ([C 6 H 11 NH 3 ] + ). The structural analysis from power X-ray diffraction reveals an incomplete order-disorder transition of the cyclohexylammonium cation, causing a subtle contraction of the inter-plane distance. The transition results from repulsive close contacts between the organic molecules in the interlayer spacing

  11. Temperature dependence of the effective mass of the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites CH3NH3PbI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-Bo; Yang, Haozhi; Cong, Wei-Yan; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Hong

    2017-12-01

    The material of methylammonium lead iodide, CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3), has shown significant promise in solar cell applications. A way to infer the microscopic scattering mechanism(s) in MAPbI3 is through the measured temperature dependence of carrier mobility. To this end, how does the carrier effective mass depend on temperature, m* = m*(T), is a useful information since the mobility is a function of m*. By atomistic first principles, we report the calculated m*(T) due to the thermal expansion of MAPbI3 materials, in the experimentally relevant range of 130 K to room temperature. The calculated results suggest m* = m*(T) to be linear in T. The increase of m* versus temperature is predominantly due to the expansion of the longitudinal atomic spacing that weakens the s/p hybridization between the I/Pb atoms.

  12. Synthesis, vibrational and optical properties of a new three-layered organic-inorganic perovskite (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}NH{sub 3}){sub 4}Pb{sub 3}I{sub 4}Br{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammak, T., E-mail: thameurlpa@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Physique appliquee (LPA), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3018, BP 802 (Tunisia); Elleuch, S. [Laboratoire de Physique appliquee (LPA), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3018, BP 802 (Tunisia); Bougzhala, H. [Laboratoire de cristallochimie et des materiaux, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis (Tunisia); Mlayah, A. [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales, CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse, Cedex 4 (France); Chtourou, R. [Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie CRTEn BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050, Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et de Semiconducteur (Tunisia); Abid, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique appliquee (LPA), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3018, BP 802 (Tunisia)

    2009-09-15

    An organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}NH{sub 3}){sub 4}Pb{sub 3}I{sub 4}Br{sub 6} was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopies, optical transmission and photoluminescence. The title compound, abbreviated (C{sub 4}){sub 4}Pb{sub 3}I{sub 4}Br{sub 6}, crystallises in a periodic two-dimensional multilayer structure with P2{sub 1}/a space group. The structure is built up from alternating inorganic and organic layers. Each inorganic layer consists of three sheets of PbX{sub 6} (X=I, Br) octahedra. Raman and infrared spectra of the title compound were recorded in the 100-3500 and 400-4000 cm{sup -1} frequency ranges, respectively. An assignment of the observed vibration modes is reported. Optical transmission measurements, performed on thin films of (C{sub 4}){sub 4}Pb{sub 3}I{sub 4}Br{sub 6}, revealed two absorption bands at 474 and 508 nm. Photoluminescence measurements have shown a green emission peak at 519 nm.

  13. Mechanical properties of hybrid organic-inorganic CH3NH3BX3 (B = Sn, Pb; X = Br, I perovskites for solar cell absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Feng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures, elastic and anisotropic properties of CH3NH3BX3 (B = Sn, Pb; X = Br, I compounds as solar cell absorber layers are investigated by the first-principles calculations. The type and strength of chemical bond B-X are found to determine the elastic properties. B-X bonds and the organic cations are therefore crucial to the functionalities of such absorbers. The bulk, shear, Young's modulus ranges from 12 to 30 GPa, 3 to 12 GPa, and 15 to 37 GPa, respectively. Moreover, the interaction among organic and inorganic ions would have negligible effect for elastic properties. The B/G and Poisson's ratio show it would have a good ductile ability for extensive deformation as a flexible/stretchable layer on the polymer substrate. The main reason is attributed to the low shear modulus of such perovskites. The anisotropic indices AU, AB AG, A1, A2, and A3 show ABX3 perovskite have very strong anisotropy derived from the elastic constants, chemical bonds, and symmetry.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Salicylate-zinc Layered Hydroxide Nano hybrid for Antiinflammatory Active Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zobir Hussein; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Munirah Ramli; Khatijah Yusoff

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of nano technology has prompted much advancement in various areas of research that includes cellular delivery systems, particularly those dealing with delivery of compounds with therapeutic effects. This study aimed at investigating the use of a layered nano material for formation of a new organic-inorganic nano hybrid material. In this work, a compound of zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH) used as a host for a guest, anti-inflammatory agent salicylate (SA) was synthesized. Through simple, direct reaction of SA solution at various concentrations with commercial zinc oxide, SA was found to be intercalated between the ZLH inorganic layers. Powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns revealed that the basal spacing of the nano hybrid is around 16.14 Angstrom. Further characterizations also confirmed that SA was successfully intercalated into the interlayers of the nano hybrid. Results generated from this work provide information beneficial for development of a new delivery system for therapeutic compounds consisting of antiinflammatory agents. (author)

  15. Synthesis, crystal structure and characterization of a new organic-inorganic hybrid material 4-(ammonium methyl) pipyridinium hexachloro stanate (II) trihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassoued, Mohamed Saber; Abdelbaky, Mohammed S. M.; Lassoued, Abdelmajid; Ammar, Salah; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ben Salah, Abdelhamid; García-Granda, Santiago

    2018-03-01

    The present paper undertakes the study of (C6H16N2) SnCl6·3H2O which is a new hybrid compound. It was prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, X-ray powder, Hirshfeld surface, Spectroscopy measurement, thermal study and photoluminescence properties. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the compound crystallizes in monoclinic Cc space group with cell parameters a = 8.3309(9) Å, b = 22.956(2) Å, c = 9.8381(9) Å, β = 101.334(9) ° and Z = 4. The atomic arrangement shows an alternation of organic and inorganic entities. The cohesion between these entities is performed via Nsbnd H⋯Cl, Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯Cl and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding to form a three-dimensional network. Hirshfeld surface analysis was used to investigate intermolecular interactions, as well 2D finger plots were conducted to reveal the contribution of these interactions in the crystal structure quantitatively. The X-ray powder is in agreement with the X-ray structure. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was carried out. Furthermore, the room temperature infrared (IR) spectrum of the title compound was recorded and analyzed on the basis of data found in the literature. Solid state 13C NMR spectrum shows four signals, confirming the solid state structure determined by X-ray diffraction. Besides, the thermal analysis studies were performed, but no phase transition was found in the temperature range between 30 and 450 °C. The optical and PL properties of the compound were investigated in the solid state at room temperature and exhibited three bands at 348 and 401 cm-1 and a strong fluorescence at 480 nm.

  16. Synthesis, structural and spectroscopic features, and investigation of bioactive nature of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid material 1H-1,2,4-triazole-4-ium trioxonitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatfaoui, Sofian; Issaoui, Noureddine; Mezni, Ali; Bardak, Fehmi; Roisnel, Thierry; Atac, Ahmet; Marouani, Houda

    2017-12-01

    The novel inorganic-organic hybrid material 1H-1,2,4-triazole-4-ium trioxonitrate (TAN) have been elaborated and crystallized to the monoclinic system with space group P21/c and the lattice parameters obtained are a = 8.8517(15) Å, b = 8.3791(15) Å, c = 7.1060(11) Å, β = 103.776(7)°, V = 511.89(15) Å3 and Z = 4. In order to enhance (TAN) on the applied plan, biophysicochemical characterization of the title compound have been obtained with experimentally and theoretically. The crystal structure exposed substantial hydrogen bonding stuck between the protonated 1,2,4-triazole ring and the nitrate forming thus sheets parallel to the plans (-1 0 1). The three-dimensional supramolecular network is formed through the π … π interactions involving heterocyclic rings in these sheets. Assessment of intermolecular contacts in the crystal arrangement was quantified by Hirshfeld surface analysis and interactions were analyzed by orbital NBO and topological AIM approaches. This compound was also investigated by means of infrared spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, thermal analysis TG-DTA, and DSC. Moreover, the antioxidant properties of TAN were determined via the DPPH radical scavenging, the ABTS radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and ferric reducing power (FRP). Obtained results confirm the functionality of antioxidant potency of TAN. The molecular structure and vibrational spectral analysis of TAN have been reported by using density functional theory calculations at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Molecular docking behaviors of TAN along with well-known triazole antifungal agents (fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole) with saccharomyces cerevisiae CYP51 (Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase) were investigated. The potent of TAN as an inhibitor was discussed on the basis of noncovalent interaction profile. Furthermore, protonic conduction of this compound has been intentional in the temperature range of 295-373 K.

  17. Organic-Inorganic Composites of Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Efficient Excitonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzelturk, Burak; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-06-18

    Nanocomposites of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals integrated into conjugated polymers are the key to soft-material hybrid optoelectronics, combining advantages of both plastics and particles. Synergic combination of the favorable properties in the hybrids of colloidal nanocrystals and conjugated polymers offers enhanced performance and new functionalities in light-generation and light-harvesting applications, where controlling and mastering the excitonic interactions at the nanoscale are essential. In this Perspective, we highlight and critically consider the excitonic interactions in the organic-inorganic nanocomposites to achieve highly efficient exciton transfer through rational design of the nanocomposites. The use of strong excitonic interactions in optoelectronic devices can trigger efficiency breakthroughs in hybrid optoelectronics.

  18. Research progress in zeolite-based organic-inorganic hybrid membranes%以分子筛为基础的有机-无机杂化膜研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    延檬羽; 王晓东; 黄伟

    2017-01-01

    This review describes the preparation method and the research progress of organic - inorganic hybird membranes, in which the membranes filled with molecular sieves are focused on. The contents included the calssification, the advantages and the preparation methods of hybird membranes. The compatibility and ultra thin separation layer are the hotspot problems.%介绍了目前有机-无机杂化膜制备的常用方法,着重针对分子筛与高聚物共混型的有机-无机杂化膜的研究进展进行论述,包括有机-无机杂化改性的优势、杂化膜的分类及其制备方法等内容.其中,有机介质与无机粒子分子筛间的相容性、杂化膜的分离皮层薄化等是热点问题.

  19. 有机/无机杂化渗透汽化优先透醇膜研究进展%Advances in organic/inorganic hybrid alcohol perm-selective pervaporation membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 王乃鑫; 纪树兰

    2014-01-01

    渗透汽化优先透醇膜分离技术可有效解决燃料乙醇和丁醇生产中发酵产率较低的瓶颈问题,受到广泛关注。膜材料的选择与改性以及膜结构的构建是提高透醇性能的关键。有机/无机杂化膜可以实现有机和无机材料的优势互补,被认为是未来分离膜领域最重要的发展方向之一。本文扼要回顾了用于优先透醇渗透汽化分离的有机无机杂化材料,结合本文作者课题组的研究工作,重点阐述了杂化粒子的结构、粒径、界面相容性、纳微分散、负载量等因素对渗透汽化传递过程的作用机制,进一步对近年来发展的成膜新方法进行了总结。在此基础上,提出今后有机/无机杂化渗透汽化优先透醇膜研究的主要方向是发展新型纳米级、超疏水并与有机聚合物具有高度界面相容性的无机粒子,以及构建高负载量的纳微结构与超亲醇表面。%Alcohol perm-selective pervaporations membrane could resolve the product inhibition problem effectively for the use of ethanol and butanol recovery from fermentation process. The selection and modification of membrane material,and the construction of membrane structure are the key issues for better pervaporation performance. Organic/inorganic hybrid membranes combine the advantages of both organic polymers and inorganic materials,forming highly promising membranes for separation. This paper reviews the advances in organic/inorganic hybrid alcohol perm-selective pervaporation membrane materials. Several issues and research priorities which will impact the pervaporation ability of hybrid membrane for biofuel recovery are identified and discussed,including particle structure,particle size,compatibility and dispersion of inorganic particles in the polymer,and particle loading. Novel preparation methods in recent years are also presented in detail. Finally,the prospect of developing novel particles with nano size

  20. Influence of Ce{sup 3+} doping on molecular organization of Si-based organic/inorganic sol-gel layers for corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedel, Michele, E-mail: michele.fedel@unitn.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy); Callone, Emanuela [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy); “K. Müller” Magnetic Resonance Lab, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy); Fabbian, Matias; Deflorian, Flavio [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy); Dirè, Sandra [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy); “K. Müller” Magnetic Resonance Lab, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Ce{sup 3+} ions promote a decrease of the degree of condensation of the silsesquioxane network. • Ce{sup 3+} ions affect ladder and cages like structures formation in the silsesquioxane network. • Ce{sup 3+} ions do not significantly affect the barrier properties of the coatings. • [Ce{sup 3+}] ≈ 5·10{sup −4} M provides the sol-gel film with an effective passivating potential. - Abstract: In this work, organosilane-derived sol-gel films containing different amounts of cerium ions applied on AA 1050 were investigated. The sol-gel coatings were prepared from 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) mixtures with the addition of cerium nitrate in order to achieve different concentrations of Ce ions (from 10{sup −5} M to 10{sup −2} M). The effect of the cerium load on the structure of the cured sol-gel films was investigated by means of solid state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The corrosion protection properties of the different sol-gel layers were investigated mainly by means potentiodynamic curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). FT-IR and solid state NMR suggested a significant influence of the Ce cations on the network structure: not only the degree of condensation decreases with Ce addition but also the structural modification of the silsesquioxane network is observed with preferential formation of ladder-like species for low Ce{sup 3+} content and cages predominance for Ce/Si molar ratio greater than 0.039, i.e. [Ce{sup 3+}] = 1·10{sup −4} M. Electrochemical tests revealed that the effect of Ce ions on the structure of the coatings does not lead to remarkable changes in the barrier properties. Moreover, it was found that the Ce ions seems to be present in the cured films and are able to migrate towards the metal/coating interface thus providing a stabilization of the metal interface.

  1. Crystal structures, Hirshfeld surface analysis, thermal behavior and dielectric properties of a new organic-inorganic hybrid [C6H10(NH3)2]Cu2Cl8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Najet; Hamdi, Besma; Bouzidia, Nabaa; Salah, Abdelhamid Ben

    2017-12-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid sample [C6H10(NH3)2]Cu2Cl8 has been prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, Hirshfeld surface analysis, FT-IR,NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopies, differential scanning calorimetric and dielectric measurement. It is crystallized in the monoclinic system with P21/c space group. The cohesion and stabilization of the structure are provided by the hydrogen bond interactions, (Nsbnd H⋯Cl and Csbnd H⋯Cl), between [C6H10(NH3)2]2+ cation and [Cu2Cl8]2- anion. The Hirschfeld surface analysis has been performed to explore the behavior of these weak interactions. The presence of different functional groups and the nature of their vibrations were identified by FT-IR and Solid state NMR. The thermal study revealed that this compound undergoes two structural phase transitions around 353 and 376 K. Electrical measurements of our compounds have been investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) in the frequency and temperature range 331-399 K and 200 Hz-5 MHz, respectively. The AC conductivity is explained using the correlated barrier hopping model (CBH) conduction mechanism. The nature of DC conductivity variation suggests Arrhenius type of electrical conductivity. A relationship between crystal structure and ionic conductivity was established and discussed. Finally, the real and imaginary parts of the permittivity constant are analyzed with the Cole-Cole formalism and the optical spectra indicate that the compound has a direct band gap (3.14 eV) due to direct transition. The wide band gap is due to low defect concentration in the grown crystal, which is more useful for the laser/optical applications.

  2. Synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectroscopy, optical properties and theoretical studies of a new organic-inorganic hybrid material: [((CH3)2NH2)(+)]6·[(BiBr6)(3-)]2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, A; Feki, H; Abid, Y

    2014-12-10

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid material, [((CH3)2NH2)(+)]6·[(BiBr6)(3-)]2, has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and UV-Visible absorption. The studied compound crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P1¯ with the following parameters: a=8.4749(6)(Å), b=17.1392(12)(Å), c=17.1392(12)(Å), α=117.339(0)°, β=99.487(0)°, γ=99.487(0)° and Z=2. The crystal lattice is composed of a two discrete (BiBr6)(3-) anions surrounded by six ((CH3)2NH2)(+) cations. Complex hydrogen bonding interactions between (BiBr6)(3-) and organic cations from a three-dimensional network. Theoretical calculations were performed using density functional theory (DFT) for studying the molecular structure, vibrational spectra and optical properties of the investigated molecule in the ground state. The full geometry optimization of designed system is performed using DFT method at B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory using the Gaussian03. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by DFT calculations are in good agreement with single crystal XRD data. The vibrational spectral data obtained from FT-IR and Raman spectra are assigned based on the results of the theoretical calculations. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. The simulated spectra satisfactorily coincide with the experimental UV-Visible spectrum. The results show good consistent with the experiment and confirm the contribution of metal orbital to the HOMO-LUMO boundary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ORGANIC-INORGANIC HYBRID MATERIALS. I: SYNTHESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Reagents were obtained from commercial sources, and used without further purification. IR ... The structure was solved by direct method MULTAN [16] and refined by a full-matrix least .... consequence of α- and β-addition to the alkene. For the ...

  4. Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Structural Versatility for Functional Materials Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparov, Bayrammurad; Mitzi, David B

    2016-04-13

    Although known since the late 19th century, organic-inorganic perovskites have recently received extraordinary research community attention because of their unique physical properties, which make them promising candidates for application in photovoltaic (PV) and related optoelectronic devices. This review will explore beyond the current focus on three-dimensional (3-D) lead(II) halide perovskites, to highlight the great chemical flexibility and outstanding potential of the broader class of 3-D and lower dimensional organic-based perovskite family for electronic, optical, and energy-based applications as well as fundamental research. The concept of a multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid, in which the organic and inorganic structural components provide intentional, unique, and hopefully synergistic features to the compound, represents an important contemporary target.

  5. Silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combining superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. The role of inorganic substrate in sol-gel capillary microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyal, Emre; Malik, Abdul

    2017-04-29

    Principles of sol-gel chemistry were utilized to create silica- and germania-based dual-ligand surface-bonded sol-gel coatings providing enhanced performance in capillary microextraction (CME) through a combination of ligand superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. These organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared using sol-gel precursors with bonded perfluorododecyl (PF-C 12 ) and phenethyl (PhE) ligands. Here, the ability of the PF-C 12 ligand to provide enhanced hydrophobic interaction was advantageously combined with π-π interaction capability of the PhE moiety to attain the desired sorbent performance in CME. The effect of the inorganic sorbent component on microextraction performance of was explored by comparing microextraction characteristics of silica- and germania-based sol-gel sorbents. The germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbent demonstrated superior CME performance compared to its silica-based counterpart. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the created silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbents suggested higher carbon loading on the germania-based sorbent. This might be indicative of more effective condensation of the organic ligand-bearing sol-gel-active chemical species to the germania-based sol-gel network (than to its silica-based counterpart) evolving in the sol solution. The type and concentration of the organic ligands were varied in the sol-gel sorbents to fine-tune extraction selectivity toward different classes of analytes. Specific extraction (SE) values were used for an objective comparison of the prepared sol-gel CME sorbents. The sorbents with higher content of PF-C 12 showed remarkable affinity for aliphatic hydrocarbons. Compared to their single-ligand sol-gel counterparts, the dual-ligand sol-gel coatings demonstrated significantly superior CME performance in the extraction of alkylbenzenes, providing up to ∼65.0% higher SE values. The prepared sol-gel CME coatings provided low ng L -1 limit of detections (LOD

  6. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic materials of polyamide-imide (PAI) and copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES); Sintese e caracterizacao de materiais hibridos organico-inorganicos de poliamida-imida e copolisilsesquioxanos de 3-aminopropiltrietoxissilano e feniltrietoxissilano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarchi, A.A., E-mail: aa_demarchi@terra.com.b [WEG Equipamentos Eletricos S.A., Jaragua do Sul, SC (Brazil). Dept. de P e D do Produto; Pezzin, S H [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas

    2010-07-01

    In this work, organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained by adding copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES), prepared by sol-gel, to the polyamide-imide (PAI). The synthesis of PAI oligomer from trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and 4,4-diphenyl-methane diisocyanate (MDI), was monitored by FTIR, noting that two steps of 80 deg C and 120 deg C for 2 h each are sufficient to obtain it. PAI-copolysilsesquioxanes hybrids were characterized by FTIR, viscometry, thermogravimetry, NMR and microscopy. The spectrum of the PAI and PAI-hybrid copolysilsesquioxanes show the formation of amide and imide. Copolysilsesquioxanes with high levels of APES increased the viscosity and generated the PAI oligomer gelatinization, hindering the formation of uniform films. Gelatinization did not occur with copolysilsesquioxanes rich PTES, allowing the formation of homogeneous films improvements in thermal resistance. (author)

  7. Wavelength-tunable waveguides based on polycrystalline organic-inorganic perovskite microwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyu; Liu, Jingying; Xu, Zai-Quan; Xue, Yunzhou; Jiang, Liangcong; Song, Jingchao; Huang, Fuzhi; Wang, Yusheng; Zhong, Yu Lin; Zhang, Yupeng; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2016-03-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as new photovoltaic materials with impressively high power conversion efficiency due to their high optical absorption coefficient and long charge carrier diffusion length. In addition to high photoluminescence quantum efficiency and chemical tunability, hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites also show intriguing potential for diverse photonic applications. In this work, we demonstrate that polycrystalline organic-inorganic perovskite microwires can function as active optical waveguides with small propagation loss. The successful production of high quality perovskite microwires with different halogen elements enables the guiding of light with different colours. Furthermore, it is interesting to find that out-coupled light intensity from the microwire can be effectively modulated by an external electric field, which behaves as an electro-optical modulator. This finding suggests the promising applications of perovskite microwires as effective building blocks in micro/nano scale photonic circuits.

  8. Toward Increasing Micropore Volume between Hybrid Layered Perovskites with Silsesquioxane Interlayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Sho; Kamimura, Yoshihiro; Endo, Akira

    2018-04-10

    Hybrid organic-inorganic layered perovskites are typically nonporous solids. However, the incorporation of silsesquioxanes with a cubic cage structure as interlayer materials creates micropores between the perovskite layers. In this study, we increase in the micropore volume in layered perovskites by replacing a portion of the silsesquioxane interlayers with organic amines. In the proposed method, approximately 20% of the silsesquioxane interlayers can be replaced without changing the layer distance owing to the size of the silsesquioxane. When small amines (e.g., ethylamine) are used in this manner, the micropore volume of the obtained hybrid layered perovskites increases by as much as 44%; when large amines (e.g., phenethylamine) are used, their micropore volume decreases by as much as 43%. Through the variation of amine fraction, the micropore volume can be adjusted in the range. Finally, the magnetic moment measurements reveal that the layered perovskites with mixed interlayers exhibit ferromagnetic ordering at temperature below 20 K, thus indicating that the obtained perovskites maintain their functions as layered perovskites.

  9. Superconducting selenides intercalated with organic molecules: synthesis, crystal structure, electric and magnetic properties, superconducting properties, and phase separation in iron based-chalcogenides and hybrid organic-inorganic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzton-Maziopa, Anna; Pesko, Edyta; Puzniak, Roman

    2018-06-01

    Layered iron-based superconducting chalcogenides intercalated with molecular species are the subject of intensive studies, especially in the field of solid state chemistry and condensed matter physics, because of their intriguing chemistry and tunable electric and magnetic properties. Considerable progress in the research, revealing superconducting inorganic–organic hybrid materials with transition temperatures to superconducting state, T c, up to 46 K, has been brought in recent years. These novel materials are synthesized by low-temperature intercalation of molecular species, such as solvates of alkali metals and nitrogen-containing donor compounds, into layered FeSe-type structure. Both the chemical nature as well as orientation of organic molecules between the layers of inorganic host, play an important role in structural modifications and may be used for fine tuning of superconducting properties. Furthermore, a variety of donor species compatible with alkali metals, as well as the possibility of doping also in the host structure (either on Fe or Se sites), makes this system quite flexible and gives a vast array of new materials with tunable electric and magnetic properties. In this review, the main aspects of intercalation chemistry are discussed with a particular attention paid to the influence of the unique nature of intercalating species on the crystal structure and physical properties of the hybrid inorganic–organic materials. To get a full picture of these materials, a comprehensive description of the most effective chemical and electrochemical methods, utilized for synthesis of intercalated species, with critical evaluation of their strong and weak points, related to feasibility of synthesis, phase purity, crystal size and morphology of final products, is included as well.

  10. Preparation of novel, nanocomposite stannoxane-based organic-inorganic epoxy polymers containing ionic bonds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strachota, Adam; Ribot, F.; Matějka, Libor; Whelan, P.; Starovoytova, Larisa; Pleštil, Josef; Steinhart, Miloš; Šlouf, Miroslav; Hromádková, Jiřina; Kovářová, Jana; Špírková, Milena; Strachota, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2012), s. 221-237 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701; GA ČR GAP108/11/2151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : stannoxane * organic-inorganic hybrid * epoxy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.521, year: 2012

  11. A van der Waals pn heterojunction with organic/inorganic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Daowei; Yang, Ziyi; Wu, Bing; Xu, Bingchen; Zhang, Yuhan; Li, Yun; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xinran; Pan, Yiming; Wang, Baigeng; Nan, Haiyan; Luo, Xiaoguang; Ni, Zhenhua; Gu, Shuai; Zhu, Jia; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions formed by two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent electrical/optical properties and device applications. However, current 2D heterojunctions are largely limited to atomic crystals, and hybrid organic/inorganic structures are rarely explored. Here, we fabricate the hybrid 2D heterostructures with p-type dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C 8 -BTBT) and n-type MoS 2 . We find that few-layer C 8 -BTBT molecular crystals can be grown on monolayer MoS 2 by vdW epitaxy, with pristine interface and controllable thickness down to monolayer. The operation of the C 8 -BTBT/MoS 2 vertical heterojunction devices is highly tunable by bias and gate voltages between three different regimes: interfacial recombination, tunneling, and blocking. The pn junction shows diode-like behavior with rectifying ratio up to 10 5 at the room temperature. Our devices also exhibit photovoltaic responses with a power conversion efficiency of 0.31% and a photoresponsivity of 22 mA/W. With wide material combinations, such hybrid 2D structures will offer possibilities for opto-electronic devices that are not possible from individual constituents

  12. A van der Waals pn heterojunction with organic/inorganic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daowei; Pan, Yiming; Nan, Haiyan; Gu, Shuai; Yang, Ziyi; Wu, Bing; Luo, Xiaoguang; Xu, Bingchen; Zhang, Yuhan; Li, Yun; Ni, Zhenhua; Wang, Baigeng; Zhu, Jia; Chai, Yang; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xinran

    2015-11-01

    van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions formed by two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent electrical/optical properties and device applications. However, current 2D heterojunctions are largely limited to atomic crystals, and hybrid organic/inorganic structures are rarely explored. Here, we fabricate the hybrid 2D heterostructures with p-type dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C8-BTBT) and n-type MoS2. We find that few-layer C8-BTBT molecular crystals can be grown on monolayer MoS2 by vdW epitaxy, with pristine interface and controllable thickness down to monolayer. The operation of the C8-BTBT/MoS2 vertical heterojunction devices is highly tunable by bias and gate voltages between three different regimes: interfacial recombination, tunneling, and blocking. The pn junction shows diode-like behavior with rectifying ratio up to 105 at the room temperature. Our devices also exhibit photovoltaic responses with a power conversion efficiency of 0.31% and a photoresponsivity of 22 mA/W. With wide material combinations, such hybrid 2D structures will offer possibilities for opto-electronic devices that are not possible from individual constituents.

  13. A van der Waals pn heterojunction with organic/inorganic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Daowei; Yang, Ziyi; Wu, Bing; Xu, Bingchen; Zhang, Yuhan; Li, Yun; Shi, Yi, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: xrwang@nju.edu.cn; Wang, Xinran, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: xrwang@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Pan, Yiming; Wang, Baigeng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Nan, Haiyan; Luo, Xiaoguang; Ni, Zhenhua [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Gu, Shuai; Zhu, Jia [College of Engineering and Applied Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chai, Yang [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2015-11-02

    van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions formed by two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent electrical/optical properties and device applications. However, current 2D heterojunctions are largely limited to atomic crystals, and hybrid organic/inorganic structures are rarely explored. Here, we fabricate the hybrid 2D heterostructures with p-type dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C{sub 8}-BTBT) and n-type MoS{sub 2}. We find that few-layer C{sub 8}-BTBT molecular crystals can be grown on monolayer MoS{sub 2} by vdW epitaxy, with pristine interface and controllable thickness down to monolayer. The operation of the C{sub 8}-BTBT/MoS{sub 2} vertical heterojunction devices is highly tunable by bias and gate voltages between three different regimes: interfacial recombination, tunneling, and blocking. The pn junction shows diode-like behavior with rectifying ratio up to 10{sup 5} at the room temperature. Our devices also exhibit photovoltaic responses with a power conversion efficiency of 0.31% and a photoresponsivity of 22 mA/W. With wide material combinations, such hybrid 2D structures will offer possibilities for opto-electronic devices that are not possible from individual constituents.

  14. A Humidity Sensing Organic-Inorganic Composite for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasan S. Karimov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the effect of varying humidity levels on the electrical parameters and the multi frequency response of the electrical parameters of an organic-inorganic composite (PEPC+NiPc+Cu2O-based humidity sensor. Silver thin films (thickness ~200 nm were primarily deposited on plasma cleaned glass substrates by the physical vapor deposition (PVD technique. A pair of rectangular silver electrodes was formed by patterning silver film through standard optical lithography technique. An active layer of organic-inorganic composite for humidity sensing was later spun coated to cover the separation between the silver electrodes. The electrical characterization of the sensor was performed as a function of relative humidity levels and frequency of the AC input signal. The sensor showed reversible changes in its capacitance with variations in humidity level. The maximum sensitivity ~31.6 pF/%RH at 100 Hz in capacitive mode of operation has been attained. The aim of this study was to increase the sensitivity of the previously reported humidity sensors using PEPC and NiPc, which has been successfully achieved.

  15. Influence of image charge effect on exciton fine structure in an organic-inorganic quantum well material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Hidetsugu; Kunugita, Hideyuki; Ema, Kazuhiro [Department of Physics, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Sato, Mikio; Takeoka, Yuko [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)

    2013-12-04

    We have investigated experimentally excitonic properties in organic-inorganic hybrid multi quantum well crystals, (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbBr{sub 4} and (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}−C{sub 2}H{sub 4}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbBr{sub 4}, by measuring photoluminescence, reflectance, photoluminescence excitation spectra. In these materials, the excitonic binding energies are enhanced not only by quantum confinement effect (QCE) but also by image charge effect (ICE), since the dielectric constant of the barrier layers is much smaller than that of the well layers. By comparing the 1s-exciton and 2s-exciton energies, we have investigated the influence of ICE with regard to the difference of the Bohr radius.

  16. Organic-inorganic membranes for filtration of corn distillery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myronchuk Valeriy G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic membranes were obtained by modification of polymer microfiltration membrane with inorganic ion-exchangers, which form secondary porosity inside macroporous substrate (zirconium hydrophosphate or simultaneously in the macroporous substrate and active layer, depending of the particle size (from ≈50 nm up to several microns. Precipitation of the inorganic constituent is considered from the point of view of Ostwald-Freundlich equation. Such processes as pressing test in deionized water and filtration of corn distillery at 1-6 bar were investigated. Theoretical model allowing to establish fouling mechanism, was applied. It was found that the particles both in the substrate and active layer prevent fouling of the membrane with organics and provide rejection of colloidal particles.

  17. Tungsten oxides as interfacial layers for improved performance in hybrid optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilopoulou, M.; Palilis, L.C.; Georgiadou, D.G.; Argitis, P.; Kennou, S.; Kostis, I.; Papadimitropoulos, G.; Stathopoulos, N.A.; Iliadis, A.A.; Konofaos, N.; Davazoglou, D.; Sygellou, L.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) films with thicknesses ranging from 30 to 100 nm were grown by Hot Filament Vapor Deposition (HFVD). Films were studied by X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) and were found to be stoichiometric. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Samples had a granular form with grains in the order of 100 nm. The surface roughness was found to increase with film thickness. HFVD WO 3 films were used as conducting interfacial layers in advanced hybrid organic-inorganic optoelectronic devices. Hybrid-Organic Light Emitting Diodes (Hy-OLEDs) and Organic Photovoltaics (Hy-OPVs) were fabricated with these films as anode and/or as cathode interfacial conducting layers. The Hy-OLEDs showed significantly higher current density and a lower turn-on voltage when a thin WO 3 layer was inserted at the anode/polymer interface, while when inserted at the cathode/polymer interface the device performance was found to deteriorate. The improvement was attributed to a more efficient hole injection and transport from the Fermi level of the anode to the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) of a yellow emitting copolymer (YEP). On the other hand, the insertion of a thin WO 3 layer at the cathode/polymer interface of Hy-OPV devices based on a polythiophene-fullerene bulk-heterojunction blend photoactive layer resulted in an increase of the produced photogenerated current, more likely due to improved electron extraction at the Al cathode.

  18. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yangang; Zhang, Xiaohang; Gong, Yunhui; Shin, Jongmoon; Wachsman, Eric D.; Takeuchi, Ichiro, E-mail: takeuchi@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Yao, Yangyi; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Dagenais, Mario [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  19. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangang Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH3NH3PbI3 thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  20. New insights into organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH₃NH₃PbI₃ nanoparticles. An experimental and theoretical study of doping in Pb²⁺ sites with Sn²⁺, Sr²⁺, Cd²⁺ and Ca²⁺.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Javier; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Gallardo, Juan Jesús; Hernández, Norge Cruz; Piñero, Jose Carlos; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; De los Santos, Desireé M; Aguilar, Teresa; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2015-04-14

    This paper presents the synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3, doped in the Pb(2+) position with Sn(2+), Sr(2+), Cd(2+) and Ca(2+). The incorporation of the dopants into the crystalline structure was analysed, observing how the characteristics of the dopant affected properties such as the crystalline phase, emission and optical properties. XRD showed how doping with Sn(2+), Sr(2+) and Cd(2+) did not modify the normal tetragonal phase. When doping with Ca(2+), the cubic phase was obtained. Moreover, DR-UV-Vis spectroscopy showed how the band gap decreased with the dopants, the values following the trend Sr(2+) Ca(2+) Cd(2+) > Sr(2+) for the tetragonal structure and Pb(2+) > Ca(2+) for the cubic phase. The electron localization function (ELF) analysis showed similar electron localizations for undoped and Sn(2+)-doped tetragonal structures, which were different from those doped with Sr(2+) and Cd(2+). Furthermore, when Cd(2+) was incorporated, the Cd-I interaction was strengthened. For Ca(2+) doping, the Ca-I interaction had a greater ionic nature than Cd-I. Finally, an analysis based on the non-covalent interaction (NCI) index is presented to determine the weak-type interactions of the CH3NH3 groups with the dopant and I atoms. To our knowledge, this kind of analysis with these hybrid systems has not been performed previously.

  1. PROPIEDADES MECÁNICAS DE PELÍCULAS HÍBRIDAS (ORGÁNICO-INORGÁNICO SOBRE ACERO INOXIDABLE 304 Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Films (Organic-Inorganic on Stainless Steel 304

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge H. Bautista-Ruiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the creation of ceramic films of the SiO2-TiO2 Organic Polymer hybrid system from Tetraethyl-Orthosilicate (Si (OC2H54 and Titanium Tetrabutoxide (Ti(OBu4 synthesized through the sol-gel method in several volumetric concentrations of precursors. This hybrid system was deposited on AISI 304 stainless steel substrates through the dip-coating technique. Feasibility for obtaining hybrid and homogeneous coatings on this type of substrate and evaluating the surface properties was studies. For such a purpose, the coating microhardness and adhesion were studies. Additionally, the film surface was characterized through the SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy. The study concluded that characteristics of films change in function of the volumetric amount of precursors used for creating films.Este trabajo muestra la conformación de películas cerámicas del sistema híbrido SiO2-TiO2-Polímero Orgánico, a partir de tetraetil-ortosilicato (Si (OC2H54, y tetra-butoxido de titanio (Ti(OBu4 y sintetizado por el método sol-gel en diferentes concentraciones volumétricas de los precursores. Este sistema híbrido se depositó sobre sustratos de acero inoxidable AISI 304 mediante la técnica de inmersión (dip-coating. Se estudió la viabilidad de obtener recubrimientos híbridos homogéneos sobre este tipo de sustrato y evaluar las propiedades superficiales. Para tal efecto, se estudió microdureza y adhesión del recubrimiento. Adicionalmente, se caracterizó la superficie de las películas por microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB. Del estudio se concluye que las características de las películas cambian en función de la cantidad volumétrica de los precursores utilizados en la conformación de las mismas.

  2. Hybrid fluorescent layer emitting polarized light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadimasoudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nanorods have anisotropic absorption and emission properties. In this work a hybrid luminescent layer is produced based on a mixture of CdSe/CdS nanorods dispersed in a liquid crystal that is aligned by an electric field and polymerized by UV illumination. The film emits light with polarization ratio 0.6 (polarization contrast 4:1. Clusters of nanorods in liquid crystal can be avoided by applying an AC electric field with sufficient amplitude. This method can be made compatible with large-scale processing on flexible transparent substrates. Thin polarized light emitters can be used in LCD backlights or solar concentrators to increase the efficiency.

  3. Enantiomers Recognition of Propranolol Based on Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Open-Tubular MIPs-CEC Column Using 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)Propyl Methacrylate as a Cross-Linking Monomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Ning; Li, Ning; Luo, Tian; Dong, Yu-Ming

    2017-04-01

    In this study, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (γ-MPS), a bifunctional group compound, was used as a single cross-linking agent to prepare molecular imprinted inorganic-organic hybrid polymers by in situ polymerization for open-tubular capillary electro chromatography (CEC) column. The optimal preparation conditions were: the ratio between template molecule and functional monomer was 1:4; the volume proportion of porogen toluene and methanol was 1:1 and the volume of cross-linking agent γ-MPS was 69 μL. The optimal separation conditions were separation voltage of 15 kV; detection wavelength at 215 nm and background electrolyte composed of 70% acetonitrile/20 mmol/L boric acid salt (pH 6.9). Under the optimized conditions, the propranolol enantiomers can be separated well by CEC. The method is simple and fast, it can be a potentially useful approach for propranolol enantiomers separation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Hybrid Materials Based on Magnetic Layered Double Hydroxides: A Molecular Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, Gonzalo; Martí-Gastaldo, Carlos; Ribera, Antonio; Coronado, Eugenio

    2015-06-16

    Design of functional hybrids lies at the very core of synthetic chemistry as it has enabled the development of an unlimited number of solids displaying unprecedented or even improved properties built upon the association at the molecular level of quite disparate components by chemical design. Multifunctional hybrids are a particularly appealing case among hybrid organic/inorganic materials. Here, chemical knowledge is used to deploy molecular components bearing different functionalities within a single solid so that these properties can coexist or event interact leading to unprecedented phenomena. From a molecular perspective, this can be done either by controlled assembly of organic/inorganic molecular tectons into an extended architecture of hybrid nature or by intercalation of organic moieties within the empty channels or interlamellar space offered by inorganic solids with three-dimensional (MOFs, zeolites, and mesoporous hosts) or layered structures (phosphates, silicates, metal dichalcogenides, or anionic clays). This Account specifically illustrates the use of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in the preparation of magnetic hybrids, in line with the development of soft inorganic chemistry processes (also called "Chimie Douce"), which has significantly contributed to boost the preparation hybrid materials based on solid-state hosts and subsequent development of applications. Several features sustain the importance of LDHs in this context. Their magnetism can be manipulated at a molecular level by adequate choice of constituting metals and interlayer separation for tuning the nature and extent of magnetic interactions across and between planes. They display unparalleled versatility in accommodating a broad range of anionic species in their interlamellar space that encompasses not only simple anions but chemical systems of increasing dimensionality and functionalities. Their swelling characteristics allow for their exfoliation in organic solvents with high

  5. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi; Zhang, Xueyi; Lee, Jong Suk; Tsapatsis, Michael; Nair, Sankar

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered

  6. Advancement on Lead-Free Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Solar Cells: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Faruk; Shafie, Suhaidi; Lim, Hong Ngee; Musa, Abubakar Ohinoyi

    2018-06-14

    Remarkable attention has been committed to the recently discovered cost effective and solution processable lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells. Recent studies have reported that, within five years, the reported efficiency has reached 9.0%, which makes them an extremely promising and fast developing candidate to compete with conventional lead-based perovskite solar cells. The major challenge associated with the conventional perovskite solar cells is the toxic nature of lead (Pb) used in the active layer of perovskite material. If lead continues to be used in fabricating solar cells, negative health impacts will result in the environment due to the toxicity of lead. Alternatively, lead free perovskite solar cells could give a safe way by substituting low-cost, abundant and non toxic material. This review focuses on formability of lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite, alternative metal cations candidates to replace lead (Pb), and possible substitutions of organic cations, as well as halide anions in the lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite architecture. Furthermore, the review gives highlights on the impact of organic cations, metal cations and inorganic anions on stability and the overall performance of lead free perovskite solar cells.

  7. Design of bone-integrating organic-inorganic composite suitable for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Toshiki

    2013-01-01

    Several ceramics exhibit specific biological affinity, i.e. direct bone integration, when implanted in bony defects. They are called bioactive ceramics and utilized as important bone substitutes. However, there is limitation on clinical application, because of their inappropriate mechanical properties such as high Young's modulus and low fracture toughness. Novel bioactive materials exhibiting high machinability and flexibility have been desired in medical fields. Mixing bioactive ceramic powders and organic polymers have developed various organic-inorganic composites. Their mechanical property and bioactivity are mainly governed by the ceramics content. It is known that bioactive ceramics integrate with the bone through bone-like hydroxyapatite layer formed on their surfaces by chemical reaction with body fluid. This is triggered by a catalytic effect of various functional groups. On the basis of these facts, novel bioactive organic-inorganic nanocomposites have been developed. In these composites, inorganic components effective for triggering the hydroxyapatite nucleation are dispersed in polymer matrix at molecular level. Concept of the organic-inorganic composite is also applicable for providing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement with the bioactivity.

  8. Preparation and application of a magnetic organic-inorganic hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chemsci

    Catalysts and Organic Synthesis Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology ... disulfonate,18 nanocrystalline magnesium oxide,19 ..... arable γ-Fe2O3/N, Fe codoped TiO2 heterojunction for.

  9. Hybrid organic-inorganic system for producing biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Singer, Steven W.; Chhabra, Swapnil R.; Beller, Harry R.; Mueller, Jana

    2017-10-03

    The present invention provides for a system for converting CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 to one or more biologically derived compounds. In some embodiments, the system comprises a host cell comprising one or more nucleic acids encoding genes for a recombinant surface display protein which is capable of tethering an electrocatalyst molecule, such as a cobalt(II) complex supported by tetradentate polypyridyl ligand 2-bis(2-pyridyl)(methoxy)methyl-6-pyridylpyridine (PY4), and enzymes for synthesizing a biologically derived compound, such as an alkane, alcohol, fatty acid, ester, or isoprenoid.

  10. Solution processable organic/inorganic hybrid ultraviolet photovoltaic detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV photodetector is a kind of important optoelectronic device which can be widely used in scientific and engineering fields including astronomical research, environmental monitoring, forest-fire prevention, medical analysis, and missile approach warning etc. The development of UV detector is hindered by the acquirement of stable p-type materials, which makes it difficult to realize large array, low-power consumption UV focal plane array (FPA detector. Here, we provide a novel structure (Al/Poly(9,9-di-n-octylfuorenyl-2,7-diyl(PFO/ZnO/ITO to demonstrate the UV photovoltaic (PV response. A rather smooth surface (RMS roughness: 0.28 nm may be reached by solution process, which sheds light on the development of large-array, light-weight and low-cost UV FPA detectors.

  11. Photostability of 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the behavior of a series of newly synthesized (R-NH32PbX4 perovskites and, in particular, discuss the possible reasons which cause their degradation under UV illumination. Experimental results show that the degradation process depends a lot on their molecular components: not only the inorganic part, but also the chemical structure of the organic moieties play an important role in bleaching and photo-chemical reaction processes which tend to destroy perovskites luminescent framework. In addition, we find the spatial arrangement in crystal also influences the photostability course. Following these trends, we propose a plausible mechanism for the photodegradation of the films, and also introduced options for optimized stability.

  12. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials. I: Synthesis, characterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrosilylation of 2-chloroethylvinyl ether by octahydridosilsesilsesquioxane catalyzed by hexachloroplatinic acid gives a quantitative yield of 3 as white crystals. Thermogravimetric analysis of Si8O12(CH2CH2OCH2CH2Cl)83 revealed that it is thermally reasonably stable. Spectroscopic data and a crystal structure ...

  13. Absorption and scattering effects by silver nanoparticles near the interface of organic/inorganic semiconductor tandem films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, Coleen T.; Vijapurapu, Divya K.; Petoukhoff, Christopher E.; Cheung, Gary Z.; O’Carroll, Deirdre M.

    2013-01-01

    nanoparticles placed near an organic/inorganic interface can be employed for light management in tandem or hybrid organic/inorganic thin-film semiconductor configurations for solar energy harvesting applications or light detection applications

  14. Confinement Effects in Low-Dimensional Lead Iodide Perovskite Hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Machteld E.; Fang, Honghua; Filip, Marina R.; Giustino, Feliciano; Baas, Jacobus; Blake, Graeme R.; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2016-01-01

    We use a layered solution crystal growth technique to synthesize high-quality single crystals of phenylalkylammonium lead iodide organic/inorganic hybrid compounds. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals low-dimensional structures consisting of inorganic sheets separated by bilayers of the organic

  15. Polyfunctional inorganic-organic hybrid materials: an unusual kind of NLO active layered mixed metal oxalates with tunable magnetic properties and very large second harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariati, Elena; Macchi, Roberto; Roberto, Dominique; Ugo, Renato; Galli, Simona; Casati, Nicola; Macchi, Piero; Sironi, Angelo; Bogani, Lapo; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante

    2007-08-01

    Mixed M(II)/M(III) metal oxalates, as "stripes" connected through strong hydrogen bonding by para-dimethylaminobenzaldeide (DAMBA) and water, form an organic-inorganic 2D network that enables segregation in layers of the cationic organic NLO-phore trans-4-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium, [DAMS+]. The crystalline hybrid materials obtained have the general formula [DAMS]4[M2M'(C2O4)6].2DAMBA.2H2O (M = Rh, Fe, Cr; M' = Mn, Zn), and their overall three-dimensional packing is non-centrosymmetric and polar, therefore suitable for second harmonic generation (SHG). All the compounds investigated are characterized by an exceptional SHG activity, due both to the large molecular quadratic hyperpolarizability of [DAMS+] and to the efficiency of the crystalline network which organizes [DAMS+] into head-to-tail arranged J-type aggregates. The tunability of the pairs of metal ions allows exploiting also the magnetic functionality of the materials. Examples containing antiferro-, ferro-, and ferri-magnetic interactions (mediated by oxalato bridges) are obtained by coupling proper M(III) ions (Fe, Cr, Rh) with M(II) (Mn, Zn). This shed light on the role of weak next-nearest-neighbor interactions and main nearest-neighbor couplings along "stripes" of mixed M(II)/M(III) metal oxalates of the organic-inorganic 2D network, thus suggesting that these hybrid materials may display isotropic 1D magnetic properties along the mixed M(II)/M(III) metal oxalates "stripes".

  16. Charge-density matching in organic-inorganic uranyl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivovichev, S.V.; Krivovichev, S.V.; Tananaev, I.G.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Single crystals of [C 10 H 26 N 2 ][(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)](H 2 SeO 4 ) 0.85 (H 2 O) 2 (1), [C 10 H 26 N 2 ][(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 ] (H 2 SeO 4 ) 0.50 (H 2 O) (2), and [C 8 H 20 N] 2 [(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] (H 2 O) (3) were prepared by evaporation from aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate, selenic acid and the respective amines. The structures of the compounds have been solved by direct methods and structural models have been obtained. The structures of the compounds 1, 2, and 3 contain U and Se atoms in pentagonal bipyramidal and tetrahedral coordinations, respectively. The UO 7 and SeO 4 polyhedra polymerize by sharing common O atoms to form chains (compound 1) or sheets (compounds 2 and 3). In the structure of 1, the layers consisting of hydrogen-bonded [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] 2- chains are separated by mixed organic-inorganic layers comprising from [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 NH 3 ] 2+ molecules, H 2 O molecules, and disordered electroneutral (H 2 SeO 4 ) groups. The structure of 2 has a similar architecture but a purely inorganic layer is represented by a fully connected [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 ] 2- sheet. The structure of 3 does not contain disordered (H 2 SeO 4 ) groups but is based upon alternating [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] 2- sheets and 1.5-nm-thick organic blocks consisting of positively charged protonated octylamine molecules, [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 7 CH 3 ] + . The structures may be considered as composed of anionic inorganic sheets (2D blocks) and cationic organic blocks self-organized according to competing hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions. Analysis of the structures allows us to conclude that the charge-density matching principle is observed in uranyl compounds. In order to satisfy some basic peculiarities of uranyl (in general, actinyl) chemistry, it requires specific additional mechanisms: (a) in long-chain-amine-templated compounds, protonated amine molecules inter-digitate; (b) in long-chain-diamine-templated compounds, incorporation of acid-water interlayers into

  17. Facile fabrication of organic/inorganic nanotube heterojunction arrays for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingzhi; Li, Aoxiang; Yue, Xiaoqi; Wang, Lu-Ning; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Kang, Feiyu; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2016-07-01

    Organic/inorganic heterojunction photoanodes are appealing for making concurrent use of the highly photoactive organic semiconductors, and the efficient dielectric screening provided by their inorganic counterparts. In the present work, organic/inorganic nanotube heterojunction arrays composed of TiO2 nanotube arrays and a semiconducting N,N-(dicyclohexyl) perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDi) layer were fabricated for photoelectrochemical water splitting. In this arrayed architecture, a PDi layer with a tunable thickness was coated on anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays by physical vapor deposition, which is advantageous for the formation of a uniform layer and an adequate interface contact between PDi and TiO2. The obtained PDi/TiO2 junction exhibited broadened visible light absorption, and an effective interface for enhanced photogenerated electron-hole separation, which is supported by the reduced charge transfer resistance and prolonged excitation lifetime via impedance spectroscopy analysis and fluorescence emission decay investigations. Consequently, such a heterojunction photoanode was photoresponsive to a wide visible light region of 400-600 nm, and thus demonstrated a highly enhanced photocurrent density at 1.23 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode. Additionally, the durability of such a photoanode can be guaranteed after long-time illumination because of the geometrical restraint imposed by the PDi aggregates. These results pave the way to discover new organic/inorganic assemblies for high-performance photoelectric applications and device integration.Organic/inorganic heterojunction photoanodes are appealing for making concurrent use of the highly photoactive organic semiconductors, and the efficient dielectric screening provided by their inorganic counterparts. In the present work, organic/inorganic nanotube heterojunction arrays composed of TiO2 nanotube arrays and a semiconducting N,N-(dicyclohexyl) perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PDi

  18. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  19. Development of organic-inorganic double hole-transporting material for high performance perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jea Woong; Seo, Myung-Seok; Jung, Jae Woong; Park, Joon-Suh; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok; Ko, Min Jae; Son, Hae Jung

    2018-02-01

    The control of the optoelectronic properties of the interlayers of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is crucial for achieving high photovoltaic performances. Of the solution-processable interlayer candidates, NiOx is considered one of the best inorganic hole-transporting layer (HTL) materials. However, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of NiOx-based PSCs are limited by the unfavorable contact between perovskite layers and NiOx HTLs, the high density of surface trap sites, and the inefficient charge extraction from perovskite photoactive layers to anodes. Here, we introduce a new organic-inorganic double HTL consisting of a Cu:NiOx thin film passivated by a conjugated polyelectrolyte (PhNa-1T) film. This double HTL has a significantly lower pinhole density and forms better contact with perovskite films, which results in enhanced charge extraction. As a result, the PCEs of PSCs fabricated with the double HTL are impressively improved up to 17.0%, which is more than 25% higher than that of the corresponding PSC with a Cu:NiOx HTL. Moreover, PSCs with the double HTLs exhibit similar stabilities under ambient conditions to devices using inorganic Cu:NiOx. Therefore, this organic-inorganic double HTL is a promising interlayer material for high performance PSCs with high air stability.

  20. Charge-density matching in organic-inorganic uranyl compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivovichev, S.V. [Saint Petersburg State Univ., Dept. of Crystallography, Faculty of Geology (Russian Federation); Krivovichev, S.V.; Tananaev, I.G.; Myasoedov, B.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-15

    Single crystals of [C{sub 10}H{sub 26}N{sub 2}][(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)](H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}){sub 0.85}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (1), [C{sub 10}H{sub 26}N{sub 2}][(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}] (H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}){sub 0.50}(H{sub 2}O) (2), and [C{sub 8}H{sub 20}N]{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)] (H{sub 2}O) (3) were prepared by evaporation from aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate, selenic acid and the respective amines. The structures of the compounds have been solved by direct methods and structural models have been obtained. The structures of the compounds 1, 2, and 3 contain U and Se atoms in pentagonal bipyramidal and tetrahedral coordinations, respectively. The UO{sub 7} and SeO{sub 4} polyhedra polymerize by sharing common O atoms to form chains (compound 1) or sheets (compounds 2 and 3). In the structure of 1, the layers consisting of hydrogen-bonded [UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 2-} chains are separated by mixed organic-inorganic layers comprising from [NH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 10}NH{sub 3}]{sup 2+} molecules, H{sub 2}O molecules, and disordered electroneutral (H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}) groups. The structure of 2 has a similar architecture but a purely inorganic layer is represented by a fully connected [UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}]{sup 2-} sheet. The structure of 3 does not contain disordered (H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}) groups but is based upon alternating [UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 2-} sheets and 1.5-nm-thick organic blocks consisting of positively charged protonated octylamine molecules, [NH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 7}CH{sub 3}]{sup +}. The structures may be considered as composed of anionic inorganic sheets (2D blocks) and cationic organic blocks self-organized according to competing hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions. Analysis of the structures allows us to conclude that the charge-density matching principle is observed in uranyl compounds. In order to satisfy some basic peculiarities of uranyl (in

  1. Changing the Usual Interpretation of the Structure and Ground State of Cu2+-Layered Perovskites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aramburu, J. A.; García-Fernández, P.; Mathiesen, N. R.

    2018-01-01

    Intense research on hybrid organic-inorganic layered copper perovskites are currently being carried out. Many interesting properties of these materials rest on the strong correlation between electronic structure and local geometry. As up to now no reliable information on the pressure dependence...

  2. Electron-Rotor Interaction in Organic-Inorganic Lead Iodide Perovskites Discovered by Isotope Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jue; Yang, Mengjin; Ma, Xiangchao; Schaller, Richard D; Liu, Gang; Kong, Lingping; Yang, Ye; Beard, Matthew C; Lesslie, Michael; Dai, Ying; Huang, Baibiao; Zhu, Kai; Xu, Tao

    2016-08-04

    We report on the carrier-rotor coupling effect in perovskite organic-inorganic hybrid lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) compounds discovered by isotope effects. Deuterated organic-inorganic perovskite compounds including CH3ND3PbI3, CD3NH3PbI3, and CD3ND3PbI3 were synthesized. Devices made from regular CH3NH3PbI3 and deuterated CH3ND3PbI3 exhibit comparable performance in band gap, current-voltage, carrier mobility, and power conversion efficiency. However, a time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) study reveals that CH3NH3PbI3 exhibits notably longer carrier lifetime than that of CH3ND3PbI3, in both thin-film and single-crystal formats. Furthermore, the comparison in carrier lifetime between CD3NH3PbI3 and CH3ND3PbI3 single crystals suggests that vibrational modes in methylammonium (MA(+)) have little impact on carrier lifetime. In contrast, the fully deuterated compound CD3ND3PbI3 reconfirmed the trend of decreasing carrier lifetime upon the increasing moment of inertia of cationic MA(+). Polaron model elucidates the electron-rotor interaction.

  3. Resin infusion of layered metal/composite hybrid and resulting metal/composite hybrid laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of fabricating a metal/composite hybrid laminate is provided. One or more layered arrangements are stacked on a solid base to form a layered structure. Each layered arrangement is defined by a fibrous material and a perforated metal sheet. A resin in its liquid state is introduced along a portion of the layered structure while a differential pressure is applied across the laminate structure until the resin permeates the fibrous material of each layered arrangement and fills perforations in each perforated metal sheet. The resin is cured thereby yielding a metal/composite hybrid laminate.

  4. Origin of long lifetime of band-edge charge carriers in organic-inorganic lead iodide perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianran; Chen, Wei-Liang; Foley, Benjamin J; Lee, Jooseop; Ruff, Jacob P C; Ko, J Y Peter; Brown, Craig M; Harriger, Leland W; Zhang, Depei; Park, Changwon; Yoon, Mina; Chang, Yu-Ming; Choi, Joshua J; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2017-07-18

    Long carrier lifetime is what makes hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites high-performance photovoltaic materials. Several microscopic mechanisms behind the unusually long carrier lifetime have been proposed, such as formation of large polarons, Rashba effect, ferroelectric domains, and photon recycling. Here, we show that the screening of band-edge charge carriers by rotation of organic cation molecules can be a major contribution to the prolonged carrier lifetime. Our results reveal that the band-edge carrier lifetime increases when the system enters from a phase with lower rotational entropy to another phase with higher entropy. These results imply that the recombination of the photoexcited electrons and holes is suppressed by the screening, leading to the formation of polarons and thereby extending the lifetime. Thus, searching for organic-inorganic perovskites with high rotational entropy over a wide range of temperature may be a key to achieve superior solar cell performance.

  5. Preparations and Characterizations of Luminescent Two Dimensional Organic-inorganic Perovskite Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjun Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the synthesis, structural and optical characterizations of some novel luminescent two dimensional organic-inorganic perovskite (2DOIP semiconductors. These 2DOIP semiconductors show a self-assembled nano-layered structure, having the electronic structure of multi-quantum wells. 2DOIP thin layers and nanoparticles have been prepared through different methods. The structures of the 2DOIP semiconductors are characterized by atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The optical properties of theb DOIP semiconductors are characterized from absorption and photoluminescence spectra measured at room and low temperatures. Influences of different components, in particular the organic parts, on the structural and optical properties of the 2DOIP semiconductors are discussed.

  6. Holographic patterning of organic-inorganic photopolymerizable nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhno, Oksana V.; Goldenberg, Leonid M.; Smirnova, Tatiana N.; Stumpe, J.

    2009-09-01

    We present here novel easily processible organic-inorganic nanocomposites suitable for holographic fabrication of diffraction optical elements (DOE). The nanocomposites are based on photocurable acrylate monomers and inorganic nanoparticles (NP). The compatibility of inorganic NP with monomers was achieved by capping the NP surface with proper organic shells. Surface modification allows to introduce up to 50wt.% of inorganic NP in organic media. Depending on the NP nature (metal oxides, phosphates, semiconductors, noble metals) and their properties, the materials for both efficient DOE and multifunctional elements can be designed. Organic-inorganic composites prepared have been successfully used for the effective inscription of periodic volume refractive index structures using the holographic photopolymerization method. The nanocomposite preparation procedure, their properties and optical performance of holographic gratings are reported. The use of functional NP makes it possible to obtain effective holographic gratings having additional physical properties such as light-emission or NLO. Some examples of such functional polymer-NP structures and their possible application fields are presented. The combination of easy photo-patterning of soft organic compounds with physical properties of inorganic materials in new nanocomposites and the flexibility of the holographic patterning method allow the fabrication of mono- and multifunctional one- and multi-dimensional passive or active optical and photonic elements.

  7. Layer-by-layer self-assembled active electrodes for hybrid photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniprath, Rolf

    2008-11-18

    Solar cells based on thin organic/inorganic heterofilms are currently in the focus of research, since they represent promising candidates for cost-efficient photovoltaic energy conversion. In this type of cells, charges are separated at a heterointerface between dissimilar electrode materials. These materials either absorb light themselves, or they are sensitized by an additional absorber layer at the interface. The present work investigates photovoltaic cells which are composed of nanoporous TiO{sub 2} combined with conjugated polymers and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). The method of layer-by-layer self-assembly of oppositely charged nanoparticles and polymers is used for the fabrication of such devices. This method allows to fabricate nanoporous films with controlled thicknesses in the range of a few hundred nanometers to several micrometers. Investigations with scanning electron (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveal that the surface morphology of the films depends only on the chemical structure of the polyions used in the production process, and not on their molecular weight or conformation. From dye adsorption at the internal surface of the electrodes one can estimate that the internal surface area of a 1 {mu}m thick film is up to 120 times larger than the projection plane. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to demonstrate that during the layer-by-layer self-assembly at least 40% of the TiO{sub 2} surface is covered with polymers. This feature allows to incorporate polythiophene derivatives into the films and to use them as sensitizers for TiO{sub 2}. Further, electrodes containing CdSe or CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers are fabricated. For the fabrication of photovoltaic cells the layer-by-layer grown films are coated with an additional polymer layer, and Au back electrodes are evaporated on top. The cells are illuminated through transparent doped SnO{sub 2} front electrodes. The I/V curves of all fabricated cells show diode

  8. Role of surfactant on thermoelectric behaviors of organic-inorganic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunmi; Roh, Jong Wook; Kim, Hyun-Sik; Chen, Renkun

    2018-05-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic composites have recently attracted intensive interests as a promising candidate for flexible thermoelectric (TE) devices using inherently soft polymers as well as for increasing the degree of freedom to control TE properties. Experimentally, however, enhanced TE performance in hybrid composites has not been commonly observed, primarily due to inhomogeneous mixing between the inorganic and organic components which leads to limited electrical conduction in the less conductive component and consequently a low power factor in the composites compared to their single-component counterparts. In this study, we investigated the effects of different surfactants on the uniformity of mixing and the TE behaviors of the hybrid composites consisting of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 (BST) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). We found that compared to dimethyl sulfoxide, which is the most widely used surfactant, Triton X-100 (TX-100) can lead to homogenous dispersion of BST in PEDOT:PSS. By systematically studying the effects of the surfactant concentration, we can attribute the better mixing capability of TX-100 to its non-ionic property, which results in homogenous mixing with a lower critical micelle concentration. Consequently, we observed simultaneous increase in electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient in the BST/PEDOT:PSS composites with the TX-100 surfactant.

  9. Organic-inorganic semiconductor devices and 3, 4, 9, 10 perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride: an early history of organic electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, S R

    2003-01-01

    The demonstration, over 20 years ago, of an organic-inorganic heterojunction (OI HJ) device along with investigations of the growth and physical properties of the archetypal crystalline molecular organic semiconductor 3, 4, 9, 10 perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride are discussed. Possible applications of OI HJ devices are introduced and the dramatic change in conductive properties of these materials when exposed to high-energy ion beams is described. The past and future prospects for hybrid organic-on-inorganic semiconductor structures for use in electronic and photonic applications are also presented

  10. Structural and optical studies of local disorder sensitivity in natural organic-inorganic self-assembled semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijaya Prakash, G; Pradeesh, K [Nanophotonics Lab, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India); Ratnani, R; Saraswat, K [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, MDS University, Ajmer (India); Light, M E [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Baumberg, J J, E-mail: prakash@physics.iitd.ac.i [Nanophotonic Centre, Cavendish Laboratory, University Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-21

    The structural and optical spectra of two related lead iodide (PbI) based self-assembled hybrid organic-inorganic semiconductors are compared. During the synthesis, depending on the bridging of organic moiety intercalated between the PbI two-dimensional planes, different crystal structures are produced. These entirely different networks show different structural and optical features, including excitonic bandgaps. In particular, the modified organic environment of the excitons is sensitive to the local disorder both in single crystal and thin film forms. Such information is vital for incorporating these semiconductors into photonic device architectures.

  11. Organic-Inorganic Graphite and Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Based Composites for 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalan Gonzalez, Jorge Alfredo

    were ≈ 5.27 Siemens-m-1 and 0.250 Ohm-m, respectively. In the process of forming the composites, some pretreatment of the 2D material may also be necessary. We studied one aspect of this pretreatment by looking at particle size measured using dynamic light scattering. The fragmentation rate (FR) of 2D MoS2, WS2, and graphite in N-methyl-pyrrolidinone (NMP) was computed in chemical exfoliants, where FR is a measure of the particle size reduction as a function of ultrasonication time. For the 2D layered materials, the highest FR generally occurred for sonication times tsonic = 30 min., after which point FR varied less sensitively with tsonic. The highest FR occurred for graphite, where FRGraphite was -1176.4 microm-hr -1, while FRWS2 and FRMoS2 was measured to be -32.4 microm-hr-1 and -3.8 microm-hr-1, respectively. This pretreatment maybe an important step to further tune the properties of the hybrid organic-inorganic composites of 2D materials with polymeric systems for a number of application platforms.

  12. Electron beam induced strong organic/inorganic grafting for thermally stable lithium-ion battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunah; Kim, Jin Il; Moon, Jungjin; Jeong, Jongyeob; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2018-06-01

    A tailored interface between organic and inorganic materials is of great importance to maximize the synergistic effects from hybridization. Polyethylene separators over-coated with inorganic thin films are the state-of-the art technology for preparing various secondary batteries with high safety. Unfortunately, the organic/inorganic hybrid separators have the drawback of a non-ideal interface, thus causing poor thermal/dimensional stability. Here, we report a straightforward method to resolve the drawback of the non-ideal interface between vapor deposited SiO2 and polyethylene separators, to produce a highly stable lithium-ion battery separator through strong chemical linking generated by direct electron beam irradiation. The simple treatment with an electron beam with an optimized dose generates thermally stable polymer separators, which may enhance battery safety under high-temperature conditions. Additionally, the newly formed Si-O-C or Si-CH3 chemical bonding enhances electrolyte-separator compatibility and thus may provide a better environment for ionic transport between the cathode and anode, thereby leading to better charge/discharge behaviors.

  13. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2012-11-27

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered zeolite material grown epitaxially on the surface of a bulk zeolite material. Specifically, layered (2-D) MFI sheets were grown on the surface of bulk MFI crystals of different sizes (300 nm and 10 μm), thereby resulting in a hybrid material containing a unique morphology of interconnected micropores (∼0.55 nm) and mesopores (∼3 nm). The structure and morphology of this material, referred to as a "bulk MFI-layered MFI" (BMLM) material, was elucidated by a combination of XRD, TEM, HRTEM, SEM, TGA, and N2 physisorption techniques. It is conclusively shown that epitaxial growth of the 2-D layered MFI sheets occurs in at least two principal crystallographic directions of the bulk MFI crystal and possibly in the third direction as well. The BMLM material combines the properties of bulk MFI (micropore network and mechanical support) and 2-D layered MFI (large surface roughness, external surface area, and mesoporosity). As an example of the uses of the BMLM material, it was incorporated into a polyimide and fabricated into a composite membrane with enhanced permeability for CO2 and good CO2/CH4 selectivity for gas separations. SEM-EDX imaging and composition analysis showed that the polyimide and the BMLM interpenetrate into each other, thereby forming a well-adhered polymer/particle microstructure, in contrast with the defective interfacial microstructure obtained using bare MFI particles. Analysis of the gas permeation data with the modified Maxwell model also allows the estimation of the effective volume of the BMLM particles, as well as the CO2 and CH4 gas permeabilities of the interpenetrated layer at the BMLM/polyimide interface. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Hybrid transfer-matrix FDTD method for layered periodic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinega, Alexei; Belousov, Sergei; Valuev, Ilya

    2009-03-15

    A hybrid transfer-matrix finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is proposed for modeling the optical properties of finite-width planar periodic structures. This method can also be applied for calculation of the photonic bands in infinite photonic crystals. We describe the procedure of evaluating the transfer-matrix elements by a special numerical FDTD simulation. The accuracy of the new method is tested by comparing computed transmission spectra of a 32-layered photonic crystal composed of spherical or ellipsoidal scatterers with the results of direct FDTD and layer-multiple-scattering calculations.

  15. Hybrid laser technology for creation of doped biomedical layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Bačáková, Lucie; Remsa, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Mikšovský, Jan; Písařík, Petr; Vandrovcová, Marta; Filová, Elena; Kubinová, Šárka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, Jan (2016), s. 98-104 ISSN 2327-6045 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05864S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01558S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : hybrid laser technology * biomaterials * thin Films * doped Layers * DLC Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; JJ - Other Materials (FGU-C)

  16. Low-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite: Structure, Properties, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ravi K; Cohen, Bat-El; Iagher, Lior; Etgar, Lioz

    2017-10-09

    Three-dimensional (3 D) perovskite has attracted a lot of attention owing to its success in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. However, one of its major crucial issues lies in its stability, which has limited its commercialization. An important property of organic-inorganic perovskite is the possibility of forming a layered material by using long organic cations that do not fit into the octahedral cage. These long organic cations act as a "barrier" that "caps" 3 D perovskite to form the layered material. Controlling the number of perovskite layers could provide a confined structure with chemical and physical properties that are different from those of 3 D perovskite. This opens up a whole new batch of interesting materials with huge potential for optoelectronic applications. This Minireview presents the synthesis, properties, and structural orientation of low-dimensional perovskite. It also discusses the progress of low-dimensional perovskite in PV solar cells, which, to date, have performance comparable to that of 3 D perovskite but with enhanced stability. Finally, the use of low-dimensional perovskite in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodetectors is discussed. The low-dimensional perovskites are promising candidates for LED devices, mainly because of their high radiative recombination as a result of the confined low-dimensional quantum well. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Hybrid layer difference between sixth and seventh generation bonding agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Syavira Suryabrata

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Since etching is completed at the same stage as priming and bonding, when applying the sixth and seventh generation bonding, the exposed smear layers are constantly surrounded by primer and bonding and cannot collapse. The smear layer and the depth of penetration of resin bonding in dentinal tubules are completely integrated into hybrid layer. The purpose of this laboratory research was to study the penetration depth of two self etching adhesive. Fourteen samples of human extracted teeth were divided into two groups. Each groups consisted of seven samples, each of them was treated with sixth generation bonding agent and the other was treated with seventh generation bonding agent. The results disclosed that the penetration into dentinal tubules of seventh generation bonding agent was deeper than sixth generation bonding agent. Conclusion: bond strength will improve due to the increasing of penetration depth of resin bonding in dentinal tubules.

  18. [CH(3)(CH(2))(11)NH(3)]SnI(3): a hybrid semiconductor with MoO(3)-type tin(II) iodide layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhengtao; Mitzi, David B

    2003-10-20

    The organic-inorganic hybrid [CH(3)(CH(2))(11)NH(3)]SnI(3) presents a lamellar structure with a Sn-I framework isotypic to that of MoO(3). The SnI(3)(-) layer consists of edge and corner-sharing SnI(6) octahedra in which one of the six Sn-I bonds is distinctly elongated (e.g., 3.62 A), indicating lone-pair stereoactivity for the Sn(II) atom. The overall electronic character remains comparable with that of the well-studied SnI(4)(2)(-)-based perovskite semiconductors, such as [CH(3)(CH(2))(11)NH(3)](2)SnI(4), with a red-shifted and broadened exciton peak associated with the band gap, apparently due to the increased dimensionality of the Sn-I framework. The title compound offers, aside from the hybrid perovskites, a new type of solution-processable Sn-I network for potential applications in semiconductive devices.

  19. Layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte-polyester hybrid microcapsules for encapsulation and delivery of hydrophobic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rongcong; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Neu, Björn

    2013-07-08

    A two-step process is developed to form layer-by-layer (LbL) polyelectrolyte microcapsules, which are able to encapsulate and deliver hydrophobic drugs. Spherical porous calcium carbonate (CaCO3) microparticles were used as templates and coated with a poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) layer containing hydrophobic compounds via an in situ precipitation gelling process. PLGA layers that precipitated from N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) had a lower loading and smoother surface than those precipitated from acetone. The difference may be due to different viscosities and solvent exchange dynamics. In the second step, the successful coating of multilayer polyelectrolytes poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) onto the PLGA coated CaCO3 microparticles was confirmed with AFM and ζ-potential studies. The release of a model hydrophobic drug, ibuprofen, from these hybrid microcapsules with different numbers of PAH/PSS layers was investigated. It was found that the release of ibuprofen decreases with increasing layer numbers demonstrating the possibility to control the release of ibuprofen with these novel hybrid microcapsules. Besides loading of hydrophobic drugs, the interior of these microcapsules can also be loaded with hydrophilic compounds and functional nanoparticles as demonstrated by loading with Fe3O4 nanoparticles, forming magnetically responsive dual drug releasing carriers.

  20. Continuous-wave lasing in an organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yufei; Kerner, Ross A.; Grede, Alex J.; Rand, Barry P.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-12-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as promising gain media for tunable, solution-processed semiconductor lasers. However, continuous-wave operation has not been achieved so far1-3. Here, we demonstrate that optically pumped continuous-wave lasing can be sustained above threshold excitation intensities of 17 kW cm-2 for over an hour in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) distributed feedback lasers that are maintained below the MAPbI3 tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition temperature of T ≈ 160 K. In contrast with the lasing death phenomenon that occurs for pure tetragonal-phase MAPbI3 at T > 160 K (ref. 4), we find that continuous-wave gain becomes possible at T ≈ 100 K from tetragonal-phase inclusions that are photogenerated by the pump within the normally existing, larger-bandgap orthorhombic host matrix. In this mixed-phase system, the tetragonal inclusions function as carrier recombination sinks that reduce the transparency threshold, in loose analogy to inorganic semiconductor quantum wells, and may serve as a model for engineering improved perovskite gain media.

  1. Design and electrical characterization of Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al organic/inorganic heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A., E-mail: aaaalghamdi4@kau.edu.sa [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Department of Physics, North Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Nawar, Ahmed M.; El-Tantawy, Farid [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Yaghmour, S.J. [Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, North Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Azam, Ameer [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Department of Physics, North Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We have successfully fabricated a Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al organic/inorganic heterojunction. • The calculated series resistance and the shunt resistance of the device were found to be 440 Ω and 1.47 MΩ, respectively. • The Cheung-Cheung and Norde’s models were used to investigate and determine the heterojunction parameters. • Essential junction parameters and performance of heterojunction established a photovoltaic behavior. • Open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) 0.382 V, short circuit photocurrent (I{sub SC}) 0.72 mA and power conversion efficiency (η) of 4.65%. - Abstract: Hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunction of nanocrystalline Anthracene and p-Si was fabricated by using a conventional thermal evaporation technique. The crystal and molecular structure of the Anthracene thin films were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transformation-Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The morphologies of the Anthracene/p-Si were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dark current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al heterojunction were investigated at room temperature (293 K). The calculated series resistance and the shunt resistance of the device were found to be 440 Ω and 1.47 MΩ, respectively. The Cheung-Cheung and Norde’s models were used to investigate and determine the heterojunction parameters. The ideality factor and barrier height values of the Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al diode were obtained to be 1.1 and 0.464 eV, respectively. The dependence of capacitance-voltage (C{sup -2}-V) for the device Anthracene/p-Si was found to be almost linear. Essential junction parameters and performance of heterojunction established a photovoltaic behavior with an open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) 0.382 V, short circuit photocurrent (I{sub SC}) 0.72 mA and power conversion efficiency (η) of 4.65%.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of perovskite-type solar cells with Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Jo; Oku, Takeo, E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp; Suzuki, Atsushi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi [The University of Shiga Prefecture, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunction solar cells containing perovskite CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} using Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} as an electron-transporting layer were fabricated and characterized. Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} layer showed an improvement of the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency using Ti{sub 0.95}Nb{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}.

  3. Nucleation and Crystal Growth of Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites under Different Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hao; Bao, Chunxiong; Li, Faming; Yu, Tao; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Weidong; Zhou, Xiaoxin; Fu, Gao; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-05-06

    Organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite compounds are very promising materials for high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. But how to fabricate high-quality perovksite films under controlled humidity conditions is still an important issue due to their sensitivity to moisture. In this study, we investigated the influence of ambient humidity on crystallization and surface morphology of one-step spin-coated perovskite films, as well as the performance of solar cells based on these perovskite films. On the basis of experimental analyses and thin film growth theory, we conclude that the influence of ambient humidity on nucleation at spin-coating stage is quite different from that on crystal growth at annealing stage. At the spin-coating stage, high nucleation density induced by high supersaturation prefers to appear under anhydrous circumstances, resulting in layer growth and high coverage of perovskite films. But at the annealing stage, the modest supersaturation benefits formation of perovskite films with good crystallinity. The films spin-coated under low relative humidity (RH) followed by annealing under high RH show an increase of crystallinity and improved performance of devices. Therefore, a mechanism of fast nucleation followed by modest crystal growth (high supersaturation at spin-coating stage and modest supersaturation at annealing stage) is suggested in the formation of high-quality perovskite films.

  4. Design, Structure, and Optical Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskites Containing an Oligothiophene Chromophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David B.; Chondroudis, Konstantinos; Kagan, Cherie R.

    1999-12-27

    A quaterthiophene derivative, 5,5' "-bis(aminoethyl)-2,2':5',2' ':5' ',2' "-quaterthiophene (AEQT), has been selected for incorporation within the layered organic-inorganic perovskite structure. In addition to having an appropriate molecular shape and two tethering aminoethyl groups to bond to the inorganic framework, AEQT is also a dye and can influence the optical properties of lead(II) halide-based perovskites. Crystals of C(20)H(22)S(4)N(2)PbBr(4) were grown from a slowly cooled aqueous solution containing lead(II) bromide and quaterthiophene derivative (AEQT.2HBr) salts. The new layered perovskite adopts a monoclinic (C2/c) subcell with the lattice parameters a = 39.741(2) Å, b = 5.8420(3) Å, c = 11.5734(6) Å, beta = 92.360(1) degrees, and Z = 4. Broad superstructure peaks are observed in the X-ray diffraction data, indicative of a poorly ordered, doubled supercell along both the a and b axes. The quaterthiophene segment of AEQT(2+) is nearly planar, with a syn-anti-syn relationship between adjacent thiophene rings. Each quaterthiophene chromophore is ordered between nearest-neighbor lead(II) bromide sheets in a herringbone arrangement with respect to neighboring quaterthiophenes. Room temperature optical absorption spectra for thermally ablated films of the perovskites (AEQT)PbX(4) (X = Cl, Br, I) exhibit an exciton peak arising from the lead(II) halide sheets, along with absorption from the quaterthiophene moiety. No evidence of the inorganic sheet excitonic transition is observed in the photoluminescence spectra for any of the chromophore-containing perovskites. However, strong quaterthiophene photoluminescence is observed for X = Cl, with an emission peak at approximately lambda(max) = 532 nm. Similar photoluminescence is observed for the X = Br and I materials, but with substantial quenching, as the inorganic layer band gap decreases relative to the chromophore HOMO-LUMO gap.

  5. Band Gap Tuning and Defect Tolerance of Atomically Thin Two-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Mohnish; Jacobsen, Karsten W; Thygesen, Kristian S

    2016-11-03

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskites have proven highly successful for photovoltaics but suffer from low stability, which deteriorates their performance over time. Recent experiments have demonstrated that low dimensional phases of the hybrid perovskites may exhibit improved stability. Here we report first-principles calculations for isolated monolayers of the organometallic halide perovskites (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 MX 2 Y 2 , where M = Pb, Ge, Sn and X,Y = Cl, Br, I. The band gaps computed using the GLLB-SC functional are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental photoluminescence data for the already synthesized perovskites. Finally, we study the effect of different defects on the band structure. We find that the most common defects only introduce shallow or no states in the band gap, indicating that these atomically thin 2D perovskites are likely to be defect tolerant.

  6. Intrinsic white-light emission from layered hybrid perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohner, Emma R; Jaffe, Adam; Bradshaw, Liam R; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2014-09-24

    We report on the second family of layered perovskite white-light emitters with improved photoluminescence quantum efficiencies (PLQEs). Upon near-ultraviolet excitation, two new Pb-Cl and Pb-Br perovskites emit broadband "cold" and "warm" white light, respectively, with high color rendition. Emission from large, single crystals indicates an origin from the bulk material and not surface defect sites. The Pb-Br perovskite has a PLQE of 9%, which is undiminished after 3 months of continuous irradiation. Our mechanistic studies indicate that the emission has contributions from strong electron-phonon coupling in a deformable lattice and from a distribution of intrinsic trap states. These hybrids provide a tunable platform for combining the facile processability of organic materials with the structural definition of crystalline, inorganic solids.

  7. Hybrid active layers from a conjugated polymer and inorganic nanoparticles for organic light emitting devices with emission colour tuned by electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, Andrey N; Alexandrova, Elena L; Shcherbakov, Igor P [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 26, Polytechnicheskaya Str., St Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: aleshin@transport.ioffe.ru

    2009-05-21

    We report on the investigation of the electrical and optical properties of hybrid active layers for organic devices consisting of a conjugated polymer MEH-PPV mixed with ZnO and Si nanoparticles. The effect of an electric field on the photoluminescence (PL) from a MEH-PPV : ZnO composite film is studied. We have found that in the absence of an electric field PL emission from the MEH-PPV : ZnO composites have two main maxima in the blue-red regions. Three additional minor PL maxima attributed to the exciplex states were found at {approx}420-480 nm. Application of a voltage bias to planar electrodes significantly suppresses the blue emission. Generation of excited states in the MEH-PPV : ZnO structures implies the presence of several radiative recombination mechanisms with the formation of polymer-nanoparticle complexes including exciplex states and charge transfer between the polymer and nanoparticles that can be controlled by an electric field. This effect provides the possibility to tune by an electric field the emission colour of organic light emitting diodes by combining an efficient emission from both organic/inorganic materials involved.

  8. Hybrid active layers from a conjugated polymer and inorganic nanoparticles for organic light emitting devices with emission colour tuned by electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, Andrey N; Alexandrova, Elena L; Shcherbakov, Igor P

    2009-01-01

    We report on the investigation of the electrical and optical properties of hybrid active layers for organic devices consisting of a conjugated polymer MEH-PPV mixed with ZnO and Si nanoparticles. The effect of an electric field on the photoluminescence (PL) from a MEH-PPV : ZnO composite film is studied. We have found that in the absence of an electric field PL emission from the MEH-PPV : ZnO composites have two main maxima in the blue-red regions. Three additional minor PL maxima attributed to the exciplex states were found at ∼420-480 nm. Application of a voltage bias to planar electrodes significantly suppresses the blue emission. Generation of excited states in the MEH-PPV : ZnO structures implies the presence of several radiative recombination mechanisms with the formation of polymer-nanoparticle complexes including exciplex states and charge transfer between the polymer and nanoparticles that can be controlled by an electric field. This effect provides the possibility to tune by an electric field the emission colour of organic light emitting diodes by combining an efficient emission from both organic/inorganic materials involved.

  9. Layer-dependent surface potential of phosphorene and anisotropic/layer-dependent charge transfer in phosphorene-gold hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhu, Yi; Yan, Han; Pei, Jiajie; Myint, Ye Win; Zhang, Shuang; Lu, Yuerui

    2016-01-07

    The surface potential and the efficiency of interfacial charge transfer are extremely important for designing future semiconductor devices based on the emerging two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene. Here, we directly measured the strong layer-dependent surface potential of mono- and few-layered phosphorene on gold, which is consistent with the reported theoretical prediction. At the same time, we used an optical way photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to probe charge transfer in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system. We firstly observed highly anisotropic and layer-dependent PL quenching in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system, which is attributed to the highly anisotropic/layer-dependent interfacial charge transfer.

  10. Improved Corrosion and Abrasion Resistance of Organic-Inorganic Composite Coated Electro-galvanized Steels for Digital TV Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Du-Hwan; Noh, Sang-Geol; Park, Jong-Tae; Kang, Choon-Ho [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Recently, household electronic industries require environmentally-friendly and highly functional steels in order to enhance the quality of human life. Customers especially require both excellent corrosion and abrasion resistant anti-fingerprint steels for digital TV panels. Thus POSCO has developed new functional electro-galvanized steels, which have double coated layers with organic-inorganic composites on the zinc surface of the steel for usage as the bottom chassis panel of TVs. The inorganic solution for the bottom layer consists of inorganic phosphate, magnesium, and zirconium compounds with a small amount of epoxy binder, and affords both improved adhesion properties by chemical conversion reactions and corrosion resistance due to a self-healing effect. The composite solution for the top layer was prepared by fine dispersion of organic-inorganic ingredients that consist of a urethane modified polyacrylate polymer, hardener, silica sol and a titanium complex inhibitor in aqueous media. Both composite solutions were coated on the steel surface by using a roll coater and then cured through an induction furnace in the electro-galvanizing line. New anti-fingerprint steel was evaluated for quality performance through such procedures as the salt spray test for corrosion resistance, tribological test for abrasion resistance, and conductivity test for surface electric conductance regarding to both types of polymer resin and coating weight of composite solution. New composite coated anti-fingerprint steels afford both better corrosion resistance and abrasion properties compared to conventional anti-fingerprint steel that mainly consists of acrylate polymers. Detailed discussions of both composite solutions and experimental results suggest that urethane modifications of acrylate polymers of composite solutions play a key role in enhanced quality performances.

  11. Organic-inorganic composite materials for high-performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, N.L. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the use of super-absorbent polymers (SAP) to increase the geometric capacitance density (GCD) of supercapacitor metal current collectors. A manganese (MnO{sub 2}) supercapacitor with a polyacrylate (PAA) polymer was characterized in order to demonstrate the SAP's ability to facilitate electrolyte distribution throughout the active layer due to its electrolyte-absorbing and swelling behaviour. The study demonstrated that the capacitance of the MnO{sub 2} remained unchanged over a wide range of heavy-active material loadings and current rates. Placing the PAA throughout the entire active layer magnified interactions between the PAA and MnO{sub 2}, and enhanced the capacitance of individual MnO{sub 2} particles. GCD values were higher than values obtained in the literature. Results suggested that the same method can be used in other SAP supercapacitor systems.

  12. Temperature dependent electrical characteristics of an organic-inorganic heterojunction obtained from a novel organometal Mn complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, Y.S.; Ebeoglu, M.A.; Topal, G.; Kilicoglu, T.

    2010-01-01

    This study includes synthesizing a Mn hexaamide (MnHA) organometal compound (C 27 H 21 N 9 O 6 MnCl 2 ).(1/2H 2 O), fabrication of MnHA/n-Si organic-inorganic heterojunction and analysis of conduction mechanism of the device over the room temperature. After synthesizing the molecule, the structure of the compound was determined using spectroscopic methods. The Sn/MnHA/n-Si structure was constructed by forming a thin MnHA layer on n-Si inorganic semiconductor and evaporating Sn metal on organic complex. The structure has shown good rectifying behavior and obeys the thermionic emission theory. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the diode have been measured at temperatures ranging from 300 to 380 K at 10 K intervals to determine the temperature dependent electrical characteristics of the device.

  13. Layer-by-Layer Hybrids of MoS2 and Reduced Graphene Oxide for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Yu; Ortiz-Quiles, Edwin O.; Cabrera, Carlos R.; Chen, Zhongfang; Zhou, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Layer-by-layer MoS 2 /rGO hybrids were prepared by rGO involved lithiation-exfoliation method. • This hybrid exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances due to the existence of rGO. • The roles of rGO in different charging/discharging processes were interpreted by computations. - Abstract: Two-dimensional MoS 2 shows great potential for effective Li storage due to its good thermal and chemical stability, high theoretical capacity, and experimental accessibility. However, the poor electrical conductivity and the restacking tendency significantly restrict its applications to lithium ion batteries (LIBs). To overcome these problems, we introduced reduced graphene oxides (rGO) to the intercalation-exfoliation preparation process of few-layered MoS 2 and obtained layer-by-layer MoS 2 /rGO hybrids. With the addition of rGO, the restacking of MoS 2 layers was apparently inhibited, and MoS 2 with 1 ∼ 3 layers was obtained in the composite. Due to the positive role of rGO, MoS 2 /rGO hybrids exhibited highly enhanced cyclic stability and high-rate performances as LIB anodes in comparison with bare MoS 2 layers or bulk MoS 2 . Moreover, the experimental results were well interpreted through density functional theory computations

  14. Magnetic properties of Fe-doped organic-inorganic nanohybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N. J. O.; Amaral, V. S.; Carlos, L. D.; de Zea Bermudez, V.

    2003-05-01

    We present a magnetic study of Fe-doped diureasils (siloxane-based networks to which poly(ethylene oxide)-based chains are grafted by urea cross linkages doped with Fe(II) or Fe(III) ions. Structural studies show that the Fe(II) ions interact mainly with the organic chain, whereas the incorporation of Fe(III) leads to the formation of iron-based nanoclusters, with radius increasing from 20 to 40 Å. Fe(II)-doped samples behave as simple paramagnets, with μeff=5.32μB. Fe(III)-doped hybrids present antiferromagnetic interactions, with TN increasing with Fe(III) concentration up to 13.6 K for 6% doping. Thermal irreversibility was observed below ˜40 K and is stronger for higher concentrations. The coercive fields (HC) are of the order of 1000 Oe at 5 K. Hysteresis cycles are shifted to negative fields, revealing the presence of exchange anisotropy interactions with exchange fields (HE) of the order of 100 Oe. Both fields decrease rapidly with increasing temperature. We analyze this behavior in terms of the contribution of surface spin disorder to exchange anisotropy.

  15. Reactivity II: A Second Foundation-Level Course in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; McIntee, Edward J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; Johnson, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    A foundation-level course is described that integrates material related to reactivity in organic, inorganic, and biochemistry. Designed for second-year students, the course serves majors in chemistry, biochemistry, and biology, as well as prehealth-professions students. Building on an earlier course that developed concepts of nucleophiles and…

  16. Reactivity III: An Advanced Course in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2017-01-01

    Reactivity III is a new course that presents chemical reactions from the domains of organic, inorganic, and biochemistry that are not readily categorized by electrophile-nucleophile interactions. Many of these reactions involve the transfer of a single electron, in either an intermolecular fashion in the case of oxidation/reduction reactions or an…

  17. Control of the interphase interaction and morphology in the organic-inorganic polymer nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Libor; Murias, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 10 (2010), s. 45-50 ISSN 1934-8959 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic-inorganic polymer * interphase interaction * nanocomposite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry http://www.davidpublishing.com

  18. Effects of Organic Cation Length on Exciton Recombination in Two-Dimensional Layered Lead Iodide Hybrid Perovskite Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lu; Li, Jing; Fang, Zhishan; He, Haiping; Ye, Zhizhen

    2017-10-19

    In recent years, 2D layered organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites have attracted considerable attention due to the distinctive quantum confinement effects as well as prominent excitonic luminescence. Herein, we show that the recombination dynamics and photoluminescence (PL) of the 2D layered perovskites can be tuned by the organic cation length. 2D lead iodide perovskite crystals with increased length of the organic chains reveal blue-shifted PL as well as enhanced relative internal quantum efficiency. Furthermore, we provide experimental evidence that the formation of face-sharing [PbI 6 ] 4- octahedron in perovskites with long alkyls induces additional confinement for the excitons, leading to 1D-like recombination. As a result, the PL spectra show enhanced inhomogeneous broadening at low temperature. Our work provides physical understanding of the role of organic cation in the optical properties of 2D layered perovskites, and would benefit the improvement of luminescence efficiency of such materials.

  19. Organic-inorganic nanosystems designed for multiple metal corrosion inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, Robert

    This research focuses on the refinement and discovery of environmentally friendly coatings of metals with increased durability and longer lifetimes as the goal. In the pursuit of an ideal, such as environmentally friendly coatings or "green chemistry," there are many obstacles that must be overcome. This is particularly true in the case of protecting magnesium and its alloys. The relatively low open circuit potential of magnesium makes it highly susceptible to galvanic corrosion when in contact with other metals. It is also easily oxidized when exposed to air or humid conditions and forms a loose hydroxide/oxide layer (Mg(OH)2/MgO). However, for all of its problems, the advantages to using magnesium far outweigh the disadvantages; if and only if, its natural tendency to corrode can be adequately controlled. Magnesium has a high strength to weight ratio, similar to that of glass, making it ideal for a vast array of commercial applications. Magnesium has a high electromagnetic shielding effect (-52.34 dB at 2.45/ GHz for AZ31), making it applicable not only to aircraft instrumentation, but structure as well, due to its low density (d = 1.48 g/cm3). The list of applications for magnesium and its alloys is extensive. Our research has provided insights into the prevention of magnesium corrosion and the applications of "green chemistry" to a metal used across a multitude of industries. Specifically, excellent results were obtained for the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of LZ91 (magnesium alloy) which demonstrated an impedance of 1.0 x 1010 Ohms to 1.0 x 1011 Ohms. These results suggest our coatings display a pure capacitance behavior in the Bode plot. According to ASTM B117 testing (salt fog testing) the coating on LZ91 panels reached 120 hours, a period considered to be the equivalent of five years of real world conditions, without appreciable corrosion. The possible mechanism for this corrosion protection will also be discussed. These advancements are

  20. Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summerhill, Richard [Internet2, Washington, DC (United States); Lehman, Tom [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Information Sciences Inst. (ISI); Ghani, Nasir [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering; Boyd, Eric [Univ. Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-08-14

    There were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation; Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing; Simulation; Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

  1. Collaborative Multi-Layer Network Coding in Hybrid Cellular Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Moubayed, Abdallah J.; Sorour, Sameh; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, as an extension to [1], we propose a prioritized multi-layer network coding scheme for collaborative packet recovery in hybrid (interweave and underlay) cellular cognitive radio networks. This scheme allows the uncoordinated

  2. Collaborative Multi-Layer Network Coding For Hybrid Cellular Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Moubayed, Abdallah J.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, as an extension to [1], we propose a prioritized multi-layer network coding scheme for collaborative packet recovery in hybrid (interweave and underlay) cellular cognitive radio networks. This scheme allows the uncoordinated

  3. HYBRID LAYER THICKNESS IN PRIMARY AND PERMANENT TEETH – A COMPARISON BETWEEN TOTAL ETCH ADHESIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gateva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim this study is to compare the hybrid layer thickness and its micromorphological characteristics in samples from primary and permanent teeth following application of total etch adhesives.Materials and methods: On intact specimens of 20 primary and 10 permanent teeth was created flat dentin surfaces. The patterns were divided in 6 groups. Two different total etch adhesive systems were used – one tree steps (OptiBond, Kerr and one two steps (Exite, VivaDent. In groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 recommended etching time was used - 15 s, in groups 1 and 2 the etching time was reduced to 7 s. After applying the adhesive, resin composite build-ups were constructed. Thus restored samples are stored in saline solution for 24 hours at temperature 37 C. Then they are subjected to thermal stress in temperature between 5 C to 55 C for 1,500 cycles and to masticatory stress – 150,000 cycles with force 100 N in intervals of 0.4 s. After that the teeth are cut through the middle in medio-distal direction with a diamond disc. SEM observation was done to investigate the thickness of the hybrid layer and the presence of microgaps. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA and Tukey׳s tests.Results: SEM observation showed significant differences of the hybrid layer thickness between primary and permanent teeth under equal conditions and after different etching time. Group 6 presented the highest average thickness 8.85 μ and group 1 the lowest average in hybrid layer 3.74 μ.Conclusion: In primary teeth the hybrid layer thickness increases with the increased etching time. The hybrid layer thickness in primary teeth is greater than that of the hybrid layer in permanent teeth under equal conditions. For primary teeth it is more appropriate to reduce the etching time to 7s to obtain a hybrid layer with better quality

  4. Hybrid perovskites: Approaches towards light-emitting devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2016-10-06

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted extensive research for photonic device applications. Using the bromide halide as an example, we present key approaches of our work towards realizing efficient perovskites based light-emitters. The approaches involved determination of optical constants for the hybrid perovskites thin films, fabrication of photonic nanostructures in the form of subwavelength grating reflector patterned directly on the hybrid perovskites as light manipulation layer, and enhancing the emission property of the hybrid perovskites by using microcavity structure. Our results provide a platform for realization of hybrid perovskites based light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting and display applications. © 2016 IEEE.

  5. Hybrid perovskites: Approaches towards light-emitting devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Dursun, Ibrahim; Priante, Davide; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Ng, Tien Khee; Bakr, Osman; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted extensive research for photonic device applications. Using the bromide halide as an example, we present key approaches of our work towards realizing efficient perovskites based light-emitters. The approaches involved determination of optical constants for the hybrid perovskites thin films, fabrication of photonic nanostructures in the form of subwavelength grating reflector patterned directly on the hybrid perovskites as light manipulation layer, and enhancing the emission property of the hybrid perovskites by using microcavity structure. Our results provide a platform for realization of hybrid perovskites based light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting and display applications. © 2016 IEEE.

  6. Building 3D Layer-by-Layer Graphene-Gold Nanoparticle Hybrid Architecture with Tunable Interlayer Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-26

    saturated 0.1 M KOH electrolyte aqueous solution. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and LSV curves were measured on a computer-controlled potentiostat (CHI 760C...analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, molecular simulation using Gaussian 09, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron diffraction (ED). The typical... Raman features of GO are Figure 1. Synthesis of GO-Cys-GNR. Figure 2. Scheme of the representative layer-by-layer graphene−GNR hybrid architecture. The

  7. Zymography of Hybrid Layers Created Using Extrafibrillar Demineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, L; Mazzoni, A; Gou, Y; Pucci, C; Breschi, L; Pashley, D H; Niu, L; Tay, F R

    2018-04-01

    A chelate-and-rinse extrafibrillar calcium chelation dentin bonding concept has recently been developed and investigated for its effectiveness in improving resin-dentin bonding by bridging the gap between wet and dry dentin bonding. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the gelatinolytic activity of hybrid layers (HLs) created using the chelate-and-rinse bonding technique. Gelatinolytic activity within the HL was examined using in situ zymography and confocal laser-scanning microscopy after 24-h storage or after thermomechanical cycling. Dentin specimens were bonded with Prime&Bond NT (Dentsply Sirona) after conditioning with 15 wt% phosphoric acid for 15 s (control) or 15 wt% polymeric chelators (sodium salt of polyacrylic acid; PAAN) of 2 different molecular weights for 60 s. For each reagent, bonding was performed using dry-bonding and wet-bonding techniques ( n = 10). Slices containing the adhesive-dentin interface were covered with fluorescein-conjugated gelatin and examined with a confocal laser-scanning microscope. Fluorescence intensity emitted by the hydrolyzed fluorescein-conjugated gelatin was quantified. Gelatinolytic activity was expressed as the percentage of green fluorescence emitted within the HL. After storage for 24 h, enzymatic activity was only detected within the completely demineralized phosphoric acid-etched dentin, with values derived from dry bonding higher than those from wet bonding ( P < 0.05). Almost no fluorescence signals were detected within the HL when dentin was conditioned with PAANs compared with the controls ( P < 0.05). After thermomechanical cycling, enzymatic activities significantly increased for the phosphoric acid-conditioned, drying-bonding group compared with 24-h storage ( P < 0.05). The present study showed that the use of the chelate-and-rinse bonding concept for both dry-bonding and wet-bonding approaches results in the near absence of matrix-bound collagenolytic activities in the HL even after aging

  8. Chromate-free Hybrid Coating for Corrosion Protection of Electrogalvanized Steel Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Duhwan; Kwon, Moonjae; Kim, Jongsang

    2012-01-01

    Both electrogalvanized and hot-dip galvanized steel sheets have been finally produced via organic-inorganic surface coating process on the zinc surface to enhance corrosion resistance and afford additional functional properties. Recently, POSCO has been developed a variety of chromate-free coated steels that are widely used in household, construction and automotive applications. New organic-inorganic hybrid coating solutions as chromate alternatives are comprised of surface modified silicate with silane coupling agent and inorganic corrosion inhibitors as an aqueous formulation. In this paper we have prepared new type of hybrid coatings and evaluated quality performances such as corrosion resistance, spot weldability, thermal tolerance, and paint adhesion property etc. The electrogalvanized steels with these coating solutions exhibit good anti-corrosion property compared to those of chromate coated steels. Detailed components composition of coating solutions and experimental results suggest that strong binding between organic-inorganic hybrid coating layer and zinc surface plays a key role in the advanced quality performances

  9. Synthesis of Polythiophene–Fullerene Hybrid Additives as Potential Compatibilizers of BHJ Active Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Kakogianni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorophenyl functionalities have been introduced as side chain substituents onto regioregular poly(3-hexyl thiophene (rr-P3HT, under various percentages. These functional groups were then converted to azides which were used to create polymeric hybrid materials with fullerene species, either C60 or C70. The P3HT–fullerene hybrids thus formed were thereafter evaluated as potential compatibilizers of BHJ active layers comprising P3HT and fullerene based acceptors. Therefore, a systematic investigation of the optical and morphological properties of the purified polymer–fullerene hybrid materials was performed, via different complementary techniques. Additionally, P3HT:PC70BM blends containing various percentages of the herein synthesized hybrid material comprising rr-P3HT and C70 were investigated via Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM in an effort to understand the effect of the hybrids as additives on the morphology and nanophase separation of this typically used active layer blend for OPVs.

  10. Nanoscale Organic−Inorganic Hybrid Lubricants

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel; Archer, Lynden A.

    2011-01-01

    Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles densely grafted with amphiphilic organic chains are used to create a family of organic-inorganic hybrid lubricants. Short sulfonate-functionalized alkylaryl chains covalently tethered to the particles form a dense corona

  11. Ionic liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Moganty, Surya S.; Schaefer, Jennifer L.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate physical and electrochemical properties of a family of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO 2

  12. New magnetic organic-inorganic composites based on hydrotalcite-like anionic clays for drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carja, Gabriela; Chiriac, Horia; Lupu, Nicoleta

    2007-01-01

    The structural 'memory effect' of anionic clays was used to obtain layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with tailored magnetic properties, by loading iron oxides and/or spinel structures on iron partially substituted hydrotalcite-like materials. The obtained magnetic layered structures were further used as precursors for new hybrid nanostructures, such as aspirin-hydrotalcite-like anionic clays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows that small iron oxide or spinel nanoparticles coexist with the fibrous drug particles on the surface of partially aggregated typical clay-like particles. The specific saturation magnetization of the loaded LDHs can be increased up to 70 emu/g by using specific post-synthesis treatments

  13. Cell-Based Fabrication of Organic/Inorganic Composite Gel Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Nakano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials containing components similar to the native biological tissue would have benefits as an implantable scaffold material. To obtain such biomimetic materials, cells may be great contributors because of their crucial roles in synthetic organics. In addition, the synthesized organics—especially those derived from osteogenic differentiated cells—become a place where mineral crystals nucleate and grow even in vitro. Therefore to fabricate an organic/inorganic composite material, which is similar to the biological osteoid tissue, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs were cultured in a 3D fibrin gel in this study. BMSCs secreted bone-related proteins that enhanced the biomineralization within the gel when the cells were cultured with an osteogenic differentiation medium. The compositions of both synthesized matrices and precipitated minerals in the obtained materials altered depending on the cell culture period. The mineral obtained in the 3D gel showed low crystalline hydroxyapatite. The composite materials also showed excellent osteoconductivity with new bone formation when implanted in mice tibiae. Thus, we demonstrated the contributions of cells for fabricating implantable organic/inorganic composite gel materials and a method for controlling the material composition in the gel. This cell-based material fabrication method would be a novel method to fabricate organic/inorganic composite biomimetic materials for bone tissue engineering.

  14. [Effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-li; Meng, Lin; Wang, Qiu-jun; Luo, Jia; Huang, Qi-wei; Xu, Yang-chun; Yang, Xing-ming; Shen, Qi-rong

    2009-03-01

    A field experiment was carried to study the effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield, nitrogen (N) use efficiency, soil N supply, and soil microbial diversity. Rapeseed cake compost (RCC), pig manure compost (PMC), and Chinese medicine residue compost (MRC) were mixed with chemical N, P and K fertilizers. All the treatments except CK received the same rate of N. The results showed that all N fertilizer application treatments had higher rice yield (7918.8-9449.2 kg x hm(-2)) than the control (6947.9 kg x hm(-2)). Compared with that of chemical fertilizers (CF) treatment (7918.8 kg x hm(-2)), the yield of the three organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers treatments ranged in 8532.0-9449.2 kg x hm(-2), and the increment was 7.7%-19.3%. Compared with treatment CF, the treatments of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers were significantly higher in N accumulation, N transportation efficiency, N recovery rate, agronomic N use efficiency, and physiological N use efficiency. These mixed fertilizers treatments promoted rice N uptake and improved soil N supply, and thus, increased N use efficiency, compared with treatments CF and CK. Neighbor joining analysis indicated that soil bacterial communities in the five treatments could be classified into three categories, i.e., CF and CK, PMC and MRC, and RCC, implying that the application of exogenous organic materials could affect soil bacterial communities, while applying chemical fertilizers had little effect on them.

  15. Optimal design of damping layers in SMA/GFRP laminated hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghdoust, P.; Cinquemani, S.; Lo Conte, A.; Lecis, N.

    2017-10-01

    This work describes the optimization of the shape profiles for shape memory alloys (SMA) sheets in hybrid layered composite structures, i.e. slender beams or thinner plates, designed for the passive attenuation of flexural vibrations. The paper starts with the description of the material and architecture of the investigated hybrid layered composite. An analytical method, for evaluating the energy dissipation inside a vibrating cantilever beam is developed. The analytical solution is then followed by a shape profile optimization of the inserts, using a genetic algorithm to minimize the SMA material layer usage, while maintaining target level of structural damping. Delamination problem at SMA/glass fiber reinforced polymer interface is discussed. At the end, the proposed methodology has been applied to study the hybridization of a wind turbine layered structure blade with SMA material, in order to increase its passive damping.

  16. Self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes in mixed organic-inorganic electrolytes and their photoelectrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai Yuekun [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Zhuang Huifang; Sun Lan [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chen Zhong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lin Changjian [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)], E-mail: cjlin@xmu.edu.cn

    2009-11-01

    The formation of self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array films by electrochemical anodizing titanium foils was investigated in a developed organic-inorganic mixed electrolyte. It was found that the structure and morphology of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube layer were greatly dependent upon the electrolyte composition, anodizing potential and time. Under the optimized electrolyte composition and electrochemical conditions, a controllable, well-ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube array layer could be fabricated in a short time. The diameters of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} nanotubes could be adjusted from 20 to 150 nm, and the thickness could be adjusted from a few hundred nanometers to several micrometers. The photoresponse and the photocatalytic activity of the highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube array films were also examined. The nanotube array film with a thickness of about 2.5 {mu}m had the highest incident photon to photocurrent conversion efficiency (IPCE) (34.3%) at the 350 nm wavelength, and had better charge transfer ability under UV light illumination. The photocatalytic experimental results indicated that the 450 deg. C annealing samples have the highest photodegradation efficiency for methyl orange pollutant.

  17. Interaction of Atmospheric Turbulence with Blade Boundary Layer Dynamics on a 5MW Wind Turbine using Blade-Boundary-Layer-Resolved CFD with hybrid URANS-LES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, Ganesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Brasseur, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lavely, Adam; Jayaraman, Balaji; Craven, Brent

    2016-01-04

    We describe the response of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine blade boundary layer to the passage of atmospheric turbulence using blade-boundary-layer-resolved computational fluid dynamics with hybrid URANS-LES modeling.

  18. Effect of layering sequence and chemical treatment on the mechanical properties of woven kenaf–aramid hybrid laminated composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya, R.; Sapuan, S.M.; Jawaid, M.; Leman, Z.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The mechanical properties of woven kenaf/Kevlar hybrid composites were analysed. • The layering sequences affect the mechanical properties of hybrid composites. • Treated kenaf improves the mechanical properties of hybrid composites. - Abstract: This work aims to evaluate the effect of layering sequence and chemical treatment on mechanical properties of woven kenaf–Kevlar composites. Woven kenaf–aramid hybrid laminated composites fabricated through hand lay-up techniques by arranging woven kenaf and Kevlar fabrics in different layering sequences and by using treated kenaf mat. To evaluate the effect of chemical treatment on hybrid composites, the woven kenaf mat was treated with 6% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) diluted solution and compared mechanical properties with untreated kenaf hybrid composites. Results shows that the tensile properties of hybrid composites improved in 3-layer composites compared to 4-layer composites. Hybrid composite with Kevlar as outer layers display a better mechanical properties as compared to other hybrid composites. Tensile and flexural properties of treated hybrid composites are better than non-treated hybrid composites. The fractured surface of hybrid composites was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. This study is a part of exploration of potential application of the hybrid composite in high velocity impact application

  19. Fabrication and Characteristics of ZnO/OAD-InN/PbPc Hybrid Solar Cells Prepared by Oblique-Angle Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chien Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, lead phthalocyanine (PbPc and ZnO/InN inorganic semiconductor films prepared by oblique-angle deposition (OAD were layered to form heterojunction organic/inorganic hybrid photovoltaic solar cells. Among the available organic materials, phthalocyanines, particularly the non-planar ones such as PbPc, are notable for their absorption in the visible and near infrared regions. The organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells fabricated on ZnO/OAD-InN/PbPc showed short-circuit current density (JSC, open-circuit voltage (VOC, and power conversion efficiencies (η of 1.2 mA/cm2, 0.6 V and 0.144%, respectively.

  20. Porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica: hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamamoto; Sacco; Biazzotto; Ciuffi; Serra

    2000-01-01

    New materials porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica template have been obtained by a sol-gel processing where functionalyzed porphyrins and metalloporphyrins "building blocks" were assembled into a three-dimensional silicate network. The optimized conditions for preparation of these materials are revised. The monomer precursors porphyrinopropylsilyl and metalloporphyrinopropylsilyl preparation reactions and subsequent one pot sol-gel processing with tetraethoxysilane are discussed. In the case of metalloporphyrins the nitrogen base coordinates to the central metal and acts as a template in the molecular imprinting technique. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic spectra, infrared spectra, luminescence spectra, surface area and electron spectroscopy imaging of the materials are used to characterize the prepared materials. The catalytic activities of these metalloporphyrinosilica-template are compared.

  1. ORGANIC/INORGANIC HYBRID EPOXY NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON OCTA(AMINOPHENYL)SILSESQUIOXANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-bo Fan; Rong-jie Yang; Xiang-mei Li

    2013-01-01

    Octa(aminophenyl)silsesquioxane (OAPS) was used as the curing agent of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy resin.A study on comparison of DGEBA/OAPS with DGEBA/4,4'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) epoxy resins was achieved.Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the curing reaction and its kinetics,and the glass transition of DGEBA/OAPS.Thermogravimetric analysis was used to investigate thermal decomposition of the two kinds of epoxy resins.The reactions between amino groups and epoxy groups were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphology of the two epoxy resins.The results indicated that OAPS had very good compatibility with DGEBA in molecular level,and could form a transparent DGEBA/OAPS resin.The curing reaction of the DGEBA/OAPS prepolymer could occur under low temperatures compared with DGEBA/DDS.The DGEBA/OAPS resin didn't exhibit glass transition,but the DGEBA/DDS did,which meant that the large cage structure of OAPS limited the motion of chains between the cross-linking points.Measurements of the contact angle indicated that the DGEBA/OAPS showed larger angles with water than the DGEBA/DDS resin.Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the incorporation of OAPS into epoxy system resulted in low mass loss rate and high char yield,but its initial decomposition temperature seemed to be lowered.

  2. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructured materials for photovoltaics and solar fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Lai-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen economy aiming to use hydrogen as a new potential fuel for motive power has been proposed as a promising model for this century. However, until now most of the H2 in use still comes from steam reforming which produces H2 via steam reaction at high temperature with fossil fuel. Solar

  3. PECASE: Nanostructure Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials for Active Opto-Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    per square) were cleaned via sequential ultrasonic rinses in detergent solution, deionized water, and acetone and then boiled in isopropanol for 5 min...TPD into the blue QDs due to the increased potential barrier at this junction (see band lineup in inset to Figure 4) or to the reduced tunneling rate

  4. Influence of crosslinker structure on performance of functionalised organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljević, J.; Zorko, M.; Štular, D.; Tomšič, B.; Jerman, I.; Orel, B.; Medved, J.; Simončič, B.

    2017-10-01

    This research aimed to investigate the influence of the co-condensation of the three different organofunctional trialkoxysilane precursors with two different crosslinkers, i.e. tetraethoxysilane or organocyclotetrasiloxane on the performance and the washing fastness of this multicomponent multifunctional sol-gel coating on cellulose fibres. To this aim, a three-component equimolar sol mixture (MC), which included 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (SiF), 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (SiQ) and P,P-diphenyl-N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl) phosphinic amide (SiP) in combination with two different concentrations of TEOS (T and 3T) or organocyclotetrasiloxane 2,4,6,8-tetrakis(2-(diethoxy(methyl)silyl)ethyl)-2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-cyclotetrasiloxane (T4) as crosslinkers, was applied to the cotton fibres by a pad-dry-cure process. The functional properties of the coated samples before and after repeated washing were investigated by the water θ (W) and n-hexadecane θ (C16) static contact angle as well as water sliding (roll-off) (α) angle measurements. The inclusion of both TEOS and T4 into the MC sol increased the hydrophobic affect and simultaneously decreased the oleophobic effect of the MC coating. These phenomena were more pronounced for higher concentration of TEOS and T4 crosslinker. The inclusion of T4 into the MC sol improved the coating washing fastness to a significantly higher extent than the inclusion of TEOS, with respect to the applied concentrations.

  5. 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Thin Films for Flexible UV-Visible Photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Velusamy, Dhinesh Babu; Haque, Mohammed; Parida, Manas R.; Zhang, Fan; Wu, Tao; Mohammed, Omar F.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    photodetection suitable for both UV and visible light with good responsivity, detectivity, and reliable and rapid photoswitching characteristics comparable to monolayer devices. This excellent performance is retained even after the films are severely deformed

  6. Porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica: hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASSUKO IAMAMOTO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available New materials porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica template have been obtained by a sol-gel processing where functionalyzed porphyrins and metalloporphyrins "building blocks" were assembled into a three-dimensional silicate network. The optimized conditions for preparation of these materials are revised. The monomer precursors porphyrinopropylsilyl and metalloporphyrinopropylsilyl preparation reactions and subsequent one pot sol-gel processing with tetraethoxysilane are discussed. In the case of metalloporphyrins the nitrogen base coordinates to the central metal and acts as a template in the molecular imprinting technique. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic spectra, infrared spectra, luminescence spectra, surface area and electron spectroscopy imaging of the materials are used to characterize the prepared materials. The catalytic activities of these metalloporphyrinosilica- template are compared.

  7. Preparation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials Based on MCM-41 and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana M. Alahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the covalent attachment of three different calix[4]arenes (calix[4]arene (C4, p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene (C4S, and p-tert-butyl-calix[4]arene (PC4 to MCM-41, using a three-step modification process. 3-Chloropropyltrimethoxysilane (ClPTS was first attached to the mesoporous silica surface and subsequently converted to amides via the reaction with toluene diisocyanate (TDI. Finally, calix[4]arene derivatives attached to the isocyanate ending remained available on toluene di-iso-cyanate. Changes in the surface properties of the mesoporous silica caused by the chemical modification were monitored using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermal analysis (TGA, and elemental analysis. The FTIR spectra and TGA analysis verify that the calix[4]arene derivatives are covalently attached to the mesoporous silica. The preservation of the MCM-41 channel system was checked by the X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption analysis. These materials were then used to evaluate the sorption properties of some organotins compounds (Tributyltin (TBT, Triphenyltin (TPT, and Dibutyltin (DBT.

  8. Hybrid Organic - Inorganic Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Low to Medium Temperature Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordova Chavez, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Crude oil, coal and gas are currently the main resources of energy in the world. The World Energy Outlook claimed in 2007 that the major source of energy (about 84%) would still be generated from fossil fuels in 2030. By these projections, the world's fossil fuel reserves will be consumed within a

  9. Cation-Dependent Light-Induced Halide Demixing in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter-Fella, Carolin M; Ngo, Quynh P; Cefarin, Nicola; Gardner, Kira L; Tamura, Nobumichi; Stan, Camelia V; Drisdell, Walter S; Javey, Ali; Toma, Francesca M; Sharp, Ian D

    2018-06-13

    Mixed cation metal halide perovskites with increased power conversion efficiency, negligible hysteresis, and improved long-term stability under illumination, moisture, and thermal stressing have emerged as promising compounds for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we shed light on photoinduced halide demixing using in situ photoluminescence spectroscopy and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) to directly compare the evolution of composition and phase changes in CH(NH 2 ) 2 CsPb-halide (FACsPb-) and CH 3 NH 3 Pb-halide (MAPb-) perovskites upon illumination, thereby providing insights into why FACs-perovskites are less prone to halide demixing than MA-perovskites. We find that halide demixing occurs in both materials. However, the I-rich domains formed during demixing accumulate strain in FACsPb-perovskites but readily relax in MA-perovskites. The accumulated strain energy is expected to act as a stabilizing force against halide demixing and may explain the higher Br composition threshold for demixing to occur in FACsPb-halides. In addition, we find that while halide demixing leads to a quenching of the high-energy photoluminescence emission from MA-perovskites, the emission is enhanced from FACs-perovskites. This behavior points to a reduction of nonradiative recombination centers in FACs-perovskites arising from the demixing process and buildup of strain. FACsPb-halide perovskites exhibit excellent intrinsic material properties with photoluminescence quantum yields that are comparable to MA-perovskites. Because improved stability is achieved without sacrificing electronic properties, these compositions are better candidates for photovoltaic applications, especially as wide bandgap absorbers in tandem cells.

  10. Cation-Dependent Light-Induced Halide Demixing in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter-Fella, CM; Ngo, QP; Cefarin, N; Gardener, K; Tamura, N; Stan, CV; Drisdell, WS; Javey, A; Toma, FM; Sharp, ID

    2018-01-01

    © 2018 American Chemical Society. Mixed cation metal halide perovskites with increased power conversion efficiency, negligible hysteresis, and improved long term stability under illumination, moisture, and thermal stressing have emerged as promising compounds for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we shed light on photo-induced halide demixing using in-situ photoluminescence spectroscopy and in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) to directly compare the evolution of comp...

  11. Full-color tuning in binary polymer:perovskite nanocrystals organic-inorganic hybrid blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perulli, A.; Balena, A.; Fernandez, M.; Nedelcu, G.; Cretí, A.; Kovalenko, M. V.; Lomascolo, M.; Anni, M.

    2018-04-01

    The excellent optical and electronic properties of metal halide perovskites recently proposed these materials as interesting active materials for optoelectronic applications. In particular, the high color purity of perovskite colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) had recently motivated their exploration as active materials for light emitting diodes with tunable emission across the visible range. In this work, we investigated the emission properties of binary blends of conjugated polymers and perovskite NCs. We demonstrate that the emission color of the blends is determined by the superposition of the component photoluminescence spectra, allowing color tuning by acting on the blend relative composition. The use of two different polymers, two different perovskite NCs, and different blend compositions is exploited to tune the blend color in the blue-green, yellow-red, and blue-red ranges, including white light generation.

  12. Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite FETs for Electrically Injected Laser Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Wake Forest University REPORT NUMBER Department of Physics...Action PI, Oana D. Jurchescu, Wake Forest University In collaboration with Z. Valy Vardeny ( University of Utah) -supported under N00014-15-1-2524 ONR...between mob ili ty and y can be clearly observed. The mobility increases over fi ve orders of magnitude as a result of decreasing y by about 20 times

  13. Enzymatically Degradable Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for In-Vitro Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Fatieiev, Yevhen

    2015-06-30

    Non-aggregated dense bridged silsesquioxane (BS) nanoparticles based on nature-inspired oxamide bridges are shown to degrade in simulated biological media upon cleavage with endopeptidase. Fluorescent BS nanoprobes with incorporated fluorescein dyes were applied for in-vitro imaging in cancer cells.

  14. High Excitation Intensity Opens a New Trapping Channel in Organic - Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zheng, K.; Žídek, Karel; Abdellah, M.; Chen, J.S.; Chábera, P.; Zhang, W.; Al-Marri, M.J.; Pullerits, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 6 (2016), s. 1154-1161 ISSN 2380-8195 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : LEAD HALIDE PEROVSKITES * QUANTUM DOTS * NANOCRYSTALS Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  15. Structural versus electrical properties of an organic-inorganic hybrid material based on sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rached, Asma; Guionneau, Philippe; Lebraud, Eric; Mhiri, Tahar; Elaoud, Zakaria

    2017-01-01

    A new organo-sulfate compound is obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature and is characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) at variable temperatures. The benzylammonium monohydrogenosulfate of formula C6H5CH2NH3+. HSO4-, denoted (BAS), crystallizes in the monoclinic system P21/c space group with the following parameters at room temperature: a=5.623(5)Å, b=20.239(5) Å, c=8.188(5)Å, β=94.104(5)°. The crystal structure consists of infinite parallel two-dimensional planes built by HSO4- anions and C6H5CH2NH3+ cations interconnected by strong O-H….. O and N-H….. O hydrogen bonds. A phase transition is detected at 350 K by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and confirmed by powder XRD. Conductivity measurements using the impedance spectroscopy technique allow to determine the conductivity relaxation parameters associated with the H+ conduction from an analysis of the M"/M"max spectrum measured in a wide temperature range. Transport properties of this material appear to be due to an H+ ion hopping mechanism.

  16. Enzymatically Degradable Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for In-Vitro Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Fatieiev, Yevhen; Croissant, Jonas G.; Julfakyan, Khachatur; Deng, Lin; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Gurinov, Andrei; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2015-01-01

    Non-aggregated dense bridged silsesquioxane (BS) nanoparticles based on nature-inspired oxamide bridges are shown to degrade in simulated biological media upon cleavage with endopeptidase. Fluorescent BS nanoprobes with incorporated fluorescein dyes

  17. Inhibiting prolyl isomerase activity by hybrid organic-inorganic molecules containing rhodium(II) fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jane M; Kundu, Rituparna; Cooper, Julian C; Ball, Zachary T

    2014-11-15

    A small molecule containing a rhodium(II) tetracarboxylate fragment is shown to be a potent inhibitor of the prolyl isomerase FKBP12. The use of small molecules conjugates of rhodium(II) is presented as a general strategy for developing new protein inhibitors based on distinct structural and sequence features of the enzyme active site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Deposition of hybrid organic-inorganic composite coatings using an atmospheric plasma jet system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Amidou; Rahman, Mahfujur; Reid, Ian; Twomey, Barry; MacElroy, J M Don; Dowling, Denis P

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of alcohol addition on the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into nm thick siloxane coatings. Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with diameters of 30-80 nm were incorporated into an atmospheric plasma deposited tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) siloxane coating. The TMOS/TiO2 coating was deposited using the atmospheric plasma jet system known as PlasmaStream. In this system the liquid precursor/nanoparticle mixture is nebulised into the plasma. It was observed that prior to being nebulised the TiO2 particles agglomerated and settled over time in the TMOS/TiO2 mixture. In order to obtain a more stable nanoparticle/TMOS suspension the addition of the alcohols methanol, octanol and pentanol to this mixture was investigated. The addition of each of these alcohols was found to stabilise the nanoparticle suspension. The effect of the alcohol was therefore assessed with respect to the properties of the deposited coatings. It was observed that coatings deposited from TMOS/TiO2, with and without the addition of methanol were broadly similar. In contrast the coatings deposited with octanol and pentanol addition to the TMOS/TiO2 mixture were significantly thicker, for a given set of deposition parameters and were also more homogeneous. This would indicate that the alcohol precursor was incorporated into the plasma polymerised siloxane. The incorporation of the organic functionality from the alcohols was confirmed from FTIR spectra of the coatings. The difference in behaviour with alcohol type is likely to be due to the lower boiling point of methanol (65 degrees C), which is lower than the maximum plasma temperature measured at the jet orifice (77 degrees C). This temperature is significantly lower than the 196 degrees C and 136 degrees C boiling points of octanol and pentanol respectively. The friction of the coatings was determined using the Pin-on-disc technique. The more organic coatings deposited with octanol and pentanol exhibited friction values of 0.2, compared with approx. 0.8 for the coatings deposited from TMOS/TiO2 mixture (with and without methanol). Wear performance comparison between the two types of coating again indicated a significant organic component in the coatings deposited from the higher boiling point alcohols.

  19. Solvent-Assisted Gel Printing for Micropatterning Thin Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Beomjin; Hwang, Ihn; Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Eui Hyuk; Cha, Soonyoung; Lee, Jinseong; Kang, Han Sol; Cho, Suk Man; Choi, Hyunyong; Park, Cheolmin

    2016-09-27

    While tremendous efforts have been made for developing thin perovskite films suitable for a variety of potential photoelectric applications such as solar cells, field-effect transistors, and photodetectors, only a few works focus on the micropatterning of a perovskite film which is one of the most critical issues for large area and uniform microarrays of perovskite-based devices. Here we demonstrate a simple but robust method of micropatterning a thin perovskite film with controlled crystalline structure which guarantees to preserve its intrinsic photoelectric properties. A variety of micropatterns of a perovskite film are fabricated by either microimprinting or transfer-printing a thin spin-coated precursor film in soft-gel state with a topographically prepatterned elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold, followed by thermal treatment for complete conversion of the precursor film to a perovskite one. The key materials development of our solvent-assisted gel printing is to prepare a thin precursor film with a high-boiling temperature solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide. The residual solvent in the precursor gel film makes the film moldable upon microprinting with a patterned PDMS mold, leading to various perovskite micropatterns in resolution of a few micrometers over a large area. Our nondestructive micropatterning process does not harm the intrinsic photoelectric properties of a perovskite film, which allows for realizing arrays of parallel-type photodetectors containing micropatterns of a perovskite film with reliable photoconduction performance. The facile transfer of a micropatterned soft-gel precursor film on other substrates including mechanically flexible plastics can further broaden its applications to flexible photoelectric systems.

  20. Dielectric properties of PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Acosta, M. D.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Alshareef, Husam N.; Gnade, Bruce E.; Ramí rez-Bon, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid films were synthesized by a modified sol-gel process. PMMASiO2 films were prepared using methylmethacrylate (MMA), tetraethil-orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon dioxide source, and 3-trimetoxi-silil-propil-methacrylate (TMSPM) as coupling agent. FTIR measurements were performed on the hybrid films to confirm the presence of PMMA-SiO2 bonding. In addition, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices were fabricated to study the dielectric constant of the films as function of frequency (1 KHz to 1 MHz). Electrical results show a weak trend of the dielectric constant of the hybrid films with MMA molar ratio. More importantly, the PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films showed a higher dielectric constant than SiO2 and PMMA layers, which is likely due to the presence of additional C-O-C bond. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

  1. Dielectric properties of PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Acosta, M. D.

    2010-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid films were synthesized by a modified sol-gel process. PMMASiO2 films were prepared using methylmethacrylate (MMA), tetraethil-orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon dioxide source, and 3-trimetoxi-silil-propil-methacrylate (TMSPM) as coupling agent. FTIR measurements were performed on the hybrid films to confirm the presence of PMMA-SiO2 bonding. In addition, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices were fabricated to study the dielectric constant of the films as function of frequency (1 KHz to 1 MHz). Electrical results show a weak trend of the dielectric constant of the hybrid films with MMA molar ratio. More importantly, the PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films showed a higher dielectric constant than SiO2 and PMMA layers, which is likely due to the presence of additional C-O-C bond. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

  2. Hybrid diffusion-P3 equation in N-layered turbid media: steady-state domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenzhi; Zhao, Huijuan; Xu, Kexin

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses light propagation in N-layered turbid media. The hybrid diffusion-P3 equation is solved for an N-layered finite or infinite turbid medium in the steady-state domain for one point source using the extrapolated boundary condition. The Fourier transform formalism is applied to derive the analytical solutions of the fluence rate in Fourier space. Two inverse Fourier transform methods are developed to calculate the fluence rate in real space. In addition, the solutions of the hybrid diffusion-P3 equation are compared to the solutions of the diffusion equation and the Monte Carlo simulation. For the case of small absorption coefficients, the solutions of the N-layered diffusion equation and hybrid diffusion-P3 equation are almost equivalent and are in agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation. For the case of large absorption coefficients, the model of the hybrid diffusion-P3 equation is more precise than that of the diffusion equation. In conclusion, the model of the hybrid diffusion-P3 equation can replace the diffusion equation for modeling light propagation in the N-layered turbid media for a wide range of absorption coefficients.

  3. Hybrid tandem photovoltaic devices with a transparent conductive interconnecting recombination layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehee; Choi, Jin Young; Jeon, Jun Hong; Kim, Youn-Su; Kim, Bong-Soo; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Honggon; Han, Seunghee; Kim, Kyungkon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This work enhanced power conversion efficiency of the hybrid tandem solar cell from 1.0% to 2.6%. ► The interfacial series resistance of the tandem solar cell was eliminated by inserting ITO layer. ► This work shows the feasibility of the highly efficient hybrid tandem solar cells. -- Abstract: We demonstrate hybrid tandem photovoltaic devices with a transparent conductive interconnecting recombination layer. The series-connected hybrid tandem photovoltaic devices were developed by combining hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and polymer-based organic photovoltaics (OPVs). In order to enhance the interfacial connection between the subcells, we employed highly transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) thin layer. By using the ITO interconnecting layer, the power conversion efficiency of the hybrid tandem solar cell was enhanced from 1.0% (V OC = 1.041 V, J SC = 2.97 mA/cm 2 , FF = 32.3%) to 2.6% (V OC = 1.336 V, J SC = 4.65 mA/cm 2 , FF = 41.98%) due to the eliminated interfacial series resistance.

  4. Collaborative-Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, Tom [USC; Ghani, Nasir [UNM; Boyd, Eric [UCAID

    2010-08-31

    At a high level, there were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, including OSCARS layer2 and InterDomain Adaptation, Integration of LambdaStation and Terapaths with Layer2 dynamic provisioning, Control plane software release, Scheduling, AAA, security architecture, Network Virtualization architecture, Multi-Layer Network Architecture Framework Definition; o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing; o Simulation; o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

  5. Environmental Effects on the Photophysics of Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galisteo-López, Juan F; Anaya, M; Calvo, M E; Míguez, H

    2015-06-18

    The photophysical properties of films of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites under different ambient conditions are herein reported. We demonstrate that their luminescent properties are determined by the interplay between photoinduced activation and darkening processes, which strongly depend on the atmosphere surrounding the samples. We have isolated oxygen and moisture as the key elements in each process, activation and darkening, both of which involve the interaction with photogenerated carriers. These findings show that environmental factors play a key role in the performance of lead halide perovskites as efficient luminescent materials.

  6. Polystyrene-poly(vinylphenol) copolymers as compatibilzers for organic-inorganic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, C.J.T.; Coltrain, B.K.; Teegarden, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Random, graft, and block copolymers of polystyrene (PS) and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh), and PVPh homopolymer are shown to act as compatibilizers for incompatible organic-inorganic composite materials. The VPh component reacts, or interacts strongly with the polymerizing inorganic (titanium or zirconium) alkoxide. The organic components studied were PS, poly(vinyl methyl ether), and poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). The use of such compatibilizers provides a means of combining in situ polymerized inorganic oxides and hydrophobic polymers. This is seen as a reduction in the size of the dispersed inorganic phase and results in improved optical and mechanical properties

  7. Effectiveness evaluation of double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rao, Qiaomeng

    2018-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of high speed, large capacity and limited spectrum resources of satellite communication network, a double-layered satellite network with global seamless coverage based on laser and microwave hybrid links is proposed in this paper. By analyzing the characteristics of the double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links, an effectiveness evaluation index system for the network is established. And then, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, which combines the analytic hierarchy process and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation theory, is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links. Furthermore, the evaluation result of the proposed hybrid link network is obtained by simulation. The effectiveness evaluation process of the proposed double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links can help to optimize the design of hybrid link double-layered satellite network and improve the operating efficiency of the satellite system.

  8. [(CH3)3NCH2CH2NH3]SnI4: a layered perovskite with quaternary/primary ammonium dications and short interlayer iodine-iodine contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhengtao; Mitzi, David B; Medeiros, David R

    2003-03-10

    The organic-inorganic hybrid [(CH(3))(3)NCH(2)CH(2)NH(3)]SnI(4) presents a layered perovskite structure, templated by an organic dication containing both a primary and a quaternary ammonium group. Due to the high charge density and small size of the organic cation, the separation of the perovskite layers is small and short iodine-iodine contacts of 4.19 A are formed between the layers. Optical thin-film measurements on this compound indicate a significant red shift of the exciton peak (630 nm) associated with the band gap, as compared with other SnI(4)(2)(-)-based layered perovskite structures.

  9. Hybrid n-Alkylamine Intercalated Layered Titanates for Solid Lubrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, P.; Yuan, H.; van den Nieuwenhuijzen, Karin Jacqueline Huberta; Lette, W.; Schipper, Dirk J.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2016-01-01

    The intercalation of different primary n-alkylamines in the structure of a layered titanate of the lepidocrocite type (H1.07Ti1.73O4) for application in high-temperature solid lubrication is reported. The intercalation process of the amines was explored by means of in situ small-angle X-ray

  10. Thin hybrid pixel assembly fabrication development with backside compensation layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, R., E-mail: richard.bates@glasgow.ac.uk [Experimental Particle Physics Group, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Buttar, C.; McMullen, T.; Cunningham, L.; Ashby, J.; Doherty, F. [Experimental Particle Physics Group, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pares, G.; Vignoud, L.; Kholti, B. [CEA Leti, MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, F38054, Grenoble (France); Vahanen, S. [Advacam Oy, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2017-02-11

    The ATLAS and CMS experiments will both replace their entire tracking systems for operation at the HL-LHC in 2026. This will include a significantly larger pixel systems, for example, for ATLAS approximately 15 m{sup 2}. To keep the tracker material budget low it is crucial to minimize the mass of the pixel modules via thinning both the sensor and readout chip to about 150 μm each. The bump yield of thin module assemblies using solder based bump bonding can be problematic due to wafer bowing during solder reflow at high temperature. A new bump-bonding process using backside compensation on the readout chip to address the issue of low yield will be presented. The objective is to compensate dynamically the stress of the front side stack by adding a compensating layer to the backside of the wafer. A SiN and Al:Si stack has been chosen for the backside layer. The bow reducing effect of applying a backside compensation layer will be demonstrated using the FE-I4 wafer. The world's first results from assemblies produced from readout wafers thinned to 100 μm with a stress compensation layer are presented with bond yields close to 100% measured using the FE-I4 readout chip.

  11. Layered Hydroxide–Porphyrin Hybrid Materials: Synthesis, Structure, and Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demel, Jan; Lang, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 32 (2012), s. 5154-5164 ISSN 1434-1948 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/10/1447 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : layered compounds * intercalations * porphyrinoids * phthalocyanine s * singlet oxygen Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.120, year: 2012

  12. New magnetic organic-inorganic composites based on hydrotalcite-like anionic clays for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carja, Gabriela [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Industrial Chemistry, Technical University of Iasi, 71 Mangeron Boulevard, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Chiriac, Horia [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Boulevard, 700050 Iasi (Romania)]. E-mail: hchiriac@phys-iasi.ro; Lupu, Nicoleta [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Boulevard, 700050 Iasi (Romania)

    2007-04-15

    The structural 'memory effect' of anionic clays was used to obtain layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with tailored magnetic properties, by loading iron oxides and/or spinel structures on iron partially substituted hydrotalcite-like materials. The obtained magnetic layered structures were further used as precursors for new hybrid nanostructures, such as aspirin-hydrotalcite-like anionic clays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows that small iron oxide or spinel nanoparticles coexist with the fibrous drug particles on the surface of partially aggregated typical clay-like particles. The specific saturation magnetization of the loaded LDHs can be increased up to 70 emu/g by using specific post-synthesis treatments.

  13. Majority ion heating near the ion-ion hybrid layer in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.K.; Hosea, J.C.; Ignat, D.; Majeski, R.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.; Wilson, J.R.

    1995-08-01

    Efficient direct majority ion heating in a deuterium-tritium (D-T) reactor-grade plasma via absorption of fast magnetosonic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is discussed. Majority ion heating results from resonance overlap between the cyclotron layers and the D-T ion-ion hybrid layer in hot, dense plasmas for fast waves launched with high parallel wavenumbers. Analytic and numerical models are used to explore the regime in ITER plasmas

  14. Preparation and characterization of self-crosslinked organic/inorganic proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuangling; Cui, Xuejun; Dou, Sen; Liu, Wencong

    A series of silicon-containing sulfonated polystyrene/acrylate (Si-sPS/A) nanoparticles are successfully synthesized via simple emulsion polymerization method. The Si-sPS/A latexes show good film-forming capability and the self-crosslinked organic/inorganic proton exchange membranes are prepared by pouring the Si-sPS/A nanoparticle latexes into glass plates and drying at 60 °C for 10 h and 120 °C for 2 h. The potential of the membranes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is characterized preliminarily by studying their thermal stability, ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, methanol diffusion coefficient, proton conductivity and selectivity (proton conductivity/methanol diffusion coefficient). The results indicate that these membranes possess excellent thermal stability and methanol barrier due to the existence of self-crosslinked silica network. In addition, the proton conductivity of the membranes is in the range of 10 -3-10 -2 S cm -1 and all the membranes show much higher selectivity in comparison with Nafion ® 117. These results suggest that the self-crosslinked organic/inorganic proton exchange membranes are particularly promising in DMFC applications.

  15. Organic-Inorganic Hydrophobic Nanocomposite Film with a Core-Shell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A method to prepare novel organic-inorganic hydrophobic nanocomposite films was proposed by a site-specific polymerization process. The inorganic part, the core of the nanocomposite, is a ternary SiO2–Al2O3–TiO2 nanoparticles, which is grafted with methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane (KH570, and wrapped by fluoride and siloxane polymers. The synthesized samples are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, contact angle meter (CA, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results indicate that the novel organic-inorganic hydrophobic nanocomposite with a core-shell structure was synthesized successfully. XRD analysis reveals the nanocomposite film has an amorphous structure, and FTIR analysis indicates the nanoparticles react with a silane coupling agent (methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane KH570. Interestingly, the morphology of the nanoparticle film is influenced by the composition of the core. Further, comparing with the film synthesized by silica nanoparticles, the film formed from SiO2–Al2O3–TiO2 nanoparticles has higher hydrophobic performance, i.e., the contact angle is greater than 101.7°. In addition, the TEM analysis reveals that the crystal structure of the particles can be changed at high temperatures.

  16. Modeling the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, A. N.; Viglione, G. A.; Li, Z.; McNeill, V. Faye

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can contain thousands of organic compounds which impact aerosol surface tension, affecting aerosol properties such as heterogeneous reactivity, ice nucleation, and cloud droplet formation. We present new experimental data for the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic aqueous mixtures mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Each solution contained 2-6 organic compounds, including methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, oxalic acid, succinic acid, leucine, alanine, glycine, and serine, with and without ammonium sulfate. We test two semi-empirical surface tension models and find that most reactive, complex, aqueous organic mixtures which do not contain salt are well described by a weighted Szyszkowski-Langmuir (S-L) model which was first presented by Henning et al. (2005). Two approaches for modeling the effects of salt were tested: (1) the Tuckermann approach (an extension of the Henning model with an additional explicit salt term), and (2) a new implicit method proposed here which employs experimental surface tension data obtained for each organic species in the presence of salt used with the Henning model. We recommend the use of method (2) for surface tension modeling of aerosol systems because the Henning model (using data obtained from organic-inorganic systems) and Tuckermann approach provide similar modeling results and goodness-of-fit (χ2) values, yet the Henning model is a simpler and more physical approach to modeling the effects of salt, requiring less empirically determined parameters.

  17. Hybrid inorganic–organic superlattice structures with atomic layer deposition/molecular layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynell, Tommi; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2014-01-15

    A combination of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) techniques is successfully employed to fabricate thin films incorporating superlattice structures that consist of single layers of organic molecules between thicker layers of ZnO. Diethyl zinc and water are used as precursors for the deposition of ZnO by ALD, while three different organic precursors are investigated for the MLD part: hydroquinone, 4-aminophenol and 4,4′-oxydianiline. The successful superlattice formation with all the organic precursors is verified through x-ray reflectivity studies. The effects of the interspersed organic layers/superlattice structure on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of ZnO are investigated through resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements at room temperature. The results suggest an increase in carrier concentration for small concentrations of organic layers, while higher concentrations seem to lead to rather large reductions in carrier concentration.

  18. A Hybrid Three Layer Architecture for Fire Agent Management in Rescue Simulation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alborz Geramifard

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new architecture called FAIS for imple- menting intelligent agents cooperating in a special Multi Agent environ- ment, namely the RoboCup Rescue Simulation System. This is a layered architecture which is customized for solving fire extinguishing problem. Structural decision making algorithms are combined with heuristic ones in this model, so it's a hybrid architecture.

  19. A Hybrid Three Layer Architecture for Fire Agent Management in Rescue Simulation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alborz Geramifard

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new architecture called FAIS for implementing intelligent agents cooperating in a special Multi Agent environment, namely the RoboCup Rescue Simulation System. This is a layered architecture which is customized for solving fire extinguishing problem. Structural decision making algorithms are combined with heuristic ones in this model, so it's a hybrid architecture.

  20. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Optical and structural properties of protein/gold hybrid bio-nanofilms prepared by layer-by-layer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál, Edit; Hornok, Viktória; Sebok, Dániel; Majzik, Andrea; Dékány, Imre

    2010-08-01

    Lysozyme/gold thin layers were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method. The build-up of the films was followed by UV-vis-absorbance spectra, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) techniques. The structural property of films was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, while their morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that gold nanoparticles (NPs) had cubic crystalline structure, the primary particles form aggregates in the thin layer due to the presence of lysozyme molecules. The UV-vis measurements prove change in particle size while the colour of the film changes from wine-red to blue. The layer thickness of films was determined using the above methods and the loose, porous structure of the films explains the difference in the results. The vapour adsorption property of hybrid layers was also studied by QCM using different saturated vapours and ammonia gas. The lysozyme/Au films were most sensitive for ammonia gas among the tested gases/vapours due to the strongest interaction between the functional groups of the protein. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrically Anisotropic Layered Perovskite Single Crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting-You

    2016-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs), which are promising materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications (1-10), have made into layered organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (LOIHPs). These LOIHPs have been applied to thin-film transistors, solar cells and tunable wavelength phosphors (11-18). It is known that devices fabricated with single crystal exhibit the superior performance, which makes the growth of large-sized single crystals critical for future device applications (19-23). However, the difficulty in growing large-sized LOIHPs single crystal with superior electrical properties limits their practical applications. Here, we report a method to grow the centimeter-scaled LOIHP single crystal of [(HOC2H4NH3)2PbI4], demonstrating the potentials in mass production. After that, we reveal anisotropic electrical and optoelectronic properties which proved the carrier propagating along inorganic framework. The carrier mobility of in-inorganic-plane (in-plane) devices shows the average value of 45 cm2 V–1 s–1 which is about 100 times greater than the record of LOIHP devices (15), showing the importance of single crystal in device application. Moreover, the LOIHP single crystals show its ultra-short carrier lifetime of 42.7 ps and photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of 25.4 %. We expect this report to be a start of LOIHPs for advanced applications in which the anisotropic properties are needed (24-25), and meets the demand of high-speed applications and fast-response applications.

  4. Microcapsule production by an hybrid colloidosome-layer-by-layer technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossier Miranda, F.J.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although many different methods for microencapsulation are known only some of them had been applied at industrial scale, due to complexity, lack of mechanical strength of the resulting capsules, and the costs related to their production. One of such methods is the electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL)

  5. Hybrid dual gate ferroelectric memory for multilevel information storage

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser; Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report hybrid organic/inorganic ferroelectric memory with multilevel information storage using transparent p-type SnO semiconductor and ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymer. The dual gate devices include a top ferroelectric field

  6. Amine-oxide hybrid materials for acid gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen; Didas, Stephanie A.; Jones, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on porous silica materials functionalized with amine-containing organic species are emerging as an important class of materials for the adsorptive separation of acid gases from dilute gas streams

  7. Investigation of the influence of hybrid layers on the life time of hot forging dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Legutko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues related in the process of drop forging with special attention paid to the durability of forging tools. It presents the results of industrial investigation of the influence of hybrid layers on hot forging dies. The effectiveness of hybrid layers type nitrided layer/PVD coating applied for extending the life of forging tools whose working surfaces are exposed to such complex exploitation conditions as, among others, cyclically varying high thermal and mechanical loads, as well as intensive abrasion at raised temperature. The examination has been performed on a set of forging tools made of Unimax steel and intended for forging steel rings of gear box synchronizer in the factory FAS in Swarzedz (Poland.

  8. Basic conception of simultaneous multi-layer hybrid type ECT apparatus 'HEADTOME-2'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Shigemasa

    1981-01-01

    Following on the one-slice hybrid type ECT (emission computer tomography) apparatus HEADTOME-1 for the measurement of local cerebral blood stream by single-photon measurement and the measurement of local cerebral metabolism by positron measurement, the development of the simultaneous multi-layer hybrid type ECT apparatus HEADTOME-2 was started for the simultaneous measurement of whole brains. Being designed also for obtaining single-photon simultaneous multi-layer tomography, a peculiar mode of collimator structure was employed, thereby the defect in HEADTOME-1 was eliminated. The design of the detector section is as follows: detector array diameter 42 cm, effective vision-field diameter 21 cm, patient tunnel diameter 25 cm, detector rings 3, slice interval 35 cm, and NaI (Tl) crystals 64 per layer. The basic conception of HEADTOME-2, such as the detectors, collimator, the number of slices, specifications, and data processing system, is described. (J.P.N.)

  9. OPTIMISATION OF BUFFER SIZE FOR ENHANCING QOS OF VIDEO TRAFFIC USING CROSS LAYERED HYBRID TRANSPORT LAYER PROTOCOL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matilda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Video streaming is gaining importance, with the wide popularity of multimedia rich applications in the Internet. Video streams are delay sensitive and require seamless flow for continuous visualization. Properly designed buffers offer a solution to queuing delay. The diagonally opposite QoS metrics associated with video traffic poses an optimization problem, in the design of buffers. This paper is a continuation of our previous work [1] and deals with the design of buffers. It aims at finding the optimum buffer size for enhancing QoS offered to video traffic. Network-centric QoS provisioning approach, along with hybrid transport layer protocol approach is adopted, to arrive at an optimum size which is independent of RTT. In this combinational approach, buffers of routers and end devices are designed to satisfy the various QoS parameters at the transport layer. OPNET Modeler is used to simulate environments for testing the design. Based on the results of simulation it is evident that the hybrid transport layer protocol approach is best suited for transmitting video traffic as it supports the economical design.

  10. Layer-by-layer self-assembled two-dimensional MXene/layered double hydroxide composites as cathode for alkaline hybrid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaowan; Zhang, Yadi; Ding, Bing; Hao, Xiaodong; Dou, Hui; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2018-06-01

    Multifarious layered materials have received extensive concern in the field of energy storage due to their distinctive two-dimensional (2D) structure. However, the natural tendency to be re-superimposed and the inherent disadvantages of a single 2D material significantly limit their performance. In this work, the delaminated Ti3C2Tx (d-Ti3C2Tx)/cobalt-aluminum layered double hydroxide (Ti3C2Tx/CoAl-LDH) composites are prepared by layer-by-layer self-assembly driven by electrostatic interaction. The alternate Ti3C2Tx and CoAl-LDH layers prevent each other from restacking and the obtained Ti3C2Tx/CoAl-LDH heterostructure combine the advantages of high electron conductivity of Ti3C2Tx and high electrochemical activity of CoAl-LDH, thus effectively improving the electrochemical reactivity of electrode materials and accelerating the kinetics of Faraday reaction. As a consequence, as a cathode for alkaline hybrid battery, the Ti3C2Tx/CoAl-LDH electrode exhibits a high specific capacity of 106 mAh g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1 and excellent rate capability (78% at 10 A g-1), with an excellent cycling stability of 90% retention after 5000 cycles at 4 A g-1. This work provides an alternative route to design advanced 2D electrode materials, thus exploiting their full potentials for alkaline hybrid batteries.

  11. Probing Local Heterogeneity in the Optoelectronic Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskites Using Fluorescence Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Quilettes, Dane W.

    rational design of materials and is leveraged to deploy chemical passivation techniques to improve the optoelectronic quality of the material, with the ultimate goal of improving photovoltaic power conversion efficiency. Reducing non-radiative recombination in semiconducting materials is a prerequisite for achieving the highest performance in a host of light-emitting and photovoltaic applications. In the first study described herein, we used confocal fluorescence microscopy correlated with scanning electron microscopy to spatially resolve the photoluminescence (PL) decay dynamics from films of nonstoichiometric organic-inorganic perovskites, CH3NH 3PbI3(Cl). The PL intensities and lifetimes varied between different grains in the same film, even for films that exhibited long bulk lifetimes. The grain boundaries were dimmer and exhibited faster non-radiative decay. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed a positive correlation between chlorine concentration and regions of brighter PL, while PL imaging revealed that chemical treatment with pyridine could activate previously dark grains. Next, to better elucidate the sources of these loss pathways, we performed a systematic study using confocal and widefield fluorescence microscopy to deconvolve the contributions from diffusion and non-radiative recombination which lead to the observed image heterogeneity. We showed that, in addition to local variations in non-radiative loss, carriers diffuse anisotropically due to heterogeneous intergrain connectivity. In addition to non-radiative recombination impeding material performance, we also showed that the materials exhibit a range of complex dynamic phenomena under illumination. We used a unique combination of confocal PL microscopy and chemical imaging to correlate the local changes in photophysics with composition in CH3NH 3PbI3 films under illumination. We demonstrated that the photo-induced "brightening" of the perovskite PL can be attributed to an order

  12. Fabrication of hybrid graphene oxide/polyelectrolyte capsules by means of layer-by-layer assembly on erythrocyte cell templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba Irigoyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel and facile method was developed to produce hybrid graphene oxide (GO–polyelectrolyte (PE capsules using erythrocyte cells as templates. The capsules are easily produced through the layer-by-layer technique using alternating polyelectrolyte layers and GO sheets. The amount of GO and therefore its coverage in the resulting capsules can be tuned by adjusting the concentration of the GO dispersion during the assembly. The capsules retain the approximate shape and size of the erythrocyte template after the latter is totally removed by oxidation with NaOCl in water. The PE/GO capsules maintain their integrity and can be placed or located on other surfaces such as in a device. When the capsules are dried in air, they collapse to form a film that is approximately twice the thickness of the capsule membrane. AFM images in the present study suggest a film thickness of approx. 30 nm for the capsules in the collapsed state implying a thickness of approx. 15 nm for the layers in the collapsed capsule membrane. The polyelectrolytes used in the present study were polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH and polystyrenesulfonate sodium salt (PSS. Capsules where characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, dynamic light scattering (DLS and Raman microscopy, the constituent layers by zeta potential and GO by TEM, XRD, and Raman and FTIR spectroscopies.

  13. Electron microscopy localization and characterization of functionalized composite organic-inorganic SERS nanoparticles on leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ai Leen; Shachaf, Catherine M; Elchuri, Sailaja; Nolan, Garry P; Sinclair, Robert

    2008-12-01

    We demonstrate the use of electron microscopy as a powerful characterization tool to identify and locate antibody-conjugated composite organic-inorganic nanoparticle (COINs) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles on cells. U937 leukemia cells labeled with antibody CD54-conjugated COINs were characterized in their native, hydrated state using wet scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in their dehydrated state using high-resolution SEM. In both cases, the backscattered electron (BSE) detector was used to detect and identify the silver constituents in COINs due to its high sensitivity to atomic number variations within a specimen. The imaging and analytical capabilities in the SEM were further complemented by higher resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) data to give reliable and high-resolution information about nanoparticles and their binding to cell surface antigens.

  14. Electron microscopy localization and characterization of functionalized composite organic-inorganic SERS nanoparticles on leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Ai Leen; Shachaf, Catherine M.; Elchuri, Sailaja; Nolan, Garry P.; Sinclair, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of electron microscopy as a powerful characterization tool to identify and locate antibody-conjugated composite organic-inorganic nanoparticle (COINs) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles on cells. U937 leukemia cells labeled with antibody CD54-conjugated COINs were characterized in their native, hydrated state using wet scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in their dehydrated state using high-resolution SEM. In both cases, the backscattered electron (BSE) detector was used to detect and identify the silver constituents in COINs due to its high sensitivity to atomic number variations within a specimen. The imaging and analytical capabilities in the SEM were further complemented by higher resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) data to give reliable and high-resolution information about nanoparticles and their binding to cell surface antigens.

  15. Study of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)/CdS nanocomposite organic/inorganic gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiari, Vlasoula; Pagonis, Konstantinos; Bokias, Georgios; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2004-09-14

    CdS nanoparticles have been synthesized and stabilized in poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) hydrogels. The properties of the composite material have been characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and steady-state and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. This material can be obtained in three different states: swollen, shrunk, and freeze-dried. The swollen and the freeze-dried states correspond to a nanocomposite organic/inorganic (wet or dry) gel containing CdS nanoparticles of approximately 50 nm diameter while the shrunk state is a two-phase system containing CdS crystals, which precipitate forming interesting geometrical shapes.

  16. Influence of temperature and light intensity on Ru(II) complex based organic-inorganic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asubay, Sezai; Durap, Feyyaz; Aydemir, Murat; Baysal, Akin; Ocak, Yusuf Selim; Tombak, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    An organic-inorganic junction was fabricated by forming [Ru(Cy_2PNHCH_2-C_4H_3O)(η"6-p-cymene)Cl_2] complex thin film using spin coating technique on n-Si and evaporating Au metal on the film. It was seen that the structure had perfect rectification property. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out in dark and under various illumination conditions (between 50-100 mW/cm"2) and with the temperature range from 303 to 380 K. The structure showed unusually forward and reverse bias temperature and light sensing behaviors. It was seen that the current both in forward and reverse bias increased with the increase in light intensity and temperature.

  17. Research progress on organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials and solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Luis K.; Qi, Yabing

    2018-03-01

    Owing to the intensive research efforts across the world since 2009, perovskite solar cell power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) are now comparable or even better than several other photovoltaic (PV) technologies. In this topical review article, we review recent progress in the field of organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials and solar cells. We associate these achievements with the fundamental knowledge gained in the perovskite research. The major recent advances in the fundamental perovskite material and solar cell research are highlighted, including the current efforts in visualizing the dynamical processes (in operando) taking place within a perovskite solar cell under operating conditions. We also discuss the existing technological challenges. Based on a survey of recently published works, we point out that to move the perovskite PV technology forward towards the next step of commercialization, what perovskite PV technology need the most in the coming next few years is not only further PCE enhancements, but also up-scaling, stability, and lead-toxicity.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of tunable coumarin- linked glasses as new class of organic/inorganic phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luridiana, Alberto; Pretta, Gianluca; Secci, Francesco; Frongia, Angelo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Complesso universitario di Monserrato, SS 554, bivio per Sestu, Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Chiriu, Daniele; Carbonaro, Carlo Maria; Corpino, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Complesso universitario di Monserrato, SS 554, bivio per Sestu, Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Ricci, Pier Carlo, E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Cagliari, S.P. Monserrato-Sestu Km 0,700, 09042 Monserrato (Canada) (Italy)

    2014-10-21

    It is well known that stilbene with a trans conformation is highly fluorescent. From the viewpoint of molecular structure, coumarins bear a carbon-carbon double bond which is fixed as trans conformation as in trans-stilbene through a lactone structure. This can help to avoid the trans-cis transformation of the double bond under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as observed in stilbene compounds and results in strong fluorescence and high fluorescence quantum yield and photostability in most of coumarin derivatives. Herein we report some preliminary results about the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of tunable coumarins and the development of a new linkage protocol for the obtainment of monolayer coumarin-covalently linked glasses. The resulting organic/inorganic coumarin/silica based Self-Assembled Monolayer (SMA) film is proposed as new phosphors for the substituting of critical raw materials, like rare earths, in photonics applications.

  19. [Development and evaluation of fertilizers cemented and coated with organic-inorganic materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiang; Wang, Jia-Chen; Zuo, Qiang; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Bao-Cun; Zhao, Tong-Ke; Zou, Guo-Yuan; Xu, Qiu-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Four kinds of organic-inorganic cementing and coating materials were prepared by a coating method using water as the solvent, and the corresponding cemented and coated fertilizers (B2, PS, F2, and F2F) were produced by disc pelletizer. The tests on the properties of these fertilizers showed that the granulation rate, compression strength, and film-forming rate were B2 > PS > F2 > F2F. Soil column leaching experiment showed that the curve of accumulated nitrogen-dissolving rate was the gentlest for B2. In 48 days, the accumulated nitrogen-dissolving rate was in the order of B2, 54.65% fertilizers had better effects on corn yield, among which, B2 was the best, with the corn yield and fertilizer use efficiency increased by 19.72% and 20.30%, respectively. The yield-increasing effect of other test fertilizers was in the order of PS > F2 > F2F.

  20. Purcell effect in an organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductor microcavity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Hu, Tao; Wu, Lin; Shen, Xuechu; Chen, Zhanghai; Cao, Runan; Xu, Fei; Da, Peimei; Zheng, Gengfeng; Lu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductors with the attractive physics properties, including strong photoluminescence (PL), huge oscillator strengths, and low nonradiative recombination losses, are ideal candidates for studying the light-matter interaction in nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate the coupling of the exciton state and the cavity mode in the lead halide perovskite microcavity system at room temperature. The Purcell effect in the coupling system is clearly observed by using angle-resolved photoluminescence spectra. Kinetic analysis based on time-resolved PL reveals that the spontaneous emission rate of the halide perovskite semiconductor is significantly enhanced at resonance of the exciton energy and the cavity mode. Our results provide the way for developing electrically driven organic polariton lasers, optical devices, and on-chip coherent quantum light sources

  1. Spectroscopic studies of organic-inorganic composite film cured by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahathir Mohamed; Dahlan Mohd; Ibrahim Abdullah; Eda Yuhana Ariffin

    2009-01-01

    Liquid epoxidized natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) film was reinforced with silica particles formed in-situ via sol gel process. Combination of these two components produces organic-inorganic composites. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as precursor material for silica generation. Sol gel reactions was carried out at different concentrations of TEOS i.e. between 10 and 50 phr. The compounds that contain silica were crosslinked by electron beam. Structural properties studies were carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). It was found that miscibility between organic and inorganic components improved with the presence of silanol groups (Si-OH) and polar solvent i.e. THF, via hydrogen bonding formation between siloxane and LENRA. Morphology study by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed in-situ generated silica particles were homogenous and well dispersed at any concentrations of TEOS. (author)

  2. Surface density dependence of PCR amplicon hybridization on PNA/DNA probe layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Danfeng; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Fang

    2005-01-01

    at an intermediate sodium concentration (approximately 100 mM). These effects were mainly ascribed to the electrostatic cross talk among the hybridized DNA molecules and the secondary structure of PCR amplicons. For the negatively charged DNA probes, the hybridization reaction was subjected additionally to the DNA....../DNA electrostatic barrier, particularly in lower ionic strength range (e.g., 10 approximately 150 mM Na(+)). The electrostatic cross talk was shown to be largely reduced if the PNA probe layer was sufficiently diluted by following a strategic templated immobilization method. As a consequence, a pseudo...

  3. Organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Shanxin, E-mail: xiongsx@xust.edu.cn; Yin, Siyuan; Wang, Yuyun; Kong, Zhenzhen; Lan, Jinpeng; Zhang, Runlan; Gong, Ming; Wu, Bohua; Chu, Jia; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • We review the effects of interfacial interactions in electrochromic nanocomposites. • Interfacial interactions are useful for film fabrication and property-enhancement. • The strong interaction can enhance the electron conduction and structural strength. • The weak interactions exist widely between organic and inorganic phases. • Multiple weak interactions can provide various performance-adjusting approaches. - Abstract: Electrochromic properties of organic or inorganic materials can be improved through preparing organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites. In electrochromic nanocomposites, the interfacial interactions between the organic and inorganic phases play three important roles in preparation and application of the nanocomposites. Firstly, the interfacial interactions result in stable molecular structures. Secondly, they also improve the electron conduction and ion transport process in the nanocomposites. Thirdly, they enhance the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the nanocomposites. In this paper, we review the common interfacial interactions including covalent bond, coordination bond, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interaction between the organic and inorganic phases in the electrochromic nanocomposites. The preparation method, the relationship between the structure and properties, and the mechanism of modulation of electrochromic effect in the nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions are surveyed. The strong interfacial interaction, e.g., covalent bond, is helpful for obtaining electrochromic nanocomposites with high electron conduction and high structural strength. However it is very complicated to construct covalent bond between the organic and inorganic phases. Another strong interfacial interaction, the coordination bond is mainly confined to preparation of electrochromic complex of metal ion and pyridine derivative. While, the weak interfacial interactions, e

  4. Organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Shanxin; Yin, Siyuan; Wang, Yuyun; Kong, Zhenzhen; Lan, Jinpeng; Zhang, Runlan; Gong, Ming; Wu, Bohua; Chu, Jia; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We review the effects of interfacial interactions in electrochromic nanocomposites. • Interfacial interactions are useful for film fabrication and property-enhancement. • The strong interaction can enhance the electron conduction and structural strength. • The weak interactions exist widely between organic and inorganic phases. • Multiple weak interactions can provide various performance-adjusting approaches. - Abstract: Electrochromic properties of organic or inorganic materials can be improved through preparing organic/inorganic electrochromic nanocomposites. In electrochromic nanocomposites, the interfacial interactions between the organic and inorganic phases play three important roles in preparation and application of the nanocomposites. Firstly, the interfacial interactions result in stable molecular structures. Secondly, they also improve the electron conduction and ion transport process in the nanocomposites. Thirdly, they enhance the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the nanocomposites. In this paper, we review the common interfacial interactions including covalent bond, coordination bond, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bond and π-π stacking interaction between the organic and inorganic phases in the electrochromic nanocomposites. The preparation method, the relationship between the structure and properties, and the mechanism of modulation of electrochromic effect in the nanocomposites with various interfacial interactions are surveyed. The strong interfacial interaction, e.g., covalent bond, is helpful for obtaining electrochromic nanocomposites with high electron conduction and high structural strength. However it is very complicated to construct covalent bond between the organic and inorganic phases. Another strong interfacial interaction, the coordination bond is mainly confined to preparation of electrochromic complex of metal ion and pyridine derivative. While, the weak interfacial interactions, e

  5. Interfacial micromorphological differences in hybrid layer formation between water- and solvent-based dentin bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Geneviève L; Akon, Bernadette A; Millas, Arlette

    2002-06-01

    Many dentin bonding systems of different compositions, and in particular containing different solvents, have been introduced to the market. Their effect on the quality of the interface requires clarification by means of comparative trials. This study investigated micromorphological differences in hybrid layer formation with a variety of commercially available water- or solvent-based dentin bonding products and their recommended compomers. Five bonding systems were used on groups of 10 teeth each as follows: group I, acetone-based system used with 36% phosphoric acid; group II, a different acetone-based system containing nano-sized particles for filler loading and used with a non-rinsing conditioner containing maleic acid; group III, the acetone-based system of group II used with 36% phosphoric acid (the only difference in the treatment for groups II and III was the acid etching system); group IV, a mixed-solvent-based system (water/ethanol) used with 37% phosphoric acid; and group V, a water-based system used with 37% phosphoric acid. Each bonding system was covered with the recommended compomer. Class I occlusal preparations were made in extracted teeth and restored with one of the above systems. Five specimens of each group were studied with optical microscopy after staining. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the interface of the bonding system/dentin of the other 5 teeth in each group. The optical microscopy measurements were made with a 10 x 10 reticle. A micron mark with scale was used for the scanning electron microscope. All measurements were made in microm. The following criteria were used to define a good interface: absence of voids between the different parts of the interface, uniformity of the hybrid layer, good opening of the tubuli orifices, and tag adherence to the tubuli walls. Morphological differences were found at the interface depending on dentin treatment and adhesive composition. The acetone-containing systems were associated

  6. Three-dimensional graphene-polyaniline hybrid hollow spheres by layer-by-layer assembly for application in supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Jing; Ma, Qiang; Gu, Huahao; Zheng, Yuan; Liu, Xiaoya

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •A graphene-polyaniline (GR-PANI) hybrid hollow sphere is fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique. •The GR-PANI hollow sphere has higher specific capacitance than stacked GR-PANI LBL film. •64% of its initial capacitance is maintained with the current density increased from 0.5 to 20 A g −1 . •A high capacity retention rate of 83% after 1000 cycles can be achieved. -- Abstract: A novel kind of three-dimensional graphene-polyaniline hybrid hollow sphere (RGO-PANI HS) has been prepared via layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of negatively-charged reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and positively charged polyaniline (PANI) on polystyrene (PS) microsphere, followed by the removal of the PS template. The hollow structure of the obtained RGO-PANI HS is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When used as the electrode materials for supercapacitor, the specific capacitance of the RGO-PANI HS reaches 381 F/g at a current density of 4.0 A/g, which is much higher than 251 F/g of the stacked RGO-PANI LBL film. The higher specific capacitance of RGO-PANI HS should be attributed to its unique hollow structure which provides a larger accessible surface area and facilitate the charge and ion transport. In addition, its specific capacitance can be facilely tailored by changing the assembly cycle number. Furthermore, good cycling stability is also demonstrated with 83% of the original capacitance value maintained after 1000 charging/discharging cycles

  7. Intercalated organic-inorganic perovskites stabilized by fluoroaryl-aryl interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David B; Medeiros, David R; Malenfant, Patrick R L

    2002-04-22

    Crystals of several new hybrid tin(II) iodide-based perovskites, involving 2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorophenethylammonium or phenethylammonium cation bilayers and intercalated aryl or perfluoroaryl molecules, were grown by slow evaporation of a methanol solution containing the hybrid perovskite and the intercalating species. The (C(6)F(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)H(6)) structure was solved at -75 degrees C in a monoclinic C2/c subcell [a = 41.089(12) A, b = 6.134(2) A, c = 12.245(3) A, beta = 94.021(5) degrees, Z = 4] and consists of sheets of corner-sharing distorted SnI(6) octahedra separated by bilayers of pentafluorophenethylammonium cations. The intercalated benzene molecules form a single well-ordered layer interposed between adjacent fluoroaryl cation layers. The corresponding hybrid with an unfluorinated organic cation and fluorinated intercalating molecule, (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)F(6)), is isostructural [a = 40.685(4) A, b = 6.0804(6) A, c = 12.163(1) A, beta = 93.136(2) degrees, Z = 4]. For each intercalated system, close C...C contacts (3.44-3.50 A) between the aromatic cation and the intercalated molecule are indicative of a significant face-to-face interaction, similar to that found in the complex C(6)H(6).C(6)F(6). Crystal growth runs with the organic cation and prospective intercalating molecule either both fluorinated or both unfluorinated did not yield stable intercalated compounds, demonstrating the significance of fluoroaryl-aryl interactions in the current intercalated structures. Thermal analysis of (C(6)F(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)H(6)) and (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4).(C(6)F(6)) crystals yields, in addition to the characteristic transitions of the parent perovskite, endothermic transitions [12.6(5) and 32.1(8) kJ/mol, respectively] with an onset at 145 degrees C and a weight loss corresponding to the complete loss of the intercalated molecule. The relatively high deintercalation temperature (well above the boiling point of

  8. White organic light emitting devices with hybrid emissive layers combining phosphorescence and fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Gangtie; Chen Xiaolan; Wang Lei; Zhu Meixiang; Zhu Weiguo [Key Lab of Environmental-friendly Chemistry and Application of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Wang Liduo; Qiu Yong [Key Lab of Organic-Optoelectronics and Molecular Sciences of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: lgt@xtu.edu.cn

    2008-05-21

    We fabricated a white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) by hybrid emissive layers which combined phosphorescence with fluorescence. In this device, the thin layer of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-(t-butyl)-6-(1, 1, 7, 7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran played the role of undoped red emissive layer which was inserted between two blue phosphorescence emissive layers. The blue phosphorescent dye was bis[(4, 6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N, C{sup 2}] (picolinato) Ir(III), which was doped in the host material, N, N'-dicarbazolyl-1, 4-dimethene-benzene. The WOLED showed stable Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates and a high efficency of 9.6 cd A{sup -1} when the current density was 1.8 A m{sup -2}. The maximum luminance of the device achieved was 17 400 cd m{sup -2} when the current density was 3000 A m{sup -2}.

  9. Hybrid solar cells based on CuInS2 and organic buffer-sensitizer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereznev, S.; Koeppe, R.; Konovalov, I.; Kois, J.; Guenes, S.; Opik, A.; Mellikov, E.; Sariciftci, N.S.

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid solar cells on the basis of CuInS 2 (CIS) photoabsorber on Cu-tape (CISCuT) in combination with organic buffer layers of Zn-phthalocyanine (ZnPc), ZnPc:fullerene (ZnPc:C 60 ) composite and conductive polymer buffer layers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) were prepared using vacuum evaporation and spin-casting techniques. To prepare solar cells with an active area of 2 cm 2 , the appropriate deposition parameters and thickness of ZnPc, ZnPc:C 60 and PEDOT-PSS layers were selected experimentally. For preparation of semitransparent contact-window layers, chromium and gold were evaporated on the surface of ZnPc, ZnPc:C 60 and PEDOT-PSS films. It was found that an intermediate chromium layer improves PV properties of the structures with organic buffer layers. The photosensitivity at small illumination intensities of complete structures with ZnPc and ZnPc:C 60 layers increased more than one order of magnitude in comparison with the structures where the PEDOT-PSS buffer layer was deposited. The presence of C 60 in the composite-buffer layer results in increased photoconductivity. The best structure with composite ZnPc:C 60 buffer layer showed an open-circuit voltage of 560 mV, a short-circuit current density of around 10 mA/cm 2 and a photoconversion efficiency of around 3.3% under the light illumination with an intensity of 100 mW/cm 2 from a tungsten-halogen lamp. The low transmission of the semitransparent chromium-gold window layer is the reason for relatively low current density

  10. Reactivity I: A Foundation-Level Course for Both Majors and Nonmajors in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    A foundation level course is presented that integrates aspects of organic, inorganic and biochemistry in the context of reactivity. The course was designed to serve majors in chemistry and other sciences (biochemistry, biology, nutrition), as well as nursing and pre-health professions students. Themes of the course were designed to highlight a…

  11. ZnO nanostructures as electron extraction layers for hybrid perovskite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Katerina; Sarang, Som; Tung, Vincent; Lu, Jennifer; Ghosh, Sayantani

    Optimum interaction between light harvesting media and electron transport layers is critical for the efficient operation of photovoltaic devices. In this work, ZnO layers of different morphologies are implemented as electron extraction and transport layers for hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 thin films. These include nanowires, nanoparticles, and single crystalline film. Charge transfer at the ZnO/perovskite interface is investigated and compared through ultra-fast characterization techniques, including temperature and power dependent spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence. The nanowires cause an enhancement in perovskite emission, which may be attributed to increased scattering and grain boundary formation. However, the ZnO layers with decreasing surface roughness exhibit better electron extraction, as inferred from photoluminescence quenching, reduction in the number of bound excitons, and reduced exciton lifetime in CH3NH3PbI3 samples. This systematic study is expected to provide an understanding of the fundamental processes occurring at the ZnO-CH3NH3PbI3 interface and ultimately, provide guidelines for the ideal configuration of ZnO-based hybrid Perovskite devices. This research was supported by National Aeronautics and Space administration (NASA) Grant No: NNX15AQ01A.

  12. Decreasing the electronic confinement in layered perovskites through intercalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew D; Pedesseau, Laurent; Kepenekian, Mikaël; Smith, Ian C; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2017-03-01

    We show that post-synthetic small-molecule intercalation can significantly reduce the electronic confinement of 2D hybrid perovskites. Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we explain structural, optical, and electronic effects of intercalating highly polarizable molecules in layered perovskites designed to stabilize the intercalants. Polarizable molecules in the organic layers substantially alter the optical and electronic properties of the inorganic layers. By calculating the spatially resolved dielectric profiles of the organic and inorganic layers within the hybrid structure, we show that the intercalants afford organic layers that are more polarizable than the inorganic layers. This strategy reduces the confinement of excitons generated in the inorganic layers and affords the lowest exciton binding energy for an n = 1 perovskite of which we are aware. We also demonstrate a method for computationally evaluating the exciton's binding energy by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the exciton, which includes an ab initio determination of the material's dielectric profile across organic and inorganic layers. This new semi-empirical method goes beyond the imprecise phenomenological approximation of abrupt dielectric-constant changes at the organic-inorganic interfaces. This work shows that incorporation of polarizable molecules in the organic layers, through intercalation or covalent attachment, is a viable strategy for tuning 2D perovskites towards mimicking the reduced electronic confinement and isotropic light absorption of 3D perovskites while maintaining the greater synthetic tunability of the layered architecture.

  13. Investigation on energy absorption efficiency of each layer in ballistic armour panel for applications in hybrid design

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yanfei; Chen, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to reveal different energy absorption efficiency of each layer when armour panel is under ballistic impact. Through Finite Element (FE) modelling and ballistic tests, it is found that when fabrics are layered up in a panel, energy absorption efficiency is only 30%–60% of an individual fabric layer with free boundary condition. In addition, fabric layers in front, middle, and back exhibit different ballistic characteristics. Therefore, a new hybrid design principle has been pro...

  14. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CR-DLC LAYERS PREPARED BY HYBRID LASER TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Písařík

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Diamond like carbon (DLC layers have excellent biological properties for use in medicine for coating implants, but poor adhesion to biomedical alloys. The adhesion can be improved by doping the DLC layer by chromium, as described in this article. Chromium doped diamond like carbon layers (Cr‑DLC were deposited by hybrid deposition system using KrF excimer laser and magnetron sputtering. Carbon and chromium contents were determined by wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Mechanical properties were studied by nanoindentation. Hardness and reduced Young's modulus reached 31.2 GPa and 271.5 GPa, respectively. Films adhesion was determined by scratch test and reached 19 N for titanium substrates. Good adhesion to biomedical alloys and high DLC hardness will help to progress in the field of implantology.

  15. Ionic behavior of organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Zhang, Yuming; Pang, Tiqiang; Xu, Jie; Hu, Ziyang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tang, Xiaoyan; Luan, Suzhen; Jia, Renxu

    2017-05-24

    Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites are promising semiconductors for optoelectronic applications. Despite the achievements in device performance, the electrical properties of perovskites have stagnated. Ion migration is speculated to be the main contributing factor for the many unusual electrical phenomena in perovskite-based devices. Here, to understand the intrinsic electrical behavior of perovskites, we constructed metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors based on perovskite films and performed capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements of the capacitors. The results provide direct evidence for the mixed ionic-electronic transport behavior within perovskite films. In the dark, there is electrical hysteresis in both the C-V and I-V curves because the mobile negative ions take part in charge transport despite frequency modulation. However, under illumination, the large amount of photoexcited free carriers screens the influence of the mobile ions with a low concentration, which is responsible for the normal C-V properties. Validation of ion migration for the gate-control ability of MOS capacitors is also helpful for the investigation of perovskite MOS transistors and other gate-control photovoltaic devices.

  16. Efficient epoxidation over cyanocobalamine containing SBA-15 organic-inorganic nanohybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, Z. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahjoub, A.R., E-mail: mahjouba@modares.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-05-01

    SBA-15 mesoporous silica is synthesized using triblock copolymer P123 surfactant and chemically modified by aminopropyl, thiol, ammonium and sulfonic acid functional groups. Functionalization is performed via post synthesize method using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) or 3-mercatopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) precursor. The as synthesized mesoporous systems are applied for immobilization of cyanocobalamine. Functionalization effectively improves sorption properties of the supports, while different functional groups exert different effects. The organic-inorganic mesoporous materials are characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption and desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). The newly synthesized systems exhibit high catalytic activity for heterogeneous epoxidation of cyclooctene in presence of hydrogen peroxide. Reaction conditions are optimized, effect of functional groups on performance of the catalysts is taken into consideration and reusability of the designed heterogeneous systems is studied. Systems with chemically modified supports are shown to be more efficient and stable catalysts however; chemical nature of functional groups plays a crucial role.

  17. Morphological structure of Gluconacetobacter xylinus cellulose and cellulose-based organic-inorganic composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyslov, R. Yu; Ezdakova, K. V.; Kopitsa, G. P.; Khripunov, A. K.; Bugrov, A. N.; Tkachenko, A. A.; Angelov, B.; Pipich, V.; Szekely, N. K.; Baranchikov, A. E.; Latysheva, E.; Chetverikov, Yu O.; Haramus, V.

    2017-05-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS), small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS), as well as low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, were used in the studies of micro- and mesostructure of polymer matrix prepared from air-dry preliminarily disintegrated cellulose nano-gel film (synthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus) and the composites based on this bacterial cellulose. The composites included ZrO2 nanoparticles, Tb3+ in the form of low molecular weight salt and of metal-polymer complex with poly(vinylpyrrolydone)-poly(methacryloyl-o-aminobenzoic acid) copolymer. The combined analysis of the data obtained allowed revealing three levels of fractal organization in mesostructure of G. xylinus cellulose and its composites. It was shown that both the composition and an aggregation state of dopants have a significant impact on the structural characteristics of the organic-inorganic composites. The composites containing Tb3+ ions demonstrate efficient luminescence; its intensity is an order of magnitude higher in the case of the composites with the metal-polymer complex. It was found that there is the optimal content of ZrO2 nanoparticles in composites resulting in increased Tb3+ luminescence.

  18. [Responses of rice-wheat rotation system in south Jiangsu to organic-inorganic compound fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Heng-Da; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jian-Chao; Wang, Qiu-Jun; Xu, Da-Bing; Yibati, Halihashi; Xu, Jia-Le; Huang, Qi-Wei

    2011-11-01

    In 2006-2007, a field trial was conducted to study the effects of applying three kinds of organic-inorganic compound fertilizers [rapeseed cake compost plus inorganic fertilizers (RCC), pig manure compost plus inorganic fertilizers (PMC), and Chinese medicine residues plus inorganic fertilizers (CMC)] on the crop growth and nitrogen (N) use efficiency of rice-wheat rotation system in South Jiangsu. Grain yield of wheat and rice in the different fertilization treatments was significantly higher than the control (no fertilization). In treatments RCC, PMC and CMC, the wheat yield was 13.1%, 32.2% and 39.3% lower than that of the NPK compound fertilizer (CF, 6760 kg x hm(-2)), respectively, but the rice yield (8504-9449 kg x hm(-2)) was significantly higher than that (7919 kg x hm(-2)) of CF, with an increment of 7.4%-19.3%. In wheat season, the aboveground dry mass, N accumulation, and N use efficiency in treatments RCC, PMC, and CMC were lower than those of CF, but in rice season, these parameters were significantly higher than or as the same as CF. In sum, all the test three compound fertilizers had positive effects on the rice yield and its nitrogen use efficiency in the rice-wheat rotation system, being most significant for RCC.

  19. Organic/inorganic composite membranes based on polybenzimidazole and nano-SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Hongting; Liu Lu; Chang Zhihong; Yuan Junjie

    2009-01-01

    Organic/inorganic composite membranes based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) and nano-SiO 2 were prepared in this work. However, the preparation of PBI/SiO 2 composite membrane is not easy since PBI is insoluble in water, while nano-SiO 2 is hydrophilic due to the hydrophilicity of nano-SiO 2 and water-insolubility of PBI. Thus, a solvent-exchange method was employed to prepare the composite membrane. The morphology of the composite membranes was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was revealed that inorganic particles were dispersed homogenously in the PBI matrix. The thermal stability of the composite membrane is higher than that of pure PBI, both for doped and undoped membranes. PBI/SiO 2 composite membranes with up to 15 wt% SiO 2 exhibited improved mechanical properties compared with PBI membranes. The proton conductivity of the composite membranes containing phosphoric acid was studied. The nano-SiO 2 in the composite membranes enhanced the ability to trap phosphoric acid, which improved the proton conductivity of the composite membranes. The membrane with 15 wt% of inorganic material is oxidatively stable and has a proton conductivity of 3.9 x 10 -3 S/cm at 180 deg. C.

  20. Uso do processo sol-gel na obtenção de materiais híbridos organo-inorgânicos: preparação, caracterização e aplicação em eletrólitos de estado sólido Utilization of the sol-gel process to obtain organic-inorganic hybrid materials: preparation, characterization and application as solid state electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita A Zoppi

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é descrita a preparação de materiais híbridos constituídos de um copolímero orgânico contendo segmentos óxido de etileno e de sílica. A rede inorgânica foi formada na solução polimérica a partir da hidrólise e condensação do tetraetoxisilano, TEOS. Como copolímero foi utilizado o poli(óxido de etileno-b-amida-6, PEBAX. Foram preparados também híbridos contendo perclorato de lítio, denominados aqui híbridos eletrólitos. Os materiais foram caracterizados por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão, ensaios de tensão-deformação, análise dinâmico-mecânica e difratometria de raios-X. Os sistemas PEBAX/TEOS/LiClO foram também caracterizados por espectroscopia de impedância eletroquímica e voltametria cíclica para avaliação de suas propriedades como eletrólito de estado sólido.In this work it was described the preparation of hybrid materials constituted by a organic copolymer, which contains ethylene oxide blocks, and silica. The inorganic network was formed by the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxysilane, TEOS, into the polymeric solution. As a copolymer, it was used poly(ethylene oxide-b-amide-6, PEBAX. Hybrids containing lithium perchlorate, known as hybrid electrolytes, were also prepared. The materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, stress-strain tests, dynamic-mechanical analysis and X-ray diffractometry. The PEBAX/TEOS/LiClO4 systems were also characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry to evaluate their properties as a solid state electrolyte.

  1. Studies of solid-state electrochromic devices based on Peo/siliceous hybrids doped with lithium perchlorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, P.C.; Silva, M.M.; Smith, M.J.; Goncalves, A.; Fortunato, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic networks, doped with a lithium salt, have been used as electrolytes in prototype smart windows. The work described in this presentation is focused on the application of these networks as dual-function electrolyte/adhesive components in solid-state electrochromic devices. The performance of multi-layer electrochromic devices was characterized as a function of the choice of precursor used to prepare the polymer electrolyte component and the guest salt concentration. The prototype devices exhibited good open-circuit memory, coloration efficiency, optical contrast and stability

  2. Minimizing performance degradation induced by interfacial recombination in perovskite solar cells through tailoring of the transport layer electronic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of hybrid organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells is investigated using one-dimensional drift-diffusion device simulations. We study the effects of interfacial defect density, doping concentration, and electronic level positions of the charge transport layer (CTL. Choosing CTLs with a favorable band alignment, rather than passivating CTL-perovskite interfacial defects, is shown to be beneficial for maintaining high power-conversion efficiency, due to reduced minority carrier density arising from a favorable local electric field profile. Insights from this study provide theoretical guidance on practical selection of CTL materials for achieving high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  3. Hybrid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Consisting of Double Titania Layers for Harvesting Light with Wide Range of Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadamasu, Kengo; Inoue, Takafumi; Ogomi, Yuhei; Pandey, Shyam S.; Hayase, Shuzi

    2011-02-01

    We report a hybrid dye-sensitized solar cell consisting of double titania layers (top and bottom layers) stained with two dyes. A top layer fabricated on a glass was mechanically pressed with a bottom layer fabricated on a glass cloth. The glass cloth acts as a supporter of a porous titania layer as well as a holder of electrolyte. The incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) curve had two peaks corresponding to those of the two dyes, which demonstrates that electrons are collected from both the top and bottom layers.

  4. Fabrication of hybrid molecular devices using multi-layer graphene break junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Island, J. O.; Holovchenko, A.; Koole, M.; Alkemade, P. F. A.; Menelaou, M.; Aliaga-Alcalde, N.; Burzurí, E.; van der Zant, H. S. J.

    2014-11-01

    We report on the fabrication of hybrid molecular devices employing multi-layer graphene (MLG) flakes which are patterned with a constriction using a helium ion microscope or an oxygen plasma etch. The patterning step allows for the localization of a few-nanometer gap, created by electroburning, that can host single molecules or molecular ensembles. By controlling the width of the sculpted constriction, we regulate the critical power at which the electroburning process begins. We estimate the flake temperature given the critical power and find that at low powers it is possible to electroburn MLG with superconducting contacts in close proximity. Finally, we demonstrate the fabrication of hybrid devices with superconducting contacts and anthracene-functionalized copper curcuminoid molecules. This method is extendable to spintronic devices with ferromagnetic contacts and a first step towards molecular integrated circuits.

  5. Structural origins of broadband emission from layered Pb-Br hybrid perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew D; Jaffe, Adam; Dohner, Emma R; Lindenberg, Aaron M; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2017-06-01

    Through structural and optical studies of a series of two-dimensional hybrid perovskites, we show that broadband emission upon near-ultraviolet excitation is common to (001) lead-bromide perovskites. Importantly, we find that the relative intensity of the broad emission correlates with increasing out-of-plane distortion of the Pb-(μ-Br)-Pb angle in the inorganic sheets. Temperature- and power-dependent photoluminescence data obtained on a representative (001) perovskite support an intrinsic origin to the broad emission from the bulk material, where photogenerated carriers cause excited-state lattice distortions mediated through electron-lattice coupling. In contrast, most inorganic phosphors contain extrinsic emissive dopants or emissive surface sites. The design rules established here could allow us to systematically optimize white-light emission from layered hybrid perovskites by fine-tuning the bulk crystal structure.

  6. Research Update: The electronic structure of hybrid perovskite layers and their energetic alignment in devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Olthof

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has increased at a rapid pace due to their tremendous success in the field of thin film solar cells. This area closely ties together fundamental solid state research and device application, as it is necessary to understand the basic material properties to optimize the performances and open up new areas of application. In this regard, the energy levels and their respective alignment with adjacent charge transport layers play a crucial role. Currently, we are lacking a detailed understanding about the electronic structure and are struggling to understand what influences the alignment, how it varies, or how it can be intentionally modified. This research update aims at giving an overview over recent results regarding measurements of the electronic structure of hybrid perovskites using photoelectron spectroscopy to summarize the present status.

  7. Self-Assembled PbSe Nanowire:Perovskite Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-12-02

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Inorganic semiconductor nanowires are of interest in nano- and microscale photonic and electronic applications. Here we report the formation of PbSe nanowires based on directional quantum dot alignment and fusion regulated by hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite surface ligands. All material synthesis is carried out at mild temperatures. Passivation of PbSe quantum dots was achieved via a new perovskite ligand exchange. Subsequent in situ ammonium/amine substitution by butylamine enables quantum dots to be capped by butylammonium lead iodide, and this further drives the formation of a PbSe nanowire superlattice in a two-dimensional (2D) perovskite matrix. The average spacing between two adjacent nanowires agrees well with the thickness of single atomic layer of 2D perovskite, consistent with the formation of a new self-assembled semiconductor nanowire:perovskite heterocrystal hybrid.

  8. Self-Assembled PbSe Nanowire:Perovskite Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu; Yassitepe, Emre; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Janmohamed, Alyf; Lan, Xinzheng; Levina, Larissa; Comin, Riccardo; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Inorganic semiconductor nanowires are of interest in nano- and microscale photonic and electronic applications. Here we report the formation of PbSe nanowires based on directional quantum dot alignment and fusion regulated by hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite surface ligands. All material synthesis is carried out at mild temperatures. Passivation of PbSe quantum dots was achieved via a new perovskite ligand exchange. Subsequent in situ ammonium/amine substitution by butylamine enables quantum dots to be capped by butylammonium lead iodide, and this further drives the formation of a PbSe nanowire superlattice in a two-dimensional (2D) perovskite matrix. The average spacing between two adjacent nanowires agrees well with the thickness of single atomic layer of 2D perovskite, consistent with the formation of a new self-assembled semiconductor nanowire:perovskite heterocrystal hybrid.

  9. Hydrogen storage in hybrid of layered double hydroxides/reduced graphene oxide using spillover mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Jafari-Asl, Mehdi; Nabiyan, Afshin; Rezaei, Behzad; Dinari, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    New efficient hydrogen storage hybrids were fabricated based on hydrogen spillover mechanism, including chemisorptions and dissociation of H_2 on the surface of LDH (layered double hydroxides) and diffusion of H to rGO (reduced graphene oxide). The structures and compositions of all of the hybrids (LDHs/rGO) have been verified using different methods including transmission electron microscopy, X ray diffraction spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis. Then, the abilities of the LDHs/rGOs, as hydrogen spillover, were investigated by electrochemical methods. In addition, the LDHs/rGOs were decorated with palladium, using redox replacement process, and their hydrogen spillover properties were studied. The results showed that the hydrogen adsorption/desorption kinetics, hydrogen storage capacities and stabilities of Pd"#LDH/rGOs are better than Pd/rGO. Finally presence of different polymers (synthesis with monomers, 4–aminophenol, 4–aminothiophenol, o-phenylenediamine and p-phenylenediamine) at the surface of the Pd#LDH/rGOs on hydrogen storage were studied. The results showed that presence of o-phenylenediamine and p-phenylenediamine improves the kinetics of the hydrogen adsorption/desorption and increase the capacity of the hydrogen storage. - Highlights: • Efficient hydrogen storage sorbents are introduced. • The sorbents are synthesized based on hybrids of layered double hydroxide. • The compositions of all of the hybrids are verified using different methods. • Pd nanoparticles modified nanohybrids are investigated for hydrogen storage. • Presence of different polymers beside the hydrogen sorbents are investigated.

  10. A hybrid model for the computationally-efficient simulation of the cerebellar granular layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eCattani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to efficiently describe the membrane potential dynamics of neural populations formed by species having a high density difference in specific brain areas. We propose a hybrid model whose main ingredients are a conductance-based model (ODE system and its continuous counterpart (PDE system obtained through a limit process in which the number of neurons confined in a bounded region of the brain tissue is sent to infinity. Specifically, in the discrete model, each cell is described by a set of time-dependent variables, whereas in the continuum model, cells are grouped into populations that are described by a set of continuous variables.Communications between populations, which translate into interactions among the discrete and the continuous models, are the essence of the hybrid model we present here. The cerebellum and cerebellum-like structures show in their granular layer a large difference in the relative density of neuronal species making them a natural testing ground for our hybrid model. By reconstructing the ensemble activity of the cerebellar granular layer network and by comparing our results to a more realistic computational network, we demonstrate that our description of the network activity, even though it is not biophysically detailed, is still capable of reproducing salient features of neural network dynamics. Our modeling approach yields a significant computational cost reduction by increasing the simulation speed at least $270$ times. The hybrid model reproduces interesting dynamics such as local microcircuit synchronization, traveling waves, center-surround and time-windowing.

  11. High-Purity Hybrid Organolead Halide Perovskite Nanoparticles Obtained by Pulsed-Laser Irradiation in Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Amendola, Vincenzo; Fortunati, Ilaria; Marega, Carla; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Bakr, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have attracted a great deal of attention due to their variety of optoelectronic properties, their low cost, and their easier integration into devices with complex geometry, compared

  12. Ultralong Radiative States in Hybrid Perovskite Crystals: Compositions for Submillimeter Diffusion Lengths

    KAUST Repository

    Alarousu, Erkki; El-Zohry, Ahmed M.; Yin, Jun; Zhumekenov, Ayan A.; Yang, Chen; Alhabshi, Esra; Gereige, Issam; AlSaggaf, Ahmed; Malko, Anton V.; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials have recently evolved into the leading candidate solution-processed semiconductor for solar cells due to their combination of desirable optical and charge transport properties. Chief among

  13. Use of a specific MMP inhibitor (Galardin) for preservation of hybrid layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breschi, Lorenzo; Martin, Patrizia; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Nato, Fernando; Carrilho, Marcela; Tjäderhane, Leo; Visintini, Erika; Cadenaro, Milena; Tay, Franklin R; De Stefano Dorigo, Elettra; Pashley, David H

    2013-01-01

    Objective Dentinal MMPs have been claimed to contribute to the auto-degradation of collagen fibrils within incompletely resin-infiltrated hybrid layers and their inhibition may, therefore, slow the degradation of hybrid layer. This study aimed to determine the contribution of a synthetic MMPs inhibitor (Galardin) to the proteolytic activity of dentinal MMPs and to the morphological and mechanical features of hybrid layers after aging. Methods Dentin powder obtained from human molars was treated with Galardin or chlorhexidine digluconate and zymographically analyzed. Microtensile bond strength was also evaluated in extracted human teeth. Exposed dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid and specimens were assigned to (1) pre-treatment with Galardin as additional primer for 30s; (2) no pre-treatment. A two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (Adper Scotchbond 1XT, 3M ESPE) was then applied in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and resin composite build-ups were created. Specimens were immediately tested for their microtensile bond strength or stored in artificial saliva for 12 months prior to being tested. Data were evaluated by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (〈=0.05). Additional specimens were prepared for interfacial nanoleakage analysis under light microscopy and TEM, quantified by two independent observers and statistically analyzed (|2 test, 〈=0.05). Results The inhibitory effect of Galardin on dentinal MMPs was confirmed by zymographic analysis, as complete inhibition of both MMP-2 and -9 was observed. The use of Galardin had no effect on immediate bond strength, while it significantly decreased bond degradation after 1 year (padhesive after artificial aging. PMID:20299089

  14. The Electrochemical Assembly of Semiconducting Organic-Inorganic Lamellar Domains for Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, David John

    This dissertation investigates the one-step electrodeposition of alternating nanoscale domains of n-type ZnO and p-type organic molecules for photovoltaics. In such hybrid photovoltaic systems, a nanoscale lamellar periodicity of 5-10 nm between electron donor and electron acceptor materials is ideal for efficient exciton separation. In addition, achieving uniform density and substrate-wide alignment of the hybrid lamellar structures with orientation perpendicular to substrate surfaces is important in providing direct pathways for charge carriers to the electrodes. To this end, it is first reported how to control the assembly of the pyrene-based surfactant 1-pyrenebutyric acid (PyBA) with zinc hydroxide (a precursor to the semiconductor ZnO), resulting in a nanoscale lamellar structure with a periodicity of 3.2 nm. By exploring solution chemistry parameters, the surfactant concentration and solvent composition are shown to have the greatest effect on the morphology of lamellar growth. By studying the early nucleation and growth on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates with 2D grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering, it is revealed that the lamellae preferentially nucleate parallel to the hydrophilic ITO surface. It is hypothesized that the conductive and more hydrophobic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) surface increases the affinity for the pyrene functions to the surface, and therefore the oriented growth of the lamellae changes from parallel to perpendicular with respect to the substrate surface. The second part of this thesis investigates the effects of conjugated surfactant design in directing the growth of hybrid lamellar structures by incorporating either a pyrene or terthiophene moiety and varying overall molecular design. It is found that high aspect ratio and amphiphilic surfactants possessing a flexible alkyl spacer between the carboxylic acid and conjugated moiety consistently allow for the controlled and directed

  15. Developing a novel magnesium glycerophosphate/silicate-based organic-inorganic composite cement for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhengwen; Li, Hong; Wei, Jie; Li, Ruijiang; Yan, Yonggang

    2018-06-01

    Considering that the phospholipids and glycerophosphoric acid are the basic materials throughout the metabolism of the whole life period and the bone is composed of organic polymer collagen and inorganic mineral apatite, a novel self-setting composite of magnesium glycerophosphate (MG) and di-calcium silicate(C2S)/tri-calcium silicate(C3S) was developed as bio-cement for bone repair, reconstruction and regeneration. The composite was prepared by mixing the MG, C2S and C3S with the certain ratios, and using the deionized water and phosphoric acid solution as mixed liquid. The combination and formation of the composites was characterized by FTIR, XPS and XRD. The physicochemical properties were studied by setting time, compressive strength, pH value, weight loss in the PBS and surface change by SEM-EDX. The biocompatibility was evaluated by cell culture in the leaching solution of the composites. The preliminary results showed that when di- and tri-calcium silicate contact with water, there are lots of Ca(OH) 2 generated making the pH value of solution is higher than 9 which is helpful for the formation of hydroxyapatite(HA) that is the main bone material. The new organic-inorganic self-setting bio-cements showed initial setting time is ranged from 20 min to 85 min and the compressive strength reached 30 MPa on the 7th days, suitable as the bone fillers. The weight loss was 20% in the first week, and 25% in the 4th week. Meanwhile, the new HA precipitated on the composite surface during the incubation in the SBF showed bioactivity. The cell cultured in the leaching liquid of the composite showed high proliferation inferring the new bio-cement has good biocompatibility to the cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced non-radiative energy transfer in hybrid III-nitride structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R. M.; Athanasiou, M.; Bai, J.; Liu, B.; Wang, T.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of surface states has been investigated in hybrid organic/inorganic white light emitting structures that employ high efficiency, nearfield non-radiative energy transfer (NRET) coupling. The structures utilize blue emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanorod arrays to minimize the separation with a yellow emitting F8BT coating. Surface states due to the exposed III-nitride surfaces of the nanostructures are found to reduce the NRET coupling rate. The surface states are passivated by deposition of a silicon nitride layer on the III-nitride nanorod surface leading to reduced surface recombination. A low thickness surface passivation is shown to increase the NRET coupling rate by 4 times compared to an un-passivated hybrid structure. A model is proposed to explain the increased NRET rate for the passivated hybrid structures based on the reduction in surface electron depletion of the passivated InGaN/GaN MQW nanorods surfaces

  17. Hybrid fiber gratings coated with a catalytic sensitive layer for hydrogen sensing in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caucheteur, Christophe; Debliquy, Marc; Lahem, Driss; Megret, Patrice

    2008-10-13

    Using hydrogen as fuel presents a potential risk of explosion and requires low cost and efficient leak sensors. We present here a hybrid sensor configuration consisting of a long period fiber grating (LPFG) and a superimposed uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG). Both gratings are covered with a sensitive layer made of WO(3) doped with Pt on which H(2) undergoes an exothermic reaction. The released heat increases the temperature around the gratings. In this configuration, the LPFG favors the exothermic reaction thanks to a light coupling to the sensitive layer while the FBG reflects the temperature change linked to the hydrogen concentration. Our sensor is very fast and suitable to detect low hydrogen concentrations in air whatever the relative humidity level and for temperatures down to -50 degrees C, which is without equivalent for other hydrogen optical sensors reported so far.

  18. Procurement of a Large Area Mapping FTIR Microscope for Organic-Inorganic Interfacial Analysis in Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: After acquiring the Infrared Imaging Microscope with large area mapping capabilities for structure -function research and...Inorganic Interfacial Analysis in Biological Materials The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should...of a Large Area Mapping FTIR Microscope for Organic-Inorganic Interfacial Analysis in Biological Materials Report Title After acquiring the Infrared

  19. An optimized hybrid Convolutional Perfectly Matched Layer for efficient absorption of electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish, Amirashkan; Zakeri, Bijan; Radkani, Nafiseh

    2018-03-01

    A hybrid technique is studied in order to improve the performance of Convolutional Perfectly Matched Layer (CPML) in the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) medium. This technique combines the first order of Higdon's annihilation equation as Absorbing Boundary Condition (ABC) with CPML to vanish the Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC) effects at the end of the CPML region. An optimization algorithm is required to find optimum parameters of the proposed absorber. In this investigation, the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is utilized with two separate objective functions in order to minimize the average and peak value of relative error. Using a standard test, the overall performance of the proposed absorber is compared to the original CPML. The results clearly illustrate this method provides approximately 10 dB enhancements in CPML absorption error. The performance, memory and time requirement of the novel absorber, hybrid CPML (H-CPML), was analyzed during 2D and 3D tests and compared to most reported PMLs. The H-CPML requirement of computer resources is similar to CPML and can simply be implemented to truncate FDTD domains. Furthermore, an optimized set of parameters are provided to generalize the hybrid method.

  20. Single-layered graphene oxide nanosheet/polyaniline hybrids fabricated through direct molecular exfoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-Liang; Shau, Shi-Min; Juang, Tzong-Yuan; Lee, Rong-Ho; Chen, Chih-Ping; Suen, Shing-Yi; Jeng, Ru-Jong

    2011-12-06

    In this study, we used direct molecular exfoliation for the rapid, facile, large-scale fabrication of single-layered graphene oxide nanosheets (GOSs). Using macromolecular polyaniline (PANI) as a layered space enlarger, we readily and rapidly synthesized individual GOSs at room temperature through the in situ polymerization of aniline on the 2D GOS platform. The chemically modified GOS platelets formed unique 2D-layered GOS/PANI hybrids, with the PANI nanorods embedded between the GO interlayers and extended over the GO surface. X-ray diffraction revealed that intergallery expansion occurred in the GO basal spacing after the PANI nanorods had anchored and grown onto the surface of the GO layer. Transparent folding GOSs were, therefore, observed in transmission electron microscopy images. GOS/PANI nanohybrids possessing high conductivities and large work functions have the potential for application as electrode materials in optoelectronic devices. Our dispersion/exfoliation methodology is a facile means of preparing individual GOS platelets with high throughput, potentially expanding the applicability of nanographene oxide materials. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. In Situ Hybridization of Pulp Fibers Using Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Erik Lange

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic Mg2+ and Al3+ containing layered double hydroxide (LDH particles were synthesised in situ from aqueous solution onto chemical pulp fibers of pine (Pinus sylvestris. High super saturated (hss solution with sodium carbonate produced LDH particles with an average diameter of 100–200 nm. Nano-size (70 nm LDH particles were found from fibers external surface and, to a lesser degree, from the S2 cell wall after synthesis via low super saturated (lss route. The synthesis via slow urea hydrolysis (Uhyd yielded micron and clay sized LDH (2–5 μm and enabled efficient fiber densification via mineralization of S2 fiber wall layer as indicated by TEM and compliance analysis. The Uhyd method decreased fiber compliance up to 50%. Reduction in the polymerisation degree of cellulose was observed with capillary viscometry. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the hybridization with LDH reduced the exothermic heat, indicating, that this material can be incorporated in flame retardant applications. Fiber charge was assessed by Fibers 2015, 3 104 adsorption expermients with methylene blue (MB and metanil yellow (MY. Synthesis via lss route retained most of the fibres original charge and provided the highest capacity (10 μmol/g for anionic MY, indicating cationic character of hybrid fibers. Our results suggested that mineralized fibers can be potentially used in advanced applications such as biocomposites and adsorbent materials.

  2. New hybrid lead iodides: From one-dimensional chain to two-dimensional layered perovskite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Kecai; Liu, Wei; Teat, Simon J.; An, Litao; Wang, Hao; Emge, Thomas J.; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Two new hybrid lead halides (H 2 BDA)[PbI 4 ] (1) (H 2 BDA=1,4-butanediammonium dication) and (HNPEIM)[PbI 3 ] (2) (HNPEIM=N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that compound 1 features a two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layer whereas compound 2 contains one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains. The N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation within compound 2 was generated in-situ under solvothermal conditions. The optical absorption spectra collected at room temperature suggest that both compounds are semiconductors having direct band gaps, with estimated values of 2.64 and 2.73 eV for 1 and 2, respectively. Results from the density functional theory (DFT) calculations are consistent with the experimental data. Density of states (DOS) analysis reveals that in both compounds 1 and 2, the energy states in the valence band maximum region are iodine 5p atomic orbitals with a small contribution from lead 6s, while in the region of conduction band minimum, the major contributions are from the inorganic (Pb 6p atomic orbitals) and organic components (C and N 2p atomic orbitals) in compound 1 and 2, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two new hybrid lead halides built on one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains and two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layers are synthesized and their structural and electronic properties are analyzed. - Highlights: • Two new hybrid lead iodides are designed, synthesized, and characterized. • They are closely related to, but different from, perovskite structures. • The electronic properties of both compounds are analyzed by DFT calculations

  3. New hybrid lead iodides: From one-dimensional chain to two-dimensional layered perovskite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Kecai; Liu, Wei [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Teat, Simon J. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); An, Litao; Wang, Hao; Emge, Thomas J. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Li, Jing, E-mail: jingli@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Two new hybrid lead halides (H{sub 2}BDA)[PbI{sub 4}] (1) (H{sub 2}BDA=1,4-butanediammonium dication) and (HNPEIM)[PbI{sub 3}] (2) (HNPEIM=N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that compound 1 features a two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layer whereas compound 2 contains one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains. The N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation within compound 2 was generated in-situ under solvothermal conditions. The optical absorption spectra collected at room temperature suggest that both compounds are semiconductors having direct band gaps, with estimated values of 2.64 and 2.73 eV for 1 and 2, respectively. Results from the density functional theory (DFT) calculations are consistent with the experimental data. Density of states (DOS) analysis reveals that in both compounds 1 and 2, the energy states in the valence band maximum region are iodine 5p atomic orbitals with a small contribution from lead 6s, while in the region of conduction band minimum, the major contributions are from the inorganic (Pb 6p atomic orbitals) and organic components (C and N 2p atomic orbitals) in compound 1 and 2, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two new hybrid lead halides built on one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains and two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layers are synthesized and their structural and electronic properties are analyzed. - Highlights: • Two new hybrid lead iodides are designed, synthesized, and characterized. • They are closely related to, but different from, perovskite structures. • The electronic properties of both compounds are analyzed by DFT calculations.

  4. Electronic structure calculations and optical properties of a new organic-inorganic luminescent perovskite: (C9H19NH3)2PbI2Br2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, H.; Samet, A.; Dammak, T.; Mlayah, A.; Hlil, E.K.; Abid, Y.

    2011-01-01

    (C 9 H 19 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 2 Br 2 compound is a new crystal belonging to the large hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites compounds family. Optical properties are investigated by optical absorption UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. Bands to band absorption peak at 2.44 eV as well as an extremely strong yellow-green photoluminescence emission at 2.17 eV is observed at room temperature. First principle calculations based on the DFT and FLAPW methods combined with LDA approximation are performed as well. Density of state close to the gap is presented and discussed in terms of optical absorption and photoluminescence experimental results. The perfect agreement between experimental data and electronic structure calculations is highlighted. - Highlights: → (C 9 H 19 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 2 Br 2 compound is a new crystal with strong yellow-green PL emission at 2.17 eV. → Calculations based on DFT and FLAPW method combined with LDA approximation are performed. → Gap, optical transitions and exciton presence were predicted from density of states. → Agreement between experimental data and electronic structure calculations.

  5. Amine-Based Passivating Materials for Enhanced Optical Properties and Performance of Organic-Inorganic Perovskites in Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjin; Park, Jong Hyun; Lee, Bo Ram; Jung, Eui Dae; Yu, Jae Choul; Di Nuzzo, Daniele; Friend, Richard H; Song, Myoung Hoon

    2017-04-20

    The use of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites in optoelectronic applications are attracting an interest because of their outstanding characteristics, which enable a remarkable enhancement of device efficiency. However, solution-processed perovskite crystals unavoidably contain defect sites that cause hysteresis in perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) and blinking in perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs). Here, we report significant beneficial effects using a new treatment based on amine-based passivating materials (APMs) to passivate the defect sites of methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr 3 ) through coordinate bonding between the nitrogen atoms and undercoordinated lead ions. This treatment greatly enhanced the PeLED's efficiency, with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 6.2%, enhanced photoluminescence (PL), a lower threshold for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), a longer PL lifetime, and enhanced device stability. Using confocal microscopy, we observed the cessation of PL blinking in perovskite films treated with ethylenediamine (EDA) due to passivation of the defect sites in the MAPbBr 3 .

  6. Engineering of a polymer layered bio-hybrid heart valve scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnavi, S., E-mail: jani84@gmail.com [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, TN (India); Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Trivandrum, Kerala 695012 (India); Kumary, T.V., E-mail: tvkumary@yahoo.com [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Trivandrum, Kerala 695012 (India); Bhuvaneshwar, G.S., E-mail: gs.bhuvnesh@gmail.com [Trivitron Innovation Centre, Department of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, TN (India); Natarajan, T.S., E-mail: tsniit@gmail.com [Conducting Polymer laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai 600036, TN (India); Verma, R.S., E-mail: vermars@iitm.ac.in [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, TN (India)

    2015-06-01

    Current treatment strategy for end stage valve disease involves either valvular repair or replacement with homograft/mechanical/bioprosthetic valves. In cases of recurrent stenosis/ regurgitation, valve replacement is preferred choice of treatment over valvular repair. Currently available mechanical valves primarily provide durability whereas bioprosthetic valves have superior tissue compatibility but both lack remodelling and regenerative properties making their utility limited in paediatric patients. With advances in tissue engineering, attempts have been made to fabricate valves with regenerative potential using various polymers, decellularized tissues and hybrid scaffolds. To engineer an ideal heart valve, decellularized bovine pericardium extracellular matrix (DBPECM) is an attractive biocompatible scaffold but has weak mechanical properties and rapid degradation. However, DBPECM can be modified with synthetic polymers to enhance its mechanical properties. In this study, we developed a Bio-Hybrid scaffold with non-cross linked DBPECM in its native structure coated with a layer of Polycaprolactone-Chitosan (PCL-CH) nanofibers that displayed superior mechanical properties. Surface and functional studies demonstrated integration of PCL-CH to the DBPECM with enhanced bio and hemocompatibility. This engineered Bio-Hybrid scaffold exhibited most of the physical, biochemical and functional properties of the native valve that makes it an ideal scaffold for fabrication of cardiac valve with regenerative potential. - Highlights: • A Bio-Hybrid scaffold was fabricated with PCL-CH blend and DBPECM. • PCL-CH functionally interacted with decellularized matrix without cross linking. • Modified scaffold exhibited mechanical properties similar to native heart valve. • Supported better fibroblast and endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation. • The developed scaffold can be utilized for tissue engineering of heart valve.

  7. Optical spectroscopy of two-dimensional layered (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)-NH(3))(2)-PbI(4) perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthron, K; Lauret, J-S; Doyennette, L; Lanty, G; Al Choueiry, A; Zhang, S J; Brehier, A; Largeau, L; Mauguin, O; Bloch, J; Deleporte, E

    2010-03-15

    We report on optical spectroscopy (photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation) on two-dimensional self-organized layers of (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)-NH(3))(2)-PbI(4) perovskite. Temperature and excitation power dependance of the optical spectra gives a new insight into the excitonic and the phononic properties of this hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor. In particular, exciton-phonon interaction is found to be more than one order of magnitude higher than in GaAs QWs. As a result, photoluminescence emission lines have to be interpreted in the framework of a polaron model.

  8. Composite Layers “MgAl Intermetalic Layer / PVD Coating” Obtained On The AZ91D Magnesium Alloy By Different Hybrid Surface Treatment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolik J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys have very interesting physical properties which make them ‘materials of the future’ for tools and machine components in many industry areas. However, very low corrosion and tribological resistance of magnesium alloys hampers the implementation of this material in the industry. One of the methods to improve the properties of magnesium alloys is the application of the solutions of surface engineering like hybrid technologies. In this paper, the authors compare the tribological and corrosion properties of two types of “MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layers obtained by two different hybrid surface treatment technologies. In the first configuration, the “MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layer was obtained by multisource hybrid surface treatment technology combining magnetron sputtering (MS, arc evaporation (AE and vacuum heating methods. The second type of a composite layer was prepared using a hybrid technology combined with a diffusion treatment process in Al-powder and the electron beam evaporation (EB method. The authors conclude, that even though the application of „MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layers can be an effective solution to increase the abrasive wear resistance of magnesium alloys, it is not a good solution to increase its corrosion resistance.

  9. Organic/inorganic nanocomposites of ZnO/CuO/chitosan with improved properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xingfa, E-mail: xingfamazju@aliyun.com [School of Environmental and Material Engineering, Center of Advanced Functional Materials, Yantai University, Yantai, 264005 (China); State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Zhang, Bo; Cong, Qin; He, Xiaochun; Gao, Mingjun [School of Environmental and Material Engineering, Center of Advanced Functional Materials, Yantai University, Yantai, 264005 (China); Li, Guang [National Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China)

    2016-08-01

    To extend the visible light response of ZnO, ZnO/CuO heterostructured nanocomposite was synthesized by a hydrothermal approach. At the same time, chitosan (Ch) is considered as a very promising natural polymer. It holds not only abundant resource and low cost, but also has excellent adsorption properties to a broad range of organic pollutants and some heavy metal ions. To improve the adsorption properties of ZnO/CuO nanocomposite, ZnO/CuO/chitosan organic-inorganic composites were prepared with precipitation method. The as-prepared nanocomposites were characterized by TEM (Transmission electron microscopy), SAED pattern (Selected Area Electron Diffraction), SEM (scanning electron microscopy), UV–Vis (Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy), PL (Photoluminescence), XRD (X-ray diffraction), TGA (Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra (FTIR) et al. To examine the surface and interface properties of nanocomposites, chemical prototype sensor arrays were constructed based on ZnO, ZnO/CuO, ZnO/Cu{sub 2}O, ZnO/CuO/chitosan, ZnO/Cu{sub 2}O/chitosan nanocomposites and QCM (quartz crystal microbalance) arrays devices. The adsorption response behaviors of the sensor arrays to some typical volatile compounds were examined under similar conditions. The results indicated that with comparison to ZnO nanostructure, the ZnO/CuO nanocomposite exhibited enhanced adsorption properties to some typical volatile compounds greatly, and the adsorption properties of ZnO/CuO/chitosan are much better than that of ZnO/CuO nanocomposite. The adsorption of ZnO/CuO system is super to that of ZnO/Cu{sub 2}O. Therefore, ZnO/CuO/chitosan nanocomposite not only showed broadening visible light response, but also possessed of excellent adsorption properties, and has good potential applications in photocatalysts, chemical sensors, biosensors, self-cleaning coating fields et al. - Highlights: • ZnO/CuO nanocomposites exhibited good response in near whole visible

  10. Electronic, structural and chemical effects of charge-transfer at organic/inorganic interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, R.; Vázquez de Parga, A. L.; Gallego, J. M.

    2017-07-01

    reactivity of the adsorbates. The aim of this review is to start drawing general conclusions and developing new concepts which will help the scientific community to proceed more efficiently towards the understanding of organic/inorganic interfaces in the strong interaction limit, where charge-transfer effects must be taken into consideration.

  11. Few-Layer MoS2-Organic Thin-Film Hybrid Complementary Inverter Pixel Fabricated on a Glass Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Sung; Shin, Jae Min; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Lee, Junyeong; Kim, Jin Sung; Hwang, Hyun Chul; Park, Eunyoung; Yoon, Woojin; Ju, Sang-Yong; Im, Seongil

    2015-05-13

    Few-layer MoS2-organic thin-film hybrid complementary inverters demonstrate a great deal of device performance with a decent voltage gain of ≈12, a few hundred pW power consumption, and 480 Hz switching speed. As fabricated on glass, this hybrid CMOS inverter operates as a light-detecting pixel as well, using a thin MoS2 channel. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Development of a Hybrid RANS/LES Method for Turbulent Mixing Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Reshotko, Eli

    2001-01-01

    Significant research has been underway for several years in NASA Glenn Research Center's nozzle branch to develop advanced computational methods for simulating turbulent flows in exhaust nozzles. The primary efforts of this research have concentrated on improving our ability to calculate the turbulent mixing layers that dominate flows both in the exhaust systems of modern-day aircraft and in those of hypersonic vehicles under development. As part of these efforts, a hybrid numerical method was recently developed to simulate such turbulent mixing layers. The method developed here is intended for configurations in which a dominant structural feature provides an unsteady mechanism to drive the turbulent development in the mixing layer. Interest in Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods have increased in recent years, but applying an LES method to calculate the wide range of turbulent scales from small eddies in the wall-bounded regions to large eddies in the mixing region is not yet possible with current computers. As a result, the hybrid method developed here uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall-bounded regions entering a mixing section and uses a LES procedure to calculate the mixing-dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS-LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. With this technique, closure for the RANS equations is obtained by using the Cebeci-Smith algebraic turbulence model in conjunction with the wall-function approach of Ota and Goldberg. The LES equations are closed using the Smagorinsky subgrid scale model. Although the function of the Cebeci-Smith model to replace all of the turbulent stresses is quite different from that of the Smagorinsky subgrid model, which only replaces the small subgrid turbulent stresses, both are eddy viscosity models and both are derived at least in part from mixing-length theory. The similar formulation of these two models enables the RANS

  13. The effect of fibre layering pattern in resisting bending loads of natural fibre-based hybrid composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusoh Muhamad Shahirul Mat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fibre layering pattern and hybridization on the flexural properties of composite hybrid laminates between natural fibres of basalt, jute and flax with synthetic fibre of E-glass reinforced epoxy have been investigated experimentally. Results showed that the effect fibre layering pattern was highly significant on the flexural strength and modulus, which were strongly dependent on the hybrid configuration between sandwich-like (SL and intercalation (IC sequence of fibre layers. In addition, specific modulus based on the variation densities of the hybrid laminates was used to discover the best combination either basalt, jute or flax with E-glass exhibits superior properties concerning on the strength to weight-ratio. Generally, SL sequence of glass/basalt exhibited superior strength and stiffness compared with glass/jute and glass/flax in resisting bending loads. In terms of hybridization effect, glass/jute was found to be the best combination with E-glass compared to the rest of natural fibres investigated in the present study. Hence, the proper stacking sequences and material selection are among predominant factors that influence on mechanical properties and very crucial in designing composite hybrid system to meet the desired requirements.

  14. Hybrid Doping of Few-Layer Graphene via a Combination of Intercalation and Surface Doping

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed

    2017-05-23

    Surface molecular doping of graphene has been shown to modify its work function and increase its conductivity. However, the associated shifts in work function and increases in carrier concentration are highly coupled and limited by the surface coverage of dopant molecules on graphene. Here we show that few-layer graphene (FLG) can be doped using a hybrid approach, effectively combining surface doping by larger (metal-)organic molecules, while smaller molecules, such as Br2 and FeCl3, intercalate into the bulk. Intercalation tunes the carrier concentration more effectively, whereas surface doping of intercalated FLG can be used to tune its work function without reducing the carrier mobility. This multi-modal doping approach yields a very high carrier density and tunable work function for FLG, demonstrating a new versatile platform for fabricating graphene-based contacts for electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  15. Hybrid Doping of Few-Layer Graphene via a Combination of Intercalation and Surface Doping

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Barlow, Stephen; Marder, Seth R.; Amassian, Aram

    2017-01-01

    Surface molecular doping of graphene has been shown to modify its work function and increase its conductivity. However, the associated shifts in work function and increases in carrier concentration are highly coupled and limited by the surface coverage of dopant molecules on graphene. Here we show that few-layer graphene (FLG) can be doped using a hybrid approach, effectively combining surface doping by larger (metal-)organic molecules, while smaller molecules, such as Br2 and FeCl3, intercalate into the bulk. Intercalation tunes the carrier concentration more effectively, whereas surface doping of intercalated FLG can be used to tune its work function without reducing the carrier mobility. This multi-modal doping approach yields a very high carrier density and tunable work function for FLG, demonstrating a new versatile platform for fabricating graphene-based contacts for electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  16. Bonding and bio-properties of hybrid laser/magnetron Cr-enriched DLC layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelinek, Miroslav, E-mail: jelinek@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, nam. Sitna 3105, 27201 Kladno (Czech Republic); Zemek, Josef [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Vandrovcová, Marta; Bačáková, Lucie [Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Kocourek, Tomáš; Remsa, Jan; Písařík, Petr [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, nam. Sitna 3105, 27201 Kladno (Czech Republic)

    2016-01-01

    Chromium-enriched diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers were prepared by a hybrid technology using a combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and magnetron sputtering. XRD revealed no chromium peaks, indicating that the layers are mostly amorphous. Carbon (sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} bonds) and chromium bonds were determined by XPS from C 1s, O 1s, and Cr 2p photoelectron peaks. Depending on the deposition conditions, the concentration of Cr in DLC layers moved from zero to 10 at.% for as-received sample surfaces, and to about 31 at.% after mild sputter-cleaning by argon ion cluster beam. It should be noted that the most stable Cr{sup 3+} bonding state is in Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr(OH){sub 3}, and that there is the toxic Cr{sup 6+} state in CrO{sub 3}. The surface content of hexavalent chromium in the Cr 2p3/2 spectra is rather low, but discernible. The population density of Saos-2 cells was the highest in samples containing higher concentrations of chromium 7.7 and 10 at.%. This means that higher concentrations of chromium supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. In addition, as revealed by a LIVE/DEAD viability/cytotoxicity kit, the cells on all Cr-containing samples maintained high viability (96 to 99%) on days 1 and 3 after seeding. However, this seemingly positive cell behavior could be associated with the risk of dedifferentiation and oncogenic transformation of cells. - Highlights: • DLC and chromium-enriched DLC layers were prepared by hybrid laser–magnetron deposition. • The content of chromium in DLC varied up to 10 at.% (31 at.% after ion beam sputtering). • The surface content of toxic hexavalent chromium in the Cr 2p3/2 spectra is rather low but discernible. • Higher concentrations of chromium supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. • Cells on all Cr-containing samples maintained high viability (96 to 99%).

  17. Selective self-assembly and light emission tuning of layered hybrid perovskites on patterned graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Valentino L P; Kovaříček, Petr; Valeš, Václav; Drogowska, Karolina; Verhagen, Tim; Vejpravova, Jana; Horák, Lukáš; Listorti, Andrea; Colella, Silvia; Kalbáč, Martin

    2018-02-15

    The emission of light in two-dimensional (2-D) layered hybrid organic lead halide perovskites, namely (R-NH 3 ) 2 PbX 4 , can be effectively tuned using specific building blocks for the perovskite formation. Herein this behaviour is combined with a non-covalent graphene functionalization allowing excellent selectivity and spatial resolution of the perovskite film growth, promoting the formation of hybrid 2-D perovskite : graphene heterostructures with uniform coverage of up to centimeter scale graphene sheets and arbitrary shapes down to 5 μm. Using cryo-Raman microspectroscopy, highly resolved spectra of the perovskite phases were obtained and the Raman mapping served as a convenient spatially resolved technique for monitoring the distribution of the perovskite and graphene constituents on the substrate. In addition, the stability of the perovskite phase with respect to the thermal variation was inspected in situ by X-ray diffraction. Finally, time-resolved photoluminescence characterization demonstrated that the optical properties of the perovskite films grown on graphene are not hampered. Our study thus opens the door to smart fabrication routes for (opto)-electronic devices based on 2-D perovskites in contact with graphene with complex architectures.

  18. Wearable Fabrics with Self-Branched Bimetallic Layered Double Hydroxide Coaxial Nanostructures for Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, Goli; Chandra Sekhar, S; Krishna Bharat, L; Yu, Jae Su

    2017-11-28

    We report a flexible battery-type electrode based on binder-free nickel cobalt layered double hydroxide nanosheets adhered to nickel cobalt layered double hydroxide nanoflake arrays on nickel fabric (NC LDH NFAs@NSs/Ni fabric) using facile and eco-friendly synthesis methods. Herein, we utilized discarded polyester fabric as a cost-effective substrate for in situ electroless deposition of Ni, which exhibited good flexibility, light weight, and high conductivity. Subsequently, the vertically aligned NC LDH NFAs were grown on Ni fabric by means of a hot-air oven-based method, and fluffy-like NC LDH NS branches are further decorated on NC LDH NFAs by a simple electrochemical deposition method. The as-prepared core-shell-like nanoarchitectures improve the specific surface area and electrochemical activity, which provides the ideal pathways for electrolyte diffusion and charge transportation. When the electrochemical performance was tested in 1 M KOH aqueous solution, the core-shell-like NC LDH NFAs@NSs/Ni fabric electrode liberated a maximum areal capacity of 536.96 μAh/cm 2 at a current density of 2 mA/cm 2 and excellent rate capability of 78.3% at 30 mA/cm 2 (420.5 μAh/cm 2 ) with a good cycling stability. Moreover, a fabric-based hybrid supercapacitor (SC) was assembled, which achieves a stable operational potential window of 1.6 V, a large areal capacitance of 1147.23 mF/cm 2 at 3 mA/cm 2 , and a high energy density of 0.392 mWh/cm 2 at a power density of 2.353 mW/cm 2 . Utilizing such high energy storage abilities and flexible properties, the fabricated hybrid SC operated the wearable digital watch and electric motor fan for real-time applications.

  19. Preparation of Organic-Inorganic Multifunctional Nanocomposite Coating via Sol-Gel Routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haoying; Chen Yunfa; Ruan Chengxiang; Gao Weimin; Xie Yusheng

    2001-01-01

    The inorganic-organic nanocomposite coatings are prepared on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate by the spinning technique which involves incorporating homogeneously nanosized ZnO particle into the molecular inorganic-organic hybrid matrices. The hybrid matrices are derived from tetraethoxyasilane (TEOS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxyailane (GLYMO). To avoid the destruction of the polymer structure caused by ZnO and modify the interface between nanoparticles and organic groups, ZnO was first surface-coated with SiO 2 from hydrolyzed TEOS using ammonia water as catalyst. The coatings thus obtained are dense, flexible, abrasion resistant and UV absorbent

  20. Transient Response of Thin Wire above a Layered Half-Space Using TDIE/FDTD Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The TDIE/FDTD hybrid method is applied to calculate the transient responses of thin wire above a lossy layered half-space. The time-domain reflection of the layered half space is computed by one-dimensional modified FDTD method. Then, transient response of thin wire induced by two excitation sources (the incident wave and reflected wave is calculated by TDIE method. Finally numerical results are given to illustrate the feasibility and high efficiency of the presented scheme.

  1. Excitation of hybridized Dirac plasmon polaritons and transition radiation in multi-layer graphene traversed by a fast charged particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Kamran; Mišković, Zoran L.; Segui, Silvina; Gervasoni, Juana L.; Arista, Néstor R.

    2018-06-01

    We analyze the energy loss channels for a fast charged particle traversing a multi-layer graphene (MLG) structure with N layers under normal incidence. Focusing on a terahertz (THz) range of frequencies, and assuming equally doped graphene layers with a large enough separation d between them to neglect interlayer electron hopping, we use the Drude model for two-dimensional conductivity of each layer to describe hybridization of graphene’s Dirac plasmon polaritons (DPPs). Performing a layer decomposition of ohmic energy losses, which include excitation of hybridized DPPs (HDPPs), we have found for N = 3 that the middle HDPP eigenfrequency is not excited in the middle layer due to symmetry constraint, whereas the excitation of the lowest HDPP eigenfrequency produces a Fano resonance in the graphene layer that is first traversed by the charged particle. While the angular distribution of transition radiation emitted in the far field region also shows asymmetry with respect to the traversal order by the incident charged particle at supra-THz frequencies, the integrated radiative energy loss is surprisingly independent of both d and N for N ≤ 5, which is explained by a dominant role of the outer graphene layers in transition radiation. We have further found that the integrated ohmic energy loss in optically thin MLG scales as ∝1/N at sub-THz frequencies, which is explained by exposing the role of dissipative processes in graphene at low frequencies. Finally, prominent peaks are observed at supra-THz frequencies in the integrated ohmic energy loss for MLG structures that are not optically thin. The magnitude of those peaks is found to scale with N for N ≥ 2, while their shape and position replicate the peak in a double-layer graphene (N = 2), which is explained by arguing that plasmon hybridization in such MLG structures is dominated by electromagnetic interaction between the nearest-neighbor graphene layers.

  2. Novel building units with bimetallic rings in inorganic/organic hybrid chains and layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahenthirarajah, Thushitha; Li Yang; Lightfoot, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Hydrothermal synthesis has produced three new compounds constructed from novel building units containing vanadium-oxide (or oxyfluoride) subunits linked together via covalently bound cationic copper complexes. Each new compound exhibits novel structural features: [Cu(dipa)][VOF 4 ] (1) incorporates a corner-sharing octahedral vanadium(IV) oxyfluoride chain decorated by copper-(2,2'-dipyridyl amine) complexes which form intra-chain bridges. Within a similar reactant system [Cu(dipa)] 2 [V 6 O 17 ] (2) is produced, the structure of which exhibits edge-sharing trigonal bipyramidal vanadium(V) 'ladder-like' double chains which are bridged into layers by tetrahedral pyrovanadate dimers together with the copper-(2,2'-dipyridyl amine) complexes. [Cu(py) 4 ] 2 [V 4 O 12 ] (3), is a 2-D structure featuring exclusively tetrahedral vanadium(V) in four-membered ring building blocks, linked through octahedral copper-pyridine complexes to form two crystallographically different bimetallic layers. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis is used to prepare hybrid mixed metal oxides and oxyfluorides with novel extended connectivities

  3. N-type polymers as electron extraction layers in hybrid perovskite solar cells with improved ambient stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, S.; Chen, Z.; Fang, H. -H.; ten Brink, G. H.; Bartesaghi, D.; Adjokatse, S.; Koster, L. J. A.; Kooi, B. J.; Facchetti, A.; Loi, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We studied three n-type polymers of the naphthalenediimide-bithiophene family as electron extraction layers (EELs) in hybrid perovskite solar cells. The recombination mechanism in these devices is found to be heavily influenced by the EEL transport properties. The maximum efficiency of the devices

  4. Ultraviolet/visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic investigations of organic–inorganic hybrid layers for UV protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Präfke, Christiane, E-mail: christiane.praefke@iof.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Optical Coatings Department, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena (Germany); Schulz, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.schulz@iof.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Optical Coatings Department, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany); Kaiser, Norbert, E-mail: norbert.kaiser@iof.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Optical Coatings Department, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany); Tünnermann, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.tuennermann@iof.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Optical Coatings Department, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    A study of vacuum-deposited organic–inorganic hybrid coatings for ultraviolet (UV) protection of polycarbonate is presented. For this purpose, UV-absorbing organic molecules were embedded in a silica matrix by thermal co-evaporation. Typical UV absorbers, namely a benzotriazole, a hydroxyphenyltriazine, and a cyanoacrylate, were used as organic materials. The hybrid layers were investigated by means of ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) concerning their UV/VIS absorption properties and the influence of the silica network on the organic molecules. The porosity and silica–organic interactions are discussed with reference to the infrared spectra. UV irradiation experiments were carried out to demonstrate the UV protection ability of the hybrid layers. Hybrid layers containing the hydroxyphenyltriazine compound showed the best results. - Highlights: ► Vacuum deposited organic–inorganic UV protective coatings for polycarbonate ► Thermal co-evaporation of organic UV absorbing compounds with silica ► Matrix materials and the absorber concentration influence the absorption behavior. ► The coatings on PC show improved UV stability under artificial irradiation. ► The hydroxyphenyltriazine–silica layer shows best UV protection results.

  5. Identification and characterization of the intermediate phase in hybrid organic-inorganic MAPbI3 perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; McCleese, Christopher; Kolodziej, Charles; Samia, Anna C S; Zhao, Yixin; Burda, Clemens

    2016-03-07

    Perovskite films were prepared using single step solution deposition at different annealing temperatures and annealing times. The crystal structure, phases and grain size were investigated with XRD, XPS and SEM/EDX. The prepared films show a typical orientation of tetragonal perovskite phase and a gradual transition at room temperature from the yellow intermediate phase to the black perovskite phase. Films with high purity were obtained by sintering at 100 °C. In addition, the chemical composition and crystal structure of intermediate phase were investigated in detail. FTIR, UV-vis and NMR spectra revealed the occurance of DMF complexes. Interestingly, the intermediate phase could be transformed to the black perovskite phase upon X-ray irradiation. In addition, the recovery of the aged perovskite films from a yellow intermediate phase back to the black perovskite was shown to be viable via heating and X-ray irradiation.

  6. UV-curable hybrid organic-inorganic composite inks with a high refractive index for printing interference images and holograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eremeeva, Elena A.; Yakovlev, Aleksandr V.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Vinogradov, Alexandr V.

    2017-01-01

    Herein we report a new, facile and inexpensive methodology for obtaining highly refractive polymers suitable for inkjet printing using hexacoordinated titanium complexes (THC) and a UV-curable lacquer based on triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TGD) that is a cheap and non-toxic monomer that can be

  7. Tailoring of transition metal alkoxides via complexation for the synthesis of hybrid organic-inorganic sols and gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, C.; In, M.; Toledano, P.; Griesmar, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the chemical control of hydrolysis-condensation reactions of transition metal alkoxides can be performed through the modification of the transition metal coordination sphere by using strong complexing ligands (SCL). Complexing organic groups can be bonded to the transition metal oxide network in two different ways, as network modifiers or network formers. Different illustrations of the role of complexing ligands on Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) alkoxides are presented. As a network modifier, SCL act as termination agents for condensation reactions allowing a control of particle growth. The complexing ligands being located at the periphery of the oxo core open many opportunities for colloid surface protection. SCL carrying organofunctional groups which exhibit non linear optical (NLO) properties have also been used as probes to study sol-gel transformations. SCL functionalized with organic polymerizable functions act as network formers

  8. Ring opening of azetidine cycle: First examples of 1-azetidinepropanamine molecules as a template in hybrid organic-inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzhiy, Vladislav V.; Tyumentseva, Olga S.; Britvin, Sergey N.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Tananaev, Ivan G.

    2018-01-01

    Three novel uranyl selenate and sulfate oxysalts templated by protonated azetidine molecules, [AzH]+, and its ring-opened counterpart 1-azetidinepropanamine, [AzH(CH2)3NH3]2+, have been prepared and studied by X-ray structural analysis. Conformations of azetidinium cations were analysed by means of infrared vibrational assignments supported by the DFT calculations. Crystallization of [AzH]2 [(UO2)2(SeO4)3(H2O)] (I) from highly acidic solutions suggests that low pH does not necessarily result in the opening of azetidine ring. [AzH(CH2)3NH3][(UO2)2(SeO4)3(H2O)](H2O) (II) and [AzH(CH2)3NH3](H5O2)[(UO2)2(SO4)3(HSO4)] (III) are the first structurally characterized crystalline compounds bearing isolated ring-opened azetidine moiety.

  9. Synthesis and luminescence properties of hybrid organic-inorganic transparent titania thin film activated by in- situ formed lanthanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yige; Wang, Li; Li, Huanrong; Liu, Peng; Qin, Dashan; Liu, Binyuan; Zhang, Wenjun; Deng, Ruiping; Zhang, Hongjie

    2008-03-01

    Stable transparent titania thin films were fabricated at room temperature by combining thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA)-modified titanium precursors with amphiphilic triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) copolymers. The obtained transparent titania thin films were systematically investigated by IR spectroscopy, PL emission and excitation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. IR spectroscopy indicates that TTFA coordinates the titanium center during the process of hydrolysis and condensation. Luminescence spectroscopy confirms the in-situ formation of lanthanide complexes in the transparent titania thin film. TEM image shows that the in-situ formed lanthanide complexes were homogeneously distributed throughout the whole thin film. The quantum yield and the number of water coordinated to lanthanide metal center have been theoretically determined based on the luminescence data.

  10. New highly fluorescent biolabels based on II-VI semiconductor hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructures for bioimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, B.S.; Farias, P.M.A.; Menezes, F.D.; Brasil, A.G.; Fontes, A.; Romao, L.; Amaral, J.O.; Moura-Neto, V.; Tenorio, D.P.L.A.; Cesar, C.L.; Barbosa, L.C.; Ferreira, R.

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots based on II-VI materials may be prepared to develop good biolabeling properties. In this study we present some well-succeeded results related to the preparation, functionalization and bioconjugation of CdY (Y = S, Se and Te) to biological systems (live cells and fixed tissues). These nanostructured materials were prepared using colloidal synthesis in aqueous media resulting nanoparticles with very good optical properties and an excellent resistance to photodegradation

  11. Engineering the lipid layer of lipid-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles for enhanced in vitro cellular uptake and improved stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun; Hoerle, Reece; Ehrich, Marion; Zhang, Chenming

    2015-12-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (NPs), consisting of a polymeric core and a lipid shell, have been intensively examined as delivery systems for cancer drugs, imaging agents, and vaccines. For applications in vaccine particularly, the hybrid NPs need to be able to protect the enclosed antigens during circulation, easily be up-taken by dendritic cells, and possess good stability for prolonged storage. However, the influence of lipid composition on the performance of hybrid NPs has not been well studied. In this study, we demonstrate that higher concentrations of cholesterol in the lipid layer enable slower and more controlled antigen release from lipid-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) acid (lipid-PLGA) NPs in human serum and phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Higher concentrations of cholesterol also promoted in vitro cellular uptake of hybrid NPs, improved the stability of the lipid layer, and protected the integrity of the hybrid structure during long-term storage. However, stabilized hybrid structures of high cholesterol content tended to fuse with each other during storage, resulting in significant size increase and lowered cellular uptake. Additional experiments demonstrated that PEGylation of NPs could effectively minimize fusion-caused size increase after long term storage, leading to improved cellular uptake, although excessive PEGylation will not be beneficial and led to reduced improvement. This paper reports the engineering of the lipid layer that encloses a polymeric nanoparticle, which can be used as a carrier for drug and vaccine molecules for targeted delivery. We demonstrated that the concentration of cholesterol is critical for the stability and uptake of the hybrid nanoparticles by dendritic cells, a targeted cell for the delivery of immune effector molecules. However, we found that hybrid nanoparticles with high cholesterol concentration tend to fuse during storage resulting in larger particles with decreased cellular uptake. This problem is

  12. Bifunctional sensor of pentachlorophenol and copper ions based on nanostructured hybrid films of humic acid and exfoliated layered double hydroxide via a facile layer-by-layer assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Shuang; Peng, Dinghua; Hu, Xianluo; Gong, Jingming

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new highly sensitive bifunctional electrochemical sensor developed. •As-prepared sensor fabricated by alternate assembly of HA and exfoliated LDH nanosheets. •Such a newly designed sensor combining the individual properties of HA and LDH nanosheets. •Simultaneous determination of pentachlorophenol and copper ions achieved. •Practical applications demonstrated in water samples. -- Abstract: A new, highly sensitive bifunctional electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper ions (Cu 2+ ) has been developed, where organic–inorganic hybrid ultrathin films were fabricated by alternate assembly of humic acid (HA) and exfoliated Mg–Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets onto ITO substrates via a layer-by-layer (LBL) approach. The multilayer films were then characterized by means of UV–vis spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM). These films were found to have a relatively smooth surface with almost equal amounts of HA incorporated in each cycle. Its electrochemical performance was systematically investigated. Our results demonstrate that such a newly designed (LDH/HA) n multilayer films, combining the individual properties of HA (dual recognition ability for organic herbicides and metal ions) together with LDH nanosheets (a rigid inorganic matrix), can be applied to the simultaneous analysis of PCP and Cu(II) without interference from each other. The LBL assembled nanoarchitectures were further investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR), which provides insight for bifunctional sensing behavior. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit was found to be as low as 0.4 nM PCP, well below the guideline value of PCP in drinking water (3.7 nM) set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), and 2.0 nM Cu 2+ , much below the guideline value (2.0 mg L −1

  13. Organic-Inorganic Nanostructure Architecture via Directly Capping Fullerenes onto Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Kwan; Kim, Jonggi; Yang, Changduk

    2011-12-01

    A new form of fullerene-capped CdSe nanoparticles (PCBA-capped CdSe NPs), using carboxylate ligands with [60]fullerene capping groups that provides an effective synthetic methodology to attach fullerenes noncovalently to CdSe, is presented for usage in nanotechnology and photoelectric fields. Interestingly, either the internal charge transfer or the energy transfer in the hybrid material contributes to photoluminescence (PL) quenching of the CdSe moieties.

  14. Well-ordered organic–inorganic hybrid layered manganese oxide nanocomposites with excellent decolorization performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Junli; Yu, Lin; Sun, Ming; Ye, Fei; Lan, Bang; Diao, Guiqiang; He, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Well-ordered organic–inorganic hybrid layered manganese oxide nanocomposites (CTAB-Al-MO) with excellent decolorization performance were prepared through a two-step process. Specifically, the MnO 2 nanosheets were self-assembled in the presence of CTAB, and subsequently pillared with Keggin ions. The obtained CTAB-Al-MO with the basal spacing of 1.59 nm could be stable at 300 °C for 2 h and also possesses high total pore volumes (0.41 cm³ g −1 ) and high specific BET surface area (161 m 2 g −1 ), which is nine times larger than that of the pristine (19 m 2 g −1 ). Possible formation process for the highly thermal stable CTAB-Al-MO is proposed here. The decolorization experiments of methyl orange showed that the obtained CTAB-Al-MO exhibit excellent performance in wastewater treatment and the decolorization rate could reach 95% within 5 min. - Graphical Abstract: Well-ordered organic–inorganic hybrid LMO nanocomposites (CTAB-Al-MO) with excellent decolorization performance were prepared through a two-step process. Specifically, the MnO 2 nanosheets were self-assembled by CTAB, and subsequently pillared with Keggin ions. Highlights: ► A two-step synthesis method was used to prepare the CTAB-Al-MO. ► The CTAB-Al-MO has the large basal spacing and high specific BET surface area. ► The thermal stability of the well-ordered CTAB-Al-MO could obviously improve. ► The CTAB-Al-MO exhibits excellent oxidation and absorption ability to remove organic pollutants.

  15. Structural characterization, vibrational spectroscopy accomplished with DFT calculation, thermal and dielectric behaviors in a new organic-inorganic tertrapropylammonium aquapentachlorostannate dihydrate compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajlaoui, Sondes, E-mail: hajlaouisondes@yahoo.fr [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia); Chaabane, Iskandar [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia); Lhoste, Jérôme; Bulou, Alain [LUNAM Université, Université du Maine, CNRS UMR 6283, Institut des Molécules et Matériaux du Mans (IMMM), Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72085, Le Mans, Cedex 9 (France); Guidara, Kamel [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-09-15

    In this work a novel compound tertrapropylammonium aquapentachlorostannate dihydrate was synthesized and characterized by; single crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetric and dielectric measurement. The crystal structure refinement at room temperature reveled that this later belongs to the monoclinic compound with P121/c1 space group with the following unit cell parameters a = 8.2699(3) Å, b = 12.4665(4) Å, c = 22.3341(7) Å and β = 92.94(0)°. The crystal arrangement can be described by stacked organic-inorganic layers in the c direction with two independent water molecules placed between each two layers. The detailed interpretations of the vibrational properties of the studied compound were performed using density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP/LanL2DZ basis set, and has enabled us to make the detailed assignments by comparative study of the experimental and calculated Raman and IR spectra. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement disclosed two anomalies in the temperature range 356–376 (T{sub 1}) K and at 393 K (T{sub 2}) characterized by the dehydration of the sample and probably a reconstruction of a new structure after T{sub 2} transition. The temperature dependences of dielectric permittivity show a relaxation process around T{sub 2} anomaly indicating the occurrence of the disorder at high temperature. The dependence of the exponent m(T) on temperature, extracted from the straight lines of log(ε″) with log (ω), suggests that the correlated barrier hopping is the appropriate model for the conduction mechanism. - Highlights: • The single-crystal X-ray diffraction has been performed. • The assignments of the vibration modes based on DFT were reported and discussed. • Differential scanning calorimetric reveals the presence of two endothermic peaks. • The electric permittivity was studied using the impedance measurements. • The CBH is the appropriate model for the conduction

  16. Hybrid electroluminescent device based on MEH-PPV and ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewidy, Dina; Gadallah, A.-S.; Fattah, G. Abdel

    2017-02-15

    Hybrid organic/inorganic electroluminescent device based on the structure of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MEH-PPV/ZnO/ZnO submicrorods/Al has been manufactured. Spin coating has been used to deposit both PEDOT:PSS and MEH-PPV. Two-step process has been used to synthesis ZnO submicrorods, namely, spin coating and chemical bath deposition. Changing the dimensions of the ZnO submicrorods in this layer structure has been investigated to improve the performance of the organic/inorganic electroluminescence device. Such layer structure provides electroluminescence with narrow emission bands due to a high gain with this structure. X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscope images show that ZnO submicrorods have hexagon structure. Current-voltage curve for the structure has been reported. Electroluminescence curves (electroluminescence intensity versus wavelength) at different bias voltages have been presented and these results show narrowing in full width at half maximum in the spectra at high current density compared to photoluminescence excitation. The narrowing in the spectrum has been explained. - Highlights: • Manufacturing of MEH-PPV and ZnO electroluminescent device has been reported. • Spin coating and chemical bath deposition have been used for preparation of ZnO. • SEM images and X-ray diffraction of ZnO have been presented. • Current-voltage curves and electroluminescent measurements have been reported.

  17. Visualization of Individual Images in Patterned Organic-Inorganic Multilayers Using GISAXS-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroki; Nishikawa, Yukihiro; Takenaka, Mikihito; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Nakanishi, Yohei; Tsujii, Yoshinobu; Takata, Masaki; Kanaya, Toshiji

    2017-05-16

    Using grazing-incidence small-angle scattering (GISAXS) with computed tomography (CT), we have individually reconstructed the spatial distribution of a thin gold (Au) layer buried under a thin poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) layer. Owing to the difference between total reflection angles of Au and PS-b-P2VP, the scattering profiles for Au nanoparticles and self-assembled nanostructures of PS-b-P2VP could be independently obtained by changing the X-ray angle of incidence. Reconstruction of scattering profiles allows one to separately characterize spatial distributions in Au and PS-b-P2VP nanostructures.

  18. Band Gap Tuning and Defect Tolerance of Atomically Thin Two- Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Mohnish; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    Organic−inorganic halide perovskites have proven highly successful for photovoltaics but suffer from low stability, which deteriorates their performance over time. Recent experiments have demonstrated that low dimensional phases of the hybrid perovskites may exhibit improved stability. Here we report first-principles calculations for isolated monolayers of the organometallic halide perovskites (C4H9NH3)2MX2Y2, where M = Pb, Ge, Sn and X,Y = Cl, Br, I. The band gaps computed using the GLLB-SC ...

  19. Three-input gate logic circuits on chemically assembled single-electron transistors with organic and inorganic hybrid passivation layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majima, Yutaka; Hackenberger, Guillaume; Azuma, Yasuo; Kano, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Kosuke; Susaki, Tomofumi; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu

    2017-01-01

    Single-electron transistors (SETs) are sub-10-nm scale electronic devices based on conductive Coulomb islands sandwiched between double-barrier tunneling barriers. Chemically assembled SETs with alkanethiol-protected Au nanoparticles show highly stable Coulomb diamonds and two-input logic operations. The combination of bottom-up and top-down processes used to form the passivation layer is vital for realizing multi-gate chemically assembled SET circuits, as this combination enables us to connect conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies via planar processes. Here, three-input gate exclusive-OR (XOR) logic operations are demonstrated in passivated chemically assembled SETs. The passivation layer is a hybrid bilayer of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and pulsed laser deposited (PLD) aluminum oxide (AlO[Formula: see text]), and top-gate electrodes were prepared on the hybrid passivation layers. Top and two-side-gated SETs showed clear Coulomb oscillation and diamonds for each of the three available gates, and three-input gate XOR logic operation was clearly demonstrated. These results show the potential of chemically assembled SETs to work as logic devices with multi-gate inputs using organic and inorganic hybrid passivation layers.

  20. Enhanced Capacitance of Hybrid Layered Graphene/Nickel Nanocomposite for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zaid, Norsaadatul Akmal; Idris, Nurul Hayati

    2016-08-01

    In this work, Ni nanoparticles were directly decorated on graphene (G) nanosheets via mechanical ball milling. Based on transmission electron microscopy observations, the Ni nanoparticles were well dispersed and attached to the G nanosheet without any agglomerations. Electrochemical results showed that the capacitance of a G/Ni nanocomposite was 275 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1, which is higher than the capacitance of bare G (145 F g-1) and bare Ni (3 F g-1). The G/Ni electrode also showed superior performance at a high current density, exhibiting a capacitance of 190 F g-1 at a current density of 5 A g-1 and a capacitance of 144 F g-1 at a current density of 10 A g-1. The equivalent series resistance for G/Ni nanocomposites also decreased. The enhanced performance of this hybrid supercapacitor is best described by the synergistic effect, i.e. dual charge-storage mechanism, which is demonstrated by electrical double layer and pseudocapacitance materials. Moreover, a high specific surface area and electrical conductivity of the materials enhanced the capacitance. These results indicate that the G/Ni nanocomposite is a potential supercapacitor.

  1. Fast electron flux driven by lower hybrid wave in the scrape-off layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y. L.; Xu, G. S.; Wang, H. Q.; Wan, B. N.; Chen, R.; Wang, L.; Gan, K. F.; Yang, J. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Liu, S. C.; Li, M. H.; Ding, S.; Yan, N.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Liu, Y. L.; Shao, L. M.; Li, J.; Chen, L.; Zhao, N.

    2015-01-01

    The fast electron flux driven by Lower Hybrid Wave (LHW) in the scrape-off layer (SOL) in EAST is analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. The five bright belts flowing along the magnetic field lines in the SOL and hot spots at LHW guard limiters observed by charge coupled device and infrared cameras are attributed to the fast electron flux, which is directly measured by retarding field analyzers (RFA). The current carried by the fast electron flux, ranging from 400 to 6000 A/m 2 and in the direction opposite to the plasma current, is scanned along the radial direction from the limiter surface to the position about 25 mm beyond the limiter. The measured fast electron flux is attributed to the high parallel wave refractive index n || components of LHW. According to the antenna structure and the LHW power absorbed by plasma, a broad parallel electric field spectrum of incident wave from the antennas is estimated. The radial distribution of LHW-driven current density is analyzed in SOL based on Landau damping of the LHW. The analytical results support the RFA measurements, showing a certain level of consistency. In addition, the deposition profile of the LHW power density in SOL is also calculated utilizing this simple model. This study provides some fundamental insight into the heating and current drive effects induced by LHW in SOL, and should also help to interpret the observations and related numerical analyses of the behaviors of bright belts and hot spots induced by LHW

  2. MMP activity in the hybrid layer detected with in situ zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A; Nascimento, F D; Carrilho, M; Tersariol, I; Papa, V; Tjäderhane, L; Di Lenarda, R; Tay, F R; Pashley, D H; Breschi, L

    2012-05-01

    Dentinal proteases are believed to play an important role in the degradation of hybrid layers (HL). This study investigated the HL gelatinolytic activity by in situ zymography and functional enzyme activity assay. The hypotheses were that HLs created by an etch-and-rinse adhesive exhibit active gelatinolytic activity, and MMP-2 and -9 activities in dentin increase during adhesive procedures. Etched-dentin specimens were bonded with Adper Scotchbond 1XT and restored with composite. Adhesive/dentin interface slices were placed on microscope slides, covered with fluorescein-conjugated gelatin, and observed with a multi-photon confocal microscope after 24 hrs. Human dentin powder aliquots were prepared and assigned to the following treatments: A, untreated; B, etched with 10% phosphoric acid; or C, etched with 10% phosphoric acid and mixed with Scotchbond 1XT. The MMP-2 and -9 activities of extracts of dentin powder were measured with functional enzyme assays. Intense and continuous enzyme activity was detected at the bottom of the HL, while that activity was more irregular in the upper HL. Both acid-etching and subsequent adhesive application significantly increased MMP-2 and -9 activities (p < 0.05). The results demonstrate, for the first time, intrinsic MMP activity in the HL, and intense activation of matrix-bound MMP activity with both etching and adhesive application.

  3. Collaborative Multi-Layer Network Coding For Hybrid Cellular Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Moubayed, Abdallah J.

    2014-05-01

    In this thesis, as an extension to [1], we propose a prioritized multi-layer network coding scheme for collaborative packet recovery in hybrid (interweave and underlay) cellular cognitive radio networks. This scheme allows the uncoordinated collaboration between the collocated primary and cognitive radio base-stations in order to minimize their own as well as each other’s packet recovery overheads, thus by improving their throughput. The proposed scheme ensures that each network’s performance is not degraded by its help to the other network. Moreover, it guarantees that the primary network’s interference threshold is not violated in the same and adjacent cells. Yet, the scheme allows the reduction of the recovery overhead in the collocated primary and cognitive radio networks. The reduction in the cognitive radio network is further amplified due to the perfect detection of spectrum holes which allows the cognitive radio base station to transmit at higher power without fear of violating the interference threshold of the primary network. For the secondary network, simulation results show reductions of 20% and 34% in the packet recovery overhead, compared to the non-collaborative scheme, for low and high probabilities of primary packet arrivals, respectively. For the primary network, this reduction was found to be 12%. Furthermore, with the use of fractional cooperation, the average recovery overhead is further reduced by around 5% for the primary network and around 10% for the secondary network when a high fractional cooperation probability is used.

  4. Propagation of the lower hybrid wave in a density fluctuating scrape-off layer (SOL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madi, M; Peysson, Y; Decker, J; Kabalan, K Y

    2015-01-01

    The perturbation of the lower hybrid wave (LH) power spectrum by fluctuations of the plasma in the vicinity of the antenna is investigated by solving the full wave equation in a slab geometry using COMSOL Multiphysics®. The numerical model whose generality allows to study the effect of various types of fluctuations, including those with short characteristic wavelengths is validated against a coupling code in quiescent regimes. When electron density fluctuations along the toroidal direction are incorporated in the dielectric tensor over a thin perturbed layer in front of the grill, the power spectrum may be strongly modified from the antenna mouth to the plasma separatrix as the LH wave propagates. The diffraction effect by density fluctuations leads to the appearance of multiple satellite lobes with randomly varying positions and the averaged perturbation is found to be maximum for the Fourier components of the fluctuating spectrum in the vicinity of the launched LH wavelength. This highlights that fast toroidal inhomogeneities with short characteristics length scales in front of the grill may change significantly the initial LH power spectrum used in coupled ray-tracing and Fokker–Planck calculations. (paper)

  5. A Scalable and Highly Configurable Cache-Aware Hybrid Flash Translation Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Boukhobza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cache-aware configurable hybrid flash translation layer (FTL, named CACH-FTL. It was designed based on the observation that most state-of­­-the-art flash-specific cache systems above FTLs flush groups of pages belonging to the same data block. CACH-FTL relies on this characteristic to optimize flash write operations placement, as large groups of pages are flushed to a block-mapped region, named BMR, whereas small groups are buffered into a page-mapped region, named PMR. Page group placement is based on a configurable threshold defining the limit under which it is more cost-effective to use page mapping (PMR and wait for grouping more pages before flushing to the BMR. CACH-FTL is scalable in terms of mapping table size and flexible in terms of Input/Output (I/O workload support. CACH-FTL performs very well, as the performance difference with the ideal page-mapped FTL is less than 15% in most cases and has a mean of 4% for the best CACH-FTL configurations, while using at least 78% less memory for table mapping storage on RAM.

  6. A Hybrid Double-Layer Master-Slave Model For Multicore-Node Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Gang; Schmider, Hartmut; Edgecombe, Kenneth E

    2012-01-01

    The Double-Layer Master-Slave Model (DMSM) is a suitable hybrid model for executing a workload that consists of multiple independent tasks of varying length on a cluster consisting of multicore nodes. In this model, groups of individual tasks are first deployed to the cluster nodes through an MPI based Master-Slave model. Then, each group is processed by multiple threads on the node through an OpenMP based All-Slave approach. The lack of thread safety of most MPI libraries has to be addressed by a judicious use of OpenMP critical regions and locks. The HPCVL DMSM Library implements this model in Fortran and C. It requires a minimum of user input to set up the framework for the model and to define the individual tasks. Optionally, it supports the dynamic distribution of task-related data and the collection of results at runtime. This library is freely available as source code. Here, we outline the working principles of the library and on a few examples demonstrate its capability to efficiently distribute a workload on a distributed-memory cluster with shared-memory nodes.

  7. Improved helicopter aeromechanical stability analysis using segmented constrained layer damping and hybrid optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Chattopadhyay, Aditi

    2000-06-01

    Aeromechanical stability plays a critical role in helicopter design and lead-lag damping is crucial to this design. In this paper, the use of segmented constrained damping layer (SCL) treatment and composite tailoring is investigated for improved rotor aeromechanical stability using formal optimization technique. The principal load-carrying member in the rotor blade is represented by a composite box beam, of arbitrary thickness, with surface bonded SCLs. A comprehensive theory is used to model the smart box beam. A ground resonance analysis model and an air resonance analysis model are implemented in the rotor blade built around the composite box beam with SCLs. The Pitt-Peters dynamic inflow model is used in air resonance analysis under hover condition. A hybrid optimization technique is used to investigate the optimum design of the composite box beam with surface bonded SCLs for improved damping characteristics. Parameters such as stacking sequence of the composite laminates and placement of SCLs are used as design variables. Detailed numerical studies are presented for aeromechanical stability analysis. It is shown that optimum blade design yields significant increase in rotor lead-lag regressive modal damping compared to the initial system.

  8. Collaborative Multi-Layer Network Coding in Hybrid Cellular Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Moubayed, Abdallah J.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, as an extension to [1], we propose a prioritized multi-layer network coding scheme for collaborative packet recovery in hybrid (interweave and underlay) cellular cognitive radio networks. This scheme allows the uncoordinated collaboration between the collocated primary and cognitive radio base-stations in order to minimize their own as well as each other\\'s packet recovery overheads, thus by improving their throughput. The proposed scheme ensures that each network\\'s performance is not degraded by its help to the other network. Moreover, it guarantees that the primary network\\'s interference threshold is not violated in the same and adjacent cells. Yet, the scheme allows the reduction of the recovery overhead in the collocated primary and cognitive radio networks. The reduction in the cognitive radio network is further amplified due to the perfect detection of spectrum holes which allows the cognitive radio base station to transmit at higher power without fear of violating the interference threshold of the primary network. For the secondary network, simulation results show reductions of 20% and 34% in the packet recovery overhead, compared to the non-collaborative scheme, for low and high probabilities of primary packet arrivals, respectively. For the primary network, this reduction was found to be 12%. © 2015 IEEE.

  9. Compact Layers of Hybrid Halide Perovskites Fabricated via the Aerosol Deposition Process-Uncoupling Material Synthesis and Layer Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Fabian; Hanft, Dominik; Gujar, Tanaji P; Kahle, Frank-Julian; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Köhler, Anna; Moos, Ralf

    2016-04-08

    We present the successful fabrication of CH₃NH₃PbI₃ perovskite layers by the aerosol deposition method (ADM). The layers show high structural purity and compactness, thus making them suitable for application in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices. By using the aerosol deposition method we are able to decouple material synthesis from layer processing. Our results therefore allow for enhanced and easy control over the fabrication of perovskite-based devices, further paving the way for their commercialization.

  10. A comparative study on the performance of hybrid solar cells containing ZnSTe QDs in hole transporting layer and photoactive layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najeeb, Mansoor Ani [Qatar University, Center for Advanced Materials (CAM) (Qatar); Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Aziz, Fakhra [University of Malaya, Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Malaysia); Ahmad, Zubair, E-mail: zubairtarar@qu.edu.qa; Shakoor, R. A. [Qatar University, Center for Advanced Materials (CAM) (Qatar); Mohamed, A. M. A. [Suez University, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering (Egypt); Khalil, Uzma [University of Peshawar, Department of Electronics, Jinnah College for Women (Pakistan); Swelm, Wageh; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A. [King Abdulaziz University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Saudi Arabia); Sulaiman, Khaulah [University of Malaya, Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Malaysia)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, ZnSTe quantum dots-based hybrid solar cells (HSC) with two different device architectures have been investigated. The improved performance of the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM)-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells by the incorporation of ZnSTe quantum dots (QDs) with an average size of 2.96 nm in PEDOT:PSS layer and active layer that have been demonstrated. Although the efficiency of both types of devices is almost the same, a close comparison reveals different reasons behind their improved performance. The device prepared with QDs in the HTL has shown reduced series resistance, increased shunt resistance, and improved mobility. On the other hand, QDs in the photoactive layer demonstrates increased photo-generation leading to improved efficiency.

  11. Interface Engineering and Morphology Study of Thin Film Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lei

    Solar energy harvesting through photovoltaic conversion has gained great attention as a sustainable and environmentally friendly solution to meet the rapidly increasing global energy demand. Currently, the high cost of solar-cell technology limits its widespread use. This situation has generated considerable interest in developing alternative solar-cell technologies that reduce cost through the use of less expensive materials and processes. Perovskite solar cells provide a promising low-cost technology for harnessing this energy source. In Chapter two, a moisture-assist method is introduced and studied to facilitate grain growth of solution processed perovskite films. As an approach to achieve high-quality perovskite films, I anneal the precursor film in a humid environment (ambient air) to dramatically increase grain size, carrier mobility, and charge carrier lifetime, thus improving electrical and optical properties and enhancing photovoltaic performance. It is revealed that mild moisture has a positive effect on perovskite film formation, demonstrating perovskite solar cells with 17.1% power conversion efficiency. Later on, in Chapter four, an ultrathin flexible device delivering a PCE of 14.0% is introduced. The device is based on silver-mesh substrates exhibiting superior durability against mechanical bending. Due to their low energy of formation, organic lead iodide perovskites are also susceptible to degradation in moisture and air. The charge transport layer therefore plays a key role in protecting the perovskite photoactive layer from exposure to such environments, thus achieving highly stable perovskite-based photovoltaic cells. Although incorporating organic charge transport layers can provide high efficiencies and reduced hysteresis, concerns remain regarding device stability and the cost of fabrication. In this work, perovskite solar cells that have all solution-processed metal oxide charge transport layers were demonstrated. Stability has been

  12. Crystalline Molybdenum Oxide Thin-Films for Application as Interfacial Layers in Optoelectronic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; dos Reis, Roberto; Chen, Gong

    2017-01-01

    The ability to control the interfacial properties in metal-oxide thin films through surface defect engineering is vital to fine-tune their optoelectronic properties and thus their integration in novel optoelectronic devices. This is exemplified in photovoltaic devices based on organic, inorganic...... or hybrid technologies, where precise control of the charge transport properties through the interfacial layer is highly important for improving device performance. In this work, we study the effects of in situ annealing in nearly stoichiometric MoOx (x ∼ 3.0) thin-films deposited by reactive sputtering. We...... with structural characterizations, this work addresses a novel method for tuning, and correlating, the optoelectronic properties and microstructure of device-relevant MoOx layers....

  13. A method of layer-by-layer gold nanoparticle hybridization in a quartz crystal microbalance DNA sensing system used to detect dengue virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S-H; Chuang, Y-C; Lu, Y-C; Lin, H-C; Yang, Y-L; Lin, C-S

    2009-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is nowadays the most important arthropod-spread virus affecting humans existing in more than 100 countries worldwide. A rapid and sensitive detection method for the early diagnosis of infectious dengue virus urgently needs to be developed. In the present study, a circulating-flow quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensing method combining oligonucleotide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (i.e. AuNP probes) used to detect DENV has been established. In the DNA-QCM method, two kinds of specific AuNP probes were linked by the target sequences onto the QCM chip to amplify the detection signal, i.e. oscillatory frequency change (ΔF) of the QCM sensor. The target sequences amplified from the DENV genome act as a bridge for the layer-by-layer AuNP probes' hybridization in the method. Besides being amplifiers of the detection signal, the specific AuNP probes used in the DNA-QCM method also play the role of verifiers to specifically recognize their target sequences in the detection. The effect of four AuNP sizes on the layer-by-layer hybridization has been evaluated and it is found that 13 nm AuNPs collocated with 13 nm AuNPs showed the best hybridization efficiency. According to the nanoparticle application, the DNA-QCM biosensing method was able to detect dengue viral RNA in virus-contaminated serum as plaque titers being 2 PFU ml -1 and a linear correlation (R 2 = 0.987) of ΔF versus virus titration from 2 x 10 0 to 2 x 10 6 PFU ml -1 was found. The sensitivity and specificity of the present DNA-QCM method with nanoparticle technology showed it to be comparable to the fluorescent real-time PCR methods. Moreover, the method described herein was shown to not require expensive equipment, was label-free and highly sensitive.

  14. Band Gap Tuning and Defect Tolerance of Atomically Thin Two- Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Mohnish; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    Organic−inorganic halide perovskites have proven highly successful for photovoltaics but suffer from low stability, which deteriorates their performance over time. Recent experiments have demonstrated that low dimensional phases of the hybrid perovskites may exhibit improved stability. Here we...... report first-principles calculations for isolated monolayers of the organometallic halide perovskites (C4H9NH3)2MX2Y2, where M = Pb, Ge, Sn and X,Y = Cl, Br, I. The band gaps computed using the GLLB-SC functional are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental photoluminescence data...... for the already synthesized perovskites. Finally, we study the effect of different defects on the band structure. We find that the most common defects only introduce shallow or no states in the band gap, indicating that these atomically thin 2D perovskites are likely to be defect tolerant....

  15. Optimizing The Organic/Inorganic Barrier Structure For Flexible Plastic Substrate Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chiuan Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A multilayered barrier structure stacked with organosilicon and silicon oxide (SiOx films consecutively prepared using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD was developed to encapsulate flexible plastic substrate. The evolution on the residual internal stress, structural quality of the organosilicon/SiOx multilayered structure as well as its adhesion to the substrate were found to correlate closely with the thickness of the inset organosilicon layer. Due to the significant discrepancy in the thermal expansion coefficient between the substrate and SiOx film, the thickness of the organosilicon layer deposited onto the substrate and SiOx film thus was crucial to optimize the barrier property of the organosilicon/SiOx structure. The organosilicon/SiOx barrier structure possessed a lowest residual compressive stress and quality adhesion to the substrate was achieved from engineering the organosilicon layer thickness in the multilayered structure. The relaxation of the residual internal stress in the barrier structure led to a dense SiOx film as a consequence of the enhancement in the Si-O-Si networks and thereby resulted in the reduction of the water vapor permeation. Accordingly, a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR below 1 × 10-2 g/m2 /day being potential for the application on the flexible optoelectronic device packaging was achievable from the 3-pairs organosilicon/SiOx multilayered structure deposited onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate.

  16. Sol-gel synthesis of YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductor by mixed organic-inorganic polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, I.; Sanchez, C.; Henry, M.; Livage, J.

    1989-01-01

    Sol-gel processes are quite attractive methods to produce films or fibers of high Tc superconducting materials. The gel step allows a good chemical homogeneity and generally provides a rather low processing temperature. Blue sols or monolithic gels can be easily produced using mixed organic-inorganic polymerisation of molecular precursors. An aqueous solution of copper, barium acetates and yttrium nitrate is mixed with an acrylic acid solution where a radical organic polymerisation process has been initiated. After pH adjustments, the viscosity of the resulting solution can be adjusted by heating. After drying at 150 0 C and calcination above 700 0 C, the YBaCuO network is formed and superconducting properties appears above 850 0 C. Fine particles (0.1-1 μm) are obtained which can be sintered to produce a ceramic material with a particularly narrow resistive transition [fr

  17. Role of electron back action on photons in hybridizing double-layer graphene plasmons with localized photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Danhong; Iurov, Andrii; Gumbs, Godfrey

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we deal with the electromagnetic coupling between an incident surface-plasmon-polariton wave and relativistic electrons in two graphene layers. Our previous investigation was limited to single-layer graphene (Iurov et al 2017 Phys. Rev. B 96 081408). However, the present work, is both an expanded and extended version of this previous Phys. Rev. B paper after having included very detailed theoretical formalisms and extensive comparisons of results from either one or two graphene layers embedded in a dielectric medium. The additional retarded Coulomb interaction between two graphene layers will compete with the coupling between the single graphene layer and the surface of a conductor. Consequently, some distinctive features, such as triply-hybridized absorption peaks and a new acoustic-like graphene plasmon mode within the anticrossing region, have been found for the double-layer graphene system. Physically, our theory is self-consistent, in comparison with a commonly adopted perturbative theory, for studying hybrid light-plasmon modes and the electron back action on photons. Instead of usual radiation or grating-deflection field coupling, a surface-plasmon-polariton localized field coupling is introduced with completely different dispersion relations for radiative (small wave numbers) and evanescent (large wave numbers) field modes. Technically, the exactly calculated effective scattering matrix for this theory can be employed to construct an effective-medium theory in order to improve the accuracy of the well-known finite-difference time-domain method for solving Maxwell’s equations numerically. Practically, the predicted triply-hybridized absorption peaks can excite polaritons only, giving rise to a possible polariton-condensation based laser.

  18. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of hybrid inorganic-organic Tb(III)-terephthalate containing layered double hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalenskaite, A.; Salak, A. N.; Ferreira, M. G. S.; Skaudzius, R.; Kareiva, A.

    2018-06-01

    Mg3/Al1 and Mg3Al1-xTbx layered double hydroxides (LDHs) intercalated with terephthalate anion were synthesized using sol-gel method. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy (FLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Tb3+ substitution effects in the Mg3Al1-xTbx LDHs were investigated by changing the Tb3+ concentration in the cation layers. The study indicates that the organic guest-terephthalate in the interlayer spacing of the LDH host influences the luminescence of the hybrid inorganic-organic materials.

  19. Compact Layers of Hybrid Halide Perovskites Fabricated via the Aerosol Deposition Process—Uncoupling Material Synthesis and Layer Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Panzer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the successful fabrication of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite layers by the aerosol deposition method (ADM. The layers show high structural purity and compactness, thus making them suitable for application in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices. By using the aerosol deposition method we are able to decouple material synthesis from layer processing. Our results therefore allow for enhanced and easy control over the fabrication of perovskite-based devices, further paving the way for their commercialization.

  20. Metal-Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Thermal Interface Materials with Ultralow Thermal Resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegin, Cengiz; Nagabandi, Nirup; Feng, Xuhui; King, Charles; Catalano, Massimo; Oh, Jun Kyun; Talib, Ansam J; Scholar, Ethan A; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V; Cagin, Tahir; Sokolov, Alexei V; Kim, Moon J; Matin, Kaiser; Narumanchi, Sreekant; Akbulut, Mustafa

    2017-03-22

    As electronic devices get smaller and more powerful, energy density of energy storage devices increases continuously, and moving components of machinery operate at higher speeds, the need for better thermal management strategies is becoming increasingly important. The removal of heat dissipated during the operation of electronic, electrochemical, and mechanical devices is facilitated by high-performance thermal interface materials (TIMs) which are utilized to couple devices to heat sinks. Herein, we report a new class of TIMs involving the chemical integration of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS), soft organic linkers, and a copper matrix-which are prepared by the chemisorption-coupled electrodeposition approach. These hybrid nanocomposites demonstrate bulk thermal conductivities ranging from 211 to 277 W/(m K), which are very high considering their relatively low elastic modulus values on the order of 21.2-28.5 GPa. The synergistic combination of these properties led to the ultralow total thermal resistivity values in the range of 0.38-0.56 mm 2 K/W for a typical bond-line thickness of 30-50 μm, advancing the current state-of-art transformatively. Moreover, its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is 11 ppm/K, forming a mediation zone with a low thermally induced axial stress due to its close proximity to the CTE of most coupling surfaces needing thermal management.

  1. Global Hybrid Simulations of The Magnetopause Boundary Layers In Low- and High-latitude Magnetic Reconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Perez, J. D.

    A 2-D global hybrid simulation is carried out to study the structure of the dayside mag- netopause in the noon-midnight meridian plane associated with magnetic reconnec- tion. In the simulation the bow shock, magnetosheath, and magnetopause are formed self-consistently by supersonic solar wind passing the geomagnetic field. The recon- nection events at high- and low-latitudes are simulated for various IMF conditions. The following results will be presented. (1) Large-amplitude rotational discontinuities and Alfvén waves are present in the quasi-steady reconnection layer. (2) The rotational discontinuity possesses an electron sense, or right-hand polarization in the magnetic field as the discontinuity forms from the X line. Later, however, the rotational dis- continuity tends to evolve to a structure with a smallest field rotational angle and thus may reverse its sense of the field rotation. The Walén relation is tested for elec- tron and ion flows in the magnetopause rotational discontinuities with left-hand and right-hand polarizations. (3) The structure of the magnetopause discontinuities and that of the accelerated/decelerated flows are modified significantly by the presence of the local magnetosheath flow. (4) Field-aligned currents are generated in the magne- topause rotational discontinuities. Part of the magnetopause currents propagate with Alfvén waves along the field lines into the polar ionosphere, contributing to the field- aligned current system in the high latitudes. The generation of the parallel currents under northward and southward IMF conditions is investigated. (5) Finally, typical ion velocity distributions will be shown at various locations across the magnetopause northward and southward of the X lines. The ion distributions associated with single or multiple X lines will be discussed.

  2. Evaluation of matrix metalloproteinase and cysteine cathepsin activity in dentin hybrid layer by gelatin zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalaxmi, Sekar; Madhubala, Manavalan Madhana; Jayaraman, Mahendran; Sathyakumar, Shanmugasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to comparatively assess the gelatinolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases(MMPs) and Cysteine Cathepsins (CCs) in the adhesive interface using etch and rinse adhesive at different time intervals using zymographic technique. Twenty freshly extracted non-carious human third molars were used in this study. Occlusal surfaces were ground flat and 1mm thick horizontal dentin slabs were obtained from each tooth using a diamond disc. The dentin surface was polished with 600-grit silicon-carbide paper. Five out of 20 samples were directly pulverized. In the remaining fifteen samples, the dentin was etched and adhesive was applied and light cured according to the manufacturer's instructions. A 1mm thick flowable composite was build up and light cured. Bonded specimens were cut vertically into 3 to 4 dentin slabs by means of diamond disc to expose the adhesive/dentin interfaces. These were then ground down to 500 µm thick resin-dentin interface using a hard tissue microtome. These sections were then pulverised into powder. Following this, every five samples were subjected to zymographic analysis after 1 day, 7 days and 21 days. Zymograms showed clear, thicker bands on all three isoforms in the etched samples compared to control samples at 1st and 7th day intervals and became inactive at 21st day for all three isoforms. MMP 9 activity was relatively higher when compared to CCs and MMP 2. Etch and rinse adhesive activated MMPs and CCs within the hybrid layer that remained active till 7th day and no gelatinolytic activity was found on 21st day and MMPs are more active compared to CCs and MMP-2.

  3. Hybrid Perovskite/Perovskite Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinghong; Schlipf, Johannes; Wussler, Michael; Petrus, Michiel L; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Bein, Thomas; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Docampo, Pablo

    2016-06-28

    Recently developed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells combine low-cost fabrication and high power conversion efficiency. Advances in perovskite film optimization have led to an outstanding power conversion efficiency of more than 20%. Looking forward, shifting the focus toward new device architectures holds great potential to induce the next leap in device performance. Here, we demonstrate a perovskite/perovskite heterojunction solar cell. We developed a facile solution-based cation infiltration process to deposit layered perovskite (LPK) structures onto methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) films. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments were performed to gain insights into the crystallite orientation and the formation process of the perovskite bilayer. Our results show that the self-assembly of the LPK layer on top of an intact MAPI layer is accompanied by a reorganization of the perovskite interface. This leads to an enhancement of the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency due to reduced recombination losses, as well as improved moisture stability in the resulting photovoltaic devices.

  4. Clinical performance of a hybrid resin composite with and without an intermediate layer of flowable resin composite: a 7-year evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this prospective clinical follow up was to evaluate the long term clinical performance of a hybrid resin composite in Class II restorations with and without intermediate layer of flowable resin composite....

  5. Effect of nanodimensional polyethylenimine layer on surface potential barriers of hybrid structures based on silicon single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyar, Ivan V.; Gorin, Dmitry A.; Stetsyura, Svetlana V.

    2013-01-01

    In this report we present the analysis of I-V curves for MIS-structures like silicon substrate / nanodimensional polyelectrolyte layer / metal probe (contact) which is promising for biosensors, microfluidic chips, different devices of molecular electronics, such as OLEDs, solar cells, where polyelectrolyte layers can be used to modify semiconductor surface. The research is directed to investigate the contact phenomena which influence the resulting signal of devices mentioned above. The comparison of I-V characteristics of such structures measured by scanning tunnel microscopy (contactless technique) and using contact areas deposited by thermal evaporation onto the organic layer (the contact one) was carried out. The photoassisted I-V measurements and complex analysis based on Simmons and Schottky models allow one to extract the potential barriers and to observe the changes of charge transport in MIS-structures under illumination and after polyelectrolyte adsorption. The direct correlation between the thickness of the deposited polyelectrolyte layer and both equilibrium tunnel barrier and Schottky barrier height was observed for hybrid structures with polyethylenimine. The possibility of control over the I-V curves of hybrid structure and the height of the potential barriers (for different charge transports) by illumination was confirmed. Based on experimental data and complex analysis the band diagrams were plotted which illustrate the changes of potential barriers for MIS-structures due to the polyelectrolyte adsorption and under the illumination.

  6. Analysis of light propagation in quasiregular and hybrid Rudin-Shapiro one-dimensional photonic crystals with superconducting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Urrea, H. A.; Escorcia-García, J.; Duque, C. A.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.

    2017-11-01

    The transmittance spectrum of a one-dimensional hybrid photonic crystal built from the suitable arrangement of periodic and quasiregular Rudin-Shapiro heterolayers that include superconducting slabs is investigated. The four-layer Rudin-Shapiro structure is designed with three lossless dielectric layers and a low-temperature superconductor one. The dielectric function of the superconducting layer is modeled by the two-fluid Gorter-Casimir theory, and the transmittance is calculated with the use of the transfer matrix method. The obtained results reveal the presence of a cut-off frequency fc - a forbidden frequency band for propagation - that can be manipulated by changing the width of the superconducting layer, the temperature and the order of the Rudin-Shapiro sequence. In addition, the spatial distribution of the electric field amplitude for the propagating TM modes is also discussed. It is found that the maximum of localized electric field relative intensity - which reaches a value of several tens - corresponds to the frequency values above to the cut-off frequency, at which, the effective dielectric function of the hybrid unit cell becomes zero. The proposed structure could be another possible system for optical device design for temperature-dependent optical devices such as stop-band filters, or as bolometers.

  7. Raman spectroscopy of metal/organic/inorganic heterostructures and pentacene-based OFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez-Sierra, Beynor Antonio

    2007-12-20

    In the framework of this thesis the interaction of In and Mg as top electrodes on two perylene derivates, 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarbonic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) and dimethyl-3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarbonic acid diimide (DiMe-PTCDI) was studied. The metal-organic layers wer fabricated on S-passivated GaAs(100)2 x 1 substrates. As main characterization method the Raman spectroscopy was applied. The PTCDA/Mg form themselves by two stages of the metal growth, the first belongs to a new molecular structure for a Mg layer thinner than 2.8 nm, whereby the PTCA molecule loses the oxygen atom from the dianhydride group. The second belongs to the surface-amplified Raman spectrum of the preceding structure. In the case of the Mg/DiMe-PTCDI heterostructures the molecule is well conserved, whereby the Raman shift on the diimide group is not modified. Also this structure shows a coupling between discrete molecule eigenvibrations of 221 cm{sup -1}, 1291 cm{sup -1}, and 1606 cm{sup -1} of the organic material and the electronic continuum states of the Mg metal contact. The studies on the preceding heterostructures helped to analyze experimentally the channel formation of pentacene-based organic field-effect transistors. [German] Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden die Wechselwirkung von In und Mg als Topelektroden auf zwei Perylen-Derivativen, 3,4,9,10-Perylentetracarbonsaure Dianhydrid (PTCDA) und Dimethyl-3,4,9,10- Perylentetracarbonsaure Diimid (DiMe-PTCDI) untersucht. Die Metal/organische Schichten wurden auf S-passivierten GaAs(100):2 x 1-Substraten hergestellt. Als Hauptcharakterisierungsmethode wird die Raman-Spektroskopie eingesetzt. Die PTCDA/Mg Strukturen formen sich durch zwei Stufen des Metallwachstum, die erste gehoert zu einer neuen molekularen Struktur fuer eine Mg Schicht duenner als 2.8 nm, wobei das PTCA-Molekuel das Sauerstoffatom von der Dianhydridgruppe verliert. Die zweite gehoert zu dem oberflaechenverstaerkten Ramanspektrum von der vorherigen Struktur. Im

  8. Accelerated Lifetime Testing of Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells Encapsulated by Polyisobutylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Young, Trevor L; Kim, Jincheol; Sheng, Yun; Wang, Lei; Chen, Yifeng; Feng, Zhiqiang; Keevers, Mark J; Hao, Xiaojing; Verlinden, Pierre J; Green, Martin A; Ho-Baillie, Anita W Y

    2017-08-02

    Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have undergone rapid progress. However, unstable performance caused by sensitivity to environmental moisture and high temperature is a major impediment to commercialization of PSCs. In the present work, a low-temperature, glass-glass encapsulation technique using high performance polyisobutylene (PIB) as the moisture barrier is investigated on planar glass/FTO/TiO 2 /FAPbI 3 /PTAA/gold perovskite solar cells. PIB was applied as either an edge seal or blanket layer. Electrical connections to the encapsulated PSCs were provided by either the FTO or Au layers. Results of a "calcium test" demonstrated that a PIB edge-seal effectively prevents moisture ingress. A shelf life test was performed and the PIB-sealed PSC was stable for at least 200 days. Damp heat and thermal cycling tests, in compliance with IEC61215:2016, were used to evaluate different encapsulation methods. Current-voltage measurements were performed regularly under simulated AM1.5G sunlight to monitor changes in PCE. The best results we have achieved to date maintained the initial efficiency after 540 h of damp heat testing and 200 thermal cycles. To the best of the authors' knowledge, these are among the best damp heat and thermal cycle test results for perovskite solar cells published to date. Given the modest performance of the cells (8% averaged from forward and reverse scans) especially with the more challenging FAPbI 3 perovskite material tested in this work, it is envisaged that better stability results can be further achieved when higher performance perovskite solar cells are encapsulated using the PIB packaging techniques developed in this work. We propose that heat rather than moisture was the main cause of our PSC degradation. Furthermore, we propose that preventing the escape of volatile decomposition products from the perovskite solar cell materials is the key for stability. PIB encapsulation is a very promising packaging solution for perovskite

  9. COED Transactions, Vol. X, No. 9, September 1978. Use of the Analog/Hybrid Computer in Boundary Layer and Convection Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Eugene E., Ed.

    In certain boundary layer or natural convection work, where a similarity transformation is valid, the equations can be reduced to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. They are therefore well-suited to a fast solution on an analog/hybrid computer. This paper illustrates such usage of the analog/hybrid computer by a set of…

  10. Organic-inorganic Au/PVP/ZnO/Si/Al semiconductor heterojunction characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, H.; Benhaliliba, M.

    2017-11-01

    The paper reports the fabrication and characterization of a novel Au/PVP/ZnO/Si/Al semiconductor heterojunction (HJ) diode. Both inorganic n type ZnO and organic polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) layers have grown by sol-gel spin-coating route at 2000 rpm. The front and back metallic contacts are thermally evaporated in a vacuum at pressure of 10-6 Torr having a diameter of 1.5 mm and a thickness of 250 nm. The detailed analysis of the forward and reverse bias current-voltage characteristics has been provided. Consequently, many electronic parameters, such as ideality factor, rectification coefficient, carrier concentration, series resistance, are then extracted. Based upon our results a non-ideal diode behavior is revealed and ideality factor exceeds the unity (n > 4). A high rectifying (~4.6 × 10 4) device is demonstrated. According to Cheung-Cheung and Norde calculation models, the barrier height and series resitance are respectively of 0.57 eV and 30 kΩ. Ohmic and space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction mechanisms are demonstrated. Such devices will find applications as solar cell, photodiode and photoconductor.

  11. Fabrication of Hybrid Polymer Solar Cells By Inverted Structure Based on P3HT:PCBM Active Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobih Shobih

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid polymer solar cell has privilege than its conventional structure, where it usually has structure of (ITO/PEDOT:PSS/Active Layer/Al. In humid environment the PEDOT:PSS will absorb water and hence can easily etch the ITO. Therefore it is necessary to use an alternative method to avoid this drawback and obtain more stable polymer solar cells, namely by using hybrid polymer solar cells structure with an inverted device architecture from the conventional, by reversing the nature of charge collection. In this paper we report the results of the fabrication of inverted bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM as active layer, utilizing ZnO interlayer as buffer layer between the ITO and active layer with a stacked structure of ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag. The ZnO interlayer is formed through short route, i.e. by dissolving ZnO nanoparticles powder in chloroform-methanol solvent blend rather than by sol-gel process. Based on the measurement results on electrical characteristics of inverted polymer solar cells under 500 W/m2 illumination and AM 1.5 direct filter at room temperature, cell with annealing process of active layer at 110 °C for 10 minutes results in higher cell performance than without annealing, with an open-circuit voltage of 0.21 volt, a short-circuit current density of 1.33 mA/cm2 , a fill factor of 43.1%, and a power conversion efficiency of 0.22%. The low cell’s performance is caused by very rough surface of ZnO interlayer.

  12. Water permeability, hybrid layer long-term integrity and reaction mechanism of a two-step adhesive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Geneviève; Dabsie, Firas; Delannée, Mathieu; Akon, Bernadette; Sharrock, Patrick

    2010-07-01

    Our aim was to investigate the reaction mechanism of formation of the hybrid layer by a HEMA-containing self-etch adhesive and to study fluid filtration, contact angle and interfacial ultrastructure by SEM following a 1 year ageing period. Acidic behaviour and chemical interactions between Silorane System Adhesive and dentine were studied by potentiometric titrations, atomic absorption spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The hydrophilicity of the adhesive was evaluated using the sessile drop method and dentine permeability by hydraulic conductance. The morphological study of the dentine/adhesive system interface was conducted using SEM. The Silorane System Adhesive behaved as a multi-acid with several different pK(a) values. When the adhesive was in contact with dentine, the acid was progressively consumed and calcium ions were released. The acrylate substituted phosphonate bound strongly to apatite crystals. The polyacrylic acid copolymer reacted with calcium ions and formed an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN). Water contact angle measurements showed rapid spreading on primer (angles reached 15 degrees at 30s) and larger contact angles when the Silorane bonding layer was added (from over 60 degrees to 44 degrees ). A thick, homogeneous hybrid layer was observed both initially and after 1 year of ageing, with a corresponding hydraulic conductance of -48.50% initially and -52.07% at 12 months. The Silorane System Adhesive is capable of both dissolving calcium ions and binding to apatite surfaces. The results showed the hydrophilicity of the adhesive, which formed an IPN-like hybrid layer that conserved adequate impermeability over a 1-year period. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inorganic-organic hybrid coatings on stainless steel by layer-by-layer deposition and surface-initiated atom-transfer-radical polymerization for combating biocorrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S J; Pehkonen, S O; Ting, Y P; Neoh, K G; Kang, E T

    2009-03-01

    To improve the biocorrosion resistance of stainless steel (SS) and to confer the bactericidal function on its surface for inhibiting bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, well-defined inorganic-organic hybrid coatings, consisting of the inner compact titanium oxide multilayers and outer dense poly(vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium) brushes, were successfully developed. Nanostructured titanium oxide multilayer coatings were first built up on the SS substrates via the layer-by-layer sol-gel deposition process. The trichlorosilane coupling agent, containing the alkyl halide atom-transfer-radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator, was subsequently immobilized on the titanium oxide coatings for surface-initiated ATRP of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP). The pyridium nitrogen moieties of the covalently immobilized 4VP polymer, or P(4VP), brushes were quaternized with hexyl bromide to produce a high concentration of quaternary ammonium salt on the SS surfaces. The excellent antibacterial efficiency of the grafted polycations, poly(vinyl-N-pyridinium bromide), was revealed by viable cell counts and atomic force microscopy images of the surface. The effectiveness of the hybrid coatings in corrosion protection was verified by the Tafel plot and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements.

  14. CuNi/Nb S-F hybrid heterostructures for investigation of induced magnetization in superconducting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydukov, Yu.; Kim, J.-H.; Logvenov, G.; Morari, R.; Babakova, E.; Sidorenko, A.

    2013-01-01

    The mutual influence of the magnetism and superconductivity in superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) nano fabricated thin films hybrid heterostructures has been an exciting topic in solid-state physics during last decade. However, the interesting theoretical predictions still wait for unambiguous experimental verification. One of such effect is the so-called spin screening (often called inverse proximity effect), which designates a spin polarization in the superconducting layer close to the S/F interface. It is theoretically shown that a spin polarization develops in the S layer with direction opposite to the spin polarization of the conduction electrons in the F layer. If the thicknesses of the ferromagnetic and superconducting layers are small compared to the London penetration length, then the orbital effect, caused by Meissner screening currents of superconductor will be small compared to the spin effect due to spin polarization. The thickness of the spin polarized sub-layer is comparable to the coherence length ξ of the superconductor. Therefore an advanced technology should be used for fabrication of S/F nanostructures with thin superconducting layers. (authors)

  15. Phase transitions, optical and electronic properties of the layered perovskite hybrid [NH3(CH2)2COOH ]2CdCl4 of Y-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShammari, Mohammed B.; Kaiba, A.; Guionneau, P.; Geesi, Mohammed H.; Aljohani, Talal; Riadi, Yassine

    2018-06-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid with the formula (NH3C3H6CO2H)2CdCl4 has been crystallized and investigated by X-ray diffraction. Structural investigations highlight a first-order reversible structural phase transition occurring within the range (290-370 K) between a chiral (phase II) and non-centrosymmetric (Phase I) crystal packing. This strong structural reorganization is the result of conformational changes in the organic chains accompanied by a decrease in octahedral distortion. The accurate crystallographic analysis illustrates the crucial role of organic moieties. The experimental energy gap value (3.65 eV) is in good agreement with the theoretical value obtained by density functional theory.

  16. Effective Passivation and Tunneling Hybrid a-SiOx(In) Layer in ITO/n-Si Heterojunction Photovoltaic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Wan, Yazhou; Li, Yong; Han, Baichao; Song, Wenlei; Xu, Fei; Zhao, Lei; Ma, Zhongquan

    2017-05-24

    In this article, using controllable magnetron sputtering of indium tin oxide (ITO) materials on single crystal silicon at 100 °C, the optoelectronic heterojunction frame of ITO/a-SiO x (In)/n-Si is simply fabricated for the purpose of realizing passivation contact and hole tunneling. It is found that the gradation profile of indium (In) element together with silicon oxide (SiO x /In) within the ultrathin boundary zone between ITO and n-Si occurs and is characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with the ion milling technique. The atomistic morphology and physical phase of the interfacial layer has been observed with a high-resolution transmission electron microscope. X-ray diffraction, Hall effect measurement, and optical transmittance with Tauc plot have been applied to the microstructure and property analyses of ITO thin films, respectively. The polycrystalline and amorphous phases have been verified for ITO films and SiO x (In) hybrid layer, respectively. For the quantum transport, both direct and defect-assisted tunneling of photogenerated holes through the a-SiO x (In) layer is confirmed. Besides, there is a gap state correlative to the indium composition and located at E v + 4.60 eV in the ternary hybrid a-SiO x (In) layer that is predicted by density functional theory of first-principles calculation, which acts as an "extended delocalized state" for direct tunneling of the photogenerated holes. The reasonable built-in potential (V bi = 0.66 V) and optimally controlled ternary hybrid a-SiO x (In) layer (about 1.4 nm) result in that the device exhibits excellent PV performance, with an open-circuit voltage of 0.540 V, a short-circuit current density of 30.5 mA/cm 2 , a high fill factor of 74.2%, and a conversion efficiency of 12.2%, under the AM 1.5 illumination. The work function difference between ITO (5.06 eV) and n-Si (4.31 eV) is determined by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and ascribed to the essence of the built-in-field of the PV device

  17. A method of layer-by-layer gold nanoparticle hybridization in a quartz crystal microbalance DNA sensing system used to detect dengue virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S-H; Chuang, Y-C; Lu, Y-C; Lin, H-C; Yang, Y-L; Lin, C-S [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lincs@mail.nctu.edu.tw

    2009-05-27

    Dengue virus (DENV) is nowadays the most important arthropod-spread virus affecting humans existing in more than 100 countries worldwide. A rapid and sensitive detection method for the early diagnosis of infectious dengue virus urgently needs to be developed. In the present study, a circulating-flow quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensing method combining oligonucleotide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (i.e. AuNP probes) used to detect DENV has been established. In the DNA-QCM method, two kinds of specific AuNP probes were linked by the target sequences onto the QCM chip to amplify the detection signal, i.e. oscillatory frequency change ({delta}F) of the QCM sensor. The target sequences amplified from the DENV genome act as a bridge for the layer-by-layer AuNP probes' hybridization in the method. Besides being amplifiers of the detection signal, the specific AuNP probes used in the DNA-QCM method also play the role of verifiers to specifically recognize their target sequences in the detection. The effect of four AuNP sizes on the layer-by-layer hybridization has been evaluated and it is found that 13 nm AuNPs collocated with 13 nm AuNPs showed the best hybridization efficiency. According to the nanoparticle application, the DNA-QCM biosensing method was able to detect dengue viral RNA in virus-contaminated serum as plaque titers being 2 PFU ml{sup -1} and a linear correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.987) of {delta}F versus virus titration from 2 x 10{sup 0} to 2 x 10{sup 6} PFU ml{sup -1} was found. The sensitivity and specificity of the present DNA-QCM method with nanoparticle technology showed it to be comparable to the fluorescent real-time PCR methods. Moreover, the method described herein was shown to not require expensive equipment, was label-free and highly sensitive.

  18. XPS-nanocharacterization of organic layers electrochemically grafted on the surface of SnO_2 thin films to produce a new hybrid material coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, R.; Dragoé, D.; Barthés-Labrousse, M.G.; Chaussé, A.; Andrieux, M.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An innovative hybrid material layer is synthesized by combining two processes. SnO_2 thin films are deposited by MOCVD on Si substrates and an organic layer made of carboxyphenyl moieties is electrochemically grafted by the reduction of a diazonium salt. XPS characterizations are carried out to assess the efficiency of the electrochemical grafting. Display Omitted - Highlights: • An innovative hybrid material layer is synthesized by combining two processes. • SnO_2 thin films are deposited by MOCVD on Si substrates. • An organic layer is electrochemically grafted by the reduction of a diazonium salt. • The efficiency of the grafting is accurately assessed by XPS. • Three electrochemical grafting models are proposed. - Abstract: This work presents the synthesis and the characterization of hybrid material thin films obtained by the combination of two processes. The electrochemical grafting of organic layers made of carboxyphenyl moieties is carried out from the reduction of a diazonium salt on tin dioxide (SnO_2) thin films previously deposited on Si substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Since the MOCVD experimental parameters impact the crystal growth of the SnO_2 layer (i.e. its morphology and its texturation), various electrochemical grafting models can occur, producing different hybrid materials. In order to evidence the efficiency of the electrochemical grafting of the carboxyphenyl moieties, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is used to characterize the first nanometers in depth of the synthesized hybrid material layer. Then three electrochemical grafting models are proposed.

  19. Ciprofloxacin-intercalated Zinc Layered Hydroxides Hybrid Material: Synthesis and in Vitro Release Profiles of an Antibiotic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zobir Hussein; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Stanslas, J.; Abdul Halim Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The intriguing anion exchange properties of layered hydroxides salts, combined with its high layer charge density have provided strong motivations for the potential use of the inorganic layered host material in drug delivery applications. Ciprofloxacin (CFX), a wide spectrum antibiotic has been anion exchanged with nitrate of zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN), which belongs to the LHS family, resulted in the expansion of the basal spacing from 9.92 Amstrom of ZHN to 21.5 Angstrom of ZCFX, the obtained hybrid material. Other characterizations, such as Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), CHNS analysis and TGA/ DTG have further corroborated this finding. Electron microscopy study reveals the plate-like structure of the nano hybrid material. The in vitro release of CFX was performed in phosphate saline buffer at pH 7.4 and it behaves in a slow and sustained release profile over a period of 72 hours. This study suggests that ZHN, which demonstrates a controlled release behavior, could be a potential host material in the drug delivery applications. (author)

  20. Electrochemical growth of highly oriented organic-inorganic superlattices using solid-supported multilamellar membranes as templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Li-Li; Li, Da-Peng; Hu, Shu-Xin; Jing, Huai-Yu; Fu, Honglan; Mai, Zhen-Hong; Li, Ming

    2006-02-08

    Controllable depositing of relatively thick inorganic sublayers into organic templates to fabricate organic-inorganic superlattices is of great importance. We report a novel approach to fabricating phospholipid/Ni(OH)(2) superlattices by electrochemical deposition of the inorganic component into solid-supported multilamellar templates. The well-ordered and highly oriented multilamellar templates are produced by spreading small drops of lipid solution on silicon surfaces and letting the solvent evaporate slowly. The templates which are used as working electrodes preserve the lamellar structure in the electrolyte solution. The resulting superlattices are highly oriented. The thickness of the nickel hydroxide is controlled by the concentration of nickel ions in the electrolyte bath. The electron density profiles derived from the X-ray diffraction data reveal that the thickness of the nickel hydroxide sublayers increases from 15 to 27 A as the concentration of nickel nitrate increases from 0.005 mol/L to 0.08 mol/L. We expect that the new method can be extended to depositing a variety of inorganic components including metals, oxides, and semiconductors.