WorldWideScience

Sample records for layered media theory

  1. Coupled poroelastic waves and electromagnetic fields in layered media : Theory, Modeling, and Interferometric Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grobbe, N.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, I study coupled poroelastic waves and electromagnetic fields in layered media. The focus is two-fold:
    1. Increase the theoretical and physical understanding of the seismo-electromagnetic phenomenon by analytically-based numerical modeling.
    2. Investigate the potential of

  2. Boundary-layer theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann

    2017-01-01

    This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.

  3. Scattering for wave equations with dissipative terms in layered media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuteru Kadowaki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we show the existence of scattering solutions to wave equations with dissipative terms in layered media. To analyze the wave propagation in layered media, it is necessary to handle singular points called thresholds in the spectrum. Our main tools are Kato's smooth perturbation theory and some approximate operators.

  4. Seismic Wave Propagation in Layered Viscoelastic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    Advances in the general theory of wave propagation in layered viscoelastic media reveal new insights regarding seismic waves in the Earth. For example, the theory predicts: 1) P and S waves are predominantly inhomogeneous in a layered anelastic Earth with seismic travel times, particle-motion orbits, energy speeds, Q, and amplitude characteristics that vary with angle of incidence and hence, travel path through the layers, 2) two types of shear waves exist, one with linear and the other with elliptical particle motions each with different absorption coefficients, and 3) surface waves with amplitude and particle motion characteristics not predicted by elasticity, such as Rayleigh-Type waves with tilted elliptical particle motion orbits and Love-Type waves with superimposed sinusoidal amplitude dependencies that decay exponentially with depth. The general theory provides closed-form analytic solutions for body waves, reflection-refraction problems, response of multiple layers, and surface wave problems valid for any material with a viscoelastic response, including the infinite number of models, derivable from various configurations of springs and dashpots, such as elastic, Voight, Maxwell, and Standard Linear. The theory provides solutions independent of the amount of intrinsic absorption and explicit analytic expressions for physical characteristics of body waves in low-loss media such as the deep Earth. The results explain laboratory and seismic observations, such as travel-time and wide-angle reflection amplitude anomalies, not explained by elasticity or one dimensional Q models. They have important implications for some forward modeling and inverse problems. Theoretical advances and corresponding numerical results as recently compiled (Borcherdt, 2008, Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media, Cambridge University Press) will be reviewed.

  5. Media Effects: Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Walther, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    This review analyzes trends and commonalities among prominent theories of media effects. On the basis of exemplary meta-analyses of media effects and bibliometric studies of well-cited theories, we identify and discuss five features of media effects theories as well as their empirical support. Each of these features specifies the conditions under which media may produce effects on certain types of individuals. Our review ends with a discussion of media effects in newer media environments. This includes theories of computer-mediated communication, the development of which appears to share a similar pattern of reformulation from unidirectional, receiver-oriented views, to theories that recognize the transactional nature of communication. We conclude by outlining challenges and promising avenues for future research.

  6. Crack layer theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.

    1987-01-01

    A damage parameter is introduced in addition to conventional parameters of continuum mechanics and consider a crack surrounded by an array of microdefects within the continuum mechanics framework. A system consisting of the main crack and surrounding damage is called crack layer (CL). Crack layer propagation is an irreversible process. The general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are employed to identify the driving forces (causes) and to derive the constitutive equation of CL propagation, that is, the relationship between the rates of the crack growth and damage dissemination from one side and the conjugated thermodynamic forces from another. The proposed law of CL propagation is in good agreement with the experimental data on fatigue CL propagation in various materials. The theory also elaborates material toughness characterization.

  7. Models for seismic wave propagation in periodically layered porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudarova, A.; Van Dalen, K.N.; Drijkoningen, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Several models are discussed for seismic wave propagation in periodically layered poroelastic media where layers represent mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities that are larger than the pore and grain sizes but smaller than the wavelength. The layers behave according to Biot’s theory. Wave propagation

  8. Feminist Theory and the Media

    OpenAIRE

    Krijnen, Tonny

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMedia’s relations to gender have been topic of academic inquiry since the 1960s. Feminist scholars soon began to criticize the androcentric character of mainstream sciences addressing these relations. Three epistemologies - feminist empiricism, feminist standpoint theory, and feminist postmodernism - emanated from these criticisms, which still inform feminist theory on media today. Different beliefs in who, what and how to know mark each epistemology. These epistemological values ...

  9. Shock dynamics in layered periodic media

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.; Leveque, Randall J.

    2012-01-01

    of shock waves in a one-dimensional periodic layered medium by a computational study of time-reversibility and entropy evolution. We find that periodic layered media tend to inhibit shock formation. For small initial conditions and large impedance variation

  10. The Application of Layer Theory to Design: The Control Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Langton, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    A theory of design layers proposed by Gibbons ("An Architectural Approach to Instructional Design." Routledge, New York, 2014) asserts that each layer of an instructional design is related to a body of theory closely associated with the concerns of that particular layer. This study focuses on one layer, the control layer, examining…

  11. Shock dynamics in layered periodic media

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Solutions of constant-coeffcient nonlinear hyperbolic PDEs generically develop shocks, even if the initial data is smooth. Solutions of hyperbolic PDEs with variable coeffcients can behave very differently. We investigate formation and stability of shock waves in a one-dimensional periodic layered medium by a computational study of time-reversibility and entropy evolution. We find that periodic layered media tend to inhibit shock formation. For small initial conditions and large impedance variation, no shock formation is detected even after times much greater than the time of shock formation in a homogeneous medium. Furthermore, weak shocks are observed to be dynamically unstable in the sense that they do not lead to significant long-term entropy decay. We propose a characteristic condition for admissibility of shocks in heterogeneous media that generalizes the classical Lax entropy condition and accurately predicts the formation or absence of shocks in these media.

  12. Mediatization Theory and Digital Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2011-01-01

    In the 20th century, the term "media logic" was introduced to denote the influence of independent mass media on political systems and other institutions. In recent years the idea has been reworked and labelled "mediatization" to widen the framework by including new media and new areas of applicat......In the 20th century, the term "media logic" was introduced to denote the influence of independent mass media on political systems and other institutions. In recent years the idea has been reworked and labelled "mediatization" to widen the framework by including new media and new areas...

  13. Stabilized vortices in layered Kerr media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesinos, Gaspar D.; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Michinel, Humberto; Salgueiro, Jose R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility of stabilizing beams with angular momentum propagating in Kerr media against filamentation and collapse. Very long propagation distances can be achieved by combining the choice of an appropriate layered medium with alternating focusing and defocusing nonlinearities with the presence of an incoherent guiding beam which is itself stabilized in this medium. The applicability of the results to the field of matter waves is also discussed

  14. Field theory approaches to new media practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller; Willig, Ida; Waltorp, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article introducing the theme of the special issue we argue that studies of new media practices might benefit from especially Pierre Bourdieu’s research on cultural production. We introduce some of the literature, which deals with the use of digital media, and which have taken steps...... to develop field theory in this context. Secondly, we present the four thematic articles in this issue and the articles outside the theme, which includes two translations of classic texts within communication and media research. This introduction article concludes by encouraging media scholars to embark...... on more studies within a field theory framework, as the ability of the comprehensive theoretical work and the ideas of a reflexive sociology is able to trigger the good questions, more than it claims to offer a complete and self-sufficient sociology of media and inherent here also new media....

  15. Harmonic ultrasound fields through layered liquid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yadong; Chen, Quan; Zagzebski, James

    2004-02-01

    Harmonic field generation through a layered liquid media is studied experimentally and theoretically. Lateral and axial beam profiles of the fundamental to the 4th harmonic component of the field from a focused, 19-mm diameter transducer were measured using a calibrated hydrophone in a water tank. Measurements were performed before and after the insertion of a cylindrical phantom containing vegetable oil. A frequency domain numerical solution to the "KZK" equation was used to calculate the beam profile, taking into account the acoustic properties of the medium and phantom. Effects of nonlinear propagation, diffraction, attenuation, and reflection are include in the calculation. Agreement within 5% was obtained between measurements and theoretical predictions throughout the mid- and far-field of the transducer for both the uniform path and the layered media. Measurements also were carried out using an unfocused transducer as a receiver. The shape of the axial beam profile using this receiver agreed very well with the theoretical prediction using the "KZK" equation, after accounting for phase variations over the finite-sized detector in the calculated field.

  16. Field theory approaches to new media practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willig, Ida; Waltorp, Karen; Hartley, Jannie Møller

    2015-01-01

    could benefit particularly from Pierre Bourdieu’s research on cultural production. We introduce some of the literature that concerns digital media use and has been significant for field theory’s development in this context. We then present the four thematic articles in this issue and the articles......This special issue of MedieKultur specifically addresses new media practices and asks how field theory approaches can help us understand how culture is (prod)used via various digital platforms. In this article introducing the theme of the special issue, we argue that studies of new media practices...... outside the theme, which include two translations of classic texts within communications and media research. This introductory article concludes by encouraging media scholars to embark on additional studies within a field theory framework: This framework’s comprehensive theoretical basis and ideal...

  17. Feminist Theories and Media Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, H. Leslie

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the assumptions that ground radical, liberal, and socialist feminist theoretical frameworks, and reviews feminist media research. Argues that liberal feminism speaks only to White, heterosexual, middle and upper class women and is incapable of addressing most women's concerns. Concludes that socialist feminism offers the greatest…

  18. Theories of Social Media: Philosophical Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayin Qi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although many different views of social media coexist in the field of information systems (IS, such theories are usually not introduced in a consistent framework based on philosophical foundations. This paper introduces the dimensions of lifeworld and consideration of others. The concept of lifeworld includes Descartes’ rationality and Heidegger’s historicity, and consideration of others is based on instrumentalism and Heidegger’s “being-with.” These philosophical foundations elaborate a framework where different archetypal theories applied to social media may be compared: Goffman’s presentation of self, Bourdieu’s social capital, Sartre’s existential project, and Heidegger’s “shared-world.” While Goffman has become a frequent reference in social media, the three other references are innovative in IS research. The concepts of these four theories of social media are compared with empirical findings in IS literature. While some of these concepts match the empirical findings, some other concepts have not yet been investigated in the use of social media, suggesting future research directions. Keywords: Social media, Lifeworld, Consideration of others, Rationality, Historicity, Instrumentalism, Being-with, Presentation of self

  19. Feminist Theory and the Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.M. Krijnen (Tonny)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMedia’s relations to gender have been topic of academic inquiry since the 1960s. Feminist scholars soon began to criticize the androcentric character of mainstream sciences addressing these relations. Three epistemologies - feminist empiricism, feminist standpoint theory, and feminist

  20. The theory of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schamel, H.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical and in some degree laboratory experiments suggest the existence of at least two different kinds of time-independent double layers: a strictly monotonic transition of the electrostatic potential and a transition accompanied by a negative spike at the low potential side (ion acoustic DL). An interpretation of both is presented in terms of analytic BGK modes. The first class of DLs commonly observed in voltage- or beam-driven plasmas needs for its existence beam-type distributions satisfying a Bohm criterion. The potential drop is at least of the order of Tsub(e), and stability arguments favour currents which satisfy the Langmuir condition. The second class found in current-driven plasma simulations is correlated with ion holes. This latter kind of nonlinear wave-solutions is linearly based on the slow ion-acoustic mode and exists due to a vortex-like distortion of the ion distribution in the thermal range. During the growth of an ion hole which is triggered by ion-acoustic fluctuations, the partial reflection of streaming electrons causes different plasma states on both sides of the potential dip and makes the ion hole asymmetric giving rise to an effective potential drop. This implies that the amplitude of this second type of double layers has an upper limit of 1-2 Tsub(e) and presumes a temperature ratio of Tsub(e)/Tsub(i) > or approximately 3 in coincidence with the numerical results. (Auth.)

  1. Immersed in media telepresence theory, measurement & technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lombard, Matthew; Freeman, Jonathan; IJsselsteijn, Wijnand; Schaevitz, Rachel J

    2015-01-01

    Highlights key research currently being undertaken within the field of telepresence, providing the most detailed account of the field to date, advancing our understanding of a fundamental property of all media - the illusion of presence; the sense of "being there" inside a virtual environment, with actual or virtual others. This collection has been put together by leading international scholars from America, Europe, and Asia. Together, they describe the state-of-the-art in presence theory, research and technology design for an advanced academic audience. Immersed in Media provides research t

  2. Analysis of Thomsen parameters for finely layered VTI media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.; Berge, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The range of Thomsen's anisotropy parameters ε and δ for vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media when the anisotropy is due to fine layering of isotropic elas-tic materials is considered. We show that ε lies in the range -3/8 ≤ ε ≤ 1/2 v p 2 > p-2 >-1 for finely layered media having constant density; smaller positive and all negative values of ε occur for media with large fluctuations in the Lamacute e parameter λ We show that sign(δ) = sign ( p -2 > - s -2 > s 2 /v p 2 >) for constant density media, so δ can be either positive or negative. Among all theoretically possible random media, posi-tive and negative δ are equally likely in finely layered media limited to two types of constituent layers. Lay-ered media having large fluctuations in Lamacute e λ are the ones most likely to have positive δ. Since Gassmann's results for fluid-saturated porous media show that the effects of fluids influence only the λ Lamacute e constant, not the shear modulus μ, these results suggest that positive δ occurring together with positive but small ε may be indicative of changing fluid content in layered earth

  3. Gassmann Theory Applies to Nanoporous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Gennady Y.; Gurevich, Boris

    2018-01-01

    Recent progress in extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources has ignited the interest in the studies of nanoporous media. Since many thermodynamic and mechanical properties of nanoscale solids and fluids differ from the analogous bulk materials, it is not obvious whether wave propagation in nanoporous media can be described using the same framework as in macroporous media. Here we test the validity of Gassmann equation using two published sets of ultrasonic measurements for a model nanoporous medium, Vycor glass, saturated with two different fluids, argon, and n-hexane. Predictions of the Gassmann theory depend on the bulk and shear moduli of the dry samples, which are known from ultrasonic measurements and the bulk moduli of the solid and fluid constituents. The solid bulk modulus can be estimated from adsorption-induced deformation or from elastic effective medium theory. The fluid modulus can be calculated according to the Tait-Murnaghan equation at the solvation pressure in the pore. Substitution of these parameters into the Gassmann equation provides predictions consistent with measured data. Our findings set up a theoretical framework for investigation of fluid-saturated nanoporous media using ultrasonic elastic wave propagation.

  4. Strong ground motion spectra for layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askar, A.; Cakmak, A.S.; Engin, H.

    1977-01-01

    This article presents an analytic method and calculations of strong motion spectra for the energy, displacement, velocity and acceleration based on the physical and geometric ground properties at a site. Although earthquakes occur with large deformations and high stress intensities which necessarily lead to nonlinear phenomena, most analytical efforts to date have been based on linear analyses in engineering seismology and soil dynamics. There are, however, a wealth of problems such as the shifts in frequency, dispersion due to the amplitude, the generation of harmonics, removal of resonance infinities, which cannot be accounted for by a linear theory. In the study, the stress-strain law for soil is taken as tau=G 0 γ+G 1 γ 3 +etaγ where tau is the stress, γ is the strain, G 0 and G 1 are the elasticity coefficients and eta is the damping and are different in each layer. The above stress-strain law describes soils with hysterisis where the hysterisis loops for various amplitudes of the strain are no longer concentric ellipses as for linear relations but are oval shapes rotated with respect to each other similar to the materials with the Osgood-Ramberg law. It is observed that even slight nonlinearities may drastically alter the various response spectra from that given by linear analysis. In fact, primary waves cause resonance conditions such that secondary waves are generated. As a result, a weak energy transfer from the primary to the secondary waves takes place, thus altering the wave spectrum. The mathematical technique that is utilized for the solution of the nonlinear equation is a special perturbation method as an extension of Poincare's procedure. The method considers shifts in the frequencies which are determined by the boundedness of the energy

  5. Diamagnetic boundary layers: a kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, J.; Burlaga, L.F.

    1976-01-01

    A kinetic theory for boundary layers associated with MHD tangential 'discontinuities' in a collisionless magnetized plasma such as those observed in the solar wind is presented. The theory consists of finding self-consistent solutions of Vlasov's equation and Maxwell's equation for stationary, one-dimensional boundary layers separating two Maxwellian plasma states. Layers in which the current is carried by electrons are found to have a thickness of the order of a few electron gyroradii, but the drift speed of the current-carrying electrons is found to exceed the Alfven speed, and accordingly such layers are not stable. Several types of layers, in which the current is carried by protons are discussed; in particular, cases in which the magnetic field intensity and/or direction changed across the layer were considered. In every case, the thickness was of the order of a few proton gyroradii and the field changed smoothly , although the characteristics depended somewhat on the boundary conditions. The drift speed was always less than the Alfven speed, consistent with stability of such structures. The results are consistent with the observations of boundary layers in the solar wind near 1 AU. (Auth.)

  6. Self-guiding light in layered nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Mezentsev, V. K.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    We study the propagation of intense optical beams in layered Kerr media. With appropriate shapes, beams with a power close to the self-focusing threshold are shown to propagate over long distances as quasistationary waveguides in cubic media supporting a periodic nonlinear refractive index. (C...

  7. Boundary-layer theory. 9. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlichting, Hermann [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik; Gersten, Klaus [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik und Stroemungsmechanik

    2017-03-01

    This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.

  8. Green function formalism for nonlinear acoustic waves in layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, A.; Tsoy, E.; De Sterke, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The applications of acoustic waves in identifying defects in adhesive bonds between metallic plates have received little attention at high intensities where the media respond nonlinearly. However, the effects of reduced bond strength are more distinct in the nonlinear response of the structure. Here we assume a weak nonlinearity acting as a small perturbation, thereby reducing the problem to a linear one. This enables us to develop a specialized Green function formalism for calculating acoustic fields in layered media

  9. Critical Media Literacy in Action: Uniting Theory, Practice and Politics in Media Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenin, Benjamin Joseph

    2012-01-01

    As media literacy is a growing field, there exist a number of distinct approaches to media education with varied political significance. Approaches such as protectionism, media arts education, and critical media literacy draw upon diverse theoretical traditions. Often overlooked in these traditions is the Critical Theory of the Frankfurt School.…

  10. Simulations of magnetic hysteresis loops for dual layer recording media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fal, T. J.; Plumer, M. L.; Whitehead, J. P.; Mercer, J. I.; van Ek, J.; Srinivasan, K.

    2013-05-01

    A Kinetic Monte-Carlo algorithm is applied to examine MH loops of dual-layer magnetic recording media at finite temperature and long time scales associated with typical experimental measurements. In contrast with standard micromagnetic simulations, which are limited to the ns-μs time regime, our approach allows for the direct calculation of magnetic configurations over periods from minutes to years. The model is used to fit anisotropy and coupling parameters to experimental data on exchange-coupled composite media which are shown to deviate significantly from standard micromagnetic results. Sensitivities of the loops to anisotropy, inter-layer exchange coupling, temperature, and sweep rate are examined.

  11. Transient gas flow through layered porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, F.A. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Low Reynolds number isothermal flow of an ideal gas through layered porous material was investigated analytically. Relations governing the transient flow in one dimension are obtained. An implicit, iterative, unconditionally stable finite difference scheme is developed for calculation of such flows. A computer code, SIROCCO, employing this technique has been written and implemented on the LLL computer system. A listing of the code is included. This code may be effectively applied to the evaluation of stemming plans for underground nuclear experiments. (U.S.)

  12. Percolation theory for flow in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Allen; Ghanbarian, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    This monograph presents, for the first time, a unified and comprehensive introduction to some of the basic transport properties of porous media, such as electrical and hydraulic conductivity, air permeability and diffusion. The approach is based on critical path analysis and the scaling of transport properties, which are individually described as functions of saturation. At the same time, the book supplies a tutorial on percolation theory for hydrologists, providing them with the tools for solving actual problems. In turn, a separate chapter serves to introduce physicists to some of the language and complications of groundwater hydrology necessary for successful modeling. The end-of-chapter problems often indicate open questions, which young researchers entering the field can readily start working on. This significantly revised and expanded third edition includes in particular two new chapters: one on advanced fractal-based models, and one devoted to the discussion of various open issues such as the role of d...

  13. Wave propagation in layered anisotropic media with application to composites

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, AH

    1995-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of the dynamic behavior of layered materials in general, and laminated fibrous composites in particular, are presented in this book. The need to understand the microstructural behavior of such classes of materials has brought a new challenge to existing analytical tools. This book explores the fundamental question of how mechanical waves propagate and interact with layered anisotropic media. The chapters are organized in a logical sequence depending upon the complexity of the physical model and its mathematical treatment.

  14. Media Use and Performance in Air Force Organizations: Testing the Value of Media Richness Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harrison

    1997-01-01

    .... Media Richness Theory (MRT) recognizes that communication needs, and the ability of various media to support them, are influenced by a number of factors involving the message content, situational elements, and its symbolic aspects...

  15. Cooperative spontaneous emission from volume sources in layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichelatti, E.

    2009-01-01

    The classical theory of radiation from a dipole located inside a microcavity is extended to the case of a volume source placed inside a layered medium. Cooperation phenomena that can take place in the spontaneous emission process are taken into account with an approach based on the theory of spatial coherence. Three cases are considered: noncooperation, long-range cooperation, and short-range cooperation. In all these cases, the expressions found for the out coupled power are analytical. As an application of the theory, an Alq 3 -based organic light emitting diode is analyzed. The optical properties of the device are evaluated and compared for two different types of cathode, one consisting of an Al layer, the other one consisting of an Al/LiF bi-layer. The results found show that the ultra-thin LiF layer significantly improves extraction efficiency [it

  16. Method of model reduction and multifidelity models for solute transport in random layered porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhijie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2017-09-01

    This work presents a hierarchical model for solute transport in bounded layered porous media with random permeability. The model generalizes the Taylor-Aris dispersion theory to stochastic transport in random layered porous media with a known velocity covariance function. In the hierarchical model, we represent (random) concentration in terms of its cross-sectional average and a variation function. We derive a one-dimensional stochastic advection-dispersion-type equation for the average concentration and a stochastic Poisson equation for the variation function, as well as expressions for the effective velocity and dispersion coefficient. We observe that velocity fluctuations enhance dispersion in a non-monotonic fashion: the dispersion initially increases with correlation length λ, reaches a maximum, and decreases to zero at infinity. Maximum enhancement can be obtained at the correlation length about 0.25 the size of the porous media perpendicular to flow.

  17. Media Use and Performance in Air Force Organizations: Testing the Value of Media Richness Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harrison

    1997-01-01

    .... The theory predicts employees who use more appropriate communication media face to face conversation, telephone, e-mail, and written correspondence as predicted by the theory, will be more effective performers...

  18. Non-reciprocality of waves in inhomogeneous gyrotropic media and multi layer systems with gyrotropic layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorgyan, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been considered the dispersion of electromagnetic waves in natural gyrotropic, inhomogeneous media. There has been discovered a new mechanism of waves non-reciprocality conditioned by simultaneous presence of one of the media gradients and natural gyrotropy. The non- reciprocality of waves in multilayer systems with gydrotropic layers has been investigated. It was considered a simple multilayer system glass (1)- cholesteric liquid crystal- glass(2) and demonstrated that non-reciprocality of waves in multilayer system offers good challenges for establishing simple systems with greater reciprocality. It has been shown that the multilayer systems with cholesteric liquid crystal layer can be used as optic diodes

  19. Icelandic media firms viewed from the perspective of agency theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðbjörg Hildur Kolbeins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been proposed that agency theory (principal-agent approach might be applied to media organizations to understand how media owners make sure that their companies are managed according to their wishes. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate: a whether agency theory is applicable to three Icelandic media companies, and b how the theory manifests itself in the management practices of these companies. The media companies that were examined were: the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RÚV ohf., 365 miðlar ehf. and Árvakur hf. Qualitative interviews were conducted with three editors-in-chief, two CEOs/publishers, the director general of RÚV and the news director of RÚV in May of 2012. Two of the interviewees were also part- owners of the media companies. The results indicated that it is, indeed, possible to analyze management practices of media organizations from the perspective of agency theory. However, it varies how much the companies are driven by profit maximization, for instance – on which agency theory places an optimum emphasis. The media house 365 miðlar ehf. turned out to be the best example of how the underlying constructs of agency theory are incorporated into the management practices of a media organization.

  20. Disruptive media technologies : theories and application to the Czech media environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kyjonková, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Diploma thesis "Disruptive media technologies - theories and application to the Czech media environment" deals with a concept of disruptive technologies, which results from the economical model of creative destruction made by founder of innovation theories Joseph Alois Schumpter. Although he had described adverse impact on present market structure at the beginning of 20th century, media studies revealed them lately, precisely in the year 1995 in an economical model of another economist Clayto...

  1. Digital Media Use in Families: Theories and Strategies for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalope, Kristin A; Woods, Leonard J

    2018-04-01

    Family dynamics are increasingly being influenced by digital media. Three frameworks are described to help clinicians to understand and respond to this influence. First, a social-ecological framework shows how media has both a direct and indirect impact on individuals, relationships, communities, and society. Next, family systems theory is introduced to demonstrate digital media-related interactions within families. Finally, a developmental framework explores the role of digital media in shaping parenting. These theories are then integrated into practical strategies that clinicians can use, including recommendations and resources from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The penetration, diffusion and energy deposition of high-energy photon in layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhengming, Luo; Chengjun, Gou; Laub, Wolfram

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory for calculating the transport of high-energy photons and their secondary charged particles. We call this new algorithm characteristic line method, which is completely analytic. Using this new method we can not only accurately calculate the transport behavior of energetic photons, but also precisely describes the transport behavior and energy deposition of secondary electrons, photoelectrons, Compton recoil electrons and positron-electron pairs. Its calculation efficiency is much higher than the Monte Carlo method's. The theory can be directly applied to layered media situation and obtain a pencil-beam-modeled solution. Therefore, it may be applied to clinical applications for radiation therapy

  3. Tweets and Mobilisation: Collective Action Theory and Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody McClain Brown

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between social protest and social media from the theoretical perspective of the Collective Action Research Program. While the literature shows strong empirical evidence for a positive relationship between social media use and incidents of social protest, the theoretical underpinnings of this relationship remain contested and often unspecified. In order to provide a stronger theoretical basis for this relationship this paper explores theories of collective action, focusing on how social media can assist in solving the dissident collective action problem. It argues that using collective action theory to understand social media and protest can better inform our understanding of how and why social media shares a positive relationship with incidents of social protest.

  4. Making sense of social media communications with chaos theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia

    , offering a few conceptual papers which adopt complexity theories to describe destination development patterns (Russel & Faulkner, 2000, 2004; Zahra & Ryan 2007). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the validity of chaos theory in the context of strategic communications, where new (social) media has...... changed the marketing landscape beyond recognition. The exponential growth of social media platforms has led to weakened marketer control (and greater consumer sovereignty) over information about organisations and their products. In this new communications paradigm (Muniz & Schau 2007), information...... media channels. Social media users serve as gatekeepers, opting for which fluctuations to pay attention to, which to ignore. The challenge is then to establish a framework of unfolding communication patterns on social media which can eventually explain the collective behaviour of bloggers, twitters...

  5. Two-media boundary layer on a flat plate

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay Ilyich Klyuev; Asgat Gatyatovich Gimadiev; Yuriy Alekseevich Kryukov

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides a solution to the problem of a flow over a flat semi-infinite plate set at an angle to the horizon, and having a thin liquid film on its surface by external airflow. The film is formed by extrusion of liquid from the porous wall. The paper proposes a mathematical model of a two-media boundary layer flow. The main characteristics of the flow to a zero and a first approximation are determined. A drop of frictional stress is obtained.

  6. Mathematical analogies in physics. Thin-layer wave theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Carcione

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Field theory applies to elastodynamics, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, gravitation and other similar fields of physics, where the basic equations describing the phenomenon are based on constitutive relations and balance equations. For instance, in elastodynamics, these are the stress-strain relations and the equations of momentum conservation (Euler-Newton law. In these cases, the same mathematical theory can be used, by establishing appropriate mathematical equivalences (or analogies between material properties and field variables. For instance, the wave equation and the related mathematical developments can be used to describe anelastic and electromagnetic wave propagation, and are extensively used in quantum mechanics. In this work, we obtain the mathematical analogy for the reflection/refraction (transmission problem of a thin layer embedded between dissimilar media, considering the presence of anisotropy and attenuation/viscosity in the viscoelastic case, conductivity in the electromagnetic case and a potential barrier in quantum physics (the tunnel effect. The analogy is mainly illustrated with geophysical examples of propagation of S (shear, P (compressional, TM (transverse-magnetic and TE (transverse-electric waves. The tunnel effect is obtained as a special case of viscoelastic waves at normal incidence.

  7. Wartawan Media Now dalam Mengemas Berita: Perspektif Situational Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasrun Hidayat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to map and describe relationships between concepts of activity of journalists in the media now cloning technology based activities and relationship between news reporters. This study discusses the focus of news coverage in media activities and relationships among the journalists in the era of technology. The theory used is situational theory Grunig and Hunt and descriptive method of Public Relations. The study found that the situation changes in the era of media encourage actions of unscrupulous hunters cloning news. News media such as online media should now be used as the initial data is not the primary data news writing. The presence of media now facilitates the work of journalists but not always produce good quality of news. Otherwise, the presence of technology encourages more active cloning news reporter. Media now can initiate active and apathetic public situations as influenced by quality news content. The presence of media technology changes the image of the relationship between journalists—from person to person or reporter to reporter to journalists with media technology.

  8. Multisided Media Markets: Applying the Theory of Multisided Markets to Media Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Lindstädt

    2009-01-01

    Media markets recently have been identified as multisided markets. The application of the theory of multisided markets provides a better understanding of such markets. It enriched the hitherto economic approach and led to new insights and perspectives especially for the antitrust authorities when evaluating competition constraints and mergers. This paper reviews the theory of multisided markets and subsequently applies it to media markets. Finally the paper draws attention to the new perspect...

  9. Layer contributions to the nonlinear acoustic radiation from stratified media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Meulen, François; Haumesser, Lionel

    2016-12-01

    This study presents the thorough investigation of the second harmonic generation scenario in a three fluid layer system. An emphasis is on the evaluation of the nonlinear parameter B/A in each layer from remote measurements. A theoretical approach of the propagation of a finite amplitude acoustic wave in a multilayered medium is developed. In the frame of the KZK equation, the weak nonlinearity of the media, attenuation and diffraction effects are computed for the fundamental and second harmonic waves propagating back and forth in each of the layers of the system. The model uses a gaussian expansion to describe the beam propagation in order to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of each part of the system (layers and interfaces) to its nonlinearity. The model is validated through measurements on a water/aluminum/water system. Transmission as well as reflection configurations are studied. Good agreement is found between the theoretical results and the experimental data. The analysis of the second harmonic field sources measured by the transducers from outside the stratified medium highlights the factors that favor the cumulative effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Migration of radionuclide through two-layered geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Takagi, Ikuji; Nakai, Kunihiro; Higashi, Kunio

    1984-01-01

    For the safety assessment of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, an analytical solution was obtained for one-dimensional migration of radionuclide through two-layered geologic media without dispersion. By applying it to geologic media composed of granite and soil layers, the effect of interlayer boundary on the discharge profile of radionuclides in decay chains into biological environment is examined. The time-space profiles of radionuclides in the vicinity of interlayer boundary are much complicated as shown in the results of calculation. Those profiles in case that the groundwater flows through granite followed by soil are quite different from those in case that the groundwater flows through soil followed by granite. Each of complicated dependence of profiles on time and space can be physically explained. The characteristic profiles in the vicinity of interlayer boundary have not been discussed previously. Recently, numerical computer codes has been developed to apply to much more realistic geologic situations. However, the numerical accuracies of the codes are necessary to be confirmed. This is achieved by comparing computational results with results from analytical solutions. The analytical solution presented will serve as a bench-mark for numerical accuracy. (author)

  11. A perfectly matched layer for the time-dependent wave equation in heterogeneous and layered media

    KAUST Repository

    Duru, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical analysis of the perfectly matched layer (PML) for the time-dependent wave equation in heterogeneous and layered media is presented. We prove the stability of the PML for discontinuous media with piecewise constant coefficients, and derive energy estimates for discontinuous media with piecewise smooth coefficients. We consider a computational setup consisting of smaller structured subdomains that are discretized using high order accurate finite difference operators for approximating spatial derivatives. The subdomains are then patched together into a global domain by a weak enforcement of interface conditions using penalties. In order to ensure the stability of the discrete PML, it is necessary to transform the interface conditions to include the auxiliary variables. In the discrete setting, the transformed interface conditions are crucial in deriving discrete energy estimates analogous to the continuous energy estimates, thus proving stability and convergence of the numerical method. Finally, we present numerical experiments demonstrating the stability of the PML in a layered medium and high order accuracy of the proposed interface conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Scaling theory of drying in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsimpanogiannis, I.N.; Yortsos, Y.C.; Poulou, S.; Kanellopoulos, N.; Stubos, A.K.

    1999-01-01

    Concepts of immiscible displacements in porous media driven by mass transfer are utilized to model drying of porous media. Visualization experiments of drying in two-dimensional glass micromodels are conducted to identify pore-scale mechanisms. Then, a pore network approach is used to analyze the advancing drying front. It is shown that in a porous medium, capillarity induces a flow that effectively limits the extent of the front, which would otherwise be of the percolation type, to a finite width. In conjuction with the predictions of a macroscale stable front, obtained from a linear stability analysis, the process is shown to be equivalent to invasion percolation in a stabilizing gradient. A power-law scaling relation of the front width with a diffusion-based capillary number is also obtained. This capillary number reflects the fact that drying is controlled by diffusion in contrast to external drainage. The scaling exponent predicted is compatible with the experimental results of Shaw [Phys Rev. Lett. 59, 1671 (1987)]. A framework for a continuum description of the upstream drying regimes is also developed. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  13. Herbert Marcuse's Critical Theory of the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Patrick J.

    As a member of the Frankfurt School of critical theory, Herbert Marcuse believed that industrial capitalism and the bureaucratization of society stripped humans of any claims to autonomy and undermined their critical expression with a functional language. However, Marcuse did no more than point an inchoate ideological finger at the production side…

  14. A numerical homogenization method for heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media based on multiscale theory

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Kai

    2015-06-05

    The development of reliable methods for upscaling fine-scale models of elastic media has long been an important topic for rock physics and applied seismology. Several effective medium theories have been developed to provide elastic parameters for materials such as finely layered media or randomly oriented or aligned fractures. In such cases, the analytic solutions for upscaled properties can be used for accurate prediction of wave propagation. However, such theories cannot be applied directly to homogenize elastic media with more complex, arbitrary spatial heterogeneity. Therefore, we have proposed a numerical homogenization algorithm based on multiscale finite-element methods for simulating elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media. Specifically, our method used multiscale basis functions obtained from a local linear elasticity problem with appropriately defined boundary conditions. Homogenized, effective medium parameters were then computed using these basis functions, and the approach applied a numerical discretization that was similar to the rotated staggered-grid finite-difference scheme. Comparisons of the results from our method and from conventional, analytical approaches for finely layered media showed that the homogenization reliably estimated elastic parameters for this simple geometry. Additional tests examined anisotropic models with arbitrary spatial heterogeneity in which the average size of the heterogeneities ranged from several centimeters to several meters, and the ratio between the dominant wavelength and the average size of the arbitrary heterogeneities ranged from 10 to 100. Comparisons to finite-difference simulations proved that the numerical homogenization was equally accurate for these complex cases.

  15. Theory of Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, P M; Crowley, B J B; Gericke, D O; Regan, S P; Gregori, G

    2016-04-12

    Thomson scattering of laser light is one of the most fundamental diagnostics of plasma density, temperature and magnetic fields. It relies on the assumption that the properties in the probed volume are homogeneous and constant during the probing time. On the other hand, laboratory plasmas are seldom uniform and homogeneous on the temporal and spatial dimensions over which data is collected. This is particularly true for laser-produced high-energy-density matter, which often exhibits steep gradients in temperature, density and pressure, on a scale determined by the laser focus. Here, we discuss the modification of the cross section for Thomson scattering in fully-ionized media exhibiting steep spatial inhomogeneities and/or fast temporal fluctuations. We show that the predicted Thomson scattering spectra are greatly altered compared to the uniform case, and may lead to violations of detailed balance. Therefore, careful interpretation of the spectra is necessary for spatially or temporally inhomogeneous systems.

  16. Solute transport in aggregated and layered porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, S.

    1993-01-01

    This work is a contribution to research in soil physics dealing with solute transport in porous media. The influence of structural inhomogeneities on solute transport is investigated. Detailed experiments at the laboratory scale are used to enlighten distinct processes which cannot be studied separately at field scale. Two main aspects are followed up: (i) to show the influence of aggregation of a porous medium on breakthrough time and spreading of an inert tracer and consequences on the estimation of parameter values of models describing solute transport in aggregated systems, (ii) to investigate the influences on the dispersion process when stratification is perpendicular to the direction of flow. Several concepts of modelling solute transport in soil are discussed. Models based on the convection-dispersion equation (CDE) are emphasized because they are used here to model solute transport experiments conducted with aggregated porous media. Stochastic concepts are introduced to show the limitations of the deterministic CDE approaches. Experiments are done in columns containing two kinds of solid phases and were saturated with water. The solid phases are porous and solid glass beads exhibiting a distinctly unimodal or bimodal pore size distribution. Experimental breakthrough curves (BTCs) are modelled with the CDE, a bicontinuum model with a phenomenological mass transfer rate and a bicontinuum spherical diffusion model. Experiments are also done in columns that are unsaturated containing porous materials that are layered. Flow is made at a steady rate. It is shown that layer boundaries have a severe influence on lateral mixing. They may force streamlines to converge or cause a lateral redistribution of solutes. (author) figs., tabs., 122 refs

  17. Magnetic properties of soft layer/FePt-MgO exchange coupled composite Perpendicular recording media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jin-Hua; Takao Suzuki; Pan Li-Qing

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic properties of exchange coupled composite(ECC)media that are composed of perpendicular magnetic recording media FePt-MgO and two kinds of soft layers have been studied by using an x-ray diffractometer,a polar Kerr magneto-optical system(PMOKE)and a vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM).The results show that ECC media can reduce the coercivities of perpendicular magnetic recording media FePt-MgO.The ECC media with granular-type soft layers have weaker exchange couplings between magnetic grains and the magnetization process,for ECC media of this kind mainly follow the Stoner-Wohlfarth model.

  18. Stability of boundary layer flow based on energy gradient theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hua-Shu; Xu, Wenqian; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2018-05-01

    The flow of the laminar boundary layer on a flat plate is studied with the simulation of Navier-Stokes equations. The mechanisms of flow instability at external edge of the boundary layer and near the wall are analyzed using the energy gradient theory. The simulation results show that there is an overshoot on the velocity profile at the external edge of the boundary layer. At this overshoot, the energy gradient function is very large which results in instability according to the energy gradient theory. It is found that the transverse gradient of the total mechanical energy is responsible for the instability at the external edge of the boundary layer, which induces the entrainment of external flow into the boundary layer. Within the boundary layer, there is a maximum of the energy gradient function near the wall, which leads to intensive flow instability near the wall and contributes to the generation of turbulence.

  19. Initial layer theory and model equations of Volterra type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijura, Angelina M.

    2003-10-01

    It is demonstrated here that there exist initial layers to singularly perturbed Volterra equations whose thicknesses are not of order of magnitude of 0(ε), ε → 0. It is also shown that the initial layer theory is extremely useful because it allows one to construct the approximate solution to an equation, which is almost identical to the exact solution. (author)

  20. Spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2011-10-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and oxygen saturation using biomedical optics techniques has the potential to inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities are typically estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in superficial tissue such as the skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis. Furthermore, epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. This study describes a technique for decoupling the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. An artificial neural network was used to map input optical properties to spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance of two layer media. Then, iterative fitting was used to determine the optical properties from simulated spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance. Additionally, an artificial neural network was trained to directly map spatial frequency domain reflectance to sets of optical properties of a two layer medium, thus bypassing the need for iteration. In both cases, the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis were determined independently. The accuracy and efficiency of the iterative fitting approach was compared with the direct neural network inversion.

  1. Long time tails in stationary random media. I. Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, M.H.; Machta, J.; Dorfman, J.R.; Beijeren, H. van

    1984-01-01

    Diffusion of moving particles in stationary disordered media is studied using a phenomenological mode-coupling theory. The presence of disorder leads to a generalized diffusion equation, with memory kernels having power law long time tails. The velocity autocorrelation function is found to decay

  2. Theory of the upper critical field in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, R.A.; Luther, A.; Beasley, M.R.

    1975-01-01

    The upper critical field H/subc/ 2 in layered superconductors is calculated from a microscopic theory in which the electrons are assumed to propagate freely within the individual layers subject to scattering off impurities and to propagate via tunneling between the layers. For the magnetic field parallel to the layers, there is a temperature T* 2 /sub parallel/ is thus determined by the combined effects of Pauli paramagnetism and spin-orbit scattering, and for sufficiently strong spin-orbit scattering rates, H/subc/ 2 /sub parallel/(T =0) can greatly exceed the Chandrasekhar-Clogston Pauli limiting field H/subP/. This unusual behavior is found to be most pronounced in the dirty limit for the electron propagation within the layers and when the electrons scatter many times in a given layer before tunneling to an adjacent layer. Our results are also discussed in light of the available experimental data. (auth)

  3. The transmission of finite amplitude sound beam in multi-layered biological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhou; Li, Junlun; Yin, Chang; Gong, Xiufen; Zhang, Dong; Xue, Honghui

    2007-02-01

    Based on the Khokhlov Zabolotskaya Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, a model in the frequency domain is given to describe the transmission of finite amplitude sound beam in multi-layered biological media. Favorable agreement between the theoretical analyses and the measured results shows this approach could effectively describe the transmission of finite amplitude sound wave in multi-layered biological media.

  4. The transmission of finite amplitude sound beam in multi-layered biological media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaozhou [Key Lab of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: xzliu@nju.edu.cn; Li, Junlun [Key Lab of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yin, Chang [Key Lab of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gong, Xiufen [Key Lab of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Dong [Key Lab of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xue, Honghui [Key Lab of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2007-02-19

    Based on the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, a model in the frequency domain is given to describe the transmission of finite amplitude sound beam in multi-layered biological media. Favorable agreement between the theoretical analyses and the measured results shows this approach could effectively describe the transmission of finite amplitude sound wave in multi-layered biological media.

  5. The transmission of finite amplitude sound beam in multi-layered biological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaozhou; Li, Junlun; Yin, Chang; Gong, Xiufen; Zhang, Dong; Xue, Honghui

    2007-01-01

    Based on the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, a model in the frequency domain is given to describe the transmission of finite amplitude sound beam in multi-layered biological media. Favorable agreement between the theoretical analyses and the measured results shows this approach could effectively describe the transmission of finite amplitude sound wave in multi-layered biological media

  6. Read/write performance of perpendicular double-layered cylindrical media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, H.; Shimatsu, T.; Watanabe, I.; Tsuchiyama, R.; Aoi, H.; Muraoka, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A cylindrical magnetic storage system using perpendicular double-layered media has been developed. CoCrTa/CoZrNb deposited on a rotating cylindrical substrate shows perpendicular anisotropy and magnetic properties, which have almost the same characteristics as conventional disk-media. The fundamental read/write characteristics of perpendicular double-layered cylindrical media were measured using a single-pole-type (SPT) writer with a sliding-contact-type slider and a merged giant magneto-resistive (GMR) reader with a one-pad-type slider designed for use with cylindrical media. Preliminary studies for improving the characteristics of the recording layer are also described

  7. McLuhan and the Cultural Theory of Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Poster

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Media are surely central to Western societies of the past several centuries and to the emerging global societies of the contemporary era and the future. There is a thickening, an intensification and an increasing complexity to the use of information machines, technologies that are necessary in the production, reproduction, storing and distribution of texts, images and sounds, the constituent elements of culture. The phenomenon has been termed a “media ecology,” adding a new layer to the ecologies of animal, vegetable and mineral. It behooves anyone engaged in critical discourse to take serious account of media. I argue they offer a key to understanding the process of globalization in relation to a new configuration of interaction between humans and machines.

  8. Theory of Nernst effect in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinh, B D; Rosenstein, B

    2009-01-01

    We calculate, using the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equation with thermal noise, the transverse thermoelectric conductivity α xy , describing the Nernst effect, in type-II superconductor in the vortex-liquid regime. The method is an elaboration of the Hartree-Fock. An often made in analytical calculations additional assumption that only the lowest Landau level significantly contributes to α xy in the high field limit is lifted by including all the Landau levels. The resulting values in two dimensions (2D) are significantly lower than the numerical simulation data of the same model, but are in reasonably good quantitative agreement with experimental data on La 2 SrCuO 4 above the irreversibility line (below the irreversibility line at which α xy diverges and theory should be modified by including pinning effects).

  9. Media and migration. Layers of knowledge in Romanian written press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefania Matei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to discuss the image that the media build around the phenomenon of migration in present-day Romanian society. I rely on a content analysis of newspaper articles on migration in order to explore layers of knowledge (understood as evidence which forms the basis of the representation about an issue by identifying specific elements in each and every piece of news, such as: the current state of migration, the demographic profile of the migrant, geographical location, the orientation of the newspaper, the situation of migrants, the causes and effects of this phenomenon, and the policies implemented in the communities of origin and destination, respectively. All these elements are examined along the lines of emigration and immigration in order to reconstruct strategies of framing external migration within the journalistic discourse, and to identify the information which constitutes a reference point in shaping the attribute agenda on this topic. The discussion relies on the analysis of 473 articles in Romanian newspapers, published between 2007 and 2009, using as a sampling frame the archive of articles available on the website www.ziare.com.

  10. Light diffusion in N-layered turbid media: steady-state domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemert, André; Kienle, Alwin

    2010-01-01

    We deal with light diffusion in N-layered turbid media. The steady-state diffusion equation is solved for N-layered turbid media having a finite or an infinitely thick N'th layer. Different refractive indices are considered in the layers. The Fourier transform formalism is applied to derive analytical solutions of the fluence rate in Fourier space. The inverse Fourier transform is calculated using four different methods to test their performance and accuracy. Further, to avoid numerical errors, approximate formulas in Fourier space are derived. Fast solutions for calculation of the spatially resolved reflectance and transmittance from the N-layered turbid media ( approximately 10 ms) with small relative differences (<10(-7)) are found. Additionally, the solutions of the diffusion equation are compared to Monte Carlo simulations for turbid media having up to 20 layers.

  11. Evaluation of interlayer ferromagnetic coupling for stacked media by adding reference layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tham, K K; Saito, S; Itagaki, N; Hinata, S; Takahashi, M; Hasegawa, D

    2011-01-01

    The trial for quantitative evaluation of interlayer ferromagnetic coupling between granular and cap layer in stacked media is reported. The evaluation is realized by analyzing M-H loop of stacked media with another reference layer added on the cap layer. The reference layer is antiferromagnetically coupled with the cap layer through non-magnetic spacer layer. In this experiment, Rh which leads to antiferromagnetic coupling constant along film normal direction of around 2 erg/cm 2 was used as non-magnetic spacer layer. According to the evaluation result done by this method, when thickness of the spacer Pd layer between granular layer and cap layer is increased to 1.1 nm, ferromagnetic coupling constant is weakened to 7.2 erg/cm 2 which results in reduction of saturation field.

  12. New Theories on Boundary Layer Transition and Turbulence Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short review of our recent DNS work on physics of late boundary layer transition and turbulence. Based on our DNS observation, we propose a new theory on boundary layer transition, which has five steps, that is, receptivity, linear instability, large vortex structure formation, small length scale generation, loss of symmetry and randomization to turbulence. For turbulence generation and sustenance, the classical theory, described with Richardson's energy cascade and Kolmogorov length scale, is not observed by our DNS. We proposed a new theory on turbulence generation that all small length scales are generated by “shear layer instability” through multiple level ejections and sweeps and consequent multiple level positive and negative spikes, but not by “vortex breakdown.” We believe “shear layer instability” is the “mother of turbulence.” The energy transferring from large vortices to small vortices is carried out by multiple level sweeps, but does not follow Kolmogorov's theory that large vortices pass energy to small ones through vortex stretch and breakdown. The loss of symmetry starts from the second level ring cycle in the middle of the flow field and spreads to the bottom of the boundary layer and then the whole flow field.

  13. Optical characterization of two-layered turbid media for non-invasive, absolute oximetry in cerebral and extracerebral tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertan Hallacoglu

    Full Text Available We introduce a multi-distance, frequency-domain, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS method to measure the optical coefficients of two-layered media and the thickness of the top layer from diffuse reflectance measurements. This method features a direct solution based on diffusion theory and an inversion procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. We have validated our method through Monte Carlo simulations, experiments on tissue-like phantoms, and measurements on the forehead of three human subjects. The Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements have shown that, in ideal two-layered samples, our method accurately recovers the top layer thickness (L, the absorption coefficient (µ a and the reduced scattering coefficient (µ' s of both layers with deviations that are typically less than 10% for all parameters. Our method is aimed at absolute measurements of hemoglobin concentration and saturation in cerebral and extracerebral tissue of adult human subjects, where the top layer (layer 1 represents extracerebral tissue (scalp, skull, dura mater, subarachnoid space, etc. and the bottom layer (layer 2 represents cerebral tissue. Human subject measurements have shown a significantly greater total hemoglobin concentration in cerebral tissue (82±14 µM with respect to extracerebral tissue (30±7 µM. By contrast, there was no significant difference between the hemoglobin saturation measured in cerebral tissue (56%±10% and extracerebral tissue (62%±6%. To our knowledge, this is the first time that an inversion procedure in the frequency domain with six unknown parameters with no other prior knowledge is used for the retrieval of the optical coefficients and top layer thickness with high accuracy on two-layered media. Our absolute measurements of cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation are based on the discrimination of extracerebral and cerebral tissue layers, and they can enhance the impact of NIRS for cerebral hemodynamics and

  14. Water Transfer Characteristics during Methane Hydrate Formation Processes in Layered Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousheng Deng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gas hydrate formation processes in porous media are always accompanied by water transfer. To study the transfer characteristics comprehensively, two kinds of layered media consisting of coarse sand and loess were used to form methane hydrate in them. An apparatus with three PF-meter sensors detecting water content and temperature changes in media during the formation processes was applied to study the water transfer characteristics. It was experimentally observed that the hydrate formation configurations in different layered media were similar; however, the water transfer characteristics and water conversion ratios were different.

  15. Spatial bandwidth enlargement and field enhancement of shear horizontal waves in finite graded piezoelectric layered media

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-09-01

    Shear horizontal (SH) wave propagation in finite graded piezoelectric layered media is investigated by transfer matrix method. Different from the previous studies on SH wave propagation in completely periodic layered media, calculations on band structure and transmission in this paper show that the graded layered media possess very large band gaps. Harmonic wave simulation by finite element method (FEM) confirms that the reason of bandwidth enlargement is that waves within the band gap ranges are spatially enhanced and stopped by the corresponding graded units. The study suggests that the graded structure possesses the property of manipulating elastic waves spatially, which shows potential applications in strengthening energy trapping and harvesting. © 2015.

  16. Antiferromagnetic iridium-manganese intermediate layers for perpendicular recording media (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Kumar; Piramanayagam, S. N.; Sbiaa, Rachid; Kay, Yew Seng; Tan, Hang Khume; Wong, Seng Kai

    2009-04-01

    Current generation of cobalt-oxide-based perpendicular magnetic recording media uses single or dual ruthenium intermediate layers in order to grow crystallographically textured, and magnetically isolated granular media. In this work, the potential advantages of an antiferromagnetic iridium-manganese intermediate layer directly under the recording layer are highlighted. Owing to its close lattice matching with hexagonal cobalt, iridium-manganese which has the L12, or AuCu3-type crystal structure, can support the heteroepitaxial growth of the cobalt-based recording layer. In one of the media schemes described here, (111) textured iridium-manganese thin film was grown on 7.5 nm thick ruthenium layer. On the iridium-manganese as segregation layer, the Co-oxide-based magnetic recording layer showed perpendicular texture with Δθ50 below 4°, coercivity of over 4000 Oe alongside magnetic exchange decoupling, average grain sizes of 6 nm with distributions under 14%, and improved thermal stability. Measurements of the anisotropy constant did not show any significant change and even an IrMn capping layer was observed to improve the thermal stability. The possible mechanisms through which the IrMn layer could affect the thermal stability are hypothesized. The initial layers of the magnetic recording layer on IrMn segregation layers also showed exchange-decoupled and segregated grains, which is unlike that observed on Ru segregation layers. In a second media scheme, (111) textured iridium-manganese thin film was grown on a crystalline soft magnetic underlayer belonging on top of amorphous soft underlayers. In this scheme, partial pinning of the soft underlayer due to exchange-bias interaction with the IrMn layer was observed. This scheme offers the possibility to reduce the intermediate layer thickness, thus improve media writability, and with further optimization, could potentially facilitate the approach toward 1 Tbits/in.2.

  17. Spatial bandwidth enlargement and field enhancement of shear horizontal waves in finite graded piezoelectric layered media

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-01-01

    structure and transmission in this paper show that the graded layered media possess very large band gaps. Harmonic wave simulation by finite element method (FEM) confirms that the reason of bandwidth enlargement is that waves within the band gap ranges

  18. Mass-polariton theory of light in dispersive media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Mikko; Tulkki, Jukka

    2017-12-01

    We have recently shown that the electromagnetic pulse in a medium is made of mass-polariton (MP) quasiparticles, which are quantized coupled states of the field and an atomic mass density wave (MDW) [M. Partanen et al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 063850 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.063850]. In this work, we generalize the MP theory of light for dispersive media assuming that absorption and scattering losses are very small. Following our previous work, we present two different approaches to the coupled state of light: (1) the MP quasiparticle theory, which is derived by only using the fundamental conservation laws and the Lorentz transformation; (2) the classical optoelastic continuum dynamics (OCD), which is a generalization of the electrodynamics of continuous media to include the dynamics of the medium under the influence of optical forces. We show that the total momentum and the transferred mass of the light pulse can be determined in a straightforward way if we know the field energy of the pulse and the dispersion relation of the medium. In analogy to the nondispersive case, we also find unambiguous correspondence between the MP and OCD theories. For the coupled MP state of a single photon and the medium, we obtain the total MP momentum pMP=npℏ ω /c , where np is the phase refractive index. The field's share of the MP momentum is equal to pfield=ℏ ω /(ngc ) , where ng is the group refractive index and the share of the MDW is equal to pMDW=pMP-pfield . Thus, as in a nondispersive medium, the total momentum of the MP is equal to the Minkowski momentum and the field's share of the momentum is equal to the Abraham momentum. We also show that the correspondence between the MP and OCD models and the conservation of momentum at interfaces gives an unambiguous formula for the optical force. The dynamics of the light pulse and the related MDW lead to nonequilibrium of the medium and to relaxation of the atomic density by sound waves in the same way as for nondispersive media

  19. Experimental demonstration of the Rayleigh acoustic viscous boundary layer theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejón-Pita, J R; Castrejón-Pita, A A; Huelsz, G; Tovar, R

    2006-03-01

    Amplitude and phase velocity measurements on the laminar oscillatory viscous boundary layer produced by acoustic waves are presented. The measurements were carried out in acoustic standing waves in air with frequencies of 68.5 and 114.5 Hz using laser Doppler anemometry and particle image velocimetry. The results obtained by these two techniques are in good agreement with the predictions made by the Rayleigh viscous boundary layer theory and confirm the existence of a local maximum of the velocity amplitude and its expected location.

  20. An effective anisotropic poroelastic model for elastic wave propagation in finely layered media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudarova, A.; van Dalen, K.N.; Drijkoningen, G.G.

    2016-01-01

    Mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities in porous media cause attenuation and dispersion at seismic frequencies. Effective models are often used to account for this. We have developed a new effective poroelastic model for finely layered media, and we evaluated its impact focusing on the angledependent

  1. AN FDTD ALGORITHM WITH PERFECTLY MATCHED LAYERS FOR CONDUCTIVE MEDIA. (R825225)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We extend Berenger's perfectly matched layers (PML) to conductive media. A finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) algorithm with PML as an absorbing boundary condition is developed for solutions of Maxwell's equations in inhomogeneous, conductive media. For a perfectly matched laye...

  2. Fifty Years of Boundary-Layer Theory and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Hugh L.

    1955-01-01

    The year 1954 marked the 50th anniversary of the Prandtl boundary-layer theory from which we may date the beginning of man's understanding of the dynamics of real fluids. A backward look at this aspect of the history of the last 50 years may be instructive. This paper (1) attempts to compress the events of those 50 years into a few thousand words, to tell in this brief space the interesting story of the development of a new concept, its slow acceptance and growth, its spread from group to group within its country of origin, and its diffusion to other countries of the world. The original brief paper of Prandtl (2) was presented at the Third International Mathematical Congress at Heidelberg in 1904 and published in the following year. It was an attempt to explain the d'Alembert paradox, namely, that the neglect of the small friction of air in the theory resulted in the prediction of zero resistance to motion. Prandtl set himself the task of computing the motion of a fluid of small friction, so small that its effect could be neglected everywhere except where large velocity differences were present or a cumulative effect of friction occurred This led to the concept of boundary layer, or transition layer, near the wall of a body immersed in a fluid stream in which the velocity rises from zero to the free-stream value. It is interesting that Prandtl used the term Grenzsehicht (boundary layer) only once and the term Ubergangsschicht (transition layer) seven times in the brief article. Later writers also used Reibungsschicht (friction layer), but most writers today use Grenzschicht (boundary layer).

  3. Ray-theory approach to electrical-double-layer interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Ory

    2015-02-01

    A novel approach is presented for analyzing the double-layer interaction force between charged particles in electrolyte solution, in the limit where the Debye length is small compared with both interparticle separation and particle size. The method, developed here for two planar convex particles of otherwise arbitrary geometry, yields a simple asymptotic approximation limited to neither small zeta potentials nor the "close-proximity" assumption underlying Derjaguin's approximation. Starting from the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann formulation, boundary-layer solutions describing the thin diffuse-charge layers are asymptotically matched to a WKBJ expansion valid in the bulk, where the potential is exponentially small. The latter expansion describes the bulk potential as superposed contributions conveyed by "rays" emanating normally from the boundary layers. On a special curve generated by the centers of all circles maximally inscribed between the two particles, the bulk stress-associated with the ray contributions interacting nonlinearly-decays exponentially with distance from the center of the smallest of these circles. The force is then obtained by integrating the traction along this curve using Laplace's method. We illustrate the usefulness of our theory by comparing it, alongside Derjaguin's approximation, with numerical simulations in the case of two parallel cylinders at low potentials. By combining our result and Derjaguin's approximation, the interaction force is provided at arbitrary interparticle separations. Our theory can be generalized to arbitrary three-dimensional geometries, nonideal electrolyte models, and other physical scenarios where exponentially decaying fields give rise to forces.

  4. Steady state ensembles of thermal radiation in a layered media with a constant heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budaev, Bair V.; Bogy, David B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes steady-state ensembles of thermally excited electromagnetic radiation in nano-scale layered media with a constant non-vanishing heat flux across the layers. It is shown that Planck's law of thermal radiation, the principle of equivalence, and the laws of wave propagation in layered media, imply that in order for the ensemble of thermally excited electromagnetic fields to exist in a medium consisting of a stack of layers between two half-space, the net heat flux across the layers must exceed a certain threshold that is determined by the temperatures of the half spaces and by the reflective properties of the entire structure. The obtained results provide a way for estimating the radiative heat transfer coefficient of nano-scale layered structures. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Student Interactions in Online Discussion Forum: Empirical Research from "Media Richness Theory" Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, M. S.; Chakrabarti, Diganta

    2010-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of the effectiveness of online discussion forum in student learning. A conceptual model based on "theory of online learning" and "media richness theory" was proposed and empirically tested. We extend the current understanding of media richness theory to suggest that use of…

  6. Preparation and recording characteristics of granular-type perpendicular magnetic recording media with thin intermediate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintaku, K.; Kiya, T.

    2008-01-01

    Granular-type media with thin Ru intermediate layer were prepared on a highly oriented high-B s FeCo soft underlayer (SUL). A CoPt-TiO 2 recording layer on a Ru intermediate layer of only 2 nm had high-crystal orientation, high H c of 6.5 kOe, and a high squareness ratio (SQ) of 0.99. The magnetic property of the SUL was also good. The recording performance was measured for the media with different Ru intermediate thicknesses by using a single-pole-type (SPT) head. The media had large reproduced output even for the Ru intermediate layer thickness of 2 nm

  7. Preparation and recording characteristics of granular-type perpendicular magnetic recording media with thin intermediate layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintaku, K. [Akita Research Institute of Advanced Technology, Akita Prefectural R and D Center, 4-21 Sanuki, Araya, Akita 010-1623 (Japan)], E-mail: shintaku@ait.pref.akita.jp; Kiya, T. [Akita Research Institute of Advanced Technology, Akita Prefectural R and D Center, 4-21 Sanuki, Araya, Akita 010-1623 (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Granular-type media with thin Ru intermediate layer were prepared on a highly oriented high-B{sub s} FeCo soft underlayer (SUL). A CoPt-TiO{sub 2} recording layer on a Ru intermediate layer of only 2 nm had high-crystal orientation, high H{sub c} of 6.5 kOe, and a high squareness ratio (SQ) of 0.99. The magnetic property of the SUL was also good. The recording performance was measured for the media with different Ru intermediate thicknesses by using a single-pole-type (SPT) head. The media had large reproduced output even for the Ru intermediate layer thickness of 2 nm.

  8. Dual Coding Theory and Computer Education: Some Media Experiments To Examine the Effects of Different Media on Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alty, James L.

    Dual Coding Theory has quite specific predictions about how information in different media is stored, manipulated and recalled. Different combinations of media are expected to have significant effects upon the recall and retention of information. This obviously may have important consequences in the design of computer-based programs. The paper…

  9. Distinguishing oil and water layers in a cracked porous medium using pulsed neutron logging data based on Hudson's crack theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueang; Yang, Zhichao; Tang, Bin; Wang, Renbo; Wei, Xiong

    2018-05-01

    During geophysical surveys, water layers may interfere with the detection of oil layers. In order to distinguish between oil and water layers in porous cracked media, research on the properties of the cracks, the oil and water layers, and their relation to pulsed neutron logging characteristics is essential. Using Hudson's crack theory, we simulated oil and water layers in a cracked porous medium with different crack parameters corresponding to the well log responses. We found that, in a cracked medium with medium-angle (40°-50°) cracks, the thermal neutron count peak value is higher and more sensitive than those in low-angle and high-angle crack environments; in addition, the thermal neutron density distribution shows more minimum values than in other cases. Further, the thermal neutron count and the rate of change for the oil layer are greater than those of the water layer, and the time spectrum count peak value for the water layer in middle-high-angle (40°-70°) cracked environments is higher than that of the oil layer. The thermal neutron density distribution sensitivity is higher in the water layer with a range of small crack angles (0°-30°) than in the oil layer with the same range of angles. In comparing the thermal neutron density distribution, thermal neutron count peak, thermal neutron density distribution sensitivity, and time spectrum maximum in the oil and water layers, we find that neutrons in medium-angle (40°-50°) cracked reservoirs are more sensitive to deceleration and absorption than those in water layers; neutrons in approximately horizontal (0°-30°) cracked water layers are more sensitive to deceleration than those in reservoirs. These results can guide future work in the cracked media neutron logging field.

  10. Spatial bandwidth enlargement and field enhancement of shear horizontal waves in finite graded piezoelectric layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-01-01

    Shear horizontal (SH) wave propagation in finite graded piezoelectric layered media is investigated by transfer matrix method. Different from the previous studies on SH wave propagation in completely periodic layered media, calculations on band structure and transmission in this paper show that the graded layered media possess very large band gaps. Harmonic wave simulation by finite element method (FEM) confirms that the reason of bandwidth enlargement is that waves within the band gap ranges are spatially enhanced and stopped by the corresponding graded units. The study suggests that the graded structure possesses the property of manipulating elastic waves spatially, which shows potential applications in strengthening energy trapping and harvesting. - Highlights: • Shear horizontal wave propagation in finite graded piezoelectric layered media is investigated by transfer matrix method. • Calculations on band structure and transmission show that the graded layered media possess very large band gaps. • Finite element method confirms that waves in band gaps are spatially enhanced and stopped by the graded units. • The study suggests that the graded structure possesses the property of manipulating elastic waves spatially

  11. Boundary Layer Flows in Porous Media with Lateral Mass Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, H; H, Bararnia; Noori, F

    2015-01-01

    Solutions for free convection boundary layers on a heated vertical plate with lateral mass flux embedded in a saturated porous medium are presented using the Homotopy Analysis Method and Shooting Numerical Method. Homotopy Analysis Method yields an analytic solution in the form of a rapidly...

  12. Conditioning bounds for traveltime tomography in layered media

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Hyoungsu; Demanet, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    This paper revisits the problem of recovering a smooth, isotropic, layered wave speed profile from surface traveltime information. While it is classic knowledge that the diving (refracted) rays classically determine the wave speed in a weakly well-posed fashion via the Abel transform, we show in this paper that traveltimes of reflected rays do not contain enough information to recover the medium in a well-posed manner, regardless of the discretization. The counterpart of the Abel transform in...

  13. A perfectly matched layer for the time-dependent wave equation in heterogeneous and layered media

    KAUST Repository

    Duru, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    , and derive energy estimates for discontinuous media with piecewise smooth coefficients. We consider a computational setup consisting of smaller structured subdomains that are discretized using high order accurate finite difference operators for approximating

  14. Understanding work-related social media use: An extension of theory of planned behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express

  15. Freedom and Responsibility in First Amendment Theory: Defamation Law and Media Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, David M.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the concepts of freedom and responsibility in the context of First Amendment theory through an examination of the interrelationships between defamation law, access to media, and media credibility. Calls for a reassessment of the importance of defamation law in First Amendment theory. (JMF)

  16. Application of magnetic printing method to hard-disk media with double recording layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Takuya; Kuboki, Yoshiyuki; Ajishi, Yoshifumi; Saito, Akira

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic printing method, which can duplicate soft magnetic patterns containing digital information such as servosignals formed on a master disk onto recording media, enables signals to be written to hard-disk media having high coercivities above 6000 Oe. We propose the application of the magnetic printing method to a hard-disk medium having double recording layers, one layer of which has high coercivity and is to be printed with digital information. This double recording layer medium is a hard-disk medium that has a magnetic read-only-memory (MROM) layer. In this study, we demonstrated a method for printing to this medium, which has MROM, and discussed the magnetic properties and recording performances of this medium

  17. Fluid Effects on Shear Waves in Finely Layered Porous Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J G

    2004-01-01

    Although there are five effective shear moduli for any layered VTI medium, one and only one effective shear modulus for the layered system contains all the dependence of pore fluids on the elastic or poroelastic constants that can be observed in vertically polarized shear waves. Pore fluids can increase the magnitude the shear energy stored by this modulus by a term that ranges from the smallest to the largest shear moduli of the VTI system. But, since there are five shear moduli in play, the increase in shear energy overall is reduced by a factor of about 5 in general. We can therefore give definite bounds on the maximum increase of shear modulus, being about 20% of the permitted range, when gas is fully replaced by liquid. An attendant increase of density (depending on porosity and fluid density) by approximately 5 to 10% partially offsets the effect of this shear modulus increase. Thus, an increase of shear wave speed on the order of 5 to 10% is shown to be possible when circumstances are favorable - i.e., when the shear modulus fluctuations are large (resulting in strong anisotropy), and the medium behaves in an undrained fashion due to fluid trapping. At frequencies higher than seismic (such as sonic and ultrasonic waves for well-logging or laboratory experiments), short response times also produce the requisite undrained behavior and, therefore, fluids also affect shear waves at high frequencies by increasing rigidity

  18. FOLDER: A numerical tool to simulate the development of structures in layered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Schmid, Daniel W.

    2015-04-01

    FOLDER is a numerical toolbox for modelling deformation in layered media during layer parallel shortening or extension in two dimensions. FOLDER builds on MILAMIN [1], a finite element method based mechanical solver, with a range of utilities included from the MUTILS package [2]. Numerical mesh is generated using the Triangle software [3]. The toolbox includes features that allow for: 1) designing complex structures such as multi-layer stacks, 2) accurately simulating large-strain deformation of linear and non-linear viscous materials, 3) post-processing of various physical fields such as velocity (total and perturbing), rate of deformation, finite strain, stress, deviatoric stress, pressure, apparent viscosity. FOLDER is designed to ensure maximum flexibility to configure model geometry, define material parameters, specify range of numerical parameters in simulations and choose the plotting options. FOLDER is an open source MATLAB application and comes with a user friendly graphical interface. The toolbox additionally comprises an educational application that illustrates various analytical solutions of growth rates calculated for the cases of folding and necking of a single layer with interfaces perturbed with a single sinusoidal waveform. We further derive two novel analytical expressions for the growth rate in the cases of folding and necking of a linear viscous layer embedded in a linear viscous medium of a finite thickness. We use FOLDER to test the accuracy of single-layer folding simulations using various 1) spatial and temporal resolutions, 2) time integration schemes, and 3) iterative algorithms for non-linear materials. The accuracy of the numerical results is quantified by: 1) comparing them to analytical solution, if available, or 2) running convergence tests. As a result, we provide a map of the most optimal choice of grid size, time step, and number of iterations to keep the results of the numerical simulations below a given error for a given time

  19. Cover-layer with High Refractive Index for Near-Field Recording Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hong; Lee, Jun-Seok

    2007-06-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles are added into UV-curable resin to increase the refractive index of the cover-layer laminated for cover-layer incident near-field recording media. A high refractive index is required for the cover-layer operating with an optical head with a high numerical aperture. The eye pattern from a cover-layer coated 20 GB read-only memory disc in which the refractive index of the cover-layer is 1.75 is achieved, but the gap servo is unstable owing to the rough surface of the cover-layer. Even though the light loss due to the nanoparticles is negligible, a rough microstructure is developed by adding the nanoparticles into an organic binder material. To achieve a smooth surface for a stable gap servo, the solubility of the nanoparticles should be enhanced by the optimization of the surface of the nanoparticles.

  20. Regularized inversion of controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric data in horizontally layered transversely isotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jianmei; Shang, Qinglong; Wang, Hongnian; Wang, Jianxun; Yin, Changchun

    2014-01-01

    We present an algorithm for inverting controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data in horizontally layered transversely isotropic (TI) media. The popular inversion method parameterizes the media into a large number of layers which have fixed thickness and only reconstruct the conductivities (e.g. Occam's inversion), which does not enable the recovery of the sharp interfaces between layers. In this paper, we simultaneously reconstruct all the model parameters, including both the horizontal and vertical conductivities and layer depths. Applying the perturbation principle and the dyadic Green's function in TI media, we derive the analytic expression of Fréchet derivatives of CSAMT responses with respect to all the model parameters in the form of Sommerfeld integrals. A regularized iterative inversion method is established to simultaneously reconstruct all the model parameters. Numerical results show that the inverse algorithm, including the depths of the layer interfaces, can significantly improve the inverse results. It can not only reconstruct the sharp interfaces between layers, but also can obtain conductivities close to the true value. (paper)

  1. A reciprocal theorem for a mixture theory. [development of linearized theory of interacting media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C. J.; Lee, Y. M.

    1972-01-01

    A dynamic reciprocal theorem for a linearized theory of interacting media is developed. The constituents of the mixture are a linear elastic solid and a linearly viscous fluid. In addition to Steel's field equations, boundary conditions and inequalities on the material constants that have been shown by Atkin, Chadwick and Steel to be sufficient to guarantee uniqueness of solution to initial-boundary value problems are used. The elements of the theory are given and two different boundary value problems are considered. The reciprocal theorem is derived with the aid of the Laplace transform and the divergence theorem and this section is concluded with a discussion of the special cases which arise when one of the constituents of the mixture is absent.

  2. Students' Misconceptions about the Ozone Layer and the Effect of Internet-Based Media on It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungordu, Nahide; Yalcin-Celik, Ayse; Kilic, Ziya

    2017-01-01

    In this study, students' misconceptions about the ozone layer were investigated, looking specifically at the effect internet-based media has on the formation of these misconceptions. Quantitative and qualitative research approaches were used to perform the research. As part of the quantitative portion of the research, the descriptive survey…

  3. Efficient CFIE-MOM Analysis of 3-D PEC Scatterers in Layered Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Jørgensen, E.; Meincke, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient technique for analysis of arbitrary closed perfectly conducting (PEC) scatterers in layered media. The technique is based on a method of moments (MoM) solution of the combined field integral equation (CFIE). The high efficiency is obtained by employing an accurate...

  4. Higher order hierarchical discretization scheme for surface integral equations for layered media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Erik; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient technique for the analysis of electromagnetic scattering by arbitrarily shaped perfectly conducting objects in layered media. The technique is based on a higher order method of moments (MoM) solution of the electric field, magnetic field, or combined-field integra...

  5. In vivo spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nguyen, John Quan M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2012-10-01

    Monitoring of tissue blood volume and local oxygen saturation can inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities can be estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis and epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. Therefore, a method is desired that decouples the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. A previously developed inverse method based on a neural network forward model was applied to simulated spatial frequency domain reflectance of skin for multiple wavelengths in the near infrared. It is demonstrated that the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis can be determined independently and with minimal coupling. Then, the same inverse method was applied to reflectance measurements from a tissue simulating phantom and in vivo human skin. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin concentrations were estimated from the volar forearms of weakly and strongly pigmented subjects using a standard homogeneous model and the present two layer model.

  6. Looking to the future of new media in health marketing: deriving propositions based on traditional theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della, Lindsay J; Eroglu, Dogan; Bernhardt, Jay M; Edgerton, Erin; Nall, Janice

    2008-01-01

    Market trend data show that the media marketplace continues to rapidly evolve. Recent research shows that substantial portions of the U.S. media population are "new media" users. Today, more than ever before, media consumers are exposed to multiple media at the same point in time, encouraged to participate in media content generation, and challenged to learn, access, and use the new media that are continually entering the market. These media trends have strong implications for how consumers of health information access, process, and retain health-related knowledge. In this article we review traditional information processing models and theories of interpersonal and mass media access and consumption. We make several theory-based propositions for how traditional information processing and media consumption concepts will function as new media usage continues to increase. These propositions are supported by new media usage data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's entry into the new media market (e.g., podcasting, virtual events, blogging, and webinars). Based on these propositions, we conclude by presenting both opportunities and challenges that public health communicators and marketers will face in the future.

  7. Mechanics of layered anisotropic poroelastic media with applications to effective stress for fluid permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2010-06-01

    The mechanics of vertically layered porous media has some similarities to and some differences from the more typical layered analysis for purely elastic media. Assuming welded solid contact at the solid-solid interfaces implies the usual continuity conditions, which are continuity of the vertical (layering direction) stress components and the horizontal strain components. These conditions are valid for both elastic and poroelastic media. Differences arise through the conditions for the pore pressure and the increment of fluid content in the context of fluid-saturated porous media. The two distinct conditions most often considered between any pair of contiguous layers are: (1) an undrained fluid condition at the interface, meaning that the increment of fluid content is zero (i.e., {delta}{zeta} = 0), or (2) fluid pressure continuity at the interface, implying that the change in fluid pressure is zero across the interface (i.e., {delta}p{sub f} = 0). Depending on the types of measurements being made on the system and the pertinent boundary conditions for these measurements, either (or neither) of these two conditions might be directly pertinent. But these conditions are sufficient nevertheless to be used as thought experiments to determine the expected values of all the poroelastic coefficients. For quasi-static mechanical changes over long time periods, we expect drained conditions to hold, so the pressure must then be continuous. For high frequency wave propagation, the pore-fluid typically acts as if it were undrained (or very nearly so), with vanishing of the fluid increment at the boundaries being appropriate. Poroelastic analysis of both these end-member cases is discussed, and the general equations for a variety of applications to heterogeneous porous media are developed. In particular, effective stress for the fluid permeability of such poroelastic systems is considered; fluid permeabilities characteristic of granular media or tubular pore shapes are treated

  8. Layers of protection analysis in the framework of possibility theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouazraoui, N; Nait-Said, R; Bourareche, M; Sellami, I

    2013-11-15

    An important issue faced by risk analysts is how to deal with uncertainties associated with accident scenarios. In industry, one often uses single values derived from historical data or literature to estimate events probability or their frequency. However, both dynamic environments of systems and the need to consider rare component failures may make unrealistic this kind of data. In this paper, uncertainty encountered in Layers Of Protection Analysis (LOPA) is considered in the framework of possibility theory. Data provided by reliability databases and/or experts judgments are represented by fuzzy quantities (possibilities). The fuzzy outcome frequency is calculated by extended multiplication using α-cuts method. The fuzzy outcome is compared to a scenario risk tolerance criteria and the required reduction is obtained by resolving a possibilistic decision-making problem under necessity constraint. In order to validate the proposed model, a case study concerning the protection layers of an operational heater is carried out. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Intermediate layer thickness dependence on switching field distribution in perpendicular recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbiaa, R.; Gandhi, R.; Srinivasan, K.; Piramanayagam, S.N.; Seoh, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of intermediate layer (IL) thickness on crystallographic texture and magnetic properties of CoCrPtSiO 2 granular perpendicular recording media was investigated with switching field distribution (SFD) as the focus. Even though the c-axis orientation of the Co-based recording layer (RL) broadens with the reduction of IL thickness, the SFD becomes narrower. This result demonstrates that the intrinsic SFD is not directly dependent on c-axis orientation of the recording layer but instead dependent on the magnitude of exchange coupling. It is thus possible to have a medium with thin IL and narrow SFD. This is desirable for bit-patterned media (BPM), where highly exchange-coupled grains are required.

  10. Atmospheric boundary layers in storms: advanced theory and modelling applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Zilitinkevich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent planetary boundary layers (PBLs control the exchange processes between the atmosphere and the ocean/land. The key problems of PBL physics are to determine the PBL height, the momentum, energy and matter fluxes at the surface and the mean wind and scalar profiles throughout the layer in a range of regimes from stable and neutral to convective. Until present, the PBLs typical of stormy weather were always considered as neutrally stratified. Recent works have disclosed that such PBLs are in fact very strongly affected by the static stability of the free atmosphere and must be treated as factually stable (we call this type of the PBL "conventionally neutral" in contract to the "truly neutral" PBLs developed against the neutrally stratified free flow. It is common knowledge that basic features of PBLs exhibit a noticeable dependence on the free-flow static stability and baroclinicity. However, the concern of the traditional theory of neural and stable PBLs was almost without exception the barotropic nocturnal PBL, which develops at mid latitudes during a few hours in the night, on the background of a neutral or slightly stable residual layer. The latter separates this type of the PBL from the free atmosphere. It is not surprising that the nature of turbulence in such regimes is basically local and does not depend on the properties of the free atmosphere. Alternatively, long-lived neutral (in fact only conditionally neutral or stable PBLs, which have much more time to grow up, are placed immediately below the stably stratified free flow. Under these conditions, the turbulent transports of momentum and scalars even in the surface layer - far away from the PBL outer boundary - depend on the free-flow Brunt-Väisälä frequency, N. Furthermore, integral measures of the long-lived PBLs (their depths and the resistance law functions depend on N and also on the baroclinic shear, S. In the traditional PBL models both non-local parameters N and S

  11. Explaining the use of text-based communication media: an examination of three theories of media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Namkee; Chung, Jae Eun; Lee, Seungyoon

    2012-07-01

    The present study examined the factors associated with individuals' use of three different text-based communication media: e-mail, cell-phone texting, and Facebook Wall postings. Three theoretical perspectives, including media richness theory, uses and gratifications, and perceived network effects, were examined. Using data from a survey of college students (N=280), the study found that the theoretical constructs from these theories play different roles when applied to different technologies. The results suggest that a simultaneous consideration of technological attributes, users' motivations, and social circumstances in which users select and use the technology is useful for fully understanding the dynamics of the selection and the use of a given technology.

  12. Improvement of the crystallographic orientation of double-layered perpendicular recording media by using CoCr (Mo)/Cu intermediate layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Ichiro; Yamamoto, T.; Kikukawa, A.; Tanahashi, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Futamoto, M.

    2001-01-01

    We have introduced intermediate layers of CoCr/Cu and CoCrMo/Cu between a CoCrPtB recording layer and a soft-magnetic CoTaZr underlayer. The combination of the FCC-Cu first-intermediate layer and the HCP-CoCrMo second-intermediate layer was found to enhance the c-axis vertical orientation of the CoCrPtB recording layer. In media with intermediate layers of CoCrMo/Cu, the thickness of the intermediate layers can be reduced without sacrificing good magnetic properties, and this leads to high resolutions

  13. Exposure to Media and Theory-of-Mind Development in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Raymond A.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Moore, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to different forms of narrative media may influence children's development of theory-of-mind. Because engagement with fictional narratives provides one with information about the social world, and possibly draws upon theory-of-mind processes during comprehension, exposure to storybooks, movies, and television may influence theory-of-mind…

  14. A method of producing small grain Ru intermediate layers for perpendicular magnetic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Hua; Qin Yueling; Laughlin, David E.

    2008-01-01

    NiAl + SiO 2 thin films were used as a grain size reducing seedlayer for cobalt alloy granular perpendicular magnetic recording media. The effect of this NiAl + SiO 2 seedlayer on the microstructure and crystalline orientation of Ru intermediate layer has been investigated. By co-sputtering the composite NiAl + SiO 2 seedlayer, the smallest average grain diameter of NiAl was significantly reduced to about 2.5 nm. The grain size of the subsequent Ru intermediate layer was reduced to about 4 nm. X-ray diffraction results indicate an epitaxial orientation relationship of NiAl (110) // Ru (0002) between the two layers. Moreover, significant improvement of this epitaxial relationship was developed, which produced narrow c-axis distribution of the Ru intermediate layer with small grain size. The addition of the NiAl + SiO 2 seedlayer is a very promising approach to reduce the Ru intermediate layer grain size and eventually the magnetic layer grain size for perpendicular magnetic recording media without deterioration of other properties of thin films

  15. Media Analysis as Critical Reflexology in Exploring Adult Learning Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Holly M.; Bierema, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Examining media artifacts as a learning method has received little attention in human resource development (HRD) despite it being a predominate form of information and influence in popular culture. As Giroux (2002) opines, media functions as a form of public pedagogy by offering situations and contexts through which viewers can vicariously…

  16. Five-dimensional Lattice Gauge Theory as Multi-Layer World

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Michika; So, Hiroto

    2003-01-01

    A five-dimensional lattice space can be decomposed into a number of four-dimens ional lattices called as layers. The five-dimensional gauge theory on the lattice can be interpreted as four-dimensional gauge theories on the multi-layer with interactions between neighboring layers. In the theory, there exist two independent coupling constants; $\\beta_4$ controls the dynamics inside a layer and $\\beta_5$ does the strength of the inter-layer interaction.We propose the new possibility to realize t...

  17. Field theory approaches to new media practices: An introduction and some theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Willig

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article introducing the theme of the special issue we argue that studies of new media practices might benefit from especially Pierre Bourdieu’s research on cultural production. We introduce some of the literature, which deals with the use of digital media, and which have taken steps to develop field theory in this context. Secondly, we present the four thematic articles in this issue and the articles outside the theme, which includes two translations of classic texts within communication and media research. This introduction article concludes by encouraging media scholars to embark on more studies within a field theory framework, as the ability of the comprehensive theoretical work and the ideas of a reflexive sociology is able to trigger the good questions, more than it claims to offer a complete and self-sufficient sociology of media and inherent here also new media.

  18. Popular Culture and Critical Media Literacy in Adult Education: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter introduces the volume, provides an overview of the theory and literature on popular culture and critical media literacy in education, and discusses ways to use popular culture in adult education.

  19. A numerical homogenization method for heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media based on multiscale theory

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Kai; Chung, Eric T.; Gibson, Richard L.; Fu, Shubin; Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2015-01-01

    The development of reliable methods for upscaling fine-scale models of elastic media has long been an important topic for rock physics and applied seismology. Several effective medium theories have been developed to provide elastic parameters

  20. Method for remote diagnostics of the internal structure of layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lychagov, V V; Kal'yanov, A L; Ryabukho, V P; Lyakin, D V

    2008-01-01

    The method of autocorrelation low coherence interferometry is proposed for diagnostics of inhomogeneities and the internal structure of layered technical and biological samples. In this method the low coherence optical field reflected from the layered sample is analysed by using a Michelson interferometer. Because the object is outside the interferometer, the distance between the interferometer and the object under study is not limited and thus the object can move during the measurements. Theoretical substantiation of the autocorrelation method for media with discrete and continuous optical structure modifications is presented. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  1. Mass Communication: An Introduction; Theory and Practice of Mass Media in Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, John R.

    From the perspectives of historical, contemporary, and future interpretations of mass communication, this introduction to the theory and practice of mass media in society treats both the social context of mass communication and the hardware components that make it operable. The book discusses all mass media--newspapers, magazines, radio,…

  2. Social Learning Theory in the Age of Social Media: Implications for Educational Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Following the research of Albert Bandura, the advent of social media has changed the platform for social interaction and human experience. Educators have a unique opportunity to apply the concepts of Bandura's Social Learning Theory toward enhanced student engagement and learning in a social media context. This article synthesizes current research…

  3. Examining the Use of Theory within Educational Technology and Media Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfin, Scott; Henderson, Michael; Johnson, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Academic research in the areas of educational technology and media is often portrayed to be limited in terms of its use of theory. This short paper reports on data collected from a survey of 462 "research active" academic researchers working in the broad area of educational technology and educational media. The paper explores their use…

  4. Analytical Investigation Of Pigments, Ground Layer And Media Of Cartonnage Fragments From Greek Roman Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Hala. A. M.

    Some cartonnage fragments from Hawara, Fayoum Excavation were examined to identify pigments, media and grounds. It belonged to the Greek-Roman period. They were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDS) equipped with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). These techniques were used to identify the composition and morphology of grounds, nature of pigments and media used in cartonnage fragments. The coarse ground layer was composed of calcite and traces of quartz. The fine ground layer used under the pigments directly was composed of calcite only. Carbon black was used as black pigment while lead oxide as red pigment, showing the influence of Roman and Greek pigments on Egyptian art in these later periods. Blue colorant was identified as cuprorivaite and yellow pigment was goethite. Animal glue was used in the four pigments as medium colored.

  5. Preparation of Fe-Pt perpendicular double-layered media with high electric resistivity backlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Masaru; Suzuki, Toshio; Ouchi, Kazuhiro

    2001-01-01

    High electric resistivity materials, oxide-added Fe-Si, were investigated as a soft-magnetic backlayer for Fe-Pt perpendicular double-layered media. It was found that there is a possibility of using (Fe-Si)-MgO as a backlayer. To promote a hetero-epitaxial growth of ordered Fe-Pt FCT(0 0 1), the backlayer needed a BCC(2 0 0) crystal orientation, in a situation where surface topology also played an important role

  6. Theorising Media, Power and Politics in Discourse Theory and Framing Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Camilla; Roslyng, Mette Marie

    The development of digital media has profound consequences for social and political interaction and, therefore, a new radical interactivity also influences the way in which media can be theorised and analysed? (Couldry, 2012, p. 2). As pointed out by Hall (2006) and others, media discourse may...... either contribute to or challenge the current status quo. Likewise, media framing studies indicate that the media may play an independent political role in terms of raising, shaping and morally judging issues of civic relevance (Entman, 2004). Framing and discourse theory have overlapping as well...... as different trajectories in empirical studies of mediated political communication. Both perspectives bear upon constructivist and critical thinking concerning the role of media in society (Gitlin 1980) and previous studies of media content have even sometimes conflated the terms discourse and frame...

  7. Learning theory and its application to the use of social media in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Leslie; Jalali, Alireza; Moreau, Katherine A

    2015-10-01

    There is rapidly increasing pressure to employ social media in medical education, but a review of the literature demonstrates that its value and role are uncertain. To determine if medical educators have a conceptual framework that informs their use of social media and whether this framework can be mapped to learning theory. Thirty-six participants engaged in an iterative, consensus building process that identified their conceptual framework and determined if it aligned with one or more learning theories. The results show that the use of social media by the participants could be traced to two dominant theories-Connectivism and Constructivism. They also suggest that many medical educators may not be fully informed of these theories. Medical educators' use of social media can be traced to learning theories, but these theories may not be explicitly utilised in instructional design. It is recommended that formal education (faculty development) around learning theory would further enhance the use of social media in medical education. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. From Here to Obscurity?: Media Substitution Theory and Traditional Media in an On-Line World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Barbara K.; Johnson, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an online survey targeted to politically interested users to assess whether traditional media use is decreasing, increasing, or remaining the same since users first started using the Web. Discusses media use gratifications, political attitudes, and demographics, and compares results with a similar study conducted in 1996. (Author/LRW)

  9. Computing the scattering properties of participating media using Lorenz-Mie theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Jensen, Henrik Wann

    2007-01-01

    is capable of handling both absorbing host media and non-spherical particles, which significantly extends the classes of media and materials that can be modeled. We use the theory to compute optical properties for different types of ice and ocean water, and we derive a novel appearance model for milk...... parameterized by the fat and protein contents. Our results show that we are able to match measured scattering properties in cases where the classical Lorenz-Mie theory breaks down, and we can compute properties for media that cannot be measured using existing techniques in computer graphics....

  10. Stochastic Theory of Turbulence Mixing by Finite Eddies in the Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.; Leeuw, G. de; Maassen van den Brink, A.

    1995-01-01

    Turbulence mixing is treated by means of a novel formulation of nonlocal K-theory, involving sample paths and a stochastic hypothesis. The theory simplifies for mixing by exchange (strong-eddies) and is then applied to the boundary layer (involving scaling). This maps boundary layer turbulence onto

  11. Hybrid diffusion-P3 equation in N-layered turbid media: steady-state domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenzhi; Zhao, Huijuan; Xu, Kexin

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses light propagation in N-layered turbid media. The hybrid diffusion-P3 equation is solved for an N-layered finite or infinite turbid medium in the steady-state domain for one point source using the extrapolated boundary condition. The Fourier transform formalism is applied to derive the analytical solutions of the fluence rate in Fourier space. Two inverse Fourier transform methods are developed to calculate the fluence rate in real space. In addition, the solutions of the hybrid diffusion-P3 equation are compared to the solutions of the diffusion equation and the Monte Carlo simulation. For the case of small absorption coefficients, the solutions of the N-layered diffusion equation and hybrid diffusion-P3 equation are almost equivalent and are in agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation. For the case of large absorption coefficients, the model of the hybrid diffusion-P3 equation is more precise than that of the diffusion equation. In conclusion, the model of the hybrid diffusion-P3 equation can replace the diffusion equation for modeling light propagation in the N-layered turbid media for a wide range of absorption coefficients.

  12. Putting Social Media in Its Place: A Curatorial Theory for Media’s Noisy Social Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Mary L. Gray

    2015-01-01

    The quest to make sense of media’s impact—what it does to us—dominates communication theories and popular discourse about media. But the impulse to collar, cultivate, domesticate, or measure the impact of media on individuals and society can have pernicious effects, too. This essay calls for a set of new analytical models to account for media as messy instantiations of social interaction transforming before our very eyes. We need to shift from a media effects paradigm that narrowly focuses on...

  13. On the influence of the embedment of the foundation and the layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, R.D.; Danesi, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to contribute to determine the influence of both the embedment of the foundation and the layered media in the seismic response of building structures with prismatic rectangular foundations. A soil-structure interaction model was used for this purpose. A general beam formulation was adopted to represent the physical model of the structure and two lumped parameter models, were adopted to represent the soil and the interaction mechanisms. On the other hand, an equivalent half space model was added, that permits taking into account the layered elastic soil in the analysis. The results obtained show that the embedment of the foundation is a fundamental parameter that cannot be neglected in the analysis because the structure forces could be significantly underestimated. In connection with the layered soil it can be stated that this is not an important factor because the differences with the half space results are not significant. (author). 18 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  14. Single-particle thermal diffusion of charged colloids: Double-layer theory in a temperature gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhont, J.K.G.; Briels, Willem J.

    2008-01-01

    The double-layer contribution to the single-particle thermal diffusion coefficient of charged, spherical colloids with arbitrary double-layer thickness is calculated and compared to experiments. The calculation is based on an extension of the Debye-Hückel theory for the double-layer structure that

  15. Putting Social Media in Its Place: A Curatorial Theory for Media’s Noisy Social Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L. Gray

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The quest to make sense of media’s impact—what it does to us—dominates communication theories and popular discourse about media. But the impulse to collar, cultivate, domesticate, or measure the impact of media on individuals and society can have pernicious effects, too. This essay calls for a set of new analytical models to account for media as messy instantiations of social interaction transforming before our very eyes. We need to shift from a media effects paradigm that narrowly focuses on the brightest signals of social media use and turn to what I will call here a curatorial theory of social media. This approach, inspired by research from several founding editors of Social Media + Society , focuses on media’s cultural work and myriad manifestations—from its technologies to the discourses that flow through and from them. Let us attend to the more elusive, noisy cultural and social forces that bring some aspects of media sharply into focus while obscuring others. And, above all, let us pay attention to the curatorial reworking of media that happens in particular places—nations, towns, bodies.

  16. Quasi-liquid layer theory based on the bulk first-order phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhkin, I. A.; Petrenko, V. F.

    2009-01-01

    The theory of the superionic phase transition (bulk first-order transition) proposed in [1] is used to explain the existence of a quasi-liquid layer at an ice surface below its melting point. An analytical expression is derived for the quasi-liquid layer thickness. Numerical estimates are made and compared with experiment. Distinction is made between the present model and other quasi-liquid layer theories

  17. Computing the scattering properties of participating media using Lorenz-Mie theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    This source code implements Lorenz-Mie theory using the formulas presented in the SIGGRAPH 2007 paper: J. R. Frisvad, N. J. Christensen, and H. W. Jensen: "Computing the Scattering Properties of Participating Media Using Lorenz-Mie Theory". Copyright (c) ACM 2007. This is the author's version...

  18. Modeling and inversion of PS-wave moveout asymmetry for tilted TI media: Part 2: Dipping TTI layer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dewangan, P.; Tsvankin, I.

    Dipping transversely isotropic layers with a tilted symmetry axis (TTI media) cause serious imaging problems in fold-and-thrust belts and near salt domes. The modified PP + PS = SS method introduced in Part 1 is applied to the inversion...

  19. On a theory of media processing systems behaviour, with applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weffers-Albu, M.A.; Lukkien, J.J.; Steffens, E.F.M.; Stok, van der P.D.V.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we provide a model for the dynamic behavior of media processing chains of tasks communicating via bounded buffers. The aim is to find the overall behavior of a chain from which performance parameters (such as start time and response time of individual tasks, chain end-to-end response

  20. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in FePt Patterned Media Employing a CrV Seed Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Dong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A thin FePt film was deposited onto a CrV seed layer at 400°C and showed a high coercivity (~3,400 Oe and high magnetization (900–1,000 emu/cm3 characteristic of L10 phase. However, the magnetic properties of patterned media fabricated from the film stack were degraded due to the Ar-ion bombardment. We employed a deposition-last process, in which FePt film deposited at room temperature underwent lift-off and post-annealing processes, to avoid the exposure of FePt to Ar plasma. A patterned medium with 100-nm nano-columns showed an out-of-plane coercivity fivefold larger than its in-plane counterpart and a remanent magnetization comparable to saturation magnetization in the out-of-plane direction, indicating a high perpendicular anisotropy. These results demonstrate the high perpendicular anisotropy in FePt patterned media using a Cr-based compound seed layer for the first time and suggest that ultra-high-density magnetic recording media can be achieved using this optimized top-down approach.

  1. Dual-layer ultrathin film optics: I. Theory and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qian; Lim, Kim Peng

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits dual-layer ultrathin film optics, which can be used for functional graded refractive index thin film stack. We present the detailed derivation including s-polarized and p-polarized light under arbitrary incidence angle showing the equivalence between the dual-layer ultrathin films and a negative birefringent thin film and also the approximations made during the derivation. Analysis of the approximations shows the influence of thickness of dual-layer thin films, the incidence angle and desired refractive index of the birefringent film. Numerical comparison between the titanium dioxide/aluminum oxide based dual-layer ultrathin film stack and the equivalent birefringent film verifies the theoretical analysis. The detailed theoretical study and numerical comparison provide a physical insight and design guidelines for dual-layer ultrathin film based optical devices. (paper)

  2. Semianalytical Solutions of Radioactive or Reactive Transport in Variably-Fractured Layered Media: 1. Solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George J. Moridis

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, semianalytical solutions are developed for the problem of transport of radioactive or reactive solute tracers through a layered system of heterogeneous fractured media with misaligned fractures. The tracer transport equations in the non-flowing matrix account for (a) diffusion, (b) surface diffusion, (c) mass transfer between the mobile and immobile water fractions, (d) linear kinetic or equilibrium physical, chemical, or combined solute sorption or colloid filtration, and (e) radioactive decay or first-order chemical reactions. The tracer-transport equations in the fractures account for the same processes, in addition to advection and hydrodynamic dispersion. Any number of radioactive decay daughter products (or products of a linear, first-order reaction chain) can be tracked. The solutions, which are analytical in the Laplace space, are numerically inverted to provide the solution in time and can accommodate any number of fractured and/or porous layers. The solutions are verified using analytical solutions for limiting cases of solute and colloid transport through fractured and porous media. The effect of important parameters on the transport of 3 H, 237 Np and 239 Pu (and its daughters) is investigated in several test problems involving layered geological systems of varying complexity

  3. Semianalytical solutions of radioactive or reactive tracer transport in layered fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, semianalytical solutions are developed for the problem of transport of radioactive or reactive tracers (solutes or colloids) through a layered system of heterogeneous fractured media with misaligned fractures. The tracer transport equations in the matrix account for (a) diffusion, (b) surface diffusion (for solutes only), (c) mass transfer between the mobile and immobile water fractions, (d) linear kinetic or equilibrium physical, chemical, or combined solute sorption or colloid filtration, and (e) radioactive decay or first order chemical reactions. Any number of radioactive decay daughter products (or products of a linear, first-order reaction chain) can be tracked. The tracer-transport equations in the fractures account for the same processes, in addition to advection and hydrodynamic dispersion. Additionally, the colloid transport equations account for straining and velocity adjustments related to the colloidal size. The solutions, which are analytical in the Laplace space, are numerically inverted to provide the solution in time and can accommodate any number of fractured and/or porous layers. The solutions are verified using analytical solutions for limiting cases of solute and colloid transport through fractured and porous media. The effect of important parameters on the transport of 3 H, 237 Np and 239 Pu (and its daughters) is investigated in several test problems involving layered geological systems of varying complexity. 239 Pu colloid transport problems in multilayered systems indicate significant colloid accumulations at straining interfaces but much faster transport of the colloid than the corresponding strongly sorbing solute species

  4. Effects of Cr-N-ZrO 2 seed layer formed on glass substrates for longitudinal recording media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Djayaprawira, David D.; Takahashi, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Akira; Ono, Toshinori; Yahisa, Yotsuo

    1999-03-01

    Effects of Cr-N-ZrO 2 seed layer deposited on glass substrates before the deposition of C/Co-Cr-Pt/Cr-Ti layers for longitudinal recording media have been investigated. The product of v and Is, the activation volume and the saturation magnetization per unit volume, media noise Nd and S0/ Nd, which is the half value of peak-to-peak output voltage of an isolated pulse over Nd at 11.8 kFC/mm, are evaluated. We find that vIs is decreased by adding N and ZrO 2 to Cr seed layer. Nd is reduced as vIs decreases by adding nitrogen to the Cr seed layer. This is mainly due to the decreased grain sizes of both Cr-Ti underlayer and Co-Cr-Pt magnetic layer. The Nd is further reduced by the addition of ZrO 2 to the Cr-N seed layer. Highest S0/ Nd is achieved for the media with Cr-N-ZrO 2 seed layer. On the other hand, the media with Cr-ZrO 2 seed layer deposited without nitrogen show the higher Nd. Therefore the decrease of the grain size by addition of nitrogen into Ar is essential to reduce Nd, and the ZrO 2 addition to the Cr-N seed layer seems to enhance the effect of grain size reduction by nitrogen addition.

  5. Effective medium theories of inhomogeneous media from modern perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    In the study of disordered alloys, theorists have stated the physics of the problem in terms of an integral equation and analyzed this equation by techniques developed in the quantum mechanical theory of scattering. The application of the scattering theory approach to the computation of the effective dielectric constant of a polycrystal is discussed. The problem is framed in the form of an integral equation. Several well-known intuitive approximations are recovered, and the connection of the approximations to perturbation theory is indicated

  6. Steam and air co-injection in removing residual TCE in unsaturated layered sandy porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sheng; Wang, Ning; Chen, Jiajun

    2013-10-01

    Steam and air co-injection is a promising technique for volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminant remediation in heterogeneous porous media. In this study, removal of trichloroethene (TCE) with steam-air co-injection was investigated through a series of 2D sandbox experiments with different layered sand structures, and through numerical simulations. The results show that a layered structure with coarse sand, in which steam and air convection are relatively rapid, resulted in a higher removal rate and a larger removal ratio than those observed in an experiment using finer sand; however, the difference was not significant, and the removal ratios from three experiments ranged from 85% to 94%. Slight downward movement of TCE was observed for Experiment 1 (TCE initially in a fine sand zone encased in a coarse sand), while no such movement was observed for Experiment 2 (TCE initially in two fine sand layers encased in a coarse sand) or 3 (TCE initially in a silty sand zone encased in a coarse sand). Simulations show accumulation of TCE at the interface of the layered sands, which indicates a capillary barrier effect in restraining the downward movement of TCE. This effect is illustrated further by a numerical experiment with homogeneous coarse sand, in which continuous downward TCE movement to the bottom of the sandbox was simulated. Another numerical experiment with higher water saturation was also conducted. The results illustrate a complicated influence of water saturation on TCE removal in a layered sand structure. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Development of Interactive Learning Media on Kinetic Gas Theory at SMAN 2 Takalar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanti, M.; Ihsan, N.; Subaer

    2017-02-01

    Learning media is the one of the most factor in supporting successfully in the learning process. The purpose of this interactive media is preparing students to improve skills in laboratory practice without need for assistance and are not bound by time and place. The subject of this study was 30 students grade XI IPA SMAN 2 Takalar. This paper discuss about the development of learning media based in theory of gas kinetic. This media designed to assist students in learning independently. This media made using four software, they are Microsoft word, Snagit Editor, Macromedia Flash Player and Lectora. This media are interactive, dynamic and could support the users desires to learn and understand course of gas theory. The development produce followed the four D models. Consisted of definition phase, design phase, development phase and disseminate phase. The results showed 1) the media were valid and reliable, 2) learning tools as well as hardcopy and softcopy which links to website 3) activity learners above 80% and 4) according to the test results, the concept of comprehension of student was improved than before given interactive media.

  8. Fast Near-Field Calculation for Volume Integral Equations for Layered Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2005-01-01

    . Afterwards, the scattered electric field can be easily computed at a regular rectangular grid on any horizontal plane us-ing a 2-dimensional FFT. This approach provides significant speedup in the near-field calculation in comparison to a straightforward numerical evaluation of the ra-diation integral since......An efficient technique based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) for calculating near-field scattering by dielectric objects in layered media is presented. A higher or-der method of moments technique is employed to solve the volume integral equation for the unknown induced volume current density...

  9. Porous Media and Immersed Boundary Hybrid-Modelling for Simulating Flow in Stone Cover-Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Liu, Xiaofeng; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    In this paper we present a new numerical modelling approach for coastal and marine applications where a porous media conceptual model was combined with a free surface volume-of-fluid (VOF) model and an immersed boundary method (IBM). The immersed boundary model covers the method of describing....... In this paper, the model is applied to investigate two practical cases in terms of a cover layer of stones on a flat bed under oscillatory flow at different packing densities, and a rock toe structure at a breakwater....

  10. Field theory approaches to new media practices: An introduction and some theoretical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Willig; Karen Waltorp; Jannie Møller Hartley

    2015-01-01

    In this article introducing the theme of the special issue we argue that studies of new media practices might benefit from especially Pierre Bourdieu’s research on cultural production. We introduce some of the literature, which deals with the use of digital media, and which have taken steps to develop field theory in this context. Secondly, we present the four thematic articles in this issue and the articles outside the theme, which includes two translations of classic texts within communicat...

  11. Production of metal fullerene surface layer from various media in the process of steel carbonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUZEEV Iskander Rustemovich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies devoted to production of metal fullerene layer in steels when introducing carbon from organic and inorganic media were performed. Barium carbonate was used as an inorganic medium and petroleum pitch was used as an organic medium. In order to generate the required amount of fullerenes in the process of steel samples carbonization, optimal temperature mode was found. The higher temperature, absorption and cohesive effects become less important and polymeric carbon structures destruction processes become more important. On the bottom the temperature is limited by petroleum pitch softening temperature and its transition to low-viscous state in order to enhance molecular mobility and improve the possibility of their diffusion to metal surface. Identification of fullerenes in the surface modified layer was carried out following the methods of IR-Fourier spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. It was found out that nanocarbon structures, formed during carbonization in barium carbonate and petroleum pitch mediums, possess different morphology. In the process of metal carbonization from carbonates medium, the main role in fullerenes synthesis is belonged to catalytic effect of surface with generation of endohedral derivatives in the surface layer; but in the process of carbonization from pitch medium fullerenes are formed during crystallization of the latter and crystallization centers are of fullerene type. Based on theoretical data and dataof spectral and chromatographic analysis, optimal conditions of metal fullerene layer formation in barium carbonate and petroleum pitch mediums were determined. Low cohesion of layer, modified in barium carbonate medium, with metal basis was discovered. That was caused by limited carbon diffusion in the volume of α-Fe. According to the detected mechanism of fullerenes formation on steel surface in gaseous medium, fullerenes are formed on catalytic centers – ferrum atoms, forming thin metal

  12. The drive for muscularity in men: media influences and objectification theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Samantha; Bridges, Sara K

    2010-01-01

    Presently, objectification theory has yielded mixed results when utilized to explain body image concerns in men. An online survey assessing internalization of media ideals, self-objectification, body surveillance, body shame, the drive for muscularity, and body mass index (BMI) was completed by 244 predominantly college-aged males. Path analyses were used to investigate relationships among these variables where it was hypothesized that objectification variables would mediate the relationship between internalization of media ideals and the drive for muscularity. Internalization of media ideals was the strongest predictor of the drive for muscularity, followed by BMI, though variables of objectification theory had no impact on the drive for muscularity contrary to hypotheses. The results suggest that objectification theory may not be applicable to men as it is currently measured. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optical measurements of absorption changes in two-layered diffusive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Francesco; Sassaroli, Angelo; Henry, Michael E; Fantini, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    We have used Monte Carlo simulations for a two-layered diffusive medium to investigate the effect of a superficial layer on the measurement of absorption variations from optical diffuse reflectance data processed by using: (a) a multidistance, frequency-domain method based on diffusion theory for a semi-infinite homogeneous medium; (b) a differential-pathlength-factor method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a homogeneous medium and (c) a two-distance, partial-pathlength method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a two-layered medium. Methods (a) and (b) lead to a single value for the absorption variation, whereas method (c) yields absorption variations for each layer. In the simulations, the optical coefficients of the medium were representative of those of biological tissue in the near-infrared. The thickness of the first layer was in the range 0.3-1.4 cm, and the source-detector distances were in the range 1-5 cm, which is typical of near-infrared diffuse reflectance measurements in tissue. The simulations have shown that (1) method (a) is mostly sensitive to absorption changes in the underlying layer, provided that the thickness of the superficial layer is ∼0.6 cm or less; (2) method (b) is significantly affected by absorption changes in the superficial layer and (3) method (c) yields the absorption changes for both layers with a relatively good accuracy of ∼4% for the superficial layer and ∼10% for the underlying layer (provided that the absorption changes are less than 20-30% of the baseline value). We have applied all three methods of data analysis to near-infrared data collected on the forehead of a human subject during electroconvulsive therapy. Our results suggest that the multidistance method (a) and the two-distance partial-pathlength method (c) may better decouple the contributions to the optical signals that originate in deeper tissue (brain) from those that originate in more superficial tissue layers

  14. Detection of extremely high bit density signals with a narrow track width GMR head in double layered perpendicular recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiya, T.; Honda, N.; Ariake, J.; Ouchi, K.; Iwasaki, S.

    2001-01-01

    Recording resolution, medium noise and thermal stability have been investigated for double layered perpendicular magnetic recording media. The recording performance was improved by introducing a stacked intermediate layer between a soft magnetic backlayer and a storage layer due to increased crystal orientation with a small magnetic domain size and suppressed initial growing layer of the storage layer. The reproduced output at an extremely high linear density of 950 kFRPI was detected by using a contact-type CF-SPT head for write and a GMR head with a narrow read track width of 0.4 μm

  15. CoCr double-layered media with NiFe and CoZrNb soft-magnetic layers (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernards, J.P.C.; Schrauwen, C.P.G.; Zieren, V.; Luitjens, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic, structural, and recording properties of CoCr double-layered media are investigated. The underlayer materials NiFe (crystalline) and CoZrNb (amorphous) were combined with two different kinds of intermediate layers: Ti (crystalline) and Ge (amorphous). Applying a bias voltage during sputtering of NiFe results in a low coercivity of the NiFe layer and in a high coercivity of the CoCr layer. The structure of the NiFe layer influences the structure of the CoCr layer. A Ti layer between the NiFe and CoCr layers decreases the in-plane remanence of the CoCr layer. The coercivity of all CoZrNb layers is low, independent of the application of a bias voltage. The orientation and structure of CoCr on CoZrNb can be improved by using a Ge intermediate layer, which results in a low coercivity of the CoCr. A Ti intermediate layer increases the coercivity. Ring heads show a dependence of spike noise on the underlayer coercivity and on the applied normal force. A probe-type head shows a dependence of its output on the CoCr coercivity, which may be understood in terms of demagnetization and writing depth

  16. Density functional theory study of inter-layer coupling in bulk tin selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong-Yue; Lü, Jing-Tao

    2018-03-01

    We study the inter-layer coupling in bulk tin selenide (SnSe) through density functional theory based calculations. Different approximations for the exchange-correlation functionals and the van der Waals interaction are employed. By performing comparison with graphite, MoS2 and black phosphorus, we analyze the inter-layer coupling from different points of view, including the binding energy, the low frequency inter-layer optical phonons, and the inter-layer charge transfer. We find that, there is a strong charge transfer between layers of SnSe, resulting in the strongest inter-layer coupling. Moreover, the charge transfer renders the inter-layer coupling in SnSe not of van der Waals type. Mechanical exfoliation has been used to fabricate mono- or few-layer graphene, MoS2 and black phosphorus. But, our results show that it may be difficult to apply similar technique to SnSe.

  17. When Ants Move Mountains: Uncovering a Media Theory of Human Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia W. Elliott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Just as Smythe argued communication was the “blindspot of western Marxism,” western communication and media theorizing itself suffers a blind spot, when it places media power in the hands of dictators and captains of industry as if no others might put pen to paper and change history. Meanwhile, theoretical explorations of how media praxis might be understood and employed for emancipation – not subjugation – emerged through the experiences of people in the Global South and Indigenous communities. This article examines and contrasts the theoretical silos, seeking moments of cross-over and synergy between static, top-down conceptualizations of Western mass media theory, and the more people-powered media praxis of colonized people seeking liberation. Building on the literature of differing experiences, the author draws a framework to encompass the full spectrum of media power. Here scholars, policy planners, and media practitioners alike may find common ground from which to recognize and support grassroots media producers as agents of meaningful social change.

  18. Linear response theory for magnetic Schrodinger operators in disordered media

    CERN Document Server

    Bouclet, J M; Klein, A; Schenker, J

    2004-01-01

    We justify the linear response theory for an ergodic Schrodinger operator with magnetic field within the non-interacting particle approximation, and derive a Kubo formula for the electric conductivity tensor. To achieve that, we construct suitable normed spaces of measurable covariant operators where the Liouville equation can be solved uniquely. If the Fermi level falls into a region of localization, we recover the well-known Kubo-Streda formula for the quantum Hall conductivity at zero temperature.

  19. On the Nature, Theory, and Modeling of Atmospheric Planetary Boundary Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baklanov, Alexander A.; Grisogono, Branko; Bornstein, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The gap between our modern understanding of planetary boundary layer physics and its decades-old representations in current operational atmospheric models is widening, which has stimulated this review of the current state of the art and an analysis of the immediate needs in boundary layer theory......, measurements, and modeling....

  20. A hierarchy of high-order theories for modes in an elastic layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.; Chapman, C. John

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchy of high-order theories for symmetric and skew-symmetric modes in an infinitely long elastic layer of the constant thickness is derived. For each member of the hierarchy, boundary conditions for layers of the finite length are formulated. The forcing problems at several approximation...

  1. Transmission Creep: Media Effects Theories and Journalism Studies in a Digital Era

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, J.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of digital media challenges the explanatory power of effects theories that rest on a transmission model of communication. As essentially linear conceptualizations reliant on identification and measurement of discrete message components, these twentieth-century theories are poorly suited to contemporary journalistic structures and forms. This article adds to the call for a more richly theorized concept of relationship effects suitable to an immersive, iterative, and interconnected e...

  2. Light source distribution and scattering phase function influence light transport in diffuse multi-layered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudelle, Fabrice; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre; Askoura, Mohamed Lamine

    2017-06-01

    Red and near-Infrared light is often used as a useful diagnostic and imaging probe for highly scattering media such as biological tissues, fruits and vegetables. Part of diffusively reflected light gives interesting information related to the tissue subsurface, whereas light recorded at further distances may probe deeper into the interrogated turbid tissues. However, modelling diffusive events occurring at short source-detector distances requires to consider both the distribution of the light sources and the scattering phase functions. In this report, a modified Monte Carlo model is used to compute light transport in curved and multi-layered tissue samples which are covered with a thin and highly diffusing tissue layer. Different light source distributions (ballistic, diffuse or Lambertian) are tested with specific scattering phase functions (modified or not modified Henyey-Greenstein, Gegenbauer and Mie) to compute the amount of backscattered and transmitted light in apple and human skin structures. Comparisons between simulation results and experiments carried out with a multispectral imaging setup confirm the soundness of the theoretical strategy and may explain the role of the skin on light transport in whole and half-cut apples. Other computational results show that a Lambertian source distribution combined with a Henyey-Greenstein phase function provides a higher photon density in the stratum corneum than in the upper dermis layer. Furthermore, it is also shown that the scattering phase function may affect the shape and the magnitude of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution (BRDF) exhibited at the skin surface.

  3. Theory of liquids and other disordered media a short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Schirmacher, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This set of lectures provides an introduction to the structure, thermodynamics and dynamics of liquids, binary solutions and polymers at a level that will enable graduate students and non-specialist researchers to understand more specialized literature and to possibly start their own work in this field. Part I starts with the introduction of distribution functions, which describe the statistical arrangements of atoms or molecules in a simple liquid. The main concepts involve mean field theories like the Perkus-Yevick theory and the random phase approximation, which relate the forces to the distribution functions. In order to provide a concise, self-contained text, an understanding of the general statistical mechanics of an interacting many-body system is assumed. The fact that in a classic liquid the static and dynamic aspects of such a system can be discussed separately forms the basis of the two-fold structure of this approach. In order to allow polymer melts and solutions to be discussed, a short chapter a...

  4. Effects of Guided Writing Strategies on Students' Writing Attitudes Based on Media Richness Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Feng; Hung, Chun-Ling; Hsu, Hung-Ju

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop different guided writing strategies based on media richness theory and further evaluate the effects of these writing strategies on younger students' writing attitudes in terms of motivation, enjoyment and anxiety. A total of 66 sixth-grade elementary students with an average age of twelve were invited to…

  5. A general theory of two-wave mixing in nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Huignard, Jean-Pierre; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2009-01-01

    A general theory of two-wave mixing in nonlinear media is presented. Assuming a gain (or absorption) grating and a refractive index grating are generated because of the nonlinear process in a nonlinear medium, the coupled-wave equations of two-wave mixing are derived based on the Maxwell’s wave e...

  6. Boundary condition for Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconducting layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Jan; Lipavský, Pavel; Morawetz, K.; Brandt, E. H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 17 (2009), 174510/1-174510/6 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0326; GA AV ČR IAA100100712 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : superconductivity * Ginzburg-Landau theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009

  7. Extended theory of main ion and impurity rotation and bootstrap current in a shear layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.B.; Hinton, F.L.; St. John, H.; Taylor, T.S.; Wroblewski, D.

    1993-11-01

    In this paper, standard neoclassical theory has been extended into the shear layer. Main ion and impurity ion rotation velocity and bootstrap current within shear layer in H-mode are discussed. Inside the H-mode shear layer, standard neoclassical theory is not valid since the ion poloidal gyroradius becomes comparable to pressure gradient and electric field gradient scale length. To allow for arbitrary ratio of ρθi/L n and ρθi/L Er a new kinetic theory of main ion species within electric field shear layer has been developed with the assumption that ρθi/R o is still small. As a consequence, both impurity flows and bootstrap current have to be modified. We present modified expressions of impurity flows and bootstrap current are presented neglecting ion temperature gradient. Comparisons with DIII-D measurements are also discussed

  8. Boundary layer studies related to fusion theory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The described work studied the boundary between closed and open field lines in EBT geometry, with emphasis on the microstability properties. These properties were established primarily for drift waves in the lower hybrid range of frequencies. The transport due to these modes was evaluated by a self-consistent treatment, using quasilinear models in a plasma diffusion code. The model was benchmarked against the EDT experimental results from ORNL and the sensitivity to transport model established. Viscosity was estimated to be negligible compared with anomalous transport. Drift wave turbulence gave a boundary layer size much more consistent with experiment than either collisional transport or Bohm diffusion

  9. Media Accountability Online in Israel. An application of Bourdieu’s field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronja Kniep

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to structural changes in journalism, such as deregulation, privatisation and the influence of new technologies, it has become increasingly important to study media accountability (MA. By applying Bourdieu’s theory of social fields, this paper proposes a new approach to do so: MA is defined as a function of both journalistic autonomy and influence in the media field. Here, online communication potentially widens the scope of action for media’s transparency, responsiveness as well as the articulation of media criticism by a variety of actors. In Israel, media criticism is driven by the agent’s struggle for interpretive authority over public discourse in a politically polarized society. Semi-structured interviews with Israeli journalists, media activists and experts suggest that journalistic agents who have yet to earn credibility and reputation exploit online communication to its full potential, while agents in the field of power tend to dismiss online criticism. The influence of the audience’s media criticism is not solely dependent on the technical ability of connecting and hearing the voices of the masses; it has to be in combination with symbolic or political capital. However, the demand for media’s social responsibility is also related to being more careful and less critical, which is very evident in Israel. Thus, it is important to critically reflect on what happens when media accountability practices become more efficient and a stronger sense for “being watched” develops.

  10. Theorizing "Lay Theories of Media": A Case Study of the Dissent! Network at the 2005 Gleneagles G8 Summit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. McCurdy (Patrick)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDrawing on "active audience studies" and recent theories of mediation, the concept of "lay theories of media" is proposed as a means to understand how social movement actors think about and interact with news media as part of the "practice" of activism. The argument is made via a case

  11. Continuous media theory for MR fluids in non-shearing flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-López, J A; Hidalgo-Alvarez, R; Vicente, J de

    2013-01-01

    The enhanced mechanical response of magnetorheological fluids under slow compression has been investigated by means of experiments, theory and particle-level simulations. A wide range of magnetic field strengths (0–354 kA/m), dispersing medium viscosities (20–500 mPa·s) and particle concentrations (5–30 vol%) were investigated. Plastic media theory in compressive flow was in good agreement with experimental data. Slight deviations from the theory were associated to the so-called strengthening effect as the yield shear stress could increase during compression. Particle-level simulations were in good agreement with both experiments and simulations.

  12. Synthesis of Co–Al layered double hydroxide nanoclusters as reduction nanocatalyst in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs have attracted attention as green materials due to their catalytic ability in benign aqueous solvents. We here demonstrate the synthesis of colloidal Co–Al LDH nanoclusters with an average size of <10 nm via a facile liquid-phase reaction for the enhancement of the catalytic activity. To the best of our knowledge, the present LDH is the smallest Co–Al LDH with an extremely large surface area and stability in an aqueous solvent, forming a stable and concentrated colloidal solution as high as 40 g/L. We investigated the formation mechanism, and the catalytic activity of Co–Al LDH nanoclusters. The Co–Al LDH nanoclusters showed 47 times higher rate of the reduction of dye molecules in the aqueous media than standard Co–Al LDH particles with a micrometer size. LDH nanoclusters demonstrated here are promising green nanocatalysts for the aqueous reaction processes.

  13. Focusing performance of a multilayer Laue lens with layer placement error described by dynamical diffraction theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lingfei; Chang, Guangcai; Liu, Peng; Zhou, Liang

    2015-07-01

    The multilayer Laue lens (MLL) is essentially a linear zone plate with large aspect ratio, which can theoretically focus hard X-rays to well below 1 nm with high efficiency when ideal structures are used. However, the focusing performance of a MLL depends heavily on the quality of the layers, especially the layer placement error which always exists in real MLLs. Here, a dynamical modeling approach, based on the coupled wave theory, is proposed to study the focusing performance of a MLL with layer placement error. The result of simulation shows that this method can be applied to various forms of layer placement error.

  14. Ab initio theory of perpendicular transport in layered magnetic systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Turek, Ilja; Dederichs, P. H.; Weinberger, P.; Bruno, P.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 240, - (2002), s. 177-179 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010829; GA ČR GA202/00/0122; GA MŠk OC P5.30; GA MŠk OC P3.40; GA MŠk OC P3.70 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : magnetoresistance -theory * ferromagnetic multilayers * disorder-alloys * electronic structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.046, year: 2002

  15. Essay: A Complicated Relationship: Right-Wing Populism, Media Representation and Journalism Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Hafez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current upswing of right-wing populism in the United States and in Europe is a challenge not only for policy makers, but also for journalism theory. If and how to report on right-wing politicians, movements and issues is a delicate question that various strands of theory answer differently. Functionalist systems theory is in favor of large-scale coverage due to the stimulating news values of populist debates, although the precise character of the political integration remains unclear. In contrast, rational democratic deliberation theory is to be interpreted as a complete rebuttal of the irrational character of populism. The argument here would be that we must not allow the media be dominated by irrational debates. At the same time, democratic media theory is all but uniform in dealing with the phenomenon. While traditional rational public sphere theory is clearly anti-populist, paradoxically left-liberal and postmodern public sphere theory, anti-elitist and radically post-modern as it is, can be used as an argument for better representation of marginalized voices, including right-wing populists.

  16. On the theory of helium diffusion in stellar outer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce D, S.; Verga, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    We discuss the approximations usually made in the different approaches to diffusion in stellar outer layers. We analyze the hypotheses of binary diffusion and diffusion over a non altered background both analytically and numerically. Numerical calculations are applied to central stars of planetary nebulae in which a depletion of helium is observed. We find that in this case helium diffusion may be considered as a binary process but cannot be decoupled from the structure computation. We present an alternative method for studying diffusion and apply it to the central stars. We thus solve a stationary hydrodynamic model for a completely ionized H-He plasma, which takes into account consistently the behavior of all the species. We find equilibrium abundance distributions very different from those obtained according to the trace element approaches while helium and electron densities increase with depth in the atmosphere, protons tend to decrease. However, preliminary studies of the stability show that these are not the actual distributions. (author)

  17. The large Reynolds number - Asymptotic theory of turbulent boundary layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    A self-consistent, asymptotic expansion of the one-point, mean turbulent equations of motion is obtained. Results such as the velocity defect law and the law of the wall evolve in a relatively rigorous manner, and a systematic ordering of the mean velocity boundary layer equations and their interaction with the main stream flow are obtained. The analysis is extended to the turbulent energy equation and to a treatment of the small scale equilibrium range of Kolmogoroff; in velocity correlation space the two-thirds power law is obtained. Thus, the two well-known 'laws' of turbulent flow are imbedded in an analysis which provides a great deal of other information.

  18. Theory of Pulsed Neutron Experiments in Highly Heterogeneous Multiplying Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, S.E.

    1965-01-01

    In this work we investigate the time and space dependence of the neutron flux within a highly heterogeneous assembly, in which pulsed or sinusoidally modulated neutrons are injected. We consider, for the sake of simplicity, a device consisting of a cylindrical block of heavy moderator, along the axis of which a line-shaped region of fissionable material is located. The driving neutron source is assumed to be located on one of the end faces of the cylinder. The extent of the fissionable region allows us to deal with it as with an absorbing and multiplying singularity of the neutron field. As our attention is mostly concentrated on space and time variation of the neutron flux, rather crude approximations are assumed as far as the energy dependence of the neutron population is concerned. Within the limits of the age-diffusion theory, the response of the device to any neutron excitation may be found in closed form. For a sinusoidally modulated source of given frequency, it may easily be shown that, if the axial singularity were a purely absorbing one, the neutron waves being propagated along the device would possess a phase shift; a wavelength and an attenuation constant depending on the absorbing properties of the singularity. This picture becomes more and more complicated when neutron multiplication occurs. For this general case the solution derived in our paper obviously turns out to be dependent on both absorption and multiplication properties of the singularity. This circumstance suggests, among others, the idea of using a device of the type described above for testing fuel elements of heterogeneous reactors. (author) [fr

  19. Ductility prediction of substrate-supported metal layers based on rate-independent crystal plasticity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpama Holanyo K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, both the bifurcation theory and the initial imperfection approach are used to predict localized necking in substrate-supported metal layers. The self-consistent scale-transition scheme is used to derive the mechanical behavior of a representative volume element of the metal layer from the behavior of its microscopic constituents (the single crystals. The mechanical behavior of the elastomer substrate follows the neo-Hookean hyperelastic model. The adherence between the two layers is assumed to be perfect. Through numerical results, it is shown that the limit strains predicted by the initial imperfection approach tend towards the bifurcation predictions when the size of the geometric imperfection in the metal layer vanishes. Also, it is shown that the addition of an elastomer layer to a metal layer enhances ductility.

  20. A review of Education and Social Media using functionalist and conflict theories of educational purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cian, Heidi; Amann, Holly

    2017-11-01

    Education and Social Media: Toward a Digital Future (2016), edited by Christine Greenhow, Julia Sonnevend, and Colin Agur, is a compilation of essays by leading contributors to the digital and social media movement in education. The chapters within this volume provide a granular look at the current landscape of how digital media is utilized across educational levels, fields of study, and geographic areas. The book is divided into three sections discussing the emerging use of social media in education, challenges in its implementation, and potential directions as tech-based education continues to evolve. In this review, we situate the ideas presented in Education and Social Media in the functionalist and conflict theories of educational perspective to further illuminate the potential of digital learning in supporting increased access to education for marginalized student populations. We discuss how these competing views are both given voice in Education and Social Media, prompting the reader to critically reflect on advantages and dangers presented by increased use of technological platforms in educational settings. Topics discussed include online universities, peer-developed curriculum, and differential use of technology based on school socioeconomic demographics. We also suggest areas that have emerged in need of further discussion since the book's publication.

  1. A review of Education and Social Media using conflict and functionalist theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cian, Heidi; Amann, Holly

    2017-09-01

    Education and Social Media: Toward a Digital Future (2016), edited by Christine Greenhow, Julia Sonnevend, and Colin Agur, is a compilation of essays by leading contributors to the digital and social media movement in education. The chapters within this volume provide a granular look at the current landscape of how digital media is utilized across educational levels, fields of study, and geographic areas. The book is divided into three sections discussing the emerging use of social media in education, challenges in its implementation, and potential directions as tech-based education continues to evolve. In this review, we situate the ideas presented in Education and Social Media in the functionalist and conflict theories of educational perspective to further illuminate the potential of digital learning in supporting increased access to education for marginalized student populations. We discuss how these competing views are both given voice in Education and Social Media, prompting the reader to critically reflect on advantages and dangers presented by increased use of technological platforms in educational settings. Topics discussed include online universities, peer-developed curriculum, and differential use of technology based on school socioeconomic demographics. We also suggest areas that have emerged in need of further discussion since the book's publication.

  2. Scrape-off layer and divertor theory meeting: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics: fluid modelling of neutrals in the SOL and divertor; instabilities of gas-fueled divertors: theory and adaptive simulations; stability of ionization fronts of gaseous divertor plasmas; monte carlo calculation of heat transport; reduced charge model for edge impurity flows; thermally collapsed solutions for gaseous/radiative divertors; adaptive grid methods in transport simulation; advanced numerical solution algorithms applied to the multispecies edge plasma equations; two-dimensional edge plasma simulation using the multigrid method; neutral behavior and the effects of neutral-neutral and neutral-ion elastic scattering in the ITER gaseous divertor; particle throughput in the TPX divertor; marfes in tokamaks; a comparative study of the limiter and divertor edge plasmas in TEXT-U; issues of toroidal tokamak-type divertor simulators; ASDEX upgrade; the ITER divertor; the DIII-D divertor program and TPX divertor; DEGAS 2: a transmission/escape probabilities model for neutral particle transport: comparison with DEGAS 2; a collisional radiative model of hydrogen for high recycling divertors; comparison of fluid and non- fluid neutral models in B2.5; DIII-D radiative divertor simulations; 3-D fluid simulations of turbulence from conducting wall mode; turbulence and drifts in SOL plasmas; recent results for 1 1/2-D ITER gas target divertor modelling; evaluation of pumping and fueling in coupled core, SOL, and divertor chamber calculations; and ITER gas target divertors: comparison of volume recombination and large radial transport scenarios using DEGAS

  3. Assessment of a transitional boundary layer theory at low hypersonic Mach numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to assess the accuracy of a transitional boundary layer theory in the low hypersonic Mach number regime. The theory is based upon the simultaneous numerical solution of the boundary layer partial differential equations for the mean motion and an integral form of the turbulence kinetic energy equation which controls the magnitude and development of the Reynolds stress. Comparisions with experimental data show the theory is capable of accurately predicting heat transfer and velocity profiles through the transitional regime and correctly predicts the effects of Mach number and wall cooling on transition Reynolds number. The procedure shows promise of predicting the initiation of transition for given free stream disturbance levels. The effects on transition predictions of the pressure dilitation term and of direct absorption of acoustic energy by the boundary layer were evaluated.

  4. Role of volume and surface spontaneous parametric down-conversion in the generation of photon pairs in layered media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javůrek, D.; Peřina ml., Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku 043828. ISSN 2469-9926 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : surface spontaneous * parametric down-conversion * photon pairs * layered media Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  5. A Cross-Layer Cooperation Mechanism of Wireless Networks Based on Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Chunsheng, Cui; Yongjian, Yang; Liping, Huang

    2014-01-01

    To meet the wireless network congestion control problem, we give a definition of congestion degree classification and propose a mechanism of directed cooperative path net, guided by the wireless network’s cross-layer design methods and node cooperation principles. Considering the virtual collision and “starved” phenomenon in congested networks, the QRD mechanism and channel competition mechanism QPCG are proposed, with introducing the game theory into the cross-layer design. Simulation result...

  6. Radiative transfer theory for active remote sensing of a layer of small ellipsoidal scatterers. [of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Kubacsi, M. C.; Kong, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiative transfer theory is applied within the Rayleigh approximation to calculate the backscattering cross section of a layer of randomly positioned and oriented small ellipsoids. The orientation of the ellipsoids is characterized by a probability density function of the Eulerian angles of rotation. The radiative transfer equations are solved by an iterative approach to first order in albedo. In the half space limit the results are identical to those obtained via the approach of Foldy's and distorted Born approximation. Numerical results of the theory are illustrated using parameters encountered in active remote sensing of vegetation layers. A distinctive characteristic is the strong depolarization shown by vertically aligned leaves.

  7. Electrochemistry and capillary condensation theory reveal the mechanism of corrosion in dense porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoni, Matteo; Angst, Ueli M; Elsener, Bernhard

    2018-05-09

    Corrosion in carbonated concrete is an example of corrosion in dense porous media of tremendous socio-economic and scientific relevance. The widespread research endeavors to develop novel, environmentally friendly cements raise questions regarding their ability to protect the embedded steel from corrosion. Here, we propose a fundamentally new approach to explain the scientific mechanism of corrosion kinetics in dense porous media. The main strength of our model lies in its simplicity and in combining the capillary condensation theory with electrochemistry. This reveals that capillary condensation in the pore structure defines the electrochemically active steel surface, whose variability upon changes in exposure relative humidity is accountable for the wide variability in measured corrosion rates. We performed experiments that quantify this effect and find good agreement with the theory. Our findings are essential to devise predictive models for the corrosion performance, needed to guarantee the safety and sustainability of traditional and future cements.

  8. Borders amidst power, State and mass media, from a critical theory standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ortiz Marín

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A conception of the power, from the glance of the Critical Theory that it allows to understand the woven complex that links the relations of power to most of the human activities. This paper also approaches to the State as a regulating element of the different forces from institutional character, that they operate in its interior like structures of power and the function as that the massive mass media in the complexity of the modern societies act.

  9. Bats in the Belfry:On the Relationship of Cybernetics and German Media Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Müggenburg, Jan Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background When German media theory (GMT) took shape in the early 1980s it was influenced by cybernetic concepts; however, it eventually discovered the history of cybernetics as an object of research.Analysis The article follows the assumption that GMT’s double reference to cybernetics must be characterized as the result of both a shared epistemology and a specific discursive constellation. After contrasting McCulloch’s concept of a synthetic physiological a priori and Kittler’s concept of a ...

  10. Quantum theory of dynamic multiple light scattering in fluctuating disordered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipetrov, S. E.

    2007-01-01

    We formulate a quantum theory of dynamic multiple light scattering in fluctuating disordered media and calculate the fluctuation and the autocorrelation function of the photon number operator for light transmitted through a disordered slab. The effect of disorder on the information capacity of a quantum communication channel operating in a disordered environment is estimated, and the use of squeezed light in diffusing-wave spectroscopy is discussed

  11. Uses and Gratifications Theory dalam Media Sosial WA (WhatsApp)

    OpenAIRE

    Suparmo, Ludwiq

    2017-01-01

    It has been known for decades that the conventional mass communications have been eroded and transformed due to the information technology into advanced means of communication. One of these has become viral as the social media through WA (whatsApp) application, which surely has brought a phenomenal effect on the uses and gratifications theory that was more applied on mass communications. The research based on a qualitative methodology exploring to several WA Groups has revealed the rank of us...

  12. The Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM) for Seismic Response of Topographical Irregularities in Layered Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Zazueta, M. A.; Perton, M.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Sánchez-Alvaro, E.

    2013-12-01

    The seismic hazard assessment of extended developments, such as a dam, a bridge or a pipeline, needs the strong ground motion simulation taking into account the effects of surface geology. In many cases the incoming wave field can be obtained from attenuation relations or simulations for layered media using Discrete Wave Number (DWN). Sometimes there is a need to include in simulations the seismic source as well. A number of methods to solve these problems have been developed. Among them the Finite Element and Finite Difference Methods (FEM and FDM) are generally preferred because of the facility of use. Nevertheless, the analysis of realistic dynamic loading induced by earthquakes requires a thinner mesh of the entire domain to consider high frequencies. Consequently this may imply a high computational cost. The Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM) can also be employed. Here it is used to study the response of a site to historical seismic activity. This method is particularly suited to model wave propagation through wide areas as it requires only the meshing of boundaries. Moreover, it is well suited to represent finely the diffraction that can occur on a fault. However, the IBEM has been applied mainly to simple geometrical configurations. In this communication significant refinements of the formulation are presented. Using IBEM we can simulate wave propagation in complex geometrical configurations such as a stratified medium crossed by thin faults or having a complex topography. Two main developments are here described; one integrates the DWN method inside the IBEM in order to represent the Green's functions of stratified media with relatively low computational cost but assuming unbounded parallel flat layers, and the other is the extension of IBEM to deal with multi-regions in contact which allows more versatility with a higher computational cost compared to the first one but still minor to an equivalent FEM formulation. The two approaches are fully

  13. Reduced iodinated contrast media for abdominal imaging by dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography for patients with kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Saito, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-enhanced computed tomography using iodinated contrast media is useful for diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases. However, contrast-induced nephropathy remains problematic for kidney diseases patients. Although current guidelines recommended the use of a minimal dose of contrast media necessary to obtain adequate images for diagnosis, obtaining adequate images with sufficient contrast enhancement is difficult with conventional computed tomography using reduced contrast media. Dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography enables the simultaneous acquisition of low- and high-energy data and the reconstruction of virtual monochromatic images ranging from 40 to 200 keV, retrospectively. Low-energy virtual monochromatic images can enhance the contrast of images, thereby facilitating reduced contrast media. In case 1, abdominal computed tomography angiography at 50 keV using 40% of the conventional dose of contrast media revealed the artery that was the source of diverticular bleeding in the ascending colon. In case 2, ischemia of the transverse colon was diagnosed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography and iodine-selective imaging using 40% of the conventional dose of contrast media. In case 3, advanced esophagogastric junctional cancer was staged and preoperative abdominal computed tomography angiography could be obtained with 30% of the conventional dose of contrast media. However, the texture of virtual monochromatic images may be a limitation at low energy. Keywords: Virtual monochromatic images, Contrast-induced nephropathy

  14. Quasi-effective medium theory for multi-layered magneto-dielectric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genov, Dentcho A; Mundru, Pattabhiraju C

    2014-01-01

    We present a quasi-effective medium theory that determines the optical properties of multi-layered composites beyond the quasi-static limit. The proposed theory exactly reproduces the far field scattering/extinction cross sections through an iterative process in which mode-dependent quasi-effective impedances of the composite system are introduced. In the large wavelength limit our theory is consistent with the Maxwell–Garnett formalism. Possible applications in determining the hybridization particle resonances of multi-shell structures and electromagnetic cloaking are identified. (paper)

  15. Theory of the scrape-off layer width in inner-wall limited tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, F.D.; Ricci, P.; Jolliet, S.; Loizu, J.; Mosetto, A.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a predictive theory applicable to the scrape-off layer (SOL) of inner-wall limited plasmas. Using the non-linear flattening of the pressure profile as a saturation mechanism for resistive ballooning modes, we are able to demonstrate and quantify the increase of the SOL width with plasma size, connection length, plasma β, and collisionality. Individual aspects of the theory, such as saturation physics, parallel dynamics, and system size scaling, are tested and verified using non-linear, 3D flux-driven SOL turbulence simulations. Altogether, very good agreement between theory and simulation is found. (paper)

  16. Dynamic characterization of partially saturated engineered porous media and gas diffusion layers using hydraulic admittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Perry; Fairweather, Joseph D.; Schwartz, Daniel T.

    2012-09-01

    Simple laboratory methods for determining liquid water distribution in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell gas diffusion layers (GDLs) are needed to engineer better GDL materials. Capillary pressure vs. liquid saturation measurements are attractive, but lack the ability to probe the hydraulic interconnectivity and distribution within the pore structure. Hydraulic admittance measurements of simple capillary bundles have recently been shown to nicely measure characteristics of the free-interfaces and hydraulic path. Here we examine the use of hydraulic admittance with a succession of increasingly complex porous media, starting with a laser-drilled sample with 154 asymmetric pores and progress to the behavior of Toray TGP-H090 carbon papers. The asymmetric laser-drilled sample clearly shows hydraulic admittance measurements are sensitive to sample orientation, especially when examined as a function of saturation state. Finite element modeling of the hydraulic admittance is consistent with experimental measurements. The hydraulic admittance spectra from GDL samples are complex, so we examine trends in the spectra as a function of wet proofing (0% and 40% Teflon loadings) as well as saturation state of the GDL. The presence of clear peaks in the admittance spectra for both GDL samples suggests a few pore types are largely responsible for transporting liquid water.

  17. A theory of the inverse magnetoelectric effect in layered magnetostrictive-piezoelectric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, D. A.; Radchenko, G. S.; Firsova, T. O.; Galkina, T. A.

    2017-05-01

    A theory of the inverse magnetoelectric effect in layered structures has been presented. The theory is based on solving the equations of elastodynamics and electrostatics separately for the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases, taking into account the conditions at the interface between the phases. Expressions for the coefficient of inverse magnetoelectric conversion through the parameters characterizing the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases have been obtained. Theoretical dependences of the inverse magnetoelectric conversion coefficient on the frequency of the alternating-current electric field for the three-layer PZT-Ni-PZT structure and the two-layer terfenol- D-PZT structure have been calculated. The results of the calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Using a Marginal Structural Model to Design a Theory-Based Mass Media Campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Nishiuchi

    Full Text Available The essential first step in the development of mass media health campaigns is to identify specific beliefs of the target audience. The challenge is to prioritize suitable beliefs derived from behavioral theory. The purpose of this study was to identify suitable beliefs to target in a mass media campaign to change behavior using a new method to estimate the possible effect size of a small set of beliefs.Data were drawn from the 2010 Japanese Young Female Smoker Survey (n = 500, conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Survey measures included intention to quit smoking, psychological beliefs (attitude, norms, and perceived control based on the theory of planned behavior and socioeconomic status (age, education, household income, and marital status. To identify suitable candidate beliefs for a mass media health campaign, we estimated the possible effect size required to change the intention to quit smoking among the population of young Japanese women using the population attributable fraction from a marginal structural model.Thirteen percent of study participants intended to quit smoking. The marginal structural model estimated a population attributable fraction of 47 psychological beliefs (21 attitudes, 6 norms, and 19 perceived controls after controlling for socioeconomic status. The belief, "I could quit smoking if my husband or significant other recommended it" suggested a promising target for a mass media campaign (population attributable fraction = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02-0.23. Messages targeting this belief could possibly improve intention rates by up to 12% among this population. The analysis also suggested the potential for regulatory action.This study proposed a method by which campaign planners can develop theory-based mass communication strategies to change health behaviors at the population level. This method might contribute to improving the quality of future mass health communication strategies and further

  19. Using a Marginal Structural Model to Design a Theory-Based Mass Media Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiuchi, Hiromu; Taguri, Masataka; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    The essential first step in the development of mass media health campaigns is to identify specific beliefs of the target audience. The challenge is to prioritize suitable beliefs derived from behavioral theory. The purpose of this study was to identify suitable beliefs to target in a mass media campaign to change behavior using a new method to estimate the possible effect size of a small set of beliefs. Data were drawn from the 2010 Japanese Young Female Smoker Survey (n = 500), conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Survey measures included intention to quit smoking, psychological beliefs (attitude, norms, and perceived control) based on the theory of planned behavior and socioeconomic status (age, education, household income, and marital status). To identify suitable candidate beliefs for a mass media health campaign, we estimated the possible effect size required to change the intention to quit smoking among the population of young Japanese women using the population attributable fraction from a marginal structural model. Thirteen percent of study participants intended to quit smoking. The marginal structural model estimated a population attributable fraction of 47 psychological beliefs (21 attitudes, 6 norms, and 19 perceived controls) after controlling for socioeconomic status. The belief, "I could quit smoking if my husband or significant other recommended it" suggested a promising target for a mass media campaign (population attributable fraction = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02-0.23). Messages targeting this belief could possibly improve intention rates by up to 12% among this population. The analysis also suggested the potential for regulatory action. This study proposed a method by which campaign planners can develop theory-based mass communication strategies to change health behaviors at the population level. This method might contribute to improving the quality of future mass health communication strategies and further research is needed.

  20. Waves and Structures in Nonlinear Nondispersive Media General Theory and Applications to Nonlinear Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Gurbatov, S N; Saichev, A I

    2012-01-01

    "Waves and Structures in Nonlinear Nondispersive Media: General Theory and Applications to Nonlinear Acoustics” is devoted completely to nonlinear structures. The general theory is given here in parallel with mathematical models. Many concrete examples illustrate the general analysis of Part I. Part II is devoted to applications to nonlinear acoustics, including specific nonlinear models and exact solutions, physical mechanisms of nonlinearity, sawtooth-shaped wave propagation, self-action phenomena, nonlinear resonances and engineering application (medicine, nondestructive testing, geophysics, etc.). This book is designed for graduate and postgraduate students studying the theory of nonlinear waves of various physical nature. It may also be useful as a handbook for engineers and researchers who encounter the necessity of taking nonlinear wave effects into account of their work. Dr. Gurbatov S.N. is the head of Department, and Vice Rector for Research of Nizhny Novgorod State University. Dr. Rudenko O.V. is...

  1. An assessment of first-order stochastic dispersion theories in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, David A.

    1997-12-01

    Random realizations of three-dimensional exponentially correlated hydraulic conductivity fields are used in a finite-difference numerical flow model to calculate the mean and covariance of the corresponding Lagrangian-velocity fields. The dispersivity of the porous medium is then determined from the Lagrangian-velocity statistics using the Taylor definition. This estimation procedure is exact, except for numerical errors, and the results are used to assess the accuracy of various first-order dispersion theories in both isotropic and anisotropic porous media. The results show that the Dagan theory is by far the most robust in both isotropic and anisotropic media, producing accurate values of the principal dispersivity components for σy as high as 1.0, In the case of anisotropic media where the flow is at an angle to the principal axis of hydraulic conductivity, it is shown that the dispersivity tensor is rotated away from the flow direction in the non-Fickian phase, but eventually coincides with the flow direction in the Fickian phase.

  2. Theory of transformation thermal convection for creeping flow in porous media: Cloaking, concentrating, and camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Gaole; Shang, Jin; Huang, Jiping

    2018-02-01

    Heat can transfer via thermal conduction, thermal radiation, and thermal convection. All the existing theories of transformation thermotics and optics can treat thermal conduction and thermal radiation, respectively. Unfortunately, thermal convection has seldom been touched in transformation theories due to the lack of a suitable theory, thus limiting applications associated with heat transfer through fluids (liquid or gas). Here, we develop a theory of transformation thermal convection by considering the convection-diffusion equation, the equation of continuity, and the Darcy law. By introducing porous media, we get a set of equations keeping their forms under coordinate transformation. As model applications, the theory helps to show the effects of cloaking, concentrating, and camouflage. Our finite-element simulations confirm the theoretical findings. This work offers a transformation theory for thermal convection, thus revealing novel behaviors associated with potential applications; it not only provides different hints on how to control heat transfer by combining thermal conduction, thermal convection, and thermal radiation, but also benefits mass diffusion and other related fields that contain a set of equations and need to transform velocities at the same time.

  3. Automation of Presentation Record Production Based on Rich-Media Technology Using SNT Petri Nets Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Martiník

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rich-media describes a broad range of digital interactive media that is increasingly used in the Internet and also in the support of education. Last year, a special pilot audiovisual lecture room was built as a part of the MERLINGO (MEdia-rich Repository of LearnING Objects project solution. It contains all the elements of the modern lecture room determined for the implementation of presentation recordings based on the rich-media technologies and their publication online or on-demand featuring the access of all its elements in the automated mode including automatic editing. Property-preserving Petri net process algebras (PPPA were designed for the specification and verification of the Petri net processes. PPPA does not need to verify the composition of the Petri net processes because all their algebraic operators preserve the specified set of the properties. These original PPPA are significantly generalized for the newly introduced class of the SNT Petri process and agent nets in this paper. The PLACE-SUBST and ASYNC-PROC algebraic operators are defined for this class of Petri nets and their chosen properties are proved. The SNT Petri process and agent nets theory were significantly applied at the design, verification, and implementation of the programming system ensuring the pilot audiovisual lecture room functionality.

  4. Exact solution to the problem of nonlinear pulse propagation through random layered media and its connection with number triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolow, Adam; Sen, Surajit

    2007-01-01

    An energy pulse refers to a spatially compact energy bundle. In nonlinear pulse propagation, the nonlinearity of the relevant dynamical equations could lead to pulse propagation that is nondispersive or weakly dispersive in space and time. Nonlinear pulse propagation through layered media with widely varying pulse transmission properties is not wave-like and a problem of broad interest in many areas such as optics, geophysics, atmospheric physics and ocean sciences. We study nonlinear pulse propagation through a semi-infinite sequence of layers where the layers can have arbitrary energy transmission properties. By assuming that the layers are rigid, we are able to develop exact expressions for the backscattered energy received at the surface layer. The present study is likely to be relevant in the context of energy transport through soil and similar complex media. Our study reveals a surprising connection between the problem of pulse propagation and the number patterns in the well known Pascal's and Catalan's triangles and hence provides an analytic benchmark in a challenging problem of broad interest. We close with comments on the relationship between this study and the vast body of literature on the problem of wave localization in disordered systems

  5. Roles, trust, and reputation in social media knowledge markets theory and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Matei, Sorin

    2015-01-01

    This title discusses the emerging trends in defining, measuring, and operationalizing reputation as a new and essential component of the knowledge that is generated and consumed online. The book also proposes a future research agenda related to these issues—with the ultimate goal of shaping the next generation of theoretical and analytic strategies needed for understanding how knowledge markets are influenced by social interactions and reputations built around functional roles. Roles, Trust, and Reputation in Social Media Knowledge Markets exposes issues that have not been satisfactorily dealt with in the current literature. In a broader sense, the volume aims to change the way in which knowledge generation in social media spaces is understood and utilized. The tools, theories, and methodologies proposed here offer concrete avenues for developing the next generation of research strategies and applications that will help: tomorrow’s information consumers make smarter choices, developers to create new tools...

  6. Invariant operator theory for the single-photon energy in time-varying media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong-Ryeol, Choi

    2010-01-01

    After the birth of quantum mechanics, the notion in physics that the frequency of light is the only factor that determines the energy of a single photon has played a fundamental role. However, under the assumption that the theory of Lewis–Riesenfeld invariants is applicable in quantum optics, it is shown in the present work that this widely accepted notion is valid only for light described by a time-independent Hamiltonian, i.e., for light in media satisfying the conditions, ε(i) = ε(0), μ(t) = μ(0), and σ(t) = 0 simultaneously. The use of the Lewis–Riesenfeld invariant operator method in quantum optics leads to a marvelous result: the energy of a single photon propagating through time-varying linear media exhibits nontrivial time dependence without a change of frequency. (general)

  7. Theory of Raman scattering by surface polaritons in a four media system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkoma, J.S.

    1988-08-01

    The method of linear response theory is used to determine the response functions for surface polaritons in a four media system (or bounded bilayer). The dispersion relation is found when the pole of the derived response function vanishes. The expressions for the scattered intensity for both back and forward scattering are derived. The scattered intensity depends on a polarization which is the result of the coupling of the incident light to the vibrational coordinates and electric fields associated with electric-dipole-active lattice vibrations in the bilayer. Expressions for the Raman cross-section by surface polaritons in the four media system are derived for both back and forward scattering. Numerical results are presented by using parameters for a sapphire substrate-(GaP-GaAs) bilayer-vacuum system. (author). 28 refs, 5 figs

  8. Marxist Theory in Critical Transitions: The Democratization of the Media in Post-Neoliberal Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Castagno

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article contends that for socialist emancipation to occur it is crucial to investigate how political cadres conceal, regulate or displace the demands of citizens and workers in the context of the calamitous effects of global capitalism. Analyzing the constitutive relationship between politics and the media is an essential component in researching those practices of state ideological production. Specifically looking into the transformation of media policy in the case of Argentina, this article problematizes the different political forms through which the state has cloaked its fundamental contradiction: alleged representation of the general interests of citizens, when explored in critical depth, reveals the state’s actual adjustment to a process of capitalist transnationalization that increases irrationality, social inequality and misery. Through this lens, the article emphasizes the value of Marxist dialectic method and theory in imagining a true democratic future.

  9. A development of simulation and analytical program for through-diffusion experiments for a single layer of diffusion media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    2001-01-01

    A program (TDROCK1. FOR) for simulation and analysis of through-diffusion experiments for a single layer of diffusion media was developed. This program was made by Pro-Fortran language, which was suitable for scientific and technical calculations, and relatively easy explicit difference method was adopted for an analysis. In the analysis, solute concentration in the tracer cell as a function of time that we could not treat to date can be input and the decrease in the solute concentration as a function of time by diffusion from the tracer cell to the measurement cell, the solute concentration distribution in the porewater of diffusion media and the solute concentration in the measurement cell as a function of time can be calculated. In addition, solution volume in both cells and diameter and thickness of the diffusion media are also variable as an input condition. This simulation program could well explain measured result by simulating solute concentration in the measurement cell as a function of time for case which apparent and effective diffusion coefficients were already known. Based on this, the availability and applicability of this program to actual analysis and simulation were confirmed. This report describes the theoretical treatment for the through-diffusion experiments for a single layer of diffusion media, analytical model, an example of source program and the manual. (author)

  10. How can we describe the entrainment processes in sheared convective boundary layers?: a large-eddy simulation and mixed-layer theory/model comparison study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Kim, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    Dry convective boundary layers characterized by a significant wind shear on the surface and at the inversion zone are studied by means of the mixed layer theory. Two different representations of the entrainment zone, each of which has a different closure of the entrainment heat flux, are considered.

  11. Certain theories of multiple scattering in random media of discrete scatterers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.L.; Kharadly, M.M.Z.; Corr, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    New information is presented on the accuracy of the heuristic approximations in two important theories of multiple scattering in random media of discrete scatterers: Twersky's ''free-space'' and ''two-space scatterer'' formalisms. Two complementary approaches, based primarily on a one-dimensional model and the one-dimensional forms of the theories, are used. For scatterer distributions of low average density, the ''heuristic'' asymptotic forms for the coherent field and the incoherent intensity are compared with asymptotic forms derived from a systematic analysis of the multiple scattering processes. For distributions of higher density, both in the average number of scatterers per wavelength and in the degree of packing of finite-size scatterers, the analysis is carried out ''experimentally'' by means of a Monte Carlo computer simulation. Approximate series expressions based on the systematic approach are numerically evaluated along with the heuristic expressions. The comparison (for both forward- and back-scattered field moments) is made for the worst-case conditions of strong multiple scattering for which the theories have not previously been evaluated. Several significant conclusions are drawn which have certain practical implications: in application of the theories to describe some of the scattering phenomena which occur in the troposphere, and in the further evaluation of the theories using experiments on physical models

  12. Development of mean field theories in nuclear physics and in desordered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orland, Henri.

    1981-04-01

    This work, in two parts, deals with the development of mean field theories in nuclear physics (nuclei in balance and collisions of heavy ions) as well as in disordered media. In the first part, two different ways of tackling the problem of developments around mean field theories are explained. Possessing an approach wave function for the system, the natural idea for including the correlations is to develop the exact wave function of the system around the mean field wave function. The first two chapters show two different ways of dealing with this problem: the perturbative approach - Hartree-Fock equations with two body collisions and functional methods. In the second part: mean field theory for spin glasses. The problem for spin glasses is to construct a physically acceptable mean field theory. The importance of this problem in statistical mechanics is linked to the fact that the mean field theory provides a qualitative description of the low temperature phase and is the starting point needed for using more sophisticated methods (renormalization group). Two approaches to this problem are presented, one based on the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and the other based on a model of spins with purely local disorder and competitive interaction between the spins [fr

  13. Feminist Theory and the Media Representation of a Woman-of-Color Superintendent: Is the World Ready for Cyborgs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yoshiko

    2000-01-01

    Discusses recent feminist theory, in particular feminist theory related to "cyborg" identity and examines some media representations of a woman-of-color superintendent. Suggests that the cyborg image offers alternative ways to consider the issue of diversity and educational leadership, including the superintendency. (Author/SLD)

  14. Density functional theory study of bulk and single-layer magnetic semiconductor CrPS4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Houlong L.; Zhou, Jia

    2016-11-01

    Searching for two-dimensional (2D) materials with multifunctionality is one of the main goals of current research in 2D materials. Magnetism and semiconducting are certainly two desirable functional properties for a single 2D material. In line with this goal, here we report a density functional theory (DFT) study of bulk and single-layer magnetic semiconductor CrPS4. We find that the ground-state magnetic structure of bulk CrPS4 exhibits the A-type antiferromagnetic ordering, which transforms to ferromagnetic (FM) ordering in single-layer CrPS4. The calculated formation energy and phonon spectrum confirm the stability of single-layer CrPS4. The band gaps of FM single-layer CrPS4 calculated with a hybrid density functional are within the visible-light range. We also study the effects of FM ordering on the optical absorption spectra and band alignments for water splitting, indicating that single-layer CrPS4 could be a potential photocatalyst. Our work opens up ample opportunities of energy-related applications of single-layer CrPS4.

  15. Thickened boundary layer theory for air film drag reduction on a van body surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaopeng; Cao, Lifeng; Huang, Heng

    2018-05-01

    To elucidate drag reduction mechanism on a van body surface under air film condition, a thickened boundary layer theory was proposed and a frictional resistance calculation model of the van body surface was established. The frictional resistance on the van body surface was calculated with different parameters of air film thickness. In addition, the frictional resistance of the van body surface under the air film condition was analyzed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation and different air film states that influenced the friction resistance on the van body surface were discussed. As supported by the CFD simulation results, the thickened boundary layer theory may provide reference for practical application of air film drag reduction on a van body surface.

  16. Application of renormalization group theory to the large-eddy simulation of transitional boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piomelli, Ugo; Zang, Thomas A.; Speziale, Charles G.; Lund, Thomas S.

    1990-01-01

    An eddy viscosity model based on the renormalization group theory of Yakhot and Orszag (1986) is applied to the large-eddy simulation of transition in a flat-plate boundary layer. The simulation predicts with satisfactory accuracy the mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles, as well as the development of the important scales of motion. The evolution of the structures characteristic of the nonlinear stages of transition is also predicted reasonably well.

  17. Optimization of flow modeling in fractured media with discrete fracture network via percolation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado-Garzon, L. D.; Pardo, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Fractured media are very heterogeneous systems where occur complex physical and chemical processes to model. One of the possible approaches to conceptualize this type of massifs is the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN). Donado et al., modeled flow and transport in a granitic batholith based on this approach and found good fitting with hydraulic and tracer tests, but the computational cost was excessive due to a gigantic amount of elements to model. We present in this work a methodology based on percolation theory for reducing the number of elements and in consequence, to reduce the bandwidth of the conductance matrix and the execution time of each network. DFN poses as an excellent representation of all the set of fractures of the media, but not all the fractures of the media are part of the conductive network. Percolation theory is used to identify which nodes or fractures are not conductive, based on the occupation probability or percolation threshold. In a fractured system, connectivity determines the flow pattern in the fractured rock mass. This volume of fluid is driven through connection paths formed by the fractures, when the permeability of the rock is negligible compared to the fractures. In a population of distributed fractures, each of this that has no intersection with any connected fracture do not contribute to generate a flow field. This algorithm also permits us to erase these elements however they are water conducting and hence, refine even more the backbone of the network. We used 100 different generations of DFN that were optimized in this study using percolation theory. In each of the networks calibrate hydrodynamic parameters as hydraulic conductivity and specific storage coefficient, for each of the five families of fractures, yielding a total of 10 parameters to estimate, at each generation. Since the effects of the distribution of fault orientation changes the value of the percolation threshold, but not the universal laws of classical

  18. Density functional theory of the electrical double layer: the RFD functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, Dirk; Valisko, Monika; Boda, Dezso

    2005-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) of electrolytes is applied to the electrical double layer under a wide range of conditions. The ions are charged, hard spheres of different size and valence, and the wall creating the double layer is uncharged, weakly charged, and strongly charged. Under all conditions, the density and electrostatic potential profiles calculated using the recently proposed RFD electrostatic functional (Gillespie et al 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 12129; 2003 Phys. Rev. E 68 031503) compare well to Monte Carlo simulations. When the wall is strongly charged, the RFD functional results agree with the results of a simpler perturbative electrostatic DFT, but the two functionals' results qualitatively disagree when the wall is uncharged or weakly charged. The RFD functional reproduces these phenomena of weakly charged double layers. It also reproduces bulk thermodynamic quantities calculated from pair correlation functions

  19. Compensation of shear waves in photoacoustic tomography with layered acoustic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Robert W; Anastasio, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    An image reconstruction formula is presented for photoacoustic computed tomography that accounts for conversion between longitudinal and shear waves in a planar-layered acoustic medium. We assume the optical absorber that produces the photoacoustic wave field is embedded in a single fluid layer and any elastic solid layers present are separated by one or more fluid layers. The measurement aperture is assumed to be planar. Computer simulation studies are conducted to demonstrate and investigate the proposed reconstruction formula.

  20. Stochastic theory of polarized light in nonlinear birefringent media: An application to optical rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Satoshi; Kuratsuji, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    A stochastic theory is developed for the light transmitting the optical media exhibiting linear and nonlinear birefringence. The starting point is the two-component nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). On the basis of the ansatz of “soliton” solution for the NLSE, the evolution equation for the Stokes parameters is derived, which turns out to be the Langevin equation by taking account of randomness and dissipation inherent in the birefringent media. The Langevin equation is converted to the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation for the probability distribution by employing the technique of functional integral on the assumption of the Gaussian white noise for the random fluctuation. The specific application is considered for the optical rotation, which is described by the ellipticity (third component of the Stokes parameters) alone: (i) The asymptotic analysis is given for the functional integral, which leads to the transition rate on the Poincaré sphere. (ii) The FP equation is analyzed in the strong coupling approximation, by which the diffusive behavior is obtained for the linear and nonlinear birefringence. These would provide with a basis of statistical analysis for the polarization phenomena in nonlinear birefringent media.

  1. Three-phase flow analysis of dense nonaqueous phase liquid infiltration in horizontally layered porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wipfler, E.L.; Dijke, van M.I.J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    We considered dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) infiltration into a water-unsaturated porous medium that consists of two horizontal layers, of which the top layer has a lower intrinsic permeability than the bottom layer. DNAPL is the intermediate-wetting fluid with respect to the wetting water

  2. Source Similarity and Social Media Health Messages: Extending Construal Level Theory to Message Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Social media users post messages about health goals and behaviors to online social networks. Compared with more traditional sources of health communication such as physicians or health journalists, peer sources are likely to be perceived as more socially close or similar, which influences how messages are processed. This experimental study uses construal level theory of psychological distance to predict how mediated health messages from peers influence health-related cognition and behavioral intention. Participants were exposed to source cues that identified peer sources as being either highly attitudinally and demographically similar to or different from participants. As predicted by construal level theory, participants who perceived sources of social media health messages as highly similar listed a greater proportion of beliefs about the feasibility of health behaviors and a greater proportion of negative beliefs, while participants who perceived sources as more dissimilar listed a greater proportion of positive beliefs about the health behaviors. Results of the study could be useful in determining how health messages from peers could encourage individuals to set realistic health goals.

  3. Nonlinear ultrasound propagation through layered liquid and tissue-equivalent media: computational and experimental results at high frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Ross; Cherin, Emmanuel; Lam, Toby Y J; Tavakkoli, Jahangir; Zemp, Roger J; Foster, F Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear propagation has been demonstrated to have a significant impact on ultrasound imaging. An efficient computational algorithm is presented to simulate nonlinear ultrasound propagation through layered liquid and tissue-equivalent media. Results are compared with hydrophone measurements. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of nonlinear propagation in high frequency ultrasound micro-imaging. The acoustic field of a focused transducer (20 MHz centre frequency, f-number 2.5) was simulated for layered media consisting of water and tissue-mimicking phantom, for several wide-bandwidth source pulses. The simulation model accounted for the effects of diffraction, attenuation and nonlinearity, with transmission and refraction at layer boundaries. The parameter of nonlinearity, B/A, of the water and tissue-mimicking phantom were assumed to be 5.2 and 7.4, respectively. The experimentally measured phantom B/A value found using a finite-amplitude insert-substitution method was shown to be 7.4 ± 0.6. Relative amounts of measured second and third harmonic pressures as a function of the fundamental pressures at the focus were in good agreement with simulations. Agreement within 3% was found between measurements and simulations of the beam widths of the fundamental and second harmonic signals following propagation through the tissue phantom. The results demonstrate significant nonlinear propagation effects for high frequency imaging beams

  4. Boundary-layer theory, strong-coupling series, and large-order behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Pelster, Axel; Weissbach, Florian

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of a lattice converts a singular boundary-layer problem in the continuum into a regular perturbation problem. However, the continuum limit of the discrete problem is extremely nontrivial and is not completely understood. This article examines two singular boundary-layer problems taken from mathematical physics, the instanton problem and the Blasius equation, and in each case examines two strategies, Pade resummation and variational perturbation theory, to recover the solution to the continuum problem from the solution to the associated discrete problem. Both resummation procedures produce good and interesting results for the two cases, but the results still deviate from the exact solutions. To understand the discrepancy a comprehensive large-order behavior analysis of the strong-coupling lattice expansions for each of the two problems is done

  5. Theory and potentials of multi-layered plasmonic covers for multi-frequency cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alu, Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2008-01-01

    We have recently suggested that suitably designed plasmonic layers may cloak a given object simultaneously at multiple frequencies (Alu and Engheta 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 113901). Here, we extend our theory and fully analyze this possibility, highlighting the potentials of this plasmonic cloaking technique and its fundamental limitations dictated by the passivity and causality of the materials involved. The cloaking mechanism relies on the scattering cancellation properties of plasmonic materials. By exploiting their inherent frequency dispersion, it is possible to reduce the 'visibility' of a given object by several orders of magnitude simultaneously at multiple frequencies, such that any of the particular layers composing the cloak is responsible for noticeable reduction of scattering at each frequency of operation.

  6. Transport processes in macroscopically disordered media from mean field theory to percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Snarskii, Andrei A; Sevryukov, Vladimir A; Morozovskiy, Alexander; Malinsky, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This book reflects on recent advances in the understanding of percolation systems to present a wide range of transport phenomena in inhomogeneous disordered systems. Further developments in the theory of macroscopically inhomogeneous media are also addressed. These developments include galvano-electric, thermoelectric, elastic properties, 1/f noise and higher current momenta, Anderson localization, and harmonic generation in composites in the vicinity of the percolation threshold. The book describes how one can find effective characteristics, such as conductivity, dielectric permittivity, magnetic permeability, with knowledge of the distribution of different components constituting an inhomogeneous medium. Considered are a wide range of recent studies dedicated to the elucidation of physical properties of macroscopically disordered systems. Aimed at researchers and advanced students, it contains a straightforward set of useful tools which will allow the reader to derive the basic physical properties of compli...

  7. The Concept of (Global Terrorism and Conspiracy Theory as Media Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Radulović

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the urgency and growing interest in a subject, there is no unifying definition of terrorism. A large number of studies could be seen as integral part of ‘counter-terrorism’ strategies- as set of practices to prevent and defeat terrorism. Lisa Stampnitzky’s research looked into the discourse of terrorism experts and argued that the concept of terrorism is a social construct, thus revealing further structure that facilitated it. Aim of this paper is to compare the concept of terrorism as media discourse- a form of legitimate expert interpretation, with conspiracy theory as a form of illegitimate, para-institutional form of interpretation. Noting the commonplaces of the two: defined as an afterthought, both being designated and not self-described notions, featuring a plot that precedes the event- this paper will look at these discourses, the way they relate to (and intersect each other, and try to trace their manifestations.

  8. Higher order perturbation theory applied to radiative transfer in non-plane-parallel media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, M.A.; Polonsky, I.N.; Davis, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Radiative transfer in non-plane-parallel media is a very challenging problem, which is currently the subject of concerted efforts to develop computational techniques which may be used to tackle different tasks. In this paper we develop the full formalism for another technique, based on radiative perturbation theory. With this approach, one starts with a plane-parallel 'base model', for which many solution techniques exist, and treat the horizontal variability as a perturbation. We show that under the most logical assumption as to the base model, the first-order perturbation term is zero for domain-average radiation quantities, so that it is necessary to go to higher order terms. This requires the computation of the Green's function. While this task is by no means simple, once the various pieces have been assembled they may be re-used for any number of perturbations--that is, any horizontal variations

  9. [Exploration of the design of media access control layer of wireless body area network for medical healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuemei; Ge, Baofeng

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a media access control (MAC) layer design for wireless body area network (WBAN) systems. WBAN is a technology that targets for wireless networking of wearable and implantable body sensors which monitor vital body signs, such as heart-rate, body temperature, blood pressure, etc. It has been receiving attentions from international organizations, e. g. the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), due to its capability of providing efficient healthcare services and clinical management. This paper reviews the standardization procedure of WBAN and summarizes the challenge of the MAC layer design. It also discusses the methods of improving power consumption performance, which is one of the major issues of WBAN systems.

  10. A stable high-order perturbation of surfaces method for numerical simulation of diffraction problems in triply layered media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Youngjoon, E-mail: hongy@uic.edu; Nicholls, David P., E-mail: davidn@uic.edu

    2017-02-01

    The accurate numerical simulation of linear waves interacting with periodic layered media is a crucial capability in engineering applications. In this contribution we study the stable and high-order accurate numerical simulation of the interaction of linear, time-harmonic waves with a periodic, triply layered medium with irregular interfaces. In contrast with volumetric approaches, High-Order Perturbation of Surfaces (HOPS) algorithms are inexpensive interfacial methods which rapidly and recursively estimate scattering returns by perturbation of the interface shape. In comparison with Boundary Integral/Element Methods, the stable HOPS algorithm we describe here does not require specialized quadrature rules, periodization strategies, or the solution of dense non-symmetric positive definite linear systems. In addition, the algorithm is provably stable as opposed to other classical HOPS approaches. With numerical experiments we show the remarkable efficiency, fidelity, and accuracy one can achieve with an implementation of this algorithm.

  11. Layered interfaces between immiscible liquids studied by density-functional theory and molecular-dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geysermans, P; Elyeznasni, N; Russier, V

    2005-11-22

    We present a study of the structure in the interface between two immiscible liquids by density-functional theory and molecular-dynamics calculations. The liquids are modeled by Lennard-Jones potentials, which achieve immiscibility by suppressing the attractive interaction between unlike particles. The density profiles of the liquids display oscillations only in a limited part of the simple liquid-phase diagram (rho,T). When approaching the liquid-vapor coexistence, a significant depletion appears while the layering behavior of the density profile vanishes. By analogy with the liquid-vapor interface and the analysis of the adsorption this behavior is suggested to be strongly related to the drying transition.

  12. Development of Smart Active Layer Sensor (I) : Theory and Concept Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Dong Jin; Lee, Young Sup; Kwon, Jae Hwa; Lee, Sang Il

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the first part of the study on the development of a smart active layer (SAL) sensor, which consists of two parts. In this first part, the theory and concept of the SAL sensor is investigated, which is designed for the detection of elastic waves caused by internal cracks and damages in structures. For the development SAL sensor, (i) the basic theory of elastic waves was studied, (ii) the feasible study of the SAL as an elastic waves detection sensor using the finite element analysis (FEA) with respect to a piezoceramic disc was performed. (iii) the comparison of performances between some piezoceramic sensors and a commercial acoustic emission (AE) sensor was accomplished to ensure the applicability by the experimental means, such as a pencil lead break test. Also, the conceptional study for the SAL sensor, which can be utilized for the effective detection and locating of defects by the arrangement of regularly distributed sensors, was discussed

  13. Porous media modeling and micro-structurally motivated material moduli determination via the micro-dilatation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, J.; Ramézani, H.; Sardini, P.; Kondo, D.; Ponson, L.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.

    2015-07-01

    In the present contribution, the porous material modeling and micro-structural material parameters determination are scrutinized via the micro-dilatation theory. The main goal is to take advantage of the micro-dilatation theory which belongs to the generalized continuum media. In the first stage, the thermodynamic laws are entirely revised to reach the energy balance relation using three variables, deformation, porosity change and its gradient underlying the porous media as described in the micro-dilatation theory or so-called void elasticity. Two experiments over cement mortar specimens are performed in order to highlight the material parameters related to the pore structure. The shrinkage due to CO2 carbonation, porosity and its gradient are calculated. The extracted values are verified via 14C-PMMA radiographic image method. The modeling of swelling phenomenon of Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF) is studied later on. This issue is performed via the crystallization pressure application using the micro-dilatation theory.

  14. The formation and evolution of layered structures in porous media: effects of porosity and mechanical dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoofs, Stan; Trompert, Ron A.; Hansen, Ulrich

    1999-01-01

    Horizontally layered structures can develop in porous or partially molten environments, such as hydrothermal systems, magmatic intrusions and the early Earth's mantle. The porosity f of these natural environments is typically small. Since dissolved chemical elements unlike heat cannot diffuse

  15. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to the ceiling wall of a hydrogen leakage: Axisymmetric impinging and far regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Amin, M.F.; Kanayama, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    As hydrogen leaks into a partially open space with a ceiling wall, a boundary layer of hydrogen can be constructed under that wall due to the impingement on the wall and the buoyancy force. The resulting boundary layer can be divided into two regions, namely the stagnation-point region and the far region. When the geometry of the source of the hydrogen leak is circular, such as a pinhole or an o-ring, the behavior of leakage flow will be axisymmetric due to the resulting radial jet. In contrast, when the geometry of the source of the hydrogen leak is planar, such as a crack, the behavior of leakage flow will be planar due to the resulting planar jet. Previously, we studied the planar case in the context of both the stagnation-point flow region [El-Amin MF, Kanayama H. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to a ceiling wall at impinging region of a hydrogen leakage. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33(21): 6393-00] and the far region [El-Amin MF, Inoue M, Kanayama H. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to a ceiling wall of a hydrogen leakage: far region. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33(24):7642-7]. This paper is concerned with both the stagnation-point flow region and the far region of the axisymmetric concentration boundary layer adjacent to a ceiling wall. Flow in the stagnation-point region is treated as Hiemenz flow, while it is treated as Blasius flow in the far region. The current results are compared with the planar cases [El-Amin MF, Kanayama H. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to a ceiling wall at impinging region of a hydrogen leakage. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33(21): 6393-00; El-Amin MF, Inoue M, Kanayama H. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to a ceiling wall of a hydrogen leakage: far region. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33(24):7642-7] for both stagnation-point flow and far regions. Both momentum and concentration boundary layer

  16. Diffusion of Supercritical Fluids through Single-Layer Nanoporous Solids: Theory and Molecular Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulebsir, Fouad; Vermorel, Romain; Galliero, Guillaume

    2018-01-16

    With the advent of graphene material, membranes based on single-layer nanoporous solids appear as promising devices for fluid separation, be it liquid or gaseous mixtures. The design of such architectured porous materials would greatly benefit from accurate models that can predict their transport and separation properties. More specifically, there is no universal understanding of how parameters such as temperature, fluid loading conditions, or the ratio of the pore size to the fluid molecular diameter influence the permeation process. In this study, we address the problem of pure supercritical fluids diffusing through simplified models of single-layer porous materials. Basically, we investigate a toy model that consists of a single-layer lattice of Lennard-Jones interaction sites with a slit gap of controllable width. We performed extensive equilibrium and biased molecular dynamics simulations to document the physical mechanisms involved at the molecular scale. We propose a general constitutive equation for the diffusional transport coefficient derived from classical statistical mechanics and kinetic theory, which can be further simplified in the ideal gas limit. This transport coefficient relates the molecular flux to the fluid density jump across the single-layer membrane. It is found to be proportional to the accessible surface porosity of the single-layer porous solid and to a thermodynamic factor accounting for the inhomogeneity of the fluid close to the pore entrance. Both quantities directly depend on the potential of mean force that results from molecular interactions between solid and fluid atoms. Comparisons with the simulations data show that the kinetic model captures how narrowing the pore size below the fluid molecular diameter lowers dramatically the value of the transport coefficient. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our general constitutive equation allows for a consistent interpretation of the intricate effects of temperature and fluid loading

  17. Retrieval of Parameters for Three-Layer Media with Nonsmooth Interfaces for Subsurface Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Goykhman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A solution to the inverse problem for a three-layer medium with nonsmooth boundaries, representing a large class of natural subsurface structures, is developed in this paper using simulated radar data. The retrieval of the layered medium parameters is accomplished as a sequential nonlinear optimization starting from the top layer and progressively characterizing the layers below. The optimization process is achieved by an iterative technique built around the solution of the forward scattering problem. The forward scattering process is formulated by using the extended boundary condition method (EBCM and constructing reflection and transmission matrices for each interface. These matrices are then combined into the generalized scattering matrix for the entire system, from which radar scattering coefficients are then computed. To be efficiently utilized in the inverse problem, the forward scattering model is simulated over a wide range of unknowns to obtain a complete set of subspace-based equivalent closed-form models that relate radar backscattering coefficients to the sought-for parameters including dielectric constants of each layer and separation of the layers. The inversion algorithm is implemented as a modified conjugate-gradient-based nonlinear optimization. It is shown that this technique results in accurate retrieval of surface and subsurface parameters, even in the presence of noise.

  18. Development of analytical theory of the physical libration for a two-layer Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Natalia; Barkin, Yurii; Gusev, Alexander; Ivanova, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    -project. Prognosis recommendations are made for the future experiment. The model of free rotation of the two-layer Moon is constructed, the periods of the free modes and of the librational motion of a pole are received, effects of influence of a lunar core on behavior of LPhL-harmonics caused by the solid-state rotation of the Moon are deduced. Computer simulating has revealed the sensitivity of the free libration periods to core's ellipticity and to core-mantle boundary dissipation parameters. Geometrical interpretation of the pole motion owing to the free libration is given. For the first time the theoretical model of tidal potential of the Moon is developed, on the basis of the model the analytical formulae for variations of the Stockes coefficients of the 2-nd order and of the speed of the Lunar rotation is received in dependence on time. For a two-layer structure of the Moon and the Mercury Cassini's law were stated at the first time: 1. a two-layer Moon keeps its own stationary rotation; 2. there is a splitting of Cassini nodes and angular momentums of Lunar mantle and core; 3. the same phenomenon will be observed for any two-layer planet (Mercury); 4. the differential rotation of a core and mantle is inherent to a planet as result of a generalized Cassini's Laws. Theoretical and practical methods of construction of the theory of rotation of the Earth have been successfully applied in the development of the theory of rotation of the Moon, in

  19. A Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptual systems utilizing phased-array technology that will evolve in the next decade. Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are standard Media Access Control (MAC) techniques that can be incorporated into lunar surface communications architectures. Another novel hybrid technique that is recently being developed for use with smart antenna technology combines the advantages of CDMA with those of TDMA. The relatively new and sundry wireless LAN data link layer protocols that are continually under development offer distinct advantages for lunar surface applications over the legacy protocols which are not wireless. Also several communication transport and routing protocols can be chosen with characteristics commensurate with smart antenna systems to provide spacecraft communications for links exhibiting high capacity on the surface of the Moon. The proper choices depend on the specific communication requirements.

  20. Layered Double Hydroxides as Effective Adsorbents for U(VI and Toxic Heavy Metals Removal from Aqueous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Pshinko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacities of different synthesized Zn,Al-hydrotalcite-like adsorbents, including the initial carbonate [Zn4Al2(OH12]·CO3·8H2O and its forms intercalated with chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, and hexamethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (HMDTA and heat-treated form Zn4Al2O7, to adsorb uranium(VI and ions of toxic heavy metals have been compared. Metal sorption capacities of hydrotalcite-like adsorbents have been shown to correlate with the stability of their complexes with the mentioned chelating agents in a solution. The synthesized layered double hydroxides (LDHs containing chelating agents in the interlayer space are rather efficient for sorption purification of aqueous media free from U(VI irrespective of its forms of natural abundance (including water-soluble bi- and tricarbonate forms and from heavy metal ions. [Zn4Al2(OH12]·EDTA·nH2O is recommended for practical application as one of the most efficient and inexpensive synthetic adsorbents designed for recovery of both cationic and particularly important anionic forms of U(VI and other heavy metals from aqueous media. Carbonate forms of LDHs turned out to be most efficient for recovery of Cu(II from aqueous media with pH0≥7 owing to precipitation of Cu(II basic carbonates and Cu(II hydroxides. Chromate ions are efficiently adsorbed from water only by calcinated forms of LDHs.

  1. The Linkages between Mindfulness and Social Information Processing Theory on the Usage of Whatsapp Media Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Sekar Vusparatih

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to find the linkages between mindfulness and social information processing theory on the use of WhatsApp group of Elementary school Principals in District Cilandak Region III for the distribution of various information and instructions. Through the concept of mindfulness and Social Information Processing theory approach (SIP, this research would explore the causes of the frequent emergence of noise, misunderstanding, and even tangency to the WA group that was carried on the meeting of headmaster meetings and relationships between members. The research problem was why WA group still causing issues among the Principals. By using the qualitative approach, data collection techniques used in this research were the interview, observation, and literature study. It is found that technological sophistication does not go parallel with maturity in communicating using media technologies. Lack of mindfulness in the WA group is a form of organizational communication that is simply transferred into the form of text communication on mobile phones that is being the main cause. Also, the organizational structure is still inherent in it and only serves as a bridge/form of interim communication because the main form of communication is still in the form of correspondence and face-to-face meetings.

  2. Understanding Accumulation: The Relevance of Marx’s Theory of Primitive Accumulation in Media and Communication Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Ekman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to discuss and use Marx’s theory on primitive accumulation, outlined in the first volume of Capital, in relation to media and communication research. In order to develop Marx’s argument the discussion is revitalized through Harvey’s concept of accumulation by dispossession. The article focuses on two different fields within media and communication research where the concept of accumulation by dispossession is applicable. First, the role of news media content, news flows and news media systems are discussed in relation to social mobilization against capitalism, privatizations, and the financial sector. Second, Marx’s theory is used to examine how communication in Web 2.0 and the development of ICTs could advance the processes of capital accumulation by appropriating the work performed by users of Web 2.0 and by increasing the corporate surveillance of Internet users. In conclusion, by analyzing how primitive accumulation is intertwined with contemporary expanded reproduction of capital, the article shows that Marx’s theory can contribute to critical media and communication research in several ways.

  3. A model for the electrical double layer combining integral equation techniques with quantum density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luque, N.B.; Woelki, S.; Henderson, D.; Schmickler, W.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · We augment a double-layer model based on integral equations by calculating the interaction parameters with the electrode from quantum density functional theory · Explicit model calculations for Ag(1 1 1) in aqueous solutions give at least qualitatively good results for the particle profiles · Ours is the only method which allows the calculation of capacity-charge characteristics. · We obtain reasonable values for the Helmholtz (inner-layer) capacity. - Abstract: We have complemented the singlet reference interaction site model for the electric double layer by quantum chemical calculations for the interaction of ions and solvents with an electrode. Specific calculations have been performed for an aqueous solution of NaCl in contact with a Ag(1 1 1) electrode. The particle profiles near the electrode show the specific adsorption of Cl - ions, but not of Na + , and are at least in qualitative agreement with those obtained by molecular dynamics. Including the electronic response of the silver surface into the model results in reasonable capacity-charge characteristics.

  4. An alternative design method for the double-layer combined die using autofrettage theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The double-layer combined die is used for its longer life in forging. Autofrettage is a well-known elastic–plastic technology that increases the durability of thick-walled cylinders. This study explores an alternative design method of the double-layer combined die using autofrettage theory. An analytical solution for the autofrettage process of the double-layer combined die is obtained based on Lamé's equation. The relationship between the autofrettage pressure and the yield radius of the die insert is obtained, and expressions of residual stresses and displacements, which are directly related to geometric parameters, material properties and internal pressure, are derived. The finite-element simulation of a specific case is performed, and good agreement between theoretical calculations and simulation results is found. Furthermore, the effects of important parameters, including the ratio of the plastic area and yield strength of the die insert and the outer diameters of the die insert and stress ring, on the autofrettage effect are investigated. Compared with the conventional combined die, the autofrettaged die can bear larger working pressure, as expected. The use of the autofrettaged die can reduce the amount of expensive material required for the die insert and the working space of the die set, which would benefit the practical forging process.

  5. Theory of Excitation Transfer between Two-Dimensional Semiconductor and Molecular Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Judith F.; Verdenhalven, Eike; Bieniek, Björn; Rinke, Patrick; Knorr, Andreas; Richter, Marten

    2018-04-01

    The geometry-dependent energy transfer rate from an electrically pumped inorganic semiconductor quantum well into an organic molecular layer is studied theoretically. We focus on Förster-type nonradiative excitation transfer between the organic and inorganic layers and include quasimomentum conservation and intermolecular coupling between the molecules in the organic film. (Transition) partial charges calculated from density-functional theory are used to calculate the coupling elements. The partial charges describe the spatial charge distribution and go beyond the common dipole-dipole interaction. We find that the transfer rates are highly sensitive to variations in the geometry of the hybrid inorganic-organic system. For instance, the transfer efficiency is improved by up to 2 orders of magnitude by tuning the spatial arrangement of the molecules on the surface: Parameters of importance are the molecular packing density along the effective molecular dipole axis and the distance between the molecules and the surface. We also observe that the device performance strongly depends on the orientation of the molecular dipole moments relative to the substrate dipole moments determined by the inorganic crystal structure. Moreover, the operating regime is identified where inscattering dominates over unwanted backscattering from the molecular layer into the substrate.

  6. Full-Wave Analysis of Microstrip Antennas in Three-Layered Spherical Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of three-layered spherical microstrip antenna has been analyzed based on Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG triangular basis functions using mixed potential integral equation (MPIE. Firstly, the model of antenna and the dyadic Green’s function in spherical microstrip antennas are given at the beginning of this paper. Then, due to the infinite series convergence problem, asymptotic extraction approach is presented to accelerate the Green’s functions convergence speed when source and field points are located in the same layer and different layers. The convergence speed can be accelerated observably by using this method. Finally, in order to simplify impedance matrix elements calculation at the junction of the probe and patch, a novel division fashion of pair of triangles is adopted in this paper. The input impedance result obtained shows the validity and effectiveness of the analysis method comparing with published data.

  7. The changes of individual carotid artery wall layer by aging and carotid intima-media thickness value for high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jang-Ho; Kim, Wuon-Shik; Lee, Moo-Sik; Kim, Kee-Sik; Park, Jeong Bae; Youn, Ho-Joong; Park, Chang-Gyu; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Kim, Jang-Young; Jeong, Jin-Won; Park, Jong Chun; Lim, Do-Sun; Kim, Moo Hyun; Woo, Jeong Taek

    2016-12-01

    It is still unclear which layer (intima or media) is mainly involved in increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) by aging and also unclear regarding CIMT value suggesting high cardiovascular risk, although 75th percentile value of CIMT is known as a high risk in asymptomatic adults. We sought to find the changes of carotid intima thickness (CIT) and carotid media thickness (CMT) by aging and the 75th percentile value of CIMT in asymptomatic Korean adults. This is an observational cohort study. Carotid ultrasound findings (n=2204 from 12 hospitals) were prospectively collected. The carotid images were sent to Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science for analysis using specialized software which can measure intima and media wall also. Mean age was 58.1±13.5 years old (52% of men). Pearson's correlation coefficient between age and right CIMT (r=.489, Pvalue was 0.778 and 0.771 mm, respectively. Mean right CIT was 0.311±0.069 and 0.303±0.064 mm (P=.009), and mean right CMT was 0.391±0.124 and 0.388±0.131 mm (P=.694) in male and female, respectively. Left carotid ultrasound findings showed similar to the right one. An increased CIMT by aging was mainly due to increased CMT rather than CIT in asymptomatic adults. The 75th percentile values of right CIMT were 0.778 and 0.771 mm in asymptomatic Korean male and female adults, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The field theory of symmetrical layered electrolytic systems and the thermal Casimir effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, D S; Horgan, R R

    2005-01-01

    We present a general extension of a field-theoretic approach developed in earlier papers to the calculation of the free energy of symmetrically layered electrolytic systems which is based on the sine-Gordon field theory for the Coulomb gas. The method is to construct the partition function in terms of the Feynman evolution kernel in the Euclidean time variable associated with the coordinate normal to the surfaces defining the layered structure. The theory is applicable to cylindrical systems and its development is motivated by the possibility that a static van der Waals or thermal Casimir force could provide an attractive force stabilizing a dielectric tube formed from a lipid bilayer, an example of which is provided by the t-tubules occurring in certain muscle cells. In this context, we apply the theory to the calculation of the thermal Casimir effect for a dielectric tube of radius R and thickness δ formed from such a membrane in water. In a grand canonical approach we find that the leading contribution to the Casimir energy behaves like -k B TLκ C /R which gives rise to an attractive force which tends to contract the tube radius. We find that κ C ∼0.3 for the case of typical lipid membrane t-tubules. We conclude that except in the case of a very soft membrane this force is insufficient to stabilize such tubes against the bending stress which tends to increase the radius. We briefly discuss the role of the lipid membrane reservoir implicit in the approach and whether its nature in biological systems may possibly lead to a stabilizing mechanism for such lipid tubes

  9. Effect of carbon embedding on the tribological properties of magnetic media surface with and without a perfluoropolyether (PFPE) layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samad, M Abdul; Yang, H; Bhatia, C S; Sinha, S K

    2011-01-01

    Carbon embedding (≤1 nm) in the top surface of cobalt (∼100 nm) sputtered on a silicon surface is used as a surface modification technique to evaluate the tribological properties with or without an ultra-thin layer of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricant. The carbon embedding is achieved using the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique at an ion energy of 90 eV. Transport of ions in matter simulations, time-of-flight secondary ion spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used to study the carbon embedding profiles and surface chemical composition. The XPS results show that carbon embedding using the ion energy of 90 eV results in the formation of about 58 ± 6% of tetrahedral (sp 3 ) carbon hybridization. Furthermore, the XPS results also show that the carbon embedding is effective in improving the anti-oxidation resistance of cobalt. Ball-on-disk tribological tests are conducted at a contact pressure of 0.26 GPa on the modified cobalt surface with or without the PFPE layer. It is observed that the average coefficient of friction is reduced considerably from a value of approximately 0.7 to 0.42 after the surface modification. The coefficient of friction is further reduced to ∼0.26 after the deposition of an ultra-thin layer of PFPE over the modified surface, which is lower than a friction coefficient of 0.4 from commercial media. The modified cobalt surface also shows much better wear life than the present day commercial media.

  10. A novel double-layer molecularly imprinted polymer film based surface plasmon resonance for determination of testosterone in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yuan; Jing, Lijing; Ding, Yonghong; Wei, Tianxin, E-mail: txwei@bit.edu.cn

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • The in-situ photo-grafting polymerization method was used to prepare the polymer film. • The synthesized MIF was layer stucture film. • The MIF exhibited good imprinting effect and highly selectivity. - Abstract: This work aimed to prepare a novel double-layer structure molecularly imprinted polymer film (MIF) on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chips for detection of testosterone in aqueous media. The film was synthesized by in-situ UV photo polymerization. Firstly, the modification of gold surface of SPR chip was performed by 1-dodecanethiol. Then double-layer MIF was generated on the 1-dodecanethiol modified gold surface. The non-modified and imprinted surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Analysis of SPR spectroscopy showed that the imprinted sensing film displayed good selectivity for testosterone compared to other analogues and the non-imprinted polymer film (NIF). Within the concentrations range of 1 × 10{sup −12}–1 × 10{sup −8} mol/L, the coupling angle changes of SPR were linear with the negative logarithm of testosterone concentrations (R{sup 2} = 0.993). Based on a signal/noise ratio of three, the detection limit was estimated to be 10{sup −12} mol/L. Finally, the developed MIF was successfully applied to the seawater detection of testosterone. The results in the experiments suggested that a combination of SPR sensing with MIF was a promising alternative method for detection of testosterone in aqueous media.

  11. A novel double-layer molecularly imprinted polymer film based surface plasmon resonance for determination of testosterone in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yuan; Jing, Lijing; Ding, Yonghong; Wei, Tianxin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The in-situ photo-grafting polymerization method was used to prepare the polymer film. • The synthesized MIF was layer stucture film. • The MIF exhibited good imprinting effect and highly selectivity. - Abstract: This work aimed to prepare a novel double-layer structure molecularly imprinted polymer film (MIF) on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chips for detection of testosterone in aqueous media. The film was synthesized by in-situ UV photo polymerization. Firstly, the modification of gold surface of SPR chip was performed by 1-dodecanethiol. Then double-layer MIF was generated on the 1-dodecanethiol modified gold surface. The non-modified and imprinted surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Analysis of SPR spectroscopy showed that the imprinted sensing film displayed good selectivity for testosterone compared to other analogues and the non-imprinted polymer film (NIF). Within the concentrations range of 1 × 10 −12 –1 × 10 −8 mol/L, the coupling angle changes of SPR were linear with the negative logarithm of testosterone concentrations (R 2 = 0.993). Based on a signal/noise ratio of three, the detection limit was estimated to be 10 −12 mol/L. Finally, the developed MIF was successfully applied to the seawater detection of testosterone. The results in the experiments suggested that a combination of SPR sensing with MIF was a promising alternative method for detection of testosterone in aqueous media

  12. Are socioeconomic disparities in health behavior mediated by differential media use? Test of the communication inequality theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Kondo, Naoki; Kawachi, Ichiro; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2016-11-01

    Communication inequality has been offered as one potential mechanism through which social determinants influence multiple health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying mechanisms between communication inequality and health behaviors. Data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 18,426 people aged 18 years and above in the United States were used for secondary analysis. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, social participation (structural social capital), health media use (TV, print, and the Internet), and five health behaviors (physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and intake of fruit and vegetable). Path analysis was performed to examine the linkages between social determinants, health media use, social participation, and social gradients in health behaviors. Path analysis revealed that socioeconomic gradients in health behaviors is mediated by: 1) inequalities in health media use; 2) disparities in social participation, which leads to differential media use; and 3) disparities in social participation that are not mediated by media use. Consistent with the theory of communication inequality, socioeconomic disparities in media use partially mediate disparities in multiple health behaviors. To address health inequalities, it is important to utilize health media to target populations with low socioeconomic statuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ginzburg-Landau theory of the superheating field anisotropy of layered superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liarte, Danilo B.; Transtrum, Mark K.; Sethna, James P.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the effects of material anisotropy on the superheating field of layered superconductors. We provide an intuitive argument both for the existence of a superheating field, and its dependence on anisotropy, for κ =λ /ξ (the ratio of magnetic to superconducting healing lengths) both large and small. On the one hand, the combination of our estimates with published results using a two-gap model for MgB2 suggests high anisotropy of the superheating field near zero temperature. On the other hand, within Ginzburg-Landau theory for a single gap, we see that the superheating field shows significant anisotropy only when the crystal anisotropy is large and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ is small. We then conclude that only small anisotropies in the superheating field are expected for typical unconventional superconductors near the critical temperature. Using a generalized form of Ginzburg Landau theory, we do a quantitative calculation for the anisotropic superheating field by mapping the problem to the isotropic case, and present a phase diagram in terms of anisotropy and κ , showing type I, type II, or mixed behavior (within Ginzburg-Landau theory), and regions where each asymptotic solution is expected. We estimate anisotropies for a number of different materials, and discuss the importance of these results for radio-frequency cavities for particle accelerators.

  14. A grounded theory of Internet and social media use by young people who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynan, Amanda; Goldbart, Juliet; Murray, Janice

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual grounded theory for how young people with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), perceive using the Internet and social media. The aims of the research were to understand and contextualise their perceptions of access and use and explore implications for self-representation and social participation; to date literature on this topic is limited. A constructivist grounded theory research approach concurrently collected and analysed interview data from 25 participants (aged 14-24 years) who use AAC and additional sources. A conceptual grounded theory was developed around an emergent core category that showed young people who use AAC have a clear desire to use the Internet and social media. This was underpinned by eight supporting categories: reported use, described support, online challenges, access technology, speech generating device (SGD) issues, self-determination, self-representation and online social ties. The conceptual grounded theory supports understanding of facilitators and challenges to use of the Internet and social media by young people with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy who use AAC. The grounded theory illustrates how the desire to use the Internet and social media is based upon perceived benefits for enriching social relationships and enhancing opportunities for self-representation and self-determination that are synonymous with identified antecedents for community-based social inclusion. Some of the participants are engaging with the Internet and social media through collaborative practice and the implications for how this phenomenon may impact on orthographic literacy and the personal care workforce are raised.

  15. Dynamic partitioning of nanoparticulate metal species between gel layers and aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, van der P.L.R.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with several aspects of the use of Diffusive Gradient in Thin film (DGT) and Diffusive Equilibriation in Thin film (DET) in dynamic metal speciation analysis. It has a clear focus on the properties of the diffusive gel layer, and their possible impact on metal speciation

  16. Measurement of radon emanation of drainage layer media by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtiainen, T.

    2009-01-01

    Slab-on-ground is a typical base floor construction type in Finland. The drainage layer between the slab and soil is a layer of sand, gravel or crushed stone. This layer has a minimum thickness of 200 mm and is sometimes even 600 mm thick, and thus may be a significant contributor to indoor air radon. In order to investigate radon emanation from the drainage layer material, a simple laboratory test was developed. Many organic solvents have high Ostwald coefficients for radon, i.e., the ratio of the volume of gas absorbed to the volume of the absorbing liquid, which enables direct absorption of radon into a liquid scintillation cocktail. Here, we first present equations relating to the processes of gas transfer in emanation measurement by direct absorption into liquid scintillation cocktails. In order to optimize the method for emanation measurement, four liquid scintillation cocktails were assessed for their ability to absorb radon from air. A simple apparatus consisting of a closed glass container holding an open liquid scintillation vial was designed and the diffusion/absorption rate and Ostwald coefficient were determined for a selected cocktail. Finally, a simple test was developed based on this work. (author)

  17. Multi-media communication system: Upper layers in the OSI reference model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafirovic-Vukotic, M.; Niemegeers, I.G.M.M.

    1992-01-01

    The structuring, services, and major protocol functions that are required in the upper layers of the OSI reference model in order to support end-to-end multimedia communication, assuming a simple transport service, are examined. It is assumed that variable-bit-rate (VBR) coding techniques will be

  18. Adsorbed polymers in aqueous media. The relation between zeta-potential, layer thickness and ionic strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Mulder, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Streaming potentials for glass capillaries with and without adsorbed poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) were used to determine the thickness of the adsorbed polymer layer. It was found that the thickness determined in this way is a strong function of the ionic strength of the solution. The results are compared

  19. Effect of Al and Ce oxide layers electrodeposited on OC4004 stainless steel on its corrosion characteristics in acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanova, E.; Nikolova, D.; Stoychev, D.; Stefanov, P.; Marinova, T.

    2006-01-01

    The changes in the corrosion characteristics of stainless steel OC4004 in 0.1 M HNO 3 after electrodeposition of thin Al and Ce oxide films on it has been investigated. The Ce 2 O 3 -CeO 2 layers have been found to possess a pronounced stabilizing effect on the steel passive state and on its corrosion resistance, respectively, whereas the Al 2 O 3 layers do not improve considerably the corrosion behaviour of the SS/Al 2 O 3 system. A twice-lower corrosion current was observed with a ternary SS/Al 2 O 3 /Ce 2 O 3 -CeO 2 system in the passive region, while the zones of potentials, where the steel is in a stable passive state, are not changed. The obtained results permit the assumption that the cerium oxides layer acts as an effective cathode playing a determining role with respect to the improvement of the corrosion behavior of the steel. It has been concluded that when the SS/Al 2 O 3 /Ce 2 O 3 -CeO 2 system is used in media containing nitric acid, the corrosion will proceed at potentials where the passive state of steel would not be disturbed

  20. Propagation of terahertz pulses in photoexcited media: analytical theory for layered systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kužel, Petr; Kadlec, Filip; Němec, Hynek

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 2 (2007), 024506/1-024506/11 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : terahertz * photoconductivity * ultrafast response * photonic crystals * optical pump * terahertz probe Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.044, year: 2007

  1. American Mass Media and the Myth of Libertarianism: Toward an "Elite Power Group" Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan-Majid, Roya; Wolf, Gary

    1991-01-01

    Presents evidence of the demise of Libertarianism in the U.S. mass media system and proposes an "elite power group" model as an alternative explanation of the working of the mass media in the United States. (MG)

  2. The effect of capped layer thickness on switching behavior in perpendicular CoCrPt based coupled granular/continuous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.M.; Lim, W.K.; Shi, J.Z.; Ding, J.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic investigation of magnetic switching behavior of CoCrPt based capped media (perpendicularly coupled granular/continuous (CGC) media consisting of granular CoCrPt:SiO 2 TiO 2 Ta 2 O 5 /capped CoCrPt(B)) is performed by varying the thickness of the capped layer from 0 to 9 nm. The microscopic structures of CGC media with different thickness of capped layer are examined by transmission electron microscope. We find out that CoCrPt magnetic grains are separated by nonmagnetic oxide grain boundaries. Grain size and grain boundary are about 8.9 nm and 2 nm, respectively. The nonmagnetic oxide grain boundaries in the granular layer do not disappear immediately at the interface between the granular and capped layers. The amorphous grain boundary phase in the granular layer propagates to the top surface of the capped layer. After capping with the CoCrPt(B) layer, the grain size at the surface of CGC structure increases and the grain boundary decreases. Both coercivity and intergranular exchange coupling of the CGC media are investigated by Polar magneto-optic Kerr effect magnetometer and alternating gradient force magnetometer. Although H c apparently decreases at thicker capped layer, no obvious variation of macroscopic switching field distribution (SFD/H c ) is observed. We separate intrinsic switching field distribution from intergranular interactions. The investigation of reduced intrinsic SFD/H c and increased hysteresis loop slope at coercivity, suggests that improvement of absolute switching field distribution (SFD) is caused by both strong intergranular exchange coupling and uniform grain size. Micromagnetic simulation results further verify our conclusion that the capped layer in CGC media is not uniformly continuous but has some granular nature. However, grains in the CoCrPt(B) capped layer is not absolutely isolated, strong exchange coupling exists between grains. - Highlights: • In CGC media, CoCrPt magnetic grains are separated by nonmagnetic oxide

  3. Universality Results for Multi-Layer Hele-Shaw and Porous Media Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir

    2012-11-01

    Saffman-Taylor instability is a well known viscosity driven instability of an interface. Motivated by a need to understand the effect of various injection policies currently in practice for chemical enhanced oil recovery, we study linear stability of displacement processes in a Hele-Shaw cell involving injection of an arbitrary number of immiscible fluid phases in succession. This is a problem involving many interfaces. Universal stability results have been obtained for this multi-layer (multi-region) flow in the sense that the results hold with arbitrary number of interfaces. These stability results have been applied to design injection policies that are considerably less unstable than the pure Saffman-Taylor case. In particular, we determine specific values of the viscosity of the fluid layers corresponding to smallest unstable band. Moreover, we discuss universal selection principle of optimal viscous profiles. The talk is based on following papers. Qatar National Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation).

  4. Nonspecular reflection of light at an inhomogeneous interface between two media and in a nanostructured layer with a quasi-zero refractive index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomsky, O. N.; Gadomskaya, I. V.

    2015-01-01

    We have derived formulas for the amplitudes of light reflection and refraction at an inhomogeneous interface between two media and in a nanostructured layer with a quasi-zero refractive index. These formulas are applied to explain the experimental spectra of nonspecular light reflection using a nanostructured (PMMA + Ag) layer with silver nanoparticles on a silicon surface as an example. We show that a surface wave is formed in the nanostructured layer at various angles of light incidence and the layer with a quasi-zero refractive index is an antireflection coating that provides uniform 5% silicon antireflection in the wavelength range from 450 to 1000 nm

  5. Using Theory to Design Evaluations of Communication Campaigns: The Case of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornik, Robert C; Yanovitzky, Itzhak

    2003-05-01

    We present a general theory about how campaigns can have effects and suggest that the evaluation of communication campaigns must be driven by a theory of effects. The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign illustrates both the theory of campaign effects and implications that theory has for the evaluation design. Often models of effect assume that individual exposure affects cognitions that continue to affect behavior over a short term. Contrarily, effects may operate through social or institutional paths as well as through individual learning, require substantial levels of exposure achieved through multiple channels over time, take time to accumulate detectable change, and affect some members of the audience but not others. Responsive evaluations will choose appropriate units of analysis and comparison groups, data collection schedules sensitive to lagged effects, samples able to detect subgroup effects, and analytic strategies consistent with the theory of effects that guides the campaign.

  6. Growth of Transgressive Sills in Mechanically Layered Media: Faroe Islands, NE Atlantic Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Igneous sills represent an important contribution to upper crustal magma transport, acting as magma conduits and stores (i.e. as sill networks, or as nascent magma chambers). Complex sill-network intrusion in basin settings can have significant impact on subsurface fluid flow (e.g., water aquifer and hydrocarbon systems), geothermal systems, the maturation of hydrocarbons, and methane release. Models for these effects are critically dependent on the models for sill emplacement. This study focuses on staircase-geometry sills in the Faroe Islands, on the European Atlantic Margin, which are hosted in mechanically layered lavas (1-20 m thick) and basaltic volcaniclastic units (1-30 m thick). The sills range from 20-50 m thick, with each covering ~17 km2, and transgressing a vertical range of ~480 m. Steps in the sills are elliptical in cross section, and discontinuous laterally, forming smooth transgressive ramps, hence are interpreted as representing initial stages of sill propagation as magma fingers, which inflate through time to create a through-going sheet. Although steps correspond to the position of some host rock layer interfaces and volcaniclastic horizons, most interfaces are bypassed. The overall geometry of the sills is consistent with ENE-WSW compression, and NNW-SSE extension, and stress anisotropy-induced transgression. Local morphology indicates that mechanical layering suppressed tensile stress ahead of the crack tip, leading to a switch in minimum and intermediate stress axes, facilitating lateral sill propagation as fingers, and resulting in a stepped transgressive geometry.

  7. Effects of electrolytic composition on the electric double-layer capacitance at smooth-surface carbon electrodes in organic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Tae; Egashira, Minato; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    As a fundamental research on the optimization of electrolyte composition in practical electrochemical capacitor device, double-layer capacitance at Glassy Carbon (GC) and Boron-doped Diamond (BDD), as typical smooth-surface carbon electrodes, has been studied as a function of the electrolyte composition in organic media. Specific capacitance (differential capacitance: F cm -2 ) determined by an AC impedance method, in which no contribution of mass-transport effects is included, corresponded well to integrated capacitance evaluated by conventional cyclic voltammetry. The specific capacitance at the GC electrode varied with polarized potential and showed clear PZC (potential of zero charge), while the potential dependence of the capacitance at BDD was very small. The effects of the solvent and the electrolytic salt on the capacitance behavior were common for both electrodes. That is, the sizes of the solvent molecule and the electrolytic ion (cation) strongly affected the capacitance at these smooth-surface carbon electrodes.

  8. Double-layered perpendicular magnetic recording media of granular-type FePt-MgO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhengang; Singh, Amarendra K.; Yin Jinhua; Perumal, A.; Suzuki, Takao

    2005-01-01

    The recording performance of double-layered granular-type FePt-MgO perpendicular magnetic recording media fabricated onto glass discs by sputtering is investigated. The (0 0 1)-textured FePt granular films are obtained by annealing FePt/MgO multilayers. Three different multilayer structures are compared in their magnetic properties and recording SNR performances. To evaluate thermal stability property of these granular-type FePt disks, the time-dependent magnetic force microscope (MFM) signal from the written bits on one of these disks is recorded in the temperature range 25-200 degree sign C. The signal decay at high observation temperature is interpreted based on the temperature dependence of magnetic anisotropy (K u )

  9. Improved (0 0 1)-texture of FePt-C for heat-assisted magnetic recording media by insertion of Cr buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiroyama, T.; Wang, J.; Felicia, A.; Takahashi, Y.K.; Hono, K., E-mail: kazuhiro.hono@nims.go.jp

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Improvement of (0 0 1)-texture of prototype FePt-C granular films for heat heat assisted magnetic recording media. • Insertion of Cr buffer layer improves the crystallographic textures of the MgO underlayers, thereby reduces in-plane component in the FePt-C recording layer. • The growth in the grain size of the MgO underlayer as well as the (0 0 1)-texture of the MgO underlayer are the key factor in reducing the in-plane component in the FePt-C recording layer. - Abstract: FePt-C granular films deposited on MgO underlayers are the prototype media for heat-assisted magnetic recording. To reduce the in-plane magnetic component in the FePt-C media, we investigated the effect of Cr buffer layers on the crystallographic textures of the MgO underlayers and the resultant magnetic properties of the FePt-C layers. By growing a MgO underlayer on a Cr buffer layer, the (0 0 1) texture of the MgO underlayer is improved, on which the in-plane component of a FePt-C film is substantially reduced. We conclude that the growth in the grain size of the MgO underlayer is the key factor in reducing the in-plane component in the FePt-C recording layer.

  10. Theory of wave propagation in partially saturated double-porosity rocks: a triple-layer patchy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weitao; Ba, Jing; Carcione, José M.

    2016-04-01

    Wave-induced local fluid flow is known as a key mechanism to explain the intrinsic wave dissipation in fluid-saturated rocks. Understanding the relationship between the acoustic properties of rocks and fluid patch distributions is important to interpret the observed seismic wave phenomena. A triple-layer patchy (TLP) model is proposed to describe the P-wave dissipation process in a double-porosity media saturated with two immiscible fluids. The double-porosity rock consists of a solid matrix with unique host porosity and inclusions which contain the second type of pores. Two immiscible fluids are considered in concentric spherical patches, where the inner pocket and the outer sphere are saturated with different fluids. The kinetic and dissipation energy functions of local fluid flow (LFF) in the inner pocket are formulated through oscillations in spherical coordinates. The wave propagation equations of the TLP model are based on Biot's theory and the corresponding Lagrangian equations. The P-wave dispersion and attenuation caused by the Biot friction mechanism and the local fluid flow (related to the pore structure and the fluid distribution) are obtained by a plane-wave analysis from the Christoffel equations. Numerical examples and laboratory measurements indicate that P-wave dispersion and attenuation are significantly influenced by the spatial distributions of both, the solid heterogeneity and the fluid saturation distribution. The TLP model is in reasonably good agreement with White's and Johnson's models. However, differences in phase velocity suggest that the heterogeneities associated with double-porosity and dual-fluid distribution should be taken into account when describing the P-wave dispersion and attenuation in partially saturated rocks.

  11. Hydrodynamic theory of convective transport across a dynamically stabilized diffuse boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhauser, H.

    1983-09-01

    The diffuse boundary layer between miscible liquids is subject to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities if the heavy fluid is supported by the light one. The resulting rapid interchange of the liquids can be suppressed by enforcing vertical oscillations on the whole system. This dynamic stabilization is incomplete and produces some peculiar novel transport phenomena such as decay off the density profile into several steps, periodic peeling of density sheets of the boundary layer and the appearance of steady vortex flow. The theory presented in this paper identifies the basic mechanism as formation of convective cells leading to enhanced diffusion, and explains previous experimental results with water and ZnJ 2 -solutions. A nonlinear treatment of the stationary convective flow problem gives the saturation amplitude of the ground mode and provides an upper bound for the maximum convective transport. The hydrodynamic model can be used for visualizing similar transport processes in the plasma of toroidal confinement devices such as sawtooth oscillations in soft disruptions of tokamak discharges and anomalous diffusion by excitation of convective cells. The latter process is investigated here in some detail, leading to the result that the maximum possible transport is of the order of Bohm diffusion. (orig.)

  12. On the instabilities of supersonic mixing layers - A high-Mach-number asymptotic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Thomas F.; Goldstein, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    The stability of a family of tanh mixing layers is studied at large Mach numbers using perturbation methods. It is found that the eigenfunction develops a multilayered structure, and the eigenvalue is obtained by solving a simplified version of the Rayleigh equation (with homogeneous boundary conditions) in one of these layers which lies in either of the external streams. This analysis leads to a simple hypersonic similarity law which explains how spatial and temporal phase speeds and growth rates scale with Mach number and temperature ratio. Comparisons are made with numerical results, and it is found that this similarity law provides a good qualitative guide for the behavior of the instability at high Mach numbers. In addition to this asymptotic theory, some fully numerical results are also presented (with no limitation on the Mach number) in order to explain the origin of the hypersonic modes (through mode splitting) and to discuss the role of oblique modes over a very wide range of Mach number and temperature ratio.

  13. Design of a universal two-layered neural network derived from the PLI theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Lun J.

    2004-05-01

    The if-and-only-if (IFF) condition that a set of M analog-to-digital vector-mapping relations can be learned by a one-layered-feed-forward neural network (OLNN) is that all the input analog vectors dichotomized by the i-th output bit must be positively, linearly independent, or PLI. If they are not PLI, then the OLNN just cannot learn no matter what learning rules is employed because the solution of the connection matrix does not exist mathematically. However, in this case, one can still design a parallel-cascaded, two-layered, perceptron (PCTLP) to acheive this general mapping goal. The design principle of this "universal" neural network is derived from the major mathematical properties of the PLI theory - changing the output bits of the dependent relations existing among the dichotomized input vectors to make the PLD relations PLI. Then with a vector concatenation technique, the required mapping can still be learned by this PCTLP system with very high efficiency. This paper will report in detail the mathematical derivation of the general design principle and the design procedures of the PCTLP neural network system. It then will be verified in general by a practical numerical example.

  14. Mechanism of Properties of Noble ZnS-SiO2 Protection Layer for Phase Change Optical Disk Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, David V.; Ohta, Takeo

    2006-08-01

    A ZnS-SiO2 composite dielectric is widely used in the optical stack designs of rewritable optical recording media as an index-matching medium and as a protection layer for the high-index chalcogenide (compound with sixth group element of S, Se, Te) phase change material used in these media. The addition of Si and O to ZnS is primarily intended to stabilize against crystalline grain growth of ZnS with high numbers of direct overwriting cycles. In this study, we carry out infrared (IR) spectroscopy to clarify the role of Si in this stabilization process. IR spectroscopy is performed on sputter as-deposited and annealed ZnS-SiO2 dielectric protection layers. We find that Si exists not in the SiO2 oxide phase but as [SiS4-nOn] tetrahedrons. Moreover, zinc and sulfur do not exist as ZnS, but in highly chemically disordered ZnS:O crystallites. The highly directional and rigid covalent bonds in the [SiS4-nOn] tetrahedrons are key to establishing thermal stability against the coalescence of ZnS. The importance of the Si-S bond also extends into a more thorough understanding of the low thermal conductivity of the ZnS-SiO2 material. The consideration of elastic implications allows us to predict an average phonon velocity less than 50% compared to that in SiO2. With this, we predict a thermal conductivity of 0.0067 W cm-1 K-1 for this material, which is in complete agreement with measured values.

  15. Effects of Rotation and Gravity Field on Surface Waves in Fibre-Reinforced Thermoelastic Media under Four Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abd-Alla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation is done to investigate the gravitational and rotational parameters effects on surface waves in fibre-reinforced thermoelastic media. The theory of generalized surface waves has been firstly developed and then it has been employed to investigate particular cases of waves, namely, Stoneley waves, Rayleigh waves, and Love waves. The analytical expressions for surface waves velocity and attenuation coefficient are obtained in the physical domain by using the harmonic vibrations and four thermoelastic theories. The wave velocity equations have been obtained in different cases. The numerical results are given for equation of coupled thermoelastic theory (C-T, Lord-Shulman theory (L-S, Green-Lindsay theory (G-L, and the linearized (G-N theory of type II. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of gravity, rotation, and parameters for fibre-reinforced of the material media. The results obtained are displayed by graphs to clear the phenomena physical meaning. The results indicate that the effect of gravity, rotation, relaxation times, and parameters of fibre-reinforced of the material medium is very pronounced.

  16. Light Condensation and Localization in Disordered Photonic Media: Theory and Large Scale ab initio Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Toth, Laszlo Daniel

    2013-05-07

    Disordered photonics is the study of light in random media. In a disordered photonic medium, multiple scattering of light and coherence, together with the fundamental principle of reciprocity, produce a wide range of interesting phenomena, such as enhanced backscattering and Anderson localization of light. They are also responsible for the existence of modes in these random systems. It is known that analogous processes to Bose-Einstein condensation can occur in classical wave systems, too. Classical condensation has been studied in several contexts in photonics: pulse formation in lasers, mode-locking theory and coherent emission of disordered lasers. All these systems have the common theme of possessing a large ensemble of waves or modes, together with nonlinearity, dispersion or gain. In this work, we study light condensation and its connection with light localization in a disordered, passive dielectric medium. We develop a theory for the modes inside the disordered resonator, which combines the Feshbach projection technique with spin-glass theory and statistical physics. In particular, starting from the Maxwell’s equations, we map the system to a spherical p-spin model with p = 2. The spins are replaced by modes and the temperature is related to the fluctuations in the environment. We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the system in a general framework and show that two distinct phases exist: a paramagnetic phase, where all the modes are randomly oscillating and a condensed phase, where the energy condensates on a single mode. The thermodynamic quantities can be explicitly interpreted and can also be computed from the disorder-averaged time domain correlation function. We launch an ab initio simulation campaign using our own code and the Shaheen supercomputer to test the theoretical predictions. We construct photonic samples of varying disorder and find computationally relevant ways to obtain the thermodynamic quantities. We observe the phase transition

  17. Pitfalls in velocity analysis for strongly contrasting, layered media - Example from the Chalk Group, North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Mahboubeh; Uldall, Anette; Moreau, Julien; Nielsen, Lars

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge about the velocity structure of the subsurface is critical in key seismic processing sequences, for instance, migration, depth conversion, and construction of initial P- and S-wave velocity models for full-waveform inversion. Therefore, the quality of subsurface imaging is highly dependent upon the quality of the seismic velocity analysis. Based on a case study from the Danish part of the North Sea, we show how interference caused by multiples, converted waves, and thin-layer effects may lead to incorrect velocity estimation, if such effects are not accounted for. Seismic wave propagation inside finely layered reservoir rocks dominated by chalk is described by two-dimensional finite-difference wave field simulation. The rock physical properties used for the modeling are based on an exploration well from the Halfdan field in the Danish sector of the North Sea. The modeling results are compared to seismic data from the study area. The modeling shows that interference of primaries with multiples, converted waves and thin-bed effects can give rise to strong anomalies in standard velocity analysis plots. Consequently, root-mean-square (RMS) velocity profiles may be erroneously picked. In our study area, such mis-picking can introduce errors in, for example, the thickness estimation of the layers near the base of the studied sedimentary strata by 11% to 26%. Tests show that front muting and bandpass filtering cannot significantly improve the quality of velocity analysis in our study. However, we notice that spiking deconvolution applied before velocity analysis may to some extent reduce the impact of interference and, therefore, reduce the risk of erroneous picking of the velocity function.

  18. Models of disordered media: some new results, including some new connections between composite-media, fluid-state, and random-flight theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stell, G.

    1983-01-01

    Some new theoretical results on the microstructure of models of two-phase disordered media are given, as well as the new quantitative bounds on the thermal conductivity that follows for one such model (randomly centered spherical inclusions). A second set of results is then given for random flights, including random flights with hit expectancy prescribed in a unit hall around the flight origin. Finally, some interesting correspondences are demonstrated, via the Ornstein-Zernike equation, between random-flight results, liquid-state results and percolation-theory results. 27 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  19. Resonant magnetoelectric response of composite cantilevers: Theory of short vs. open circuit operation and layer sequence effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C. Krantz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The magnetoelectric effect in layered composite cantilevers consisting of strain coupled layers of magnetostrictive (MS, piezoelectric (PE, and substrate materials is investigated for magnetic field excitation at bending resonance. Analytic theories are derived for the transverse magnetoelectric (ME response in short and open circuit operation for three different layer sequences and results presented and discussed for the FeCoBSi-AlN-Si and the FeCoBSi-PZT-Si composite systems. Response optimized PE-MS layer thickness ratios are found to greatly change with operation mode shifting from near equal MS and PE layer thicknesses in the open circuit mode to near vanishing PE layer thicknesses in short circuit operation for all layer sequences. In addition the substrate layer thickness is found to differently affect the open and short circuit ME response producing shifts and reversal between ME response maxima depending on layer sequence. The observed rich ME response behavior for different layer thicknesses, sequences, operating modes, and PE materials can be explained by common neutral plane effects and different elastic compliance effects in short and open circuit operation.

  20. Media Consumption on the World Wide Web: Integrating Theories of Media Choice and Global Media Flows to Explain Global Cultural Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Harsh

    2014-01-01

    The cross border availability of media content has raised speculations that content preferences would largely drive audience choices. In such a scenario, technologies and institutional structures would primarily shape patterns of global cultural consumption, sweeping away old allegiances based on cultural traits such as language and geography. On…

  1. Thin layer spectroelectrochemical studies of pertechnetate reduction on the gold electrodes in acidic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chotkowski, M.; Czerwiński, A.

    2014-01-01

    The electroreduction of pertechnetate ions has been examined in sulfuric acid solutions (0.5 M ÷ 4 M H 2 SO 4 ) using rotating disc electrodes (Au-RDE) and optically transparent thin layer spectroelectrochemical cells (Au/RVC-OTTLE). Soluble Tc(III,IV) species with absorption bands at 502 nm were found to be formed during the reduction of TcO 4 − . The hydrodynamic experiments (Au-RDE) have shown the influence of the acidity of the solution on the activation energy of the electroreduction of the pertechnetate ions to technetium(III,IV) species. The value of the activation energy calculated for limiting current was found to increase from 12.6 ± 1.1 kJ mol −1 for 4 M H 2 SO 4 to 20.1 ± 0.8 kJ mol −1 for 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 . Such an effect suggests an influence of the acid concentration on the structure of obtained products, which are soluble or insoluble Tc species. Thin layer spectroelectrochemical experiments allowed calculation of the redox standard potentials for Tc 2 O 2 3+ /TcO(OH) (aq) system which was found to be equal to 0.255 V vs. Ag,AgCl (KClsat.)

  2. On the theory of electric double layer with explicit account of a polarizable co-solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budkov, Yu. A., E-mail: urabudkov@rambler.ru [Laboratory of NMR Spectroscopy and Numerical Investigations of Liquids, G. A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Department of Applied Mathematics, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kolesnikov, A. L. [Institut für Nichtklassische Chemie e.V., Universität Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Kiselev, M. G. [Laboratory of NMR Spectroscopy and Numerical Investigations of Liquids, G. A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ivanovo (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-14

    We present a continuation of our theoretical research into the influence of co-solvent polarizability on a differential capacitance of the electric double layer. We formulate a modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory, using the formalism of density functional approach on the level of local density approximation taking into account the electrostatic interactions of ions and co-solvent molecules as well as their excluded volume. We derive the modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation, considering the three-component symmetric lattice gas model as a reference system and minimizing the grand thermodynamic potential with respect to the electrostatic potential. We apply present modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation to the electric double layer theory, showing that accounting for the excluded volume of co-solvent molecules and ions slightly changes the main result of our previous simplified theory. Namely, in the case of small co-solvent polarizability with its increase under the enough small surface potentials of electrode, the differential capacitance undergoes the significant growth. Oppositely, when the surface potential exceeds some threshold value (which is slightly smaller than the saturation potential), the increase in the co-solvent polarizability results in a differential capacitance decrease. However, when the co-solvent polarizability exceeds some threshold value, its increase generates a considerable enhancement of the differential capacitance in a wide range of surface potentials. We demonstrate that two qualitatively different behaviors of the differential capacitance are related to the depletion and adsorption of co-solvent molecules at the charged electrode. We show that an additive of the strongly polarizable co-solvent to an electrolyte solution can shift significantly the saturation potential in two qualitatively different manners. Namely, a small additive of strongly polarizable co-solvent results in a shift of saturation potential to higher surface potentials. On

  3. On the theory of electric double layer with explicit account of a polarizable co-solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budkov, Yu. A.; Kolesnikov, A. L.; Kiselev, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    We present a continuation of our theoretical research into the influence of co-solvent polarizability on a differential capacitance of the electric double layer. We formulate a modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory, using the formalism of density functional approach on the level of local density approximation taking into account the electrostatic interactions of ions and co-solvent molecules as well as their excluded volume. We derive the modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation, considering the three-component symmetric lattice gas model as a reference system and minimizing the grand thermodynamic potential with respect to the electrostatic potential. We apply present modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation to the electric double layer theory, showing that accounting for the excluded volume of co-solvent molecules and ions slightly changes the main result of our previous simplified theory. Namely, in the case of small co-solvent polarizability with its increase under the enough small surface potentials of electrode, the differential capacitance undergoes the significant growth. Oppositely, when the surface potential exceeds some threshold value (which is slightly smaller than the saturation potential), the increase in the co-solvent polarizability results in a differential capacitance decrease. However, when the co-solvent polarizability exceeds some threshold value, its increase generates a considerable enhancement of the differential capacitance in a wide range of surface potentials. We demonstrate that two qualitatively different behaviors of the differential capacitance are related to the depletion and adsorption of co-solvent molecules at the charged electrode. We show that an additive of the strongly polarizable co-solvent to an electrolyte solution can shift significantly the saturation potential in two qualitatively different manners. Namely, a small additive of strongly polarizable co-solvent results in a shift of saturation potential to higher surface potentials. On

  4. Reflection and Transmission of P-Waves in an Intermediate Layer Lying Between Two Semi-infinite Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pooja; Chattopadhyay, Amares; Srivastava, Akanksha; Singh, Abhishek Kumar

    2018-05-01

    With a motivation to gain physical insight of reflection as well as transmission phenomena in frozen (river/ocean) situation for example in Antarctica and other coldest place on Earth, the present article undertakes the analysis of reflection and transmission of a plane wave at the interfaces of layered structured comprised of a water layer of finite thickness sandwiched between an upper half-space constituted of ice and a lower isotropic elastic half-space, which may be useful in geophysical exploration in such conditions. A closed form expression of reflection/transmission coefficients of reflected and transmitted waves has been derived in terms of angles of incidence, propagation vector, displacement vector and elastic constants of the media. Expressions corresponding to the energy partition of various reflected and transmitted waves have also been established analytically. It has been remarkably shown that the law of conservation of energy holds good in the entire reflection and transmission phenomena for different angles of incidence. A numerical examples were performed so to graphically portray the analytical findings. Further the deduced results are validated with the pre-established classical results.

  5. Fractional Calculus Based FDTD Modeling of Layered Biological Media Exposure to Wideband Electromagnetic Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Mescia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields are involved in several therapeutic and diagnostic applications such as hyperthermia and electroporation. For these applications, pulsed electric fields (PEFs and transient phenomena are playing a key role for understanding the biological response due to the exposure to non-ionizing wideband pulses. To this end, the PEF propagation in the six-layered planar structure modeling the human head has been studied. The electromagnetic field and the specific absorption rate (SAR have been calculated through an accurate finite-difference time-domain (FDTD dispersive modeling based on the fractional derivative operator. The temperature rise inside the tissues due to the electromagnetic field exposure has been evaluated using both the non-thermoregulated and thermoregulated Gagge’s two-node models. Moreover, additional parametric studies have been carried out with the aim to investigate the thermal response by changing the amplitude and duration of the electric pulses.

  6. Silver-Copper Nanoalloy Catalyst Layer for Bifunctional Air Electrodes in Alkaline Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Fuyi; Jin, Yachao; Zhang, Nan; Johnston, Roy L

    2015-08-19

    A carbon-free and binder-free catalyst layer composed of a Ag-Cu nanoalloy on Ni foam was used as the air cathode in a zinc-air battery for the first time. The Ag-Cu catalyst was prepared using pulsed laser deposition. The structures of the catalysts were found to consist of crystalline Ag-Cu nanoalloy particles with an average size of 2.58 nm embedded in amorphous Cu films. As observed in the X-ray photoelectron spectra, the Ag 3d core levels shifted to higher binding energies, whereas the Cu 2p core levels shifted to lower binding energies, indicating alloying of the silver and copper. Rotating disk electrode measurements indicated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) proceeded through a four-electron pathway on the Ag50Cu50 and Ag90Cu10 nanoalloy catalysts in alkaline solution. Moreover, the catalytic activity of Ag50Cu50 in the ORR is more efficient than that of Ag90Cu10. By performing charge and discharge cycling measurements, the Ag50Cu50 catalyst layer was confirmed to have a maximum power density of approximately 86.3 mW cm(-2) and an acceptable cell voltage at 0.863 V for current densities up to 100 mA cm(-2) in primary zinc-air batteries. In addition, a round-trip efficiency of approximately 50% at a current density of 20 mA cm(-2) was also obtained in the test.

  7. Effective-field theory of the Ising model with three alternative layers on the honeycomb and square lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deviren, Bayram [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr

    2008-09-15

    The Ising model with three alternative layers on the honeycomb and square lattices is studied by using the effective-field theory with correlations. We consider that the nearest-neighbor spins of each layer are coupled ferromagnetically and the adjacent spins of the nearest-neighbor layers are coupled either ferromagnetically or anti-ferromagnetically depending on the sign of the bilinear exchange interactions. We investigate the thermal variations of the magnetizations and present the phase diagrams. The phase diagrams contain the paramagnetic, ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic phases, and the system also exhibits a tricritical behavior.

  8. Effective-field theory of the Ising model with three alternative layers on the honeycomb and square lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviren, Bayram; Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    The Ising model with three alternative layers on the honeycomb and square lattices is studied by using the effective-field theory with correlations. We consider that the nearest-neighbor spins of each layer are coupled ferromagnetically and the adjacent spins of the nearest-neighbor layers are coupled either ferromagnetically or anti-ferromagnetically depending on the sign of the bilinear exchange interactions. We investigate the thermal variations of the magnetizations and present the phase diagrams. The phase diagrams contain the paramagnetic, ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic phases, and the system also exhibits a tricritical behavior

  9. Passive Audience or Who Select Beyond Media? A Comparative Study in Communication Texts & Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Mohsenian Rad; Amir Abdolreza Sepanji

    2011-01-01

    The present article is to study the characteristics and general nature of audience and is described it as "Audience phantasm" in developing countries. It firstly notes that there will be consequences such as audience distancing themselves from local and official media if policy makers and media officials' imaginations of audiences become far from related bare facts have happened in the era of global media and the nature of audiences. Knowing and analyzing the image of audiences presented in n...

  10. On Media Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This monograph analyzes the theory and practice of media education and media literacy. The book also includes the list of Russian media education literature and addresses of websites of the associations for media education.

  11. The theorization of social co-ordinations in differentiated societies: the theory of generalized symbolic media in Parsons, Luhmann and Habermas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernilo, Daniel

    2002-09-01

    The problem of the differentiation of societies is at the core of the sociological imagination about the rise of modernity. In postwar sociology, T. Parsons developed the theory of generalized symbolic media in the mid-1960s to tackle, theoretically and historically, the issue of differentiation. According to him, the interchange media are defined as resources oriented to exchange processes between the subsystems of the social system. Starting with money, Parsons argues that the remaining media (power, influence, and value-commitments) have a set of characteristics defined as common properties for all media. After this first formulation, contemporary theorists such as Niklas Luhmann and Jürgen Habermas have developed and modified the Parsonian theory: Luhmann rejects the idea of interchange and proposes the use of communication; Habermas distinguishes between steering and communication media. In all three cases, the focus of the theory is on the characterization of the strongest dynamics of social co-ordination present in differentiated societies. A major result of these developments is the inclusion of new dimensions on which to conceive the properties of media, not only those of money but also language. Beyond differences, then, it is proposed that there is only one theory of generalized symbolic media which can be understood as a progressive research programme, in Lakatos' terms. Finally, the hand-in-hand evolution between the theory of media and Habermas' and Luhmann's re-conceptualizations on societal differentiation in contemporary societies will also be revealed.

  12. Atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo study of atomic layer deposition derived from density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mahdi; Elliott, Simon D

    2014-01-30

    To describe the atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactions of HfO2 from Hf(N(CH3)2)4 and H2O, a three-dimensional on-lattice kinetic Monte-Carlo model is developed. In this model, all atomistic reaction pathways in density functional theory (DFT) are implemented as reaction events on the lattice. This contains all steps, from the early stage of adsorption of each ALD precursor, kinetics of the surface protons, interaction between the remaining precursors (steric effect), influence of remaining fragments on adsorption sites (blocking), densification of each ALD precursor, migration of each ALD precursors, and cooperation between the remaining precursors to adsorb H2O (cooperative effect). The essential chemistry of the ALD reactions depends on the local environment at the surface. The coordination number and a neighbor list are used to implement the dependencies. The validity and necessity of the proposed reaction pathways are statistically established at the mesoscale. The formation of one monolayer of precursor fragments is shown at the end of the metal pulse. Adsorption and dissociation of the H2O precursor onto that layer is described, leading to the delivery of oxygen and protons to the surface during the H2O pulse. Through these processes, the remaining precursor fragments desorb from the surface, leaving the surface with bulk-like and OH-terminated HfO2, ready for the next cycle. The migration of the low coordinated remaining precursor fragments is also proposed. This process introduces a slow reordering motion (crawling) at the mesoscale, leading to the smooth and conformal thin film that is characteristic of ALD. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Theory through Application: A Study in the Use of Social Media for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Mark A.; McGranahan, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing integration of social media in their personal and professional lives, many faculty remain uncertain about its application to the classroom. One barrier for the adoption of social media as a learning tool is continued uncertainty about effective practices and successful use cases. Anchored in a specific course implementation and…

  14. Media and Youth Development: An Overview of Issues, Theory, and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine McCauley Ohannessian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The homes of today’s youth are filled with a variety of media options, ranging from televisions (71% and video game consoles (50% in their bedrooms to portable handheld devices (e.g., iPods/mp3 players, 76% and cell phones (71% that can accompany youth wherever they go. Of course, youth also have access to centralized media found in homes, such as televisions (99% of homes and computers with and without Internet access (93% and 84% of homes, respectively. Not surprisingly, youth consume media for about 7.5 hours per day, much of which involves using more than one media at the same time (i.e., multitasking, with adolescents consuming significantly more media than children (Lenhart, 2012; Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, 2010.

  15. Origins of media literacy and its theories funded on Len Masterman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tornero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Media literacy is the subject that teaches critical thinking about media. Despite its importance in a society dominated by television, newspapers and especially the Internet, it is still a big unknown in the educational environment. This article shows its evolution from the concept of Semiotics by Roland Barthes and Umberto Eco to the analysis of visual culture as a way of understanding the search for information and entertainment among young people and adults.  One of the leading experts in media literacy is Len Masterman, whose publications revolutionized the use of media in education not as a tool for learning, but the object to study in a critical way. His educational perspective is focused on making young people participate in the classroom, actively questioning what they see daily in the media environment and facilitating its critical development.

  16. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of the effect of the exchange control layer thickness in CoPtCrB/CoPtCrSiO granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almudallal, Ahmad M.; Mercer, J. I.; Whitehead, J. P.; Plumer, M. L.; van Ek, J.

    2018-05-01

    A hybrid Landau Lifshitz Gilbert/kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm is used to simulate experimental magnetic hysteresis loops for dual layer exchange coupled composite media. The calculation of the rate coefficients and difficulties arising from low energy barriers, a fundamental problem of the kinetic Monte Carlo method, are discussed and the methodology used to treat them in the present work is described. The results from simulations are compared with experimental vibrating sample magnetometer measurements on dual layer CoPtCrB/CoPtCrSiO media and a quantitative relationship between the thickness of the exchange control layer separating the layers and the effective exchange constant between the layers is obtained. Estimates of the energy barriers separating magnetically reversed states of the individual grains in zero applied field as well as the saturation field at sweep rates relevant to the bit write speeds in magnetic recording are also presented. The significance of this comparison between simulations and experiment and the estimates of the material parameters obtained from it are discussed in relation to optimizing the performance of magnetic storage media.

  17. Breaking news dissemination in the media via propagation behavior based on complex network theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nairong; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Li, Huajiao; Hao, Xiaoqing

    2016-07-01

    The diffusion of breaking news largely relies on propagation behaviors in the media. The tremendous and intricate propagation relationships in the media form a complex network. An improved understanding of breaking news diffusion characteristics can be obtained through the complex network research. Drawing on the news data of Bohai Gulf oil spill event from June 2011 to May 2014, we constructed a weighted and directed complex network in which media are set as nodes, the propagation relationships as edges and the propagation times as the weight of the edges. The primary results show (1) the propagation network presents small world feature, which means relations among media are close and breaking news originating from any node can spread rapidly; (2) traditional media and official websites are the typical sources for news propagation, while business portals are news collectors and spreaders; (3) the propagation network is assortative and the group of core media facilities the spread of breaking news faster; (4) for online media, news originality factor become less important to propagation behaviors. This study offers a new insight to explore information dissemination from the perspective of statistical physics and is beneficial for utilizing the public opinion in a positive way.

  18. Moisture dependent thermal properties of hydrophilic mineral wool: application of the effective media theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Antepara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of mineral wool based materials appear to be of particular importance for their practical applications because the majority of them is used in the form of thermal insulation boards. Every catalogue list of any material producer of mineral wool contains thermal conductivity, sometimes also specific heat capacity, but they give only single characteristic values for dry state of material mostly. Exposure to outside climate or any other environment containing moisture can negatively affect the thermal insulation properties of mineral wool. Nevertheless, the mineral wool materials due to their climatic loading and their environmental exposure contain moisture that can negatively affect their thermal insulation properties. Because the presence of water in mineral wool material is undesirable for the majority of applications, many products are provided with hydrophobic substances. Hydrophilic additives are seldom used in mineral wool products. However, this kind of materials has a good potential for application for instance in interior thermal insulation systems, masonry desalination, green roofs, etc. For these materials, certain moisture content must be estimated and thus their thermal properties will be different than for the dry state. On this account, moisture dependent thermal properties of hydrophilic mineral wool (HMW are studied in a wide range of moisture content using a pulse technique. The experimentally determined thermal conductivity data is analysed using several homogenization formulas based on the effective media theory. In terms of homogenization, a porous material is considered as a mixture of two or three phases. In case of dry state, material consists from solid and gaseous phase. When moistened, liquid phase is also present. Mineral wool consists of the solid phase represented by basalt fibers, the liquid phase by water and the gaseous phase by air. At first, the homogenization techniques are applied for the

  19. Light Condensation and Localization in Disordered Photonic Media: Theory and Large Scale ab initio Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Toth, Laszlo Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Disordered photonics is the study of light in random media. In a disordered photonic medium, multiple scattering of light and coherence, together with the fundamental principle of reciprocity, produce a wide range of interesting phenomena

  20. Application of perturbation theory to a P-wave eikonal equation in orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, Alexey; Masmoudi, Nabil; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    The P-wave eikonal equation for orthorhombic (ORT) anisotropic media is a highly nonlinear partial differential equation requiring the solution of a sixth-order polynomial to obtain traveltimes, resulting in complex and time-consuming numerical

  1. Application of Colloidal Filtration Theory on Textile Fibrous Media: Effect of Fiber Orientation on Bacterial Removal Efficiency and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sukumar; Ghosh, Subrata; Bhowmick, Niranjan

    2018-05-01

    A mechanism to remove the Pseudomonas bacteria from contaminated water by using textile fibrous media has been proposed in this article. The attachment of Pseudomonas bacteria on nylon fibrous media was studied in laboratory column experiment. A systematic study was carried out to investigate the attachment of bacteria on the fibrous material as a function of fiber orientation to the direction of the liquid flow. Three types of textiles media with different orientation fiber were selected for the experiment (i.e. 0°, 45° and 90°). It was found that the bacteria removal efficiency was comparatively higher at 90° orientation as compared to that of 45° and 0° orientation of fibrous media, suggesting that the removal efficiency of bacteria (1 - Fp) was depended on fiber orientation. The removal trends were explained on the basis of colloidal filtration theory. This is due to the higher single collector contact efficiency and attachment/collision efficiency as observed from the experimental data of removal efficiency.

  2. "Was it something I said?" "No, it was something you posted!" A study of the spiral of silence theory in social media contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhart, Sherice; Zhang, Weiwu

    2015-04-01

    New media technologies make it necessary for scholars to reassess mass communication theories developed among legacy media. One such theory is the spiral of silence theory originally proposed by Noelle-Neumann in the 1970s. Increasing diversity of media content, selectivity, social networking site (SNS) interactivity, and the potential for anonymity have posed various challenges to its theoretical assumptions. While application of the spiral of silence in SNS contexts has been theorized, its empirical testing is scarce. To fill this void, the Pew 2012 Search, Social Networks, and Politics survey is used to test the theory. Results reveal that encountering agreeable political content predicts speaking out, while encountering disagreeable postings stifles opinion expression, supporting the spiral of silence theory in the SNS environment. However, certain uses of SNSs and psychological factors demonstrate a liberating effect on opinion expression.

  3. Media Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    environments, experience time, and develop identities individually and socially. Interviews with working media artists lend further perspectives on these cultural transformations. Drawing on cultural theory, new media art studies, human-computer interaction theory, and software studies, this cutting-edge book...... critically unpacks the complex ubiquity-effects confronting us every day....

  4. Investigation of the mechanisms of using metal complexation and cellulose nanofiber/sodium alginate layer-by-layer coating for retaining anthocyanin pigments in thermally processed blueberries in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Cavender, George; Simonsen, John; Zhao, Yanyun

    2015-03-25

    This study investigated the mechanisms of anthocyanin pigment retention using Fe(3+)-anthocyanin complexation and cellulose nanofiber (CNF)/sodium alginate (SA) layer-by-layer (LBL) coatings on thermally processed blueberries in aqueous media. Anthocyanin pigments were polymerized through complexation with Fe(3+) but readily degraded by heat (93 °C for 7 min) in the aqueous media because of poor stability. CNF/SA LBL coating was successful to retain anthocyanin pigments in thermally processed blueberries. Fruits coated with CNF containing CaCl2 followed by treatment in a SA bath formed a second hydrogel layer onto the CNF layer (LBL coating system) through cross-linking between Ca(2+) and alginic acid. Methyl-cellulose-modified CNF improved the interactions between CNF, the fruit surface, and the SA layer. This study demonstrated that the CNF/SA LBL coating system was effective to retain anthocyanin pigments on thermally processed whole blueberries, whereas no combined benefit of complexation with coating was observed. Results explained the mechanisms of the new approaches for developing colorful and nutritionally enhanced anthocyanin-rich fruit products.

  5. Mean-Field Theory of Electrical Double Layer In Ionic Liquids with Account of Short-Range Correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, Zachary A.H.; Feng, Guang; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2017-01-01

    We develop the theory of the electrical double layer in ionic liquids as proposed earlier by Kornyshev (2007). In the free energy function we keep the so called ‘short-range correlation terms’ which were omitted there. With some simplifying assumptions, we arrive at a modified expression for differential capacitance, which makes differential capacitance curves less sharply depending on electrode potential and having smaller values at extrema than in the previous theory. This brings the results closer to typical experimental observations, and makes it appealing to use this formalism for treatment of experimental data. Implications on Debye length and the extent of ion paring in ionic liquids are then briefly discussed.

  6. Kinetic theory of plasma in the limiter-scrape-off layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daybelge, U.; Bein, B.

    1977-01-01

    An asymptotic solution is given for the ion-drift-kinetic equation with a full Fokker--Planck term for the limiter-scrape-off layer in a tokamak. In this layer, the plasma is assumed to consist of hot, collisionless ions, and cold, collisional electrons. From the solution of the boundary-layer problem, ion and electron particle and energy losses to the limiter are calculated. Limiter load profiles due to ions are explicitly given as functions of the poloidal angle

  7. Effects of intermediate layers on magnetic properties and read/write performance in CoCrPt perpendicular recording media with an FeHfN soft magnetic underlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, D.H.; Shin, J.N.; Lee, T.D.; Hong, S.Y.; Lee, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the effects of CoCrPtTa and CoCrPtB magnetic intermediate layers (ILs) on the magnetic properties and read/write performance of CoCrPt/soft magnetic layer perpendicular recording media were investigated. Even though the perpendicular coercivity of the media with these ILs was reduced by 500 Oe, these media still showed a low exchange slope of 1.4 and a large negative nucleation field of about -1000 Oe. Additionally, the reduced grain size of the media with these IL was observed by transmission electron microscopy. From the read/write test, these media with ILs showed improved performance of 3-5 dB higher signal-to-noise ratio and overwrite ratio (OW) compared to the media without ILs. These enhancements could be attributed to the reduction of grain size of the magnetic layer and weakening of the intergranular interaction between grains by insertion of the IL

  8. Optical properties of oxygen-implanted CdS:O layers in terms of band anticrossing theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozova, N. K., E-mail: MorozovaNK@mail.ru; Kanakhin, A. A.; Miroshnikova, I. N. [Moscow Power Engineering Institute, National Research University (Russian Federation); Galstyan, V. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    The microcathodoluminescence (MCL) and photoreflection spectra of CdS:O layers implanted with oxygen ions to 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} are investigated. Used method of MCL spectroscopy yields information only about the implanted-layer volume. Exciton MCL spectra, which allow one to determine the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the CdS:O layers and the influence of deviation of the substrates from stoichiometry, are recorded. The homogeneity of the ion-implanted layers is studied by cathodoluminescence (CL) scanning electron microscopy. The relationship between light-emitting areas and the luminescence band at {approx}630 nm is established. The reason for enhancement of this band upon radiation annealing is revealed and its nature as the luminescence of F{sup +} centers in CdS is confirmed. New photoreflection spectroscopy data are obtained, which describe the specific behavioral features of oxygen on the layer surface as an isoelectronic impurity in highly mismatched alloys (HMAs). It is shown that sulfur completely bonds and removes oxygen from CdS:O. Oxygen-free CdS remains on the surface in the form of nanoparticles, the size of which depends on the oxygen concentration in the CdS:O layer bulk. The results obtained are in agreement with the predictions of band anticrossing theory.

  9. On the instability of a 3-dimensional attachment line boundary layer: Weakly nonlinear theory and a numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, P.; Malik, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    The instability of a three dimensional attachment line boundary layer is considered in the nonlinear regime. Using weakly nonlinear theory, it is found that, apart from a small interval near the (linear) critical Reynolds number, finite amplitude solutions bifurcate subcritically from the upper branch of the neutral curve. The time dependent Navier-Stokes equations for the attachment line flow have been solved using a Fourier-Chebyshev spectral method and the subcritical instability is found at wavenumbers that correspond to the upper branch. Both the theory and the numerical calculations show the existence of supercritical finite amplitude (equilibrium) states near the lower branch which explains why the observed flow exhibits a preference for the lower branch modes. The effect of blowing and suction on nonlinear stability of the attachment line boundary layer is also investigated.

  10. On the instability of a three-dimensional attachment-line boundary layer - Weakly nonlinear theory and a numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, P.; Malik, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    The instability of a three-dimensional attachment-line boundary layer is considered in the nonlinear regime. Using weakly nonlinear theory, it is found that, apart from a small interval near the (linear) critical Reynolds number, finite-amplitude solutions bifurcate subcritically from the upper branch of the neutral curve. The time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for the attachment-line flow have been solved using a Fourier-Chebyshev spectral method and the subcritical instability is found at wavenumbers that correspond to the upper branch. Both the theory and the numerical calculations show the existence of supercritical finite-amplitude (equilibrium) states near the lower branch which explains why the observed flow exhibits a preference for the lower branch modes. The effect of blowing and suction on nonlinear stability of the attachment-line boundary layer is also investigated.

  11. Structure of cylindrical electric double layers: Comparison of density functional and modified Poisson-Boltzmann theories with Monte Carlo simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Dorvilien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of cylindrical double layers is studied using a modified Poisson Boltzmann theory and the density functional approach. In the model double layer the electrode is a cylindrical polyion that is infinitely long, impenetrable, and uniformly charged. The polyion is immersed in a sea of equi-sized rigid ions embedded in a dielectric continuum. An in-depth comparison of the theoretically predicted zeta potentials, the mean electrostatic potentials, and the electrode-ion singlet density distributions is made with the corresponding Monte Carlo simulation data. The theories are seen to be consistent in their predictions that include variations in ionic diameters, electrolyte concentrations, and electrode surface charge densities, and are also able to reproduce well some new and existing Monte Carlo results.

  12. Information content in frequency-dependent, multi-offset GPR data for layered media reconstruction using full-wave inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Albéric; Phuong Tran, Anh; Lambot, Sébastien

    2014-05-01

    Water lost through leaks can represent high percentages of the total production in water supply systems and constitutes an important issue. Leak detection can be tackled with various techniques such as the ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Based on this technology, various procedures have been elaborated to characterize a leak and its evolution. In this study, we focus on a new full-wave radar modelling approach for near-field conditions, which takes into account the antenna effects as well as the interactions between the antenna(s) and the medium through frequency-dependent global transmission and reflection coefficients. This approach is applied to layered media for which 3-D Green's functions can be calculated. The model allows for a quantitative estimation of the properties of multilayered media by using full-wave inversion. This method, however, proves to be limited to provide users with an on-demand assessment as it is generally computationally demanding and time consuming, depending on the medium configuration as well as the number of unknown parameters to retrieve. In that respect, we propose two leads in order to enhance the parameter retrieval step. The first one consists in analyzing the impact of the reduction of the number of frequencies on the information content. For both numerical and laboratory experiments, this operation has been achieved by investigating the response surface topography of objective functions arising from the comparison between measured and modelled data. The second one involves the numerical implementation of multistatic antenna configurations with constant and variable offsets in the model. These two kinds of analyses are then combined in numerical experiments to observe the conjugated effect of the number of frequencies and the offset configuration. To perform the numerical analyses, synthetic Green's functions were simulated for different multilayered medium configurations. The results show that an antenna offset increase leads

  13. Theories of otitis media pathogenesis, with a focus on Indigenous children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiertsema, Selma P; Leach, Amanda J

    2009-11-02

    Otitis media is a common childhood illness associated with hearing loss, social disadvantage and medical costs. Prevalence and severity are high among Indigenous children. Respiratory bacterial and viral pathogens ascend the eustachian tube from the nasopharynx to the middle ear, causing inflammation, fluid accumulation, and bulging of the tympanic membrane, with or without pain. Among Australian Indigenous children, ear disease commences earlier in life, and involves multiple strains of bacterial pathogens at high density that persist longer. Persistent nasal discharge, overcrowded living conditions (particularly exposure to many children) and poor facilities for washing children perpetuate a vicious cycle of transmission and infection. Risk factors include environmental tobacco smoke, season, lack of breastfeeding, younger age and immature immune system, and possibly genetic factors. The innate immune system is a critical first response to infection, particularly as passive maternal antibodies decline and during the maturation of the infant adaptive immune response. The relative contributions of innate factors to protection from otitis media are currently not well understood. A diversity of antibodies that target strain-specific and conserved antigens are generated in response to natural exposure to otitis media pathogens (or to vaccines). Deficiencies in these antibodies may explain susceptibility to recurrent infections. Incremental contributions from all these elements are likely to be important in otitis media susceptibility versus protection. Effective medical and social strategies to prevent early age of onset are urgently needed.

  14. Restricted primitive model for electrical double layers: modified HNC theory of density profiles and Monte Carlo study of differential capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballone, P.; Pastore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1986-02-01

    Interfacial properties of an ionic fluid next to a uniformly charged planar wall are studied in the restricted primitive model by both theoretical and Monte Carlo methods. The system is a 1:1 fluid of equisized charged hard spheres in a state appropriate to 1M aqueous electrolyte solutions. The interfacial density profiles of counterions and coions are evaluated by extending the hypernetted chain approximation (HNC) to include the leading bridge diagrams for the wall-ion correlations. The theoretical results compare well with those of grand canonical Monte Carlo computations of Torrie and Valleau over the whole range of surface charge density considered by these authors, thus resolving the earlier disagreement between statistical mechanical theories and simulation data at large charge densities. In view of the importance of the model as a testing ground for theories of the diffuse layer, the Monte Carlo calculations are tested by considering alternative choices for the basic simulation cell and are extended so as to allow an evaluation of the differential capacitance of the model interface by two independent methods. These involve numerical differentiation of the mean potential drop as a function of the surface charge density or alternatively an appropriate use of a fluctuation theory formula for the capacitance. The results of these two Monte Carlo approaches consistently indicate an initially smooth increase of the diffuse layer capacitance followed by structure at large charge densities, this behaviour being connected with layering of counterions as already revealed in the density profiles reported by Torrie and Valleau. (author)

  15. A theory for natural convection turbulent boundary layers next to heated vertical surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, W.K. Jr.; Capp, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    The turbulent natural convection boundary layer next to a heated vertical surface is analyzed by classical scaling arguments. It is shown that the fully developed turbulent boundary layer must be treated in two parts: and outer region consisting of most of the boundary layer in which viscous and conduction terms are negligible and an inner region in which the mean convection terms are negligible. The inner layer is identified as a constant heat flux layer. A similarity analysis yields universal profiles for velocity and temperature in the outer and constant heat flux layers. An asymptotic matching of these profiles in an intermediate layer (the buoyant sublayer) yields analytical expressions for the buoyant sublayer profiles. Asymptotic heat transfer and friction laws are obtained for the fully developed boundary layers. Finally, conductive and thermo-viscous sublayers characterized by a linear variation of velocity and temperature are shown to exist at the wall. All predictions are seen to be in excellent agreement with the abundant experimental data. (author)

  16. Clarity in Multimedia: The Role of Interactive Media in Teaching Political Science Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The field of political science has encountered a unique obstacle in its development. Contemporary political theory has diverged in opposite paths, becoming more conceptual and abstract as well as focused and concrete. The unfortunate result of this has been a lack of clarity in communicating political theory to a new generation of political…

  17. Probability theory for 3-layer remote sensing radiative transfer model: univariate case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Avishai; Davidson, Charles E

    2012-04-23

    A probability model for a 3-layer radiative transfer model (foreground layer, cloud layer, background layer, and an external source at the end of line of sight) has been developed. The 3-layer model is fundamentally important as the primary physical model in passive infrared remote sensing. The probability model is described by the Johnson family of distributions that are used as a fit for theoretically computed moments of the radiative transfer model. From the Johnson family we use the SU distribution that can address a wide range of skewness and kurtosis values (in addition to addressing the first two moments, mean and variance). In the limit, SU can also describe lognormal and normal distributions. With the probability model one can evaluate the potential for detecting a target (vapor cloud layer), the probability of observing thermal contrast, and evaluate performance (receiver operating characteristics curves) in clutter-noise limited scenarios. This is (to our knowledge) the first probability model for the 3-layer remote sensing geometry that treats all parameters as random variables and includes higher-order statistics. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  18. Dynamic composite elastic medium theory. Part II. Three-dimensional media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaelin, B.; Johnson, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    Non-self-consistent and self-consistent methods of estimating velocity and attenuation of P waves and S waves at all frequencies for heterogeneous media with three-dimensional inclusions are formulated using the scattering functions of the individual inclusions. The methods are the generalization of methods for one-dimensional media presented in the first paper of this series. The specific case of spherical inclusions is calculated with the exact scattering function and compared with several low frequency approximations. The self-consistent estimates are consistent with Berryman close-quote s low frequency approximation. We present spectra and wave forms of materials with solid and liquid inclusions in a solid matrix. The results show that the exact scattering functions are required to adequately describe wave propagation at all frequencies. The analysis of liquid inclusions demonstrates that viscous damping may become important only if scattering attenuation due to spherical pores is small

  19. Application of perturbation theory to a P-wave eikonal equation in orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, Alexey

    2016-10-12

    The P-wave eikonal equation for orthorhombic (ORT) anisotropic media is a highly nonlinear partial differential equation requiring the solution of a sixth-order polynomial to obtain traveltimes, resulting in complex and time-consuming numerical solutions. To alleviate this complexity, we approximate the solution of this equation by applying a multiparametric perturbation approach. We also investigated the sensitivity of traveltime surfaces inORT mediawith respect to three anelliptic parameters. As a result, a simple and accurate P-wave traveltime approximation valid for ORT media was derived. Two different possible anelliptic parameterizations were compared. One of the parameterizations includes anelliptic parameters defined at zero offset: η1, η2, and ηxy. Another parameterization includes anelliptic parameters defined for all symmetry planes: η1, η2, and η3. The azimuthal behavior of sensitivity coefficients with different parameterizations was used to analyze the crosstalk between anelliptic parameters. © 2016 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  20. Polarization ray tracing in anisotropic optically active media. II. Theory and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClain, S.C.; Hillman, L.W.; Chipman, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Refraction, reflection, and amplitude relations are derived that apply to polarization ray tracing in anisotropic, optically active media such as quartz. The constitutive relations for quartz are discussed. The refractive indices and polarization states associated with the two modes of propagation are derived as a function of wave direction. A procedure for refracting at any uniaxial or optically active interface is derived that computes both the ray direction and the wave direction. A method for computing the optical path length is given, and Fresnel transmission and ref lection equations are derived from boundary conditions on the electromagnetic fields. These ray-tracing formulas apply to uniaxial, optically active media and therefore encompass uniaxial, non-optically active materials and isotropic, optically active materials

  1. Nonlocal stochastic mixing-length theory and the velocity profile in the turbulent boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.; Leeuw, G. de; Maassen van den Brink, A.

    1995-01-01

    Turbulence mixing by finite size eddies will be treated by means of a novel formulation of nonlocal K-theory, involving sample paths and a stochastic closure hypothesis, which implies a well defined recipe for the calculation of sampling and transition rates. The connection with the general theory

  2. The gap between theory and practice in journalism education: The case study of the Department of Media Studies in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drašković Brankica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the application of theoretical and practical skills of journalism education in the contemporary media environment. For quite some time the trend of tabloidization is shrinking the space for quality information and critical discussion about key topics of public interest, and additional problems, arising more prominently in recent years, are fake news, censorship and self-censorship. Media manipulation puts into question truthfulness and ethics of reporting, as well as the very role of a journalist as a corrective of social affairs and protector of public interest. This media situation largely undermines the approaches, thought in academic programmes, which treat journalism as a humanistic profession. Further, the development of communication technologies has brought new logics of media production and enabled distribution of content on various platforms. Following these observations and using in-depth interviews with the fifteen graduates of journalism studies at the Department of Media Studies, Faculty of Philosophy in Novi Sad, the aim of this paper is to identify graduates' attitudes based on their work experience in different Serbian media and to establish the level of applicability of journalism theory and technique gained at faculties, in the Serbian media practice. On the basis of analysis several recommendations for journalism education are formulated: programmes should clearly respond to the demands of the contemporary media production and social flows, practical education should be enhanced by rising the technical capacities of faculties and reorganizing in-house media practice, teachers should have higher professional and scientific competences, the course in media literacy should be introduced at the earlier stages of education. The gap between the theory and market practice, on which contemporary media industry is based, cannot be bridged, and the battle with technological development cannot be won, but university

  3. DNS and the theory of receptivity of a supersonic boundary layer to free-stream disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudakov, Vitaly; Fedorov, Alexander; Ryzhov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of receptivity of a boundary layer over flat plate is carried out. The free stream Mach number is equal to 6. The following two-dimensional disturbances are introduced into the free-stream flow: fast and slow acoustic waves, temperature spottiness. A theoretical model describing the excitation of unstable waves in the boundary layer is developed using the biorthogonal eigenfunction decomposition method. The DNS results agree with the theoretical predictions.

  4. Multilayer Spectral Graph Clustering via Convex Layer Aggregation: Theory and Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Pin-Yu; Hero, Alfred O.

    2017-01-01

    Multilayer graphs are commonly used for representing different relations between entities and handling heterogeneous data processing tasks. Non-standard multilayer graph clustering methods are needed for assigning clusters to a common multilayer node set and for combining information from each layer. This paper presents a multilayer spectral graph clustering (SGC) framework that performs convex layer aggregation. Under a multilayer signal plus noise model, we provide a phase transition analys...

  5. Thermal field theory in a layer: Applications of thermal field theory methods to the propagation of photons in a two-dimensional electron sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    We apply the thermal field theory methods to study the propagation of photons in a plasma layer, that is a plasma in which the electrons are confined to a two-dimensional plane sheet. We calculate the photon self-energy and determine the appropriate expression for the photon propagator in such a medium, from which the properties of the propagating modes are obtained. The formulas for the photon dispersion relations and polarization vectors are derived explicitly in some detail for some simple cases of the thermal distributions of the charged particle gas, and appropriate formulas that are applicable in more general situations are also given.

  6. Asymptotic theory of double layer and shielding of electric field at the edge of illuminated plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Física, CCCEE, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do Município, 9000 Funchal (Portugal); Thomas, D. M. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    The method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to the problem of a collisionless plasma generated by UV illumination localized in a central part of the plasma in the limiting case of small Debye length λ{sub D}. A second-approximation asymptotic solution is found for the double layer positioned at the boundary of the illuminated region and for the un-illuminated plasma for the plane geometry. Numerical calculations for different values of λ{sub D} are reported and found to confirm the asymptotic results. The net integral space charge of the double layer is asymptotically small, although in the plane geometry it is just sufficient to shield the ambipolar electric field existing in the illuminated region and thus to prevent it from penetrating into the un-illuminated region. The double layer has the same mathematical nature as the intermediate transition layer separating an active plasma and a collisionless sheath, and the underlying physics is also the same. In essence, the two layers represent the same physical object: a transonic layer.

  7. Properties of a planar electric double layer under extreme conditions investigated by classical density functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqi; Lamperski, Stanisław; Zydorczak, Maria

    2014-08-14

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and classical density functional theory (DFT) results are reported for the structural and electrostatic properties of a planar electric double layer containing ions having highly asymmetric diameters or valencies under extreme concentration condition. In the applied DFT, for the excess free energy contribution due to the hard sphere repulsion, a recently elaborated extended form of the fundamental measure functional is used, and coupling of Coulombic and short range hard-sphere repulsion is described by a traditional second-order functional perturbation expansion approximation. Comparison between the MC and DFT results indicates that validity interval of the traditional DFT approximation expands to high ion valences running up to 3 and size asymmetry high up to diameter ratio of 4 whether the high valence ions or the large size ion are co- or counter-ions; and to a high bulk electrolyte concentration being close to the upper limit of the electrolyte mole concentration the MC simulation can deal with well. The DFT accuracy dependence on the ion parameters can be self-consistently explained using arguments of liquid state theory, and new EDL phenomena such as overscreening effect due to monovalent counter-ions, extreme layering effect of counter-ions, and appearance of a depletion layer with almost no counter- and co-ions are observed.

  8. Thermal MEMS actuator operation in aqueous media/seawater: Performance enhancement through atomic layer deposition post processing of PolyMUMPs devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnat, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.warnat@dal.ca; Forbrigger, Cameron; Hubbard, Ted [Mechanical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (Canada); Bertuch, Adam; Sundaram, Ganesh [Ultratech Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts 02453 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    A method to enhance thermal microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuators in aqueous media by using dielectric encapsulation layers is presented. Aqueous media reduces the available mechanical energy of the thermal actuator through an electrical short between actuator structures. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} laminates with various thicknesses were deposited on packaged PolyMUMPs devices to electrically separate the actuator from the aqueous media. Atomic layer deposition was used to form an encapsulation layer around released MEMS structures and the package. The enhancement was assessed by the increase of the elastic energy, which is proportional to the mechanical stiffness of the actuator and the displacement squared. The mechanical stiffness of the encapsulated actuators compared with the noncoated actuators was increased by factors ranging from 1.45 (for 45 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 20 nm TiO{sub 2}) to 1.87 (for 90 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 40 nm TiO{sub 2}). Displacement measurements were made for all laminate combinations in filtered tap water and seawater by using FFT based displacement measurement technique with a repeatability of ∼10 nm. For all laminate structures, the elastic energy increased and enhanced the actuator performance: In seawater, the mechanical output energy increased by factors ranging from 5 (for 90 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to 11 (for 90 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 40 nm TiO{sub 2}). The authors also measured the long-term actuator stability/reliability in seawater. Samples were stored for 29 days in seawater and tested for 17 days in seawater. Laminates with TiO{sub 2} layers allowed constant operation over the entire measurement period.

  9. An application of random field theory to analysis of electron trapping sites in disordered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilczer, M.; Bartczak, W.M.

    1993-01-01

    The potential energy surface in a disordered medium is considered a random field and described using the concepts of the mathematical theory of random fields. The preexisting traps for excess electrons are identified with certain regions of excursion (extreme regions) of the potential field. The theory provides an analytical method of statistical analysis of these regions. Parameters of the cavity-averaged potential field, which are provided by computer simulation of a given medium, serve as input data for the analysis. The statistics of preexisting traps are obtained for liquid methanol as a numerical example of the random field method. 26 refs., 6 figs

  10. Effects of NAA and BAP, double-layered media, and light distance on in vitro regeneration of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (lotus), an aquatic edible plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmad, Noraini; Taha, Rosna Mat; Othman, Rashidi; Saleh, Azani; Hasbullah, Nor Azlina; Elias, Hashimah

    2014-01-01

    In vitro direct regeneration of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. was successfully achieved from immature explants (yellow plumule) cultured on a solid MS media supplemented with combinations of 0.5 mg/L BAP and 1.5 mg/L NAA which resulted in 16.00 ± 0.30 number of shoots per explant and exhibited a new characteristic of layered multiple shoots, while normal roots formed on the solid MS basal media. The double-layered media gave the highest number of shoots per explant with a ratio of 2 : 1 (liquid to solid) with a mean number of 16.67 ± 0.23 shoots per explant with the formation of primary and secondary roots from immature explants. In the study involving light distance, the tallest shoot (16.67 ± 0.23 mm) obtained from the immature explants was at a light distance of 200 mm from the source of inflorescent light (1000 lux). The plantlets were successfully acclimatized in clay loam soil after 8 months being maintained under in vitro conditions.

  11. The lobe to plasma sheet boundary layer transition: Theory and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriver, D.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Treumann, R.; Nakamura, M.; Kistler, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    The lobe and the plasma sheet boundary layer in the Earth's magnetotail are regions of different plasma conditions and share a common interface. The transition from the lobe to the plasma sheet boundary layer is examined here using AMPTE/IRM data. When the satellite crossed from the lobe to the plasma sheet boundary layer, intense narrow banded wave bursts at 1 kHz were observed an d then broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) immediately followed. Simultaneous with the onset of BEN, high energy earthward streaming proton beams at > 40 keV (> 2,700 km/s) were detected. These results are used as input into a numerical simulation to study ion beam instabilities in the PSBL

  12. Classical radiation theory of charged particles moving in electromagnetic fields in nonabsorbable isotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinovich, A.V.; Melnychuk, S.V.; Konstantinovich, I.A.

    2002-01-01

    The integral expressions for spectral-angular and spectral distributions of the radiation power of heterogeneous charged particles system moving on arbitrary trajectory in nonabsorbable isotropic media media with ε≠1 , μ≠1 are obtained using the Lorentz's self-interaction method. In this method a proper electromagnetic field, acting on electron, is defined as a semi difference between retarded and advanced potentials (Dirac, 1938). The power spectrum of Cherenkov radiation for the linear uniformly moving heterogeneous system of charged particles are obtained. It is found that the expression for the radiation power of heterogeneous system of charged particles becomes simplified when a system of charged particles is homogeneous. In this case the radiation power includes the coherent factor. It is shown what the redistribution effects in energy of the radiation spectrum of the studied system are caused by the coherent factor. The radiation spectrum of the system of electrons moving in a circle in this medium is discrete. The Doppler effect causes the appearance of the new harmonics for the system of electrons moving in a spiral. These harmonics form the region of continuous radiation spectrum. (authors)

  13. Probability theory for 3-layer remote sensing in ideal gas law environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Avishai; Davidson, Charles E

    2013-08-26

    We extend the probability model for 3-layer radiative transfer [Opt. Express 20, 10004 (2012)] to ideal gas conditions where a correlation exists between transmission and temperature of each of the 3 layers. The effect on the probability density function for the at-sensor radiances is surprisingly small, and thus the added complexity of addressing the correlation can be avoided. The small overall effect is due to (a) small perturbations by the correlation on variance population parameters and (b) cancellation of perturbation terms that appear with opposite signs in the model moment expressions.

  14. Density Functional Theory Calculations Revealing Metal-like Band Structures for Ultrathin Ge {111} and {211} Surface Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chih-Shan; Huang, Michael Hsuan-Yi

    2018-05-21

    To find out if germanium should also possess facet-dependent electrical conductivity properties, surface state density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed on 1-6 layers of Ge (100), (110), (111), and (211) planes. Tunable Ge (100) and (110) planes always present the same semiconducting band structure with a band gap of 0.67 eV expected of bulk germanium. In contrast, 1, 2, 4, and 5 layers of Ge (111) and (211) plane models show metal-like band structures with continuous density of states (DOS) throughout the entire band. For 3 and 6 layers of Ge (111) and (211) plane models, the normal semiconducting band structure was obtained. The plane layers with metal-like band structures also show Ge-Ge bond length deviations and bond distortions, as well as significantly different 4s and 4p frontier orbital electron count and their relative percentages integrated over the valence and conduction bands from those of the semiconducting state. These differences should contribute to strikingly dissimilar band structures. The calculation results suggest observation of facet-dependent electrical conductivity properties of germanium materials, and transistors made of germanium may also need to consider the facet effects with shrinking dimensions approaching 3 nm. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Prediction of adsorption from liquid mixtures in microporous media by the potential theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Shapiro, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Despite its industrial importance, adsorption from the liquid phase has been studied much less extensively than adsorption from the gas phase. In this paper, we study the adsorption of liquid mixtures on the basis of the multicomponent potential theory of adsorption (MPTA). The MPTA is based on t...

  16. Elevated temperature inelastic analysis of metallic media under time varying loads using state variable theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Mukherjee, S.

    1977-01-01

    In the present paper a general time-dependent inelastic analysis procedure for three-dimensional bodies subjected to arbitrary time varying mechanical and thermal loads using these state variable theories is presented. For the purpose of illustrations, the problems of hollow spheres, cylinders and solid circular shafts subjected to various combinations of internal and external pressures, axial force (or constraint) and torque are analyzed using the proposed solution procedure. Various cyclic thermal and mechanical loading histories with rectangular or sawtooth type waves with or without hold-time are considered. Numerical results for these geometrical shapes for various such loading histories are presented using Hart's theory (Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology 1976). The calculations are performed for nickel in the temperature range of 25 0 C to 400 0 C. For integrating forward in time, a method of solving a stiff system of ordinary differential equations is employed which corrects the step size and order of the method automatically. The limit loads for hollow spheres and cylinders are calculated using the proposed method and Hart's theory, and comparisons are made against the known theoretical results. The numerical results for other loading histories are discussed in the context of Hart's state variable type constitutive relations. The significance of phenomena such as strain rate sensitivity, Bauschinger's effect, crep recovery, history dependence and material softening with regard to these multiaxial problems are discussed in the context of Hart's theory

  17. GY SAMPLING THEORY AND GEOSTATISTICS: ALTERNATE MODELS OF VARIABILITY IN CONTINUOUS MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the sampling theory developed by Pierre Gy, sample variability is modeled as the sum of a set of seven discrete error components. The variogram used in geostatisties provides an alternate model in which several of Gy's error components are combined in a continuous mode...

  18. Structural and Optothermal Properties of Iron Ditelluride Layered Structures in the Framework of the Lattice Compatibility Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ben Messaoud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns structural and optothermal properties of iron ditelluride layered structures which were fabricated via a low-cost protocol. The main precursors were FeCl3 · 6H2O and Fe2O3. After a heat treatment within a tellurium-rich medium at various temperatures (470°C, 500°C, and 530°C during 24 h, classical analyses have been applied to the iron ditelluride layered structures. A good crystalline state with a preferential orientation of the crystallites along (111 direction has been recorded. Moreover, additional opto-thermal investigation and analyses within the framework of the Lattice Compatibility Theory gave plausible explanation for prompt temperature-dependent incorporation of tellurium element inside hematite elaborated matrices.

  19. On the contact values of the density profiles in an electric double layer using density functional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Bhuiyan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A recently proposed, local second contact value theorem [Henderson D., Boda D., J. Electroanal. Chem., 2005, Vol. 582, 16] for the charge profile of an electric double layer is used in conjunction with existing Monte Carlo data from the literature to assess the contact behavior of the electrode-ion distributions predicted by the density functional theory. The results for the contact values of the co- and counterion distributions and their product are obtained for the symmetric valency, restricted primitive model planar double layer for a range of electrolyte concentrations and temperatures. Overall the theoretical results satisfy the second contact value theorem reasonably well the agreement with the simulations being semi-quantitative or better. The product of the co- and counterion contact values as a function of the electrode surface charge density is qualitative with the simulations with increasing deviations at higher concentrations.

  20. On the Lagrangian description of unsteady boundary layer separation. Part 1: General theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandommelen, Leon L.; Cowley, Stephen J.

    1989-01-01

    Although unsteady, high-Reynolds number, laminar boundary layers have conventionally been studied in terms of Eulerian coordinates, a Lagrangian approach may have significant analytical and computational advantages. In Lagrangian coordinates the classical boundary layer equations decouple into a momentum equation for the motion parallel to the boundary, and a hyperbolic continuity equation (essentially a conserved Jacobian) for the motion normal to the boundary. The momentum equations, plus the energy equation if the flow is compressible, can be solved independently of the continuity equation. Unsteady separation occurs when the continuity equation becomes singular as a result of touching characteristics, the condition for which can be expressed in terms of the solution of the momentum equations. The solutions to the momentum and energy equations remain regular. Asymptotic structures for a number of unsteady 3-D separating flows follow and depend on the symmetry properties of the flow. In the absence of any symmetry, the singularity structure just prior to separation is found to be quasi 2-D with a displacement thickness in the form of a crescent shaped ridge. Physically the singularities can be understood in terms of the behavior of a fluid element inside the boundary layer which contracts in a direction parallel to the boundary and expands normal to it, thus forcing the fluid above it to be ejected from the boundary layer.

  1. On the Lagrangian description of unsteady boundary-layer separation. I - General theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dommelen, Leon L.; Cowley, Stephen J.

    1990-01-01

    Although unsteady, high-Reynolds number, laminar boundary layers have conventionally been studied in terms of Eulerian coordinates, a Lagrangian approach may have significant analytical and computational advantages. In Lagrangian coordinates the classical boundary layer equations decouple into a momentum equation for the motion parallel to the boundary, and a hyperbolic continuity equation (essentially a conserved Jacobian) for the motion normal to the boundary. The momentum equations, plus the energy equation if the flow is compressible, can be solved independently of the continuity equation. Unsteady separation occurs when the continuity equation becomes singular as a result of touching characteristics, the condition for which can be expressed in terms of the solution of the momentum equations. The solutions to the momentum and energy equations remain regular. Asymptotic structures for a number of unsteady 3-D separating flows follow and depend on the symmetry properties of the flow. In the absence of any symmetry, the singularity structure just prior to separation is found to be quasi 2-D with a displacement thickness in the form of a crescent shaped ridge. Physically the singularities can be understood in terms of the behavior of a fluid element inside the boundary layer which contracts in a direction parallel to the boundary and expands normal to it, thus forcing the fluid above it to be ejected from the boundary layer.

  2. Representation of Muharram Rituals in West Media; Semiotic Analysis of TotallyCoolPix Website’s Photos of Muharam and Ashura

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Movahed Majd; Zeinab Niknejat; Mohamadtaghi Abbasi shovazi

    2015-01-01

    Protecting and upholding the ideology of media authorities, photo can be considered a tool for communication and meaning-making. Also the social-artistic activities of photograpy paly a significant role in communication as any other media does. The representation theory excessively concerned with media analysis. It should be noted that semiotic method gives the ability to examine hidden layers of media contents such as picture. Based on The representation theory and semiotics techniques, this...

  3. The Role of Diffusion Media in Nitriding Process on Surface Layers Characteristics of AISI 4140 with and without Hard Chrome Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Widi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The surface layer characteristics of the AISI 4140 tool steel treated by nitriding gas before and after hard chrome plating utilizing pure nitrogen diffusion media (fluidized bed reactor and the without gas (muffle reactor has been studied experimentally. The result shows that nitriding substrate with hard chrome layers has nitrogen atoms concentration almost twice greater than that without hard chrome layers. After being given a hard chrome plating, nitriding on AISI 4140 steel generally has a nitrogen concentration of up to 4 times more than the substrate without hard chrome coating. Almost the entire specimen showed the highest concentration of N atoms in the area below the surface (hardening depth of 200 to 450 µm. N atoms diffusion depth profile has a correlation with hardening depth profile, especially on the specimens layered with hard chromium. The substrate without hard chrome plating tends to have higher surface hardness than the sub-surface. The results show that the effectiveness and efficiency of the gas nitriding diffusion process can be produced without the use of gas in the muffle reactor but the specimens must be hard chromium coated first. This phenomenon can be explained by the role of the passive layer formation that works as a barrier to keeps the spreading of N atoms concentrated in sub-surface areas.

  4. Modeling reactive transport in deformable porous media using the theory of interacting continua.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Daniel Zack

    2012-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the work done as part of an Early Career LDRD aimed at modeling flow induced damage of materials involving chemical reactions, deformation of the porous matrix, and complex flow phenomena. The numerical formulation is motivated by a mixture theory or theory of interacting continua type approach to coupling the behavior of the fluid and the porous matrix. Results for the proposed method are presented for several engineering problems of interest including carbon dioxide sequestration, hydraulic fracturing, and energetic materials applications. This work is intended to create a general framework for flow induced damage that can be further developed in each of the particular areas addressed below. The results show both convincing proof of the methodologies potential and the need for further validation of the models developed.

  5. The Use of Violence in Media: Economics of Violence, the Ideological Violence of Media and an Evaluation in Retrospect of Cultivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ömer ÖZER

    2017-01-01

    The main focus of this study is violence used in the media. Especially today for Turkey, the heavy use of violence in the media is an important problem. Indeed, the mass media coverage is loaded with violence. However, it is hard to say that so far there is enough research done on this issue. In the study, first, we showed that the researches done within the scope of effect problem do not provide adeaquate answers to the question of why media use so much violence. This is suitable fo...

  6. Application of a transitional boundary-layer theory in the low hypersonic Mach number regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation is made to assess the capability of a finite-difference boundary-layer procedure to predict the mean profile development across a transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the low hypersonic Mach-number regime. The boundary-layer procedure uses an integral form of the turbulence kinetic-energy equation to govern the development of the Reynolds apparent shear stress. The present investigation shows the ability of this procedure to predict Stanton number, velocity profiles, and density profiles through the transition region and, in addition, to predict the effect of wall cooling and Mach number on transition Reynolds number. The contribution of the pressure-dilatation term to the energy balance is examined and it is suggested that transition can be initiated by the direct absorption of acoustic energy even if only a small amount (1 per cent) of the incident acoustic energy is absorbed.

  7. A medium-independent variational macroscopic theory of two-phase porous media – Part I: Derivation of governing equations and stress partitioning laws

    OpenAIRE

    Serpieri , Roberto; Travascio , Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A macroscopic continuum theory of two-phase saturated porous media is derived by a purely variational deduction based on the least Action principle. The proposed theory proceeds from the consideration of a minimal set of kinematic descriptors and keeps a specific focus on the derivation of most general medium-independent governing equations, which have a form independent from the particular constitutive relations and thermodynamic constraints characterizing a specific medium. The kinematics o...

  8. Homoclinic behaviors and chaotic motions of double layered viscoelastic nanoplates based on nonlocal theory and extended Melnikov method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yi-Ze [School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, P. O. Box 137, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Feng-Ming, E-mail: fmli@bjut.edu.cn [School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, P. O. Box 137, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The nonlinear dynamical equations are established for the double layered viscoelastic nanoplates (DLNP) subjected to in-plane excitation based on the nonlocal theory and von Kármán large deformation theory. The extended high dimensional homoclinic Melnikov method is employed to study the homoclinic phenomena and chaotic motions for the parametrically excited DLNP system. The criteria for the homoclinic transverse intersection for both the asynchronous and synchronous buckling cases are proposed. Lyapunov exponents and phase portraits are obtained to verify the Melnikov-type analysis. The influences of structural parameters on the transverse homoclinic orbits and homoclinic bifurcation sets are discussed for the two buckling cases. Some novel phenomena are observed in the investigation. It should be noticed that the nonlocal effect on the homoclinic behaviors and chaotic motions is quite remarkable. Hence, the small scale effect should be taken into account for homoclinic and chaotic analysis for nanostructures. It is significant that the nonlocal effect on the homoclinic phenomena for the asynchronous buckling case is quite different from that for the synchronous buckling case. Moreover, due to the van der Walls interaction between the layers, the nonlocal effect on the homoclinic behaviors and chaotic motions for high order mode is rather tiny under the asynchronous buckling condition.

  9. Homoclinic behaviors and chaotic motions of double layered viscoelastic nanoplates based on nonlocal theory and extended Melnikov method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Feng-Ming; Wang, Yi-Ze

    2015-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamical equations are established for the double layered viscoelastic nanoplates (DLNP) subjected to in-plane excitation based on the nonlocal theory and von Kármán large deformation theory. The extended high dimensional homoclinic Melnikov method is employed to study the homoclinic phenomena and chaotic motions for the parametrically excited DLNP system. The criteria for the homoclinic transverse intersection for both the asynchronous and synchronous buckling cases are proposed. Lyapunov exponents and phase portraits are obtained to verify the Melnikov-type analysis. The influences of structural parameters on the transverse homoclinic orbits and homoclinic bifurcation sets are discussed for the two buckling cases. Some novel phenomena are observed in the investigation. It should be noticed that the nonlocal effect on the homoclinic behaviors and chaotic motions is quite remarkable. Hence, the small scale effect should be taken into account for homoclinic and chaotic analysis for nanostructures. It is significant that the nonlocal effect on the homoclinic phenomena for the asynchronous buckling case is quite different from that for the synchronous buckling case. Moreover, due to the van der Walls interaction between the layers, the nonlocal effect on the homoclinic behaviors and chaotic motions for high order mode is rather tiny under the asynchronous buckling condition.

  10. Unconventional Liquid Flow in Low-Permeability Media: Theory and Revisiting Darcy's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. H.; Chen, J.

    2017-12-01

    About 80% of fracturing fluid remains in shale formations after hydraulic fracturing and the flow back process. It is critical to understand and accurately model the flow process of fracturing fluids in a shale formation, because the flow has many practical applications for shale gas recovery. Owing to the strong solid-liquid interaction in low-permeability media, Darcy's law is not always adequate for describing liquid flow process in a shale formation. This non-Darcy flow behavior (characterized by nonlinearity of the relationship between liquid flux and hydraulic gradient), however, has not been given enough attention in the shale gas community. The current study develops a systematic methodology to address this important issue. We developed a phenomenological model for liquid flow in shale (in which liquid flux is a power function of pressure gradient), an extension of the conventional Darcy's law, and also a methodology to estimate parameters for the phenomenological model from spontaneous imbibition tests. The validity of our new developments is verified by satisfactory comparisons of theoretical results and observations from our and other research groups. The relative importance of this non-Darcy liquid flow for hydrocarbon production in unconventional reservoirs remains an issue that needs to be further investigated.

  11. Theory and simulation of time-fractional fluid diffusion in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcione, José M; Sanchez-Sesma, Francisco J; Gavilán, Juan J Perez; Luzón, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    We simulate a fluid flow in inhomogeneous anisotropic porous media using a time-fractional diffusion equation and the staggered Fourier pseudospectral method to compute the spatial derivatives. A fractional derivative of the order of 0 < ν < 2 replaces the first-order time derivative in the classical diffusion equation. It implies a time-dependent permeability tensor having a power-law time dependence, which describes memory effects and accounts for anomalous diffusion. We provide a complete analysis of the physics based on plane waves. The concepts of phase, group and energy velocities are analyzed to describe the location of the diffusion front, and the attenuation and quality factors are obtained to quantify the amplitude decay. We also obtain the frequency-domain Green function. The time derivative is computed with the Grünwald–Letnikov summation, which is a finite-difference generalization of the standard finite-difference operator to derivatives of fractional order. The results match the analytical solution obtained from the Green function. An example of the pressure field generated by a fluid injection in a heterogeneous sandstone illustrates the performance of the algorithm for different values of ν. The calculation requires storing the whole pressure field in the computer memory since anomalous diffusion ‘recalls the past’. (paper)

  12. Metal-like Band Structures of Ultrathin Si {111} and {112} Surface Layers Revealed through Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chih-Shan; Huang, Michael H

    2017-09-04

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed on Si (100), (110), (111), and (112) planes with tunable number of planes for evaluation of their band structures and density of states profiles. The purpose is to see whether silicon can exhibit facet-dependent properties derived from the presence of a thin surface layer having different band structures. No changes have been observed for single to multiple layers of Si (100) and (110) planes with a consistent band gap between the valence band and the conduction band. However, for 1, 2, 4, and 5 Si (111) and (112) planes, metal-like band structures were obtained with continuous density of states going from the valence band to the conduction band. For 3, 6, and more Si (111) planes, as well as 3 and 6 Si (112) planes, the same band structure as that seen for Si (100) and (110) planes has been obtained. Thus, beyond a layer thickness of five Si (111) planes at ≈1.6 nm, normal semiconductor behavior can be expected. The emergence of metal-like band structures for the Si (111) and (112) planes are related to variation in Si-Si bond length and bond distortion plus 3s and 3p orbital electron contributions in the band structure. This work predicts possession of facet-dependent electrical properties of silicon with consequences in FinFET transistor design. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A systematic comparison of different approaches of density functional theory for the study of electrical double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guomin; Liu, Longcheng

    2015-01-01

    Based on the best available knowledge of density functional theory (DFT), the reference-fluid perturbation method is here extended to yield different approaches that well account for the cross correlations between the Columbic interaction and the hard-sphere exclusion in an inhomogeneous ionic hard-sphere fluid. In order to quantitatively evaluate the advantage and disadvantage of different approaches in describing the interfacial properties of electrical double layers, this study makes a systematic comparison against Monte Carlo simulations over a wide range of conditions. The results suggest that the accuracy of the DFT approaches is well correlated to a coupling parameter that describes the coupling strength of electrical double layers by accounting for the steric effect and that can be used to classify the systems into two regimes. In the weak-coupling regime, the approaches based on the bulk-fluid perturbation method are shown to be more accurate than the counterparts based on the reference-fluid perturbation method, whereas they exhibit the opposite behavior in the strong-coupling regime. More importantly, the analysis indicates that, with a suitable choice of the reference fluid, the weighted correlation approximation (WCA) to DFT gives the best account of the coupling effect of the electrostatic-excluded volume correlations. As a result, a piecewise WCA approach can be developed that is robust enough to describe the structural and thermodynamic properties of electrical double layers over both weak- and strong-coupling regimes

  14. Theory of the Andreev reflection and the density of states in proximity contact normal-superconducting infinite double-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagato, Yasushi; Nagai, Katsuhiko

    1993-01-01

    Proximity contact N-S double-layer with infinite layer widths is studied in the clean limit. The finite reflection at the interface is taken into account. Starting from a recent theory of finite width double-layer by Ashida et al., the authors obtain explicit expressions for the quasi-classical Green's function which already satisfy the boundary condition and include no exploding terms at infinities. The self-consistent pair potentials are obtained numerically with sufficient accuracy. The Andreev reflection at the N-S interface is discussed on the basis of the self-consistent pair potential. It is shown that there exists a resonance state in a potential valley formed between the depressed pair potential and the partially reflecting interface, which leads to a peak of the Andreev reflection coefficient with the height unity slightly below the bulk superconductor energy gap. They also find general relationship between the Andreev reflection coefficient and the local density of states of the superconductor just at the interface

  15. Theory of the formation of the electric double layer at the ion exchange membrane-solution interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, A A

    2015-02-21

    This work aims to extend the study of the formation of the electric double layer at the interface defined by a solution and an ion-exchange membrane on the basis of the Nernst-Planck and Poisson equations, including different values of the counter-ion diffusion coefficient and the dielectric constant in the solution and membrane phases. The network simulation method is used to obtain the time evolution of the electric potential, the displacement electric vector, the electric charge density and the ionic concentrations at the interface between a binary electrolyte solution and a cation-exchange membrane with total co-ion exclusion. The numerical results for the temporal evolution of the interfacial electric potential and the surface electric charge are compared with analytical solutions derived in the limit of the shortest times by considering the Poisson equation for a simple cationic diffusion process. The steady-state results are justified from the Gouy-Chapman theory for the diffuse double layer in the limits of similar and high bathing ionic concentrations with respect to the fixed-charge concentration inside the membrane. Interesting new physical insights arise from the interpretation of the process of the formation of the electric double layer at the ion exchange membrane-solution interface on the basis of a membrane model with total co-ion exclusion.

  16. Classical density functional theory and Monte Carlo simulation study of electric double layer in the vicinity of a cylindrical electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiqi; Lamperski, Stanisław; Sokołowska, Marta

    2017-07-01

    We have performed extensive Monte-Carlo simulations and classical density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the electrical double layer (EDL) near a cylindrical electrode in a primitive model (PM) modified by incorporating interionic dispersion interactions. It is concluded that (i) in general, an unsophisticated use of the mean field (MF) approximation for the interionic dispersion interactions does not distinctly worsen the classical DFT performance, even if the salt ions considered are highly asymmetrical in size (3:1) and charge (5:1), the bulk molar concentration considered is high up to a total bulk ion packing fraction of 0.314, and the surface charge density of up to 0.5 C m-2. (ii) More specifically, considering the possible noises in the simulation, the local volume charge density profiles are the most accurately predicted by the classical DFT in all situations, and the co- and counter-ion singlet distributions are also rather accurately predicted; whereas the mean electrostatic potential profile is relatively less accurately predicted due to an integral amplification of minor inaccuracy of the singlet distributions. (iii) It is found that the layered structure of the co-ion distribution is abnormally possible only if the surface charge density is high enough (for example 0.5 C m-2) moreover, the co-ion valence abnormally influences the peak height of the first counter-ion layer, which decreases with the former. (iv) Even if both the simulation and DFT indicate an insignificant contribution of the interionic dispersion interaction to the above three ‘local’ quantities, it is clearly shown by the classical DFT that the interionic dispersion interaction does significantly influence a ‘global’ quantity like the cylinder surface-aqueous electrolyte interfacial tension, and this may imply the role of the interionic dispersion interaction in explaining the specific Hofmeister effects. We elucidate all of the above observations based on the

  17. Theory of lidar method for measurement of the modulation transfer function of water layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolin, Lev S

    2013-01-10

    We develop a method to evaluate the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a water layer from the characteristics of lidar signal backscattered by water volume. We propose several designs of a lidar system for remote measurement of the MTF and the procedure to determine optical properties of water using the measured MTF. We discuss a laser system for sea-bottom imaging that accounts for the influence of water slab on the image structure and allows for correction of image distortions caused by light scattering in water. © 2013 Optical Society of America

  18. Experiences gained in testing a theory for modelling groundwater flow in heterogeneous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; R.L., Cooley

    2003-01-01

    Usually, small-scale model error is present in groundwater modelling because the model only represents average system characteristics having the same form as the drift and small-scale variability is neglected. These errors cause the true errors of a regression model to be correlated. Theory...... and an example show that the errors also contribute to bias in the estimates of model parameters. This bias originates from model nonlinearity. In spite of this bias, predictions of hydraulic head are nearly unbiased if the model intrinsic nonlinearity is small. Individual confidence and prediction intervals...... are accurate if the t-statistic is multiplied by a correction factor. The correction factor can be computed from the true error second moment matrix, which can be determined when the stochastic properties of the system characteristics are known....

  19. Single-layer model for surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniglia, C K; Jensen, D G

    2002-06-01

    Random roughness of an optical surface reduces its specular reflectance and transmittance by the scattering of light. The reduction in reflectance can be modeled by a homogeneous layer on the surface if the refractive index of the layer is intermediate to the indices of the media on either side of the surface. Such a layer predicts an increase in the transmittance of the surface and therefore does not provide a valid model for the effects of scatter on the transmittance. Adding a small amount of absorption to the layer provides a model that predicts a reduction in both reflectance and transmittance. The absorbing layer model agrees with the predictions of a scalar scattering theory for a layer with a thickness that is twice the rms roughness of the surface. The extinction coefficient k for the layer is proportional to the thickness of the layer.

  20. Theory of coherent c-axis Josephson tunneling between layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G. B.; Klemm, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    We calculate exactly the Josephson current for c-axis coherent tunneling between two layered superconductors, each with internal coherent tight-binding intra- and interlayer quasiparticle dispersions. Our results also apply when one or both of the superconductors is a bulk material, and include the usually neglected effects of surface states. For weak tunneling, our results reduce to our previous results derived using the tunneling Hamiltonian. Our results are also correct for strong tunneling. However, the c-axis tunneling expressions of Tanaka and Kashiwaya are shown to be incorrect in any limit. In addition, we consider the c-axis coherent critical current between two identical layered superconductors twisted an angle φ 0 about the c axis with respect to each other. Regardless of the order-parameter symmetry, our coherent tunneling results using a tight-binding intralayer quasiparticle dispersion are inconsistent with the recent c-axis twist bicrystal Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ twist junction experiments of Li et al. [Li et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4160 (1999)]. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  1. Detecting the chaotic nature in a transitional boundary layer using symbolic information-theory quantifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Liu, Peiqing; Guo, Hao; Wang, Jinjun

    2017-11-01

    The permutation entropy and the statistical complexity are employed to study the boundary-layer transition induced by the surface roughness. The velocity signals measured in the transition process are analyzed with these symbolic quantifiers, as well as the complexity-entropy causality plane, and the chaotic nature of the instability fluctuations is identified. The frequency of the dominant fluctuations has been found according to the time scales corresponding to the extreme values of the symbolic quantifiers. The laminar-turbulent transition process is accompanied by the evolution in the degree of organization of the complex eddy motions, which is also characterized with the growing smaller and flatter circles in the complexity-entropy causality plane. With the help of the permutation entropy and the statistical complexity, the differences between the chaotic fluctuations detected in the experiments and the classical Tollmien-Schlichting wave are shown and discussed. It is also found that the chaotic features of the instability fluctuations can be approximated with a number of regular sine waves superimposed on the fluctuations of the undisturbed laminar boundary layer. This result is related to the physical mechanism in the generation of the instability fluctuations, which is the noise-induced chaos.

  2. Theory and observations of upward field-aligned currents at the magnetopause boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Simon; Johnson, Jay R

    2015-11-16

    The dependence of the upward field-aligned current density ( J ‖ ) at the dayside magnetopause boundary layer is well described by a simple analytic model based on a velocity shear generator. A previous observational survey confirmed that the scaling properties predicted by the analytical model are applicable between 11 and 17 MLT. We utilize the analytic model to predict field-aligned currents using solar wind and ionospheric parameters and compare with direct observations. The calculated and observed parallel currents are in excellent agreement, suggesting that the model may be useful to infer boundary layer structures. However, near noon, where velocity shear is small, the kinetic pressure gradients and thermal currents, which are not included in the model, could make a small but significant contribution to J ‖ . Excluding data from noon, our least squares fit returns log( J ‖,max_cal ) = (0.96 ± 0.04) log( J ‖_obs ) + (0.03 ± 0.01) where J ‖,max_cal = calculated J ‖,max and J ‖_obs = observed J ‖ .

  3. Estimating amplitude ratios in boundary layer stability theory: a comparison between two approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Rama; Narasimha, R.

    2001-07-01

    We first demonstrate that, if the contributions of higher-order mean flow are ignored, the parabolized stability equations (Bertolotti et al. 1992) and the ‘full’ non-parallel equation of Govindarajan & Narasimha (1995, hereafter GN95) are both equivalent to order R[minus sign]1 in the local Reynolds number R to Gaster's (1974) equation for the stability of spatially developing boundary layers. It is therefore of some concern that a detailed comparison between Gaster (1974) and GN95 reveals a small difference in the computed amplitude ratios. Although this difference is not significant in practical terms in Blasius flow, it is traced here to the approximation, in Gaster's method, of neglecting the change in eigenfunction shape due to flow non-parallelism. This approximation is not justified in the critical and the wall layers, where the neglected term is respectively O(R[minus sign]2/3) and O(R[minus sign]1) compared to the largest term. The excellent agreement of GN95 with exact numerical simulations, on the other hand, suggests that the effect of change in eigenfunction is accurately taken into account in that paper.

  4. Elasticity Theory Solution of the Problem on Plane Bending of a Narrow Layered Cantilever Beam by Loads at Its Free End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryk, A. V.; Koval'chuk, S. B.

    2018-05-01

    An exact elasticity theory solution for the problem on plane bending of a narrow layered composite cantilever beam by tangential and normal loads distributed on its free end is presented. Components of the stress-strain state are found for the whole layers package by directly integrating differential equations of the plane elasticity theory problem by using an analytic representation of piecewise constant functions of the mechanical characteristics of layer materials. The continuous solution obtained is realized for a four-layer beam with account of kinematic boundary conditions simulating the rigid fixation of its one end. The solution obtained allows one to predict the strength and stiffness of composite cantilever beams and to construct applied analytical solutions for various problems on the elastic bending of layered beams.

  5. Focusing on media body ideal images triggers food intake among restrained eaters: a test of restraint theory and the elaboration likelihood model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

    2014-04-01

    Although research consistently shows that images of thin women in the media (media body ideals) affect women negatively (e.g., increased weight dissatisfaction and food intake), this effect is less clear among restrained eaters. The majority of experiments demonstrate that restrained eaters - identified with the Restraint Scale - consume more food than do other participants after viewing media body ideal images; whereas a minority of experiments suggest that such images trigger restrained eaters' dietary restraint. Weight satisfaction and mood results are just as variable. One reason for these inconsistent results might be that different methods of image exposure (e.g., slideshow vs. film) afford varying levels of attention. Therefore, we manipulated attention levels and measured participants' weight satisfaction and food intake. We based our hypotheses on the elaboration likelihood model and on restraint theory. We hypothesised that advertent (i.e., processing the images via central routes of persuasion) and inadvertent (i.e., processing the images via peripheral routes of persuasion) exposure would trigger differing degrees of weight dissatisfaction and dietary disinhibition among restrained eaters (cf. restraint theory). Participants (N = 174) were assigned to one of four conditions: advertent or inadvertent exposure to media or control images. The dependent variables were measured in a supposedly unrelated study. Although restrained eaters' weight satisfaction was not significantly affected by either media exposure condition, advertent (but not inadvertent) media exposure triggered restrained eaters' eating. These results suggest that teaching restrained eaters how to pay less attention to media body ideal images might be an effective strategy in media-literary interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrosynthesized Ni-Al Layered Double Hydroxide-Pt Nanoparticles as an Inorganic Nanocomposite and Potentate Anodic Material for Methanol Electrooxidation in Alkaline Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biuck Habibi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ni-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH-Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs as an inorganic nano-composite was electrosynthesized on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE by a facile and fast two-step electrochemical process. Structure and physicochemical properties of PtNPs/Ni-Al LDH/GCE were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and electrochemical methods. Then, electrocatalytic and stability characterizations of the PtNPs/Ni-Al LDH/GCE for methanol oxidation in alkaline media were investigated in detail by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and chronopotentiometry measurements. PtNPs/Ni-Al LDH/GCE exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity than PtNPs/GCE and Ni-Al LDH/GCE. Also, the resulted chronoam-perograms indicated that the PtNPs/Ni-Al LDH/GCE has a better stability. Copyright © 2017 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 30th March 2016; Revised: 29th July 2016; Accepted: 9th September 2016 How to Cite: Habibi, B., Ghaderi, S. (2017. Electro Synthesized Ni-Al Layered Double Hydroxide-Pt Nanoparticles as an Inorganic Nanocomposite and Potentate Anodic Material for Methanol Electro-Oxidation in Alkaline Media. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12(1: 1-13 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.1.460.1-13 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.1.460.1-13

  7. Coupled Hydromechanical and Electromagnetic Responses in Unsaturated Porous Media: Theory, Observation, and Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahardika, Harry

    Hydromechanical energy can be partially converted into electromagnetic energy due to electrokinetic effect, where mechanical energy causes the relative displacement of the charged pore water with respect to the solid skeleton of the porous material and generated electrical current density. An application of this phenomenon is seismoelectric method, a geophysical method in which electromagnetic signals are recorded and associated with the propagation of seismic waves. Due to its coupling nature, seismoelectric method promises advantages in characterizing the subsurface properties and geometry compared to independent employments of seismic or electromagnetic acquisition alone. Since the recorded seismoelectric signal are sensitive to water content changes this method have been applied for groundwater studies to delineates vadoze zone-aquifer boundary since the last twenty years. The problem, however, the existing governing equations of coupled seismic and electromagnetic are not accounted for unsaturated conditions and its petrophysical sensitivity to water content. In this thesis we extend the applications of seismoelectric method for unsaturated porous medium for several geophysical problems. (1) We begin our study with numerical study to localize and characterize a seismic event induced by hydraulic fracturing operation sedimentary rocks. In this problem, we use the fully-saturated case of seismoelectric method and we propose a new joint inversion scheme (seismic and seismoelectric) to determine the position and moment tensor that event. (2) We expand the seismoelectric theory for unsaturated condition and show that the generation of electrical current density are depend on several important petrophysical properties that are sensitive to water content. This new expansion of governing equation provide us theory for developing a new approach for seismoelectric method to image the oil water encroachment front during water flooding of an oil reservoir or an aquifer

  8. Quantum theory of opto-electric processes in multi-layered periodic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniyazov, Sh.K.; Muratov, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Physical model of contact of layered structures was constructed, supposing that it is built on the basis of two molecules with different polarisation and charge states. Taking into account an electronic gas in the contact region, Thomas-Fermi's equation was solved. An instant potential energy of one electron was obtained in the induction gradient force field arisen in the electron gas. Having substituted this potential energy with the potential of harmonic oscillator, formula was derived for calculating the main vibration frequency of oscillator vibration, as well as its energetic levels were obtained. It was shown that at the certain frequencies of monochromatic light signal the photo electromotive force changes it's sign. Such switching at the definite polarisation values is possible in two different frequencies. Note, the photo-switchers, that have two or three steady states, are of great interest in optoelectronic communications. (author)

  9. Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Silicate Matrix for Applications in Effective Media Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Lukáš; Jerman, Miloš; Reiterman, Pavel; Černý, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Silicate materials have an irreplaceable role in the construction industry. They are mainly represented by cement-based- or lime-based materials, such as concrete, cement mortar, or lime plaster, and consist of three phases: the solid matrix and air and water present in the pores. Therefore, their effective thermal conductivity depends on thermal conductivities of the involved phases. Due to the time-consuming experimental determination of the effective thermal conductivity, its calculation by means of homogenization techniques presents a reasonable alternative. In the homogenization theory, both volumetric content and particular property of each phase need to be identified. For porous materials the most problematic part is to accurately identify thermal conductivity of the solid matrix. Due to the complex composition of silicate materials, the thermal conductivity of the matrix can be determined only approximately, based on the knowledge of thermal conductivities of its major compounds. In this paper, the thermal conductivity of silicate matrix is determined using the measurement of a sufficiently large set of experimental data. Cement pastes with different open porosities are prepared, dried, and their effective thermal conductivity is determined using a transient heat-pulse method. The thermal conductivity of the matrix is calculated by means of extrapolation of the effective thermal conductivity versus porosity functions to zero porosity. Its practical applicability is demonstrated by calculating the effective thermal conductivity of a three-phase silicate material and comparing it with experimental data.

  10. Macrotransport processes: Brownian tracers as stochastic averagers in effective medium theories of heterogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, H.

    1991-01-01

    Macrotransport processes (generalized Taylor dispersion phenomena) constitute coarse-grained descriptions of comparable convective diffusive-reactive microtransport processes, the latter supposed governed by microscale linear constitutive equations and boundary conditions, but characterized by spatially nonuniform phenomenological coefficients. Following a brief review of existing applications of the theory, the author focuses - by way of background information-upon the original (and now classical) Taylor - Aris dispersion problem, involving the combined convective and molecular diffusive transport of a point-size Brownian solute molecule (tracer) suspended in a Poiseuille solvent flow within a circular tube. A series of elementary generalizations of this prototype problem to chromatographic-like solute transport processes in tubes is used to illustrate some novel statistical-physical features. These examples emphasize the fact that a solute molecule may, on average, move axially down the tube at a different mean velocity (either larger or smaller) than that of a solvent molecule. Moreover, this solute molecule may suffer axial dispersion about its mean velocity at a rate greatly exceeding that attributable to its axial molecular diffusion alone. Such chromatographic anomalies represent novel macroscale non-linearities originating from physicochemical interactions between spatially inhomogeneous convective-diffusive-reactive microtransport processes

  11. Renormalization group theory outperforms other approaches in statistical comparison between upscaling techniques for porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan; Agarwal, Umang; Tandon, Kunj; Koelman, J. M. Vianney A.

    2017-09-01

    Determining the pressure differential required to achieve a desired flow rate in a porous medium requires solving Darcy's law, a Laplace-like equation, with a spatially varying tensor permeability. In various scenarios, the permeability coefficient is sampled at high spatial resolution, which makes solving Darcy's equation numerically prohibitively expensive. As a consequence, much effort has gone into creating upscaled or low-resolution effective models of the coefficient while ensuring that the estimated flow rate is well reproduced, bringing to the fore the classic tradeoff between computational cost and numerical accuracy. Here we perform a statistical study to characterize the relative success of upscaling methods on a large sample of permeability coefficients that are above the percolation threshold. We introduce a technique based on mode-elimination renormalization group theory (MG) to build coarse-scale permeability coefficients. Comparing the results with coefficients upscaled using other methods, we find that MG is consistently more accurate, particularly due to its ability to address the tensorial nature of the coefficients. MG places a low computational demand, in the manner in which we have implemented it, and accurate flow-rate estimates are obtained when using MG-upscaled permeabilities that approach or are beyond the percolation threshold.

  12. Modelling of deformation process for the layer of elastoviscoplastic media under surface action of periodic force of arbitrary type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheyev, V. V.; Saveliev, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    Description of deflected mode for different types of materials under action of external force plays special role for wide variety of applications - from construction mechanics to circuits engineering. This article con-siders the problem of plastic deformation of the layer of elastoviscolastic soil under surface periodic force. The problem was solved with use of the modified lumped parameters approach which takes into account close to real distribution of normal stress in the depth of the layer along with changes in local mechanical properties of the material taking place during plastic deformation. Special numeric algorithm was worked out for computer modeling of the process. As an example of application suggested algorithm was realized for the deformation of the layer of elasoviscoplastic material by the source of external lateral force with the parameters of real technological process of soil compaction.

  13. A manifestly reciprocal theory of scattering in the presence of elastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurmser, D.

    1996-01-01

    The role of elastic waves in the scattering problem is examined in the context of modern field theory. This effort builds upon a previously published, and since successfully applied formalism for solving the acoustic and electromagnetic scattering problems. It specifically addresses the scattering of acoustic waves from a fluid-solid interface, as well as the scattering of elastodynamic waves from surfaces satisfying the zero-displacement, stress-free, and solid endash solid boundary conditions. Expressions for the change in the scattering amplitude due to a perturbation in the scattering surface are derived directly from the requirement of time reversal symmetry (also known as reciprocity). These results constitute formal statements of the composite (or two-scale) model. In a typical application, the perturbation usually corresponds to Bragg scattering and is treated statistically, while the reference surface provides tilt, shadowing, and multiple scattering, and is usually treated deterministically. Used in this way, the new formalism effectively allows existing numerical and operator expansion methods to be used to calculate the scattering from rougher and/or higher dimensional surfaces than would otherwise be possible. An alternate application of the formalism is illustrated using the fluid-solid boundary as an example. A new manifestly reciprocal expression for the scattering amplitude is presented, as are the small slope and open-quote open-quote local close-quote close-quote two-scale approximations for this problem. (By local, it is meant that only local phenomena such as the tilt of the reference surface are automatically included. However, since the result is manifestly reciprocal, it is fairly straightforward to incorporate a non-local effect such as shadowing.) During the course of the discussion, the classical scattering problem is reexamined from an entirely new perspective

  14. Time-dependent density functional theory for the charging kinetics of electric double layer containing room-temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Cheng; Zhao, Shuangliang; Liu, Honglai; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-11-28

    Understanding the charging kinetics of electric double layers is of fundamental importance for the design and development of novel electrochemical devices such as supercapacitors and field-effect transistors. In this work, we study the dynamic behavior of room-temperature ionic liquids using a classical time-dependent density functional theory that accounts for the molecular excluded volume effects, the electrostatic correlations, and the dispersion forces. While the conventional models predict a monotonic increase of the surface charge with time upon application of an electrode voltage, our results show that dispersion between ions results in a non-monotonic increase of the surface charge with the duration of charging. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of van der Waals attraction between electrode/ionic-liquid interactions on the charging processes.

  15. What Do Preservice Teachers Think about Teaching Media Literacy? An Exploratory Study Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretter, Sarah; Yadav, Aman

    2018-01-01

    Despite the numerous benefits of media & information literacy for students in today's digital society, the lack of teacher preparation in teaching media and information literacy skills suggests a gap between the societal rationale for students becoming media literate and the sustainable preparation of teachers. The purpose of this exploratory…

  16. An efficient spatial spectral integral-equation method for EM scattering from finite objects in layered media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dilz, R.J.; van Beurden, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a mixed spatial spectral method aimed directly at aperiodic, finite scatterers in a layered medium. By using a Gabor frame to discretize the problem a straightforward and fast way to Fourier transform is available. The poles and branchcuts in the spectral-domain Green function can be

  17. Modeling and inversion of PS-wave moveout asymmetry for tilted TI media: Part 1 - Horizontal TTI layer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dewangan, P.; Tsvankin, I.

    when the symmetry axis deviates by 20 degrees-30 degrees from the vertical horizontal direction. All relevant parameters of a TTI layer can be estimated by nonlinear inversion of the NMO velocities and zero-offset traveltimes of PP- and SS-(SVSV) waves...

  18. MODERN MEDIA EDUCATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The author supposed that media education models can be divided into the following groups:- educational-information models (the study of the theory, history, language of media culture, etc., based on the cultural, aesthetic, semiotic, socio-cultural theories of media education;- educational-ethical models (the study of moral, religions, philosophical problems relying on the ethic, religious, ideological, ecological, protectionist theories of media education;- pragmatic models (practical media technology training, based on the uses and gratifications and ‘practical’ theories of media education;- aesthetical models (aimed above all at the development of the artistic taste and enriching the skills of analysis of the best media culture examples. Relies on the aesthetical (art and cultural studies theory; - socio-cultural models (socio-cultural development of a creative personality as to the perception, imagination, visual memory, interpretation analysis, autonomic critical thinking, relying on the cultural studies, semiotic, ethic models of media education.

  19. An Laudau-Lifschitz theory based algorithm on calculating post-buckling configuration of a rod buckling in elastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shicheng; Tan, Likun; Hu, Nan; Grover, Hannah; Chu, Kevin; Chen, Zi

    This reserach introduces a new numerical approach of calculating the post-buckling configuration of a thin rod embedded in elastic media. The theoretical base is the governing ODEs describing the balance of forces and moments, the length conservation, and the physics of bending and twisting by Laudau and Lifschitz. The numerical methods applied in the calculation are continuation method and Newton's method of iteration in combination with spectrum method. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first trial of directly applying the L-L theory to numerically studying the phenomenon of rod buckling in elastic medium. This method accounts for nonlinearity of geometry, thus is capable of calculating large deformation. The stability of this method is another advantage achieved by expressing the governing equations in a set of first-order derivative form. The wave length, amplitude, and decay effect all agree with the experiment without any further assumptions. This program can be applied to different occasions with varying stiffness of the elastic medai and rigidity of the rod.

  20. Fundamental measure theory for the electric double layer: implications for blue-energy harvesting and water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Härtel, Andreas; Janssen, Mathijs; Samin, Sela; Roij, René van

    2015-01-01

    Capacitive mixing (CAPMIX) and capacitive deionization (CDI) are promising candidates for harvesting clean, renewable energy and for the energy efficient production of potable water, respectively. Both CAPMIX and CDI involve water-immersed porous carbon (supercapacitors) electrodes at voltages of the order of hundreds of millivolts, such that counter-ionic packing is important for the electric double layer (EDL) which forms near the surfaces of these porous materials. Thus, we propose a density functional theory (DFT) to model the EDL, where the White-Bear mark II fundamental measure theory functional is combined with a mean-field Coulombic and a mean spherical approximation-type correction to describe the interplay between dense packing and electrostatics, in good agreement with molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss the concentration-dependent potential rise due to changes in the chemical potential in capacitors in the context of an over-ideal theoretical description and its impact on energy harvesting and water desalination. Compared to less elaborate mean-field models our DFT calculations reveal a higher work output for blue-energy cycles and a higher energy demand for desalination cycles. (paper)

  1. Modern Media Education Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The author supposed that media education models can be divided into the following groups: (1) educational-information models (the study of the theory, history, language of media culture, etc.), based on the cultural, aesthetic, semiotic, socio-cultural theories of media education; (2) educational-ethical models (the study of moral, religions,…

  2. Detuned resonances of Tollmien-Schlichting waves in an airfoil boundary layer: Experiment, theory, and direct numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würz, W.; Sartorius, D.; Kloker, M.; Borodulin, V. I.; Kachanov, Y. S.; Smorodsky, B. V.

    2012-09-01

    Transition prediction in two-dimensional laminar boundary layers developing on airfoil sections at subsonic speeds and very low turbulence levels is still a challenge. The commonly used semi-empirical prediction tools are mainly based on linear stability theory and do not account for nonlinear effects present unavoidably starting with certain stages of transition. One reason is the lack of systematic investigations of the weakly nonlinear stages of transition, especially of the strongest interactions of the instability modes predominant in non-self-similar boundary layers. The present paper is devoted to the detailed experimental, numerical, and theoretical study of weakly nonlinear subharmonic resonances of Tollmien-Schlichting waves in an airfoil boundary layer, representing main candidates for the strongest mechanism of these initial nonlinear stages. The experimental approach is based on phase-locked hot-wire measurements under controlled disturbance conditions using a new disturbance source being capable to produce well-defined, complex wave compositions in a wide range of streamwise and spanwise wave numbers. The tests were performed in a low-turbulence wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of Re = 0.7 × 106. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) were utilized to provide a detailed comparison for the test cases. The results of weakly nonlinear theory (WNT) enabled a profound understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms observed in the experiments and DNS. The data obtained in experiment, DNS and WNT agree basically and provide a high degree of reliability of the results. Interactions occurring between components of various initial frequency-wavenumber spectra of instability waves are investigated by systematic variation of parameters. It is shown that frequency-detuned and spanwise-wavenumber-detuned subharmonic-type resonant interactions have an extremely large spectral width. Similar to results obtained for self-similar base flows it is found that the

  3. The DC field components of horizontal and vertical electric dipole sources immersed in three-layered stratified media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Llanwyn Jones

    Full Text Available Formulas for computing the Cartesian components of the static (DC fields of horizontal electric dipoles ( HEDs and vertical electric dipoles ( VEDs located in the central zone of a three-layer horizontally stratified medium are derived and presented in a summary form suitable for immediate computation. Formulas are given for the electric and magnetic field components in the upper and central regions. In the general case the computation involves the summation of a convergent infinite series. For the particular case of an infinitely thick central region (corresponding to the two-layer problem, the analysis produces relatively simple closed-form equations for the field components which are suitable for a 'hand calculation'. Specimen calculations for dipoles in seawaters are included and the derived results are compared with computations made using an ac model.

  4. The DC field components of horizontal and vertical electric dipole sources immersed in three-layered stratified media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Llanwyn Jones

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Formulas for computing the Cartesian components of the static (DC fields of horizontal electric dipoles ( HEDs and vertical electric dipoles ( VEDs located in the central zone of a three-layer horizontally stratified medium are derived and presented in a summary form suitable for immediate computation. Formulas are given for the electric and magnetic field components in the upper and central regions. In the general case the computation involves the summation of a convergent infinite series. For the particular case of an infinitely thick central region (corresponding to the two-layer problem, the analysis produces relatively simple closed-form equations for the field components which are suitable for a 'hand calculation'. Specimen calculations for dipoles in seawaters are included and the derived results are compared with computations made using an ac model.

  5. METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LAYER OF GRANULAR MEDIA WITH ELEMENTS OF PULSED THERMAL NDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Shokina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Department of Food Production of Murmansk State Technical University (MSTU was developed a method of producing smoke fuel using infrared energy supply. The method provides a stable temperature pyrolysis of wood fuel is less than 400 ° C. Kinetic of the heating layer of fuel (wooden chips is affected by chip's density and moisture content. The method of calculating of the optimum modes of smoke produce, which is based on a system of differential equations of heat and mass transfer in the IR smoke generator, was previously proposed. The system of equations includes thermal characteristics (TC of the fuel layer (e.g. specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity. The exact definition of these characteristics affect the accuracy of the experimental calculation of optimal process conditions with use of the developed software. A definition of layer's TC by a method with elements of pulsed thermal NDT. The use of thermal imager is proposed for measuring the temperature of the irritated surface of the porous wooden chip's lawyer.

  6. Reduction of intergranular exchange coupling and grain size for high Ku CoPt-based granular media: Metal-oxide buffer layer and multiple oxide boundary materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kong Tham

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of magnetic properties and microstructure of granular media with various multiple oxides as the grain boundary material is reported. Saturation magnetization (Ms, uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Ku, and magnetic grain diameter (GD of the granular media show linear correlation with volume weighted average for melting point (Tm of each oxides (Tmave. Ku of magnetic grains (Kugrain shows a trade-off relation with GD that it is a big challenge to satisfy both high Kugrain and small GD by only controlling Tmave. To obtain a granular medium with appropriate Kugrain, GD, and low degree of intergranular exchange coupling, the combination of Tmave control of grain boundary material by mixing oxides and employment of a buffer layer are required. Here the degree of intergranular exchange coupling is estimated from the slope of M-H loop at around coercivity (α. By applying this technique, a typical granular medium with Kugrain of 1.0×107 erg/cm3, GD of 5.1 nm, and α of 1.2 is realized.

  7. Reduction of intergranular exchange coupling and grain size for high Ku CoPt-based granular media: Metal-oxide buffer layer and multiple oxide boundary materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Kim Kong; Kushibiki, Ryosuke; Kamada, Tomonari; Hinata, Shintaro; Saito, Shin

    2018-05-01

    Investigation of magnetic properties and microstructure of granular media with various multiple oxides as the grain boundary material is reported. Saturation magnetization (Ms), uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Ku), and magnetic grain diameter (GD) of the granular media show linear correlation with volume weighted average for melting point (Tm) of each oxides (Tmave). Ku of magnetic grains (Kugrain) shows a trade-off relation with GD that it is a big challenge to satisfy both high Kugrain and small GD by only controlling Tmave. To obtain a granular medium with appropriate Kugrain, GD, and low degree of intergranular exchange coupling, the combination of Tmave control of grain boundary material by mixing oxides and employment of a buffer layer are required. Here the degree of intergranular exchange coupling is estimated from the slope of M-H loop at around coercivity (α). By applying this technique, a typical granular medium with Kugrain of 1.0×107 erg/cm3, GD of 5.1 nm, and α of 1.2 is realized.

  8. Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamnes, Knut; Tsay, S.-CHEE; Jayaweera, Kolf; Wiscombe, Warren

    1988-01-01

    The transfer of monochromatic radiation in a scattering, absorbing, and emitting plane-parallel medium with a specified bidirectional reflectivity at the lower boundary is considered. The equations and boundary conditions are summarized. The numerical implementation of the theory is discussed with attention given to the reliable and efficient computation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Ways of avoiding fatal overflows and ill-conditioning in the matrix inversion needed to determine the integration constants are also presented.

  9. The Use of Interactive Media Ispring Suite 8 Supported by Google SketchUp to Improve Students’ Geometry Skills Based on Hoffer’s Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwijayanti, A.; Budiyono; Fitriana, L.

    2018-04-01

    The basic Geometry skills are needed by the students to solve the geometrical tasks in daily life. There are five aspects of the Geometry ability based on the Hoffer’s theory. They are visual, verbal, drawing, logical, and application. These are the abilities that the students in junior high school level need to master. The purpose of this study is to find out and describe the effectiveness of the interactive media supported by Google SketchUp to improve the students’ basic Geometry skills based on Hoffer’s theory. The subject in this research is 30 students from class 9E in Junior High School of Mojogedang 1, Karanganyar regency. This study uses a pre-test and post-test experiment and analyzed with the t-test hypothesis with the significant level of 5%. The result of this study can be seen from the diffeence average score between the pre-test and post-test, which shows a significance difference. It means that through the interactive media supported by Google SketchUp, the students’ five basic abilities are improved. Therefore, it can be concluded that the interactive media supported by Google SketchUp is potential and can be used to help the students in improving their basic Geometry skills based on Hoffer’s theory.

  10. Detection of Entrainment Influences on Surface-Layer Measurements and Extension of Monin–Obukhov Similarity Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, van de A.; Moene, A.F.; Graf, A.; Schüttemeyer, D.; Simmer, C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to detect influences of boundary-layer processes on surface-layer measurements, using statistics and spectra of surface-layer variables only. We validated our detection method with boundary-layer measurements. Furthermore, we confirm that Monin–Obukhov similarity functions fit

  11. Density functional theory study of chemical sensing on surfaces of single-layer MoS2 and graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, F.; Pachter, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to investigate chemical sensing on surfaces of single-layer MoS 2 and graphene, considering the adsorption of the chemical compounds triethylamine, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, methanol, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, o-nitrotoluene, o-dichlorobenzene, and 1,5-dicholoropentane. Physisorption of the adsorbates on free-standing surfaces was analyzed in detail for optimized material structures, considering various possible adsorption sites. Similar adsorption characteristics for the two surface types were demonstrated, where inclusion of a correction to the DFT functional for London dispersion was shown to be important to capture interactions at the interface of molecular adsorbate and surface. Charge transfer analyses for adsorbed free-standing surfaces generally demonstrated very small effects. However, charge transfer upon inclusion of the underlying SiO 2 substrate rationalized experimental observations for some of the adsorbates considered. A larger intrinsic response for the electron-donor triethylamine adsorbed on MoS 2 as compared to graphene was demonstrated, which may assist in devising chemical sensors for improved sensitivity

  12. A photoemission moments model using density functional and transfer matrix methods applied to coating layers on surfaces: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kevin L.; Finkenstadt, Daniel; Shabaev, Andrew; Lambrakos, Samuel G.; Moody, Nathan A.; Petillo, John J.; Yamaguchi, Hisato; Liu, Fangze

    2018-01-01

    Recent experimental measurements of a bulk material covered with a small number of graphene layers reported by Yamaguchi et al. [NPJ 2D Mater. Appl. 1, 12 (2017)] (on bialkali) and Liu et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 041607 (2017)] (on copper) and the needs of emission models in beam optics codes have lead to substantial changes in a Moments model of photoemission. The changes account for (i) a barrier profile and density of states factor based on density functional theory (DFT) evaluations, (ii) a Drude-Lorentz model of the optical constants and laser penetration depth, and (iii) a transmission probability evaluated by an Airy Transfer Matrix Approach. Importantly, the DFT results lead to a surface barrier profile of a shape similar to both resonant barriers and reflectionless wells: the associated quantum mechanical transmission probabilities are shown to be comparable to those recently required to enable the Moments (and Three Step) model to match experimental data but for reasons very different than the assumption by conventional wisdom that a barrier is responsible. The substantial modifications of the Moments model components, motivated by computational materials methods, are developed. The results prepare the Moments model for use in treating heterostructures and discrete energy level systems (e.g., quantum dots) proposed for decoupling the opposing metrics of performance that undermine the performance of advanced light sources like the x-ray Free Electron Laser. The consequences of the modified components on quantum yield, emittance, and emission models needed by beam optics codes are discussed.

  13. Active constrained layer damping treatments for shell structures: a deep-shell theory, some intuitive results, and an energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, I. Y.

    1997-02-01

    This paper studies vibration control of a shell structure through use of an active constrained layer (ACL) damping treatment. A deep-shell theory that assumes arbitrary Lamé parameters 0964-1726/6/1/011/img1 and 0964-1726/6/1/011/img2 is first developed. Application of Hamilton's principle leads to the governing Love equations, the charge equation of electrostatics, and the associated boundary conditions. The Love equations and boundary conditions imply that the control action of the ACL for shell treatments consists of two components: free-end boundary actuation and membrane actuation. The free-end boundary actuation is identical to that of beam and plate ACL treatments, while the membrane actuation is unique to shell treatments as a result of the curvatures of the shells. In particular, the membrane actuation may reinforce or counteract the boundary actuation, depending on the location of the ACL treatment. Finally, an energy analysis is developed to determine the proper control law that guarantees the stability of ACL shell treatments. Moreover, the energy analysis results in a simple rule predicting whether or not the membrane actuation reinforces the boundary actuation.

  14. Exact Analytic Result of Contact Value for the Density in a Modified Poisson-Boltzmann Theory of an Electrical Double Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Ping; Lee, Jin Yong

    2009-04-14

    For a simple modified Poisson-Boltzmann (SMPB) theory, taking into account the finite ionic size, we have derived the exact analytic expression for the contact values of the difference profile of the counterion and co-ion, as well as of the sum (density) and product profiles, near a charged planar electrode that is immersed in a binary symmetric electrolyte. In the zero ionic size or dilute limit, these contact values reduce to the contact values of the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory. The analytic results of the SMPB theory, for the difference, sum, and product profiles were compared with the results of the Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations [ Bhuiyan, L. B.; Outhwaite, C. W.; Henderson, D. J. Electroanal. Chem. 2007, 607, 54 ; Bhuiyan, L. B.; Henderson, D. J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 128, 117101 ], as well as of the PB theory. In general, the analytic expression of the SMPB theory gives better agreement with the MC data than the PB theory does. For the difference profile, as the electrode charge increases, the result of the PB theory departs from the MC data, but the SMPB theory still reproduces the MC data quite well, which indicates the importance of including steric effects in modeling diffuse layer properties. As for the product profile, (i) it drops to zero as the electrode charge approaches infinity; (ii) the speed of the drop increases with the ionic size, and these behaviors are in contrast with the predictions of the PB theory, where the product is identically 1.

  15. The effect of small streamwise velocity distortion on the boundary layer flow over a thin flat plate with application to boundary layer stability theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Leib, S. J.; Cowley, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers show how an initially linear spanwise disturbance in the free stream velocity field is amplified by leading edge bluntness effects and ultimately leads to a small amplitude but linear spanwise motion far downstream from the edge. This spanwise motion is imposed on the boundary layer flow and ultimately causes an order-one change in its profile shape. The modified profiles are highly unstable and can support Tollmein-Schlichting wave growth well upstream of the theoretical lower branch of the neutral stability curve for a Blasius boundary layer.

  16. Study on the application of shear-wave elastography to thin-layered media and tubular structure: Finite-element analysis and experiment verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jun-keun; Kondo, Kengo; Namita, Takeshi; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Shear-wave elastography (SWE) enables the noninvasive and quantitative evaluation of the mechanical properties of human soft tissue. Generally, shear-wave velocity (C S) can be estimated using the time-of-flight (TOF) method. Young’s modulus is then calculated directly from the estimated C S. However, because shear waves in thin-layered media propagate as guided waves, C S cannot be accurately estimated using the conventional TOF method. Leaky Lamb dispersion analysis (LLDA) has recently been proposed to overcome this problem. In this study, we performed both experimental and finite-element (FE) analyses to evaluate the advantages of LLDA over TOF. In FE analysis, we investigated why the conventional TOF is ineffective for thin-layered media. In phantom experiments, C S results estimated using the two methods were compared for 1.5 and 2% agar plates and tube phantoms. Furthermore, it was shown that Lamb waves can be applied to tubular structures by extracting lateral waves traveling in the long axis direction of the tube using a two-dimensional window. Also, the effects of the inner radius and stiffness (or shear wavelength) of the tube on the estimation performance of LLDA were experimentally discussed. In phantom experiments, the results indicated good agreement between LLDA (plate phantoms of 2 mm thickness: 5.0 m/s for 1.5% agar and 7.2 m/s for 2% agar; tube phantoms with 2 mm thickness and 2 mm inner radius: 5.1 m/s for 1.5% agar and 7.0 m/s for 2% agar; tube phantoms with 2 mm thickness and 4 mm inner radius: 5.3 m/s for 1.5% agar and 7.3 m/s for 2% agar) and SWE measurements (bulk phantoms: 5.3 m/s ± 0.27 for 1.5% agar and 7.3 m/s ± 0.54 for 2% agar).

  17. Organizational Communication and Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

      The paper reflects an interest in the relation between organizational communication and media. It tries to answer the question, how we can observe the relationship between organizational communication and media. It is a work-in-progress which tries to combine organizational studies inspired...... of Niklas Luhmann (Tække & Paulsen 2008, Tække 2008a) with analysis of how organizations communicate in and about media. Using systems theory and form theory, it puts forward a theoretical framework and a strategy for analysing organisational communication in and about media. The medium aspect is inspired...... is a possible framework to draw the two disciplines together in, because it is a theory about the relation between the social and the media it is based on. First the paper sum up the Luhmann inspired theory about organizations, fleshing out how organizations are thought to communicate in and about media and how...

  18. Magnetization curves for thin films of layered type-II superconductors, Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theory, and the devil's staircase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkov, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetization curves for a thin-layered superconducting film in parallel magnetic field have been shown to become devil's staircases provided the superconducting layers are perpendicular to the film plane. The transition from an incomplete to a complete devil's staircase with decreasing temperature is predicted. A chain of vortices is described by the generalized Frenkel-Kontorova model

  19. Confessions of a Media Literacy Scholar-Practitioner: Job Market Advantages, Research Agenda Challenges, and Theory-Driven Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This essay explores how higher education's instrumentalist move away from the liberal arts tradition of learning by thinking and towards more vocational "experiential" approaches has implications for media literacy educators' career options, scholarly identities, and teaching strategies. Specifically, I consider my own negotiation of…

  20. Social Media Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael Andreas; Ravasi, Davide; Colleoni, Elanor

    motivational drivers and contextual conditions associated with the formation of narratives in traditional news media and social media influence their content, diffusion, and impact significantly. Our analysis suggests that current theories of media reputation may provide an incomplete representation......Social media enable millions of users to create and disseminate narratives about organizations that increase their public exposure and shape public perceptions. In this paper, we draw on the sociology of news production and research on computer-mediated communication to discuss how different...... of the phenomenon, and highlight theoretically relevant differences and interrelationships between reputational dynamics involving news media and social media....

  1. Media and Culture-building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Dehshiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available First of all, the present study would explain 6-layer dimensions of culture –including beliefs, values, and norms (as the core of culture, and symbols, rituals, and customs, technologies, skills, and innovations (as the culture surface. Then, applying communication theories besides exploring the concept of “culture-building” involving culture-admission (affecting both core and surface of culture and culture-orientation (affecting culture’s surface; it would analyze the cultural affects media has in thoughts, normalizing, symbolizing, socialization, modeling, and innovation. The assessed hypothesis emphasizes that in the core of culture, media play an educational and stabilizing role in culture-admission process, while in the surface of culture –the culture-orientation process- they could transform behaviors and social models.

  2. Media evolution and ‘epi-technic’ digital media: Media as cultural selection mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    The explosive development of new digital media technologies is often described as a media evolution but hardly ever is the concept of ‘media evolution’ taken at face value. This article takes up that challenge by combining cultural evolution theories with medium theory. The article argues that bi...

  3. Psychometric validation of the Persian Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale using classic test theory and Rasch models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Broström, Anders; Nilsen, Per; Griffiths, Mark D; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims The Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), a six-item self-report scale that is a brief and effective psychometric instrument for assessing at-risk social media addiction on the Internet. However, its psychometric properties in Persian have never been examined and no studies have applied Rasch analysis for the psychometric testing. This study aimed to verify the construct validity of the Persian BSMAS using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch models among 2,676 Iranian adolescents. Methods In addition to construct validity, measurement invariance in CFA and differential item functioning (DIF) in Rasch analysis across gender were tested for in the Persian BSMAS. Results Both CFA [comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.993; Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.989; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.057; standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.039] and Rasch (infit MnSq = 0.88-1.28; outfit MnSq = 0.86-1.22) confirmed the unidimensionality of the BSMAS. Moreover, measurement invariance was supported in multigroup CFA including metric invariance (ΔCFI = -0.001; ΔSRMR = 0.003; ΔRMSEA = -0.005) and scalar invariance (ΔCFI = -0.002; ΔSRMR = 0.005; ΔRMSEA = 0.001) across gender. No item displayed DIF (DIF contrast = -0.48 to 0.24) in Rasch across gender. Conclusions Given the Persian BSMAS was unidimensional, it is concluded that the instrument can be used to assess how an adolescent is addicted to social media on the Internet. Moreover, users of the instrument may comfortably compare the sum scores of the BSMAS across gender.

  4. Comprehension of digital media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Hwan

    2008-11-01

    This book is divided four parts. The first part describes media and mark on sign and media, what is the sign?, interpretation of sign and semiotics. The second part is for production sign theory and origin of digital revolution such as the problem of origin of digital revolution, homogeneity of producing goods and sign : triple triangle model for production sign theory, triple triangle model for producing goods, triple triangle model of producing sign and triple triangle model of art works. The third parts deals with development of the media and meaning of digital revolution with four changes : invention of letter, appearance of printed media and establishment modernity, appearance electronic media and mess media and appearance of digital media. The last part mentions ontology of world wide web.

  5. Comprehension of digital media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Hwan

    2008-11-15

    This book is divided four parts. The first part describes media and mark on sign and media, what is the sign?, interpretation of sign and semiotics. The second part is for production sign theory and origin of digital revolution such as the problem of origin of digital revolution, homogeneity of producing goods and sign : triple triangle model for production sign theory, triple triangle model for producing goods, triple triangle model of producing sign and triple triangle model of art works. The third parts deals with development of the media and meaning of digital revolution with four changes : invention of letter, appearance of printed media and establishment modernity, appearance electronic media and mess media and appearance of digital media. The last part mentions ontology of world wide web.

  6. Rapid thermal process by RF heating of nano-graphene layer/silicon substrate structure: Heat explosion theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinder, M.; Pelleg, J.; Meerovich, V.; Sokolovsky, V.

    2018-03-01

    RF heating kinetics of a nano-graphene layer/silicon substrate structure is analyzed theoretically as a function of the thickness and sheet resistance of the graphene layer, the dimensions and thermal parameters of the structure, as well as of cooling conditions and of the amplitude and frequency of the applied RF magnetic field. It is shown that two regimes of the heating can be realized. The first one is characterized by heating of the structure up to a finite temperature determined by equilibrium between the dissipated loss power caused by induced eddy-currents and the heat transfer to environment. The second regime corresponds to a fast unlimited temperature increase (heat explosion). The criterions of realization of these regimes are presented in the analytical form. Using the criterions and literature data, it is shown the possibility of the heat explosion regime for a graphene layer/silicon substrate structure at RF heating.

  7. Improving Segmentation of 3D Retina Layers Based on Graph Theory Approach for Low Quality OCT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankiewicz Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents signal processing aspects for automatic segmentation of retinal layers of the human eye. The paper draws attention to the problems that occur during the computer image processing of images obtained with the use of the Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD OCT. Accuracy of the retinal layer segmentation for a set of typical 3D scans with a rather low quality was shown. Some possible ways to improve quality of the final results are pointed out. The experimental studies were performed using the so-called B-scans obtained with the OCT Copernicus HR device.

  8. Non-unique turbulent boundary layer flows having a moderately large velocity defect: a rational extension of the classical asymptotic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheichl, B.; Kluwick, A.

    2013-11-01

    The classical analysis of turbulent boundary layers in the limit of large Reynolds number Re is characterised by an asymptotically small velocity defect with respect to the external irrotational flow. As an extension of the classical theory, it is shown in the present work that the defect may become moderately large and, in the most general case, independent of Re but still remain small compared to the external streamwise velocity for non-zero pressure gradient boundary layers. That wake-type flow turns out to be characterised by large values of the Rotta-Clauser parameter, serving as an appropriate measure for the defect and hence as a second perturbation parameter besides Re. Most important, it is demonstrated that also this case can be addressed by rigorous asymptotic analysis, which is essentially independent of the choice of a specific Reynolds stress closure. As a salient result of this procedure, transition from the classical small defect to a pronounced wake flow is found to be accompanied by quasi-equilibrium flow, described by a distinguished limit that involves the wall shear stress. This situation is associated with double-valued solutions of the boundary layer equations and an unconventional weak Re-dependence of the external bulk flow—a phenomenon seen to agree well with previous semi-empirical studies and early experimental observations. Numerical computations of the boundary layer flow for various values of Re reproduce these analytical findings with satisfactory agreement.

  9. Phase diagrams in mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system with two alternative layers within the effective-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviren, Bayram; Polat, Yasin; Keskin, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The phase diagrams in the mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system with two alternative layers on a honeycomb lattice are investigated and discussed by the use of the effective-field theory with correlations. The interaction of the nearest-neighbour spins of each layer is taken to be positive (ferromagnetic interaction) and the interaction of the adjacent spins of the nearest-neighbour layers is considered to be either positive or negative (ferromagnetic or anti-ferromagnetic interaction). The temperature dependence of the layer magnetizations of the system is examined to characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the phase transitions and obtain the phase transition temperatures. The system exhibits both second- and first-order phase transitions besides triple point (TP), critical end point (E), multicritical point (A), isolated critical point (C) and reentrant behaviour depending on the interaction parameters. We have also studied the temperature dependence of the total magnetization to find the compensation points, as well as to determine the type of behaviour, and N-type behaviour in Néel classification nomenclature existing in the system. The phase diagrams are constructed in eight different planes and it is found that the system also presents the compensation phenomena depending on the sign of the bilinear exchange interactions. (general)

  10. Media Educational Practices in Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This article described the methods of media education development of personality (including the audience's individual, "creative critical thinking" corresponding to "conceptual" (knowledge of media culture theory), "sensory" (intentional communication with mass media, orientational experience in genre and topical…

  11. Theory of differential and integral scattering of laser radiation by a dielectric surface taking a defect layer into account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azarova, VV; Dmitriev, VG; Lokhov, YN; Malitskii, KN

    The differential and integral light scattering by dielectric surfaces is studied theoretically taking a thin nearsurface defect layer into account. The expressions for the intensities of differential and total integral scattering are found by the Green function method. Conditions are found under

  12. Theory and numeric modelling of non-isothermal multiphase processes in NAPL-contaminated porous media; Theorie und numerische Modellierung nichtisothermer Mehrphasenprozesse in NAPL-kontaminierten poroesen Medien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Class, H.

    2000-07-01

    The author investigates the numeric simulation of physical processes in porous media. The development of the model and its components is described, and the model is validated by laboratory experiments. Differences from the discretization methods BOX and CVFE are discussed as well as the applicability of the multigrid method described for multicomponent approaches. [German] Bei der thermischen Sanierung NAPL-kontaminierter Standorte, z.B. durch Injektion von Wasserdampf und/oder Heissluft, treten nichtisotherme Mehrphasenprozesse auf, die in einem Modell durch eine Betrachtung der Stroemungs- und Transportprozesse als Mehrkomponentensystem beschrieben werden koennen. Dabei ist der Austausch thermischer Energie zwischen den Phasen untereinander und auch dem poroesen Medium selbst, wie auch der Uebergang von Massekomponenten zwischen den Phasen zu beruecksichtigen. Die vorliegende Arbeit behandelt die numerische Simulation derartiger physikalischer Vorgaenge in poroesen Medien. Ausgehend von der Problemstellung wird die Entwicklung eines konzeptionellen Modells (Kap. 2) sowie die Umsetzung der daraus resultierenden mathematischen Gleichungen und dazu erforderlichen Diskretisierungs- und Loesungsmethoden in numerische Algorithmen dargestellt (Kap. 3). Anschliessend wird in Kap. 4 die Faehigkeit des erstelten numerischen Modells ueberprueft, Problemstellungen in natuerlichen Systemen zu simulieren (Vergleich mit Laborexperimenten); ausserdem werden Unterschiede der Diskretisierungsverfahren BOX und CVFE sowie die Anwendbarkeit des in dieser Arbeit fuer Mehrkomponentenformulierungen erweiterten Mehrgitterverfahrens diskutiert. (orig.)

  13. Luhmanns massmedieteori och Internet som ett artificiellt intelligent semiotiskt system [Luhmann’s mass-media theory and Internet as an artificial intelligent semiotic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kåhre

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how a modern form of AI programming, known as Connectionism in a design known as Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI, affects the perception Luhmann has on mass media's role concerning second-order observations. DAI uses nodes to create activity in the systems and not the codes used by the Classic or Symbolic form of AI. Luhmann’s theory can be developed by replacing the systems codes with nodes that change depending on their relations to other nodes. In this way, we can reformulate the concept of communication, so that it includes the systems interactions with the environment. It creates better conditions so that observing opportunities may arise directly from these interactions. Internet and AI-programmed search systems and robots can then act as an artificial semiotic system that creates opportunities for making observations.

  14. Charge reversal and surface charge amplification in asymmetric valence restricted primitive model planar electric double layers in the modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Bhuiyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory of the restricted primitive model double layer is revisited and recast in a fresh, slightly broader perspective. Derivation of relevant equations follow the techniques utilized in the earlier MPB4 and MPB5 formulations and clarifies the relationship between these. The MPB4, MPB5, and a new formulation of the theory are employed in an analysis of the structure and charge reversal phenomenon in asymmetric 2:1/1:2 valence electrolytes. Furthermore, polarization induced surface charge amplification is studied in 3:1/1:3 systems. The results are compared to the corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. The theories are seen to predict the "exact" simulation data to varying degrees of accuracy ranging from qualitative to almost quantitative. The results from a new version of the theory are found to be of comparable accuracy as the MPB5 results in many situations. However, in some cases involving low electrolyte concentrations, theoretical artifacts in the form of un-physical "shoulders" in the singlet ionic distribution functions are observed.

  15. THE USAGE OF SOCIAL MEDIA FOR LEARNING AND TEACHING PURPOSES: AN IMPLEMENTATION OF EXTENDED THEORY OF REASONED ACTION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    AKMAN, İbrahim; TURHAN, Çiğdem

    2014-01-01

    The growing popularity of the social networking siteshas presented new options for the development of learning and teachingenvironments to provide informal learning. In this study, the usage of socialnetworking sites for the purpose of learning and teaching has been analyzedusing the extended Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) model. A survey has beenconducted to analyze the behavior in regard to the acceptance of social mediafor learning and teaching and the results were systematically analyzed...

  16. Online Collaborative Learning and Communication Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havard, Byron; Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the dynamics of online collaborative learning and communication media regarding team projects. Media richness and social presence theories are well-accepted rational theories that explain media choices and media behaviors, and serve as the theoretical framework. Quantitative and qualitative data collection…

  17. Media use in long distance friendships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, S.

    2007-01-01

    New media such as email and mobile phones have made it easier to maintain relationships over distances. The present paper examines which media people use to maintain long-distance friendships. The main focus lies on the comparison of email and phone. Media choice theories like media richness theory

  18. On the theory of transport in fractured media for the safety analysis of a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1982-10-01

    This report aims at developing a systematic theory of the role of fractures in the transport of radionuclides by groundwater, through fractured rocks from a deep-lying nuclear waste repository to the biosphere. Fractures are grouped into four 'irreducible' types: joints, nodes, shear zones and fracture zones, and the physical characteristics which influence radionuclide transport are expressed in mathematical terms. The question of radioactivity retention is then studied for various fracture types, using idealized geometries to model natural forms. Fundamental transport equations are derived for the fracture-pore complex, taking into consideration the special physical characteristics of fractures and the effects of sorption therein. (author)

  19. Implementation of ECIRR model based on virtual simulation media to reduce students’ misconception on kinetic theory of gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastiwi, A. C.; Kholiq, A.; Setyarsih, W.

    2018-03-01

    The purposed of this study are to analyse reduction of students’ misconceptions after getting ECIRR with virtual simulation. The design of research is the pre-experimental design with One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. Subjects of this research were 36 students of class XI MIA-5 SMAN 1 Driyorejo Gresik 2015/2016 school year. Students misconceptions was determined by Three-tier Diagnostic Test. The result shows that the average percentage of misconceptions reduced on topics of ideal gas law, equation of ideal gases and kinetic theory of gases respectively are 38%, 34% and 38%.

  20. On the theory of transport of fluids in fractured media for the safety analysis of a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic theory is developed of the role of fractures in the transport of radionuclides by groundwater through fractured rocks from the nuclear waste repository to be built in deep geologic formations to the biosphere. Fractures are grouped into four ''irreducible'' types: joints, nodes, shear zones, and fracture zones, and their geometrical and sorption characteristics, having bearings on radionuclide transport, are expressed in mathematical terms. The question of radioactivity retention in various fracture types is then carefully studied using idealized geometries to mimic natural forms. Fundamental transport equations are derived for the fracture-pore complex, taking into consideration the special physical characteristics of fractures and the effects of sorption therein

  1. Peeling the layers: a grounded theory of interprofessional co-learning with residents of a homeless shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Rutherford, Gayle

    2011-09-01

    Clients, patients, families, and communities must be conceived as partners in care delivery, not just as recipients (D'Amour, D. & Oandasan, I. (2005). Journal of Interprofessional Care, 19(Suppl.), 8-20). Health-care students need an opportunity to understand community member self-determination, partnership, and empowerment (Scheyett, A., & Diehl, M. ( 2004 ). Social Work Education, 23(4), 435-450), within the frame of interprofessional education (IPE) where community members are involved as teachers and learners. The aim of this grounded theory research was to determine the conditions that support health-care students to learn with, from, and about community members. This study took place in a shelter for the homeless where nursing and social work students learned interprofessionally along with residents and clients of the shelter. Data were gathered through 7 months of participant observation, interviews, and focus groups. The interprofessional co-learning theory that emerged introduces the three phases of entering, engaging, and emerging, which co-learners experienced at different levels of intensity. This article outlines the conditions that support each of these phases of the co-learning process. This interprofessional co-learning theory provides a basis for further development and evaluation of IPE programs that strive to actively include community members as teachers and learners, experts, and novices together with service providers, students, and faculty members.

  2. Theory of the axi-symmetric extrusion process of multi-layer materials with a strong plastic nonhomogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    J. Piwnik; A. Patejuk

    2008-01-01

    A novel simplified r hcorctical solution is found lor thc strcss starcs accompanying thc proccss of cxt ri~siono f ma![ i-laycr matcrialsunder rhc conditions af axial symmetry. Thc solution i~ bawd nn ~ h mc n dcl of pcrfcct plastic material satisfying thc Trcsca yicld condition.thc Haar-Karman conditions bcing sntisficd in each layer. Thc laycrs arc chnnctcrizcd by difrercnt yicld limits and stmng plasticnonhomogeneity. In thc ncighhoi~rhoorol f thc interfaces conrinuous variation of rhc yic...

  3. On the Validity of the “Thin” and “Thick” Double-Layer Assumptions When Calculating Streaming Currents in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We find that the thin double layer assumption, in which the thickness of the electrical diffuse layer is assumed small compared to the radius of curvature of a pore or throat, is valid in a capillary tubes model so long as the capillary radius is >200 times the double layer thickness, while the thick double layer assumption, in which the diffuse layer is assumed to extend across the entire pore or throat, is valid so long as the capillary radius is >6 times smaller than the double layer thickness. At low surface charge density (0.5 M the validity criteria are less stringent. Our results suggest that the thin double layer assumption is valid in sandstones at low specific surface charge (<10 mC⋅m−2, but may not be valid in sandstones of moderate- to small pore-throat size at higher surface charge if the brine concentration is low (<0.001 M. The thick double layer assumption is likely to be valid in mudstones at low brine concentration (<0.1 M and surface charge (<10 mC⋅m−2, but at higher surface charge, it is likely to be valid only at low brine concentration (<0.003 M. Consequently, neither assumption may be valid in mudstones saturated with natural brines.

  4. A multi-scale and multi-field coupling nonlinear constitutive theory for the layered magnetoelectric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Pei, Yongmao; Li, Faxin; Fang, Daining

    2018-05-01

    The magnetic, electric and mechanical behaviors are strongly coupled in magnetoelectric (ME) materials, making them great promising in the application of functional devices. In this paper, the magneto-electro-mechanical fully coupled constitutive behaviors of ME laminates are systematically studied both theoretically and experimentally. A new probabilistic domain switching function considering the surface ferromagnetic anisotropy and the interface charge-mediated effect is proposed. Then a multi-scale multi-field coupling nonlinear constitutive model for layered ME composites is developed with physical measureable parameters. The experiments were performed to compare the theoretical predictions with the experimental data. The theoretical predictions have a good agreement with experimental results. The proposed constitutive relation can be used to describe the nonlinear multi-field coupling properties of both ME laminates and thin films. Several novel coupling experimental phenomena such as the electric-field control of magnetization, and the magnetic-field tuning of polarization are observed and analyzed. Furthermore, the size-effect of the electric tuning behavior of magnetization is predicted, which demonstrates a competition mechanism between the interface strain-mediated effect and the charge-driven effect. Our study offers deep insight into the coupling microscopic mechanism and macroscopic properties of ME layered composites, which is benefit for the design of electromagnetic functional devices.

  5. On the theory of transport in fractured media for the safety analysis of a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1982-10-01

    This paper aims at developing a systematic theory of the role of fractures in the transport of radionuclides in the fractured rocks by groundwater, from the nuclear waste repository to be built in the deep geological formations, to the biosphere. Fractures are grouped into four 'irreducible' types: joints, nodes, shear zones and fracture zones, and their physical characteristics, having bearings on radionuclide transport, are expressed in mathematical terms. The question of radioactivity retention is then carefully studied for various fracture types, using idealized geometries to mimic natural forms. Fundamental transport equations are derived for the fracture-pore complex, taking into consideration the special physical characteristics of fractures and the effects of sorption therein

  6. Estimating the surface layer refractive index structure constant over snow and sea ice using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory with a mesoscale atmospheric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Chun; Wu, Xiaoqing; Huang, Honghua; Tian, Qiguo; Zhu, Wenyue; Rao, Ruizhong; Li, Xuebin

    2016-09-05

    Since systematic direct measurements of refractive index structure constant ( Cn2) for many climates and seasons are not available, an indirect approach is developed in which Cn2 is estimated from the mesoscale atmospheric model outputs. In previous work, we have presented an approach that a state-of-the-art mesoscale atmospheric model called Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Monin-Obukhov Similarity (MOS) theory which can be used to estimate surface layer Cn2 over the ocean. Here this paper is focused on surface layer Cn2 over snow and sea ice, which is the extending of estimating surface layer Cn2 utilizing WRF model for ground-based optical application requirements. This powerful approach is validated against the corresponding 9-day Cn2 data from a field campaign of the 30th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE). We employ several statistical operators to assess how this approach performs. Besides, we present an independent analysis of this approach performance using the contingency tables. Such a method permits us to provide supplementary key information with respect to statistical operators. These methods make our analysis more robust and permit us to confirm the excellent performances of this approach. The reasonably good agreement in trend and magnitude is found between estimated values and measurements overall, and the estimated Cn2 values are even better than the ones obtained by this approach over the ocean surface layer. The encouraging performance of this approach has a concrete practical implementation of ground-based optical applications over snow and sea ice.

  7. Antennas in inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A; Wait, J R

    2013-01-01

    Antennas in Inhomogeneous Media details the methods of analyzing antennas in such inhomogeneous media. The title covers the complex geometrical configurations along with its variational formulations. The coverage of the text includes various conditions the antennas are subjected to, such as antennas in the interface between two media; antennas in compressible isotropic plasma; and linear antennas in a magnetoionic medium. The selection also covers insulated loops in lossy media; slot antennas with a stratified dielectric or isotropic plasma layers; and cavity-backed slot antennas. The book wil

  8. Electromagnetic fields in stratified media

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Dealing with an important branch of electromagnetic theory with many useful applications in subsurface communication, radar, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics, this book introduces electromagnetic theory and wave propagation in complex media.

  9. Kesadaran Kritis Mahasiswa Terhadap Media Sosial (Studi Deskriptif Kualitatif Literasi Media Tentang Kesadaran Kritis Mahasiswa Ilmu Komunikasi USU Terhadap Media Sosial)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhaliza, Ade

    2017-01-01

    This study entitled “Critical Awareness of Communication Student in Social Media”. This study aimed to find out how student’s critical awareness in social media in media literacy context. The Theories used in this study are media literacy theory, critical awareness theory, new media and digital media literacy, and social media. The method used in this study is qualitative descriptive which describes the condition on the ground, reality, and the situation or some phenomenones. The result showe...

  10. Theory of the axi-symmetric extrusion process of multi-layer materials with a strong plastic nonhomogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Piwnik

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel simplified r hcorctical solution is found lor thc strcss starcs accompanying thc proccss of cxt ri~siono f ma![ i-laycr matcrialsunder rhc conditions af axial symmetry. Thc solution i~ bawd nn ~ h mc n dcl of pcrfcct plastic material satisfying thc Trcsca yicld condition.thc Haar-Karman conditions bcing sntisficd in each layer. Thc laycrs arc chnnctcrizcd by difrercnt yicld limits and stmng plasticnonhomogeneity. In thc ncighhoi~rhoorol f thc interfaces conrinuous variation of rhc yicld limit i s a~sunicdZ. hc form of thc plastic zonc nndpsitions or the contact surfi~ccss eparating rhc laycrs nrc assumcd. Shcaring strcsscs and mcan prcssurc in a longitudinal scclion o f t hccxrruded rod arc cxprcsscd in tcrms of filnctions of the axial coordinatc z. Unknown fttnctions of thc singlc coordinatc z arc dctcrmincdFrom thc yicld conditions writtcn for thc contour of thc die. Accitratc analytical relations arc dcrivcd For tllc normal strcss distribution atthc surface of contact bctwccn thc dic and thc matcrial cxlrudcd, Using thc known normal and shcar stress dislrihutions (due to Iriclion,accuratc valuc of thc lower cstimate of thc cxtrusion forcc is dctcrrnincd. Thc sotution may hc applicd lo ~ h cca scs of arbitrary numhcr oflaycrs and arbitrary h rm oithc dic. I t may bc used to a rational analysis o f ~ h pcro ccss of cxirnsiol~o f multi-lnycr cylindrical rods.

  11. SOCIAL MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    RESPONSIBILITY CENTCOM COALITION MEDIA SOCIAL MEDIA NEWS ARTICLES PRESS RELEASES IMAGERY VIDEOS TRANSCRIPTS VISITORS AND PERSONNEL FAMILY CENTER FAMILY READINESS CENTCOM WEBMAIL SOCIAL MEDIA SECURITY ACCOUNTABILITY HomeMEDIASOCIAL MEDIA Social Media CENTCOM'S ENGLISH SOCIAL MEDIA ACCOUNTS There are many U.S. military commands

  12. The Media and Transformative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazon, Maria

    The media constitute important sources and resources for development of critical thought about the media themselves and the reality they represent. The first theories of the media were based on the concept of unidirectional communication. Later, factors such as the increasing interest in audiences and development of cultural studies caused…

  13. Media Sociography on Weblogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    Weblogs are not only one of the newest technical media for communication, but also one of the most difficult to understand. Are weblogs a kind of mass medium, a personal medium like an online diary, or a medium that gives space for communities to grow? Or are weblogs a medium that enable all...... these possibilities depended on the actual use? This paper throws some light on what weblogs are by using the methodology of Media Sociography (Tække 2003, 2004a, 2004b and 2004c). Media Sociography is a strategy for analysing mediated social systems or in other words a strategy for describing the social in relation...... to the media it is based on. Theoretically seen it is inspired of two theoretical paradigms the Sociological Systems Theory of Niklas Luhmann and the Media Theory (also called the Toronto school). Empirically the paper primary draws on the literature about weblogs, which could be framed as CMC...

  14. On the Theory of Solitons of Fluid Pressure and Solute Density in Geologic Porous Media, with Applications to Shale, Clay and Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserta, A.; Kanivetsky, R.; Salusti, E.

    2017-11-01

    We here analyze a new model of transients of pore pressure p and solute density ρ in geologic porous media. This model is rooted in the nonlinear wave theory, its focus is on advection and effect of large pressure jumps on strain. It takes into account nonlinear and also time-dependent versions of the Hooke law about stress, rate and strain. The model solutions strictly relate p and ρ evolving under the effect of a strong external stress. As a result, the presence of quick and sharp transients in low permeability rocks is unveiled, i.e., the nonlinear "Burgers solitons". We, therefore, show that the actual transport process in porous rocks for large signals is not only the linear diffusion, but also a solitons presence could control the process. A test of a presence of solitons is applied to Pierre shale, Bearpaw shale, Boom clay and Oznam-Mugu silt and clay. An application about the presence of solitons for nuclear waste disposal and salt water intrusions is also discussed. Finally, in a kind of "theoretical experiment" we show that solitons could also be present in higher permeability rocks (Jordan and St. Peter sandstones), thus supporting the idea of a possible occurrence of osmosis also in sandstones.

  15. The effects of female "Thin Ideal" media on men's appearance schema, cognitive performance, and self-evaluations: A self-determination theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amanda; Blanchard, Céline

    2017-09-01

    Research has primarily focused on the consequences of the female thin ideal on women and has largely ignored the effects on men. Two studies were designed to investigate the effects of a female thin ideal video on cognitive (Study 1: appearance schema, Study 2: visual-spatial processing) and self-evaluative measures in male viewers. Results revealed that the female thin ideal predicted men's increased appearance schema activation and poorer cognitive performance on a visual-spatial task. Constructs from self-determination theory (i.e., global autonomous and controlled motivation) were included to help explain for whom the video effects might be strongest or weakest. Findings demonstrated that a global autonomous motivation orientation played a protective role against the effects of the female thin ideal. Given that autonomous motivation was a significant moderator, SDT is an area worth exploring further to determine whether motivational strategies can benefit men who are susceptible to media body ideals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Single-droplet evaporation kinetics and particle formation in an acoustic levitator. Part 1: evaporation of water microdroplets assessed using boundary-layer and acoustic levitation theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffter, Heiko; Lee, Geoffrey

    2007-09-01

    The suitability of a single droplet drying acoustic levitator as a model for the spray drying of aqueous, pharmaceutically-relevant solutes used to produce protein-loaded particles has been examined. The acoustic levitator was initially evaluated by measuring the drying rates of droplets of pure water in dependence of drying-air temperature and flow rate. The measured drying rates were higher than those predicted by boundary layer theory because of the effects of primary acoustic streaming. Sherwood numbers of 2.6, 3.6, and 4.4 at drying-air temperatures of 25 degrees C, 40 degrees C, and 60 degrees C were determined, respectively. Acoustic levitation theory could predict the measured drying rates and Sherwood numbers only when a forced-convection drying-air stream was used to neuralize the retarding effect of secondary acoustic streaming on evaporation rate. At still higher drying-air flow rates, the Ranz-Marshall correlation accurately predicts Sherwood number, provided a stable droplet position in the standing acoustic wave is maintained. The measured Sherwood numbers and droplet Reynolds numbers show that experiments performed in the levitator in still air are taking place effectively under conditions of substantial forced convection. The similitude of these values to those occurring in spray dryers is fortuitous for the suitability of the acoustic levitator as a droplet evaporation model for spray drying. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. Investigation of the structural anisotropy in a self-assembling glycinate layer on Cu(100) by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmin, Mikhail [Surface Science Laboratory, Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Lahtonen, Kimmo; Vuori, Leena [Surface Science Laboratory, Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Sánchez-de-Armas, Rocío [Materials Theory Division, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, S75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Hirsimäki, Mika, E-mail: mikahirsi@gmail.com [Surface Science Laboratory, Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Valden, Mika [Surface Science Laboratory, Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Deprotonation reaction of glycine and self-assembly of glycinate is observed on Cu. • Bias-dependent scanning tunneling microscopy indicates two glycinate geometries. • Density functional theory calculations confirm the two non-identical configurations. • Non-identical adsorption explains the anisotropy in adlayer’s electronic structure. - Abstract: Self-assembling organic molecule-metal interfaces exhibiting free-electron like (FEL) states offers an attractive bottom-up approach to fabricating materials for molecular electronics. Accomplishing this, however, requires detailed understanding of the fundamental driving mechanisms behind the self-assembly process. For instance, it is still unresolved as to why the adsorption of glycine ([NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2})COOH]) on isotropic Cu(100) single crystal surface leads, via deprotonation and self-assembly, to a glycinate ([NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2})COO–]) layer that exhibits anisotropic FEL behavior. Here, we report on bias-dependent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations for glycine adsorption on Cu(100) single crystal surface. We find that after physical vapor deposition (PVD) of glycine on Cu(100), glycinate self-assembles into an overlayer exhibiting c(2 × 4) and p(2 × 4) symmetries with non-identical adsorption sites. Our findings underscore the intricacy of electrical conductivity in nanomolecular organic overlayers and the critical role the structural anisotropy at molecule-metal interface plays in the fabrication of materials for molecular electronics.

  18. Restoring the consistency with the contact density theorem of a classical density functional theory of ions at a planar electrical double layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    Classical density functional theory (DFT) of fluids is a fast and efficient theory to compute the structure of the electrical double layer in the primitive model of ions where ions are modeled as charged, hard spheres in a background dielectric. While the hard-core repulsive component of this ion-ion interaction can be accurately computed using well-established DFTs, the electrostatic component is less accurate. Moreover, many electrostatic functionals fail to satisfy a basic theorem, the contact density theorem, that relates the bulk pressure, surface charge, and ion densities at their distances of closest approach for ions in equilibrium at a smooth, hard, planar wall. One popular electrostatic functional that fails to satisfy the contact density theorem is a perturbation approach developed by Kierlik and Rosinberg [Phys. Rev. A 44, 5025 (1991)PLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.44.5025] and Rosenfeld [J. Chem. Phys. 98, 8126 (1993)JCPSA60021-960610.1063/1.464569], where the full free-energy functional is Taylor-expanded around a bulk (homogeneous) reference fluid. Here, it is shown that this functional fails to satisfy the contact density theorem because it also fails to satisfy the known low-density limit. When the functional is corrected to satisfy this limit, a corrected bulk pressure is derived and it is shown that with this pressure both the contact density theorem and the Gibbs adsorption theorem are satisfied.

  19. Combining linear polarization spectroscopy and the Representative Layer Theory to measure the Beer-Lambert law absorbance of highly scattering materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobrecht, Alexia; Bendoula, Ryad; Roger, Jean-Michel; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Visible and Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) Spectroscopy is a powerful non destructive analytical method used to analyze major compounds in bulk materials and products and requiring no sample preparation. It is widely used in routine analysis and also in-line in industries, in-vivo with biomedical applications or in-field for agricultural and environmental applications. However, highly scattering samples subvert Beer-Lambert law's linear relationship between spectral absorbance and the concentrations. Instead of spectral pre-processing, which is commonly used by Vis-NIR spectroscopists to mitigate the scattering effect, we put forward an optical method, based on Polarized Light Spectroscopy to improve the absorbance signal measurement on highly scattering samples. This method selects part of the signal which is less impacted by scattering. The resulted signal is combined in the Absorption/Remission function defined in Dahm's Representative Layer Theory to compute an absorbance signal fulfilling Beer-Lambert's law, i.e. being linearly related to concentration of the chemicals composing the sample. The underpinning theories have been experimentally evaluated on scattering samples in liquid form and in powdered form. The method produced more accurate spectra and the Pearson's coefficient assessing the linearity between the absorbance spectra and the concentration of the added dye improved from 0.94 to 0.99 for liquid samples and 0.84-0.97 for powdered samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multisided Media Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstädt, Nadine

    Media markets recently have been identified as multisided markets. The application of the theory of multisided markets provides a better understanding of such markets. It enriched the hitherto economic approach and led to new insights and perspectives especially for the antitrust authorities when...... evaluating competition constraints and mergers. This paper reviews the theory of multisided markets and subsequently applies it to media markets. Finally the paper draws attention to the new perspectives and insights the theory provides but also brings open research questions to light....

  1. Elastic anisotropy of layered rocks: Ultrasonic measurements of plagioclase-biotite-muscovite (sillimanite) gneiss versus texture-based theoretical predictions (effective media modeling)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivankina, T. I.; Zel, I. Yu.; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Kern, H.; Lobanov, K. V.; Zharikov, A. V.

    712/713, 21 August (2017), s. 82-94 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13102 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : compositional layering * crystallographic texture * effective elastic properties calculation * neutron diffraction * plagioclase-biotite-muscovite (sillimanite) gneiss * velocity measurements Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2016

  2. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  3. A finite parallel zone model to interpret and extend Giddings' coupling theory for the eddy-dispersion in porous chromatographic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Gert

    2013-11-01

    The finite length parallel zone (FPZ)-model is proposed as an alternative model for the axial- or eddy-dispersion caused by the occurrence of local velocity biases or flow heterogeneities in porous media such as those used in liquid chromatography columns. The mathematical plate height expression evolving from the model shows that the A- and C-term band broadening effects that can originate from a given velocity bias should be coupled in an exponentially decaying way instead of harmonically as proposed in Giddings' coupling theory. In the low and high velocity limit both models converge, while a 12% difference can be observed in the (practically most relevant) intermediate range of reduced velocities. Explicit expressions for the A- and C-constants appearing in the exponential decay-based plate height expression have been derived for each of the different possible velocity bias levels (single through-pore and particle level, multi-particle level and trans-column level). These expressions allow to directly relate the band broadening originating from these different levels to the local fundamental transport parameters, hence offering the possibility to include a velocity-dependent and, if, needed retention factor-dependent transversal dispersion coefficient. Having developed the mathematics for the general case wherein a difference in retention equilibrium establishes between the two parallel zones, the effect of any possible local variations in packing density and/or retention capacity on the eddy-dispersion can be explicitly accounted for as well. It is furthermore also shown that, whereas the lumped transport parameter model used in the basic variant of the FPZ-model only provides a first approximation of the true decay constant, the model can be extended by introducing a constant correction factor to correctly account for the continuous transversal dispersion transport in the velocity bias zones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Complete Reporting of MCNP6 Validation Results for Electron Energy Deposition in Single-Layer Extended Media for Source Energies <= 1-MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hughes, Henry Grady [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-04

    In this paper, we expand on previous validation work by Dixon and Hughes. That is, we present a more complete suite of validation results with respect to to the well-known Lockwood energy deposition experiment. Lockwood et al. measured energy deposition in materials including beryllium, carbon, aluminum, iron, copper, molybdenum, tantalum, and uranium, for both single- and multi-layer 1-D geometries. Source configurations included mono-energetic, mono-directional electron beams with energies of 0.05-MeV, 0.1-MeV, 0.3- MeV, 0.5-MeV, and 1-MeV, in both normal and off-normal angles of incidence. These experiments are particularly valuable for validating electron transport codes, because they are closely represented by simulating pencil beams incident on 1-D semi-infinite slabs with and without material interfaces. Herein, we include total energy deposition and energy deposition profiles for the single-layer experiments reported by Lockwood et al. (a more complete multi-layer validation will follow in another report).

  5. Basis reduction for layered lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Torreão Dassen (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. With this new theory certain problems that usually are solved by using classical lattices with a "weighting" gain a new, more natural form. Using the layered lattice basis reduction algorithms introduced here these

  6. Accurate characterization and understanding of interface trap density trends between atomic layer deposited dielectrics and AlGaN/GaN with bonding constraint theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanan, Narayanan; Lee, Bongmook; Misra, Veena, E-mail: vmisra@ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, 2410 Campus Shore Drive, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Many dielectrics have been proposed for the gate stack or passivation of AlGaN/GaN based metal oxide semiconductor heterojunction field effect transistors, to reduce gate leakage and current collapse, both for power and RF applications. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is preferred for dielectric deposition as it provides uniform, conformal, and high quality films with precise monolayer control of film thickness. Identification of the optimum ALD dielectric for the gate stack or passivation requires a critical investigation of traps created at the dielectric/AlGaN interface. In this work, a pulsed-IV traps characterization method has been used for accurate characterization of interface traps with a variety of ALD dielectrics. High-k dielectrics (HfO{sub 2}, HfAlO, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) are found to host a high density of interface traps with AlGaN. In contrast, ALD SiO{sub 2} shows the lowest interface trap density (<2 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}) after annealing above 600 °C in N{sub 2} for 60 s. The trend in observed trap densities is subsequently explained with bonding constraint theory, which predicts a high density of interface traps due to a higher coordination state and bond strain in high-k dielectrics.

  7. Investigation of the structural anisotropy in a self-assembling glycinate layer on Cu(100) by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Mikhail; Lahtonen, Kimmo; Vuori, Leena; Sánchez-de-Armas, Rocío; Hirsimäki, Mika; Valden, Mika

    2017-07-01

    Self-assembling organic molecule-metal interfaces exhibiting free-electron like (FEL) states offers an attractive bottom-up approach to fabricating materials for molecular electronics. Accomplishing this, however, requires detailed understanding of the fundamental driving mechanisms behind the self-assembly process. For instance, it is still unresolved as to why the adsorption of glycine ([NH2(CH2)COOH]) on isotropic Cu(100) single crystal surface leads, via deprotonation and self-assembly, to a glycinate ([NH2(CH2)COO-]) layer that exhibits anisotropic FEL behavior. Here, we report on bias-dependent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations for glycine adsorption on Cu(100) single crystal surface. We find that after physical vapor deposition (PVD) of glycine on Cu(100), glycinate self-assembles into an overlayer exhibiting c(2 × 4) and p(2 × 4) symmetries with non-identical adsorption sites. Our findings underscore the intricacy of electrical conductivity in nanomolecular organic overlayers and the critical role the structural anisotropy at molecule-metal interface plays in the fabrication of materials for molecular electronics.

  8. An acoustic eikonal equation for attenuating VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Qi

    2016-09-06

    We present an acoustic eikonal equation governing the complex-valued travel time of P-waves in attenuating, transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI). This equation is based on the assumption that the Pwave complex-valued travel time is independent of the Swave velocity parameter v in Thomsen\\'s notation and the attenuation coefficient A in the Thomsen-type notation for attenuating VTI media. We combine perturbation theory and Shanks transform to develop practical approximations to the attenuating acoustic eikonal equation, capable of admitting analytical description of the attenuation in homogeneous media. For a horizontal, attenuating VTI layer, we also derive non-hyperbolic approximations for the real and imaginary parts of the complex-valued reflection travel time.

  9. Propagation and scattering of light in fluctuating media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'min, V. L.; Romanov, V. P.; Zubkov, L. A.

    1994-11-01

    The monograph deals with the problems of the propagation and scattering of light in molecular media. The explicit statistical mechanical averaging procedure for the equations of electrodynamics is developed. It permits to transform the molecular level description into the macroscopic one for the electrodynamics of the fluctuating media. In the framework of such an approach, the problems of the molecular correlation contribution into the dielectric permeability, of the calculation of the reflection coefficients with an account of surface layers and of the multiple light scattering are considered. The developed theory is applied to the description of the critical opalescence, the coherent backscattering enhancement, the light scattering depolarization phenomena and the propagation and scattering of light in anisotropic media, including the case of liquid crystals.

  10. Enhanced activity of CaFeMg layered double hydroxides-supported gold nanodendrites for the electrochemical evolution of oxygen and hydrogen in alkaline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havakeshian, Elaheh; Salavati, Hossein; Taei, Masoumeh; Hasheminasab, Fatemeh; Seddighi, Mohadeseh

    2018-02-01

    In this study, Au was electrodeposited on a support of CaFeMg layered double hydroxide and then, its catalytic activity was investigated for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that a uniform porous film of aggregated nano-particles of the LDH has been decorated with Au nanodendrite-like structures (AuNDs@LDH). The results obtained from polarization curves, Tafel plots and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the AuNDs@LDH exhibits lower overpotential, higher current density, faster kinetics and enhanced stability for both of the OER and HER, in comparison with the single AuNPs and LDH catalysts.

  11. Application of porous-media theory to the investigation of water ADC changes in rabbit Achilles tendon caused by tensile loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, J.; Helmer, K. G.; Grigg, P.; Sotak, C. H.

    2004-09-01

    The water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in rabbit Achilles tendon is anisotropic, diffusion-time dependent, and changes as a function of tensile load. Water ADC changes of tendon under mechanical load are thought to be due to the extrusion of water from the more restricted tendon core to a relatively unrestricted bulk phase at the periphery (rim) of the tendon. Tensile loading may influence water ADC values by changing the spatial separation of restricting barriers (e.g., increasing the tendon fibril packing density). To explore this issue, we have applied porous-media theory to the investigation of water ADC changes in rabbit Achilles tendon under two different mechanical loading conditions (a baseline condition with a minimal tensile stress and a second in which the tensile stress was approximately 1 MPa). Diffusion sensitivity was applied in directions parallel and perpendicular to the long axis of the tendon. The short diffusion-time behavior of the resulting time-dependent ADC curves was used to indirectly infer information regarding the average surface area to volume ratio of the space available for molecular diffusion. From these values, we estimated a 40% reduction in volume available for diffusion in the perpendicular direction after tensile loading, but only a 10% reduction in the parallel direction. These differences are consistent with the known geometry of the tendon microstructure and suggest an increase in fibril packing density upon loading. The long diffusion-time behavior of the time-dependent ADC curves was used to indirectly infer the tortuosity of the diffusion pathways through the interstitial space. The tortuosity in the direction perpendicular to the tendon long axis was approximately 2.5 times greater than that in the parallel direction. Stimulated-echo measurement of the ADC values at longer diffusion times resulted in T1 spin editing of water with shorter T1 values (and correspondingly lower ADC values). The resulting increase in

  12. Electrokinetics in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luong, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the PhD research on electrokinetics in porous media. Electrokinetic phenomena are induced by the relative motion between a fluid and a solid surface and are directly related to the existence of an electric double layer between the fluid and the solid grain surface.

  13. Media education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents.

  14. Explaining social media acceptance by business-to-business SMEs in the South-East of England: a theory-enhanced qualitative comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Iannacci, F.; Pole, K.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on a model of technology acceptance for microbusinesses, this paper deploys a set-theoretic approach to unravel the causal complexity associated with acceptance and non-acceptance of social media by Business-to-Business Small-and-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) based in the South East of England. Our findings show the causal asymmetry between acceptance and non-acceptance. While customer attraction, raising the company’s profile and learning to use social media effortlessly lead to the acce...

  15. The gap between theory and practice in journalism education: The case study of the Department of Media Studies in Novi Sad

    OpenAIRE

    Drašković, Brankica

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the application of theoretical and practical skills of journalism education in the contemporary media environment. For quite some time the trend of tabloidization is shrinking the space for quality information and critical discussion about key topics of public interest, and additional problems, arising more prominently in recent years, are fake news, censorship and self-censorship. Media manipulation puts into question truthfulness and ethics of reporting, as well as the v...

  16. Putting Media Literacy Education in Perspective of Theory of "Participatory Culture" : The case of Henry Jenkins (2009) Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Sunagawa, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    In this report, I took a viewpoint of the "participatory culture" of Henry Jenkins (2009) into account and argued what the literacy of the digital media. I clarified what kind of culture "participatory culture" is and what one participated with how. The support system between peers in the "participatory culture", have the community which can feel relieved where the system letting each other take an equal viewpoint. I made clear that it was a problem of the media literacy education how to buil...

  17. General Purpose Fortran Program for Discrete-Ordinate-Method Radiative Transfer in Scattering and Emitting Layered Media: An Update of DISORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Stamnes, Knut; Wiscombe, Warren; Laszlo, Istvan; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This update reports a state-of-the-art discrete ordinate algorithm for monochromatic unpolarized radiative transfer in non-isothermal, vertically inhomogeneous, but horizontally homogeneous media. The physical processes included are Planckian thermal emission, scattering with arbitrary phase function, absorption, and surface bidirectional reflection. The system may be driven by parallel or isotropic diffuse radiation incident at the top boundary, as well as by internal thermal sources and thermal emission from the boundaries. Radiances, fluxes, and mean intensities are returned at user-specified angles and levels. DISORT has enjoyed considerable popularity in the atmospheric science and other communities since its introduction in 1988. Several new DISORT features are described in this update: intensity correction algorithms designed to compensate for the 8-M forward-peak scaling and obtain accurate intensities even in low orders of approximation; a more general surface bidirectional reflection option; and an exponential-linear approximation of the Planck function allowing more accurate solutions in the presence of large temperature gradients. DISORT has been designed to be an exemplar of good scientific software as well as a program of intrinsic utility. An extraordinary effort has been made to make it numerically well-conditioned, error-resistant, and user-friendly, and to take advantage of robust existing software tools. A thorough test suite is provided to verify the program both against published results, and for consistency where there are no published results. This careful attention to software design has been just as important in DISORT's popularity as its powerful algorithmic content.

  18. Framing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Lecheler, S.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2016-01-01

    Political issues can be viewed from different perspectives and they can be defined differently in the news media by emphasizing some aspects and leaving others aside. This is at the core of news framing theory. Framing originates within sociology and psychology and has become one of the most used

  19. Post Media Literacy: Menyaksikan Kuasa Media Bersama Michel Foucault

    OpenAIRE

    Iswandi Syahputra

    2017-01-01

    This article would like to present Michel Foucault’s idea concerning Knowledge and Power in media industry. As a contemporary intellectual, Foucault’s thought has a unique style of postmodernism. His thought had gone beyond traditional critical theory whose trying to disclose the relation of power and economic behind the ideology of media. Foucault’s thought had given new perspective in understanding how the media produce truth under tightly control process into something that seems normal. ...

  20. A double layer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.

    1977-06-01

    A review of the main results on electrostatic double layers (sometimes called space charge layers or sheaths) obtained from theory, and laboratory and space experiments up to the spring of 1977 is given. By means of barium jets and satellite probes, double layers have now been found at the altitudes, earlier predicted theoretically. The general potential distribution above the auroral zone, suggested by inverted V-events and electric field reversals, is corroborated. (author)

  1. Transition from single to multiple double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that laboratory double layers become multiple double layers when the ratio of Debye length to system length is decreased. This result exhibits characteristics described by boundary layer theory

  2. Slow light in moving media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, U.; Piwnicki, P.

    2001-06-01

    We review the theory of light propagation in moving media with extremely low group velocity. We intend to clarify the most elementary features of monochromatic slow light in a moving medium and, whenever possible, to give an instructive simplified picture.

  3. Electromagnetic scattering from random media

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    - ;The book develops the dynamical theory of scattering from random media from first principles. Its key findings are to characterize the time evolution of the scattered field in terms of stochastic differential equations, and to illustrate this framework

  4. Reflectance analysis of porosity gradient in nanostructured silicon layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurečka, Stanislav; Imamura, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Taketoshi; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2017-12-01

    In this work we study optical properties of nanostructured layers formed on silicon surface. Nanostructured layers on Si are formed in order to reach high suppression of the light reflectance. Low spectral reflectance is important for improvement of the conversion efficiency of solar cells and for other optoelectronic applications. Effective method of forming nanostructured layers with ultralow reflectance in a broad interval of wavelengths is in our approach based on metal assisted etching of Si. Si surface immersed in HF and H2O2 solution is etched in contact with the Pt mesh roller and the structure of the mesh is transferred on the etched surface. During this etching procedure the layer density evolves gradually and the spectral reflectance decreases exponentially with the depth in porous layer. We analyzed properties of the layer porosity by incorporating the porosity gradient into construction of the layer spectral reflectance theoretical model. Analyzed layer is splitted into 20 sublayers in our approach. Complex dielectric function in each sublayer is computed by using Bruggeman effective media theory and the theoretical spectral reflectance of modelled multilayer system is computed by using Abeles matrix formalism. Porosity gradient is extracted from the theoretical reflectance model optimized in comparison to the experimental values. Resulting values of the structure porosity development provide important information for optimization of the technological treatment operations.

  5. Media Komunitas dan Media Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawito .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This essay deals with community media in relation to media literacy. After a short discussion on a number of community media characters is made the essay goes further with somewhat detail theoretical presumptions of the roles of media community with respect primarily to the development as Amartya Sen mentioned about. The author suggests that community media may play some significant roles in the development including (a disseminating information (from varieties of perspective, (b facilitating public discussion, (c helping to reach solutions of problems, (d encouraging participations, and (e encouraging the development of media literacy. Regarding the last point the author remarks that media community may have a dual-roles i.e facilitating community’s member in media participation and facilitating community’s member in media education.

  6. New Media as Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Portela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of Lev Manovich, Software Takes Command: Extending the Language of New Media. London: Bloomsbury, 2013, 358 pp. ISBN 978-1-6235-6817-7. In Lev Manovich’s most recent book, this programmatic interrogation of our medial condition leads to the following question: do media still exist after software? This is the question that triggers Manovich’s dialogue both with computing history and with theories of digital media of recent decades, including the extension of his own previous formulations in The Language of New Media, published in 2001, and which became a major reference work in the field. The subtitle of the new book points precisely to this critical revisiting of his earlier work in the context of ubiquitous computing and accelerated transcoding of social, cultural and artistic practices by software.

  7. Creative Digital Media Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    , 2006, 2009), machinima (machine + cinema + anime, real-time animation captured in games etc.), and the digital storytelling movement. A dialogic perspective on the diversity of digital media practices opens up for understanding the complex evolution of language on socio-historical, cultural......The presentation reviews the interplay of dialogic (Bakhtin, 1981) and multimodal theories on media production practices, with attention to visual communication (Kress and van Leeuwen, 2001, 2006). This theoretical approach aids in reflecting on digital media practices as novel (new) sign systems...... develop a collaborative digital storytelling showcase for their own digital stories about Roskilde University. This course is intended to bring up reflections on the wider phenomenon of contemporary media practices, such as: YouTube, DIY (do-it-yourself) filmmaking or homemade, garage cinema (Jenkins...

  8. THE EFFECT OF MEDIA LITERACY ON THE SOCIAL IDENTITY OF VOLLEYBALL SPECTATORS THROUGH PERSONAL IDENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Mahsa Nematzadeh

    2017-01-01

    This research aim was investigating the effect of media literacy on volleyball spectator's social identity through personal identity. The present study, psychologically, is divided in to 8 layers of view paradigm, the main type of applied research: deductive research approaches, quantity research strategies theories, field research tone, cross sectional survey methods, research objectives, description and finally data collection methods, library resource reviews, and questionnaires. The stati...

  9. Aspek Ekonomi, Politik, Dan Kultural Media Massa

    OpenAIRE

    Inayah, Sitti Syahar

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of mass media relates to economic, political, and cultural aspects. Implication of each aspect can be explained theoretically through several models and theories. Some of them are issues and themes in mass communication theory, available paradigms and approaches – including their methodological implications, models and theories supplemented with brief description of each theory, and strengths and weaknesses of each paradigm and approachwithin mass media research.

  10. Evolusi Teori Ketergantungan Sistem Media Menjadi Teori Infrastruktur Komunikasi

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmudah, Dede

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with a matter of evolution theory in the study of science communications. Object of theory discussed is Media System Dependency Theory which introduced by Ball-Rokeach. This article is focused to overview: 1). History of Media System Dependency Theory emergence. 2) Development phase of this theory; 3). Challenge for this MSD theory: Critique and Change of Time, and 4). From MSD toward Communication Infrastructure Theory (CIT).Artikel ini mencoba membahas persoalan evolusi ...

  11. Locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Wilken, Rowan

    2014-01-01

    Not only is locative media one of the fastest growing areas in digital technology, but questions of location and location-awareness are increasingly central to our contemporary engagements with online and mobile media, and indeed media and culture generally. This volume is a comprehensive account of the various location-based technologies, services, applications, and cultures, as media, with an aim to identify, inventory, explore, and critique their cultural, economic, political, social, and policy dimensions internationally. In particular, the collection is organized around the perception that the growth of locative media gives rise to a number of crucial questions concerning the areas of culture, economy, and policy.

  12. Media Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2017-01-01

    Media Entrepreneurship has been an ambiguous, unclear and controversial concept and despite of growing academic efforts in the last decade, it is still a poorly defined subject. This paper is an effort to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive definition of media entrepreneurship. Firstly......, a literature review conducted and entrepreneurship, media, opportunity and innovation as building blocks of media entrepreneurship explained. Then by using of a mixed of bibliographic method and a Delphi method with multi-stage analysis process, a consensual definition of media entrepreneurship proposed...... entrepreneurship....

  13. Media Framing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus T.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of media framing refers to the way in which the news media organize and provide meaning to a news story by emphasizing some parts of reality and disregarding other parts. These patterns of emphasis and exclusion in news coverage create frames that can have considerable effects on news...... consumers’ perceptions and attitudes regarding the given issue or event. This entry briefly elaborates on the concept of media framing, presents key types of media frames, and introduces the research on media framing effects....

  14. Sensitive Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowska Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper engages with what we refer to as “sensitive media,” a concept associated with developments in the overall media environment, our relationships with media devices, and the quality of the media themselves. Those developments point to the increasing emotionality of the media world and its infrastructures. Mapping the trajectories of technological development and impact that the newer media exert on human condition, our analysis touches upon various forms of emergent affect, emotion, and feeling in order to trace the histories and motivations of the sensitization of “the media things” as well as the redefinition of our affective and emotional experiences through technologies that themselves “feel.”

  15. Media Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ašković

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Does the trend in which electronic media are gradually becoming extension of human body have to move towards full enslavement of a human and his personality, or the same human will unpredictably, with the aid of his personal media literacy, exit the whirls of media and technological censorships? Personality crisis is closely related to the crisis of language no matter how contradicted to global ideology of transnational transhumanism it may seem. Considering the fact that recent media presentations of the world are based on commercialization of environmentalism, philosophical and aesthetic thought appears as an important subject of ecology. As media mediates, the scenery of civilized living increasingly becomes more appealing even though it derives from commercial and political background. Consequently, the future of humanity depends by large on the philosophy of media. Media have to truly ecologise returning the humanum to its essence making it into the extension of the natural world.

  16. Radiographic contrast media, function and future reassessed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovak, M.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review is given of the use of radiographic contrast media in cholecysto- and cholangiography, central nervous system imaging, urography and angiography. Other aspects briefly discussed are the use of large i.v. doses of contrast media for CT contrast enhancement and the design theory for improved water soluble contrast media. (U.K.)

  17. The differential susceptibility to media effects model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this theoretical article, we introduce the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model (DSMM), a new, integrative model to improve our understanding of media effects. The DSMM organizes, integrates, and extends the insights developed in earlier microlevel media-effects theories. It

  18. Basis reduction for layered lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torreão Dassen, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    We develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. We present algorithms to compute both Gram-Schmidt and reduced bases in this generalized setting. A layered lattice can be seen as lattices where certain directions have infinite weight. It can also be

  19. Selective reflection of resonance radiation from excited media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veklenko, B.A.; Gusarov, R.B.; Sherkunov, Yu.B.

    1998-01-01

    According to quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for resonant scattering of radiation on an aggregate of excited atoms can be written as a sum of positive definite terms. This type of structure is not consistent with the Fresnel formulas for the reflection coefficient of radiation from thermally excited media. The difference shows up on a macroscopic level and indicates that semiclassical radiation theory cannot be used. A study of the correlation between elastic scattering and stimulated emission processes clarifies the reason for the discrepancies. The resulting singularities require summing of Feynman diagrams which appear beginning in the sixth order of perturbation theory. A lower bound estimate for the reflection coefficient from a plane layer is given, including processes which violate the statistics of radiation. The contribution of stimulated emission processes caused by the initially scattered photon are examined specifically. An experiment is proposed which would settle the choice of theories

  20. The Influence of Antiobesity Media Content on Intention to Eat Healthily and Exercise: A Test of the Ordered Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Raeann Ritland; Lulu Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    This study extended the ordered protection motivation framework to determine whether exposure and attention to antiobesity media content increases people's appraisals of threat and their ability to cope with it. It also assesses whether these cognitive processes, in turn, affected people's intention to abide by the practices recommended to prevent obesity. The results of a national online survey using a nonprobability sample indicate that attention to mediated obesity and related information ...

  1. Post Media Literacy: Menyaksikan Kuasa Media Bersama Michel Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswandi Syahputra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article would like to present Michel Foucault’s idea concerning Knowledge and Power in media industry. As a contemporary intellectual, Foucault’s thought has a unique style of postmodernism. His thought had gone beyond traditional critical theory whose trying to disclose the relation of power and economic behind the ideology of media. Foucault’s thought had given new perspective in understanding how the media produce truth under tightly control process into something that seems normal. With the assumption of media has the power to create mass culture, which has to be studied critically by media literacy approach, Foucault’s thought had given new space of discursive. An alternative thought on how to estimate the work of mass media as supervisor of truth and creator of information trough normalization practice.

  2. Thermal transfer recording media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, T.; Taniguchi, M.; Fukushima, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Shinozuka, M.; Seikohsha, K. K. Suwa

    1988-08-01

    The recording media consist of more than or one coloring layer and a layer containing a flame retardant to ensure noncombustibility and good thermal transfer. Thus, a PET film was coated on a side with a compound containing Vylon 290 (polyester resin), AFR-1021 (decabromodiphenyl oxide) 8 and Polysafe 60 (Sb oxide), and coated on the other side with a compound containing carnauba wax, HNP-9 (paraffin wax), EV-410 (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer), and Cu phthalocyanine to give a thermal transfer recording medium which showed good noncombustibility and antiblocking properties, and provided high quality images.

  3. Percolation in Heterogeneous Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vocka, Radim

    1999-01-01

    This work is a theoretical reflection on the problematic of the modeling of heterogeneous media, that is on the way of their simple representation conserving their characteristic features. Two particular problems are addressed in this thesis. Firstly, we study the transport in porous media, that is in a heterogeneous media which structure is quenched. A pore space is represented in a simple way - a pore is symbolized as a tube of a given length and a given diameter. The fact that the correlations in the distribution of pore sizes are taken into account by a construction of a hierarchical network makes possible the modeling of porous media with a porosity distributed over several length scales. The transport in the hierarchical network shows qualitatively different phenomena from those observed in simpler models. A comparison of numerical results with experimental data shows that the hierarchical network gives a good qualitative representation of the structure of real porous media. Secondly, we study a problem of the transport in a heterogeneous media which structure is evolving during the time. The models where the evolution of the structure is not influenced by the transport are studied in detail. These models present a phase transition of the same nature as that observed on the percolation networks. We propose a new theoretical description of this transition, and we express critical exponents describing the evolution of the conductivity as a function of fundamental exponents of percolation theory. (author) [fr

  4. Theory of uses and gratifications: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Filipović Jelena

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of the uses and gratifications theory was to explain what kind of the needs people can fulfill through media usage. According to this theory: audience is active and individuals use media to achieve some goals and gratifications. The gratifications that audience can accomplish through media usage are numerous: usefulness (people use media to execute some task), intention (media content determines the usage), selectivity according to person's interests and resistance to influences...

  5. Media Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Lars

    2016-01-01

    News and other kinds of journalistic stories, 16-17 hours a day, all year round, on all platforms, also the moderated social media. The key research thesis behind this article is that the continuous and speedy stream of news stories and media content now is becoming the centre of the production...... processes and the value creation in converged multimedia newsrooms. The article identify new methods and discuss editorial challenges in handling media flow....

  6. About communication in social media – an analysis of the Polish Presidency Facebook Profile from a perspective of social communication theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Tomiczek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The half year of the Polish Presidency on the one hand was a great challenge but from the other hand a tremendous chance to promote the country and society. Activities were taken up in many different areas – using new technologies was an important part of the project, including new media which by the creation of the Polish Presidency Facebook Profile turned out to be an integral part of Presidency. Using the possibility of providing a two-way communication proved that the potential of Facebook was understood. Running the fan page also showed a new face of diplomacy putting it in the area of public diplomacy.

  7. Radionuclide transport through heteogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadermann, J.

    1980-01-01

    One-dimensional radionuclide migration for conevective water transport with sorption and longitudinal dispersion is investigated. A semianalytic solution for layered media with piecewise constant parametes can be written when taking into account mass conservation and approximate flux conservation at interlayer boundaries. The solution is analytic in the first layer and allows for a recursive calculation in the following layers. Scaling laws for the relevant parameters can be formulated. Numerical examples exhibit the importance of at least a single highly sorbing layer. Small values of dispersivity may not lead to a conservative estimate of conservation at the geological column's end

  8. To the analysis of the theory of mathematical model of hydrodynamics of a bulk layer of a mix of vegetative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research work on finding out the interdependence between the dynamic separation of the working apparatus (machine, statistic separation and the degree of filling the apparatus (machine. The final mathematic model of calculating separation - an important hydrodynamic parameter of a layer of vegetable material while extragent is being filtrated through it. The authors worked out a universal method of defining hydrodynamic characteristics of a layer of material which can be applied to any vegetable materials and their mixtures worked up as required.

  9. Instructional Media

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This can be summed up in a few words: Students can learn a great deal from any of the media. Under most of the conditions tested, they could learn as much as from ... Beyond physical conditions (deafness) there is little reason to expect a differential media. Scientia Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies, Vol 13 ...

  10. Mixed Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    While institutions do not often have a hook as compelling as an eagerly awaited movie, great content is critical for media relations success--and coupling it with the right distribution channel can ensure the story finds the right audience. Even better, retooling it for several media platforms can extend the life and reach of a story. The changes…

  11. Media darling

    CERN Multimedia

    Chalmers, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    He is the media-friendly face of particle physics, appearing on countless TV and radio shows in the run-up to the opening of CERN's Large Hadron Collider. Matthew Chalmers discovers how Brian Cox finds the time to be both a physicist and a media personality. (2 pages)

  12. The perturbation theory in the fundamental mode. Its application to the analysis of neutronic experiments involving small amounts of materials in fast neutron multiplying media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remsak, Stanislav.

    1975-01-01

    The formalism of the perturbation theory at the first order, is developed in its simplest form: diffusion theory in the fundamental mode and then the more complex formalism of the transport theory in the fundamental mode. A comparison shows the effect of the angular correlation between the fine structures of the flux and its adjoint function, the difference in the treatment of neutron leakage phenomena, and the existence of new terms in the perturbation formula, entailing a reactivity representation in the diffusion theory that is not quite exact. Problems of using the formalism developed are considered: application of the multigroup formalism, transients of the flux and its adjoint function, validity of the first order approximation etc. A detailed analysis allows the formulation of a criterion specifying the validity range. Transients occuring in the reference medium are also treated. A set of numerical tests for determining a method of elimination of transient effects is presented. Some differential experiments are then discussed: sodium blowdown in enriched uranium or plutonium cores, experiments utilizing some structural materials (iron and oxygen) and plutonium sample oscillations. The Cadarache version II program was systematically used but the analysis of the experiments of plutonium sample oscillation in Ermine required the Cadarache version III program [fr

  13. A Social Information Processing Model of Media Use in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulk, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a model to examine how social influence processes affect individuals' attitudes toward communication media and media use behavior, integrating two research areas: media use patterns as the outcome of objectively rational choices and social information processing theory. Asserts (in a synthesis) that media characteristics and attitudes are…

  14. Games Are Social/Media(ted)/Technology Too . . .

    OpenAIRE

    Casey O’Donnell; Mia Consalvo

    2015-01-01

    In this manifesto, we argue that social media research needs to take the broader field of game studies in the exploration and understanding of social media. Many of the results, theories, and concepts developed in the study of games has significant implications for the study of all social media. Of course, game studies should be paying attention to social media research too.

  15. Media Richness Perspective of Social Media Usage for Learning: Perception of Cocoa Researchers in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyamfi, Albert

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines the effect of media richness of four popular social media (Facebook, YouTube, Skype and Wikipedia) applications on their usage for organizational learning. The study is guided by a research framework based on the amalgamation of the SECI model and the media richness theory...

  16. Impact of European Media Education Strategies on Russian Media Education Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaleva, Galina V.

    2015-01-01

    The article attempts to examine the impact of European media education theories and approaches on Russian media education evolution basing on a comparative analysis of Russian and European media literacy promotion strategies in the historical context. This influence resulted in the appearance and development of socio-cultural models of media…

  17. Cinema and Culture in Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove

    2005-01-01

    Om Philip Simpson, Andrew Utterson and K.J. Shepherdson (ed.), Film Theory. Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies vols. 1–4.......Om Philip Simpson, Andrew Utterson and K.J. Shepherdson (ed.), Film Theory. Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies vols. 1–4....

  18. The influence of antiobesity media content on intention to eat healthily and exercise: a test of the ordered protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritland, Raeann; Rodriguez, Lulu

    2014-01-01

    This study extended the ordered protection motivation framework to determine whether exposure and attention to antiobesity media content increases people's appraisals of threat and their ability to cope with it. It also assesses whether these cognitive processes, in turn, affected people's intention to abide by the practices recommended to prevent obesity. The results of a national online survey using a nonprobability sample indicate that attention to mediated obesity and related information significantly increased people's intention to exercise as well as their overall coping appraisals (the perceived effectiveness of the recommended behaviors and their ability to perform them). Likewise, increased threat and coping appraisals were both found to significantly influence people's intention to exercise and diet. Coping (rather than threat) appraisals more strongly predicted behavioral intent. Following the attitude-behavior literature, behavioral intention was used as the most proximate predictor of actual behavior (i.e., stronger intentions increase the likelihood of behavior change).

  19. Contemplative Media Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Healey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The psychological and socio-economic implications of digital technologies call for scholarship that engages questions about the nature of human consciousness, the construction of the self and the ethics of technical development. In this article, I outline a framework for an approach called contemplative media studies. This approach incorporates several different scholarly threads, namely: via critical political-economic media scholarship, a focus on achieving social and economic justice through policy initiatives and structural reform; via media and religious scholarship, an interest in the religious dimensions of digital culture and the role of media in shaping religious identity; and via contemplative studies, an appreciation of the applicability of contemplative principles to research methods and theory. This framework allows us to examine the spiritual ideology that drives the construction of commercial digital platforms and to ask whether alternative platforms might better catalyze human development. Anchored in a critical commitment to socio-economic justice, contemplative media studies is aimed at articulating an ethically-responsive and economically-sustainable architecture of human flourishing.

  20. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, J

    2000-08-01

    Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects.