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Sample records for lavendelis gints linis

  1. Hansapanga tänavuse kunstipreemia sai Gints Gabrans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Gints Gabrans õpib Läti Kunstiakadeemias stsenograafiat. Esile tõsteti tema projekti "Starix". Rahvusvahelisse žüriisse kuulusid Eestist Sirje Helme ja Riin Õng. Teised finalistid: leedu kunstnik Egle Rakauskaite, eesti kunstnikud Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets

  2. Hansapanga tänavuse kunstipreemia sai Gints Gabrans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Gints Gabrans õpib Läti Kunstiakadeemias stsenograafiat. Esile tõsteti tema projekti "Starix". Rahvusvahelisse žüriisse kuulusid Eestist Sirje Helme ja Riin Õng. Teised finalistid: leedu kunstnik Egle Rakauskaite, eesti kunstnikud Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets

  3. LAVENDER AROMATERAPHY AS A RELAXANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGA Prima Dewi AP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aromatherapy is a kind of treatment that used aroma with aromatherapy essential oil. Extraction process from essential oil generally doing in three methods, there are distilling with water (boiled, distilling with water and steam, and distilling with steam. One of the most favorite aroma is lavender. The main content from lavender is linalyl acetate and linalool (C10H18O. Linalool is main active contents in lavender which can use for anti-anxiety (relaxation. Based on some research, the conclusion indicates that essential oil from lavender can give relaxation (carminative, sedative, reduce anxiety level and increasing mood.

  4. GintAMT3 – a Low-Affinity Ammonium Transporter of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Silvia; Pérez-Tienda, Jacob; Ellerbeck, Matthias; Arnould, Christine; Chatagnier, Odile; Boller, Thomas; Schüßler, Arthur; Brachmann, Andreas; Wipf, Daniel; Ferrol, Nuria; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient acquisition and transfer are essential steps in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, which is formed by the majority of land plants. Mineral nutrients are taken up by AM fungi from the soil and transferred to the plant partner. Within the cortical plant root cells the fungal hyphae form tree-like structures (arbuscules) where the nutrients are released to the plant-fungal interface, i.e., to the periarbuscular space, before being taken up by the plant. In exchange, the AM fungi receive carbohydrates from the plant host. Besides the well-studied uptake of phosphorus (P), the uptake and transfer of nitrogen (N) plays a crucial role in this mutualistic interaction. In the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly called Glomus intraradices), two ammonium transporters (AMT) were previously described, namely GintAMT1 and GintAMT2. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a newly identified R. irregularis AMT, GintAMT3. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high sequence similarity to previously identified AM fungal AMTs and a clear separation from other fungal AMTs. Topological analysis indicated GintAMT3 to be a membrane bound pore forming protein, and GFP tagging showed it to be highly expressed in the intraradical mycelium of a fully established AM symbiosis. Expression of GintAMT3 in yeast successfully complemented the yeast AMT triple deletion mutant (MATa ura3 mep1Δ mep2Δ::LEU2 mep3Δ::KanMX2). GintAMT3 is characterized as a low affinity transport system with an apparent Km of 1.8 mM and a Vmax of 240 nmol-1 min-1 108 cells-1, which is regulated by substrate concentration and carbon supply. PMID:27252708

  5. GintAMT3 – a low-affinity ammonium transporter of the arbuscular mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eCalabrese

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient acquisition and transfer are essential steps in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis, which is formed by the majority of land plants. Mineral nutrients are taken up by AM fungi from the soil and transferred to the plant partner. Within the cortical plant root cells the fungal hyphae form tree-like structures (arbuscules where the nutrients are released to the plant-fungal interface, i.e. to the periarbuscular space, before being taken up by the plant. In exchange, the AM fungi receive valuable carbohydrates from the plant host. Besides the well-studied uptake of phosphorus (P, the uptake and transfer of nitrogen (N plays a crucial role in this mutualistic interaction. In the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly called Glomus intraradices, two ammonium transporters (AMT were previously described, namely GintAMT1 and GintAMT2. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a newly identified R. irregularis AMT, GintAMT3. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high sequence similarity to previously identified AM fungal AMTs and a clear separation from other fungal AMTs. Topological analysis indicated GintAMT3 to be a membrane bound pore forming protein, and GFP tagging showed it to be highly expressed in the intraradical mycelium (IRM of a fully established AM symbiosis. Expression of GintAMT3 in yeast successfully complemented the yeast AMT triple deletion mutant (MATa ura3 mep1Δ mep2Δ::LEU2 mep3Δ::KanMX2. GintAMT3 is characterized as a low affinity transport system with an apparent Km of 1.8 mM and a Vmax of 240 nmol-1 min-1 108 cells-1, which is regulated by substrate concentration and carbon supply.

  6. Konturen der Hα-Linie

    OpenAIRE

    Bräuhofer, Günter

    2011-01-01

    Konturen der H-alpha Linie: Ordinaten der Photosphäre, des Fackelgebietes, der Filamente, der Protuberanzen und einer Eruption. Quelle: Max Waldmeier (* 18. April 1912 in Olten; † 26. September 2000 in Küsnacht), Schweizer Astronom und Sonnenforscher, Handbuch für Astrophysik, S. 189, Abb. 74 Signatur: Astr.-HGD-A-49.1

  7. Papel de ginA y ginB en la movilidad de la isla genómica GInt

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverría Ancín, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    La transferencia horizontal de genes, mediada por elementos genéticos móviles tales como las islas genómicas, es uno de los principales mecanismos de generación de variabilidad genética en bacterias, permitiendo su adaptación a nuevos nichos ecológicos. En el grupo de Patología Vegetal de la UPNA se ha descrito, en especies de Pseudomonas, una nueva familia de islas genómicas, denominadas GInt. Éstas se caracterizan por contener en su extremo 5’ el operón gin, constituido ...

  8. Lavender Commencement Ceremony to honor LGBT graduates at Virginia Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon, Kelly Baker

    2010-01-01

    The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Caucus at Virginia Tech is sponsoring the Second Annual Lavender Commencement Ceremony, which will be held on May 13 at 11 a.m. in the Old Dominion Ballroom of Squires Student Center.

  9. Lavender Islands: the New Zealand study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Mark; Neville, Stephen; Jordan, Claire; Donaghey, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Lavender Islands: Portrait of the Whole Family is the first national strengths-based study of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people in New Zealand. The 133-item survey was made available both by website and paper copy from April to July 2004. Multidisciplinary interest areas were developed by a community reference group, and included identity and self-definition, families of origin, relationships and sexuality, families of choice, immigration and internal migration, wellbeing, politics, income and spending, education, careers and leisure, community connections, challenges, and spirituality. A four-axis model of sexual identity was also tested; 2,269 responses were received. Of these 83% were from the website; 45% of responses were from women and 54% from men. Responses identified a robust, highly educated, relatively high-income, politically active LGB community. Male and female respondents experienced same-sex relationships and identity in significantly different ways.

  10. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

  11. Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Derek V; Lipson, Natasha; Korach, Kenneth S; Bloch, Clifford A

    2007-02-01

    Most cases of male prepubertal gynecomastia are classified as idiopathic. We investigated possible causes of gynecomastia in three prepubertal boys who were otherwise healthy and had normal serum concentrations of endogenous steroids. In all three boys, gynecomastia coincided with the topical application of products that contained lavender and tea tree oils. Gynecomastia resolved in each patient shortly after the use of products containing these oils was discontinued. Furthermore, studies in human cell lines indicated that the two oils had estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. We conclude that repeated topical exposure to lavender and tea tree oils probably caused prepubertal gynecomastia in these boys.

  12. Lavender Oil-Potent Anxiolytic Properties via Modulating Voltage Dependent Calcium Channels

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical data support the clinical use of oral lavender oil in patients suffering from subsyndromal anxiety. We identified the molecular mechanism of action that will alter the perception of lavender oil as a nonspecific ingredient of aromatherapy to a potent anxiolytic inhibiting voltage dependent calcium channels (VOCCs) as highly selective drug target. In contrast to previous publications where exorbitant high concentrations were used, the effects of lavender oil in behavioral, bioc...

  13. A question of scent: lavender aroma promotes interpersonal trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eSellaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previous study has shown that the degree of trust into others might be biased by inducing either a more inclusive or exclusive cognitive-control mode. Here, we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by environmental factors, such as odors, that are likely to impact cognitive-control states. Arousing olfactory fragrances (e.g., peppermint are supposed to induce a more exclusive, and calming olfactory fragrances (e.g., lavender a more inclusive state. Participants performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor transfers to another participant (the trustee, while being exposed to either peppermint or lavender aroma. All participants played the role of trustor. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the alleged trustee in the lavender as compared to the peppermint and no aroma conditions. This observation might have various serious implications for a broad range of situations in which interpersonal trust is an essential element, such as cooperation (e.g., mixed-motives situations, bargaining and negotiation, consumer behavior, and group performance.

  14. The effects of lavender scent on dental patient anxiety levels: a cluster randomised-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsidima, Metaxia; Newton, Tim; Asimakopoulou, Koula

    2010-02-01

    To review the effect of lavender scent on anticipatory anxiety in dental participants. In a cluster randomized-controlled trial, patients' (N = 340) anxiety was assessed while waiting for a scheduled dental appointment, either under the odor of lavender or with no odor. Current anxiety, assessed by the brief State Trait Anxiety Indicator (STAI-6), and generalized dental anxiety, assessed by the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) were examined. Analyses of variance (anovas) showed that although both groups showed similar, moderate levels of generalized dental anxiety (MDAS F((1,338)) = 2.17, P > 0.05) the lavender group reported significantly lower current anxiety (STAI: F((1,338)) = 74.69, P control group. Although anxiety about future dental visits seems to be unaffected, lavender scent reduces state anxiety in dental patients.

  15. Lavender oil-potent anxiolytic properties via modulating voltage dependent calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuwald, Anita M; Nöldner, Michael; Wilmes, Thomas; Klugbauer, Norbert; Leuner, Kristina; Müller, Walter E

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical data support the clinical use of oral lavender oil in patients suffering from subsyndromal anxiety. We identified the molecular mechanism of action that will alter the perception of lavender oil as a nonspecific ingredient of aromatherapy to a potent anxiolytic inhibiting voltage dependent calcium channels (VOCCs) as highly selective drug target. In contrast to previous publications where exorbitant high concentrations were used, the effects of lavender oil in behavioral, biochemical, and electrophysiological experiments were investigated in physiological concentrations in the nanomolar range, which correlate to a single dosage of 80 mg/d in humans that was used in clinical trials. We show for the first time that lavender oil bears some similarities with the established anxiolytic pregabalin. Lavender oil inhibits VOCCs in synaptosomes, primary hippocampal neurons and stably overexpressing cell lines in the same range such as pregabalin. Interestingly, Silexan does not primarily bind to P/Q type calcium channels such as pregabalin and does not interact with the binding site of pregabalin, the α2δ subunit of VOCCs. Lavender oil reduces non-selectively the calcium influx through several different types of VOCCs such as the N-type, P/Q-type and T-type VOCCs. In the hippocampus, one brain region important for anxiety disorders, we show that inhibition by lavender oil is mainly mediated via N-type and P/Q-type VOCCs. Taken together, we provide a pharmacological and molecular rationale for the clinical use of the oral application of lavender oil in patients suffering from anxiety.

  16. Lavender oil-potent anxiolytic properties via modulating voltage dependent calcium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M Schuwald

    Full Text Available Recent clinical data support the clinical use of oral lavender oil in patients suffering from subsyndromal anxiety. We identified the molecular mechanism of action that will alter the perception of lavender oil as a nonspecific ingredient of aromatherapy to a potent anxiolytic inhibiting voltage dependent calcium channels (VOCCs as highly selective drug target. In contrast to previous publications where exorbitant high concentrations were used, the effects of lavender oil in behavioral, biochemical, and electrophysiological experiments were investigated in physiological concentrations in the nanomolar range, which correlate to a single dosage of 80 mg/d in humans that was used in clinical trials. We show for the first time that lavender oil bears some similarities with the established anxiolytic pregabalin. Lavender oil inhibits VOCCs in synaptosomes, primary hippocampal neurons and stably overexpressing cell lines in the same range such as pregabalin. Interestingly, Silexan does not primarily bind to P/Q type calcium channels such as pregabalin and does not interact with the binding site of pregabalin, the α2δ subunit of VOCCs. Lavender oil reduces non-selectively the calcium influx through several different types of VOCCs such as the N-type, P/Q-type and T-type VOCCs. In the hippocampus, one brain region important for anxiety disorders, we show that inhibition by lavender oil is mainly mediated via N-type and P/Q-type VOCCs. Taken together, we provide a pharmacological and molecular rationale for the clinical use of the oral application of lavender oil in patients suffering from anxiety.

  17. Effect of aromatherapy with Lavender on quality of sleep of Nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Sajadi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep problems are common in medical students. One of the methods to improve the quality of sleep is lavender aromatherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Lavender aromatherapy on sleep quality of nursing students in Arak University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This is a clinical trial performed on 66 female nursing students selected through purposive sampling. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups (34 in intervention and 32 in control gr...

  18. Antibacterial activity of thyme and lavender essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Łysakowska, Monika; Ciećwierz, Julita; Denys, Paweł; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2011-11-01

    Strong antiseptic activity of essential oils has been known for a long time. The antibacterial activity of oils was tested against clinical bacterial strains of Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Escherichia and Pseudomonas genera. The agar diffusion method was used for microbial growth inhibition at various concentrations of the oils from T. vulgaris and L. angustifolia. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics was carried out using disc-diffusion method. 120 strains of bacteria isolated from patients with infections of oral cavity, respiratory, genitourinary tracts and from hospital environment were investigated. The results of experiments showed that the oil from T. vulgaris exhibited extremely strong activity against all of the clinical strains. Thyme oil demonstrated a good efficacy against antibiotics resistant strains of the tested bacteria. Lavender oil has been less activity against clinical strains of Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Escherichia genus. The worst results have been observed against all strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  19. Aromaterapi Lavender dapat Menurunkan Intensitas Nyeri Perineum pada Ibu Post Partum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwin Widayani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Perineals pain affects  woman ability to mobilize so that it can cause complications such as post-partum haemoragik. Trauma to the perineum also cause discomfort and dyspareunia, therefore, perineal pain management is important. Currently the handling used to relieve pain is complementary therapy aromatherapy with essential oils of lavender, because lavender has the properties of anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anxiolytic, and also soothing. Aromatherapy stimulates the hypothalamus to secrete chemical mediators that serve as pain relievers and give rise to feelings of happiness. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of lavender aromatherapy to the perineal pain intensity in post partum women. This study is a quasy experiment pre and post non random control in postpartum women at Bidan Praktik Mandiri in Bandung. Sampling this study using consecutive sampling technique. The data taken using the instrument in the adaptation of a Visual Analog Scale (VAS and analyzed by using the wilcoxon signed rank test. The result is there was a decrease in pain intensity before and after the administration of inhaled lavender aromatherapy (Z=-3.77 with p-value 0.001. Lavender aromatherapy can be a complementary alternative therapy to reduce pain in postpartum women but more research necessary is needed with more respondents.

  20. Healing advantages of lavender essential oil during episiotomy recovery: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakilian, Katayon; Atarha, Mahtab; Bekhradi, Reza; Chaman, Reza

    2011-02-01

    Episiotomy is the most common perineal incision in obstetric and midwifery. Nowadays alternative and complementary methods such as Aromatherapy using essential oils are established as an alternative therapy. This research was carried out to assess the effect of lavender oil in wound healing. This randomized control trial was conducted on 120 primiparous women with singleton pregnancy, without any acute and chronic disease and allergy who had undergone normal spontaneous vaginal delivery and episiotomy. They were randomly allocated in case and control groups. Case group received lavender oil and controls received povidone-iodine. Incision sites were assessed on the 10th day postpartum. 25 out of 60 women in lavender group and 17 mothers in control group had no pain (p = 0.06). There was no significant difference between two groups in surgery site complications. However, redness in lavender group was significantly less than controls (p < 0.001). This study suggests application of lavender essential oil instead of povidone-iodine for episiotomy wound care.

  1. Lavender-thymol as a new topical aromatherapy preparation for episiotomy: A randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, T; Barakat, R; Ragab, A; Badria, F; Badawy, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of topical lavender-thymol in promoting episiotomy healing. This placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomised clinical trial involved 60 primiparous women. REEDA score was used to evaluate the outcome of the trial. On the 7th post-partum day, women in Placebo-treated group had worse Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Discharge and Approximation (REEDA) score of 3.93 ± 3.65 compared with those in Lavender-thymol-treated group (2.03 ± 1.7) with significant difference (P = 0.013). Visual analogue Scale (VAS) score for pain at episiotomy in Lavender-thymol-treated group was 3.5 ± 1.9, whereas in Placebo-treated group it was 2.1 ± 2.2 (p = 0.011) for dyschezia, 3.8 ± 1.7 and 2.8 ± 1.6 in Placebo- and Lavender-thymol-treated women, respectively (p = 0.023). At 7th post-partum week, dyspareunia was more severe in Placebo-treated group compared with that in Lavender-thymol-treated group (5.3 ± 2.7 vs 2.7 ± 1.5 and p episiotomy wound care with little or no expected side effects compared with that using placebo.

  2. The effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using lavender oil as a treatment for infantile colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Bengü; Başbakkal, Zümrüt

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy massage using lavender oil as a possible treatment for this condition. This research was carried out on a group of 40 infants between 2 and 6 weeks of age with a gestational age of 38-42 weeks and normal development and growth. All the infants weighed between 2500 and 4000 g at birth and all exhibited the signs of colic. Infants in the treatment group received abdominal massage by their mothers using lavender oil, while those in the control group were not subject to an intervention. The infants in both control and treatment groups were monitored once a week by the researchers, in total five times. The effect of the massage was measured in terms of changes in the length of time the infants cried per week. The use of aromatherapy massage using lavender oil was found to be effective in reducing the symptoms of colic.

  3. Role of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in tolerance response against Armillaria mellea in lavender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinta Calvet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lavender species form the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and are at the same time highly susceptible to white root rot. In an attempt to evaluate the response of mycorrhizal Lavandula angustifolia L. to Armillaria mellea (Vahl:Fr P. Kumm in a greenhouse experiment, plants were previously inoculated with an isolate of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (former Glomus intraradices BEG 72 and the influence of the pH growing medium on the plant-symbiont-pathogen interaction was tested in gnotobiotic autotrophic growth systems in which mycorrhizal inoculum was obtained from root organ cultures. After ten months growth dual-inoculated lavender plants grown in containers with a pasteurized substrate mixture produced a similar number of spikes than healthy plants and achieved equivalent plant diameter coverage. When the growing medium in the autotrophic systems was supplemented with calcium carbonate, the inoculation of lavender plantlets with R. irregularis at higher pH (7.0 and 8.5 media caused a significant decrease of A. mellea presence in plant roots, as detected by qPCR. Moreover, the observation of internal root mycorrhizal infection showed that the extent of mycorrhizal colonization increasedin plant rootsgrown at higher pH, indicating that tolerance to white root rot in lavender plants inoculated with R. irregularis could be associated to mycorrhizal establishment.

  4. Role of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in tolerance response against Armillaria mellea in lavender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvet, C.; Garcia-Figueres, F.; Lovato, P.; Camprubi, A.

    2015-07-01

    Lavender species form the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and are at the same time highly susceptible to white root rot. In an attempt to evaluate the response of mycorrhizal Lavandula angustifolia L. to Armillaria mellea (Vahl:Fr) P. Kumm in a greenhouse experiment, plants were previously inoculated with an isolate of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (former Glomus intraradices BEG 72) and the influence of the pH growing medium on the plant-symbiont-pathogen interaction was tested in gnotobiotic autotrophic growth systems in which mycorrhizal inoculum was obtained from root organ cultures. After ten months growth dual-inoculated lavender plants grown in containers with a pasteurized substrate mixture produced a similar number of spikes than healthy plants and achieved equivalent plant diameter coverage. When the growing medium in the autotrophic systems was supplemented with calcium carbonate, the inoculation of lavender plantlets with R. irregularis at higher pH (7.0 and 8.5) media caused a significant decrease of A. mellea presence in plant roots, as detected by qPCR. Moreover, the observation of internal root mycorrhizal infection showed that the extent of mycorrhizal colonization increasedin plant rootsgrown at higher pH, indicating that tolerance to white root rot in lavender plants inoculated with R. irregularis could be associated to mycorrhizal establishment. (Author)

  5. The Effect of Lavender Aromatherapy on Autonomic Nervous System in Midlife Women with Insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Chien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the effects of 12 weeks of lavender aromatherapy on self-reported sleep and heart rate variability (HRV in the midlife women with insomnia. Sixty-seven women aged 45–55 years, with a CPSQI (Chinese version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index greater than 5, were recruited from communities in Taiwan. The experimental group (=34 received lavender inhalation, 20 min each time, twice per week, for 12 weeks, with a total of 24 times. The control group (=33 received health education program for sleep hygiene with no intervention. The study of HRV was analyzed by time- and frequency-domain methods. Significant decrease in mean heart rate (HR and increases in SDNN (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal (NN intervals, RMSDD (square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals, and HF (high frequency of spectral powers analysis after lavender inhalation were observed in the 4th and 12th weeks of aromatherapy. The total CPSQI score of study subjects was significantly decreased in the experimental group (<0.001, while no significant difference was observed across the same time period (=0.776 in the control group. Resting HR and HRV measurements at baseline 1 month and 3 months after allocation showed no significant difference between the experimental and control groups. The study demonstrated that lavender inhalation may have a persistent short-term effect on HRV with an increase in parasympathetic modulation. Women receiving aromatherapy experienced a significant improvement in sleep quality after intervention. However, lavender aromatherapy does not appear to confer benefit on HRV in the long-term followup.

  6. Effect of Inhaled Lavender and Sleep Hygiene on Self-Reported Sleep Issues: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and sleep hygiene versus sleep hygiene alone on sleep quantity and sleep quality and to determine sustained effect at two-week follow-up.

  7. Effect of lavender oil (Lavandula angustifolia) on cerebral edema and its possible mechanisms in an experimental model of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Abedin; Sharifat, Shaghayegh; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza

    2014-02-22

    Lavender belongs to the family Labiatae and has a variety of cosmetic uses as well as therapeutic purposes in herbal medicine. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of lavender oil against brain edema and its possible mechanisms in an experimental model of stroke. Under Laser-Doppler Flowmetry, focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1h in rats. Lavender oil (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg ip (and/or vehicle was injected at the onset of ischemia. Infarct size, cerebral edema, functional outcome, and oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated using standard methods. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expression of VEGF, Bax, and Bcl-2. Treatment with lavender oil at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly diminished infarct size, brain edema, and improved functional outcome after cerebral ischemia (P0.05). The results indicated that lavender oil has neuroprotective activity against cerebral ischemia and alleviated neurological function in rats, and the mechanism may be related to augmentation in endogenous antioxidant defense, inhibiting oxidative stress, and increasing VEGF expression in the rat brain. However, lavender oil could not suppress the apoptosis pathway.

  8. Investigation of cultivated lavender (Lavandula officinalis L. extraction and its extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nađalin Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study essential oil content was determined in lavender flowers and leaves by hydrodistillation. Physical and chemical characteristics of the isolated oils were determined. By using CO2 in supercritical state the extraction of lavender flowers was performed with a selected solvent flow under isothermal and isobaric conditions. By the usage of gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (GC/MS and gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector (GC/FID the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained essential oil and supercritical extracts (SFE was carried out. Also, the analysis of individual SFE extracts obtained during different extraction times was performed. It turned out that the main components of the analysed samples were linalool, linalool acetate, lavandulol, caryophyllene oxide, lavandulyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol and others. Two proposed models were used for modelling the extraction system lavender flower - supercritical CO2 on the basis of experimental results obtained by examining the extraction kinetics of this system. The applied models fitted well with the experimental results.

  9. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane eNemri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp. Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimise parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analysed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote

  10. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G. O.; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J.; Jones, David A.; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their

  11. Deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase is not a rate-determining enzyme for essential oil production in spike lavender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Poudereux, Isabel; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2014-11-01

    Spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) is an economically important aromatic plant producing essential oils, whose components (mostly monoterpenes) are mainly synthesized through the plastidial methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) synthase (DXS), that catalyzes the first step of the MEP pathway, plays a crucial role in monoterpene precursors biosynthesis in spike lavender. To date, however, it is not known whether the DXP reductoisomerase (DXR), that catalyzes the conversion of DXP into MEP, is also a rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of monoterpenes in spike lavender. To investigate it, we generated transgenic spike lavender plants constitutively expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana DXR gene. Although two out of the seven transgenic T0 plants analyzed accumulated more essential oils than the controls, this is hardly imputable to the DXR transgene effect since a clear correlation between transcript accumulation and monoterpene production could not be established. Furthermore, these increased essential oil phenotypes were not maintained in their respective T1 progenies. Similar results were obtained when total chlorophyll and carotenoid content in both T0 transgenic plants and their progenies were analyzed. Our results then demonstrate that DXR enzyme does not play a crucial role in the synthesis of plastidial monoterpene precursors, suggesting that the control flux of the MEP pathway in spike lavender is primarily exerted by the DXS enzyme.

  12. Aspects of resistance of flax and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, G.M.L.W.

    1997-01-01

    In the thesis aspects have been described of the flax and linseed interaction to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini, the causal agent of flax wilt. Two in vitro tests were established to screen for resistance, to investigate race specificity and to study infection and colonization patterns in a resistant

  13. The Effect of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil on Performance and Blood Metabolites of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nassiri Moghaddam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of lavender essential oil (LEO on broiler performance, carcass characteristics and blood metabolites was examined in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments (control diet, virginiamycin 10% (50 ppm and 3 diets containing 150, 250, 350 ppm lavender essential oil and 5 replications in a period of 42-days. No significant differences were noticed for feed intake between the treatments. Birds receiving diet containing 350 ppm LEO showed the highest weight gain and the control diet lowest weight gain. From weeks 3 to 6, the feed conversion ratio was significantly better in the group receiving 350 ppm LEO than other groups. There were no significant differences between treatments for serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, VLDL, mortality and carcass characteristics at the end of experiment. The diet with 350 ppm LEO increased serum calcium level significantly (P< 0.05. These results showed that LEO could be considered as a potential natural growth promoter for broiler chickens. It appears that the response may be dose-related and higher levels may be needed to elicit this response. However, more experiments are needed in this content.

  14. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lavender essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA L. DA SILVA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the antinociceptive, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of compounds found in the lavender essential oil (LEO, however to date, there is still lack of substantial data. The objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of lavender essential oil. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical decolorization assay was used for antioxidant activity evaluation. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested using two models of acute inflammation: carrageenan-induced pleurisy and croton oil-induced ear edema. The antinociceptive activity was tested using the pain model induced by formalin. LEO has antioxidant activity, which is dose-dependent response. The inflammatory response evoked by carrageenan and by croton oil was reduced through the pre-treatment of animals with LEO. In the pleurisy model, the drug used as positive control, dexamethasone, was more efficacious. However, in the ear swelling, the antiedematogenic effect of the oil was similar to that observed for dexamethasone. In the formalin test, LEO consistently inhibited spontaneous nociception and presented a similar effect to that of tramadol. The results of this study reveal (in vivo the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of LEO and demonstrates its important therapeutic potential.

  15. Use of Essential Oils of Cinnamon, Lavender and Peppermint for Weed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical compounds for weed control has been often responsible of damage to both the environment and the human health. To challenge these problems, in the last years research has increased its effort to find out alternative farming strategies. A feasible alternative could be the identification of natural substances with allelopathic effects for the realization of natural herbicides. Some research has already highlighted the possibility of using essential oils, extracted from aromatic plants, for weed control. The advantage in the utilization of such natural compounds is the quickly breaking down process into the environment and so the possible application in sustainable agriculture like organic farming. Objective of this research was the evaluation of the inhibition effect exerted by the essential oils of cinnamon, peppermint and lavender on seeds germination of some of the most common weeds species of the Mediterranean environment (pigweed, wild mustard and ryegrass. The results have highlighted a control in the weeds germination. Among the essential oils tested, cinnamon oil has exerted the highest inhibition effect compared with lavender and peppermint ones. The dicotyledonous species have been more susceptible compared with the monocotyledonous, even if it has been recorded only for redroot pigweed a dose able to inhibit totally the seed germination.

  16. Essential oils and distilled straws of lavender and lavandin: a review of current use and potential application in white biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Bou, Marine; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Faulds, Craig B; Lomascolo, Anne

    2015-04-01

    The Lavandula genus, which includes lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lavandin (L. angustifolia × Lavandula latifolia), is cultivated worldwide for its essential oils, which find applications in perfumes, cosmetics, food processing and, more recently, in aromatherapy products. The chemical composition of lavender and lavandin essential oils, usually produced by steam distillation from the flowering stems, is characterized by the presence of terpenes (e.g. linalool and linalyl acetate) and terpenoids (e.g. 1,8-cineole), which are mainly responsible for their characteristic flavour and their biological and therapeutic properties. Lavender and lavandin distilled straws, the by-products of oil extraction, were traditionally used for soil replenishment or converted to a fuel source. They are mineral- and carbon-rich plant residues and, therefore, a cheap, readily available source of valuable substances of industrial interest, especially aroma and antioxidants (e.g. terpenoids, lactones and phenolic compounds including coumarin, herniarin, α-bisabolol, rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids). Accordingly, recent studies have emphasized the possible uses of lavender and lavandin straws in fermentative or enzymatic processes involving various microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi, for the production of antimicrobials, antioxidants and other bioproducts with pharmaceutical and cosmetic activities, opening up new challenging perspectives in white biotechnology applications.

  17. Optimum Preparation Conditions of LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 and LiNi0.95Ce0.05O2 as Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆志河; 张廷安; 侯闯

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 was discussed by the multiply sintering method for solid reaction,in which the sintered material was smashed,ground and pelletted between two successive sintering steps.The optimum technological condition was obtained through orthogonal experiments by L9(34) and DTA analysis.The result indicates that the factors of effecting the electrochemical properties of synthesized LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 are molar ratio of Li/Ni/Co,oxygen pressure,homothermal time,the final sintering temperature in turn according to its importance.The oxygen pressure is reviewed independently and the technological condition is further optimized.With the same method,rare earth element Ce was studied as substitute element of Co and the cathode material of LiNi0.95Ce0.05O2 with excellent electrochemical properties was prepared.The electrochemical testing results of LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 and LiNi0.95Ce0.05O2 experimental batteries show that discharge capacities of them reach 165 and 148 mAh·g-1 respectively and the persistence is more than 9 h at 3.7 V.

  18. Antibacterial activity of essential oils from palmarosa, evening primrose, lavender and tuberose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodhia M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils extracted from flower petals of palmarosa ( Cymbopogon martini , evening primrose ( Primula rosea , lavender ( Lavandula angustifolia and tuberose ( Polianthus tuberosa were tested for their antibacterial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Different concentrations of each essential oil ranging from 10-100% were tested. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were found susceptible to the studied flower essential oils. With increase in concentration of essential oil, increase in zone of inhibition was observed thus dose-dependent response was clear for each essential oil. Essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon martini showed the highest activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria among the tested essential oils.

  19. Effectiveness of the essential oils lavender and ginger in promoting children's comfort in a perianesthesia setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, DeeAnn; Belew, John

    2009-10-01

    This randomized, controlled, blinded study examined the effectiveness of an aromatherapy intervention on the reduction of children's distress in a perianesthesia setting. The sample included children with and without developmental disabilities (n = 94). Subjects in the intervention group received an aromatherapy intervention of lavender and ginger essential oils. The control group received a placebo intervention of jojoba oil. Distress was measured at two times: before induction and in the PACU, using the Faces, Legs, Arms, Cry and Consolability (FLACC) scale. The mean distress level was lower for the children in the essential oil group, but the effect was not statistically significant (P = .055). Parents' responses to survey questions about satisfaction with aromatherapy did not differ between groups, although open-ended comments indicated a more positive opinion of the benefits of the intervention in the aromatherapy group.

  20. Inhaled Lavender Effect on Anxiety and Pain Caused From Intrauterine Device Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Shahnazi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intrauterine device (IUD is the most common reliable, effective and reversible contraceptive method used worldwide and in areas with high growth rate is of particular importance. IUD insertion is associated with high anxiety in most people that causes pain and discomfort. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of aromatherapy on anxiety and pain caused by IUD insertion. Methods: This study was conducted on 106 women in a health care center located in Ardebil, Iran. Participants were divided into two groups by randomized blocks of 4 and 6. In the experimental group lavender scent was inhaled and in the control group the placebo was inhaled 30 minutes before IUD insertion. The anxiety of the participants was measured by Spielberger questionnaire, and the pain of IUD insertion was measured immediately after the insertion using visual analog scale (range 0-10. Results: The mean score (standard deviation of anxiety before intervention was 43.2 (9.2 in the experimental group that decreased after intervention to 39.0 (10.5 (p < 0.001, while this score was 42.2 (9.0 and 41.5 (8.4 before and after the intervention in the control group (p = 0.21. Mean differences of anxiety in both groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001. The pain score after intervention did not show significant difference between two groups (p = 0.51. Conclusion: Aromatherapy with lavender inhalation was effective in decreasing anxiety in IUD procedure, and this method can be used in health care centers as complementary treatments.

  1. A single point-mutation within the melanophilin gene causes the lavender plumage colour dilution phenotype in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tixier-Boichard Michèle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lavender phenotype in the chicken causes the dilution of both black (eumelanin and red/brown (phaeomelanin pigments. Defects in three genes involved in intracellular melanosomal transport, previously described in mammals, give rise to similar diluted pigmentation phenotypes as those seen in lavender chickens. Results We have used a candidate-gene approach based on an expectation of homology with mammals to isolate a gene involved in pigmentation in chicken. Comparative sequence analysis of candidate genes in the chicken identified a strong association between a mutation in the MLPH gene and the diluted pigmentation phenotype. This mutation results in the amino acid change R35W, at a site also associated with similar phenotypes in mice, humans and cats. Conclusion This is the first time that an avian species with a mutation in the MLPH gene has been reported.

  2. In vitro control of the camel nasal botfly, Cephalopina titillator, with doramectin, lavender, camphor, and onion oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Hanem F; Ramadan, Mohamed Y; Mageid, Abla D Abdel

    2013-07-01

    Camels are very important livestock particularly in arid and semiarid lands. The oestrid fly, Cephalopina titillator (Clark), causes nasopharyngeal myiasis in camels, and it is widely distributed in many camel breeding areas triggering health hazards and severe economic losses in camels. The prevalence of infestation of camels (slaughtered at Tokh's slaughterhouse, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, during the period from September 2011 to March 2012) was 41.67 % (100 out of 240). Most infested camels developed clinical signs of nasal discharge, restlessness, loss of appetite, difficulty in breathing, frequent sneezing, and snoring. Postmortem examination of infested camels explained that breathing of the animal is greatly impaired because of blockage of the nasopharynx by larvae and/or mucofibrinous secretions. The larval count per camel ranged from 1 to 250 (mean 28.45 ± 6.48). In vitro larval immersion tests were carried out to determine the efficacy of doramectin (0.003 %) as well as some essential oils (50 % each) such as lavender, camphor, and onion oils against the second and third larval stages (L2 and L3) of C. titillator. Another trial had been done for imitating what could happen if the area around camels were treated with an insecticide or an insect repellent. All treated L2 died 18 h posttreatment (PT) with both doramectin and lavender, and 100 % mortality was reached for L3 after 24 and 30 h PT with lavender and doramectin, respectively. Doramectin and lavender induced the highest response against C. titillator as their lethal time (LT50) values after treatment of L2 were 3.40 and 3.60 h, respectively, and those of L3 were 4.99 and 5.53 h, respectively. Against both L2 and L3 of C. titillator and based on LT50 values of onion oil and those of other applied materials, doramectin and lavender oil were four times more effective than onion oil, and camphor oil was two times more effective than onion oil. Based on LT50 values of essential oils and those of

  3. [Sensitivity assessment of thyme and lavender essential oils against clinical strains of Escherichia coli for their resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Kalemba, Danuta; Wasiela, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Strong antiseptic activity of plant essential oils and extracts has been known for a long time. The antibacterial activity of thyme and lavender essential oils were tested against 30 clinical bacterial strains of Escherichia coli from patients with different clinical conditions. The agar diffusion method was used for microbial growth inhibition at various concentrations of the oils from Thymus vulgaris and Lavandula angustifolia. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics was carried out using disc-diffusion method. The results of experiments showed that the both oils, from T. vulgaris and L. angustifolia were active against all of the clinical strains, but thyme oil demonstrated the highest activity. Thyme and lavender essential oils were active against multi drug resistant clinical strains of Escherichia coli genera. The results of experiments justify a study related to activity other essential oils against different genus of bacteria.

  4. From Lavender Water to Kiss Me, You Dare!: Shifting Linguistic Norms in the Perfume Industry, 1700-1900

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript. It is currently embargoed pending publication. This chapter is concerned with standardisation within the perfume industry. How and when did the names of perfumes change from registering their contents or place of manufacture to the narrative, fantasy titles prevalent today? Did mid-Victorian discoveries in chemical synthesis result in naming changes? Data is taken from electronically-searchable London and Paris newspaper corpora. The shift from Lavender W...

  5. Rhoporhynchus lini N. G. N. Sp. (Bucephalidae: Bucephalinae) from the swim bladder of yellow catfish, Pseudobagrus fulvidraco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Tang; Wang, Wei-Jun

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes and discusses a new bucephalid species, Rhoporhynchus lini, from the swim bladder of yellow catfish, Pseudobagrus fulvidraco, from Nanhai County of Guangdong Province in China. It is characterized mainly by its wide flat foliate body, large size, degenerated rhynchus, voluminous saccular intestine, dendritic vitellaria, short uterus, limited locality of the reproductive organs and site of infection in fish swim bladder. It is certainly allocated to the subfamily Bucephalinae according to its relative locality of ovary and testes (ovary pretesticular). But it differs evidently from the species in all other genera of the subfamily. Therefore, a new genus, Rhoporhynchus, is erected with R. lini as the type species.

  6. Effect of lavender essence inhalation on the level of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, SeyedAbedin; Heydari, Alemeh; Vakili, MohammadAli; Moghadam, Shahram; Tazyky, SadeghAli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgery, as a treatment, is a stressful experience. The anxiety is more severe in open-heart surgery patients due to its risk and complications. The present study aimed to determine the effect of lavender essence on the levels of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery. Materials and Methods: This was a single-blind clinical trial, a random allocation study with a control group conducted on 90 candidates for open-heart surgery in two groups of study and control. The study and control groups inhaled two drops of lavender and distilled water for 20 min, respectively. Spielberger questionnaire was filled by the patients. A 2 ml blood sample was taken to measure the cortisol level and patients’ vital signs were recorded before and after intervention. Data were analyzed by chi-square in the form of mean, SD, and frequency distribution, independent t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with a significance level of P = 0.05 to modify the pre-test scores. Results: Results showed a significant reduction in mean anxiety score from 56.73 (5.67) to 54.73 (5.42) after intervention in the study group, compared to the control group [1.11 (1.17)] (P Aromatherapy with lavender is suggested to be considered as a nursing intervention in clinical settings. PMID:27563324

  7. Effect of Lavender Cream with or without Foot-bath on Anxiety, Stress and Depression in Pregnancy: a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Effati-Daryani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological disorders are associated with maternal and neonatal morbidities. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Lavender cream with or without foot-bath on depression, anxiety and stress of pregnant women. Methods: In this trial, 141 women at 25 to 28 weeks gestation were randomly assigned into three groups (47 at each group; receiving Lavender cream with foot-bath, only Lavender cream, or placebo, 2g every night for two months. Depression, anxiety and stress were assessed at baseline, and 4th and 8th weeks after intervention, using DASS-21. General linear model was used to compare the groups. Results: There were three losses to follow-up at the 4th and one more at the 8th week. Scores of all three outcomes in both Lavender and foot-bath and only Lavender groups were significantly lower than those in the placebo group at the 8th week; adjusted difference of depression score -3.3, 95% confidence interval -4.6 to -1.9;-2.4, -3.7 to -1.0, respectively, anxiety score -1.4, -2.6 to -0.2; -1.7,-2.9 to -0.5 and stress score -3.1, -4.7 to -1.5; -2.7, -4.3 to -1.1. At the 4th week, only score of anxiety in the lavender group (-2.3, -3.9 to -0.8 and stress in the both groups (-2.3, -4.1 to -0.5; -1.9, -3.7 to -0.1 were significantly less than those in the placebo group. There were not statistically significant differences between the two experimental groups in terms of the outcomes. Conclusion: Lavender cream with foot-bath or alone can be used for pregnant women for reducing their stress, anxiety and depression

  8. Effect of Lavender Cream with or without Foot-bath on Anxiety, Stress and Depression in Pregnancy: a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effati-Daryani, Fatemeh; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Azam

    2015-03-01

    Psychological disorders are associated with maternal and neonatal morbidities. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Lavender cream with or without foot-bath on depression, anxiety and stress of pregnant women. In this trial, 141 women at 25 to 28 weeks gestation were randomly assigned into three groups (47 at each group); receiving Lavender cream with foot-bath, only Lavender cream, or placebo, 2g every night for two months. Depression, anxiety and stress were assessed at baseline, and 4(th) and 8(th) weeks after intervention, using DASS-21. General linear model was used to compare the groups. There were three losses to follow-up at the 4(th) and one more at the 8(th) week. Scores of all three outcomes in both Lavender and foot-bath and only Lavender groups were significantly lower than those in the placebo group at the 8(th) week; adjusted difference of depression score -3.3, 95% confidence interval -4.6 to -1.9;-2.4, -3.7 to -1.0, respectively, anxiety score -1.4, -2.6 to -0.2; -1.7,-2.9 to -0.5 and stress score -3.1, -4.7 to -1.5; -2.7, -4.3 to -1.1. At the 4(th) week, only score of anxiety in the lavender group (-2.3, -3.9 to -0.8) and stress in the both groups (-2.3, -4.1 to -0.5; -1.9, -3.7 to -0.1) were significantly less than those in the placebo group. There were not statistically significant differences between the two experimental groups in terms of the outcomes. Lavender cream with foot-bath or alone can be used for pregnant women for reducing their stress, anxiety and depression.

  9. Vergleichende morphologische Untersuchung der Morgan-Linie mittels Röntgen, Computertomographie (CT) und Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT)

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Nannette Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Die hier vorgelegte Studie untersucht 88 Hüftgelenke mit Morgan-Linie von Hunden der HD-Grade A1, A2, B1 und B2 mittels Röntgen, CT und MRT. Die Morgan-Linien werden in 5 verschiedene Morphologie-Gruppen eingeteilt. Es werden verschiedene Parameter im Röntgen (HD-Grad, Subluxationsindex, Norberg-Winkel), in der CT (vorhandenen Arthrosen, Dorsolaterale Subluxation, Dichte des Femurkopf und-hals) und der MRT (Synovial Fluid Index, Kapsel- und Knorpeldicke, Signal des Femurhalses) bestimmt. Ziel...

  10. Preparation, Characterization and Magnetic Properties of PANI/La-substituted LiNi Ferrite Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG, Jing; LI, Liang-Chao; XU, Feng

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic nanocomposites containing polyaniline (PANI)-coated La-substituted LiNi ferrite (LiNi0.5La0.02Fe1.98O4)were synthesized by in situ polymerization in aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid. The nanocomposites exhibited the magnetic hysteresis nature under applied magnetic field. The saturation magnetization (Ms) and coercivity (Hc)varied with the ferrite content. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Visible spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). TEM and SEM studies showed that the nanocomposites present the core-shell structure. The results of XRD patterns, FT-IR and UV-Visible spectra indicated the formation of PANI-LiNi0.5La0.02Fe1.98O4 nanocomposites and showed that the interaction existed between PANI backbone and ferrite particles in the nanocomposites. The bonding mechanism in the nanocomposites has been proposed.

  11. Hair Growth-Promoting Effects of Lavender Oil in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boo Hyeong; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hair growth effects of lavender oil (LO) in female C57BL/6 mice. The experimental animals were divided into a normal group (N: saline), a vehicle control group (VC: jojoba oil), a positive control group (PC: 3% minoxidil), experimental group 1 (E1: 3% LO), and experimental group 2 (E2: 5% LO). Test compound solutions were topically applied to the backs of the mice (100 μL per application), once per day, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. The changes in hair follicle number, dermal thickness, and hair follicle depth were observed in skin tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the number of mast cells was measured in the dermal and hypodermal layers stained with toluidine blue. PC, E1, and E2 groups showed a significantly increased number of hair follicles, deepened hair follicle depth, and thickened dermal layer, along with a significantly decreased number of mast cells compared to the N group. These results indicated that LO has a marked hair growth-promoting effect, as observed morphologically and histologically. There was no significant difference in the weight of the thymus among the groups. However, both absolute and relative weights of the spleen were significantly higher in the PC group than in the N, VC, E1, or E2 group at week 4. Thus, LO could be practically applied as a hair growth-promoting agent.

  12. Effects of Lavender Inhalant on the Pain during Endotracheal Suctioning in Intensive Care Unit Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taheri Rezgh Abadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Patients undergoing artificial ventilation require tracheal tube suction because of inability to clear their effective airways, which is usually a painful process for the patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of spike lavender’s inhalant on pain during tracheal tube suctioning in ICU intubated patients. Materials & Methods: In this double-blinded randomized clinical trial, 60 intubated patients hospitalized in ICU of Shahid Modarres Hospital of Kashmar City, Iran, in 2017 were selected by available and simple sampling method, and were randomly divided into 2 control and case groups (each 30 individuals. Before the standard suctioning process, the test group patients received inhalant of 2% spike lavender for 5 minutes and the control group received inhalant of distilled water. The level of pain was recorded before and during tracheal tube suctioning. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software using independent T, paired T, Fisher and Mann-Whitney U tests. Findings: There was no significant difference in pain score before tracheal tube suction between 2 groups (p>0.05. However, there were significant differences between the level of pain during tracheal tube suctioning and the pain was increased in both groups, but this increase was significantly higher in the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion: Spike lavender’s inhalant is effective on pain reduction during suctioning process of ICU intubated patients.

  13. Lavender, tea tree and lemon oils as antimicrobials in washing liquids and soft body balms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunicka-Styczyńska, A; Sikora, M; Kalemba, D

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of commercial essential oils: lavender, tea tree and lemon, antimicrobials in washing liquid and O/W soft body balm. The inhibition efficacy of essential oils in washing liquid (1% alone or in mixtures), in soft body balm (0.5% alone), as well as combined with the synthetic preservative DMDM hydantoin and 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate mixture (0.1 and 0.3%), was tested against S. aureus ATCC 6538, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida sp. ŁOCK 0008 and A. niger ATCC 16404 in compliance with the European Pharmacopoeia standards. The components of the system preserving soft body balm were supplemented with a solubilizer. Washing liquids containing only essential oils met Criterion A E.P. only for S. aureus, Candida sp. and A. niger. In soft body balm formulations, oils at a concentration of 0.5% did not reveal any preserving activity. The introduction of a solubilizer to a system containing 0.5% tea tree oil led to a substantial increase in the bacteriostatic activity of the formulation, but did not significantly affect its fungistatic properties. A combination of 0.5% tea tree oil, 5% solubilizer and 0.3% synthetic preservative ensured the microbiological stability of soft body balm in accordance with Criterion A E.P.

  14. Cardioprotective Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Lavender Flower against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

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    Dong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the cardioprotective property of the aqueous extract of lavender flower (LFAE. The myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury of rat was prepared by Langendorff retrograde perfusion technology. The heart was preperfused with K-H solution containing LFAE for 10 min before 20 minutes global ischemia, and then the reperfusion with K-H solution was conducted for 45 min. The left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP and the maximum up/downrate of left ventricular pressure (±dp/dtmax were recorded by physiological recorder as the myocardial function and the myocardial infarct size was detected by TTC staining. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine kinase (CK activities in the effluent were measured to determine the myocardial injury degree. The superoxide anion dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA in myocardial tissue were detected to determine the oxidative stress degree. The results showed that the pretreatment with LFAE significantly decreased the myocardial infarct size and also decreased the LDH, CK activities, and MDA level, while it increased the LVDP, ±dp/dtmax, SOD activities, and the coronary artery flow. Our findings indicated that LFAE could provide protection for heart against the I/R injury which may be related to the improvement of myocardial oxidative stress states.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of LiNi0.45Co0.10Mn0.45O2 cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hua-jun; ZHANG Ming; LI Xin-hai; ZHANG Xin-ming; WANG Zhi-xing; PENG Wen-jie; HU Min

    2005-01-01

    LiNi0.45 Co0. 10 Mn0.45 O2 was prepared from Li2CO3 and a triple oxide of nickel, cobalt and manganese at 950 C in air. The structure and characteristics of LiNi0.45Co0.10Mn0.45O2 were determined by XRD, SEM and electrochemical measurements. The compound LiNi0. 45 Co0. 10 Mn0. 45 O2 has layered structure with hexagonal lattice. The individual particles are agglomeration of many little primary particles whose size ranges from 100 mm to 200 nm. The LiNi0.45 Co0.10 Mn0.45 O2 cathode has excellent electrochemical performances with large reversible specific capacity of h/g is obtained when the charge voltage limit is fixed at 4. 45 V.

  16. The Effect of Massage With Lavender Oil on Restless Leg Syndrome in Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Restless leg syndrome (RLS is a common problem in patients with chronic renal failure. It can reduce the quality of life and sleep disturbances. This disorder is usually treated pharmacologically. Recently, complementary medicine methods have been suggested because of chemical drugs adverse effects. There is not enough evidence about the effect of aromatherapy on RLS. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the effects of massage with lavender oil on RLS symptoms in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods This randomized clinical trial study included 70 hemodialysis patients with RLS that were randomly assigned into two groups in 2014. The experimental group received effleurage massage using lavender oil and control group received routine care for three weeks. Data was collected with RLS questionnaire and analyzed using independent and paired t-test and Chi-square test. Results The mean RLS scores were not significantly different in the two groups at the start of study (22.41 ± 7.67 vs. 22.90 ± 4.38, P = 0.76. At the end of study, the mean RLS score significantly decreased in the intervention group, while this score remained relatively un-changed in the control group (12.41 ± 5.49 vs. 23.23 ± 4.52, P < 0.0001. Conclusions Lavender oil massage was effective to improve RLS in hemodialysis patients. It has no adverse effects, is practical and cost-effective. It is suggested to be used along with routine treatment of RLS in hemodialysis patients.

  17. Comparison of the effects of lavender and diazepam on the anxiety level of patients before orthopedic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Shahinfar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Waiting for surgery is one of the stressful environmental factors for each patient. The anxiety caused by waiting could have adverse effects on the patient treatment and recovery process. Given the complications caused by the management of anxiety through pharmaceutical methods, the application of complementary medicine is of paramount importance. This study aimed to compare the effects of lavender and diazepam on the anxiety level of the patients before orthopedic surgery. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on the patients undergoing orthopedic surgery, who referred to one of the teaching hospitals of Bojnord, Iran, in 2015. In total, 60 patients were selected through randomized convenience sampling and divided into the intervention and control groups. The intervention group received 300 mg of lavender extract, whereas the control group orally consumed diazepam 5 mg prior to the surgery. The anxiety level of the patients was measured one night and one hour before the surgery using the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The data analysis was performed in the SPSS version 16, using the paired sample t-test, Fisher’s exact test, Chi-square test, and independent t-test. Results: According to the results of the present study, the mean anxiety level of the intervention group varied from 9.8±6.0 to 76.2±5.5 (P<0.001 after the intervention. On the other hand, the mean anxiety level of the participants of the control group decreased from 100.0±5.5 to 80.0±5.7 (P<0.001. However, this difference was not statistically significant between the two groups. Conclusion: As the findings indicated, similar to diazepam, the lavender can diminish the anxiety level in the patients before the orthopedic surgery. It is recommended to use the lavender before the surgeries to decrease the anxiety level since the herbal medicine is associated with less complications, compared to the diazepam.

  18. The Effect of Aromatherapy with Lavender Essential Oil on Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Hemodialysis Patients: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tayebi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression, anxiety and stress are common among hemodialysis patients affecting their mental health and quality of life, leading to multiple dysfunctions. Anti-anxiety effects of aromatherapy, as one of the domains of complementary medicine, have been investigated in several studies. Aim: Investigation of the effect of aromatherapy with lavender essential oil on depression, anxiety and stress rates in hemodialysis patients. Methods: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial performed on 60 patients undergoing hemodialysis in Tehran, Iran in 2014. The patients were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. To measure the rate of depression, anxiety and stress, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 was used. In the intervention group, the patients were asked to inhale the lavender essential oil smeared on a piece of cloth (three drops of oil for one hour during the hemodialysis procedure. After 4 weeks, the rates of depression, anxiety and stress were re-measured. Data analysis was performed by SPSS software version 14 using chi-square, Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U statistical tests. Results: In this study, 33(60% of the participants were male, and 53(96.4% were married.  After the intervention, the scores of depression (P

  19. Assessment of Insecticidal Efficacy of Diatomaceous Earth and Powders of Common Lavender and Field Horsetail against Bean Weevil Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohinc, T; Vayias, B; Bartol, T; Trdan, S

    2013-12-01

    In the search for an effective and sustainable control method against the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), an important insect pest affecting stored common beans and other legumes, three different powders were tested against adult been weevils under laboratory conditions. The three powders were diatomaceous earth (DE) (commercial product SilicoSec®), common lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) powder and field horsetail (Equisetum arvense) powder. The substances were tested at five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C), two relative humidity levels (RH) (55 and 75%), and four concentrations (100, 300, 500, and 900 ppm). The mortality of adults was measured after the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 7th days of exposure. The efficacy of the powders increased with the temperature, whereas in general, RH did not have a significant effect on the adults' survival. According to common practice of storing common beans, we recommend the use of DE against the pest in question, as this inert powder showed the highest efficacy at lower temperatures and concentrations. Concerning the wider use of common lavender and field horsetail powders, we suggest studying their combined use with other environmentally friendly methods with the aim of achieving the highest synergistic effect possible.

  20. The study protocol of a blinded randomised-controlled cross-over trial of lavender oil as a treatment of behavioural symptoms in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Daniel W

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Increasingly more attention is being paid to alternative interventions that are associated with fewer risks than pharmacology. Lavandula angustifolia (lavender has been thought, for centuries, to have soothing properties, but the existing evidence is limited and shows mixed results. The aim of the current study is to test the effectiveness of topically applied pure lavender oil in reducing actual counts of challenging behaviours in nursing home residents. Methods/Design We will use a blinded repeated measures design with random cross-over between lavender oil and placebo oil. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and associated behavioural problems living in aged care facilities will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be assigned in random order to lavender or placebo blocks for one week then switched to the other condition for the following week. In each week the oils will be applied on three days with at least a two-day wash out period between conditions. Trained observers will note presence of target behaviours and predominant type of affect displayed during the 30 minutes before and the 60 minutes after application of the oil. Nursing staff will apply 1 ml of 30% high strength essential lavender oil to reduce the risk of missing a true effect through under-dosing. The placebo will comprise of jojoba oil only. The oils will be identical in appearance and texture, but can easily be identified by smell. For blinding purposes, all staff involved in applying the oil or observing the resident will apply a masking cream containing a mixture of lavender and other essential oils to their upper lip. In addition, nursing staff will wear a nose clip during the few minutes it takes to massage the oil to the resident's forearms

  1. Application of lavender and rosemary essential oils improvement of the microbiological quality of chicken quarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Petrová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was monitoring of chicken quarters microbiological indicators after treatment by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA, lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L. and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil, stored under vacuum packaging, at 4 ±0.5°C for a period of 16 days. The following treatments of chicken quarters were used: Air-packaging control samples, control vacuum-packaging samples, vacuum-packaging with EDTA solution 1.50% w/w, control samples, vacuum-packaging with Lavandula angustifolia essential oil at concentrations 0.2% v/w and vacuum-packaging with Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil at concentration 0.2% v/w. The quality assessment of all samples was established by microbiological analysis. Sampling was carried out after certain time intervals: 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days. Chicken quarters were stored under vacuum packaging, at 4 ±0.5°C during experiment. Microbiological analyses were conducted by using standard microbiological methods. Anaerobic plate count were determined using Plate Count Agar, after incubation for 2 days at 35°C under anaerobic condition. Pseudomonas spp. were determined on Pseudomonas Isolation agar after incubation at 48 h at 25°C. For lactic acid bacteria were inoculated into Rogosa and Sharpe agar after incubation 48-78 h at 37°C in an aerobic atmosphere supplemented with carbon dioxide (5% CO2. For members of the family Enterobacteriaceae violet red bile glucose agar were used and samples were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The initial APC value of chicken quarter was 3.00 log CFU.g-1 on 0 day. The number of anaerobic plate count ranged from 3.00 log CFU.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 6.11 log CFU.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored in air condition. The initial LAC value of chicken quarter was 3.00 log CFU.g-1 on 0 day. The number of lactic acid bacteria ranged from 3.00 log CFU.g-1 in all tested group on 0 day to 3.58 log CFU.g-1 on 16 day in control group stored

  2. Expression of spearmint limonene synthase in transgenic spike lavender results in an altered monoterpene composition in developing leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Ros, Roc; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2008-01-01

    We generated transgenic spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) plants constitutively expressing the limonene synthase (LS) gene from spearmint (Mentha spicata), encoding the LS enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of limonene from geranyl diphosphate. Overexpression of the LS transgene did not consistently affect monoterpene profile in pooled leaves or flowers from transgenic T(0) plants. Analyses from cohorts of leaves sampled at different developmental stages showed that essential oil accumulation in transgenic and control plants was higher in developing than in mature leaves. Furthermore, developing leaves of transgenic plants contained increased limonene contents (more than 450% increase compared to controls) that correlated with the highest transcript accumulation of the LS gene. The levels of other monoterpene pathway components were also significantly altered. T(0) transgenic plants were grown for 2 years, self-pollinated, and the T(1) seeds obtained. The increased limonene phenotype was maintained in the progenies that inherited the LS transgene.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  4. Herbicidal activity of volatiles from coriander, winter savory, cotton lavender, and thyme isolated by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Clara; Coelho, José A; Urieta, José S; Palavra, António M F; Barroso, José G

    2010-10-27

    The volatiles from Coriandrum sativum L., Satureja montana L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., and Thymus vulgaris L. were isolated by hydrodistillation (essential oil) and supercritical fluid extraction (volatile oil). Their effect on seed germination and root and shoot growth of the surviving seedlings of four crops ( Zea mays L., Triticum durum L., Pisum sativum L., and Lactuca sativa L.) and two weeds ( Portulaca oleracea L. and Vicia sativa L.) was investigated and compared with those of two synthetic herbicides, Agrocide and Prowl. The volatile oils of thyme and cotton lavender seemed to be promising alternatives to the synthetic herbicides because they were the least injurious to the crop species. The essential oil of winter savory, on the other hand, affected both crop and weeds and can be appropriate for uncultivated fields.

  5. The Effect of Aromatherapy with Lavender Essential Oil on Anxiety and Stress in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Depression and anxiety are among the most common mental disorders before and after surgery. Aromatherapy is a treatment that has grown substantially in recent years in comparison with other complementary and alternative medicines (CAM to relieve anxiety. Objectives This study investigated the effect of inhaling lavender essence on the physiological and psychological status of patients who are candidates for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery. Methods This randomized clinical trial was performed on 60 patients who were undergoing CABG surgery at the hospitals of Artesh Jomhory Eslami (AJA University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Patients who met specific inclusion criteria were selected and randomly allocated into two groups: a control group that inhaled room air and an experimental group that inhaled from a piece of cotton impregnated with two drops of lavender essence. This intervention was done on the morning of surgery. To evaluate these measures, a Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS questionnaire was filled out by the patient before and after the intervention. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and analytic statistics. Results After the intervention, the study results showed statistically significant differences between the two study groups in heart rate (mean = 78.83, P = 0.02 and anxiety level (mean = 6.63, P = 0.02. However, the differences between the two groups were not significant regarding stress level (mean = 8.63, P = 0.55 and other physiological variables. Conclusions Inhalation aromatherapy is an effective method for reducing the heart rate and the level of anxiety in patients before CABG surgery. Given that the physiological and psychological health of patients are important responsibilities for nurses, aromatherapy can be considered a safe and effective relaxation method before invasive interventions. Learning this method is recommended for students and nurses.

  6. Preparation of spherical and dense LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 lithium-ion battery particles by spray pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guo-rong; DENG Xin-rong; PENG Zhong-dong; CAO Yan-bin; LIU Zhi-min; LIU Ye-xiang

    2008-01-01

    With citric acid as a polymeric agent layered LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 materials were synthesized by a spray pyrolysis method. TheLiNi0.8Co0.2O2 particles were characterized by means of XRD, SEM and TEM. The electrochemical performances of LiNi0.8Co0.2O2particles were studied in a voltage window of 3.00-4.35 V and at a current density of 30 mA/g. The results show that in the pilot-scale spray pyrolysis process, the morphology of particles is dependent upon the precursor concentration and flux of carrier gas. excellent cycleability after 30 cycles. The LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 samples synthesized under the optimized conditions by the spray pyrolysis method shows a good electrochemical performance.

  7. Evaluating the effects of diffused lavender in an adult day care center for patients with dementia in an effort to decrease behavioral issues: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman Li, Robin; Gilbert, Brian; Orman, Anna; Aldridge, Petra; Leger-Krall, Sue; Anderson, Clare; Hincapie Castillo, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the effects of diffused lavender on the frequency of behavioral issues [BIs], defined as a composite of restlessness/wandering [RW], agitation [AGT], anger [ANG], and anxiety [ANX] in an adult day care center. Secondary objectives evaluate systematic differences on the frequency of BIs between age cohorts, gender, and individual behaviors. Design: Pre-post quasi-experimental study. Setting: Private nonprofit adult day care center for patients with dementia. Participants: Elderly patients older than 65 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of dementia, who require daytime monitoring. Intervention: Lavender aromatherapy twice a day for 20 min during a two-month period during active clinic days. Measurements: Behavioral issues were recorded using the behavior/intervention monthly flow record during the pre- and post-intervention periods. Results: There was no significant difference on frequency of BIs between pre-intervention and post-intervention periods (p = .06). There was a significant difference between pre-intervention and post-intervention total number of AGT occurrences (129 vs. 25; p value < .01). There was no significant difference between age cohorts for computed difference of RW, ANG, and ANX issues. There was a significant difference between age cohorts for computed difference of AGT (p value = .04) as the 70–85 age cohort showed less agitation compared to the 85–100 age cohort. Conclusion: The use of diffused lavender twice daily has shown to reduce the frequency of agitation in elderly patients with dementia, especially in the 70–85 age cohort. Though diffused lavender did not show statistical differences in the frequency of other behaviors (restlessness/wander, anger, anxiety), the study population may have been too small to find a difference.

  8. Research on preparation of layered LiNi0.5 Mn0.5O2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An O2-type layered LiNi0. 5 Mn0. 5 O2 was prepared by rapidly-quenched method, and the structural feature was studied by X-Ray Diffraction. The material synthesized at 950℃ was with a single O2-type structure. Charge and discharge in a voltage range of 2.0-4.35V, the discharge specific capacity of material at the 1st cycle is 143.1 mAh/g in a current density of 0.5 mA/cm2 , and the plot of discharge was with two voltage plat at 3.6 V and 2.8V.

  9. Effect of aromatherapy massage with lavender essential oil on pain in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Ahmad; Mahmodi, Mohammad Azim; Nobakht, Zohre

    2016-11-01

    Osteoarthritis of the knee is the most common chronic joint disease that involves middle aged and elderly people. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy massage with lavender essential oil on pain in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. In this single-blinded, randomized clinical trial, 90 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee who referred to the outpatient rheumatology clinics affiliated with Birjand University of Medical Sciences were selected through convenience sampling method. They were randomly assigned to three groups: intervention (aromatherapy massage with lavender essential oil), placebo (massage with almond oil) and control (without massage). The patients were evaluated at baseline, immediately after the intervention, 1 week, and 4 weeks after the intervention in terms of pain via visual analogue scale. The data were analyzed in SPSS (version 16) using the repeated measure ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and chi-squared test. Pain severity of the patients in the intervention group was significantly different immediately and 1 week after the intervention compared with their initial status (p massage with lavender essential oil was found effective in relieving pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, further studies are needed to confirm findings of this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Facile synthesis of a novel structured Li[Ni0.66Co0.1Mn0.24]O2 cathode material with improved cycle life and thermal stability via ion diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongheng; Shi, Hua; Song, Dawei; Zhang, Hongzhou; Shi, Xixi; Zhang, Lianqi

    2016-09-01

    In order to combine the advantages of core-shell and concentration-gradient Li[Ni1-xMx]O2 materials, a novel structured Li[Ni0.66Co0.1Mn0.24]O2 (NSsbnd Li[Ni0.66Co0.1Mn0.24]O2) cathode material is facilely synthesized from core-shell precursor [(Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1)0.6(Ni0.45Co0.1Mn0.45)0.4](OH)2 via ion diffusion during high temperature calcination. NSsbnd Li[Ni0.66Co0.1Mn0.24]O2 is constructed by core layer, concentration-gradient layer and shell layer. From the detailed comparative investigations, it is found that NSsbnd Li[Ni0.66Co0.1Mn0.24]O2 delivers remarkably improved cycle life and thermal stability compared with normal Li[Ni0.66Co0.1Mn0.24]O2 (Nsbnd Li[Ni0.66Co0.1Mn0.24]O2).

  11. Effect of Salt and Drought Stresses and Pretreatment of Salicylic acid on Seed Germination Characteristics of Lavender (Lavandula stricta Del.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sanginabadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, medicinal and aromatic plants have received much attention in several fields such as agro alimentary, perfumes, pharmaceutical industries and natural cosmetic products. Although secondary metabolites in the medicinal and aromatic plants impressed conventionally by their genotypes, their biosynthesis is strongly influenced by environmental factors. It means biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect growth parameters, essential oil yield and constituents. Abiotic environmental stresses especially salinity and drought has the most effect on medicinal plants. The genus Lavandula (lavender of Lamiaceae family consists of about 30 species, many of which are found in Mediterranean, Sahara-Arabian and Iran-Turanian regions. There are only two species of Lavandula growing naturally in Iran, L. stricta Del. and L. sublepidata Rech. K. These species are not mentioned as medicinal plants in references; however L. soechas L., L. vera DC., L. angustifolia Mill. and L. dantata L. occurs naturally in Iran. Lavandula stricta Del. is a native aromatic plant in Iran from Lamiaceae. In traditional medicine, it is used for treatment of rheumatic pain, stomach pain and cough. Germination is one of the critical stages in the cycle of plants growth due to its important role in determining the final density of plant. Under water stress and salinity conditions, plant germination and its final density is important. Salicylic acid (from Latin salix is a monohydroxybenzoic acid which is a type of phenolic acid and a beta hydroxy acid with C7H6O3 chemical formula. This colorless crystalline organic acid is widely used in organic synthesis and functions as a plant hormone which is derived from salicin metabolism. Salicylic acid (SA is a phenolic phytohormone and is found in plants with roles in plant growth and development, photosynthesis, transpiration, ion uptake and transport. SA also induces specific changes in leaf anatomy and chloroplast

  12. The Effect of Salinity Stress on the Growth, quantity and quality of Essential oil of Lavender (Lavandula angustifulia Miller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sarah khorasaninejad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plants are usually exposed to different environmental stresses which limit their growth and productivity as well as cause considerable loss of worldwide agricultural production. One of the most important factors affecting plant and production of secondary metabolites is the salt stress. Salinity of soil or water is one of major stress, obstacles to increase production in plant growing areas throughout the world and especially in arid and semi-arid regions it can severely limit plant production. Iran is among the world's arid and semi-arid land, and faces water resources shortage and saline lands. According to the concept of sustainable development and role of Agriculture, using saline water and soil resources seems mandatory. Recently, medicinal and aromatic plants have received much attention in several fields such as agroalimentary, perfumes, pharmaceutical industries and natural cosmetic products. Although, secondary metabolites in the medicinal and aromatic plants were fundamentally produced by genetic processing, but, their biosynthesis are strongly influenced by environmental factors. It means that biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect growth parameter, essential oil yield and constituents. Abiotic environmental stresses, especially salinity and drought have the most effect on medicinal plant. Medicinal plants cultivation is one of ways to exploit these resources. Essential oils help to easier adapt to the environmental stress conditions. Also, essential oils are not constantly in the quantitative and qualitative terms. They are changing continuously, due to the requirements of the environment, and to individual survival. The different results were dedicated from the effect of salinity stress on the quantitative and qualitative parameters. Lavender (Lavandula angustifulia Miller is a perennial woody medicinal plant that cultivated for its an essential oil in leafs and flowers. Major parts of Lavender produces

  13. Pseudomonas lini Strain ZBG1 Revealed Carboxylic Acid Utilization and Copper Resistance Features Required for Adaptation to Vineyard Soil Environment: A Draft Genome Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Chong, Teik-Min; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Kher, Heng Leong; Grandclément, Catherine; Faure, Denis; Yin, Wai-Fong; Dessaux, Yves; Hong, Kar-Wai

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas lini strain ZBG1 was isolated from the soil of vineyard in Zellenberg, France and the draft genome was reported in this study. Bioinformatics analyses of the genome revealed presence of genes encoding tartaric and malic acid utilization as well as copper resistance that correspond to the adaptation this strain in vineyard soil environment. PMID:27512520

  14. In Situ Carbon Coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Material Prepared by Prepolymer of Melamine Formaldehyde Resin Assisted Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon coated spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 were prepared by spray-drying using prepolymer of melamine formaldehyde resin (PMF as carbon source of carbon coating layer. The PMF carbon coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was characterized by XRD, SEM, and other electrochemical measurements. The as-prepared lithium nickel manganese oxide has the cubic face-centered spinel structure with a space group of Fd3m. It showed good electrochemical performance as a cathode material for lithium ion battery. After 100 discharge and charge cycles at 0.5 C rate, the specific discharge capacity of carbon coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was 130 mAh·g−1, and the corresponding capacity retention was 98.8%. The 100th cycle specific discharge capacity at 10 C rate of carbon coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was 105.4 mAh·g−1, and even the corresponding capacity retention was 95.2%.

  15. Nitrates–melt synthesized LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 and its performance as cathode in Li-ion cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sathiya; K Hemalatha; K Ramesha; A K Shukla; A S Prakash

    2011-12-01

    Layered LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 crystallizing in $\\bar{3}$ space group is synthesized by decomposing the constituent metal–nitrate precursors. Oxidizing nature of metal nitrates stabilizes nickel in +3 oxidation state, enabling a high degree of cation ordering in the layered LiNi0.8Co0.2O2. The powder sample characterized by XRD Rietveld refinement reveals < 2% Li–Ni site exchange in the layers. Scanning electron microscopic studies on the as-synthesized LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 sample reflect well defined particles of cubic morphology with particle size ranging between 200 and 250 nm. Cyclic voltammograms suggest that LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 undergoes phase transformation on first charge with resultant phase being completely reversible in subsequent cycles. The first-charge-cycle phase transition is further supported by impedance spectroscopy that shows substantial reduction in resistance during initial de-intercalation. Galvanostatic charge–discharge cycles reflect a firstdischarge capacity of 184 mAh g-1 which is stabilized at 170 mAh g-1 over 50 cycles.

  16. Part I: Electronic and ionic transport properties of the ordered and disordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Belharouk, Ilias

    2017-04-01

    Here, we report on the electronic and ionic conductivity and diffusivity of the ordered (P4332) and disordered (Fd 3 bar m) LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel material, which have been determined by using ion and electron blocking cell configurations as a function of lithium concentration and temperature. The disordered phase exhibits about fifteen-time higher electronic conductivity than the ordered phase at room temperature in the lithiated state. Upon delithiation, the electronic conductivity of the ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 phase increases and reaches the same levels observed for the disordered phase. The ionic conductivity and diffusivity of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, in the ordered and disordered forms, are in the range of ∼1 × 10-9 S/cm and ∼5 × 10-9 cm2/s, respectively. Both phases exhibit similar activation energies for the ionic conductivity and diffusivity, i.e. 0.70 ± 0.2eV and 0.74 ± 0.2eV, respectively. It can be concluded from the obtained results that the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, whether ordered or disordered, is limited by lithium transport, but is fast enough to allow charge/discharge of micron-scale particles at practical C-rates.

  17. Quercetin as electrolyte additive for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode for lithium-ion secondary battery at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungkyung; Kim, Myeongho; Choi, Insoo; Kim, Jae Jeong

    2016-12-01

    In an attempt to ameliorate the poor cyclability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 at elevated temperature, quercetin is applied as an additive. The irreversible oxidative behavior of quercetin is thoroughly investigated by electrochemical method. The improved cyclability of the quercetin-containing cell at high temperature implies that by forming robust and less-resistive SEI, quercetin is preferentially oxidized and passivates the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode. EIS result coherently suggests that the quercetin-added electrolyte forms a more compact and Li-ion conducting interface. The surface sensitive XPS analysis confirms that the presence of quercetin restrains the formation of LiF, suppresses the reaction of PF5, and alleviates Mn dissolution. Meanwhile, ICP-MS analysis affirms the effectiveness of quercetin against Mn dissolution. The self-discharge experiment which exhibits the retained charged state of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 at high temperature, gives convincing evidence of the effect of quercetin. Intensive analyses confirm that quercetin can effectively prolong the cycle-life of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 at elevated temperature. We envision its potential and practical usage as an electrolyte additive for high-voltage cathode.

  18. An Artificial SEI Enables the Use of A LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 5 V Cathode with Conventional Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juchuan [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Martha, Surendra K [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Nanda, Jagjit [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel is considered one of the most promising cathodes for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, the operation potential of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, ~4.75 V, is beyond the high voltage limit of the state-of-art electrolyte, ~4.3 V. Here, using thin films of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a model material, we show evidence that an artificial solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) enables the use of this 5 V cathode with conventional carbonate electrolytes. A thin coating of Lipon (lithium phosphorus oxynitride) as an artificial SEI on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 could remedy the decomposition of the electrolyte. The thickness of the Lipon artificial SEI is optimized by balancing the protection and additional resistance. The strategy of artificial SEI on cathodes is expected to enable the wide application of other high voltage cathodes for lithium ion batteries.

  19. Synthesis of LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 in Air Atmosphere and its Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾大明; 史鹏飞; 顾健

    2004-01-01

    The commercialized lithium secondary cells need the electrode materials with high specific capacity,lower pollution and lower price. Certain industrial materials (NiSO4, CoSO4 ,LiOH · H2O) were used to synthesize Ni0. 8 Co0.2 (OH)2of a stratified structure, when various synthesis conditions such as pH, reaction temperature et al. were controlled strictly. After LiOH · H2O and Ni0. 8 Co0. 2 (OH)2were calcinated in air atmosphere,LiNi0.8Co0. 2O2 positive electrode materials with good layered crystal structure was obtained. Tests showed that the optimal calcination temperature in air atmosphere was about at 720 ℃ and LiNi0. 8 Co0. 2 O2 synthesized in the above conditions had good electrochemical properties and a low cost. The first specific discharge capacity of the material was 186 mAh/g, and the specific discharge capacity was 175 mAh/g after 50 cycles at a 0. 2C rate,between 3.0 ~ 4.2 V with a discharge deterioration ratio of 0.22% each cycle. Tests showed that LiNi0. 8 Co0. 2 O2 positive electrode materials was a promising candidate to replace the commercialized LiCoO2 for lithium secondary batteries.

  20. LiNi0.8Co0.2O2/CNTs Composite used as the Materials for Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gui-xin; Yuan Rong-zhong; Chen Li; Zhang Bai-lan; Yu Zuo-long

    2004-01-01

    Stupercapacitors or electrochemical capacitors(ECs) have attracted considerable attentionas an intermediate power source between conventional capacitors and batteries since they possesshigh power density and energy density, exhibit excellent reversibility, and have long cycle life1.Conductive polymers2, electrically conductive metal oxide3,4, activated carbon5 and carbonnanotubes(CNTs) 6-9 have been used as supercapacitor electrode materials. LiNi0.sCo0.2O2 is apromising lithium battery material because it has some advantages of both LiNiO2 and LiCoO2besides its low cost and high power10.In this paper, the electrochemical properties of supercapacitors based on LiNi0.8Co0.2O2/carbonnanotubes composite and LiNi0.8Co0.2O2/acetylene black composite and CNTs in 1 mol/LLiClO4/EC+DEC [V(EC):V(DEC)=1:1] electrolyte have been investigated by means of constantcharge/discharge current tests. The experiment results show that the LiNi0.8Co0.2O2/carbon nanotubescomposite has better properties than others, and the maximun specific capacitance of thesupercapacitor can reach 284.88F/g, while the energy density is up to 158.27Wh/Kg.That discharge capacities, coulombic efficiencies and energy densities at the first cycle and themaximum value and capacity retention at the 100th cycle for supercapacitors using differentelectrode materials (A) LiNi0.8Co0.2O2/acetylene black, (B) LiNi0. 8Co0.2O2/CNTs, (C) CNTs is listedin table 1*Capacity retention rate obtained by dividing the discharge capacity at the 100th cycle by themaximum valueFrom above, the LiNi0. 8Co0.2O2/carbon nanotubes composite should be a good candidatesupercapacitor electrode material.

  1. The lavender plumage colour in Japanese quail is associated with a complex mutation in the region of MLPH that is related to differences in growth, feed consumption and body temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bed’hom Bertrand

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lavender phenotype in quail is a dilution of both eumelanin and phaeomelanin in feathers that produces a blue-grey colour on a wild-type feather pattern background. It has been previously demonstrated by intergeneric hybridization that the lavender mutation in quail is homologous to the same phenotype in chicken, which is caused by a single base-pair change in exon 1 of MLPH. Results In this study, we have shown that a mutation of MLPH is also associated with feather colour dilution in quail, but that the mutational event is extremely different. In this species, the lavender phenotype is associated with a non-lethal complex mutation involving three consecutive overlapping chromosomal changes (two inversions and one deletion that have consequences on the genomic organization of four genes (MLPH and the neighbouring PRLH, RAB17 and LRRFIP1. The deletion of PRLH has no effect on the level of circulating prolactin. Lavender birds have lighter body weight, lower body temperature and increased feed consumption and residual feed intake than wild-type plumage quail, indicating that this complex mutation is affecting the metabolism and the regulation of homeothermy. Conclusions An extensive overlapping chromosome rearrangement was associated with a non-pathological Mendelian trait and minor, non deleterious effects in the lavender Japanese quail which is a natural knockout for PRLH.

  2. Enhanced rate performance of molybdenum-doped spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode materials for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ting-Feng; Chen, Bin; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Li, Xiao-Ya; Zhu, Rong-Sun

    2014-02-01

    The Mo-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathodes are successfully synthesized by citric acid-assisted sol-gel method. The result demonstrates that the Mo-doped LiMn1.4Ni0.55Mo0.05O4 cathodes present the improved electrochemical performance over pristine LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. At the 2 C rate after 80 cycles, the discharge capacities are 68.5 mAh g-1 for the pristine LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 material (53.9% of the capacity at 0.1 C), 107.4 mAh g-1 for the LiMn1.425Ni0.5Mo0.05O4 material (82.1% at 0.1 C), and 122.7 mAh g-1 for the LiMn1.4Ni0.55Mo0.05O4 material (90.5% at 0.1 C). Mo-doping is favorable for reducing the electrode polarization, suggesting that Mo-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrodes have faster lithium insertion/extraction kinetics during cycling. Mo-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrodes show lower charge-transfer resistance and higher lithium diffusion coefficients. In addition, LiMn1.4Ni0.55Mo0.05O4 cathode exhibits the smallest particle size, the lowest charge-transfer resistance and the highest lithium diffusion coefficient among all samples, indicating that it has a high reversibility and good rate capability.

  3. Structural and thermal stabilities of layered Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 materials in 18650 high power batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-Bing; Ning, Feng; Yang, Quan-Hong; Song, Quan-Sheng; Li, Baohua; Su, Fangyuan; Du, Hongda; Tang, Zhi-Yuan; Kang, Feiyu

    The structural and thermal stabilities of the layered Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathode materials under high rate cycling and abusive conditions are investigated using the commercial 18650 Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2/graphite high power batteries. The Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 materials maintain their layered structure even when the power batteries are subjected to 200 cycles with 10 C discharge rate at temperatures of 25 and 50 °C, whereas their microstructure undergoes obvious distortion, which leads to the relatively poor cycling performance of power batteries at high charge/discharge rates and working temperature. Under abusive conditions, the increase in the battery temperature during overcharge is attributed to both the reactions of electrolyte solvents with overcharged graphite anode and Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathode and the Joule heat that results from the great increase in the total resistance (R cell) of batteries. The reactions of fully charged Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathodes and graphite anodes with electrolyte cannot be activated during short current test in the fully charged batteries. However, these reactions occur at around 140 °C in the fully charged batteries during oven test, which is much lower than the temperature of about 240 °C required for the reactions outside batteries.

  4. High potential durability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrodes studied by surface sensitive X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaura, Hiroyuki; Takamatsu, Daiko; Mori, Shinichiro; Orikasa, Yuki; Sugaya, Hidetaka; Murayama, Haruno; Nakanishi, Kouji; Tanida, Hajime; Koyama, Yukinori; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2014-01-01

    Phenomena at electrode/electrolyte interface of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 are studied by in situ total-reflection fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy (TRF-XAS), ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical tests. Flat and well-defined thin films of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are used as model electrodes to facilitate the observation of the interface. The thin-film LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode showed good cycling characteristics at around 4.7 V vs. Li/Li+. The TRF-XAS measurements reveal that nickel and manganese species at the surface have almost the same chemical states and local environments as those in the bulk when in contact with organic electrolyte solutions (1 mol dm-3 LiClO4 in a 1:1 volumetric mixture of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate). This is in sharp contrast to the behavior of a LiCoO2 electrode, in which the surface cobalt species is irreversibly reduced by soaking to the organic electrolyte solutions, leading to gradual material deterioration during the delithiation/lithiation cycling (D. Takamatsu et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Edit., 51 (2012) 11597). It is suggested that the electrolyte decomposition products detected by XPS form a protective layer to restrict the reduction of the surface species of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, leading to good cycling characteristics of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 in spite of its high operating potential.

  5. Combustion synthesis and electrochemical properties of LiNi1/3Col/3Mnl/3BrxO2-x and LiNi1/3Col/3Mnl/3BrxO2-x/graphene cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jiping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3BrxO2-x (0≤x≤0.09 cathode materials were prepared by a combustion method. The XRD results indicate that the Br-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 has the same layered structure as the pristine LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2. FE-SEM results indicate that the particle size distribution of samples is uniform. Electrochemical tests reveal that Br-doped samples exhibit higher discharge capacity and rate capability compared with the pristine, especially the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3Br0.05O1.95 sample shows initial discharge capacity, which can reach to 175.4 and 166.4mAh/g at 0.5 and 1.0C, respectively. Finally, an electronically conducting 2D network of graphene was introduced into LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3Br0.05O1.95 cathode material. The electrochemical properties of the materials were investigated by charge-discharge tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The charge-discharge tests demonstrate that this sample has better cycle stability than LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3Br0.05O1.95 which can be attributed to the excellent electronic conductivity and stable chemical properties of graphene. The EIS results reveal that the graphene coated greatly decreases the resistance of lithium batteries, especially the charge transfer resistance which can be attributed to the significantly improved electronic conductivity.

  6. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Organic Fennel, Parsley, and Lavender from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Irene; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella; Viuda-Martos, Manuel; Navarro, Casilda; Sendra, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to (i) determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of three spices widely cultivated in Spain from organic growth: Foeniculum vulgare, Petroselium crispum, and Lavandula officinalis; (ii) determine the total phenolic content; (iii) determine the antioxidant activity of the essentials oils by means of three different antioxidant tests and (iv) determine the effectiveness of these essentials oils on the inhibition of Listeria innocua CECT 910 and Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844. There is a great variability in the chemical composition of the essential oils. Parsley had the highest phenolic content. Overall, parsley presented the best antioxidant profile, given its highest % of inhibition of DPPH radical (64.28%) and FRAP (0.93 mmol/L Trolox), but had a pro-oxidative behavior by TBARS. Lavender essential oil showed the highest antibacterial activity against L. innocua (>13 mm of inhibition at 20–40 μL oil in the discs), followed by parsley with an inhibition zone of 10 mm (when more than 5 μL oil in the discs), and fennel 10 mm (when more than 40 μL oil in the discs). P. fluorescens was not inhibited by the tested essential oils.

  7. Complex coacervation of collagen hydrolysate extracted from leather solid wastes and chitosan for controlled release of lavender oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Buğra

    2012-06-15

    In the world, approximately 600,000 metric tonnes of chromium-containing solid wastes are generated by the leather industry each year. Environmental concerns and escalating landfill costs are becoming increasingly serious problems to the leather industry and seeking solutions to these problems is a prime concern in much research today. In this study, solid collagen-based protein hydrolysate was isolated from chromium-tanned leather wastes and its chemical properties were determined. Microcapsules of collagen hydrolysate (CH) - chitosan (C) crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA) containing Lavender oil (LO) were prepared by complex coacervation method. The effects of various processing parameters, including the CH to C ratio, LO content, and GA, on the oil load (%), oil content (%), encapsulation efficiency (%) and release rate of LO from microcapsules were investigated. As the ratio of C present in the CH/C mixture and crosslinking density increased, the release rate of LO from microcapsules slowed down. Optical and scanning electron microscopy images illustrated that the LO microcapsules were spherical in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies confirmed that there was no significant interaction between CH/C complex and LO.

  8. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Organic Fennel, Parsley, and Lavender from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Marín

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to (i determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of three spices widely cultivated in Spain from organic growth: Foeniculum vulgare, Petroselium crispum, and Lavandula officinalis; (ii determine the total phenolic content; (iii determine the antioxidant activity of the essentials oils by means of three different antioxidant tests and (iv determine the effectiveness of these essentials oils on the inhibition of Listeria innocua CECT 910 and Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844. There is a great variability in the chemical composition of the essential oils. Parsley had the highest phenolic content. Overall, parsley presented the best antioxidant profile, given its highest % of inhibition of DPPH radical (64.28% and FRAP (0.93 mmol/L Trolox, but had a pro-oxidative behavior by TBARS. Lavender essential oil showed the highest antibacterial activity against L. innocua (>13 mm of inhibition at 20–40 μL oil in the discs, followed by parsley with an inhibition zone of 10 mm (when more than 5 μL oil in the discs, and fennel 10 mm (when more than 40 μL oil in the discs. P. fluorescens was not inhibited by the tested essential oils.

  9. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3C01/3O2 cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Shengkui; WANG You; LIU Jiequn; WAN Kang; L(U) Fan

    2011-01-01

    The layered material of Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 with α-NaFeO2 was synthesized by a co-precipitation method.X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 had the same layered structure as the undoped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2.The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images exhibited that the particle size of Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 was smaller than that of the undoped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2.The Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 samples were investigated on the Li extraction/insertion performances through charge/discharge,cyclic voltammogram (CV),and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS).The optimal doping content of Ce was x=0.02 in the LiNi1/3-xMn1/3Co1/3CexO2 samples to achieve high discharge capacity and good cyclic stability.The electrode reaction reversibility was enhanced,and the charge transfer resistance was decreased through Ce-doping.The improved electrochemical performances of the Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathode materials were attributed to the addition ofCe4+ ion by stabilizing the layer structure.

  10. Effects of Lavender, Lemon and Eucalyptus Essential Oil on Th2 related Factors of DNCB-induced Atopy dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Hyeon-Ah

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To investigate the effects of the lavender, lemon and eucalyptus oil mixture on the atopy dermatitis skin lesions induced on NC/Nga Mice by dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB. Material and Method : For this purpose, we fabricated the oil mixture blending three essential oils (lavender, lemon, eucalyptus : ELL with one carrier oil (jojoba and apply it on the atopic dermatitis skin lesions of NC/Nga Mice. Atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice was induced by DNCB treatment on the dorsal skin of mice for 8 weeks. The mixture of ratio of each essential oil drop was 1 (eucalyptus : 2 (lemon : 2 (lavender and this mixture was blended with jojoba oil 50ml (0.025%. The ELL-ointment was supplied for 8 weeks. We evaluated the effects of ELL on cell viability of mouse lung fibroblast, clinical skin features and severity, the level of serum Immunoglobulin (Ig E & Ig G1, Interleukin (IL-4, IL-13 and Interferon (IFN-. Results : ELL showed safety on the cell viability of mouse lung fibroblast compared with control group. The cell viability was measured by SRB method. The effects of ELL on clinical skin features and severity in DNCB-induced dermatitis model of NC/Nga mice was significant compared with control group. EEL also showed significant effects on clinical symptom score compared with control group. Serum IgE & IgG1 level and development of atopy dermatitis skin lesions were evaluated. Serum IgE & IgG1 production was significantly down-regulated in EEL group compared with control group. ELL also down-regulated the levels of IL-4 and IL-13, and up-regulated the level of IFN- compared with control group significantly. Conclusion : ELL was effective on atopy dermatitis by modulating Th2 related factors.

  11. Effect of lavender oil aroma in the early hours of postpartum period on maternal pains, fatigue, and mood: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Vaziri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Busy care providers focus on the serious complications of postpartum period. This issue causes the seemingly trivial complications, such as mother's pains, fatigue, and psychological status, to be less taken into account. The study aimed to determine the effect of lavender oil aroma in the early hours of postpartum period on maternal pains, fatigue, and mood in primiparous mothers. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 56 participants; 29 in intervention group and 27 in control group. The intervention group received lavender oil in three doses during the first 24 h after delivery. Sesame oil was used in the control group. Intensity of pain, fatigue, and distress level was measured by visual analog scale before and after the interventions. Besides, mood status was assessed through the positive and negative affect schedule. Results: The mean age of all the participants was 23.88 ± 3.88 years. After the first intervention and also in the tomorrow morning assessment, significant differences were found between the two groups regarding perineal pain (P = 0.004, P< 0.001, physical pain (P < 0.001, fatigue (P = 0.02, P< 0.001, and distress scores (P < 0.001. In addition, significant differences were found concerning the mean scores of positive (P < 0.001 and negative (P = 0.007, P< 0.001 moods between the two groups after the interventions. Repeated measures analyses showed that the two groups were significantly different over time in all the evaluated variables. Conclusions: Lavender oil aromatherapy starting in the first hours of postpartum period resulted in better physical and mood status compared to nonaromatic group.

  12. Iodine Anions beyond -1: Formation of LinI (n = 2-5) and Its Interaction with Quasiatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botana, Jorge; Brgoch, Jakoah; Hou, Chunju; Miao, Maosheng

    2016-09-19

    Novel phases of LinI (n = 2, 3, 4, 5) compounds are predicted to form under high pressure using first-principles density functional theory and an unbiased crystal structure search algorithm. All of the phases identified are thermodynamically stable with respect to decomposition into elemental Li and the binary LiI at a relatively low pressure (≈20 GPa). Increasing the pressure to 100 GPa yields the formation of a high pressure electride where electrons occupy interstitial quasiatom (ISQ) orbitals. Under these extreme pressures, the calculated charge on iodine suggests the oxidation state goes beyond the conventional and expected -1 charge for the halogens. This strange oxidative behavior stems from an electron transfer going from the ISQ to I(-) and Li(+) ions as high pressure collapses the void space. The resulting interplay between chemical bonding and the quantum chemical nature of enclosed interstitial space allows this first report of a halogen anion beyond a -1 oxidation state.

  13. A multi-center, double-blind, randomised study of the Lavender oil preparation Silexan in comparison to Lorazepam for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, H; Schläfke, S

    2010-02-01

    Generalized and persistent anxiety, accompanied by nervousness and other symptoms (Generalised Anxiety Disorder, GAD) is frequent in the general population and leads to benzodiazepine usage. Unfortunately, these substances induce sedation and have a high potential for drug abuse, and there is thus a need for alternatives. As the anxiolytic properties of lavender have already been demonstrated in pharmacological studies and small-scale clinical trials, it was postulated that lavender has a positive effect in GAD. A controlled clinical study was then performed to evaluate the efficacy of silexan, a new oral lavender oil capsule preparation, versus a benzodiazepine. In this study, the efficacy of a 6-week-intake of silexan compared to lorazepam was investigated in adults with GAD. The primary target variable was the change in the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A-total score) as an objective measurement of the severity of anxiety between baseline and week 6. The results suggest that silexan effectively ameliorates generalized anxiety comparable to a common benzodiazepine (lorazepam). The mean of the HAM-A-total score decreased clearly and to a similar extent in both groups (by 11.3+/-6.7 points (45%) in the silexan group and by 11.6+/-6.6 points (46%) in the lorazepam group, from 25+/-4 points at baseline in both groups). During the active treatment period, the two HAM-A subscores "somatic anxiety" (HAM-A subscore I) and "psychic anxiety" (HAM-A subscore II) also decreased clearly and to a similar extent in both groups. The changes in other subscores measured during the study, such as the SAS (Self-rating Anxiety Scale), PSWQ-PW (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), SF 36 Health survey Questionnaire and Clinical Global Impressions of severity of disorder (CGI item 1, CGI item 2, CGI item 3), and the results of the sleep diary demonstrated comparable positive effects of the two compounds. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that silexan is as effective as lorazepam

  14. Influence of Co substitution for Ni and Mn on the structural and electrochemical characteristics of LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Atsushi; Li, Decheng; Lee, Yunsung; Kobayakawa, Koichi; Sato, Yuichi

    LiNi 0.5- xCo 2 xMn 1.5- xO 4 (0 ≤ 2 x ≤ 0.2) was prepared by spray drying, then re-annealing in O 2. Their structural and electrochemical properties were studied by ex-situ XRD, GITT, and charge-discharge testing. The substitution of cobalt for Ni and Mn in the LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4 resulted in significant structural and electrochemical variations, such as the change in structural transformation with lithium extraction, the increase in the lithium diffusion coefficient and the decrease in the area specific impedance. Moreover, the improved kinetic properties caused by the Co substitution for Ni and Mn result in an improved cyclic performance at a high rate and at elevated temperature as well as the rate capability.

  15. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-based composite electrodes with improved properties prepared by a slurry spray deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ran; Sun, Yi; Zou, Bang-Kun; Deng, Miao-Miao; Xie, Jing-Ying; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2017-02-01

    A slurry spray deposition (SSD) process is utilized to prepare a LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-based composite electrode supported on an aluminum foil. The spray deposition process is performed at room temperature through the atomization and deposition of the composite electrode slurry. A comparative LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-based composite electrode is also prepared by the traditional blade coating method. The surface morphology and elements mapping of the electrodes are measured by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The adhesion between the composite electrode layers and the aluminum foil is also tested. A parallel evaluation on the mechanical and electrochemical performances of the two kinds of electrodes is conducted. The SSD electrode exhibits improved adhesion, cycling stability and rate capability. Therefore, the SSD process is an effective way to fabricate advanced electrodes for high performance lithium ion cells.

  16. Structural and impedance studies of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 synthesized by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Laurel Simon; Rubankumar, A.; Kalainathan, S.

    2016-05-01

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is synthesized by sol-gel method by using succinic acid as chelating agent. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the material is spinel cubic structure with Fd3m space group. Impedance spectroscopy analysis of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was performed under a wide frequency and temperature range of 50 Hz to 5 MHz and 303 K to 783 K respectively. The hopping of the electrons, ionic conductivity and activation energy were analyzed from the relaxation frequency of the imaginary impedance (Z"). The activation energy Ea is calculated from the Arrhenius plots and it is found to be 0.3713 eV, which indicates the existence of oxygen vacancy in the material. Nyquist plot indicates the presence of grain effect in the material and suppression in the grain effect is observed with increasing temperature.

  17. Enhanced electrochemical performances of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 by surface modification with Cu nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 5V spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is prepared by traditional solid-state method and nano-Cu particles were derived from a chemical reduction process. The effect of Cu-coating on the electrochemical performances of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cells, in a wide operation temperature range (-10°C, 25°C, 60°C, is investigated systematically by the charge/discharge testing, cyclic voltammograms and impedance spectroscopy, respectively. The results demonstrate that the modified material exhibits remarkably enhanced electrochemical reversibility and stability. Cu-coated material has much lower surface and charge transfer resistances and shows a higher lithium diffusion rate. The Cu coating layer as a highly efficient lithium ion conductor, acted as a highly efficient protector to restrain the contact loss.

  18. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of 5V spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 prepared by solid-state reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qiang; LI Xin-hai; WANG Zhi-xing; JI Yong

    2009-01-01

    Spinel compound LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with high capacity and high rate capability was synthesized by solid-state reaction. At first, MnCl2·4H2O and NiCl2·6H2O were reacted with (NH4)2C2O4·H2O to produce a precursor via a low-temperature solid-state route, then the precursor was reacted with Li2CO3 to synthesize LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. The effects of calcination temperature and time on the physical properties and electrochemical performance of the products were investigated. Samples were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffractometry(XRD), charge-discharge tests and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) image shows that as calcination temperature and time increase, the crystallinity of the samples is improved, and their grain sizes are obviously increased. It is found that LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 calcined at 800 ℃ for 6 h exhibits a typical cubic spinel structure with a space group of Fd3m. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the sample obtained possesses high capacity and excellent rate capability. When being discharged at a rate as high as 5C after 30 cycles, the as-prepared LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders can still deliver a capacity of 101 mA-h/g, which shows to be a potential cathode material for high power batteries.

  19. Electrochemical characteristics of layered LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 and with different synthesis conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Wang, Haoran; Qi, Lu; Osaka, Tetsuya

    LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2 had been successfully prepared from spherical composite carbonate via a simple uniform-phase precipitation method [P. He, H. Wang, L. Qi, T. Osaka, J. Power Sources, in press] at normal pressure, using nickel, cobalt and manganese sulfate and ammonia bicarbonate as reactants. The preparation of spherical composite carbonate was significantly dependant on synthetic condition, such as the reaction temperature, feed rate, molar ratio of these reactants, etc. The optimized condition resulted in spherical composite carbonate of which the particle size distribution was uniform, as observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Calcination of the uniform composite carbonate with lithium carbonate at high temperature led to a well-ordered layer structured LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2 as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), without obvious change in shape. Due to the homogeneity of the composite carbonate, the final product, LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2, was also significantly uniform, i.e., the average particle size was of about 10 μm in diameter and the distribution was relatively narrow. As a result, the corresponding tap density was also high, approximately 2.32 g cm -3, of which the value is very near to that of commercialized LiCoO 2. In the voltage range of 2.8-4.2, 2.8-4.35 and 2.8-4.5 V, the discharge capacities of LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2 electrode were 159, 168 and 179 mAh g -1, respectively, with good cyclability.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of LiNi0.95-xCoxAl0.05O2 for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xianjun; ZHAN Hui; LIU Hanxing; ZHOU Yunhong

    2006-01-01

    Samples of LiNi0.95-xCoxAl0.05O2 (x = 0.10 and 0.15) and LiNiO2, synthesized by the solid-state reaction at 725℃ for 24 h from LiOH·H2O, Ni2O3, Co2O3, and Al(OH)3 under an oxygen stream, were characterized by TG-DTA,XRD, SEM, and electrochemical tests. Simultaneous doping of cobalt and aluminum at the Ni-site in LiNiO2 was tried to improve the cathode performance for lithium-ion batteries. The results showed that co-doping (especially, 5 at.% Al and 10at.% Co) definitely had a large beneficial effect in increasing the capacity (186.2 Ma·h/g of the first discharge capacity for LiNi0.85Co0.10Al0.05O2) and cycling behavior (180.1 Ma·h/g after 10 cycles for LiNi0.85Co0.10Al0.05O2) compared with 180.7mA·h/g of the first discharge capacity and 157.7 Ma·h/g of the tenth discharge capacity for LiNiO2, respectively. Differential capacity versus voltage curves showed that the co-doped LiNi0.95-xCoxAl0.05O2 had less intensity of the phase transitions than the pristine LiNiO2.

  1. Improving the rate capability of high voltage lithium-ion battery cathode material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 by ruthenium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziltas-Yavuz, Nilüfer; Bhaskar, Aiswarya; Dixon, Ditty; Yavuz, Murat; Nikolowski, Kristian; Lu, Li; Eichel, Rüdiger-A.; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2014-12-01

    The citric acid-assisted sol-gel method was used to produce the high-voltage cathodes LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and LiNi0.4Ru0.05Mn1.5O4 at 800 °C and 1000 °C final calcination temperatures. High resolution powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation, inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses were carried out to characterize the structure, chemical composition and morphology. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies were conducted to confirm Ru doping inside the spinel as well as to compare the oxidation states of transition metals. The formation of an impurity LixNi1-xO in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders annealed at high temperatures (T ≥ 800 °C) can be suppressed by partial substitution of Ni2+ by Ru4+ ion. The LiNi0.4Ru0.05Mn1.5O4 powder synthesized at 1000 °C shows the highest performance regarding the rate capability and cycling stability. It has an initial capacity of ∼139 mAh g-1 and capacity retention of 84% after 300 cycles at C/2 charging-discharging rate between 3.5 and 5.0 V. The achievable discharge capacity at 20 C for a charging rate of C/2 is ∼136 mAh g-1 (∼98% of the capacity delivered at C/2). Since the electrode preparation plays a crucial role on parameters like the rate capability, the influence of the mass loading of active materials in the cathode mixture is discussed.

  2. Synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material via oxalate precursor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chuan-fu; YANG Ping; DAI Xi; XIONG Xuan; ZHAN Jing; ZHANG Yin-liang

    2009-01-01

    Using oxalic acid and stoichiometrically mixed solution of NiCl2, CoCl2, and MnCl2 as starting materials, the triple oxalate precursor of nickel, cobalt, and manganese was synthesized by liquid-phase co-precipitation method. And then the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode materials for Li-ion battery were prepared from the precursor and LiOH-H2O by solid-state reaction. The precursor and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 were characterized by chemical analysis, XRD, EDX, SEM and TG-DTA. The results show that the composition of precursor is Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3C2O4·2H2O. The product LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, in which nickel, cobalt and manganese are uniformly distributed, is well crystallized with a-NaFeO2 layered structure. Sintering temperature has a remarkable influence on the electrochemical performance of obtained samples. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized at 900 ℃ has the best electrochemical properties. At 0.1C rate, its first specific discharge capacity is 159.7 mA·h/g in the voltage range of 2.75-4.30 V and 196.9 mA·h/g in the voltage range of 2.75-4.50 V; at 2C rate, its specific discharge capacity is 121.8 mA·h/g and still 119.7 mA·h/g after 40 cycles. The capacity retention ratio is 98.27%.

  3. Use of headspace mulberry paper bag micro solid phase extraction for characterization of volatile aromas of essential oils from Bulgarian rose and Provence lavender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Mi-Mi; Cha, Eun-Ju; Yoon, Ok-Kyung; Kim, Nam-Sun; Kim, Kun; Lee, Dong-Sun

    2009-01-05

    In this study, a new sampling method called headspace mulberry paper bag micro solid phase extraction (HS-MPB-mu-SPE) combined to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been applied for the analysis of volatile aromas of liquid essential oils from Bulgarian rose and Provence lavender. The technique uses an adsorbent (Tenax TA) contained in a mulberry paper bag, minimal amount of organic solvent. Linearities for the six-points calibration curves were excellent. LOD values were in the rage from 0.38 ng mL(-1) to 0.77 ng mL(-1). Overall, precision and recovery were generally good. Phenethyl alcohol and citronellol were the main components in the essential oil from Bulgarian rose. Linalyl acetate and linalool were the most abundant components in the essential oils from true lavender or lavandin. Additionally, the relative extraction efficiencies of proposed method have been compared with HS-SPME. The overall extraction efficiency was evaluated by the relative concentration factors (CF) of the several characteristic components. CF values by HS-MPB-mu-SPE were lower than those by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The HS-MPB-mu-SPE method is very simple to use, inexpensive, rapid, requires small sample amounts and solvent consumption. In addition, this method allowed combining of extraction, enrichment, and clean-up in a single step. HS-MPB-mu-SPE and GC/MS is a promising technique for the characterization of volatile aroma compounds from liquid essential oils.

  4. Effect of Spike Lavender Lakhlakhe on Pain Intensity Due to Phlebotomy Procedure in Premature Infants Hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Beheshtipoor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Premature infants undergo multiple painful procedures during treatment; thus, it must be tried to limit complications caused by diagnostic and treatment procedures using simple and practical methods. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of spike lavender lakhlakhe on pain intensity due to phlebotomy in hospitalized premature infants.Methods: This single-arm, randomized clinical trial was performed on 30 infants chosen through convenience sampling method. Each newborn was considered as its own control. For the test group, one drop of pure (100% spike lavender lakhlakhe was taken by a standard dropper and diluted with 4 ml of warm distilled water by the research assistant. This mixture was stirred at 2-3 cm distance of the newborns’ nose from 60 minutes before until 2 minutes after phlebotomy, such that it could be smelled by the newborns. In both groups, heart rate and blood oxygen saturation were measured by a standard portable device, and the corresponding data was recorded in data collection sheets. Moreover, the infants’ facial expression changes were recorded by a camera and the intensity of pain was measured by Premature Infant Pain Profile before and after the procedure. Finally, the data was analyzed by paired comparison analysis test in SPSS, version 17.Results: Comparison of mean pain intensity caused by phlebotomy in the control and test groups showed a significant difference (7.667±0.311 vs. 4.882±0.311; P

  5. Characteristics of LiCoO2, LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.45Co0.1Mn0.45O2 as cathodes of lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hua-jun; LI Xin-hai; ZHANG Xin-ming; ZENG Su-ming; WANG Zhi-xing; PENG Wen-jie

    2005-01-01

    LiNi0. 45 Co0. 10 Mn0. 4sO2 was synthesized from Li2CO3 and a triple oxide of nickel, cobalt and manganese at 950 ℃ in air. The structures and characteristics of LiNi0. 45 Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2, LiCoO2 and LiMn2 O4 were investigated by XRD, SEM and electrochemical measurements. The results show that LiNi0.4s Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2 has a layered structure with hexagonal lattice. The commercial LicoO2 has sphere-like appearance and smooth surfaces, while the LiMn2 O4 and LiNi0.45 Co0. 10 Mn0. 45 O2 consist of cornered and uneven particles. LiNi0. 45 Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2 has a large disLiMn2 O4 and LiCoO2, respectively. LiCoO2 and LiMn2 O4 have higher discharge voltage and better rate-capability than LiNi0. 45Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2. All the three cathodes have excellent cycling performance with capacity retention of above 89.3 % at the 250th cycle. Batteries with LiMn2 O4 or LiNi0.45 Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2 cathodes show better safety performance under abusive conditions than those with LiCoO2 cathodes.

  6. Degradation effects on the surface of commercial LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, M.; Horsthemke, F.; Kollmer, F.; Haseloff, S.; Friesen, A.; Niehoff, P.; Nowak, S.; Winter, M.; Schappacher, F. M.

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the degradation mechanisms on the surface of commercial LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 electrodes is presented. Irregularly distributed particle cracking and the formation of a cathode electrolyte interphase on the surface of the active material were identified to be the main degradation mechanisms. The particle cracking originates from inhomogeneity of the composite electrode, leading to deviations in the local current density and the state of charge which results in overcharge conditions for particular LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 particles. Therein, the highly delithiated structure suffers from anisotropic stress due to repulsive interactions between adjacent layers and the formation of new phases which eventually cause particle cracking. The structural changes were confirmed by the presence of a spinel phase on the surface of the cracked particles. Furthermore, the migration of transition metal ions in the highly delithiated structure can facilitate their dissolution into the electrolyte. The investigation of the re-deposited transition metals reveals a predominant dissolution of manganese from the overcharged particles. In addition, electrochemical cycling of the LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 electrodes in laboratory cells show an increasing severity of the particle cracking at higher C-rates which can influence the thermal stability of the active material. Moreover, an increased electrolyte decomposition was observed for higher cut-off potentials.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of layered Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathode materials by spray-drying method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-min; HU Guo-rong; PENG Zhong-dong; DENG Xin-rong; LIU Ye-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Spherical Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 was prepared via the homogenous precursors produced by solution spray-drying method. The precursors were sintered at different temperatures between 600 and 1 000 ℃ for 10 h. The impacts of different sintering temperatures on the structure and electrochemical performances of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 were compared by means of X-ray diffractometry(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and charge/discharge test as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. The experimental results show that the spherical morphology of the spray-dried powers maintains during the subsequent heat treatment and the specific capacity increases with rising sintering temperature. When the sintering temperature rises up to 900 ℃, Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 attains a reversible capacity of 153 mA·h/g between 3.00 and 4.35 V at 0.2C rate with excellent cyclability.

  8. Effect of Various Synthesis methods on the Electrochemical Properties of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xue-shan; LIU Xing-quan

    2004-01-01

    Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 has the isostructure of α-NaFeO2 and shows high rate capacity with stable cycleability. Furthermore, the thermal behavior of this material is milder than that of lithium nickel oxide and lithium cobalt oxide. In addition, it is expected to be stable at elevated temperatures. Therefore LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 may be the most promising cathode materials of lithium-ion secondary battery.In this research, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was prepared by solid-state reaction, sol-gel method and mixed hydroxide method. The influences of synthesis method on the physical and electrochemical properties of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), charge/discharge cycling cyclic voltammetry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). XPS studies show that the predominant oxidation states of Ni, Co and Mn in the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 compound are 2+, 3+ and 4+. From the voltage profile and cyclic voltammetry, the redox processes occurring at ~3.8V and ~4.5V are assigned to the Ni2+/Ni3+ and Co3+/Co4+ couples, respectively. Different preparation methods result in the difference in morphology (shape, particle size and specific surface area) and electrochemical behaviors. A sample prepared by solid-state reaction has the worst electrochemical performance among these three methods. Sample synthesized by mixed hydroxide method displays the better rate capacity than that prepared by sol-gel method, while the capacity retention of sample prepared by sol-gel method is superior to that synthesized by mixed hydroxide method.

  9. GITT studies on oxide cathode LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized by citric acid assisted high-energy ball milling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Weidong Zheng; Miao Shui; Jie Shu; Shan Gao; Dan Xu; Liangliang Chen; Lin Feng; Yuanlong Ren

    2013-06-01

    Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was synthesized by a citric acid assisted solid-state method. The structure and electrochemical properties of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 materials were investigated. XRD analysis indicated the as-synthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was with the layered -NaFeO2 structure. The discharge capacity was about 154 m.Ahg-1 at 0.1 °C rate in the range of 2.0–4.5 V. The kinetics of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 materials was investigated by the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) method. The lithium ion diffusion coefficient of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was determined in the range of 10-8−10-9 cm2.s-1 as a function of voltage of 3.7−4.5 V.

  10. Effects of Lavender Essential Oil and Methyl Salicylate on Gray Mold Control and Postharvest Quality of Strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sayyari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strawberry (fragaria×ananassa Duch. fruit characterized by short storage life, often estimated last less than one week even under optimum conditions at 8°C. The loss of fruit quality is often caused by gray mold (Botrytis cinerea that is the most frequent reported postharvest disease in strawberry during storage (6. In recent years, considerable attention has given to elimination of synthetic chemical and fungicides application and development of various alternative strategies for controlling fruit and vegetables diseases (2. One strategy is replacement of natural products with plant origin such as essential oil and methyl salicylate (MeSA. Essential oils are volatile, natural and complex compounds characterized by a strong odor formed by aromatic plants in form of secondary metabolites. In nature, essential similar oils that extract from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia play an important role in protection of the plants against pathogen incidence that can be replaced by synthetic fungicides (1, 4 and 14. MeSA is also a volatile natural compound synthesized from salicylic acid which has an important role in the plant defense-mechanism, as well as plant growth and development (5, 19 and 20. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to study the effects of MeSA and lavender essential oil (LEO on decay control caused by Botrytis cinerea as well as post-harvest quality indices of strawberry fruits during cold storage. Material and Methods: First, antifungal activity was studied by using a contact assay (in vitro, which produces hyphal growth inhibition. Briefly, potato dextrose agar (PDA plates were prepared using 8 cm diameter glass petri dishes and inhibitory percentage was determined. For in-vivo assessment of LEO and MeSA effects on Botrytis-caused fungal disease control, the experiment was conducted as factorial in completely randomized design (CRD with 3 replicates. The treatments were 3 concentration of LEO including

  11. Enhanced rate performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 fibers synthesized by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Rui; Zhang, Xiaofeng; chamoun, rita; Shui, Jianglan; Li, James; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Belharouak, IB

    2015-05-29

    Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) provides a high working potential as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Yet there is a phase transition from cubic to tetragonal structure in LNMO during the ~3 V charge/discharge region. To suppress the large volume change and capacity fade inherent with bulk-sized LNMO particles when discharged to below 3.0 V, one-dimensional nano-structured LNMO was prepared by an electrospinning method and a subsequent heat treatment. The well-separated nanofiber precursors combat the growth and aggregation of LNMO particles during the heating procedure and lead to improved capacity, better cycling stability, and improved rate capability of the final LMNO nanofibers. The as-prepared LMNO nanofibers have a diameter as thin as 50–100 nm, which is the thinnest of this kind of complex compounds that contain multi-transition metal elements produced through the electrospinning method. In coin cell tests of this material at a current density of 27 mA g-1, the initial discharge capacity was 130 mAh g-1 over a voltage range of 3.5–4.8 V and 300 mAh g-1 over a voltage range of 2.0–4.8 V.

  12. Zn-Doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Composite as Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Battery: Preparation, Characterization, and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn-doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 composite, Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/31–xZnxO2 (x = 0.02; 0.05; 0.08, is synthesized by the sol-gel method. The crystal structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance are investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, cyclic voltammetry (CV, and constant current charge/discharge experiment. The result reveals that Zn-doping cathode material can reach the initial charge/discharge capacity of 188.8/162.9 mAh·g−1 for Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.98Zn0.02O2 and 179.0/154.1 mAh·g−1 for Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.95Zn0.05O2 with the high voltage of 4.4 V at 0.1 C. Furthermore, the capacity retention of Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.98Zn0.02O2 is 95.1% at 0.5 C after 50 cycles at room temperature. The improved electrochemical properties of Zn-doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are attributed to reduced electrode polarization, enhanced capacity reversibility, and excellent cyclic performance.

  13. Efficient plasma-enhanced method for layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes with sulfur atom-scale modification for superior-performance Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qianqian; Chen, Ning; Liu, Dongdong; Wang, Shuangyin; Zhang, Han

    2016-06-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material, atom-scale modification was realized to obtain the layered oxysulfide LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx using a novel plasma-enhanced doping strategy. The structure and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx are investigated systematically, which confirms that the S doping can make the structure stable and benefit the electrochemical performance. The phys-chemical characterizations indicate that oxygen atoms in the initial LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 have been partially replaced by S atoms. It should be pointed out that the atom-scale modification does not significantly alter the intrinsic structure of the cathode. Compared to the pristine material, the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx shows a superior performance with a higher capacity (200.4 mA h g(-1)) and a significantly improved cycling stability (maintaining 94.46% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles). Moreover, it has an excellent rate performance especially at elevated performance, which is probably due to the faster Li(+) transportation after S doping into the layered structure. All the results show that the atom-scale modification with sulfur atoms on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, which significantly improved the electrochemical performance, offers a novel anionic doping strategy to realize the atom-scale modification of electrode materials to improve their electrochemical performance.

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Water Extracts from Lavender Tea%薰衣草花茶水提物的抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李紫薇; 张艺; 张月梅; 高翠

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of water extracts from Lavender tea were evaluated by study of scavenging capacity for DPPH·、OH·、O2-· and restraining antioxidants for the linoleic acid . To investigate the effect of extraction temperature (50,60,70,80,90 ℃) on the antioxidant activities . The result indicated that water extracts of lavender tea had strong antioxidative activity. Water extracts were all strong scavenging capacity for DPPH·,OH· and restraining antioxidants of the linoleic acid at 60,60,70 ℃ of extraction temperature , respectively. The capacity of scavenging O2-·of Water extracts(70℃) was better at high tempterature.%  研究了薰衣草花茶水提物在体外对DPPH·、OH·、O2-·的清除和抑制亚油酸过氧化作用.并比较了不同浸提温度(50、60、70、80、90℃)对薰衣草花茶水提物抗氧化活性的影响.结果表明:薰衣草花茶水提物具有良好的抗氧化活性,浸提温度越高,水提物清除O2-·作用越强;水提物清除DPPH·、OH·最佳浸提温度是60℃;水提物抑制亚油酸过氧化作用的最佳浸提温度70℃.

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy Studies of Lavender angustifolia Essential Oil and Its Active Constituents on the Proliferation of Human Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunqi; Chen, Ran; Wang, Yun; Qing, Chen; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yixin

    2016-05-05

    Lavandula angustifolia is the most widely cultivated Lavandula species. The extraction of its flower and leaves has been used as herbal medicine. In this study, the in vitro antitumor activities were tested on human prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cell lines. Flow cytometry technology was applied to study apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. The PC-3 cell line was used to establish subcutaneous xenograft tumors in nude mice. Paraffin sections from xenograft tumor specimens were used in the TUNEL (terminal deocynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay and an immunohistochemistry assay to detect cell proliferation markers Ki67 and PCNA. Lavender essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate showed stronger inhibitory effect on PC-3 cells than on DU145 cells. The apoptotic cell populations observed in PC-3 cells treated with lavender essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate were 74.76%, 67.11%, and 56.14%, respectively. The PC-3 cells were mainly arrested in the G2/M phase. In the xenograft model with PC-3 cell transplantation, essential oil and linalool significantly suppressed tumor growth. The immunosignals of Ki67 and PCNA in the essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate treatment groups were significantly lower than that of the control group in xenograft tumor sections. The TUNEL assay indicated that each of the 3 phytochemicals significantly induced apoptosis compared to the control group. This study provides novel insight and evidence on the antiproliferative effect of L angustifolia essential oil and its major constituents on human prostate cancer. The antitumor effect was associated with cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in xenograft tumors.

  16. Morphology controlled Si-modified LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 microspheres as high performance high voltage cathode materials in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswaran, Shubha; Keppeler, Miriam; Kim, Sung-Jin; Srinivasan, Madhavi

    2017-04-01

    Well-crystallized, microspherical LiNi0.5Mn1.5-nSinO4 (0.05 microspheres is achieved, which is superior compared to 93.1% capacity retention of the pristine LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 microspheres. Since the Sisbnd O bond exhibits higher dissociation energy compared to the dissociation energies of the Mnsbnd O or Nisbnd O bonds, the excellent electrochemical performance might be associated with an increased structural and chemical stability caused by incorporation of silicon into the oxygen rich crystal lattice.

  17. Effects of additional multiwall carbon nanotubes on impact behaviors of LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh V.; Wang, Meng; Shi, Yang; Noelle, Daniel; Qiao, Yu; Lu, Weiyi

    2015-08-01

    This work introduces a new mechanically triggered thermal runaway mitigation mechanism. The homogenizer of electrode failure (HEF), multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), was added into LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC532) battery electrodes. We have studied the effect of the HEF additive on the internal electrical resistance and the mechanical impact resistance of the electrodes. The additional MWCNTs reduced the internal electrical resistance of electrodes before mechanical abuse. Upon mechanical abuse, they could mitigate internal shorting and thermal runaway at normal battery working temperature.

  18. Chemical compositions and antibacterial effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on common foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadalioglu, Itir; Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir

    2004-12-29

    Chemical compositions and inhibitory effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz & P. H. Davis), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined. After the essential oils were applied on the foodborne pathogens at doses of 0 (control), 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 80 microL/mL, the resultant numbers of cells surviving were counted. Results revealed that all essential oils exhibited a very strong antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria (P < 0.05). Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analyses revealed that carvacrol (68.23%), 1,8-cineole (60.72%), fenchone (55.79%), and trans-anethole (85.63%) were the predominant constituents in Turkish oregano, bay laurel, Spanish lavender, and fennel essential oils, respectively.

  19. A randomised, assessor blind, parallel group comparative efficacy trial of three products for the treatment of head lice in children - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide, and a "suffocation" product

    OpenAIRE

    Barker Stephen C; Altman Phillip M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There are many different types of pediculicides available OTC in Australia. In this study we compare the efficacy and safety of three topical pediculicides: a pediculicide containing melaleuca oil (tea tree oil) and lavender oil (TTO/LO); a head lice "suffocation" product; and a product containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (P/PB). Method This study was a randomised, assessor-blind, comparative, parallel study of 123 subjects with live head lice. The head lice produ...

  20. Inhalation effect of different concentrations of lavender essential oil on blood pressure in hypertensive patients%吸入不同浓度薰衣草精油对高血压患者血压的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家霞; 刘云峰; 李光武; 傅佳

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the inhalation of effect different concentrations of lavender essential oil on blood pressure in hypertensive patients and its possible mechanism. Methods Patients with essential hypertension were checked by the improved olfactory sensation method of Connecticut Clinical Research Center of Chemistry ( CCCRC) . 167 cases detected had normal sense of smell and 30 cases of anosmia. Sinuses were randomly divided into 4 groups, respectively , with the concentration of inhalation of lavender essential oil 100% , 1% , 1 ‰, distilled water and lack of sense of smell lavender essential oil group , with inhalation of 1% . All of them were observed by 24 h ambulatory in blood pressure device in blood pressure and heart rate ;and plasma renin activity ( PRA) , angiotensin I ( AngI) , angiotensin n ( Ang Ⅱ ) , aldosterone ( ALD) and norepinephrine ( NE) were measured. Results For 100% lavender essential oil group after inhalation 15min mean arterial pressure ( MAP) decreased ( P < 0. 05) , which lasted for 2h; for 1% lavender essential oil group after inhalation 15min MAP decreased ( P < 0. 05 ) , which lasted for 5h;for 1 ‰ lavender essential oil group MAP decreased after 30min inhalation ( P < 0. 05 ) , which lasted for 30min ; For distilled water group blood pressure did not change significantly ( P > 0. 05 ) . Before and after experiment there were no significant changes in heart rate. For 1% lavender essential oil group after inhalation of 1% lavender essential oil plasma PRA, AngⅠ, Ang Ⅱ , ALD and NE decreased, with statistically significant difference ( P < 0. 05 ) ,while AngI difference was not statistically significant ( P > 0. 05 ) . And for anosmia group after inhalation of 1% lavender essential oil and for distilled water groups after inhalation of distilled water, PRA , AngⅠ, Ang Ⅱ , ALD , and NE in plasma had no significant changes ( P > 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Inhaling 3 different concentrations of

  1. Electrochemical properties of LiNi0.8Co0.2-xAlxO2 (0≤x≤0.1) cathode particles prepared by spray pyrolysis from the spray solutions with and without organic additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, S. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kang, Y. C.

    2010-04-01

    Fine-sized LiNi0.8Co0.2-xAlxO2 (0≤x≤0.1) cathode particles were prepared by spray pyrolysis from the spray solutions with and without organic additives. Citric acid, ethylene glycol, and Drying Control Chemical Additive (DCCA) were used as organic additives and improved the morphologies and electrochemical properties of the cathode particles. The LiNi0.8Co0.2-xAlxO2 (0≤x≤0.1) cathode particles obtained from the spray solutions with organic additives were of micro size and had slightly aggregated morphologies. The initial discharge capacities of the LiNi0.8Co0.2-xAlxO2 (0≤x≤0.1) cathode particles obtained from the spray solutions without organic additive changed from 169 mAhg-1 to 190 mAhg-1 when the x changed from 0 to 0.1. However, the initial discharge capacities of the cathode particles obtained from the spray solutions with organic additives changed from 196 mAhg-1 to 218 mAhg-1. The initial discharge capacity of the LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode particles obtained from the spray solution with organic additives was maintained after the 20th cycle at a current density of 0.1 C.

  2. PEDOT modified LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xizheng; Li, Huiqiao; Li, De; Ishida, Masayoshi; Zhou, Haoshen

    2013-12-01

    Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was modified by poly(3,4-dioxyethylenethiophene) PEDOT via a facile method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). PEDOT modified samples exhibited both improved rate and cycle performance compared with the pristine LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2. At a charge/discharge current of 1500 mA g-1, the discharge capacity was improved from 44.3 to 73.9 mAh g-1. The sample with 2 wt% and heat treated at 300 °C showed the optimized electrochemical performance. Galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) results indicated that the battery polarization of coated samples have been suppressed obviously because the PEDOT layer facilitated the electron transfer at the interface of electrode and electrolyte.

  3. Unexpected high power performance of atomic layer deposition coated Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Woo; Travis, Jonathan J.; Hu, Enyuan; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Kim, Seul Cham; Kang, Chan Soon; Woo, Jae-Ha; Yang, Xiao-Qing; George, Steven M.; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Cho, Sung-Jin; Lee, Se-Hee

    2014-05-01

    Electric-powered transportation requires an efficient, low-cost, and safe energy storage system with high energy density and power capability. Despite its high specific capacity, the current commercially available cathode material for today's state-of-art Li-ion batteries, lithium nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide Li[Ni1/3 Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 (NMC), suffers from poor cycle life for high temperature operation and marginal rate capability resulting from irreversible degradation of the cathode material upon cycling. Using an atomic-scale surface engineering, the performance of Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 in terms of rate capability and high temperature cycle-life is significantly improved. The Al2O3 coating deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) dramatically reduces the degradation in cell conductivity and reaction kinetics. This durable ultra-thin Al2O3-ALD coating layer also improves stability for the NMC at an elevated temperature (55 °C). The experimental results suggest that a highly durable and safe cathode material enabled by atomic-scale surface modification could meet the demanding performance and safety requirements of next-generation electric vehicles.

  4. Calendering effects on the physical and electrochemical properties of Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Honghe; Tan, Li; Liu, Gao; Song, Xiangyun; Battaglia, Vincent S.

    2012-06-01

    Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathode laminate containing 8% PVDF and 7% acetylene black is fabricated and calendered to different porosities. Calendering effects on the physical and electrochemical properties of the Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathode are investigated. It is found that mechanical properties of the composite laminate strongly depend on the electrode porosity whereas the electronic conductivity is not significantly affected by calendering. Electrochemical performances including the specific capacity, the first coulombic efficiency, cycling performance and rate capability for the cathode at different porosities are compared. An optimized porosity of around 30-40% is identified. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies illustrate that calendering improves the electronic conductivity between active particles at relatively high porosities, but increases charge transfer resistance at electrode/electrolyte interface at relatively low porosities. An increase of activation energy of Li interfacial transfer for the electrode at 0% porosity indicates a relatively high barrier of activation at the electrode/electrolyte interface, which accounts for the poor rate capability of the electrode at extremely low porosity.

  5. The acceleration intermediate phase (NiS and Ni3S2) evolution by nanocrystallization in Li/NiS2 thermal batteries with high specific capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanyu; Zhou, Lingping; Fu, Licai; Zhu, Jiajun; Li, Deyi; Yang, Wulin

    2017-06-01

    The intermediate phase of NiS2 is thought to be a bottleneck currently to improve the overall performance of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries because of its low conductivity and close formation enthalpy between NiS2 and the intermediate phase (NiS, Ni3S2, etc). For improving the discharge performances of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries, the nano NiS2 with an average size of 85 ± 5 nm is designated as a cathode material. The electrochemical measurements show that the specific capacity of nano NiS2 cathode is higher than micro NiS2. The nano NiS2 cathode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances with high specific capacities of 794 and 654 mAh g-1 at current density of 0.1 and 0.5 A cm-2 under a cut-off voltage of 0.5 V, respectively. These results show that the rapid intermediate phase evolution from the nanocrystallization can obviously enhance use efficiency of NiS2 and improve discharge performances of thermal batteries.

  6. Enhanced electrochemical performance and storage property of LiNi0.815Co0.15Al0.035O2 via Al gradient doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianguo; Hu, Guorong; Cao, Yanbing; Tan, Chaopu; Wu, Ceng; Du, Ke; Peng, Zhongdong

    2016-09-01

    LiNi1-x-yCoxAlyO2 is a commonly used Ni-rich cathode material because of its relatively low cost, excellent rate capability and high gravimetric energy density. Surface modification is an efficient way to overcome the shortcomings of Ni-rich cathodes such as poor cycling stability and poor thermal stability. A high-powered concentration-gradient cathode material with an average composition of LiNi0.815Co0.15Al0.035O2 (LGNCAO) has been successfully synthesized by using spherical concentration-gradient Ni0.815Co0.15Al0.035(OH)2 (GNCA)as the starting material. An efficient design of the Al3+ precipitation method is developed, which enables obtaining spherical GNCA with ∼10 μm particle size and high tap density. In LGNCAO, the nickel and cobalt concentration decreases gradually whereas the aluminum concentration increases from the centre to the outer layer of each particle. Electrochemical performance and storage properties of LGNCAO have been investigated comparatively. The LGNCAO displays better electrochemical performance and improved storage stability than LNCAO.

  7. Processing of water-based LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 pastes for manufacturing lithium ion battery cathodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fatih A Çetinel; Werner Bauer

    2014-12-01

    In order to meet the demand for more ecological and economic fabrication of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, water is considered as an alternative solvent for electrode paste preparation. In this study, we report on the feasibility of water-based processing of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2-based pastes for manufacturing cathode electrodes. The influence of the total solid content, the amount of conductive agent and binder materials on paste rheology and the final electrode properties was investigated. Suitable paste formulations which enable favourable paste flow behaviour, appropriate electrode properties and good electrochemical performance have been found. Results show that a substitution of the conventional organic solvent-based manufacturing route for LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes by water-based processing exhibits a promising way to realise Li-ion batteries with comparable electrochemical behaviour, while avoiding toxic processing aids and reducing overall manufacturing costs.

  8. Improved electrochemical performance of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode material synthesized by citric acid assisted sol-gel method for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Woo; Kim, Hyungsub; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Youn, Hee-Chang; Kang, Kisuk; Cho, Byung-Won; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2016-05-01

    A citric acid assisted sol-gel method is employed for synthesizing LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 for use as a cathode material in lithium-ion batteries. The effects of heat-treatment temperature and oxygen atmosphere on the structural and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 are investigated, in order to determine optimal conditions for the synthesis of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 via the citric acid assisted sol-gel method. In particular, the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere effectively leads to a decrease in the degree of cation mixing and the formation of LiOH and Li2CO3 on the surface of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2. Furthermore, heat-treatment in an oxygen atmosphere improves the uniformity of oxidation state of Ni ions between the surface and bulk. LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 synthesized by heat-treatment at 850 °C under an oxygen atmosphere shows a discharge capacity of 174 mA h g-1 and 89% capacity retention after 100 cycles. In addition, it shows high rate capability (i.e., 41% capacity retention at 10 C), which is an improved rate performance over a previous report. The results of this study should provide useful information for the synthesis of Ni-rich layered oxides for lithium ion batteries.

  9. Electrochemical performance and 7Li NMR studies on an inverse spinel LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, George Ting-Kuo; Muralidharan, P.; Cho, Yung-Da; Chang, Pai-Ching; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    A new inverse spinel LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 cathode material was synthesized through a citric acid assisted polyethylene glycol (CA:PEG; 3:1, 3:0.5 and 3:0) polymeric method, followed by calcination at 723 K for 5 h in air. The synthesized compound was characterized by TG/DTGA, XRD, FTIR, TEM, and 7Li NMR techniques. TG/DTGA curves showed that the formation of LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 occurred between 523 and 673 K and the phase pure crystalline formed at 723 K, as also confirmed by XRD analysis which showed that the crystalline phase peaks formed when heated at 723 K for 5 h in air. TEM images revealed that nanosized particles ranged ∼170-190 nm. FTIR spectra showed that all organic residues were removed and LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 formed. The 7Li MAS NMR spectrum of the LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 sample revealed that the paramagnetic effect is small and small side band manifolds were observed. The galvanostatic cycling study suggests that the cycle stability and capacity retention were enhanced for LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 prepared with a CA:PEG molar ratio of 3:1 when it was cycled between 2.8 and 4.9 V (versus Li) at a 0.15 C rate. The electrochemical impedance behavior suggested that a passive layer was formed on the surface of the cathode materials during continuous cycling.

  10. Self-discharge suppression of 4.9 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode by using tris(trimethylsilyl)borate as an electrolyte additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaolin; Huang, Qiming; Mai, Shaowei; Wang, Xianshu; Xu, Mengqing; Xing, Lidan; Liao, Youhao; Li, Weishan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, tris(trimethylsilyl)borate (TMSB) is evaluated as an electrolyte additive for the self-discharge suppression of 4.9 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode for lithium ion battery. The effect of TMSB on the surface properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is investigated via linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), charge-discharge test, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It is found that the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode charged to 4.9 V (vs. Li/Li+) suffers a serious self-discharge in 1 mol L-1 LiPF6-EC/DMC (1:2, in weight), which can be suppressed effectively by adding 1 wt.% TMSB into the electrolyte. After storage for 20 days, the voltage of the charged cathode decreases from 4.7 to 0.5 V (vs. Li/Li+) in the additive-free electrolyte, while that remains almost unchanged in the TMSB-containing electrolyte. The self-discharge suppression of the charged LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode results from the preferential oxidation of TMSB and the subsequent formation of a protective solid electrolyte interphase film, which prevents electrolyte decomposition and protects LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 from destruction.

  11. Antifungal activity of lemon, eucalyptus, thyme, oregano, sage and lavender essential oils against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis isolated from grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is very important to find out the protection of products of natural origin as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. The promising alternative is the use of the essential oils (EOs. Essential oils from plants have great potential as a new source of fungicide to control the pathogenic fungi.The main objective of this study was evaluation of the antifungal activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L., eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus LABILL., thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., oregano (Origanum vulgare L. sage (Salvia officinalis L. and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia MILLER. EOs against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis isolated from grapes and their ability to affect the growth. It was tested by using the vapor contact with them. At first both tested isolates were identified by using PCR method. Sequence data of 18S rRNA supported the assignment of these isolates to the genus Aspergillus and species A. niger (ITS region: KT824061; RPB2: KT824060 and A. tubingensis (ITS region: KT824062; RPB2: KT824059. Second, EO antifungal activity was evaluated. The effect of the EO volatile phase was confirmed to inhibit growth of A. niger and A tubingensis. EOs were diluted in DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide final volume of 100 μL. Only 50 μL this solution was distributed on a round sterile filter paper (1 x 1 cm by micropipette, and the paper was placed in the center of the lid of Petri dishes. Dishes were kept in an inverted position. The essential oils with the most significant activity were determined by method of graded concentration of oils - minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs. The most effective tested EOs were oregano and thyme oils, which totally inhibited growth of tested isolates for all days of incubation at 0.625 μL.cm-3 (in air with MFDs 0.125 μL.cm-3 (in air. Lavender EO was less active aginst tested strains (MIDs 0.313 μL.cm-3. The results showed that the tested EOs had antifungal activity, except lemon and eucalyptus. Sage EO was the only

  12. Effect of fertilizer, irrigation and pinching on growth and development of Lavender%肥水和打顶对薰衣草生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴春山; 芦娟; 蔡国军; 莫保儒; 于洪波; 邹天福; 王子婷

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of fertilizer, irrigation and pinching on growth and development of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) seedlings in the Dingxi district of Gansu province. The results of this study indicated that the three management measures greatly affected the growth and development of Lavender seedlings, and showed an order with irrigation〉fertilizer〉pinching. The irrigation and fertilizer remarkably increased the plant height, canopy width, tillers per plant, and heads per plant of Lavender seedlings. The pinching remarkably increased the tiller numbers per plant, but decreased the growth and heading rate at the earlier growth stage. The ditch fertilizer and broadcast fertilizer shared a similar effectiveness on the growth and development of Lavender seedlings, but the effect of nitrogen, phosphorous, mixture of nitrogen and phosphorous on Lavender seedlings was different, indicating that the nitrogenous fertilizer and mixed fertilizer of nitrogen and phosphorous were better than phosphate fertilizer, which implied that the nitrogenous fertilizer was the main fertilizer for growth and development of Lavender seedlings. This study suggested that the irrigation was the most important factor influencing the growth and development of Lavender seedlings in the semiarid areas and fertilization management followed it, whereas the pinching was a supporting management measure.%以甘肃定西栽培的一年生狭叶薰衣草(Lavandula angustifolia)为对象,探讨了施肥、浇水、打顶3种栽培管理措施对其生长发育的影响。结果表明,3种管理措施对薰衣草生长发育均有较大影响,其大小依次为浇水〉施肥〉打顶。其中,浇水和施肥具有正面影响,不仅能显著提高株高和冠幅生长量,而且能显著提高分枝数和抽穗数;打顶亦起正面作用,能显著提高分枝数,但会降低生长早期的生长量和抽稳率。两种

  13. RNA-seq Transcriptome Response of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) to the Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-González, Leonardo; Deyholos, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars. In the current study, disease progression in two flax cultivars [Crop Development Center (CDC) Bethune and Lutea], showed earlier disease symptoms and higher susceptibility in the later cultivar. Chitinase gene expression was also divergent and demonstrated and earlier molecular response in Lutea. The most resistant cultivar (CDC Bethune) was used for a full RNA-seq transcriptome study through a time course at 2, 4, 8, and 18 days post-inoculation (DPI). While over 100 genes were significantly differentially expressed at both 4 and 8 DPI, the broadest deployment of plant defense responses was evident at 18 DPI with transcripts of more than 1,000 genes responding to the treatment. These genes evidenced a reception and transduction of pathogen signals, a large transcriptional reprogramming, induction of hormone signaling, activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and changes in secondary metabolism. Among these, several key genes that consistently appear in studies of plant-pathogen interactions, had increased transcript abundance in our study, and constitute suitable candidates for resistance breeding programs. These included: an induced RPMI-induced protein kinase; transcription factors WRKY3, WRKY70, WRKY75, MYB113, and MYB108; the ethylene response factors ERF1 and ERF14; two genes involved in auxin/glucosinolate precursor synthesis (CYP79B2 and CYP79B3); the flavonoid

  14. Enhanced Li storage performance of LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O(4)-coated 0.4Li(2)MnO(3)·0.6LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O(2) cathode materials for li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufang; Xie, Kai; Zheng, Chunman; Ma, Zhongyun; Chen, Zhongxue

    2014-10-08

    In this study, Li-rich cathode, 0.4Li2MnO3·0.6LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was synthesized by a resorcinol formaldehyde assisted sol-gel method for the first time. Then, the surface of the as-prepared Li-rich cathode was modified with different amounts of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (5, 10, and 20 wt %) through a simple dip-dry approach. The structural and electrochemical characterizations revealed that the spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 coating not only can prevent electrolytes from eroding the Li-rich core but also can facilitate fast lithium ion transportation. As a result, the 20 wt % coated sample delivered an initial discharge capacity of 298.6 mAh g(-1) with a Coulombic efficiency of 84.8%, compared to 281.1 mAh g(-1) and 70.2%, respectively, for the bare sample. Particularly, the coated sample demonstrates a Li storage capacity of 170.7 mAh g(-1) and capacity retention of 94.4% after 100 cycles at a high rate of 5 C (1250 mA g(-1)), showing a prospect for practical lithium battery applications. More significantly, the synthetic method proposed in this work is facile and low-cost and possibly could be adopted for large-scale production of surface-modified cathode materials.

  15. Unraveling the rat blood genome-wide transcriptome after oral administration of lavender oil by a two-color dye-swap DNA microarray approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohide Hori

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lavender oil (LO is a commonly used essential oil in aromatherapy as non-traditional medicine. With an aim to demonstrate LO effects on the body, we have recently established an animal model investigating the influence of orally administered LO in rat tissues, genome-wide. In this brief, we investigate the effect of LO ingestion in the blood of rat. Rats were administered LO at usual therapeutic dose (5 mg/kg in humans, and following collection of the venous blood from the heart and extraction of total RNA, the differentially expressed genes were screened using a 4 × 44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA in conjunction with a two-color dye-swap approach. A total of 834 differentially expressed genes in the blood were identified: 362 up-regulated and 472 down-regulated. These genes were functionally categorized using bioinformatics tools. The gene expression inventory of rat blood transcriptome under LO, a first report, has been deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE67499. The data will be a valuable resource in examining the effects of natural products, and which could also serve as a human model for further functional analysis and investigation.

  16. Lavender oil preparation Silexan is effective in generalized anxiety disorder--a randomized, double-blind comparison to placebo and paroxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Siegfried; Gastpar, Markus; Müller, Walter E; Volz, Hans-Peter; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Schläfke, Sandra; Dienel, Angelika

    2014-06-01

    The anxiolytic efficacy of the orally administered lavender oil preparation Silexan was investigated in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in comparison to placebo and paroxetine. In this randomized, double-blind, double-dummy trial 539 adults with GAD according to DSM-5 criteria and a Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) total score ⩾ 18 points participated and received 160 or 80 mg Silexan, 20 mg paroxetine, or placebo once daily for 10 wk. The primary efficacy endpoint was the HAMA total score reduction between baseline and treatment end. The HAMA total score decreased by 14.1 ± 9.3 points for Silexan 160 mg/d, 12.8 ± 8.7 points for Silexan 80 mg/d, 11.3 ± 8.0 points for paroxetine, and 9.5 ± 9.0 points for placebo (mean ± s.d.). Silexan 160 and 80 mg/d were superior to placebo in reducing the HAMA total score (p mental health and health-related quality of life. Incidence densities of adverse events (AEs) were 0.006 AEs/d for Silexan 160 mg/d, 0.008 AEs/d for 80 mg/d, 0.011 AEs/d for paroxetine, and 0.008 AEs/d for placebo. In GAD Silexan is more efficacious than placebo. AE rates for Silexan were comparable to placebo and lower than for the active control paroxetine.

  17. Effect of different concentrations inhalation of lavender essential oil on blood pressure of collage students%吸入不同浓度薰衣草精油对大学生血压的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家霞; 刘云峰; 傅佳; 李光武

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of different concentrations inhalation of lavender essential oil to collage students blood pressure and its possible mechanism. Methods: Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used for detecting chemical composition of lavender essential oil. Selected 162 cases of to detect the normal sense of smell by using the improved olfactory sensation Connecticut Clinical Research Center of Chemistry (CCCRC), they were randomly divided into 4 groups, respectively, the concentration of inhalation of lavender essential oil were 100%, 1 %, 1 %o, and distilled water, after the inhalation, blood pressure and heart rate were observed by 24h ambulatory blood pressure instrumentations. And the plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin I (AngI), angiotensin II (Angll), aldosterone (ALD) and other indicators were measured. Results: (J)GC-MS analysis confirmed a total of 29 kinds of chemical components of lavender essential oil, its main chemical composition were linalool (25.49%) and linalyl acetate (25.54%); ㏕he mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased in 100% lavender essential oil group after inhaling 15min (P<0.05), which lasted for 60min; MAP decreased in 1% lavender essential oil group after inhaling 15min (P<0.05), which lasted for 120min; MAP decreased in 1 %c lavender essential oil group after inhalation 30min (P<0.05), which lasted for 60min. In distilled water, the blood pressure did not change significantly. There were no significant changes among four groups in heart rate before and after experiment. ㏄lasma PRA, AngI, Angll and ALD were lower in 1% inhalation of lavender essential oil group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05); Meanwhile the plasma PRA, AngI, Angll, and ALD had no significant changes in distilled water group. Conclusion: 3 different concentrations of inhalation of lavender essential oil can reduce the MAP of collage students, of which 1% lavender essential oil can lower blood

  18. Copper Impurity Effects on LiNi(1/3)Mn(1/3)Co(1/3)O2 Cathode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Qina; Heelan, Joseph A; Lu, Yuan; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2015-09-23

    The crystal structure and electrochemical properties of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) synthesized from a lithium ion battery recovery stream have been studied previously. In this report, we study the Cu impurity effects on NMC in detail. The difference in crystal structures and electrochemical properties were examined for pure and copper impurity included products. Scanning electron microscopy figures show that the precursor particles of NMC are slightly bigger than that of NMC with copper impurity. After undergoing 150 cycles at 2C, X-ray diffraction refinements results show that the lattice parameters for impurity containing NMC and pure NMC change to different extents. Furthermore, due to the minor change of lattice parameters, copper-containing NMC offers a more stable capacity retention compared to pure NMC.

  19. Influence of thermal history on the electrochemical properties of Li[Ni0.5Mn1.5]O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Park, Kyu-Sung; Song, Jie; Goodenough, John B.

    2013-12-01

    The oxygen-stoichiometric spinel Li[Ni0.5Mn1.5]O4 is an insulator with ordered Ni(II) and Mn(IV). Although it delivers 4.7 V versus Li, the ordered phase gives poor performance as the cathode of a Li-ion battery. Here we demonstrate control of the degree of cation order by adjusting the oxygen stoichiometry with thermal history of the synthesis rather than by doping 2M(III) for Ni(II) + Mn(IV) (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Al, Ga). We report retention of capacity near 100 mAh g-1 at room temperature at 10C/10C charge/discharge rate with little capacity fade; at 55 °C, a capacity fade occurs as a result of reaction with the electrolyte, but it is reduced to a level comparable to that obtained by doping.

  20. The influence of preparation conditions on structural evolution and electrochemical properties of sputtered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 thin film electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shasha; Li, Zhengcao; Luo, Xinyi

    2017-10-01

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, followed by thermal annealing in ambient atmosphere. The growth of the films has been studied as a function of deposition temperature, atmosphere, and annealing temperature. Electrochemical properties of LNMO thin-film cathodes were investigated using galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry against a lithium anode. The initial capacity and capacity retention of the films are highly dependent on the crystallinity and morphology of the films. LNMO thin film grown at 400 °C in an Ar/O2 atmosphere and annealed at 550 °C exhibits good crystallinity and well-defined grain structure. Also it exhibits larger capacity and higher cyclic stability under a high cutoff voltage of 4.9 V.

  1. Biotransformation of anabolic compound methasterone with Macrophomina phaseolina, Cunninghamella blakesleeana, and Fusarium lini, and TNF-α inhibitory effect of transformed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Malik Shoaib; SammerYousuf; Atia-Tul-Wahab; Jabeen, Almas; Atta-Ur-Rahman; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2017-04-09

    Microbial transformation of methasterone (1) was investigated with Macrophomina phaseolina, Cunninghamella blakesleeana, and Fusarium lini. Biotransformation of 1 with M. phaseolina yielded metabolite 2, while metabolites 3-7 were obtained from the incubation of 1 with C. blakesleeana. Metabolites 8-13 were obtained through biotransformation with F. lini. All metabolites, except 13, were found to be new. Methasterone (1) and its metabolites 2-6, 9, 10, and 13 were then evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects against TNF-α, NO , and ROS production. Among all tested compounds, metabolite 6 showed a potent inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α (IC50 = 8.1 ± 0.9 µg/mL), as compared to pentoxifylline used as a standard (IC50 = 94.8± 2.1 µg/mL). All metabolites were also evaluated for the inhibition of NO production at concentration of 25 µg/mL. Metabolites 6 (86.7 ± 2.3%) and 13 (62.5 ± 1.5%) were found to be the most potent inhibitors of NO as compared to the standard N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate (65.6 ± 1.1%). All metabolites were found to be non-toxic against PC3, HeLa, and 3T3 cell lines. Observed inhibitory potential of metabolites 6 and 13 against pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, as well as NO production makes them interesting leads for further studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Microwave-enhanced electrochemical cycling performance of the LiNi0.2Mn1.8O4 spinel cathode material at elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Kumar; Nkosi, Funeka P; Viswanathan, Elumalai; Mathe, Mkhulu K; Damodaran, Krishnan; Ozoemena, Kenneth I

    2016-05-14

    The well-established poor electrochemical cycling performance of the LiMn2O4 (LMO) spinel cathode material for lithium-ion batteries at elevated temperature stems from the instability of the Mn(3+) concentration. In this work, a microwave-assisted solid-state reaction has been used to dope LMO with a very low amount of nickel (i.e., LiNi0.2Mn1.8O4, herein abbreviated as LMNO) for lithium-ion batteries from Mn3O4 which is prepared from electrolytic manganese oxide (EMD, γ-MnO2). To establish the impact of microwave irradiation on the electrochemical cycling performance at an elevated temperature (60 °C), the Mn(3+) concentration in the pristine and microwave-treated LMNO samples was independently confirmed by XRD, XPS, (6)LiMAS-NMR and electrochemical studies including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The microwave-treated sample (LMNOmic) allowed for the clear exposure of the {111} facets of the spinel, optimized the Mn(3+) content, promoting structural and cycle stability at elevated temperature. At room temperature, both the pristine (LMNO) and microwave-treated (LMNOmic) samples gave comparable cycling performance (>96% capacity retention and ca. 100% coulombic efficiency after 100 consecutive cycling). However, at an elevated temperature (60 °C), the LMNOmic gave an improved cycling stability (>80% capacity retention and ca. 90% coulombic efficiency after 100 consecutive cycling) compared to the LMNO. For the first time, the impact of microwave irradiation on tuning the average manganese redox state of the spinel material to enhance the cycling performance of the LiNi0.2Mn1.8O4 at elevated temperature and lithium-ion diffusion kinetics has been clearly demonstrated.

  3. 薰衣草化学成分分析及差异标志物的识别%Identification of Chemical Constituents and Discrimination Markers in Lavender by HS-SPME-GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洁; 唐军; 陈兆慧; 符继红

    2016-01-01

    The lavender has been widely used in food,aromatherapy,fragrant and phar-maceutical industries due to its unique chemical composition which confers both aromatic and biological activities.A method was established to fast identify the chemical constitu-ents by phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS)and provided the basis for distinction of the different species by analyzing the re-markably different chemical components in the lavender.Based on the peak areas of cis-β-ocimene,linalool,linalyl acetate,terpinen-4-ol,caryophyllene and caryophyllene ox-ide,three parameters (temperature,time of extraction and desorption time)of head-space solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME)were optimized,resulting in the best extraction condition including extraction temperature of 55 ℃,extraction time of 30 min and desorption time of 30 s.Twenty-six volatile oil samples collected in Xinjiang which belong to three different lavender species were analyzed by GC/MS.Principal component analysis (PCA)and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)were used to analyze the aroma profiles of the lavender.The results show that the chemical composi-tions in lavender from different species are clearly distinguished.Kinds of 9 chemical compositions,such as linalool,caryophyllene,cis-β-farnesene,linalyl acetate,lavandu-lyl acetate,germacrene D,cis-β-ocimene,terpinen-4-ol and caryophyllene oxide,which are indentified as discrimination markers.This study can provide the basis for rapidly qualitative analysis of constituents and quantity control of the lavender.%采用顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱(HS-SPME-GC/MS)联用技术,结合保留指数(RI),建立了新疆不同品种薰衣草化学成分的快速分析方法,并采用多元统计分析方法对不同品种薰衣草的特征差异性标志物进行识别。选取薰衣草挥发性化合物中顺-β-罗勒烯、芳樟醇、乙酸芳樟酯、萜品烯-4-醇、石

  4. Influence of lavender essential oil and aloe on main flora of facial acne%薰衣草精油和芦荟对痤疮面部主要菌群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美娇; 韩怡雪; 付洋; 冯媛; 吴大畅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide theoretical proofs for facial acne treatment by observing the influence of lavender essential oil and aqueous extract of aloe on main flora of facial acne (Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis) in vitro.Methods Serial dilution method was adopted to dilute lavender essential oil and aquedous extract of aloe.Paper disc method was performed to observe the effects of different concentrations of lavender essential oil and aquedous extract of aloe on facial flora.The effect of bacteriostasis was represented by the area of inhibition zone.Growth curve was plotted to detect the influence on bacteria growth.Results Lavender essential oil showed a stronger inhibitory activity against Propionibacterium acnes than Staphylococcus epidermidis (P < 0.05) ; Aloe vera and aloe arborescens mill did not seem to have inhibitory effect on Propionibacterium acnes (P > 0.05) ; Aloe vera had a weak inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis (P < 0.05),while Aloe arborescens Mill showed a positive growth-promoting effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis.Conclusion The influences of lavender essential oil and aqueous extract of aloe on main flora of facial acne (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes) are different.Application of lavender essential oil combined with aloe might help to improve facial acne symptoms through modulating facial microecological balance.%目的 体外观察薰衣草精油和芦荟水提物对痤疮患者面部痤疮丙酸杆菌和表皮葡萄球菌的作用,为改善面部痤疮治疗提供理论依据.方法 采用连续梯度稀释法稀释薰衣草精油及芦荟水提物,纸片法观察不同浓度的精油和芦荟水提物对面部正常菌群表皮葡萄球菌和痤疮主要致病菌痤疮丙酸杆菌的作用;通过抑菌环的大小反应抑菌作用强弱,测定生长曲线以观察对细菌生长繁殖的影响.结果 薰衣草精油对痤疮丙酸杆菌的抑菌作用明

  5. Study on the application of lavender therapy in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy%薰香疗法在体外冲击波碎石术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小敏; 曾莹; 陈妙琛; 柯小燕; 苏丽娟

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of lavender therapy on comfort level of patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL). Methods 80 cases of patients undergoing ESWL for the first time were divided into the observation group(n=40),and the control group(n=40),the observation group treated with lavender therapy and the control group with routine nursing. Results Compared with the control group, pain level was lowered, circulatory system was more stable, painful behaviors were less and adjuvant drugs were less used in the observation group (all P< 0.05). Conclusion Lavender therapy has the effect of improving comfort level of patients during ESWL.%目的 观察薰香疗法对体外冲击波碎石患者舒适度的作用.方法 将80例首次接受体外冲击波碎石患者分为观察组和对照组,各40例.观察组采用常规护理方法外辅以薰香疗法,对照组采用常规护理方法.结果 与对照组相比,观察组患者疼痛程度明显降低(P<0.01),循环系统较稳定,波动少(P<0.05),辅助用药的使用率也明显低于对照组(P<0.01).结论 薰香疗法有利于提高体外冲击波碎石患者舒适度.

  6. An ex vivo, assessor blind, randomised, parallel group, comparative efficacy trial of the ovicidal activity of three pediculicides after a single application - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil, and a "suffocation" pediculicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altman Phillip M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two components to the clinical efficacy of pediculicides: (i efficacy against the crawling-stages (lousicidal efficacy; and (ii efficacy against the eggs (ovicidal efficacy. Lousicidal efficacy and ovicidal efficacy are confounded in clinical trials. Here we report on a trial that was specially designed to rank the clinical ovicidal efficacy of pediculicides. Eggs were collected, pre-treatment and post-treatment, from subjects with different types of hair, different coloured hair and hair of different length. Method Subjects with at least 20 live eggs of Pediculus capitis (head lice were randomised to one of three treatment-groups: a melaleuca oil (commonly called tea tree oil and lavender oil pediculicide (TTO/LO; a eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (EO/LTTO; or a "suffocation" pediculicide. Pre-treatment: 10 to 22 live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the live egg attached, before the treatment (total of 1,062 eggs. Treatment: The subjects then received a single treatment of one of the three pediculicides, according to the manufacturers' instructions. Post-treatment: 10 to 41 treated live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the egg attached (total of 1,183 eggs. Eggs were incubated for 14 days. The proportion of eggs that had hatched after 14 days in the pre-treatment group was compared with the proportion of eggs that hatched in the post-treatment group. The primary outcome measure was % ovicidal efficacy for each of the three pediculicides. Results 722 subjects were examined for the presence of eggs of head lice. 92 of these subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to: the "suffocation" pediculicide (n = 31; the melaleuca oil and lavender oil pediculicide (n = 31; and the eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (n = 30 subjects. The group treated with eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil had an ovicidal efficacy of 3.3% (SD

  7. Obstacles toward unity efficiency of LiNi1-2xCoxMnxO2 (x = 0 ∼ 1/3) (NCM) cathode materials: Insights from ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chaoping; Longo, Roberto C.; Kong, Fantai; Zhang, Chenxi; Nie, Yifan; Zheng, Yongping; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Jeon, Sanghoon; Choi, SuAn; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we perform a comprehensive study of five phenomena of LiNi1-2xCoxMnxO2 (NCM) (x = 0-1/3) cathodes at the end of charge (phase reaction, crack propagation, Li-Ni exchange, phase transition, and oxygen evolution), using first-principle calculations within the DFT + U framework. Based on our results, we have located the obstacles toward unity efficiency and revealed that the degradation strongly depends on the Ni concentration and the depth of charge. The threshold capacities for degradation of LiyNi1-2xCoxMnxO2 are 130-140 mA·hg-1 (y design NCM cathode materials with high-energy density, also providing possible solution mechanisms to the degradation factors, such as doping, coating or novel nanostructures, like core-shell or concentration gradient cathodes.

  8. Floral Phenology, Nectar Secretion Dynamics, and Honey Production Potential, of Two Lavender Species (Lavandula Dentata, and L. Pubescens in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuru Adgaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to determine the floral phenology, nectar secretion dynamics, and honey production potentials of two naturally growing lavender species (L. dentata and L. pubescens, in southwestern Saudi Arabia. In both species, flowering is continuous. This means that, when open flowers on a spike are shaded, new flowers emerge. Such a flowering pattern might be advantageous to the plant to minimise competition for pollinators and promote efficient resource allocation. The flowering periods of the two species overlap. Both species secreted increasing amounts of nectar from early morning to late afternoon. The mean maximum volumes of accumulated nectar from bagged flowers occurred at 15:00 for L. pubescens (0.50 ± 0.24 μL/flower and at 18:00 for L. dentata (0.68 ± 0.19 μL/flower. The volume of the nectar that became available between two successive measurements (three-h intervals varied from 0.04 μL/flower to 0.28 μL/flower for L. pubescens and from 0.04 μL/flower to 0.35 μL/ flower for L. dentata, This variation reflects the differences in the dynamics of nectar secretion by these species, and indicates the size of the nectar that may be available for flower visitors at given time intervals. The distribution of nectar secretions appears to be an adaptation of the species to reward pollinators for longer duration. Based on the mean amount of nectar sugar secreted by the plants, the honey production potentials of the species are estimated to be 4973.34 mg and 3463.41 mg honey/plant for L. dentata and L. pubescens, respectively.

  9. High Tap Density Spherical Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 Cathode Material Synthesized via Continuous Hydroxide Coprecipitation Method for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunyi Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spherical [Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2](OH2 precursor with narrow size distribution and high tap density has been successfully synthesized by a continuous hydroxide coprecipitation, and Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 is then prepared by mixing the precursor with 6% excess Li2CO3 followed by calcinations. The tap density of the obtained Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 powder is as high as 2.61 g cm−3. The powders are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscope (SEM, particle size distribution (PSD, and charge/discharge cycling. The XRD studies show that the prepared Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 has a well-ordered layered structure without any impurity phases. Good packing properties of spherical secondary particles (about 12 μm consisted of a large number of tiny-thin plate-shape primary particles (less than 1 μm, which can be identified from the SEM observations. In the voltage range of 3.0–4.3 V and 2.5–4.6 V, Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 delivers the initial discharge capacity of approximately 175 and 214 mAh g−1 at a current density of 32 mA g−1, and the capacity retention after 50 cycles reaches 98.8% and 90.2%, respectively. Besides, it displays good high-temperature characteristics and excellent rate capability.

  10. A novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xihua; Xie, Yongbing; Cao, Hongbin; Nawaz, Faheem; Zhang, Yi

    2014-09-01

    To solve the recycling challenge for aqueous binder based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps generated during manufacturing process is proposed in this study. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is employed to separate the cathode material from the aluminum foil. The effects of TFA concentration, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, reaction temperature and time on the separation efficiencies of the cathode material and aluminum foil are investigated systematically. The cathode material can be separated completely under the optimal experimental condition of 15vol.% TFA solution, L/S ratio of 8.0 mL g(-1), reacting at 40°C for 180 min along with appropriate agitation. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is successfully resynthesized from the separated cathode material by solid state reaction method. Several kinds of characterizations are performed to verify the typical properties of the resynthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 powder. Electrochemical tests show that the initial charge and discharge capacities of the resynthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are 201 mAh g(-)(1) and 155.4 mAh g(-1) (2.8-4.5 V, 0.1C), respectively. The discharge capacity remains at 129 mAh g(-1) even after 30 cycles with a capacity retention ratio of 83.01%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fine-sized LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Mn 0.05O 2 cathode powders prepared by combined process of gas-phase reaction and solid-state reaction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Seo Hee; Kang, Yun Chan

    The Ni-rich precursor powders with spherical shape and filled morphologies were prepared by spray pyrolysis from the spray solution with citric acid, ethylene glycol and a drying control chemical additive. The precursor powders with controlled morphologies formed the LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Mn 0.05O 2 cathode powders with spherical shape and fine size by solid-state reaction with lithium hydroxide. However, the cathode powders prepared from the spray solution without additives had irregular morphologies and were large in size. The precursor powders with hollow and porous morphologies formed cathode powders with irregular and aggregated morphologies. The composition ratios of the nickel, cobalt and manganese components were maintained in the as-prepared, precursor and cathode powders. The initial discharge capacity of the LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Mn 0.05O 2 cathode powders with spherical shape and fine size tested at a temperature of 55 °C under a constant current density of 0.5 C was 215 mAh g -1. The discharge capacity of the LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Mn 0.05O 2 cathode powders decreased to 81% of the initial value after 30 cycles.

  12. Stannum doping of layered LiNi 3/8Co 2/8Mn 3/8O 2 cathode materials with high rate capability for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangang; He, Xiangming; Zhao, Rusong; Wan, Chunrong; Jiang, Changyin; Xia, Dingguo; Zhang, Shichao

    Sn doped lithium nickel cobalt manganese composite oxide of LiNi 3/8Co 2/8Mn 3/8- xSn xO 2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) was synthesized by stannum substitute of manganese to enhance its rate capability at first time. Its structure and electrochemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) and charge/discharge tests. LiNi 3/8Co 2/8Mn 3/8- xSn xO 2 had stable layered structure with α-NaFeO 2 type as x up to 0.05, meanwhile, its chemical diffusion coefficient D Li of Li-ion was enhanced by almost one order of magnitude, leading to notable improvement of the rate capability of LiNi 3/8Co 2/8Mn 3/8O 2. The compound of x = 0.10 showed the best rate capability among Sn doped samples, but its discharge capacity reduced markedly due to secondary phase Li 2SnO 3 and increase of cation-disorder. The compound with x = 0.05 showed high rate capability with initial discharge capacity in excess of 156 mAh g -1. It is a promising alternative cathode material for EV application of Li-ion batteries.

  13. Post mortem analysis of fatigue mechanisms in LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 - LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 - LiMn2O4/graphite lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael; Darma, Mariyam Susana Dewi; Kleiner, Karin; Riekehr, Lars; Mereacre, Liuda; Ávila Pérez, Marta; Liebau, Verena; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    The fatigue of commercial lithium ion batteries after long-term cycling at two different temperatures and cycling rates is investigated. The cells are opened after cycling and post-mortem analysis are conducted. Two main contributions to the capacity loss of the batteries are revealed. The loss of active lithium leads to a relative shift between anodes and cathodes potentials. A growth of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the anode is determined as well as the formation of lithium fluoride species as an electrolyte decomposition product. Those effects are reinforced by increasing cycling rates from 1C/2C (charge/discharge) to 2C/3C as well as by increasing cycling temperatures from 25 °C to 40 °C. The other contribution to the capacity loss originates from a fatigue of the blended cathodes consisting of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM), LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and LiMn2O4 (LMO). Phase-specific capacity losses and fatigue mechanisms are identified. The layered oxides tend to form microcracks and reveal changes of the surface structure leading to a worsening of the lithium kinetics. The cathode exhibits a loss of manganese at 40 °C cycling temperature. Cycling at 40 °C instead of 25 °C has the major impact on cathodes capacity loss, while cycling at 2C/3C rates barely influences it.

  14. Tuning the Activity of Oxygen in LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 Battery Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Khim; Huang, Yiqing; Hwang, Sooyeon; Gamalski, Andrew D; Whittingham, M Stanley; Zhou, Guangwen; Stach, Eric A

    2016-10-06

    Layered transition metal oxides such as LiNi0.8Co 0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) are highly desirable battery electrodes. However, these materials suffer from thermal runaway caused by deleterious oxygen loss and surface phase transitions when in highly overcharged and overheated conditions, prompting serious safety concerns. Using in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy techniques, we demonstrate that surface oxygen loss and structural changes in the highly overcharged NCA particles are suppressed by exposing them to an oxygen-rich environment. The onset temperature for the loss of oxygen from the electrode particle is delayed to 350 °C at oxygen gas overpressure of 400 mTorr. Similar heating of the particles in a reducing hydrogen gas demonstrated a quick onset of oxygen loss at 150 °C and rapid surface degradation of the particles. The results reported here illustrate the fundamental mechanism governing the failure processes of electrode particles and highlight possible strategies to circumvent such issues.

  15. Preparation and characterization of 18650 Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2/graphite high power batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-Bing; Tang, Zhi-Yuan; Song, Quan-Sheng; Xie, Hui; Yang, Quan-Hong; Liu, Yuan-Gang; Ling, Guo-Wei

    The commercial 18650 Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2/graphite high power batteries were prepared and their electrochemical performance at temperatures of 25 and 50 °C was extensively investigated. The results showed that the charge-transfer resistance (R ct) and solid electrolyte interface resistance (R sei) of the high power batteries at 25 °C decreased as states of charge (SOC) increased from 0 to 60%, whereas R ct and R sei increased as SOC increased from 60 to 100%. The discharge plateau voltage of batteries reduced greatly with the increase in discharge rate at both 25 and 50 °C. The high power batteries could be discharged at a very wide current range to deliver most of their capacity and also showed excellent power cycling performance with discharge rate of as high as 10 C at 25 °C. The elevated working temperature did not influence the battery discharge capacity and cycling performance at lower discharge rates (e.g. 0.5, 1, and 5 C), while it resulted in lower discharge capacity at higher discharge rates (e.g. 10 and 15 C) and bad cycling performance at discharge rate of 10 C. The batteries also exhibited excellent cycle performance at charge rate of as high as 8 C and discharge rate of 10 C.

  16. Crystallographic origin of cycle decay of the high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel lithium-ion battery electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei Kong; Lu, Cheng-Zhang; Liu, Chia-Erh; Peterson, Vanessa K; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-06-29

    High-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is considered a potential high-power-density positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries, however, it suffers from capacity decay after extended charge-discharge cycling, severely hindering commercial application. Capacity fade is thought to occur through the significant volume change of the LNMO electrode occurring on cycling, and in this work we use operando neutron powder diffraction to compare the structural evolution of the LNMO electrode in an as-assembled 18650-type battery containing a Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode with that in an identical battery following 1000 cycles at high-current. We reveal that the capacity reduction in the battery post cycling is directly proportional to the reduction in the maximum change of the LNMO lattice parameter during its evolution. This is correlated to a corresponding reduction in the MnO6 octahedral distortion in the spinel structure in the cycled battery. Further, we find that the rate of lattice evolution, which reflects the rate of lithium insertion and removal, is ∼9 and ∼10% slower in the cycled than in the as-assembled battery during the Ni(2+)/Ni(3+) and Ni(3+)/Ni(4+) transitions, respectively.

  17. Structural, dielectric and conductivity studies of LiNi0.75Mg0.25-xCuxPO4 synthesized by solid state reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotamalige Anand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The olivine structured LiNi0.75Mg0.25-xCuxPO4 (x = 0, 0.05 and 0.1 cathode materials were synthesized by solid state reaction method. The XRD, FTIR and FESEM studies were conducted to investigate the phase purity, crystal structure, lattice parameters and morphology, respectively. The powder X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the single phase formation of the pure and doped compounds which are found to be orthorhombic with the parent LiNiPO4. Morphology and grain sizes of the materials were investigated through FESEM. The FTIR technique was used to characterize the stretching and bending vibrational modes of different functional groups existing in the materials. The cathode properties were analysed through impedance spectroscopy and indicated on improved electrical properties of the doped samples as compared to the pure LiNiPO4. The conductivity and modulus analyses of the samples were carried out at different temperatures and frequencies using the complex impedance spectroscopy technique.

  18. Synthesis and Characteristics of LiNi0.85Co0.15O2 Cathode Materials by Particulate Sol-Gel Method for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xian-Jun; CHEN Hong-Hao; ZHAN Hui; LIU Han-Xing; YANG Dai-Ling; ZHOU Yun-Hong

    2005-01-01

    A particulate sol-gel (PSG) method has been successfully used to prepare LiNi0.85Co0.15O2 cathode materials,utilizing the reaction of LiOH·H2O with Ni(CH3COO)2·4H2O and Co(CH3COO)2·4H2O in water-ethanol system.The thermal history of the as-prepared xerogel was established by differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Powder X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of layered α-NaFeO2 structure at temperature of 700℃ under flowing oxygen. Scanning electron microscope exhibited that the crystalline powder prepared by PSG method had relatively smaller particle size with narrow distribution than the one prepared by solid state reaction.The first discharge capacity of the material by PSG method was 196.4 mAh/g, and the 10th discharge capacity was 189.1 mAh/g at the current density of 18 mA/g between 3.0 and 4.3 V. Its cycling reversibility was observed to be much better than that by solid state reaction, which had 187.3 mAh/g of the first discharge capacity and 167.1mAh/g of the 10th discharge capacity.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical studies of LiNi0.8M0.2O2 cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Sathiyamoorthi; P Manisankar; P Shakkthivel; Mu Sang Lee; T Vasudevan

    2008-06-01

    LiNiO2 and substituted nickel oxides, LiNi0.8M0.2O2 and LiCo0.8M0.2O2 (M = Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+), have been synthesized using simple solid state technique and used as cathode active materials for lithium rechargeable cells. Physical properties of the synthesized products are discussed in the structural (XRD, TEM, SEM with EDAX) and spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. XRD results show that the compounds are similar to LiNiO2 in structure. TEM and SEM analyses were used to examine the particle size, nature and morphological aspects of the synthesized oxides. The composition of the materials was explored by EDAX analysis. Electrochemical studies were carried out in the range 3–4.5 V (vs Li metal) using 1 M LiBF4 in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate as the electrolyte. The doping involving 20% Mg resulted in a discharge capacity of 185 mAhg-1 at 0.1 mA/cm2 and remained stable even after 25 cycles. Discharge capacity retention for Mg doped lithium nickelate at 25th cycle was noted to be nearly 7% higher than for the undoped material.

  20. Effect of Transition Metal Ordering on the Electronic Properties of LiNi1 - y - xCoyMnxO2 Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Roberto; Kong, Fantai; Kc, Santosh; Yeon, Dong-Hee; Yoon, Jaegu; Park, Jin-Hwan; Doo, Seok-Kwang; Cho, Kyeongjae; MSL Team; SAIT Team

    2015-03-01

    Current Li-ion batteries use layered oxides as cathode materials, specially LiCoO2 or LiNi1 - y - xCoyMnxO2(NCM), and graphite as anode. Co layered oxides suffer from the high cost and toxicity of cobalt, together with certain instability at high operational temperatures. To overcome these difficulties, the synthesis of novel materials composed of layered oxides with different sets of Transition Metals (TM) has become the most successful way to solve the particular drawbacks of every single-oxide family. Although layered materials can deliver larger capacity than other families of cathode materials, the energy density has yet to be increased in order to match the expectations deposited on the NCM oxides. To acquire a high capacity, they need to be cycled at high operational voltages, resulting in voltage and capacity fading over a large number of cycles. In this work, we examine the phase diagram of the Li-Ni-Co-Mn-O system and the effect of TM ordering on the electronic properties of NCM cathode materials, using density-functional theory. Our findings will provide conceptual guidance in the experimental search for the mechanisms driving the voltage and capacity fading of the NCM family of cathode materials, in an attempt to solve such structural instability problems and, thus, improving the performance of the NCM cathode materials. This work was supported by Samsung GRO project.

  1. Lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate and LiBF4 blend salts electrolyte for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongming; Xiao, Kaiwen; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate (LiODFB) and LiBF4 blend salts in ethylene carbonate + dimethyl carbonate + ethyl(methyl) carbonate (EC + DMC + EMC, 1:1:1, by wt.) have been investigated for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode in lithium-ion batteries. The electric conductivity tests are utilized to examine the relationship among solution conductivity, the electrolyte composition and temperature. Through cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge test and AC impedance measurements, we compare the capacity and cycling efficiency of LNMO cathode in different electrolyte systems at different temperatures and discharge current rates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are served to analyze the surface nature of LNMO cathode after cycles at elevated temperature. These results demonstrate that LNMO cathode can exert excellent electrochemical performance with the increase of LiODFB concentration at room temperature and elevated temperature and it is found that just slight LiBF4, mixed with LiODFB as blend salts, can strikingly improve the cyclability at -20 °C, especially in high-rate cycling. Grouped together, the optimum LiODFB/LiBF4 molar ratio is around 4:1, which can present an excellent affinity to LNMO cathode in a wide electrochemical window.

  2. Reaction heterogeneity in LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 induced by surface layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, Antonin; Liu, Hao; Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Lebens-Higgins, Zachary W.; Borkiewicz, Olaf J.; Piper, Louis F. J.; Chupas, Peter J.; Chapman, Karena W.

    2017-08-14

    Through operando synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of layered transition metal oxide electrodes of composition LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA), we decouple the intrinsic bulk reaction mechanism from surface-induced effects. For identically prepared and cycled electrodes stored in different environments, we demonstrate that the intrinsic bulk reaction for pristine NCA follows solid-solution mechanism, not a two-phase as suggested previously. By combining high resolution powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and surface sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we demonstrate that adventitious Li2CO3 forms on the electrode particle surface during exposure to air, through reaction with atmospheric CO2. This surface impedes ionic and electronic transport to the underlying electrode, with progressive erosion of this layer during cycling giving rise to different reaction states in particles with an intact vs an eroded Li2CO3 surface-coating. This reaction heterogeneity, with a bimodal distribution of reaction states, has previously been interpreted as a “two-phase” reaction mechanism for NCA, as an activation step that only occurs during the first cycle. Similar surface layers may impact the reaction mechanism observed in other electrode materials using bulk probes such as operando powder XRD.

  3. Improvement of the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2 cathode material by chromium doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    LiNi0.33Mn0.33-xCo0.33CrxO2 (x=0, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05) materials were synthesized by Cr3+ substitute of Mn4+ to enhance their electrochemical properties. The structure and electrochemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and charge/dis charge tests. The materials maintained the α-NaFeO2 type layered structure and the discharge capacities were also increase by doping appropriate amount of Cr3+. The sample with x= 0.025 exhibited the highest discharge capability of 181.6 mAh g?1 and the best cycle performance. EIS measurement showed that the Cr-doped electrode had the lower resistance impedance increase during cycling. The chemical diffusion coefficient of Li+ ion (DLi) was measured by potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT). The result showed that DLi in Cr-doped electrode was faster than that of the un-doped one.

  4. Structural, spectral, dielectric and magnetic properties of Tb-Dy doped Li-Ni nano-ferrites synthesized via micro-emulsion route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaid, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Iqbal, F.; Murtaza, Ghulam; Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Shakir, Imran; Warsi, Muhammad Farooq

    2016-12-01

    Terbium (Tb) and dysprosium (Dy) doped lithium-nickel nano-sized ferrites (Li0.2Ni0.8Tb0.5xDy0.5xFe2-xO4 where x=0.00-0.08) were prepared by micro-emulsion technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the single phase cubic spinel structure. The lattice constant was increased due to larger ionic radii of Tb3+ and Dy3+ cations. The crystallite size was found in the range 30-42 nm. The FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) spectra revealed two significant absorption bands (~400-600 cm-1) which indicate the formation of cubic spinel structure. The peaking behavior of dielectric parameters was observed beyond 1.5 GHz. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were found to decrease by the increase of Tb-Dy contents and frequency. The doping of Tb and Dy in Li-Ni ferrites led to increase the coercive field (120-156 Oe). The smaller magnetic and dielectric parameters suggested the possible utility of these nano-materials in switching and microwave devices applications.

  5. Impact of morphological changes of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 on lithium-ion cathode performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Etienne, Cabelguen; David, Peralta; Mikael, Cugnet; Pascal, Maillet

    2017-04-01

    Major advances in Li-ion battery technology rely on the nanostructuration of active materials to overcome the severe kinetics limitations of new - cheaper and safer - chemistries. However, opening porosities results in the decrease of volumetric performances, closing the door to significant applications such as portable electronics, electromobility, and grid storage. In this study, we analyze the link between morphologies and performances of model LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 materials. By quantifying exhaustively their microstructures using nitrogen adsorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and helium pycnometry, we can discuss how porosities and surface areas are linked to the electrochemical behavior. There is no geometrical parameters that can predict the performances of all our materials. The shape of agglomeration dictates the electrochemical behavior. A huge drop in volumetric performances is measured when microstructure is considered. We show that gravimetric and volumetric power performances are contrary to each other. Highly dense materials exhibit, by far, the best power performances in terms of volumetric figures, so that opening porosities might not be the best strategy, even in non-nanosized materials, for Li-ion battery technology.

  6. 新疆不同品种的薰衣草精油成分及含量研究%Study on Composition and Content of Essential oil from Three Lavender Varieties in Xinjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路喆; 王朴; 蒋新明; 王自健; 李敏

    2013-01-01

    [ Objective ] Data were provided to further breed improvement and industry development by analyzing composition and content of essential oil from three lavender varieties. [ Method ] Firstly, the essential oil was respectively extracted from lavender inflorescence by steam distillation using NKS-L1, H-701, XDT-5. Then, the compositions and content of essential oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. [Result] The essential oil content of XDT-5 was the highest, followed by H-701, and NKS-L1 is the lowest. In addition, the essential oil composition of NKS-L1, H-701, XDT-5 were identified 35, 43 , 38 compounds, respectively. The aroma components mainly included linalool and linalyl acetate. [ Conclusion] There were significant difference of chemical component and the essential oil content among three lavender varieties.%[目的]分析新疆地区3个品种薰衣草的精油成分及含量差异,为薰衣草进一步的品种改良及产业发展提供数据.[方法]以NKS-L1、H-701、XDT-5 3个薰衣草品种为研究对象,首先用水蒸气蒸馏法从花穗中提取精油,然后借助气相-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)检测分析其精油化学成分.[结果]XDT-5精油含量最高,其次为H-701,NKS-L1最低.从NKS-L1、H-701、XDT-5中分别鉴定出35、43、38种组分,主要成分为芳樟醇、乙酸芳樟酯.[结论]新疆薰衣草品种间精油成分及含量存在显著差异.

  7. Morphological Evolution of High-Voltage Spinel LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries: The Critical Effects of Surface Orientations and Particle Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haidong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhou, Dong; Qi, Xin; Qiu, Bao; Fang, Jianhui; Kloepsch, Richard; Schumacher, Gerhard; Liu, Zhaoping; Li, Jie

    2016-02-01

    An evolution panorama of morphology and surface orientation of high-voltage spinel LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 cathode materials synthesized by the combination of the microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique and a postcalcination process is presented. Nanoparticles, octahedral and truncated octahedral particles with different preferential growth of surface orientations are obtained. The structures of different materials are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The influence of various morphologies (including surface orientations and particle size) on kinetic parameters, such as electronic conductivity and Li(+) diffusion coefficients, are investigated as well. Moreover, electrochemical measurements indicate that the morphological differences result in divergent rate capabilities and cycling performances. They reveal that appropriate surface-tailoring can satisfy simultaneously the compatibility of power capability and long cycle life. The morphology design for optimizing Li(+) transport and interfacial stability is very important for high-voltage spinel material. Overall, the crystal chemistry, kinetics and electrochemical performance of the present study on various morphologies of LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 spinel materials have implications for understanding the complex impacts of electrode interface and electrolyte and rational design of rechargeable electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The outstanding performance of our truncated octahedral LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 materials makes them promising as cathode materials to develop long-life, high energy and high power lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Electrochemical performance of a nickel-rich LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode material for lithium-ion batteries under different cut-off voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-lin; Mu, Dao-bin; Wu, Bo-rong; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Rui

    2017-03-01

    A spherical-like Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2(OH)2 precursor was tuned homogeneously to synthesize LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The effects of calcination temperature on the crystal structure, morphology, and the electrochemical performance of the as-prepared LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 were investigated in detail. The as-prepared material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, laser particle size analysis, charge-discharge tests, and cyclic voltammetry measurements. The results show that the spherical-like LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 material obtained by calcination at 900°C displayed the most significant layered structure among samples calcined at various temperatures, with a particle size of approximately 10 μm. It delivered an initial discharge capacity of 189.2 mAh•g-1 at 0.2C with a capacity retention of 94.0% after 100 cycles between 2.7 and 4.3 V. The as-prepared cathode material also exhibited good rate performance, with a discharge capacity of 119.6 mAh•g-1 at 5C. Furthermore, within the cut-off voltage ranges from 2.7 to 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5 V, the initial discharge capacities of the calcined samples were 170.7, 180.9, and 192.8 mAh•g-1, respectively, at a rate of 1C. The corresponding retentions were 86.8%, 80.3%, and 74.4% after 200 cycles, respectively.

  9. Synthesis and performance of Li[(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)(1-x)Mgx]O2 prepared from spent lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yaqing; Xu, Shengming; Huang, Guoyong; Jiang, Changyin

    2013-02-15

    To reduce cost and secondary pollution of spent lithium ion battery (LIB) recycling caused by complicated separation and purification, a novel simplified recycling process is investigated in this paper. Removal of magnesium is a common issue in hydrometallurgy process. Considering magnesium as an important additive in LIB modification, tolerant level of magnesium in leachate is explored as well. Based on the novel recycling technology, Li[(Ni(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3))(1-x)Mg(x)]O(2) (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) cathode materials are achieved from spent LIB. Tests of XRD, SEM, TG-DTA and so on are carried out to evaluate material properties. Electrochemical test shows an initial charge and discharge capacity of the regenerated LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O(2) to be 175.4 mAh g(-1) and 152.7 mAh g(-1) (2.7-4.3 V, 0.2C), respectively. The capacity remains 94% of the original value after 50 cycles (2.7-4.3 V, 1C). Results indicate that presence of magnesium up to x=0.01 has no significant impact on overall performance of Li[(Ni(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3))(1-x)Mg(x)]O(2). As a result, magnesium level as high as 360 mg L(-1) in leachate remains tolerable. Compared with conventional limitation of magnesium content, the elimination level of magnesium exceeded general impurity-removal requirement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel imidazole-based electrolyte additive for improved electrochemical performance at elevated temperature of high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Haibo; Xu, Mengqing; Xie, Boyuan; Lin, Haibin; Zhu, Yunmin; Zheng, Xiongwen; Huang, Weizhao; Liao, Youhao; Xing, Lidan; Li, Weishan

    2016-10-01

    A novel electrolyte additive, 1,1‧-sulfonyldiimidazole (SDM), is firstly reported to improve the cycling performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 at high voltage and elevated temperature (55 °C). Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), initial differential capacity vs. voltage, and computation results indicate that SDM is oxidized at a lower potential than the solvents of the electrolyte. Coulombic efficiency and capacity retention of a Li/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cell can be significantly enhanced in the presence of SDM, and moreover cells with SDM deliver lower impedance after 100 cycles at elevated temperature. To better understand the functional mechanism of the enhanced performance with incorporation of SDM in the electrolyte, ex-situ analytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are employed to gain insight into the reaction mechanism of SDM on the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode at high voltage and elevated temperature (55 °C). Surface analysis reveals that the improved electrochemical performance of the cells can be ascribed to the highly stable surface layer generated by SDM, which thus mitigates the detrimental decomposition of the electrolyte occurring and stabilizes the interphase of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode while cycling at high voltage and elevated temperature.

  11. A randomised, assessor blind, parallel group comparative efficacy trial of three products for the treatment of head lice in children - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide, and a "suffocation" product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Stephen C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many different types of pediculicides available OTC in Australia. In this study we compare the efficacy and safety of three topical pediculicides: a pediculicide containing melaleuca oil (tea tree oil and lavender oil (TTO/LO; a head lice "suffocation" product; and a product containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (P/PB. Method This study was a randomised, assessor-blind, comparative, parallel study of 123 subjects with live head lice. The head lice products were applied according to the manufacturer's instructions (the TTO/LO product and the "suffocation" product were applied three times at weekly intervals according to manufacturers instructions (on Day 0, Day 7 and Day 14 and the P/PB product was applied twice according to manufacturers instructions (on Day 0 and Day 7. The presence or absence of live lice one day following the last treatment was determined. Results The percentage of subjects who were louse-free one day after the last treatment with the product containing tea tree oil and lavender oil (41/42; 97.6% and the head lice "suffocation" product (40/41, 97.6% was significantly higher compared to the percentage of subjects who were louse-free one day after the last treatment with the product containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (10/40, 25.0%; adj. p Conclusion The high efficacy of the TTO/LO product and the head lice "suffocation" product offers an alternative to the pyrethrins-based product. Trial Registration The study was entered into the Australian/New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, ACTRN12610000179033.

  12. Effects of lavender essential oil on the expression of c-fos in the hypothalamus and amygdala of rats%薰衣草精油对大鼠下丘脑及杏仁核c-fos表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操礼琼; 杨莹; 程文文; 李光武; 傅佳

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察薰衣草精油对大鼠下丘脑、杏仁核即早基因(c-fos)表达的影响,探讨其发挥生物活性的中枢机制.方法:将24只SD大鼠随机分为薰衣草精油组、蒸馏水组和空白组,免疫组化法观察各组大鼠下丘脑、杏仁核c-fos表达并对结果进行灰度半定量分析.结果:c-fos阳性细胞呈棕黄色染色,薰衣草组大鼠c-fos阳性细胞主要分布在杏仁核、下丘脑处,其它脑组织有散在分布,蒸馏水组和空白组大鼠c-fos阳性细胞散在分布于各处脑组织.与蒸馏水组和空白组比较,薰衣草组下丘脑、杏仁核c-fos灰度值降低(P<0.05).结论:大鼠吸入薰衣草精油后可能通过下丘脑及杏仁核发挥各种生物活性.%Objective: To study the effects of lavender essential oil on the expression of c-fos in the hypothalamus and amygdala of rats, explore the biological activity of the central mechanisms to lavender essential oil. Methods: Twenty-four SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: lavender essential oil group, distilled water group and control group. The immuno histochemical methods were used to detect the c-fos expression in the hypothalamus, amygdala and was semi-quantitative analysed for grey value. Results: The c-fos positive neurons were dyed in brown. For lavender essential oil group, c-fos positive neurons were mainly distributed in the hypothalamus and amygdala; others brain were scattered. For distilled water and control group, c-fos positive neurons were dispersed in brain tissue. Compared to distilled water and control group, grey value of c-fos of lavender was significantly reduced (/><0.05) in the hypothalamus and amygdala. Conclusion: Rats after inhalation of lavender essential oil may play a variety of biological activity through the hypothalamus and amygdala.

  13. Leaching process for recovering valuable metals from the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode of lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Po; Sun, Shu-Ying; Song, Xing-Fu; Yu, Jian-Guo

    2017-06-01

    In view of the importance of environmental protection and resource recovery, recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and electrode scraps generated during manufacturing processes is quite necessary. An environmentally sound leaching process for the recovery of Li, Ni, Co, and Mn from spent LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-based LIBs and cathode scraps was investigated in this study. Eh-pH diagrams were used to determine suitable leaching conditions. Operating variables affecting the leaching efficiencies for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn from LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, such as the H2SO4 concentration, temperature, H2O2 concentration, stirring speed, and pulp density, were investigated to determine the most efficient conditions for leaching. The leaching efficiencies for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn reached 99.7% under the optimized conditions of 1M H2SO4, 1vol% H2O2, 400rpm stirring speed, 40g/L pulp density, and 60min leaching time at 40°C. The leaching kinetics of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 were found to be significantly faster than those of LiCoO2. Based on the variation in the weight fraction of the metal in the residue, the "cubic rate law" was revised as follows: θ(1-f)(1/3)=(1-kt/r0ρ), which could characterize the leaching kinetics optimally. The activation energies were determined to be 64.98, 65.16, 66.12, and 66.04kJ/mol for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn, respectively, indicating that the leaching process was controlled by the rate of surface chemical reactions. Finally, a simple process was proposed for the recovery of valuable metals from spent LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-based LIBs and cathode scraps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PENGUKURAN NILAI OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS SEBAGAI DASAR USAHA PERBAIKAN PROSES MANUFAKTUR PADA LINI PRODUKSI (Studi Kasus pada Stamping Production Division Sebuah Industri Otomotif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Suhendra

    2005-01-01

    satu lini produksi dalam satu periode dan melalui analisis pareto terhadap hasil pengukuran tersebut diperoleh akar permasalahan dan faktor penyebabnya yang secara jelas ditampilkan pada sebuah diagram sebab-akibat. Kata kunci: pengukuran kinerja peralatan, regresi berganda dan analisa korelasi, industri otomotif, peralatan pabrik.

  15. Effect of Surface Modification on Nano-Structured LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 Spinel Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyung-Man; Chen, Michael Vincent; MacRae, Alex C; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2015-08-05

    Fine-tuning of particle size and morphology has been shown to result in differential material performance in the area of secondary lithium-ion batteries. For instance, reduction of particle size to the nanoregime typically leads to better transport of electrochemically active species by increasing the amount of reaction sites as a result of higher electrode surface area. The spinel-phase oxide LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO), was prepared using a sol-gel based template synthesis to yield nanowire morphology without any additional binders or electronic conducting agents. Therefore, proper experimentation of the nanosize effect can be achieved in this study. The spinel phase LMNO is a high energy electrode material currently being explored for use in lithium-ion batteries, with a specific capacity of 146 mAh/g and high-voltage plateau at ∼4.7 V (vs Li/Li(+)). However, research has shown that extensive electrolyte decomposition and the formation of a surface passivation layer results when LMNO is implemented as a cathode in electrochemical cells. As a result of the high surface area associated with nanosized particles, manganese ion dissolution results in capacity fading over prolonged cycling. In order to prevent these detrimental effects without compromising electrochemical performance, various coating methods have been explored. In this work, TiO2 and Al2O3 thin films were deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the surface of LNMO particles. This resulted in effective surface protection by prevention of electrolyte side reactions and a sharp reduction in resistance at the electrode/electrolyte interface region.

  16. Design optimization of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2/graphite lithium-ion cells based on simulation and experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah, Williams Agyei; Park, Joonam; Song, Seonghyun; Byun, Seoungwoo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2016-07-01

    LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathodes of different thicknesses and porosities are prepared and tested, in order to optimize the design of lithium-ion cells. A mathematical model for simulating multiple types of particles with different contact resistances in a single electrode is adopted to study the effects of the different cathode thicknesses and porosities on lithium-ion transport using the nonlinear least squares technique. The model is used to optimize the design of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2/graphite lithium-ion cells by employing it to generate a number of Ragone plots. The cells are optimized for cathode porosity and thickness, while the anode porosity, anode-to-cathode capacity ratio, thickness and porosity of separator, and electrolyte salt concentration are held constant. Optimization is performed for discharge times ranging from 10 h to 5 min. Using the Levenberg-Marquardt method as a fitting technique, accounting for multiple particles with different contact resistances, and employing a rate-dependent solid-phase diffusion coefficient results in there being good agreement between the simulated and experimentally determined discharge curves. The optimized parameters obtained from this study should serve as a guide for the battery industry as well as for researchers for determining the optimal cell design for different applications.

  17. The Impact of Aluminum and Iron Substitution on the Structure and Electrochemistry of Li[Ni0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4]O2 Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIlcox, James D.; Rodriguez, Efrain E.; Doeff, Marca M.

    2009-07-23

    Li[Ni0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4]O2 (0<_y<_0.2) (M=Al) and Li[Ni0.4Co0.15Fe0.05Mn0.4]O2 compounds were prepared in order to investigate the effect of replacement of all or part of the cobalt on the structural and electrochemical properties. The impact of substitution on the structure has been examined by both x-ray and neutron diffraction experiments. The incorporation of aluminum has minimal effect on the anti-site defect concentration, but leads to structural changes that affect electrochemical performance. The most important effect is an opening of the lithium slab dimension upon substitution, which results in improved rate performance compared to the parent compound. In contrast, the lithium slab dimension is not affected by iron substitution and no rate enhancement effect is observed. The cycling stability of aluminum containing materials is superior to both the parent material and iron-substituted materials.

  18. Exceptional performance of a high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode in all one dimensional architectures with an anatase TiO2 anode by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Nagasubramanian; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Shubha, Nageswaran; Ling, Wong Chui; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2014-07-01

    We report for the first time the synthesis and extraordinary performance of a high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 fiber cathode in all one dimensional (1D) architecture. Structural and morphological features are analyzed by various characterization techniques. Li-insertion/extraction properties are evaluated in a half-cell assembly (Li/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4) and subsequently in full-cell configuration with an anatase TiO2 fiber anode. In both half- and full-cell assemblies, gelled polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) is used as the separator-cum-electrolyte. All the one dimensional components used for fabricating Li-ion cells are prepared by a simple and scalable electrospinning technique. The full-cell, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/gelled PVdF-HFP/TiO2 delivered the reversible capacity of ~102 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C rate with an operating potential of ~2.8 V. Excellent rate capability and stable cycling profiles are noted for such a full-cell assembly with a capacity retention of ~86% after 400 cycles.

  19. Quantitative Characterization of the Surface Evolution for LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2/Graphite Cell during Long-Term Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiyuan; Qu, Qunting; Zhu, Guobin; Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2017-03-29

    Many factors have been brought forward to explain the capacity degradation mechanisms of LiNixCoyMnzO2 (NCM)/graphite cells at extreme conditions such as under high temperature or with high cutoff voltage. However, the main factors dominating the long-term cycling performance under normal operations remain elusive. Quantitative analyses of the electrode surface evolution for a commercial 18650 LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523)/graphite cell during ca. 3000 cycles under normal operation are presented. Electrochemical analyses and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) confirm lithium inventory loss makes up for ca. 60% of the cell's capacity loss. Electrochemical deterioration of the NCM523 cathode is identified to be another important factor, which accounts for more than 30% of the capacity decay. Irregular primary particle cracking due to the mechanical stress and the phase change aroused from Li-Ni mixing during repetitive cycles are identified to be the main contributors for the NCM cathode deterioration. The amount of transition metal dissolved into electrolyte is determined to be quite low, and the resulting impedance rise after about 3000 cycles is obtained to be twice that of the reference cell, which are not very significant affecting the long-term cycling performance under normal operations.

  20. Structural and dielectric studies of LiNiPO4 and LiNi0.5Co0.5PO4 cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijaya Babu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Olivine-type LiNiPO4 has been considered as a most competitive positive electrode active material for lithium-ion batteries. In the present paper, the LiNiPO4 and Co-doped LiNi0.5Co0.5PO4 are synthesized by solid-state reaction method under air atmosphere. All the X-ray diffraction peaks of both the compounds are indexed and it is found that the samples are well crystallized in orthorhombic olivine structure belonging to the space group Pnma. The crystallite size is calculated from the Scherrer formula and it is found to be 6.918 and 4.818 nm for pure and doped samples, respectively. The surface morphology and grain sizes of the materials are investigated through scanning electron microscope. Presence of preferred local cation environment is understood from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR studies. The conductivity and dielectric analysis of the samples are carried out at different temperatures and frequencies using the complex impedance spectroscopy technique. The electrical conductivity of LiNi0.5Co0.5PO4 is higher than that of pure LiNiPO4.

  1. Structural, electrical and electrochemical studies of LiNi$_{0.4}M_{0.1}$Mn$_{1.5}$O$_4$ ($M$ = Co, Mg) solid solutions for lithium ion battery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G P NAYAKA; K V PAI; J MANJANNA; K C ANJANEYA; P PERIASAMY; V S TRIPATHI

    2016-09-01

    The LiNi$_{0.4}M_{0.1}$Mn$_{1.5}$O$_4$ ($M$ = Co, Mg) solid solutions are synthesized by citric acid assisted sol–gel method and characterized by using TG/DTA, XRD, FTIR, EPR and SEM. The electrochemical characterization is carried out using CR-2032 coin type cell configuration. The cyclic voltammogram shows two pairs of redox current peaks, 4.35/3.80 V and 4.90/4.37 V vs. Li in a typical case of Co-doped sample, ascribed to two-step reversible intercalation of Li. A.c.-impedance (Nyquist plot) shows high frequency semicircle and a sloping line in the low frequency region. The semicircle is ascribed to Li-ion migration through interface from the surface layer of the particlesto electrolyte. The LiNi$_{0.4}Co_{0.1}$Mn$_{1.5}$O$_4$ shows reasonably good capacity retention in 20 cycles of galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling.

  2. Structure and Electrochemistry of LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M=Ti, Al, Fe) Positive Electrode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, James; Patoux, Sebastien; Doeff, Marca

    2009-01-14

    A series of materials based on the LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M = Ti,Al,Fe) system has been synthesized and examined structurally and electrochemically. It is found that the changes in electrochemical performance depend highly on the nature of the substituting atom and its effect on the crystal structure. Substitution with small amounts of Ti4+ (y = 1/12) leads to the formation of a high-capacity and high-rate positive electrode material. Iron substituted materials suffer from an increased antisite defect concentration and exhibit lower capacities and poor rate capabilities. Single-phase materials are found for LiNi1/3Co1/3-yAlyMn1/3O2 when y<_ 1/4 and all exhibit decreased capacities when cycled to 4.3 V. However, an increase in rate performance and cycle stability upon aluminum substitution is correlated with an improved lamellar structure.

  3. Tailoring the surface properties of LiNi(0.4)Mn(0.4)Co(0.2)O2 by titanium substitution for improved high voltage cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff-Goodrich, Silas; Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M; Nordlund, Dennis; Xin, Huolin L; Asta, Mark; Doeff, Marca M

    2015-09-14

    The present study aims to provide insights into the behavior of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.18Ti0.02O2 (NMC442-Ti02) cathode materials under galvanostatic cycling to high potentials, in the context of previous work which predicted that Ti-substituted variants should deliver higher capacities and exhibit better cycling stability than the unsubstituted compounds. It is found that NMC cathodes containing Ti show equivalent capacity fading but greater specific capacity than those without Ti in the same potential range. When repeatedly charged to the same degree of delithiation, NMC cathodes containing Ti showed better capacity retention. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra for Mn and Co indicated increased reduction in these elements for NMC cathodes without Ti, indicating that the substitution of Ti for Co acts to suppress the formation of a high impedance rock salt phase at the surface of NMC cathode particles. The results of this study validate the adoption of a facile change to existing NMC chemistries to improve cathode capacity retention under high voltage cycling conditions.

  4. Structure and electrochemical properties of Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)1-xTixO2 prepared by one-step solid state reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Si-hai; WANG Zhi-xing; LI Xin-hai; GUO Hua-jun; PENG Wen-jie; YIN Zhou-lan

    2006-01-01

    The layered compound Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)1-xTixO2 powders were prepared with Ni(OH)2, MnCO3, Li2CO3 and TiO2 by one-step solid state reaction. The effect of doping Ti on the structure and electrochemical properties was studied. The XRD results indicate that the powders with 0≤x≤0.05 have good layered structure and trace of impurity appears in the samples with x≥0.1. The SEM photographs show that the particle size distributes homogeneously and the sample with x=0.15 has larger particle size than other samples. The charge-discharge tests show that Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)0.95Ti0.05O2 synthesized at 800 ℃ for 36 h exhibits good electrochemical properties. It firstly delivers 173 mA.h/g and maintains 90% of the initial discharge capacity after 30 cycles. The cyclic voltammetry and differential capacity vs voltage curves show that the major oxidation and reduction peaks are around 3.95 V and 3.75 V, respectively, assigned to Ni2+/Ni4+ oxidation-reduction process. A weak peak around 4.5 V is found during the oxidation process in the first cycle, which can be regarded as the main reason of the large drop of discharge capacity in the initial cycle.

  5. Electrochemical Performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 by Sol-gel Self-combustion Reaction Method in Different Kinds of Electrolyte for High-voltage Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xinghua; Shi, Lin; Liu, Yusi; Zeng, Shuaibo; Ye, Chaochao

    2015-07-01

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material was synthesized through sol-gel self-combustion reaction method. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders were subsequently characterized as cathode materials in a Li-ion coin cell comprising a Li anode with electrolyte A or electrolyte B. 1.0 mol/L Lithium Hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) dissolved in volume ration of ethylene carbonate (EC) to ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) to diethyl carbonate (DEC) corresponded to 4:3:3as electrolyte A, 1.0 mol/L LiPF6 dissolved in volume ration of EC to EMC to DEC corresponded to 4:2:4 as electrolyte B. Electrochemical performance of lithium cells was evaluated. These tests showed that no matter the cells with electrolyte A or electrolyte B has good discharge platform in 4.7V range (3.5V-4.75V) at the rate of 0.1C, the initial discharge capacity of cell with electrolyte B was higher than that with electrolyte A.

  6. Poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-ethyl acrylate) terpolymer based gel electrolyte for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Liao, Youhao; Xie, Huili; Chen, Tingting; Rao, Mumin; Li, Weishan

    2014-12-01

    A novel gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), based on poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-ethyl acrylate) (P(MMA-AN-EA)) terpolymer, is designed to match LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of 5 V lithium ion battery. The performances of the synthesized P(MMA-AN-EA) terpolymer and the corresponding membrane and GPE are investigated by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analyzer, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry, and charge/discharge test. It is found that the pore structure of P(MMA-AN-EA) membrane is affected by the dose of pore forming agent, polyethylene glycol (PEG400). The membrane with 3 wt% PEG400 presents the best pore structure, in which pores are dispersed uniformly and interconnected, and exhibits the largest electrolyte uptake, resulting in the highest ionic conductivity of 3.82 × 10-3 S cm-1 for the corresponding GPE at room temperature. The GPE has improved compatibility with lithium anode and is electrochemically stable up to 5.2 V (vs. Li/Li+). The high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode using the resulting GPE exhibits excellent cyclic stability, maintaining 97.9% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles compared to that of 79.7% for the liquid electrolyte at 0.5 C.

  7. Li(Ni0.4Co0.2Mn0.4)O2包覆Al2O3对隔膜形貌及结构的影响%Effect of Al2O3 coated Li(Ni0.4Co0.2Mn0.4)O2 on morphology and structure of separator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浩涵; 张建; 娄豫皖; 夏保佳

    2012-01-01

    以Al2O3包覆前后的Li(Ni0.4Co0.2Mn0.4)O2为正极活性物质,中间相炭微球(MCMB)为负极活性物质,与聚丙烯(PP)-聚乙烯(PE)-PP三层隔膜组装成18650型锂离子电池,在循环不同次数后,用SEM观察隔膜形貌,XRD分析其精细结构.在电池的循环过程中,隔膜出现微孔闭合及微观结构改变;包覆抑制了隔膜中微孔的闭合,同时提高了结构稳定性.%18650 type Li-ion battery was assembled with PP-PE-PP three-layer separator using Li(Ni0.4Co0.2Mno0.4)O2 before and after AI2O3 coating as cathode active material, MCMB as anode active material. The morphology of the separator was observed by SEM and the fine structure was tested by XRD after different cycle number. The partial holes of separators were closed during cycle process and the fine structure was changed.The coating suppressed the closing of holes of separators,at the same time,improved the structure stability.

  8. Synthesis and electrochemical performances of core-shell structured Li[(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3) 0.8(Ni 1/2Mn 1/2) 0.2]O 2 cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Soo; Myung, Seung-Taek; Sun, Yang-Kook

    Micro-scale core-shell structured Li[(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3) 0.8(Ni 1/2Mn 1/2) 0.2]O 2 powders for use as cathode material are synthesized by a co-precipitation method. To protect the core material Li[Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3]O 2 from structural instability at high voltage, a Li[Ni 1/2Mn 1/2]O 2 shell, which provides structural and thermal stability, is used to encapsulate the core. A mixture of the prepared core-shell precursor and lithium hydroxide is calcined at 770 °C for 12 h in air. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the prepared material has a typical layered structure with an R 3 bar m space group. Spherical morphologies with mono-dispersed powders are observed in the cross-sectional images obtained by scanning electron microscopy. The core-shell Li[(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3) 0.8(Ni 1/2Mn 1/2) 0.2]O 2 electrode has an excellent capacity retention at 30 °C, maintaining 99% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles in the voltage range of 3-4.5 V. Furthermore, the thermal stability of the core-shell material in the highly delithiated state is improved compared to that of the core material. The resulting exothermic onset temperature appear at approximately 272 °C, which is higher than that of the highly delithiated Li[Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3]O 2 (261 °C).

  9. Effects of Lavender Essential Oil on the in Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Methane Emission Substrate with High Concentrate%高精料条件下薰衣草精油对体外瘤胃发酵和甲烷产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米热古丽·伊马木; 王恬; 刘敏; 邵琴; 外力江·库尔班; 余雄

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究发酵底物精粗比为7∶3时不同剂量薰衣草精油对体外瘤胃发酵及甲烷产量的影响.[方法]以5只装有永久性瘤胃瘘管的哈萨克公羊为试验动物,采用瘤胃体外培养方法,设对照组和薰衣草精油添加量为100、150、250 μL/L的试验组,每个处理三个重复.[结果]薰衣草精油添加量为150和250 μL/L体外培养24h时降低甲烷产浓度分别为9.72%和24.23%(P<0.05);添加不同剂量薰衣草精油显著提高累计产气量、TVFA、乙酸摩尔比例和NH3 -N浓度(P<0.05),降低戊酸、丁酸和BCVFA摩尔比例(P<0.05).[结论]适当剂量的薰衣草精油对甲烷产生有抑制作用.%[Objective] A series of in vitro studies were performed to evaluate the effects of lavender essential oil on rumen fermentation and methane emission with a 7;3 concentrate; forage diet was used as substrate. [ Method ] Five Kazakh sheep fitted with rumen cannulae were used as donors of rumen fluid. Treatments were consisted of control group (0) versus three levels of lavender essential oil ( 100, 150, 250 μl/L) , and 3 times were repeated for per group. [ Result] Methane production was decreased by 9.72% and 24.23% ( P < 0.01) , at supplementation of 150 and 250 μI/L levels of lavender essential oil. Addition of different levels of lavender essential oil could significantly increased the total gas production, TVFA , acetic acid proportion and ammonia - N production (P < 0. 05 ) ; and decreased valerate , butyrate and BCVFA proportion(P<0.05). [ Conclusion ] The results indicated that addition of lavender essential oil at a proper level could inhibit methanogenesis.

  10. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kubo

    Full Text Available The use of lavender oil (LO--a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate--in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic dose in humans followed by the screening of differentially expressed genes in the tissues, using a 4×44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA in conjunction with a dye-swap approach, a novelty of this study. Fourteen days after LO treatment and compared with a control group (sham, a total of 156 and 154 up (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes, 174 and 66 up- (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes, and 222 and 322 up- (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes showed differential expression at the mRNA level in the small intestine, spleen and liver, respectively. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR validation of highly up- and down-regulated genes confirmed the regulation of the Papd4, Lrp1b, Alb, Cyr61, Cyp2c, and Cxcl1 genes by LO as examples in these tissues. Using bioinformatics, including Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA, differentially expressed genes were functionally categorized by their Gene Ontology (GO and biological function and network analysis, revealing their diverse functions and potential roles in LO-mediated effects in rat. Further IPA analysis in particular unraveled the presence of novel genes, such as Papd4, Or8k5, Gprc5b, Taar5, Trpc6, Pld2 and Onecut3 (up-regulated top molecules and Tnf, Slc45a4, Slc25a23 and Samt4 (down-regulated top molecules, to be influenced by LO treatment in the small intestine, spleen and

  11. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hiroko; Shibato, Junko; Saito, Tomomi; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Rakwal, Randeep; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The use of lavender oil (LO)--a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate--in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic dose in humans) followed by the screening of differentially expressed genes in the tissues, using a 4×44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) in conjunction with a dye-swap approach, a novelty of this study. Fourteen days after LO treatment and compared with a control group (sham), a total of 156 and 154 up (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, 174 and 66 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, and 222 and 322 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes showed differential expression at the mRNA level in the small intestine, spleen and liver, respectively. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation of highly up- and down-regulated genes confirmed the regulation of the Papd4, Lrp1b, Alb, Cyr61, Cyp2c, and Cxcl1 genes by LO as examples in these tissues. Using bioinformatics, including Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), differentially expressed genes were functionally categorized by their Gene Ontology (GO) and biological function and network analysis, revealing their diverse functions and potential roles in LO-mediated effects in rat. Further IPA analysis in particular unraveled the presence of novel genes, such as Papd4, Or8k5, Gprc5b, Taar5, Trpc6, Pld2 and Onecut3 (up-regulated top molecules) and Tnf, Slc45a4, Slc25a23 and Samt4 (down-regulated top molecules), to be influenced by LO treatment in the small intestine, spleen and liver

  12. High Voltage LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2/Graphite Cell Cycled at 4.6 V with A FEC/HFDEC-Based Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Feng, Zhenxing; Zeng, Li; Wu, Tianpin; Bedzyk, Michael J.; Fenter, Paul; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2017-08-09

    A high voltage LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2/graphite cell with a fluorinated electrolyte formulation 1.0 m LiPF6 fluoroethylene carbonate/bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) carbonate is reported and its electrochemical performance is evaluated at cell voltage of 4.6 V. Comparing with its nonfluorinated electrolyte counterpart, the reported fluorinated one shows much improved Coulombic efficiency and capacity retention when a higher cut-off voltage (4.6 V) is applied. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data clearly demonstrate the superior oxidative stability of the new electrolyte. The structural stability of the bulk cathode materials cycled with different electrolytes is extensively studied by X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction.

  13. Influence of electrode preparation on the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 composite electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai Yen; Greco, Giorgia; Täubert, Corina; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret; Haselrieder, Wolfgang; Kwade, Arno

    2012-07-01

    The electrode manufacturing for lithium-ion batteries is based on a complex process chain with several influencing factors. A proper tailoring of the electrodes can greatly improve both the electrochemical performances and the energy density of the battery. In the present work, some significant parameters during the preparation of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2-based cathodes were investigated. The active material was mixed with a PVDF-binder and two conductive additives in different ratios. The electrode thickness, the degree of compacting and the conductive agent type and mixing ratio have proven to have a strong impact on the electrochemical performances of the composite electrodes, especially on their behaviour at high C-rates. Further it has been shown that the compacting has an essential influence on the mechanical properties of NCA coatings, according to their total, ductile and elastic deformation behaviour.

  14. Research Progress in Improving the Cycling Stability of High-Voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode in Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, XiaoLong; Deng, SiXu; Wang, Hao; Liu, JingBing; Yan, Hui

    2017-04-01

    High-voltage lithium-ion batteries (HVLIBs) are considered as promising devices of energy storage for electric vehicle, hybrid electric vehicle, and other high-power equipment. HVLIBs require their own platform voltages to be higher than 4.5 V on charge. Lithium nickel manganese spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) cathode is the most promising candidate among the 5 V cathode materials for HVLIBs due to its flat plateau at 4.7 V. However, the degradation of cyclic performance is very serious when LNMO cathode operates over 4.2 V. In this review, we summarize some methods for enhancing the cycling stability of LNMO cathodes in lithium-ion batteries, including doping, cathode surface coating, electrolyte modifying, and other methods. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different methods.

  15. Imaging the surface morphology, chemistry and conductivity of LiNi1/3Fe1/3Mn4/3O4 crystalline facets using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Cutler, Jeffrey; Hu, Enyuan; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2016-08-17

    Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) using the X-ray fluorescence mode has been employed to elucidate the chemical structures at Ni, Fe, Mn and O sites from the (111) and (100) facets of micron-sized LiNi1/3Fe1/3Mn4/3O4 energy material particles. Furthermore, STXM imaging using electron yield mode has mapped out the surface conductivity of the crystalline particles. This study presents a novel approach that visualizes local element segregation, chemistry and conductivity variation among different crystal facets, which will assist further tailoring of the morphology and surface structure of this high voltage spinel lithium ion battery cathode material.

  16. Storage Characteristics of LiNi_(0.8)Co_(0.1+X)Mn_(0.1-X)O_2 (X=0,0.03,0.06) Cathode Materials for Lithium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junho; Eom; Min; Gyu; Kim; Jaephil; Cho

    2007-01-01

    1 Results LiNi0.8Co0.1+xMn0.1-xO2 cathodes with x=0,0.03 and 0.06 were prepared by firing a mixture of stoichiometric amounts of LiOH·H2O and coprecipitated Ni0.8Co0.1+xMn0.1-x(OH)2 at 800 ℃ for 15 h.Using these powders,their storage characteristics upon exposure to air and electrolytes at 90 ℃ were compared before charging and after charging to 4.3 V with a variation of the storage time.As the Co content (x) increased in the cathode,both the Ni2+ content in the lithium 3a sites,and the contents of the ...

  17. Intrinsic Origins of Crack Generation in Ni-rich LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 Layered Oxide Cathode Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin-Myoung; Hwang, Taesoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Min-Sik; Cho, Kyeongjae; Cho, Maenghyo

    2017-01-01

    Ni-rich LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 layered oxide cathodes have been highlighted for large-scale energy applications due to their high energy density. Although its specific capacity is enhanced at higher voltages as Ni ratio increases, its structural degradation due to phase transformations and lattice distortions during cycling becomes severe. For these reasons, we focused on the origins of crack generation from phase transformations and structural distortions in Ni-rich LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 using multiscale approaches, from first-principles to meso-scale phase-field model. Atomic-scale structure analysis demonstrated that opposite changes in the lattice parameters are observed until the inverse Li content x = 0.75 then, structure collapses due to complete extraction of Li from between transition metal layers. Combined-phase investigations represent the highest phase barrier and steepest chemical potential after x = 0.75, leading to phase transformations to highly Li-deficient phases with an inactive character. Abrupt phase transformations with heterogeneous structural collapse after x = 0.81 (~220 mAh g‑1) were identified in the nanodomain. Further, meso-scale strain distributions show around 5% of anisotropic contraction with lower critical energy release rates, which cause not only micro-crack generations of secondary particles on the interfaces between the contracted primary particles, but also mechanical instability of primary particles from heterogeneous strain changes.

  18. Production of 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA from dehydroepiandrosterone by Colletotrichum lini ST-1 through integrating glucose-feeding with multi-step substrate addition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Li, Hui; Sun, Jin; Zhang, XinYue; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong

    2016-08-01

    Hydroxylation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to 3β,7α,15α-trihydroxy-5-androstene-17-one (7α,15α-diOH-DHEA) by Colletotrichum lini ST-1 is an essential step in the synthesis of many steroidal drugs, while low DHEA concentration and 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA production are tough problems to be solved urgently in industry. In this study, the significant improvement of 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA yield in 5-L stirred fermenter with 15 g/L DHEA was achieved. To maintain a sufficient quantity of glucose for the bioconversion, glucose of 15 g/L was fed at 18 h, the 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA yield and dry cell weight were increased by 17.7 and 30.9 %, respectively. Moreover, multi-step DHEA addition strategy was established to diminish DHEA toxicity to C. lini, and the 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA yield raised to 53.0 %. Further, a novel strategy integrating glucose-feeding with multi-step addition of DHEA was carried out and the product yield increased to 66.6 %, which was the highest reported 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA production in 5-L stirred fermenter. Meanwhile, the conversion course was shortened to 44 h. This strategy would provide a possible way in enhancing the 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA yield in pharmaceutical industry.

  19. Study on electrochemical behavior and structural stability of 0.5Li2MnO3-LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2%0.5Li2MnO3-LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2的电化学行为及结构稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟卓洪; 叶乃清; 马真; 吴保明

    2013-01-01

    The charger/discharge performance of the Li-rich Mn-based cathode material 0.5Li2MnO3-LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 synthesized via low temperature combustion process,the valence change of Mn ions,the change of electrochemical impedance and structure of the cathode material during charge/discharge cycle process was systematically studied.The results show that the discharge capacity of the 0.5Li2MnO3-LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 increases with cycle number in the first several cycles,after a dozen cycles can reach a very high level,its cycle performance is excellent.Its 0.1 C discharge specific capacity is up to 244 mAh/g and still retains 233 mAh/g at 50th cycle when charged/discharged between 2.5-4.6 V.The Mn4+ ions in the lattice partly transformed into Mn3+ and participated in the following electrochemical reaction,which is the reason why discharge capacity increases with cycle number.The microstructure and crystal structure remains stable and the electrochemical impedance decrease during charge/discharge process,which is the reason why the cathode has excellent cycle performance.%对低温燃烧法合成的富锂锰基正极材料0.5Li2MnO3-LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2的充放电性能、充放电循环过程中Mn离子的价态变化、电化学阻抗变化以及正极材料的结构变化进行了系统的研究.研究结果表明,在开头的若干次充放电循环中,富锂锰基正极材料0.5Li2MnO3-LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2的放电比容量随循环次数的增加而增加,经过若干次循环后可以达到一个相当高的水平,其循环性能良好.以0.1C在2.5~4.6V之间充放电,放电比容量可达244 mAh/g,第50次循环,仍保有233 mAh/g.充放电过程中晶格中的Mn4+离子部分转变为Mn3+并参与电化学反应,这是造成放电比容量随循环次数增加而增加的原因,而显微结构和晶体结构保持稳定及电化学阻抗的降低是材料具有良好循环性能的原因.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of LiNi0.7–xMgxCo0.3O2 (0≤x≤0.1 Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prospective cathode materials LiNi0.7–xMgxCo0.3O2 (0≤x≤0.1 for a lithium-ion secondary battery were synthesized using a sol-gel method. The structural and electrochemical properties were examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, cyclic voltammetry(CV, and charge-discharge tests. The results show that the LiNi0.7–xMgxCo0.3O2 maintains the α-NaFeO2 type layered structure regardless of the magnesium content in the range x⩽0.1. On the other hand, Mg-doping improves the capacity retention well. Besides, the Mg-doping promotes the diffusion of Li+ in LiNi0.7Co0.3O2. Moreover, Mg-doping suppresses the phase transitions that usually occur in LiNiO2 during cycling and improves the charge-discharge reversibility of Li/LiNi0.7Co0.3O2. High temperature cycling performance of the cathode at 55.5°C is also improved by Mg-doping, which is possibly attributed to the total stronger metal-oxygen bonding and the enhanced structure stability of those delithiated Mg-doped cathodes during cycling.

  1. Improved electrochemical properties of Li(Ni0.6Mn0.2Co0.2)O2 by surface coating with Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji-won; Lee, Jae-won

    2016-03-01

    LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (C622) is one of the Ni-rich layer-structured cathode materials with a high capacity, but it suffers from a poor cycling stability and rate capability. In this study, Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP), a NASICON-type lithium-conductor, is coated on C622 by a sol-gel process to overcome the shortcomings of C622. We find that a 0.5 wt% coating of LATP on C622 significantly improves the cell performance including the discharge capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability. The pristine and LATP-coated samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). In addition, various electrochemical analyses such as cyclic-voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are conducted to determine the reason for the improvement of the cell performance. The cell performance of C622 is enhanced by a coating amount of less than 1.0 wt% and the overall performance degrades with the increase of the coating amount. The electrochemical analyses reveal that a high lithium-ion diffusion coefficient and a low interfacial resistance are the reasons for the improved cell performance; however, our study demonstrates that an excessive coating may degrade the cell performance, thereby acting as a barrier against the movement of lithium ions.

  2. Mechanical Composite of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2/Carbon Nanotubes with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Fu, Ju; Zhang, Chuhong

    2017-12-01

    LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2/carbon nanotube (NCA/CNT) composite cathode materials are prepared by a facile mechanical grinding method, without damage to the crystal structure and morphology of the bulk. The NCA/CNT composite exhibits enhanced cycling and rate performance compared with pristine NCA. After 60 cycles at a current rate of 0.25 C, the reversible capacity of NCA/CNT composite cathode is 181 mAh/g with a discharge retention rate of 96%, considerably higher than the value of pristine NCA (153 mAh/g with a retention rate of 90%). At a high current rate of 5 C, it also can deliver a reversible capacity of 160 mAh/g, while only 140 mAh/g is maintained for the unmodified NCA. Highly electrical conductive CNTs rather than common inert insulating materials are for the first time employed as surface modifiers for NCA, which are dispersed homogenously on the surface of NCA particles, not only improving the electrical conductivity but also providing effective protection to the side reactions with liquid electrolyte of the battery.

  3. Highly textured Li(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2 thin films on stainless steel as cathode for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Clement; Lynch, Tommy; Chen, Aiping; Jian, Jie; Wang, Haiyan

    2013-11-01

    Epitaxial and highly textured Li(NixMnyCo1-x-y)O2 thin film cathodes are deposited by a one-step, high temperature pulsed laser deposition technique. Structural characterization using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) reveals highly textured film along (003). The best film quality has been achieved at high temperature, with temperature as high as 750 °C. Different substrates and buffer layers have been investigated and Li(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2 (NMC) on stainless steel with a thin Au-buffer layer gives the best film quality. The NMC thin film cathodes give a high capacity of 167 mAh g-1 and 125 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 0.5 C, respectively. In addition, the cyclic voltammetry and charge discharge curves obtained after different cycles indicate good electrochemical stability with capacity retention of 89% after 100 cycles at 0.5 C. The electrochemical characteristics are correlated to the microstructure of the film and the effects of texture, grain size and density are discussed.

  4. Direct Observation of Lattice Aluminum Environments in Li Ion Cathodes LiNi1-y-zCoyAlzO2 and Al-Doped LiNixMnyCozO2 via (27)Al MAS NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Fulya; Vaughey, John T; Iddir, Hakim; Key, Baris

    2016-07-06

    Direct observations of local lattice aluminum environments have been a major challenge for aluminum-bearing Li ion battery materials, such as LiNi1-y-zCoyAlzO2 (NCA) and aluminum-doped LiNixMnyCozO2 (NMC). (27)Al magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the only structural probe currently available that can qualitatively and quantitatively characterize lattice and nonlattice (i.e., surface, coatings, segregation, secondary phase etc.) aluminum coordination and provide information that helps discern its effect in the lattice. In the present study, we use NMR to gain new insights into transition metal (TM)-O-Al coordination and evolution of lattice aluminum sites upon cycling. With the aid of first-principles DFT calculations, we show direct evidence of lattice Al sites, nonpreferential Ni/Co-O-Al ordering in NCA, and the lack of bulk lattice aluminum in aluminum-"doped" NMC. Aluminum coordination of the paramagnetic (lattice) and diamagnetic (nonlattice) nature is investigated for Al-doped NMC and NCA. For the latter, the evolution of the lattice site(s) upon cycling is also studied. A clear reordering of lattice aluminum environments due to nickel migration is observed in NCA upon extended cycling.

  5. Preparation of thick-film LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 electrodes by aerosol deposition and its application to all-solid-state batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shinya; Hamanaka, Tadashi; Yamakawa, Tomohiro; West, William C.; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Motoyama, Munekazu; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2014-12-01

    We prepared thick and dense-crystalline LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) composite films at room temperature that can work well as cathodes in all-solid-state battery cells. The thick films were fabricated by aerosol deposition using NMC powder (D50 = 10.61 μm) as a source material. Commercially-obtained NMC powder did not form films at all on silicon wafer substrates, and cracking of the substrates was observed. However, a few tens of nanometer coating with amorphous niobium oxide resulted in the deposition of 7 μm-thick crystalline dense composite films. The films were successfully fabricated also on Li+-conductive glass-ceramic sheets with 150 μm in thickness, and all-solid-state batteries were fabricated. The solid-state battery provided a cathode-basis discharge capacity of 152 mAh g-1 (3.0-4.2 V, 0.025 C, 333 K) and repeated charge-discharge cycles for 20 cycles.

  6. The effect of different binders on electrochemical properties of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathode material in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chou, Shu-Lei; Gu, Qin-fen; Liu, Hua-Kun; Dou, Shi-Xue

    2013-03-01

    LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries has been synthesized by the sol-gel method. The X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinement results indicated that single-phase NMC with hexagonal layered structure was obtained. Scanning electron microscope images revealed well crystallized NMC with uniform particle size in the range of 100-200 nm. The performance of the NMC electrodes with sodium carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and alginate from brown algae as binders was compared. Constant current charge-discharge test results demonstrated that the NMC electrode using CMC as binder had the highest rate capability, followed by those using alginate and PVDF binders, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test results showed that the electrode using CMC as the binder had lower charge transfer resistance and lower apparent activation energy than the electrodes using alginate and PVDF as the binders. The apparent activation energies of NMC electrodes using CMC, alginate, and PVDF as binders were calculated to be 27.4 kJ mol-1, 33.7 kJ mol-1, and 36 kJ mol-1, respectively.

  7. Layer-structured LiNi0.8Co0.2O2: A new triple (H+/O2-/e-) conducting cathode for low temperature proton conducting solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liangdong; Su, Pei-Chen

    2016-02-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells with proton conducting electrolytes (H-SOFCs) show great potential for more efficient energy conversion over their oxygen ionic conducting counterparts at temperatures below 650 °C, providing a comparably high performance cathode material can be available. A brief review of current development of cathode materials shows that materials with triple (oxygen ionic, protonic, and electronic) conducting properties are most promising for H-SOFCs. In this work, a triple-conducting LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 (LNCO) with layered structure, allowing simultaneous conduction of intrinsic oxygen ion and electron as well as the extrinsic proton, is proposed as a cathode material for H-SOFC. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis of LNCO shows the good oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity with a considerably low activation energy of 0.88 eV, and an evident water uptake capability those facilitate the cathode reaction process. Fuel cells using LNCO cathode on a BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.2O3 proton-conducting electrolyte render a peak power density of 410 mW cm-2 at 650 °C under H2/air condition, which is higher than most of the typical cathode materials reported with similar cell configurations. This work also demonstrated a new series of simple and low cost cathode materials simultaneously possessing interesting triple-conduction and good ORR activities for low temperature H-SOFCs.

  8. 新疆伊犁地区胡麻白粉病发生与消长规律研究%Occurrence, Growth and Decline of Flax Powdery Mildew (Oidium Lini Skoric) in Yili

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence , growth and decline of flax powdery mildew ( Oidium Lini Skoric) were investigated during 2010-2012 in Yili, Xinjiang, the results showed that the first time of occurrence of flax powdery mildew was the late of June , and the peak time was the middle of July , the disease spread speedily and shortly.The occurrence and epidemic of flax powdery mildew had a close relationship with the local meteorological factors.%  2010-2012年在新疆伊宁市对胡麻白粉病田间发生时期、发生与消长规律进行了系统研究,结果表明:新疆伊宁市胡麻白粉病始发期为6月下旬,盛发期为7月中旬,胡麻白粉病呈现发病时间短,流行速度快的特点。胡麻白粉病发生流行跟当地的气象因素有密切的关系。

  9. The impact of calendar aging on the thermal stability of a LiMn2O4-Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2/graphite lithium-ion cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Patrick; Stiaszny, Barbara; Ziegler, Jörg C.; Baba, Nilüfer; Lagaly, Paul; Wiemhöfer, Hans-Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Aging of lithium-ion cells is an inevitable phenomenon limiting the lifetime. Undesirable side reactions during cycle or calendar aging may affect the performance of all components of the lithium-ion cell. This results in a decreased capacity and an increase in the overall cell impedance. Based on electrochemical and physical characterization methods, the aging behavior during calendar aging of a 18650-cell, containing a blend of LiMn2O4 and Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 (NMC) as cathode material and graphite as anode material was systematically investigated. To understand how the safety behavior of a lithium-ion cell changes with aging, accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were applied. With these methods the thermal stability behavior of the complete lithium-ion cell and its respective cathode and anode material were investigated. The focus of this work was it to generate first cause-effect relations between the aging under one exemplary aging condition and the thermal stability of a lithium-ion battery both on cell and material level.

  10. The high-temperature and high-humidity storage behaviors and electrochemical degradation mechanism of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jing; Huang, Jingxin; Fu, Tao; Sun, Guiyan; Lai, Shaobo; Zhou, Rong; Li, Kun; Zhao, Jinbao

    2017-09-01

    The high-temperature and high-humidity storage behaviors and electrochemical degradation mechanism of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode material are investigated systematically. After stored at 55 °C and 80% relative humidity, three kinds of changes are observed compared to the fresh materials. The first change is adsorbed species on the surface of the materials caused by atmospheric H2O and CO2. The second is a layer of impurities consisting of LiOH and Li2CO3 coated on the surface of the materials non-uniformly. The third is a delithiation layer directly contacting with the bulk materials in the near-surface region, which is believed to be formed by lithium-ions migrating out from the lattice accompanied by the generation of the impurities. A different combination of heating temperature, heating time and heating atmosphere is performed to achieve the separation of the adsorbed species and the delithiation layer (together with the impurities) and study the role of different part in electrochemical degradation, respectively. For the first and the following cycles, the effect of the adsorbed species on the electrochemical properties takes a larger proportion than that of the delithiation layer and impurities.

  11. Significant improvement in performances of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 through surface modification with high ordered Al-doped ZnO electro-conductive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongdan; Xia, Bingbo; Liu, Weiwei; Fang, Guoqing; Wu, Jingjing; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Ruixue; Kaneko, Shingo; Zheng, Junwei; Wang, Hongyu; Li, Decheng

    2015-03-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO)-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) was prepared by sol-gel method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicates that AZO layer grown on the surface of LNMO is high ordered. The results of electrochemical performance measurements reveal that the AZO-coated LNMO electrode displays the best rate capability compared with the bare LNMO and ZnO-coated LNMO, even at a high rate of 10 C. The discharge capacity of the AZO-coated LNMO electrode can still reach 114.3 mAh g-1, about 89% of its discharge capacity at 0.1 C. Moreover, AZO-coated LNMO electrode shows a remarkable improvement in the cyclic performance at a high rate at elevated temperature due to the protective effect of AZO coating layer. The electrode delivers a capacity of 120.3 mAh g-1 with the capacity retention of 95% at 5 C in 50 cycles at 50 °C. The analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) indicates that AZO-coated LNMO possesses the lowest charge transfer resistance compared to the bare LNMO and ZnO-coated LNMO, which may be responsible for improved rate capability.

  12. Structural, electrical and electrochemical behaviours of LiNi0.4M0.1Mn1.5O4 ( = Al, Bi) as cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G P Nayaka; J Manjanna; K C Anjaneya; P Manikandan; P Periasamy; V S Tripathi

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve the cycling performance of LiMn2O4 based cathode materials, we have synthesized a new composition, LiNi0.4M0.1Mn1.5O4 ( = Al, Bi), by the sol–gel method. The formation of solid solutions is confirmed by structural characterization using TG/DTA, XRD, FT–IR, EPR, SEM and EPR. A.c.-impedance (Nyquist plot) showed a high frequency semicircle and a sloping line in the low-frequency region. The semicircle is ascribed to the Li-ion migration through the interface from the surface layer of the particles to the electrolyte. Cyclic voltammogram (between 3.5 and 4.9 V) for these materials using CR2032 coin-type cell shows two pairs of redox peaks corresponding to two-step reversible intercalation process, wherein Li-ions occupy two different tetragonal 8a sites in spinel LiMn2O4 ( < 1) lattice. The galvanostatic charge/discharge curves for = Al (77 mAh g-1) showed reasonably good capacity retention than that of = Bi (11 mAh g-1) at the end of 17th cycle.

  13. Composite coating of Li2O-2B2O3 and carbon as multi-conductive electron/Li-ion channel on the surface of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kanghyeon; Yang, Gene Jaehyoung; Kim, Hackyeon; Kim, Taejoong; Lee, Sun Sook; Choi, Si-Young; Choi, Sungho; Kim, Yongseon

    2017-10-01

    The coating effects of electronically and ionically conductive materials on the surface of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) cathodes for Li-ion batteries are examined. In order for the coating layers to promote facile electrochemical reactions, in addition to their protective functions of blocking side reactions between the LNMO surface and the electrolyte, carbon and Li2O-2B2O3 (LBO), which conduct electrons and Li ions, respectively, are chosen as coating materials. The properties of the LBO-carbon composite coating are examined in comparison with those of carbon- or LBO-only coatings. Electrochemical metrics, such as discharge capacity, rate performance, and cyclability, are improved with the addition of the thin-film coatings. The LBO-carbon coating shows the best overall properties, particularly greatly improved capacity retention under elevated-temperature (60 °C) cycling. The multi-conductive feature of LBO-carbon for both electrons and Li ions provides stable electrochemical kinetics under conditions of severe side reactions at elevated temperatures. The proposed simple one-step aqueous process for forming and applying the composite electrode coating may be extended to other materials and the mass production thereof.

  14. Simultaneous fluorination of active material and conductive agent for improving the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Sang; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Eunjun; Choi, Jae Man; Kim, Hansu

    2016-09-01

    High-voltage cathode materials have gained much attention as one of the promising electrode materials to increase power density of lithium ion batteries by raising the working voltage. However, the use of such high-voltage cathode materials is still challenging, because their working voltage is close to the electrochemical oxidation potential of organic electrolyte used in lithium ion batteries. In this work, we demonstrated that simultaneous fluorination of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) particles as well as conductive agent in the electrode could significantly improve the electrochemical stability of LNMO cathode. The resulting electrode showed better cycle performance both at room temperature and elevated temperature compared to both bare LNMO electrode and the electrode with only LNMO fluorinated. These results showed that direct fluorination of high voltage cathode can reduce the side reaction of high voltage cathode electrode with the electrolyte, thereby stabilizing the surface of carbon black as well as that of high voltage cathode material.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposites based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)-graft-carbon nanotubes with LiNi$_{0.5}$Mn$_{1.5}O$_4$ and its application as potential cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THANG VAN LE; THU ANH NGUYEN; NGUYET MINH THI NGUYEN; ANH TUAN LUU; LE-THU T NGUYEN; HA TRAN NGUYEN

    2016-09-01

    The P3HT grafted on CNTs to form the P3HT-$g$-CNTs nanocomposites was synthesized and their morphologies, structure have been characterized via the sedimentation test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-raydiffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the P3HT-$g$-CNTs has a better thermal stability than that of the P3HT/CNTs blend. The nanocomposite based on P3HT-g-CNTs and doped spinel LiNi$_{0.5}$Mn$_{1.5}$O$_4$ (LNMO) have been fabricated via mixing process. The structure and morphologies of LNMO/P3HT-$g$-CNTs nanocomposites have also been performed by SEM, XRD and TEM. The electrochemical performance of LNMO/P3HT-$g$-CNTs nanocomposites as cathode materials of lithium-ion batteries were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and exhibited the high diffusion of lithium ions in the charge–discharge process.

  16. Studies on stability and capacity for long-life cycle performance of Li(Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3)O2 by Mo modification for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Yu, Fu-Da; Que, Lan-Fang; Wang, Min-Jun; Xia, Yun-Fei; Xue, Yuan; Wu, Jin

    2017-08-01

    Long-life property is one of the key factors for wide applications of lithium-ion batteries. Here, Mo-modified Ni-rich cathode material LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM) is synthesized successfully via a solvent evaporating way followed with a calcination method. This strategy delivers two kinds of effects including Mo-doping and Mo-coating. Mo not only intercalates into the crystal lattice of NCM, but also forms a film-like coating layer on the surface to impede side reactions between electrode and electrolyte. Thus, its specific capacity, rate capability and cycle performance are improved simultaneously, especially in terms of long cycling life property. A series of physical and electrochemical characterizations are used to study the modified performance, and the sample with 1.0 wt% Mo modifying presents the best property with an approximate 3.5 nm coating layer surrounding the surface. Besides, the capacity retention ratio reaches to 89.7% even after 500 cycles between 3.0 and 4.3 V. However, Mo-modified samples have an obvious attenuation in the later period after charging to a higher voltage of 4.6 V although they have preferable cycle performance at the preliminary stage. The results indicate that the reaction mechanisms are diverse at different voltage ranges, which may guide subsequent researches.

  17. Solvent-free dry powder coating process for low-cost manufacturing of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shroofy, Mohanad; Zhang, Qinglin; Xu, Jiagang; Chen, Tao; Kaur, Aman Preet; Cheng, Yang-Tse

    2017-06-01

    We report a solvent-free dry powder coating process for making LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. This process eliminates volatile organic compound emission and reduces thermal curing time from hours to minutes. A mixture of NMC, carbon black, and poly(vinylidene difluoride) was electrostatically sprayed onto an aluminum current collector, forming a uniformly distributed electrode with controllable thickness and porosity. Charge/discharge cycling of the dry-powder-coated electrodes in lithium-ion half cells yielded a discharge specific capacity of 155 mAh g-1 and capacity retention of 80% for more than 300 cycles when the electrodes were tested between 3.0 and 4.3 V at a rate of C/5. The long-term cycling performance and durability of dry-powder coated electrodes are similar to those made by the conventional wet slurry-based method. This solvent-free dry powder coating process is a potentially lower-cost, higher-throughput, and more environmentally friendly manufacturing process compared with the conventional wet slurry-based electrode manufacturing method.

  18. Optimized structure stability and electrochemical performance of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 by sputtering nanoscale ZnO film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yan-Qing; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Zhi-An; Gao, Chun-Hui; Wang, Peng; Yu, Zi-Yang

    2016-03-01

    LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) is one of the most promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles, which is successfully adopted in Tesla. However, the dissolution of the cation into the electrolyte is still a one of the major challenges (fading capacity and poor cyclability, etc.) presented in pristine NCA. Herein, a homogeneous nanoscale ZnO film is directly sputtered on the surface of NCA electrode via the magnetron sputtering (MS). This ZnO film is evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results clearly demonstrate that ZnO film is fully and uniformly covered on the NCA electrodes. After 90 cycles at 1.0C, the optimized MS-2min coated NCA electrode delivers much higher discharge capacity with 169 mAh g-1 than that of the pristine NCA electrode with 127 mAh g-1. In addition, the discharge capacity also reaches 166 mAh g-1 at 3.0C, as compared to that of 125 mAh g-1 for the pristine electrode. The improved electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the superiority of the MS ZnO film that reduce charge transfer resistance and protect the NCA electrode from cation dissolution.

  19. A study of surface film formation on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes u sing attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, S.-W.; Zhuang, G.V.; Ross Jr., P.N.

    2004-01-19

    The surface films formed on commercial LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes (ATD Gen2) charged from 3.75V to 4.2V vs. Li/Li+ in EC:DEC - 1M LiPF6 were analyzed using ex-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with the attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique. A surface layer of Li2CO3 is present on the virgin cathode, probably from reaction of the active material with air during the cathode preparation procedure. The Li2CO3 layer disappeared even after soaking in the electrolyte, indicating that the layer dissolved into the electrolyte possibly even before potential cycling of the electrode. IR features only from the binder (PVdF) and a trace of polyamide from the Al current collector were observed on the surfaces of cathodes charged to below 4.2 V, i.e., no surface species from electrolyte oxidation. Some new IR features were, however, found on the cathode charged to 4.2 V and higher. An electrolyte oxidation product was observed that appeared to contain dicarbonyl anhydride and (poly)ester functionalities. The reaction appears to be an indirect electrochemical oxidation with overcharging (removal of > 0.6 Li ions) destabilizing oxygen in the oxide lattice resulting in oxygen transfer to the solvent molecules.

  20. Key strategies for enhancing the cycling stability and rate capacity of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as high-voltage cathode materials for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ting-Feng; Mei, Jie; Zhu, Yan-Rong

    2016-06-01

    Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is one of the most promising high voltage cathode materials for future application due to its advantages of large reversible capacity, high thermal stability, low cost, environmental friendliness, and high energy density. LNMO can provide 20% and 30% higher energy density than traditional cathode materials LiCoO2 and LiFePO4, respectively. Unfortunately, LNMO-based batteries with LiPF6-based carbonate electrolytes always suffer from severe capacity deterioration and poor thermostability because of the oxidization of organic carbonate solvents and decomposition of LiPF6, especially at elevated temperatures and water-containing environment. Hence, it is necessary to systematically and comprehensively summarize the progress in understanding and modifying LNMO cathode from various aspects. In this review, the structure, transport properties and different reported possible fading mechanisms of LNMO cathode are first discussed detailedly. And then, the major goal of this review is to highlight new progress in using proposed strategies to improve the cycling stability and rate capacity of LNMO-based batteries, including synthesis, control of special morphologies, element doping and surface coating etc., especially at elevated temperatures. Finally, an insight into the future research and further development of LNMO cathode is discussed.

  1. Stabilizing interface layer of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 cathode materials under high voltage using p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate as film forming additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Peng; Wang, Ding; Yao, Yao; Li, Xue; Zhang, Yingjie; Ru, Juanjian; Ren, Ting

    2017-03-01

    p-Toluenesulfonyl isocyanate (PTSI) is introduced as electrolyte additive in a bid to enhance the electrochemical performances of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 cathode materials under high voltage. A less resistive and stable film on the cathode surface derived from PTSI oxidation which taken place prior to the carbonate solvents is formed. As a result, the discharge capacity retention of Li/LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 cell is elevated from 71.4% to 86.2% after 100 cycles at room temperature, and from 32.3% to 54.5% after 100 cycles at 55 °C. In addition, the Li/LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 half cell with PTSI exhibits superior rate capability compared to that in baseline electrolyte. The improved performance is not only ascribed to the thin protective layer originated from PTSI decomposition which prevent the successive breakdown of the electrolyte on cathode surface, but it is also attributed to the sbnd Sdbnd O group in PTSI serves as the weak base site to restrain the reactivity of PF5, resulting in the suppression of LiF formation and HF generation.

  2. Cycle deterioration analysis of 0.6 Ah-class lithium-ion cells with cell chemistry of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2-based/graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Naoki; Seki, Eiji; Konishi, Hiroaki; Hirano, Tatsumi; Takahashi, Shin; Ueda, Atsushi; Horiba, Tatsuo

    2016-11-01

    We applied a thermally stabilized LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2-based cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries, which we had developed by partial substitution of molybdenum for the transition metal, to 0.6 Ah-class single cells. Cycling test of the cell unexpectedly showed capacity retention of 87% after 3000 cycles, which is better than a cell using cathode active material without molybdenum-substitution. Disassembled analyses of the cells cycled for 3000 times definitely demonstrated that no degradation in both the cathodes and anodes of the molybdenum-substituted and non-substituted. However, there was definite potential slippage in both the cells; that of the non-substituted cell was larger than the molybdenum-substituted cell. Analysis showed that very small amount of molybdenum, in the molybdenum-substituted cell, eluted from the cathode and deposited on the surface of the anode. It is speculated that the deposition might suppress the SEI growth on the anode, and restrain the slippage of the operating potentials for the cathode and anode.

  3. Thermal Synergy Effect between LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 and LiMn2O4 Enhances the Safety of Blended Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, Yangyang; Li, Bing; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Jianxin; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Shiyong; Gan, Chaolun; Zhao, Jinbao

    2016-08-10

    The layer-structured LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (L523) with high specific capacity and the spinel LiMn2O4 (LMO) with excellent thermostability complement each other in a blended cathode for better heat stability and electrochemical performance. The delithiated LMO starts to react with electrolyte at 160-200 °C to cause structural instability, and the delithiated L523 generates massive heat when its temperature is raised above 275 °C with the electrolyte present, but we found that the blended cathode shows a remarkable improvement in thermal stability since the reaction at 160-200 °C between LMO and the electrolyte disappears, and the total heat generated from the reaction between L523 and the electrolyte is drastically reduced. The reaction between LMO and the electrolyte at 160-200 °C causes structural instability of LMO as a self-accelerating attack from HF. With L523 present, this reaction is eliminated because the H(+) from HF and Li(+) in L523 undergo exchange reaction to prevent further generation of HF. The presence of LMO, however, reduces the total heat generated by L523 reacting with the electrolyte at high temperature. This thermal synergy between LMO and L523 not only improves the thermal safety of the blended cathode but also preserves their structures for better electrochemical performance.

  4. Core/Double-Shell Type Gradient Ni-Rich LiNi0.76Co0.10Mn0.14O2 with High Capacity and Long Cycle Life for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jin-Yun; Oh, Seung-Min; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2016-09-21

    A concentration-gradient Ni-rich LiNi0.76Co0.1Mn0.14O2 layered oxide cathode has been developed by firing a core/double-shell [Ni0.9Co0.1]0.4[Ni0.7Co0.1Mn0.2]0.5[Ni0.5Co0.1Mn0.4]0.1(OH)2 hydroxide precursor with LiOH·H2O, where the Ni-rich interior (core) delivers high capacity and the Mn-rich exterior (shells) provides a protection layer to improve the cyclability and thermal stability for the Ni-rich oxide cathodes. The content of nickel and manganese, respectively, decreases and increases gradually from the center to the surface of each gradient sample particle, offering a high capacity with enhanced surface/structural stability and cyclability. The obtained concentration-gradient oxide cathode exhibits high-energy density with long cycle life in both half and full cells. With high-loading electrode half cells, the concentration-gradient sample delivers 3.3 mA h cm(-2) with 99% retention after 100 cycles. The material morphology, phase, and gradient structure are also maintained after cycling. The pouch-type full cells fabricated with a graphite anode delivers high capacity with 89% capacity retention after 500 cycles at C/3 rate.

  5. Sustainable and Superior Heat-Resistant Alginate Nonwoven Separator of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li Batteries Operated at 55 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Huijie; Zhang, Jianjun; Chai, Jingchao; Ma, Jun; Yue, Liping; Dong, Tiantian; Zang, Xiao; Liu, Zhihong; Zhang, Botao; Cui, Guanglei

    2017-02-01

    High-voltage lithium-ion batteries have become a major research focus. As a major part of lithium batteries, the separator plays a critical role in the development of high-voltage lithium batteries. Herein, we demonstrated a sustainable and superior heat-resistant alginate nonwoven separator for high-voltage (5 V) lithium batteries. It was demonstrated that the resultant alginate nonwoven separator exhibited better mechanical property (37 MPa), superior thermal stability (up to 150 °C), and higher ionic conductivity (1.4 × 10(-3) S/cm) as compared to commercially available polyolefin (PP) separator. More impressively, the 5 V class LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO)/Li cell with this alginate nonwoven separator delivered much better cycling stability (maintaining 79.6% of its initial discharge capacity) than that (69.3%) of PP separator after 200 cycles at an elevated temperature of 55 °C. In addition, the LiFePO4/Li cell assembled with such alginate nonwoven separator could still charge and discharge normally even at an elevated temperature of 150 °C. The above-mentioned fascinating characteristics of alginate separator provide great probability for its application for high-voltage (5 V) lithium batteries at elevated temperatures.

  6. Study on the deterioration mechanism of layered rock-salt electrodes using epitaxial thin films - Li(Ni, Co, Mn)O2 and their Zr-O surface modified electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Machiko; Iba, Hideaki; Suzuki, Kota; Minamishima, Hiroaki; Hirayama, Masaaki; Tamura, Kazuhisa; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Saito, Tomohiro; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Kanno, Ryoji

    2017-03-01

    Deterioration mechanism of Li(Ni, Co, Mn)O2 and Zr-O surface modified electrodes has been elucidated using epitaxial thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition. The electrodes comprise a mixture of layered rock-salt and spinel phases. The deterioration mechanism is analyzed using cyclic voltammetry, in situ X-ray diffraction measurements, and in situ neutron reflectometry. The spinel phase in the electrodes has low electrochemical activity and is not involved in Li insertion/extraction. The amount of Li participating in the charge-discharge reactions in the layered rock-salt phase increases with cycling, inducing a phase change at the electrode surface, lowering the reversibility. In contrast, in the Zr-O surface modified electrode, the spinel phase does not increase on charging/discharging. Thus, the Zr-O modification stabilizes the surface of layered rock-salt structure, thereby improving the cycling characteristics. Also, after the Zr-O modification, the Li concentration in the liquid electrolyte near the electrode/electrolyte interface increases during charging/discharging. The Zr-O surface modification not only stabilizes the electrode surface but also causes changes on the electrolyte side. Using the mixed model electrodes, we elucidate the mechanism of electrode deterioration and the origin of the improvement in cycling characteristics occurring on surface modification.

  7. A Multi-Component Additive to Improve the Thermal Stability of Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-Based Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the safety of lithium ion batteries, a multi-component (MC additive (consisting of vinylene carbonate (VC, 1,3-propylene sulfite (PS and dimethylacetamide (DMAC is used in the baseline electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6/ethylene carbonate (EC + diethyl carbonate (DEC. The electrolyte with the MC additive is named safety electrolyte. The thermal stabilities of fully charged Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM mixed with the baseline electrolyte and safety electrolyte, respectively, are investigated using a C80 micro-calorimeter. The electrochemical performances of the NCM/baseline electrolyte/Li and NCM/safety electrolyte/Li half cells are evaluated using galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and alternating current (AC impedance. The experimental results demonstrate that the fully charged NCM-safety electrolyte system releases less heat and reduces the main sharp exothermic peak value to a great extent, with a reduction of 40.6%. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of NCM/safety electrolyte/Li half cells are not worse, and are almost as good as that of the NCM/baseline electrolyte/Li half cells.

  8. Li(Ni0.40Mn0.40Co0.15Al0.05)O2: A promising positive electrode material for high-power and safe lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, J.; Croguennec, L.; Bréger, J.; Castaing, F.; Levasseur, S.; Delmas, C.; Biensan, Ph.

    2011-10-01

    Li1.11(Ni0.40Mn0.39Co0.16Al0.05)0.89O2 was synthesized through coprecipitation of a mixed hydroxide followed by calcination with LiOH·H2O during 10 h at 500 °C and 950 °C. Electrochemical tests and their comparison with those obtained for an industrial Li(Ni1-y-zCoyAlz)O2 material reveal that Li1.11(Ni0.40Mn0.39Co0.16Al0.05)0.89O2 shows good charge-discharge performance, even at high rate according to a protocol well established by car-makers for testing power abilities of batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. In addition, this material shows a significant improvement in thermal stability in the highly deintercalated state (charged state of the battery) over the industrial material. Equivalent (or higher) energy and power densities with a significantly greater thermal stability make of Li1.11(Ni0.40Mn0.39Co0.16Al0.05)0.89O2 an interesting candidate as positive electrode material for large lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Mechanistic Insight in the Function of Phosphite Additives for Protection of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 Cathode in High Voltage Li-Ion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Peebles, Cameron; Feng, Zhenxing; Connell, Justin G; Liao, Chen; Wang, Yan; Shkrob, Ilya A; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-05-11

    Triethlylphosphite (TEP) and tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TTFP) have been evaluated as electrolyte additives for high-voltage Li-ion battery cells using a Ni-rich layered cathode material LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523) and the conventional carbonate electrolyte. The repeated charge/discharge cycling for cells containing 1 wt % of these additives was performed using an NCM523/graphite full cell operated at the voltage window from 3.0-4.6 V. During the initial charge process, these additives decompose on the cathode surface at a lower oxidation potential than the baseline electrolyte. Impedance spectroscopy and post-test analyses indicate the formation of protective coatings by both additives on the cathode surface that prevent oxidative breakdown of the electrolyte. However, only TTFP containing cells demonstrate the improved capacity retention and Coulombic efficiency. For TEP, the protective coating is also formed, but low Li(+) ion mobility through the interphase layer results in inferior performance. These observations are rationalized through the inhibition of electrocatalytic centers present on the cathode surface and the formation of organophosphate deposits isolating the cathode surface from the electrolyte. The difference between the two phosphites clearly originates in the different properties of the resulting phosphate coatings, which may be in Li(+) ion conductivity through such materials.

  10. Electrochemical effects of annealing on atomic layer deposited Al2O3 coatings on LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David H. K.; Kuech, Thomas F.

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the annealing of atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 coated onto Li-ion battery cathodes to enhance their electrochemical properties. LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC) cathode powders were coated with 5 ALD cycles at 100 °C, annealed between 300 and 700 °C, cast into electrode sheets and assembled into coin cells. Cells were characterized using charge-discharge cycling, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, pre-casting and postmortem X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and charge endpoint slippage measurement. Diffusion of Al into bulk NMC was observable at ≥500 °C, and extent of diffusion increased with increasing temperature. Un-annealed ALD-coated cathodes showed exceptional capacity retention at high charge-discharge rates, while annealed cells showed recovery of initial charge capacity lost upon ALD coating. High quantities of LiF forming surface species were detected in cells annealed at 500 °C. This study approaches post-deposition annealing as a parameter that may be used to explore the electrochemical properties of ALD-coated battery cathodes.

  11. Preparation of Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 powders for cathode material in secondary battery by solid-state method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARK Sook Hee; KANG Chan Hyoung

    2006-01-01

    Employing Li2CO3, NiO, Co3O4, and MnCO3 powders as starting materials, Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 was synthesized by solid-state reaction method.Various grinding aids were applied during milling in order to optimize the synthesis process.After successive heat treatments at 650 and 950 ℃, the prepared powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy.The powders prepared by adding salt (NaCl) as grinding aid exhibit a clear R3m layer structure.The powders by other grinding aids like heptane show some impurity peaks in the XRD pattern.The former powders show a uniform particle size distribution of less than 1 μm average size while the latter shows a wide distribution ranging from 1 to 10 μm.Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysiss show that the ratio of Ni, Co, and Mn content in the powder is approximately 1/3, 1/3, and 1/3, respecively.The EDX data indicate no incorporation of sodium or chlorine into the powders.Charge-discharge tests gave an initial discharge capacity of 160 mAh·g-1 for the powders with NaCl addition while 70 mAh·g-1 for the powders with heptane.

  12. Direct Observation of Lattice Aluminum Environments in Li Ion Cathodes LiNi 1–yz Co y Al z O 2 and Al-Doped LiNi x Mn y Co z O 2 via 27 Al MAS NMR Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Fulya; Vaughey, John T.; Iddir, Hakim; Key, Baris

    2016-07-06

    Direct observations of local lattice aluminum environments have been a major challenge for aluminum -bearing Li ion battery materials, such as LiNi1-y-zCoyAlzO2 Al(NCA) and aluminum-doped LiNixMnyCozO2 (NMC). Al-27 magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the only structural probe currently available that can qualitatively and quantitatively characterize lattice and nonlattice (i.e., surface, coatings, segregation, secondary phase etc.) aluminum coordination and provide information that helps discern its effect in the lattice. In the present study, we use NMR to gain new insights into transition metal (TM)-O-Al coordination and evolution of lattice aluminum sites upon cycling. With the aid of first-principles DFT calculations, we show direct evidence of lattice Al sites, nonpreferential Ni/Co-O-Al ordering in NCA, and the lack of bulk lattice aluminum in aluminum -"doped" NMC. Aluminum coordination of the paramagnetic (lattice) and diamagnetic (nonlattice) nature is investigated for Al-doped NMC and NCA. For the latter, the evolution of the lattice site(s) upon cycling is also studied. A clear reordering of lattice aluminum environments due to nickel migration is observed in NCA upon extended cycling.

  13. 合成温度对LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2结构和电化学性能的影响%Effects of temperature on structure and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙学义; 卢世刚; 张向军; 庄卫东

    2012-01-01

    采用高温固相法合成了层状LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2锂离子正极材料,研究了合成温度及合成时间对材料结构(包括Li-Ni阳离子混排)以及电化学性能的影响.实验结果表明975℃7h合成的样品具有最好的电化学性能,在0.1 C时2.5~4.3 V间,其首次充放电比容量分别为173.7、149 mAh/g,前10周容量保持95%.精修结果表明所得材料存在Li-Ni阳离子混排,Li层中有5%的位置被Ni所占据.%The layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3A, cathode material for Li-ion batteries was synthesized by high temperature solid-state method. The effects of temperature on the structure and electrochemical performances of LiNi1/3CO1/3Mn1/3O2 were investigated. The results show that the sample synthesized at 975 ℃ for 7 h exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. The initial charge specific capacity is 173.7 mAh/g and the initial discharge specific capacity is 149 mAh/g at a current density of 0.1 C between 2.5-4.3 V. The discharge capacity retention is 95% after 10 cycles. Rietveld analysis of the XRD pattern shows that there is Li-Ni cation mixing in the LiNi1/3CO1/3Mn1/3O2 and 5% sites in the Li plane occupied by Ni2+ ions.

  14. On the Research Status of Anode Material of Lithium Ion Battery like LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for Lithium-ion battery%锂离子电池正极材料LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晋; 廖莉玲

    2012-01-01

    本文综述了近几年来锂离子电池正极材料LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2的研究进展,重点讨论了LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2正极材料的结构,制备方法和改性研究状况。%The progress in recent research on cathode materiall LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 lithium -ion battery have been reviewed in this paper, the strueture, prepation methods and modification status of cathode matexial LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are discussed in detail.

  15. Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Materials with Cr3+ and F- Composite Doping for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Li, Shaofang; Xu, Shuaijun; Huang, Si; Zhu, Jianxin

    2017-06-01

    A Cr3+ and F- composite-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material was synthesized by the solid-state method, and the influence of the doping amount on the material's physical and electrochemical properties was investigated. The structure and morphology of the cathode material were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and HRTEM, and the results revealed that the sample exhibited clear spinel features. No Cr3+ and F- impurity phases were found, and the spinel structure became more stable. The results of the charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test results suggested that LiCr0.05Ni0.475Mn1.475O3.95F0.05 in which the Cr3+ and F- doping amounts were both 0.05, had the optimal electrochemical properties, with discharge rates of 0.1, 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 C and specific capacities of 134.18, 128.70, 123.62, 119.63, and 97.68 mAh g-1 , respectively. After 50 cycles at a rate of 2 C, LiCr0.05Ni0.475Mn1.475O3.95F0.05 showed extremely good cycling performance, with a discharge specific capacity of 121.02 mAh g-1 and a capacity retention rate of 97.9%. EIS test revealed that the doping clearly decreased the charge-transfer resistance.

  16. Fatigue in 0.5Li2MnO3:0.5Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 positive electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekehr, Lars; Liu, Jinlong; Schwarz, Björn; Sigel, Florian; Kerkamm, Ingo; Xia, Yongyao; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    Two different Li-rich nickel-cobalt-manganese-oxide (Li-rich NCM) active materials with the same nominal composition 0.5Li2MnO3:0.5Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 but different pristine nano structure have been analyzed structurally and electrochemically in different cycling states. For structural characterization, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution synchrotron powder diffraction (S-XRD) experiments were conducted. The changes in structure with increasing cycle number are correlated with characteristic features in the corresponding electrochemical dQ/dV-profiles that were obtained by galvanostatically cycling the two different active materials. The presented data demonstrates that structural changes upon cycling, e.g. LiMnO2 and spinel formation, strongly depend on the degree oxygen is involved in the reversible charge compensation for delithiation/lithiation. According to our data, firstly a twin-like environment with nanometer dimensions is formed within the R-3m matrix during the initial cycle, which then gradually transforms into a spinel-like structure with increasing cycle number. As another result, we can show that Li2MnO3 to LiMnO2 transformation is not directly dependent in the irreversible oxygen loss in the first cycle but more importantly on transition metal migration. A model is presented explaining the dependency of LiMnO2 and spinel formation on the ability of Li-rich active materials to include oxygen in the charge compensation process.

  17. 薰衣草水提取物能改善阿尔茨海默大鼠的空间学习和记忆能力%Aqueous extract of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) improves the spatial performance of a rat model of Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Soheili Kashani; Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani; Sayyed Alireza Talaei; Mahmoud Salami

    2011-01-01

    目的 阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)是主要的神经退行性疾病之一,其特征主要表现为痴呆,包括学习与记忆的衰退.本研究旨在探索薰衣草(唇形科,薰衣草属)水提取物对AD大鼠空间学习和记忆的影响.方法 Wistar大鼠分为对照组和AD组,通过给大鼠脑室注射10 μgAβ1-42建立AD模型.20天后,两组大鼠进行为期5天的水迷宫空间记忆采集实验(每天4次),紧接着进行一次空间探索实验.实验结束后,分别给予AD组和对照组大鼠不同剂量的薰衣草水提取物(50、100、200 mg/kg)或0.4 mL/kg蒸馏水,每天一次共20天.随后,重复上述水迷宫实验.结果 在水迷宫实验的第一阶段,AD组大鼠找到平台的潜伏期显著高于对照组大鼠,而在第二阶段,接受蒸馏水注射的对照和AD大鼠找到平台的潜伏期没有差异,说明水迷宫运动本身能提高AD大鼠的空间学习能力.在第二阶段空间记忆采集实验中,与接受蒸馏水注射的同类大鼠相比,接受薰衣草水提取物注射的对照和AD大鼠找到平台的潜伏期显著降低.此外,200 mg/kg薰衣草水提取物能显著提高对照和AD大鼠的空间探索能力.结论 薰衣草水提取物能有效逆转AD大鼠空间学习功能的损伤.%Objective Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most important neurodegenerative disorders. It is characterized by dementia including deficits in learning and memory. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) on spatial performance of AD rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were first divided into control and AD groups. Rat model of AD was established by intracerebroventricular injection of 10 μg Aβ1-42 20 d prior to administration of the lavender extract. Rats in both groups were then introduced to 2 stages of task learning (with an interval of 20 d) in Morris water maze, each followed by one probe test. After the first stage of spatial

  18. Improvement of application properties of chitosan-based food packaging films by lavender essential oil%薰衣草精油改善壳聚糖基食品包装膜的应用品质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赟彬; 王景文; 李月霞; 王一非; 姜萍萍; 刘笑宇

    2014-01-01

    potential biodegradable material due to its edibility, film-forming capacity, non-toxicity, antibacterial activity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. Traditional chitosan-based composite films are made by the casting-evaporation method. However, inferior waterproof and mechanical properties limit their applications in food package industries. Many researches have been conducted to improve the CS film. Incorporating one or several substancesinto CS film have been widespreadly used. Moreover, acetic acid and chitosan-acetate can be removed from traditionally prepared CS film by alkali leaching, resulting in lower film water-solubility. Lavender essential oil (LEO) can be used as sedative, antispasmodic, antiviral and bacteriostat in industries of perfume, aromatherapy and pharmacy. LEO can also be used as a natural spice in drink, ice cream, candy, bakery and chewing gum. In order to improve the physical and mechanical properties of conventional chitosan-based food packaging films, lavender essential oil/chitosan composite films were made with CS by casting-evaporation-alkali leaching method in this study. The films microstructures were characterized by Fourier transform infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD). The impacts of LEO content on the thickness, mechanical properties, volatiles content, water contact angle, water solubility and swelling property of films were investigated. The results indicated that the partial functional group’s locations of CS matrix were occupied by the LEO ingredients with reduced vibration intensity of covalent bond of CS. Reduced free hydrogen group could form hydrophilic bonds with water, then resulted in the loss of moisture content of films. Moreover, Chitosan-acetate content increased by incorporating LEO. The thicknesses of all films ranged from (20.60±0.34) μm to (23.35±0.65) μm. There was no linear relationship between the film thickness and LEO concentration. Tensile strength (TS) and elongation at

  19. 薰衣草和依兰精油通过嗅觉通路对正常成人血压的影响%Effects of inhaling the lavender and ylang essential oil via olfactory pathway on blood pressure in normotensive adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文文; 李家霞; 李光武; 傅佳

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨薰衣草和依兰精油对正常人血压的影响及其作用机制.方法 选择健康体检人群,经改良康涅狄格州化学感觉临床研究中心(CCCRC)嗅觉功能检查分为嗅觉正常组(n=32)和嗅觉缺失组(n=30),所有受试人员于受试第1、2、3天分别吸入蒸馏水、薰衣草精油和依兰精油30 min,并测定吸入前后的平均动脉压(MAP)、血浆肾素活性(PRA)、血管紧张素Ⅰ(AngⅠ)、血管紧张素Ⅱ(AngⅡ)和醛固酮等指标.结果 嗅觉正常组吸入薰衣草精油10 min后MAP下降,20 min降到最低点,1 h后血压逐渐回升.嗅觉正常组吸入薰衣草精油30 min后血浆PRA、Ang Ⅰ、AngⅡ和醛固酮均降低[分别为(0.85±0.59)比(2.29±1.25)μg/L,(2.70±1.30)比(5.13±3.94)μg/L,(80.0±47.6)比(141.4±115.7)ng/L,(395.8±86.8)比(523.2±112.8)pmol/L;均P<0.05].吸入依兰精油和蒸馏水后上述指标差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).嗅觉缺失组吸入蒸馏水、薰衣草和依兰精油30 min后MAP、血浆PRA、Ang Ⅰ、AngⅡ和醛固酮与吸入之前相较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 单次吸入薰衣草精油30 min可降低正常人群血压2 h,与其降低血浆PRA、Ang Ⅰ、AngⅡ和醛固酮浓度有关.依兰精油和蒸馏水对正常人群MAP、血浆PRA、Ang Ⅰ、AngⅡ和醛固酮的浓度无影响.%Objective To observe the effects of inhaling lavender essential oil and ylang essential oil on blood pressure in normal people and mechanisms thereof. Methods Sixty-two subjects undergoing routine medical check-up were divided into the group with normal olfactory function)n= 32) and anosmia group(n=30) by the CCCRC (Connecticut clinical research center of chemical sense) olfactory testing method. All the subjects inhaled distilled water, lavender essential oil and ylang essential oil for 30 minutes on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd testing day, respectively. We measured their mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma rennin activity (PRA

  20. 薰衣草精油替代饲用抗生素对肉仔鸡生产性能和胴体品质的影响%The Effects of Lavender Essential Oil Substituting for Antibiotics Feed Additive on Production Performance and Carcass Quality of Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜维; 李虎; 张文财; 唐倩; 赏玉东; 杨开伦

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究日粮中添加薰衣草精油替代饲用抗生素对肉仔鸡生产性能及胴体品质的影响.[方法]将300只1日龄AA肉仔鸡随机分成4个处理组(每组设3个重复,每个重复25只),对照组饲喂基础日粮加抗生素,试验Ⅰ组、Ⅱ组、Ⅲ组日粮为基础日粮,分别添加薰衣草精油0.4、0.8、1.2(0~2周)和0.2、0.4和0.6 mL/kg(3 ~6周).[结果]日粮中添加薰衣草精油与添加抗生素比较,对肉仔鸡的平均日增重、料重比、死淘率和胴体品质等生产性能指标的影响不显著(P>0.05);除了试验组Ⅲ的腿肌率与抗生素组相比有显著降低外(P<0.05),其它胴体品质指标与抗生素组相比无显著性差异(P>0.05).试验组的平均死淘率(0.86%)低于抗生素组的死淘率(3.1%);试验组Ⅰ比抗生素组日增重提高了1.87% (P >0.05),料重比降低了0.53% (P >0.05).[结论]从肉仔鸡41 d末重、料重比、死淘率等指标综合评定来看,用薰衣草精油替代肉仔鸡饲用抗生素是可行的,0~2周和3~6周日粮中分别添加薰衣草精油0.4和0.2 mL/kg的效果较好.%[ Objective] This research was conducted to study the effects of lavender essential oil replacing antibiotics in diet on performance, carcass quality of broilers. [ Method] Three hundreds 1 - day - old AA broilers were randomized into one control group and three trial groups with 3 replicates per group and 25 chickens per replicate. The control group was fed with diet, which was supplement a with antibiotics, while birds in the trial group I, II and III were fed with diet, which was supplemented with 0.4, 0. 8, 1.2(0-2 weeks) and 0. 2, 0. 4, 0. 8 mL/kg(3 - 6 weeks) of the lavender essential oil, to replace antibiotics, respectively. [Result] The results showed that there was not significant difference ( P > 0. 05 ) among the control group and the trial groups in production performances and main carcass quality. The leg portion rate of trial

  1. Li2ZrO3-coated 0.4Li2MnO3·0.6LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for high performance cathode material in lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiaowei; Ni, Huan; Zhang, Han; Wang, Chunguang; Fang, Jianhui; Yang, Gang

    2014-10-01

    To improve the high-rate capacity and cycle ability, minor Li2ZrO3 successfully coat the nanoparticles of 0.4Li2MnO3·0.6LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (LMO) via sol-gel method. The crystal structure and electrochemical properties of the bare and coated material are studied by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), and charge-discharge tests. The lithium diffusion coefficient of LMO increases one to two orders of magnitude after Li2ZrO3 coating. Li2ZrO3 coating improves the rate capability and cycling stability of LMO. Within the cut-off voltage of 2.5-4.8 V, the initial discharge capacity of Li2ZrO3-coated 0.4Li2MnO3·0.6LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (LZO-LMO) reaches to 264 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C rate, and the capacity remains 235 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. At the current rates of 1, 2, 5 and 10 C, the maximum discharge capacities of LZO-LMO are 205.6, 161, 153.8 and 106 mAh g-1, respectively. Minor Li2ZrO3 modification plays an important role to enhance the high-rate capability and cycle ability of LMO.

  2. Systematic Optimization of Battery Materials: Key Parameter Optimization for the Scalable Synthesis of Uniform, High-Energy, and High Stability LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dong; Shen, Yun; Yang, Yao; Shen, Luxi; Levin, Barnaby D A; Yu, Yingchao; Muller, David A; Abruña, Héctor D

    2017-10-06

    Ni-rich LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2 (x > 0.5) (NMC) materials have attracted a great deal of interest as promising cathode candidates for Li-ion batteries due to their low cost and high energy density. However, several issues, including sensitivity to moisture, difficulty in reproducibly preparing well-controlled morphology particles and, poor cyclability, have hindered their large scale deployment; especially for electric vehicle (EV) applications. In this work, we have developed a uniform, highly stable, high-energy density, Ni-rich LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 cathode material by systematically optimizing synthesis parameters, including pH, stirring rate, and calcination temperature. The particles exhibit a spherical morphology and uniform size distribution, with a well-defined structure and homogeneous transition-metal distribution, owing to the well-controlled synthesis parameters. The material exhibited superior electrochemical properties, when compared to a commercial sample, with an initial discharge capacity of 205 mAh/g at 0.1 C. It also exhibited a remarkable rate capability with discharge capacities of 157 mAh/g and 137 mAh/g at 10 and 20 C, respectively, as well as high tolerance to air and moisture. In order to demonstrate incorporation into a commercial scale EV, a large-scale 4.7 Ah LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 Al-full pouch cell with a high cathode loading of 21.6 mg/cm(2), paired with a graphite anode, was fabricated. It exhibited exceptional cyclability with a capacity retention of 96% after 500 cycles at room temperature. This material, which was obtained by a fully optimized scalable synthesis, delivered combined performance metrics that are among the best for NMC materials reported to date.

  3. Synthesis and performance of shape-controlled spinel LiNi0.5 Mn1.5O4%形貌可控的尖晶石型LiNi0.5 Mn1.5O4的合成与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 胡航; 赵瑞瑞; 朱继涛; 蒋建辉; 陈红雨

    2014-01-01

    LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 powders were synthesized by sol-gel method.The salt solution was add-ed into the oxalic acid solution at different feeding speeds.The crystal structures,material mor-phologies and electrochemical performances of the LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 cathode materials were exam-ined by XRD and SEM technologies.The results reveal optimized synthesis parameters:the salt solution of a feeding speed of 0.17 ml/s and preheated temperature at 450 ℃ for 4 h.The as-made material delivers a discharge capacity of 1 3 5 mAh/g at 1 C rate with a high capacity reten-tion of 96.26% after 55 cycles.%采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了5 V正极材料LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4。将混合盐溶液以不同速度加入草酸溶液中,对制得的LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4材料的结构、形貌和电化学性能会产生显著的影响。结果表明:将盐溶液以0.17 mL/s的速度加入到草酸中,预烧温度为450℃,焙烧4 h,后900℃焙烧6 h制得的样品为粒径均匀的多面体,1 C 充放电初始容量达到135 mAh/g,55次循环后的放电比容量保持率为96.26%。

  4. Li3PO4 surface coating on Ni-rich LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 by a citric acid assisted sol-gel method: Improved thermal stability and high-voltage performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Woo; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jeong, Jun Hui; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2017-08-01

    A surface coating of Li3PO4 was applied to a Ni-rich LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (NCM) material to improve its thermal stability and electrochemical properties via a citric acid assisted sol-gel method. The addition of citric acid effectively suppressed the instant formation of Li3PO4 in solution, resulting in successful coating of the NCM surface. The improved thermal stability of NCM after Li3PO4 surface coating was demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction (TR-XRD). In particular, the TR-XRD results showed that the improved thermal stability after Li3PO4 surface coating originates from suppression of the phase transition of charged NCM at high temperatures. Furthermore, the charge-discharge tests demonstrated that Li3PO4-coated LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (LP-NCM) has excellent electrochemical properties. LP-NCM exhibited a specific capacity of 192.7 mAh g-1, a capacity retention of 44.1% at 10 C, and a capacity retention of 79.7% after 100 cycles at a high cut-off voltage of 4.7 V; these values represent remarkably improved electrochemical properties compared with those of bare NCM. These improved thermal and electrochemical properties were mainly attributed to the improvement of the structural stability of the material and the suppression of the interface reaction between the cathode and the electrolyte owing to the Li3PO4 coating.

  5. Preparation and characteristics ofγ-Al2 O3 coating on LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 cathode materials%LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4正极材料的γ-Al2O3包覆及其性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建文; 叶瞡; 何世丽; 颜波; 刘彦生; 张灵志

    2015-01-01

    以氢氧化铝溶胶为前驱体在LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4正极材料表面制备尖晶石结构γ-Al2 O3包覆层,借助XRD、SEM、TEM及电化学方法对电极材料的主要性能进行了研究。结果表明:LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4表面γ-Al2 O3包覆层形成条件为600℃下煅烧0.5 h,较佳包覆量约为3%(摩尔比);γ-Al2 O3包覆层形貌完整,厚度约为5~10 nm,(311)晶面间距约0.24 nm;γ-Al2O3包覆的LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4正极材料30周充放电循环(0.2 C)后的比容量为112.1 mAh/g,4 C倍率下的比容量为82.0 mAh/g,容量保持率较基体分别提高了约10%和17.2%。因此,γ-Al2 O3包覆层减小了LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4与电解液的接触,有效抑制了基体与电解液之间的副反应,其电化学反应可逆性、循环稳定性及倍率性能得到了提高,有望用作动力锂离子电池正极材料。%γ-Al2 O3-coated LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 cathode material was prepared using aluminum hydroxide sol as pre-cursors.The properties of samples were characterized by XRD,SEM,TEM and electrochemical methods.The results indicate that the complete and compactγ-Al2 O3 nanoshell can be obtained by sintering at 600 ℃for 0.5 h with Al2 O3/LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 mole ratio of 3%.The coating thickness is about 5 -10 nm.The crystal face is clear and the interplanar spacing of (3 1 1 )is about 0.24 nm.Al2 O3-coated samples can still deliver a discharge capacity of 1 12.1 mAh/g and 82.0 mAh/g respectively after 30 full charge-discharge cycles at constant rates of 0.2 C and 4 C.Al2 O3-coated LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 samples show outstanding cyclability.The capacities of Al2 O3-coated samples are 10% and 17.2% higher than that of the bare ones after 30 charge-discharge cycles at rates of 0.2 C and 4 C respectively.These mean that the Al2 O3 coating can effectively separate the electrolyte and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4,which depresses the side reactions,resulting in better cycling performance,better rate capabil-ity,and better rate

  6. First-principles Study on Metal-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a Cathode Material for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries%锂离子电池正极材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4金属掺杂的第一性原理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨思七; 张天然; 陶占良; 陈军

    2013-01-01

    Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is recently considered as a promising cathode material for rechargeable Li-ion batteries,yet its large-scale application is limited due to relatively poor cycling and rate performance.Metal doping is expected to be an effective approach to improve the electrochemical performance of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.However,deeper understanding into doping effects on structural and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode materials is still ambiguous.In this work,systematic first-principles studies based on the density functional theory (DFT) have been carried out to investigate electronic and structural properties of LiM0.125Ni0.375Mn1.5O4 (where M=Cr,Fe,and Co) cathode.All computations were carried out on the basis of projector augmented wave (PAW) approach as implemented in VASP.The exchange and correlation potential was treated with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of Perdew and Wang (PW91).In order to take into account the strong on-site Coulomb interaction (U) presented in the localized d electrons of transition metals,the GGA+U framework was used for evaluating the exchange-correlation energy.Within this framework,the effective single parameters Ueff of 3.5,4,5,5.62 and 5.96 eV were used for Cr,Fe,Mn,Co and Ni,respectively.The electron wave functions were expanded by a high cutoff of 500 eV and the total energy was converged to 10-5 eV.The following electronic states are treated as valence electrons:Li,2s12p0; O,2s22p4; Cr,3d54s1; Mn,3d64s1; Fe,3d74s1; Co,3d84s1; Ni,3d94s1; Regarding the accurate calculations of total energy and electronic structure,the tetrahedron method with Bl(o)ch correction was adopted for structural relaxation and density of state (DOS) analysis.The cell parameters,volume cells,and positions of all the atoms in the primitive cell were fully relaxed until the residual Hellmann-Feynman force on each atom was less than 10-2 eV/(A).It is found that doping a small quantity of metal M atoms into the Ni site

  7. Analisis Faktor – Faktor Yang Mendorong Keberhasilan Usaha Pada Usaha Parfum Di Jalan Ginting, Padang Bulan Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Syahputra, Ade Ikhwan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine and analyze the success factors of the perfume business at Padang Bulan, Medan. Analysis of the variables that drive the success of the business which consists of 3 (three) variables: knowledge of entrepreneurship, marketing strategies, and capital and financial management of the informants from the perfume business owner at Padang Bulan Medan with an informant from the customer / consumer perfume business. This study is a descriptive type of research is the s...

  8. The Green Return in Paer Gint%《培尔·金特》中的绿色回归

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明厚

    2009-01-01

    在中,易卜生用隐喻和对比手法,把女性与生命的"绿色"联系在一起,这就是母亲与索尔维格,在她们身上体现了"永恒女性的引领作用".女性的双重的职责,她们无私的自我牺牲精神与博大深沉的爱,正是人类生命之"绿"的保证,也是培尔·金特绿色回归的保证.特别是索尔维格,易卜生将她升华到一个圣女的高度,使她成为挪威人心中的女神和理想人格的化身.从另一角度说,培尔的妄想症是对挪威"绿"的崇拜和自豪,它洋溢着整个民族特有的青春活力和生命的气息.因而,不仅是一般意义上的诗剧,它还是更高层次上的人生哲理剧.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of Lithium-ion cathode materials in the system (1-x-y) LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O 2.xLi2MnO3.yLiCoO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramilli, Anish

    Energy storage technology has been dominated by lithium ion batteries, which are considered the most promising with higher energy density compared to any other battery technologies. The market for lithium ion batteries has increased rapidly from 2007. Goals set by the U.S Department of Energy for hybrid electric vehicles have not been met by any of the existing cathode materials. The objective of this thesis was to find a material composition that has better cyclability and lower cost than the standard battery materials. A ternary composition with low cost materials like Al, Mn and Ni were used instead of high amounts of Co to reduce the cost of the battery. It was hypothesized that there are cathode compositions in the system (1-x-y) LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2.xLi2MnO3.yLiCoO2 that when tested for discharge capacities and cyclability will show better properties than the current generation lithium ion cathode materials. The system (1-x-y) LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2.xLi2MnO3.yLiCoO2 is synthesized using a simple sol-gel synthesis. The materials LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2, Li2MnO3 and LiCoO2 were used as end points in a ternary composition diagram. Twenty eight cathode compositions spanning the entire ternary composition diagram were synthesized under the same conditions and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and an Arbin BT2000 battery testing system. XRD results showed α-NaFeO2 structure with a space group of R3m. The results from electrochemical testing revealed a wide range of electrochemical capacities and cyclabilities. The regions close to Li2MnO3 showed high capacities and cyclability. The material with composition Li1.5 Ni0.133Co0.358Al0.008Mn0.5 had an initial discharge capacity of 216.3 mAh/g and retained this capacity even after multiple cycles in the voltage range of 4.6-2 V at a rate of C/15. Statistical analysis was done using SAS/STAT 9.2 with the ADX procedure to fit a general linear model with three linear terms and three two way interactions to map

  10. 爆燃法制备纳米LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2正极材料%Defiagration Synthesis of Nanocrystalline LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/302 Cathode Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李节宾; 徐友龙; 杜显峰; 丁茂元

    2011-01-01

    The homogenous precursor has been prepared using a mixed aqueous solution of Ni(NO3)2·6H2O, Co(NO3)2 6H2O, Mn(NO3)2 and LiNO3 as metal sources and citric acid as chelating agent and fuel. The nanocrystalline LiNi1/3Co1/3 Mn1/3O2 powder was rapidly synthesized by deflagrating the dried precursor in oxygen. The annealed LiNi1/3Co1/3ln1/3O2 powder was mainly consisted of particle agglomerates with the primary particles size of 100~300 nm. The high initial capacities of 208.0 mAh·g-1 (2.8~4.6 V) and 173.6 mAh·g-1 (2.8~4.3 V) were discharged at the rate of 0.05 C respectively. Its capacity retentions were 89.3% and 93.4% within the voltage range of 2.8~4.6 V and 2.8~4.3 V at 0. 1 C after 20 cycles respectively.%以Ni(NO)·6HO、Co(NO)·6HO、Mn(NO)和LiNO为金属原料,以柠檬酸为鳌合剂和燃料制备出均一的前驱体.前驱体经干燥后在氧弹中快速爆燃制备出纳米LiNiCoMnO粉体,并生成了高结晶度的LiNiCoMnO材料,其平均粒径约为200nm.将其分别在2.8~4.6V和2.8~4.3V电压范围内以0.05C速率恒流充放电,首次放电比容量分别为208.0mAh·g和173.6mAh·g;以0.1C速率分别在2.8~4.6V和2.8~4.3V电压范围内循环20周后,容量保持率分别为89.3%和93.4%.

  11. Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3-Ga2O3 Alloy Coatings for Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 Cathode to Improve Rate Performance in Li-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Masihhur R; Jackson, David H K; Guan, Yingxin; Xu, Shenzhen; Fang, Shuyu; Dreibelbis, Mark; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K; Morgan, Dane; Hamers, Robert J; Kuech, Thomas F

    2016-04-27

    Metal oxide coatings can improve the electrochemical stability of cathodes and hence, their cycle-life in rechargeable batteries. However, such coatings often impose an additional electrical and ionic transport resistance to cathode surfaces leading to poor charge-discharge capacity at high C-rates. Here, a mixed oxide (Al2O3)1-x(Ga2O3)x alloy coating, prepared via atomic layer deposition (ALD), on Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 (NMC) cathodes is developed that has increased electron conductivity and demonstrated an improved rate performance in comparison to uncoated NMC. A "co-pulsing" ALD technique was used which allows intimate and controlled ternary mixing of deposited film to obtain nanometer-thick mixed oxide coatings. Co-pulsing allows for independent control over film composition and thickness in contrast to separate sequential pulsing of the metal sources. (Al2O3)1-x(Ga2O3)x alloy coatings were demonstrated to improve the cycle life of the battery. Cycle tests show that increasing Al-content in alloy coatings increases capacity retention; whereas a mixture of compositions near (Al2O3)0.5(Ga2O3)0.5 was found to produce the optimal rate performance.

  12. Enhancing the High-Voltage Cycling Performance of LiNi(0.5)Mn(0.3)Co(0.2)O2 by Retarding Its Interfacial Reaction with an Electrolyte by Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yantao; Cui, Suihan; Zhuo, Zengqing; Yang, Wanli; Wang, Xinwei; Pan, Feng

    2015-11-18

    High-voltage (>4.3 V) operation of LiNi(x)Mn(y)Co(z)O2 (NMC; 0 ≤ x, y, z batteries because of the rapid capacity degradation over cycling. In this work, we investigate the performance of LiNi(0.5)Mn(0.3)Co(0.2)O2 (NMC532) electrodes with and without an atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) Al2O3 layer for charging/discharging in the range from 3.0 to 4.5 V (high voltage). The results of the electrochemical measurements show that the cells with ALD Al2O3-coated NMC532 electrodes have much enhanced cycling stability. The mechanism was investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemical methods. We find that the ultrathin ALD Al2O3 film can reduce the interface resistance of lithium-ion diffusion and enhance the surface stability of NMC532 by retarding the reactions at NMC532/electrolyte interfaces for preventing the formation of a new microstructure rock-salt phase NiO around the NMC532 surfaces.

  13. Progress in LiNi0.5Mn1.504 as 5 V cathode materials for Li-ion battery%5V锂离子电池正极材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张真; 刘兴泉; 张峥; 向小春

    2011-01-01

    Research progress in the synthesizing methods (such as solid-state reaction, co-precipitation method, sol-gel, spray methed,molten salt synthesis) of Li-ion battery used 5 V cathode material LiNio.5Mn1.5O4 and its modification methods (such as body doping and surface coating) in recent years was reviewed, the development prospects were forecasted. The key challenges of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 were how to carry out large-scaled industrial production at a low coat.%综述了近年来5 V锂离子电池正极材料LiNiMnO的合成方法(如固相反应法、共沉淀法、溶胶-凝胶法、喷雾法和熔盐法等)及修饰改性(如体相掺杂和表面包覆)的研究进展,并对发展前景进行了展望.LiNiMnO目前主要的问题是如何进行低成本和大规模的工业化生产.

  14. The effect of diamond-like carbon coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 particles for all solid-state lithium-ion batteries based on Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbal, Heidy; Aihara, Yuichi; Ito, Seitaro; Watanabe, Taku; Park, Youngsin; Doo, Seokgwang

    2016-05-01

    There have been several reports on improvements of the performance of all solid-state battery using lithium metal oxide coatings on the cathode active material. However, the mechanism of the performance improvement remains unclear. To better understand the effect of the surface coating, we studied the impact of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The DLC coated NCA showed good cycle ability and rate performance. This result is further supported by reduction of the interfacial resistance of the cathode and electrolyte observed in impedance spectroscopy. The DLC layer was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM-EELS). After 100 cycles the sample was analyzed by X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS), and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). These analyses showed that the thickness of the coating layer was around 4 nm on average, acting to hinder the side reactions between the cathode particle and the solid electrolyte. The results of this study will provide useful insights for understanding the nature of the buffer layer for the cathode materials.

  15. Mechanistic Insight in the Function of Phosphite Additives for Protection of LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 Cathode in High Voltage Li-Ion Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Peebles, Cameron; Feng, Zhenxing; Connell, Justin G.; Liao, Chen; Wang, Yan; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-05-11

    Triethlylphosphite (TEP) and tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TTFP) have been evaluated as electrolyte additives for high-voltage Li-ion battery cells using a Ni-rich layered cathode material LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523) and the conventional carbonate electrolyte. The repeated charge/discharge cycling for cells containing 1 wt% of these additives was performed using an NCM523/graphite full cell operated at the voltage window from 3.0 to 4.6 V. During the initial charge process, these additives decompose on the cathode surface at a lower oxidation potential than the baseline electrolyte. Impedance spectroscopy and post-test analyses indicate the formation of protective coatings by both additives on the cathode surface that prevent oxidative breakdown of the electrolyte. However, only TTFP containing cells demonstrate the improved capacity retention and Coulombic efficiency. For TEP, the protective coating is also formed, but low Li+ ion mobility through the interphase layer results in inferior performance. These observations are rationalized through the inhibition of electrocatalytic centers present on the cathode surface and the formation of organophosphate deposits isolating the cathode surface from the electrolyte. The difference between the two phosphites clearly originates in the different properties of the resulting phosphate coatings, which may be in Li+ ion conductivity through such materials.

  16. A short process for the efficient utilization of transition-metal chlorides in lithium-ion batteries: A case of Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O1.1 and LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Zhixing; Guo, Huajun

    2017-02-01

    A short process for the efficient utilization of transition-metal chlorides in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is proposed. A uniformly dispersed tri-component nanocomposite of Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O1.1 microspheres with a porous structure has been prepared from the solution of transition-metal chlorides via spray pyrolysis. When evaluated as anode for LIBs, the Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O1.1 nanocomposite exhibits a reversible capacity of 1180 mAh g-1 after 120 cycles. More strikingly, the nanoparticles-assembled Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O1.1 precursor has its unique advantages in synthesizing well-ordered layered LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2, owning to its excellent atomic uniformity, porous structure and Ni3+-rich surface. The as-prepared cathode material shows excellent structural stability. Discharge capacities of 173 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 1 C (1 C = 180 mA g-1) between 2.8 and 4.3 V are consistently obtained, corresponding to 95.6% capacity retention. These outstanding electrochemical results are obtained with minimal process optimization, indicating that spray pyrolysis is an efficient, robust synthesis technique for the production of Ni-rich layered cathode from solution of transition-metal chlorides.

  17. Al掺杂对正极材料LiNi0.33-xMn0.33Co0.33AlxO2结构和电化学性能的影响%Influence of Al Doping Content on the Structure and Electrochemical Behaviour of LiNi0.33-xMn0.33Co0.33AlxO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓炜; 林应斌; 林莹; 周婷; 赖恒; 黄志高

    2011-01-01

    Layered materials of LiNi0.33-xMn0.33Co0.33AlxO2 (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04) with α-NaFeO2 structure were synthesized by a fast wet-chemical process with citric acid as the chelating agent. The crystal structure and electrochemical properties were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), charge-discharge test, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and AC impedance. Structure analysis shows that all the resulted LiNi0.33-xMn0.33Co0.33AlxO2 materials possess a well-layered hexagonal structure and the cation-mixing of Li layer in materials degrades with increasing Al content. The analysis from electrochemical tests suggests that the electrochemical performance is improved by Al substitution in LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2. LiNi0.31Mn0.33Co0.33Al0.02O2 shows higher initial discharge capacity and more structure-stable than other samples. AC impedance reveals that the enhancement of electrochemical performance is attributed to the decrease of the charge transfer resistance during high-voltage cycling because of A1 substitution.%以柠檬酸为螫合剂利用快速湿化学法合成了具有a-NaFeO2型层状结构的LiNi0.33-xMn0.33Co0.33AlxO2(x=0.00,0.01,0.02,0.04)正极材料,并通过X-射线衍射、充放电测试、循环伏安和交流阻抗对材料的结构和电化学性能进行了系统研究.XRD结果表明此方法合成的材料具有很好的层状结构且阳离子的混排度随着Al3+含量的增加而下降.电化学测试表明,LiNi0.31Mn0.33Co0.33Al0.02O2具有很好的电化学性能和和循环性能,1C放电倍率下首次放电比容量达到176.9 mAh·g-1,且Al3+的掺杂能有效提高电荷在电极界面间转移并抑制了在高压循环过程中电荷转移阻抗的增加.

  18. Electrochemical Properties of LiNi0.5 FexMn1.5-xO4 as Cathode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries%锂离子电池正极材料LiNi0.5 FexMn1.5-xO4的电化学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁兴华; 刘浩; 王镇江; 宋清清

    2016-01-01

    The 4.6 V high potential materials LiNi0.5 FexMn1.5-x O4 was synthesized via sol-gel method using CH3COOLi·2H2O,Mn(CH3COO)2 ·4H2O,Ni(CH3COO)2 ·4H2O,Fe(C2O4)3 ·5H2O as raw materials at the molar ratio ofn(Li):n(Mn):n(Ni):n(Fe)=1.3:1.5 -x:0.5:x (x=0,0.02,0.03,0.04),and subsequent-ly preheated for 4 h at 450 ℃ within a atmosphere furnace and reheated at 800 ℃ for 18 h.The crystal structures of the cathode materials were analyzed through X-ray diffraction and the microstructures were observed by scanning elec-tron microscopy.The initial charge-discharge performances and cycle efficiencies were tested.The experimental re-sults showed that the high potential materials LiNi0.5 FexMn1.5-xO4 were cubic crystal with Fd3m space group,and the Li-ion battery fabricated by the cathode material with x=0.03 exhibited an initial discharge capacity of 126 mA·h· g-1.%以醋酸锂、醋酸锰、醋酸镍、草酸铁为原料,采用溶胶凝胶法制备出了4.6 V高电位材料LiNi0.5-FexMn1.5-xO4.合成化学计量比为n(Li):n(Mn):n(Ni):n(Fe)=1.3:1.5-x:0.5:x(x=0,0.02,0.03,0.04).在空气条件下于450℃下煅烧6 h,再于800℃下烧结18 h.对合成的材料用X射线衍射仪分析晶体结构和用扫描电镜(SEM)观察微观形貌,对电池进行首次充放电测试和循环效率测试.实验结果表明,LiNi0.5 FexMn1.5-xO4三元正极材料为立方晶系,Fd3m空间群.以其为正极材料组装的锂离子电池在x=0.03时,充放电比容量为126 mA·h·g-1.

  19. 氧化镍钴锂(NCA)体系高功率锂离子的设计研究%Design and investigations of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2(NCA)system high power lithium ion cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋宁懿; 潘磊; 张健; 李成章

    2012-01-01

    The rechargeable lithium ion batteries with high-power capabilities have become an important power source tor portable electronic devices such as cellular phones and laptop computers.In addition,they have attracted the attention of the automotive industry for applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV).In this paper,2 Ah soft-package,20 Ah and 18650 cylindrical high power lithium ion cells with LiNi0.8CO0.15Al0.05O2(NCA) cathode/carbon anode chemical system were prepared.The electrochemical tests were performed to investigate the electrode formula design,separator material and thickness,electrolyte system and their influence on the power ability and cyclability of cells.%具有高功率性能的锂离子二次电池已广泛应用于手机电池、笔记本电池等便携式电源领域.此外,以HEV为代表的动力电池的研制也逐渐成为高功率锂离子电池的研究热点.选用了氧化镍钴锂(NCA)/中间相碳微球材料体系制备了2Ah软包装、20Ah圆柱形及18650功率型动力电池,并进行了相关电化学测试.探讨了电极配方设计、隔膜材质及厚度、电解液体系对电池大倍率放电性能和循环性能的影响.

  20. A Lesson In Lavender%难忘的一课

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph B.Walker; 约瑟夫·沃克; 秋暮寒

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 For as long as I can remember,Easter Sunday has been my favorite day to go to church. 2 I was almost always able to smuggle a few pieces of Easter candy into the meeting,and the way I saw it,anything is tolerable if you're munching on malted milk eggs and chocolate bunnies.Even church.

  1. 高温固相法合成LiNi0.25Co0.5Mn0.25O2及其结构性能研究%Synthesis and characterization of LiNi0.25Co0.5Mn0.25O2 by high temperature solid-state method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙学义; 卢世刚; 庄卫东; 张向军

    2013-01-01

    The layered LiNi0.25Co0.5Mn0.25O2 cathode material for Li-ion batteries was synthesized by high temperature solid-state method. XRD, SEM, XPS and charge-discharge cycling measurements were used to characterize the structure, morphology and electrochemical performance. The results show that the sample synthesized at 950 °C for 7 h exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. The initial charge capacity is 166.3 mAh/g and the initial discharge capacity is 150 mAh/g at the current density of 0.1 C between 2.5-4.3 V. The discharge capacity retention is 96% after 10 cycles. Rietveld analysis of the XRD pattern showed that only 1.1% sites in the Li plane occupies by Ni2+ ions.%采用高温固相法合成了层状LiNi0.25Co.5Mn0.25O2正极材料.通过×射线衍射(XRD)、扫描电镜(SEM)、X射线光电子能谱(XPS)以及恒电流充放电测试,研究了LiNi0.25Co0.5Mn0.25O2材料的结构、形貌以及电化学性能.实验结果表明950℃7h合成的样品具有最好的电化学性能,在0.1 C时2.5 ~ 4.3 V间,其首次充放电比容量分别为166.3 mAh/g和150 mAh/g,循环10周容量保持96%;XRD精修结果表明Li层中只有1.1%的位置被Ni所占据.

  2. Kinetics and structural changes of Li-rich layered oxide 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi(0.292)Co(0.375)Mn(0.333)O2 material investigated by a novel technique combining in situ XRD and a multipotential step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong-Heng; Huang, Ling; Lin, Zhou; Shen, Shou-Yu; Wang, Qin; Su, Hang; Fu, Fang; Zheng, Xiao-Mei

    2014-08-13

    Li-rich layered oxide 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.292Co0.375Mn0.333O2 was prepared by an aqueous solution-evaporation route. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) showed that the as-synthesized material was a solid solution consisting of layered α-NaFeO2-type LiMO2 (M = Ni, Co, Mn) and monoclinic Li2MnO3. The superlattice spots in the selected area electron diffraction pattern indicated the ordering of lithium ions with transition metal (TM) ions in TM layers in this Li-rich layered oxide. Electrochemical performance testing showed that the as-synthesized material could deliver an initial discharge capacity of 267.7 mAh/g, with a capacity retention of 88.5% after 33 cycles. A new combination technique, multipotential step in situ XRD (MPS in situ XRD) measurement, was applied for the first time to investigate the Li-rich layered oxide. Using this approach, the relationships between kinetics and structural variations can be obtained simutaneously. In situ XRD results showed that the c parameter decreased from 3.70 to 4.30 V and increased from 4.30 to 4.70 V, whereas the a parameter underwent a decrease above 4.30 V during the first charge process. Below 3.90 V during the first discharge process, a slight decrease in the c parameter was found along with an increase in the a parameter. During the first charge process, the value of the coefficient of diffusion for lithium ions (DLi+) decreased to its mininum at 4.55 V, which might be associated with Ni(2+) migration, as indicated by both Ni occupancy in 3b sites (Ni3b%) in the Li(+) layers and complicated chemical reactions. Remarkably, a lattice distortion might occur within the local domain in the host stucture during the first discharge process, indicated by a slight splitting of the (003) diffraction peak at 3.20 V.

  3. 燃烧辅助合成LiNi0.05Mn1.95O4粉体及其性质研究%Combustion-assisted Synthesis and Characterization of LiNi0.05Mn1.95O4 Powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴显明; 陈上; 刘金练; 麦发任; 李长安

    2012-01-01

    以醋酸锂、醋酸锰、硝酸镍、柠檬酸、乙二醇为原料,采用燃烧辅助合成锂离子电池正极材料LiNi0.05Mn1.95O4.采用X射线衍射、扫描电子显微镜、循环伏安、恒电流充放电等技术对合成产物进行物相、形貌及电化学性能分析与测试.结果表明:采用燃烧辅助合成LiNi0.05MnIn95O4过程中,前驱体在空气中点燃后已形成单一尖晶石相,经750℃热处理4h后得到的LiNi0.05Mn1.95O4粉末X射线衍射峰尖锐,结晶性好,晶粒尺寸均匀.该法合成的LiNi0.05Mn1.95O4粉末首次放电比容量为117.5 mAh·g-1,经50次充放电循环后的容量保持率为95.1%,合成的LiNi0.05Mn1.95O4粉末具有良好的电化学性能.%LiNi0.05 Mn1.95 O4 powders were prepared by combustion assisted sol-gel method using lithium acetate, manganese acetate, nickel nitrate, citric acid and ethylene glycol as starting materials. The structure, morphology, and electrochemical properties of the powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments. The results show that LiNi0.05 Mn1.95 O4 precursor gel ignited in air for several minutes has already been the structure of spinel. The powders heated at 750℃ for 4hours prepared by this technique is well crystallized. The grains are small and uniform. The specific capacity of the prepared powders is 117.5 mAh·g-1 and show the capacity retention of 95.1% after being cycled 50 times.

  4. Reviews on the synthesis method of layered Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 as cathode material for lithium ion batteries%层状Li[Ni1/3CO1/3Mn1/3] O2锂离子电池正极材料制备方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽; 邓超; 孙言虹; 尚雨

    2011-01-01

    层状结构Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2是目前国内外锂电池正极材料的研究热点.制备这种三元系材料的方法是热点中的重点.本文主要综述了不同的制备方法以及这些方法的简单对比,并探讨了Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2的应用前景.%Layered structure of Li [Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 at home and abroad is the research hotspot of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Preparation of this three yuan of material is key hot in the. This paper mainly reviews the different preparation method and the method of simple comparison, and to explore the Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 application prospect.

  5. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2 Cathode Material by Soft Template Assisted Sol-Gel Method%溶胶凝胶-软模板法制备LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2正极材料及其电化学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 黄可龙; 刘素琴; 罗燕

    2009-01-01

    在溶胶凝胶法中引入了软模板十二烷基磺酸钠(SDS)制备了LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2.2正极材料.采用X射线衍射法(XRD),扫描电镜法(SEM),循环伏安法(CV),交流阻抗法(ElS)及充放电测试等手段对材料进行了表征.结果表明,在750℃下煅烧12 h加入或不加SDS都能得到结晶较好具有六方层状a-NaFeO_2结构的LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2.SEM显示引入SDS辅助制备的目标材料颗粒细小.约60-300 nm,分散均匀.部分颗粒呈类球状形貌.而没有添加表面活性剂制备的材料粒径范围约250-600 nm,并且部分颗粒有团聚现象.在2.8-4.3 V(vs Li/Li~+),0.5C倍率下,SDS辅助制备和没有添加表面活性剂制备的材料首次放电比容量分别为136.8、123.4 mAh·g_(-1),50次循环后容量保持率分别为90.3%.73.8%.2C和5C下的充放电测试结果都显示SDS的加入能有效改善材料的倍率性能.归因于颗粒更细小.分散更均匀及较小的晶胞体积.SDS辅助制备的材料电荷传递阻抗远小于无表面活性剂辅助制备的材料是其倍率性能得到明显提高的重要原因.%Soft template(sodium dodecyl sulfonate,SDS)assisted Sol-Gel method was provided in this paper to obtain LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2 cathode material.Related characters of products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron macroscopy(SEM),cyclic voltametry(cv),electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)and charge-discharge testing.XRD results showed that the samples with SDS and without surfaetant caclined 750℃for 12 h both were indexed to pure LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2 with well hexagonal structure (α-NaFeO_2).As observed by SEM,the particle sizes of those with SDS surfactant and without surfactant were in a range of 60-300 nm and 250-600 nm,respectively.Meanwhile,the particle distribution of that with SDS Was moreuniform than that of without surfactant.It'S also observed that material prepared without surfactant showed some the

  6. Aspectos morfofisiológicos e conteúdo de óleo essencial de plantas de alfazema-do-Brasil em função de níveis de sombreamento Morphophysiological aspects and essential oil content in Brazilian-lavender as affected by shadowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo BP Pinto

    2007-06-01

    sombreamento respectivamente e uma redução significativa na razão a/b (3,13 a pleno sol e 2,94 e 2,69, a 40 e 80% de sombreamento, respectivamente.Changes in the anatomical and physiologic characteristics and in the production of essential oil of medicinal plants under influence of different radiation conditions have been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to characterize the variation in the anatomical and physiologic characteristics, and in the essential oil content of the Brazilian-lavender (Aloysia gratissima [Gilles & Hook.] Tronc., verbenaceae, grown in different shading levels, characterized by the reduction of 0; 40, and 80% of the incident solar radiation. For growth analyses we used a completely randomized design (CRD, with three levels of light and five replicates of three plants. The analyses of chlorophyll content and leaf anatomy were performed in CRD, with three replicates of three plants, while the analyses of essential oil content was carried out in CRD, with three replicates of five plants for each light level. The results showed that 40% of shading was the best condition for plant growth. Dry matter from different organs of the plant did not differ in the treatments 40% of shading (total dry matter 201 g and at full sunlight (148 g, both significantly higher than 80% of shading (68.6 g. Plants cultivated in full sunlight showed leaves with adaxial epidermic tissue, palisade, and spongy parenchyma and limb significantly thicker than other treatments; however plants grew at 80% shading showed leaves with abaxial epidermic tissue significantly thicker. Shadowing did not significantly interfere with the essential oil content, which ranged from 2.1 to 2.2%.; Nevertheless, the essential oil yield was significantly higher in plants grew in full sunlight (0.73 g plant-1 and 40% shading (0.88, than on those grew at 80% shading (0.26. There was significant increase of chlorophyll a and b concentration in function of the decrease in light intensity (20

  7. Teor e composição do óleo essencial de inflorescências e folhas de Lavandula dentata L. em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento floral e épocas de colheita Yield and composition of essential oil from inflorescences and leaves of lavender (Lavandula dentata L. in different flower development stages and harvest times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Masetto

    2011-01-01

    , cosmetic and personal care industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and composition of essential oil from lavender inflorescences and leaves in different development stages. The experimental design was completely randomized in 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, with three flower development stages (bud, pre-anthesis/anthesis and senescence and two harvest periods (January and April, and 5 replicates. The essential oil samples were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. There was an interaction between the factors harvest time and flower development on essential oil yield of inflorescences, and a superior average was observed for flower buds harvested in January. The development stages did not alter the essential oil yield of leaves. The development stages influenced the levels of compounds of the essential oil from inflorescences and leaves. For essential oil in senescent flower stage harvested in April, there was a high level of 1,8-cineol, whereas in the remaining development stages, the levels were lower in both harvest times. The levels of camphor increased in the pre-anthesis/anthesis and senescence in January harvest. The essential oil from leaves presented higher levels of 1,8-cineol in branches with flowers in pre-anthesis/anthesis. Camphor and fenchone levels were higher in branches with buds. The essential oil from leaves of branches with buds and senescent flowers showed higher levels of linalool than that from inflorescences.

  8. Analisis Escherichia coli dan Higiene Sanitasi pada Minuman Es Teh yang Dijual di Pajak Karona Jamin Ginting Kecamatan Medan Baru Tahun 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Ritonga, Rimadani

    2015-01-01

    Iced tea is a traditional beverage which favored by many people. Iced tea could be contaminated by bacteria if not better way of processing. One of the bacteria that can contaminate is Escherichia coli which is an indicator of fecal coliforms and if drinking water contaminated by E. coli is the possibility that has been contaminated by human feces. This study aims to determine the content of Escherichia coli in iced tea and also hygiene and sanitation management iced tea in pajak karona ja...

  9. Effect of Complexing Agent on Electrochemical Performance of LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 Cathode Materials Prepared by Sol-gel Method%络合剂对溶胶-凝胶法制备LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2正极材料电化学性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏; 夏书标; 张英杰; 邱振平; 张雁南; 徐明丽

    2016-01-01

    LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cathode materials were prepared by a sol–gel method using maleic acid, glycine or citric acid as complexing agent. The microstructure and morphology of the cathode materials were characterized by X–ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The electrochemical properties, i.e., galvanostatic charge–discharge capacity, cyclic voltammetry, and cycling performance were determined. XRD analysis demonstrates that all the samples prepared using different complexing agents present a hexagonalα–NaFeO2 layered structure with the space groupR3m. SEM observation reveals that, the sample prepared using citrate has the more octahedral single crystals. For the NCA cathode material prepared using maleic acid, its initial discharge capacities of are 176 mA·h/g at 0.2C and 162 mA·h/g at 1C, respectively; after 30 cycles, the capacity retention rate is 97.3% for 0.2C and 92.3% for 1C, respectively.%以马来酸、甘氨酸或柠檬酸作为络合剂,采用溶胶–凝胶法制备锂离子电池 LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2正极材料,对比了络合剂种类对样品电化学性能的影响。结果表明:采用不同络合剂制备的样品都具有层状结构,以柠檬酸为络合剂制备的样品存在较多的八面体单晶体。电化学分析显示,以马来酸为络合剂制备的样品具有最佳的充放电和循环性能:0.2C下首次放电容量为176 mA·h/g,30次循环后容量保持率为97.3%;1C下首次放电容量为162 mA·h/g,30次循环后容量保持率为92.3%。根据循环伏安曲线得到的锂离子的扩散系数表明,采用马来酸为络合剂制备的样品具有最大的扩散系数。

  10. Analisis Incremental Kelayakan Penambahan Lini Perakitan Engine Motor Pt Abc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Jonny

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing motorcycle unit in Plant 1 of PT ABC requires engine supply from Plant 2. This has some burden on the operating cost of Plant 1 and the opportunity loss as well due to delay of motor engine delivery. Based on the problem, team proposes additional engine line in Plant 1 to cut engine supply from Plant 2. Therefore, team analyzes this proposal using incremental analysis to determine whether the proposal is feasible or not by comparing before and after condition with result NPV about IDR 967 Billion and Payback Period under 1 year. By this result, team determines that this proposal is recommended to be approved by management. 

  11. Preparation and performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/Li4Ti5O12 Li-ion battery%LiN i1/3CO1/3M n1/3O2/Li4Ti5O12锂离子电池的制备与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永胜; 韩恩山; 黄金辉

    2011-01-01

    18650 type high power Li-ion battery was prepared with LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 and Li4Ti5O12 as positive and negative activated material, respectively. The charge-discharge performance at different temperatures and discharge rates was tested, the cycle performance and safety performance was investigated.The prepared battery had fine fast charge,rate discharge ability and discharge performance at high and low temperatures. When cycled at 1 C at 1.20 ~2.80 V,the capacity retention rate was more than 93 % in 200 cycles at normal temperature, the capacity retention rate was 98.28 % after 60 cycles at high temperature of 55 ℃. The battery neither exploded nor caught fire in external short circuit, overcharge and acupuncture test, the skin temperature didn t exceed 60 ℃.%分别以LiNi1/3 Co1/3M n1/3 O2、Li4Ti5O12为正、负极活性物质,制备了18650型高功率锂离子电池.测试了不同倍率及温度下的充放电性能,考察了安全性能.制备的电池有良好的快速充电、倍率放电及高低温放电性能.以1C在1.20~2.80 V循环,在常温下循环200次的容量保持率在93%以上;在高温55℃下循环60次的容量保持率为98.28%.电池在短路、过充、针刺测试中均不起火、不爆炸,表面温度最高不超过60 ℃.

  12. The effectiveness of lavender essence on strernotomy related pain intensity after coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Heidari Gorji

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The result indicated that aromatherapy can be used as a complementary method in postoperative pain reduction, as it reduced pain. The patients require two sedative drugs, and moreover, it avoids expenses of treatment.

  13. The Effect of Lavender Aaromatherapy on the Pain Intensity Perception and Intarapartum Outcomes in Primipare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Alavi

    2010-04-01

    14.Golian tehrani SH, Vasegh rahim Pour F, Mehran A. The Effect of Relaxation by Meditation on the Severity of Pain on the Length of Active Phase in Nulliparous Women. Hayat J 1385 3(12: 51-61. 15.Kim JT, Wajda M, Cuff G, Serota D, Schlame M, Axelrod DM, et al. Evaluation of aromatherapy in treating postoperative pain: pilot study. Pain Practice 2006 6: 273-7.

  14. A new species of Dysmicoccus damaging lavender in French Provence (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, J-F; Matile-Ferrero, D; Kaydan, M B; Malausa, T; Williams, D J

    2015-07-01

    Une nouvelle espèce de Dysmicoccus nuisible à la lavande en Provence (France) (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae). Dysmicoccus lavandulae Germain, Matile-Ferrero & Williams n. sp. est décrite et illustrée. Ses séquences ADN sont présentées. L'espèce vit sur Lavandula x intermedia cultivée pour la production d'essence de lavande en Provence. La liste des espèces de pseudococcines vivant sur les lavandes spontanées en France est dressée. Le statut des 2 genres voisins Trionymus Berg et Dysmicoccus Ferris est discuté.

  15. [原美财富]Lavender Perfume薰衣草香水油10ml

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    成分:薰衣草精油、植物油、祖祖巴油。功效:清新提神、舒予缓身心及神经紧张、减压,改善心急、脾气暴噪、情绪不稳定,使人感受欢愉、开朗、善于沟通、有耐性、维持良好的人际关系,留香持久。男女适用。

  16. The Lavender Ceiling atop the Global Closet: Human Resource Development and Lesbian Expatriates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This literature review will examine international assignments as career development opportunities and uncover multiple issues and considerations with respect to lesbians and international assignments. There is a clear interest in the fields of management and human resource management in the privileges, challenges, and opportunities of…

  17. Purple Is to Lavender: Womanism, Resistance, and the Politics of Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Dimpal; Turner, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    We explore the politics of naming for non-White women faculty in higher education as it relates to womanist theory. A discussion of these faculty experiences in general, and women faculty in particular are provided to illuminate the many challenges we face in the academy. One such challenge is how we come to identify our scholarship and align…

  18. Inovační linie moderní doby I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Chwaszcz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: This work analyzes the basic theories of innovation that influenced the behaviour of firms in today's modern age. That provides a comprehensive analysis of the issue and explains the situation in a way that is useful for both managers and scholars. The work at the same time forms the foundations, on which are the newest innovations approaches formed. Without sufficient understanding of the development of the innovative, the understanding of the current and future innovative theories is considerably limited and can lead to misleading conclusions. The author considers so called open innovation & disruptive innovation as the current innovative approaches which have received the attention recently. Methodology/methods: The basic methodology of this work is based on the analysis of the individual innovative theories using comparative analysis. Each theory is also supported in the text by case studies. Scientific aim The connection of theory and use case studies creates the unusual comprehensive overview. This comprehension and inclusion of all important innovation theories of modern time is in its entirety a unique view of the topic and opens the door for further analysis of innovation and enterprises interaction. Findings: This area nowadays deserves an attention, because the environment, which are companies moving is changing more rapidly. Oncoming of globalization businesses were made to pay much more attention to their business strategies. All strategies are intended to differentiate companies from competitors and establish them on the market – companies have to constantly innovate. Conclusions: (limits, implications etc The work found out that the development of innovative theories intensifies over the time. Existing theories become far more comprehensive and even new ones are evolving. The conclusion is that further development of theories of innovation can be built on the analysis and application of the present state and that the change of environment brings also new approaches.

  19. OPTIMASI LINI PRODUKSI DENGAN VALUE STREAM MAPPING DAN VALUE STREAM ANALYSIS TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosua Caesar Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Meminimalkan pemborosan dalam proses produksi adalah salah satu tujuan dari suatu perusahaan. Lean adalah metode yang dapat meminimalkan pemborosan dalam proses produksi. Dalam penelitian ini, metode yang digunakan untuk meminimalkan limbah di PT. Bonindo Abadi adalah Value Stream Analysis Tools (VALSAT dan Value Stream Mapping (VSM. VSM digunakan untuk melihat kondisi peta keadaan pada perusahaan. Pengurangan pemborosan dilakukan dengan menggunakan salah satu alat dari VALSAT yaitu Process Activity Mapping (PAM. Jumlah non value added (NVA yang ditemukan dalam proses produksi PT. X adalah 90,17% diikuti oleh necessary but non value added (NNVA dengan jumlah 9,79% dan value added (VA sebesar 0,04%. Usulan perbaikan yang diberikan adalah dengan mengurangi jumlah waktu aktivitas NVA atau menghilangkannya.

  20. OPTIMASI LINI PRODUKSI DENGAN VALUE STREAM MAPPING DAN VALUE STREAM ANALYSIS TOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Yosua Caesar Fernando; Sunday Noya

    2014-01-01

    Meminimalkan pemborosan dalam proses produksi adalah salah satu tujuan dari suatu perusahaan. Lean adalah metode yang dapat meminimalkan pemborosan dalam proses produksi. Dalam penelitian ini, metode yang digunakan untuk meminimalkan limbah di PT. Bonindo Abadi adalah Value Stream Analysis Tools (VALSAT) dan Value Stream Mapping (VSM). VSM digunakan untuk melihat kondisi peta keadaan pada perusahaan. Pengurangan pemborosan dilakukan dengan menggunakan salah satu alat dari VALSAT yaitu Process...

  1. OPTIMASI LINI PRODUKSI DENGAN VALUE STREAM MAPPING DAN VALUE STREAM ANALYSIS TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosua Caesar Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Meminimalkan pemborosan dalam proses produksi adalah salah satu tujuan dari suatu perusahaan. Lean adalah metode yang dapat meminimalkan pemborosan dalam proses produksi. Dalam penelitian ini, metode yang digunakan untuk meminimalkan limbah di PT. Bonindo Abadi adalah Value Stream Analysis Tools (VALSAT dan Value Stream Mapping (VSM. VSM digunakan untuk melihat kondisi peta keadaan pada perusahaan. Pengurangan pemborosan dilakukan dengan menggunakan salah satu alat dari VALSAT yaitu Process Activity Mapping (PAM. Jumlah non value added (NVA yang ditemukan dalam proses produksi PT. X adalah 90,17% diikuti oleh necessary but non value added (NNVA dengan jumlah 9,79% dan value added (VA sebesar 0,04%. Usulan perbaikan yang diberikan adalah dengan mengurangi jumlah waktu aktivitas NVA atau menghilangkannya.

  2. Vergeten linies: Antwerpse bunkers en loopgraven door de lens van Leutnant Zimmermann (1918)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Onderzoek van de Universiteit Gent in het Koninklijk Legermuseum (KLM) in Brussel bracht in 2007 een reeks van 46 onbekende luchtfoto’s aan het licht. De foto’s dateren van januari 1918 en zijn van Duitse origine. Ze dragen het opschrift Kaiserliche Fortifikation Antwerpen en werden genomen door de tot dan toe onbekende luitenant Zimmermann. Het was direct duidelijk dat de foto’s een schat aan historische informatie bevatten. Het provinciebestuur van Antwerpen liet ze grondig analyseren om er...

  3. Rancangan Strategi Peningkatan Produktivitas Tenaga Kerja Pada Lini Produksi 2 Di PT. XYZ Deli Serdang

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Indah Rizkya

    2012-01-01

    Productivity can be realized through labor productivity. Labor productivity can be increased through improved labor competency, motivation, work climate, equipment, work methods, and job satisfaction. The importance of the increase in labor productivity is also required by the PT. XYZ which produces mineral water and soft drinks in packaging to be marketed in Northern Sumatra Region. PT. XYZ having problems that labor productivity tends to decrease so that the research was cond...

  4. Water as a green solvent combined with different techniques for extraction of essential oil from lavender flowers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Using water as a green solvent with a variable geometry makes use of physical and chemical phenomena that are fundamentally different from those applied in conventional extraction techniques such as hydro-distillation, steam distillation or solvent extraction. Advantages and drawbacks of using water as a solvent with different physical and chemical states have been compared. A total of ten extraction techniques: hydro-distillation (HD), steam distillation (SD), turbo-hydro-distillation (THD),...

  5. Lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) essential oils attenuate hyperglycemia and protect against oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study described the phytochemical profile of Lavandula stoechas essential oils, collected in the area of Ain-Draham (North-West of Tunisia), as well as their protective effects against alloxan-induced diabetes and oxidative stress in rat. Methods Essential oils samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC–MS. Rats were divided into four groups: Healthy Control (HC); Diabetic Control (DC); Healthy + Essential Oils (H + EO) and Diabetic + Essential Oils (D + EO). Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities were evaluated after subacute intraperitoneally injection of Lavandula stoechas essential oils (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) to rats during 15 days. Results The principal compounds detected are: D-Fenchone (29.28%), α-pinene (23.18%), Camphor (15.97%), Camphene (7.83%), Eucapur (3.29%), Limonene, (2.71%) Linalool, (2.01%) Endobornyl Acetate (1.03%). The essential oils also contained smaller percentages of Tricyclene, Cymene, Delta-Cadinene, Selina-3,7(11)-diene. Furthermore, we found that Lavandula stoechas essential oils significantly protected against the increase of blood glucose as well as the decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities induced by aloxan treatment. Subacute essential oils treatment induced a decrease of lipoperoxidation as well as an increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. Conclusions These findings suggested that lavandula stoechas essential oils protected against diabetes and oxidative stress induced by alloxan treatment. These effects are in partly due to its potent antioxidant properties. PMID:24373672

  6. An STE12 gene identified in the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices restores infectivity of a hemibiotrophic plant pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollot, Marie; Wong Sak Hoi, Joanne; van Tuinen, Diederik; Arnould, Christine; Chatagnier, Odile; Dumas, Bernard; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Seddas, Pascale M A

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms of root penetration by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are unknown and investigations are hampered by the lack of transformation systems for these unculturable obligate biotrophs. Early steps of host infection by hemibiotrophic fungal phytopathogens, sharing common features with those of AM fungal colonization, depend on the transcription factor STE12. Using degenerated primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we isolated the full-length cDNA of an STE12-like gene, GintSTE, from Glomus intraradices and profiled GintSTE expression by real-time and in situ RT-PCR. GintSTE activity and function were investigated by heterologous complementation of a yeast ste12Delta mutant and a Colletotrichum lindemuthianum clste12Delta mutant. * Sequence data indicate that GintSTE is similar to STE12 from hemibiotrophic plant pathogens, especially Colletotrichum spp. Introduction of GintSTE into a noninvasive mutant of C. lindemuthianum restored fungal infectivity of plant tissues. GintSTE expression was specifically localized in extraradicular fungal structures and was up-regulated when G. intraradices penetrated roots of wild-type Medicago truncatula as compared with an incompatible mutant. Results suggest a possible role for GintSTE in early steps of root penetration by AM fungi, and that pathogenic and symbiotic fungi may share common regulatory mechanisms for invasion of plant tissues.

  7. LiNi0.8Co0.2O2正极的电性能%Study on Electricity Properties of LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 Positive Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周姣红; 李奇; 叶伟; 熊英; 曾曦

    2006-01-01

    以LiNi0.8Co0.2O2为活性物质,炭黑为导电剂,聚偏氟乙烯为粘结剂,采用溶液浇铸法制备锂离子电池正极,研究聚偏氟乙烯含量对锂离子电池正极电性能的影响.结果表明,当正极材料中粘结剂聚偏氟乙烯含量为4%时,所制备的正极片的电性能最佳,首次放电容量为190mA·h·g-1,首次充放电效率达到91%,循环性能良好,进一步组装的18650电池经50次循环后容量为1832mA·h,是首次放电容量的97.8%.

  8. USER-CENTERED DESIGN SEBAGAI METODE PENINGKATAN KONTROL KOGNITIF PADA LINI ASSEMBLY (STUDI KASUS PT. KUBOTA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Susanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like Indonesia, the rationalization of production processes and systems will increase.Challenge that emerged significantly is the increase in planning efficiency. A prospective approach to reduce theplanning effort is the development of a production system capable of optimizing itself during the process. On theassembly line PT. Kubota Indonesia found that the workers perform assembly process with a sequence that is notplanned as a result of the lack of a standardized sequence of process companies and lead to cognitive controlthat are not stable and continuous learning process. Because this issue contrary to the concept of efficiency inplanning, it takes an automated system with a complete and fully optimized (self-optimizing production system.The purpose of this study is to apply the planning efficiency through implementation of optimized productionsystem (self-optimizing production systems in assembly-line PT. Kubota Indonesia. Data obtaining done by thedetermination of primary and secondary variables include the perception of cognitive control, a solution basedon the memory (memory, and action. Repairs are carried out is by applying self-optimizing production systemconsisting of 4 steps: the development of cognitive architecture is to determine the sequence of work andapplying it to extend the software, implementation of individual modules is through the use of hand screw, thedevelopment of human machine interfaces in hand tool screw is through the explanation task analysis andimplementation and evaluation of improvement is the use of robotic assembly in the assembly processenvironment.

  9. Comparison and Analysis on DUS Screening Traits of Two Lavender Species%2种薰衣草 DUS筛选性状的比较与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄笑宇; 秦岭; 冷平生; 沈漫

    2015-01-01

    基于薰衣草属新品种 DUS测试的性状选择,对狭叶薰衣草( Lavandula angustifolia)和甜薰衣草(L. heterophylla)主要表型性状的差异性和相关性进行了观测与分析。结果表明:狭叶薰衣草的植株形态优于甜薰衣草,且更能适应北方的引种环境。在花序部分,甜薰衣草的观赏性状总体上优于狭叶薰衣草,具有更丰富的花色变化。两种薰衣草在主要的数量性状和质量性状上都表现出明显的差异性,并在生长过程中保持了相对一致的稳定性。两种薰衣草各性状之间的相关系数都很高,狭叶薰衣草在1%显著水平上相关的性状配对个数略多于甜薰衣草。%In this paper, based on the DUS testing of new Lavandula spp. , the dif-ferences and correlations of main phenotypic traits between Lavandula angustifolia and L. heterophyl a were observed and analyzed. The results showed that the plant morphological traits of L. angustifolia were better than that of L. heterophyl a, more-over, L. angustifolia exhibited relatively high adaptive capacity to the environmental conditions in introduction areas of north China. For the inflorescence, the ornamental traits of L. heterophyl a were total y superior to that of L. angustifolia, especial y in flower color diversity. It had obvious differences in both quantitative traits and quali-tative traits between the two species, and these traits remained relatively stable in the growth progress. The correlation coefficients among the traits of two species were high, and the trait matching numbers at the 1% significance level of L. an-gustifolia were slightly more than that of L. heterophyl a.

  10. Hepatoprotective and Renoprotective Effects of Lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) Essential Oils Against Malathion-Induced Oxidative Stress in Young Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Slimen; Jallouli, Manel; Gharbi, Najoua; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2015-10-01

    We aimed in the present study to investigate the hepato- and nephroprotective effects of Lavandula stoechas essential oils (LSEO) against malathion-induced oxidative stress in young male mice as well as the possible mechanism implicated in such protection. Animals were divided into eight groups of 12 each: Control, malathion (200 mg/kg b.w.); Various doses of LSEO (10, 30, and 50 mg/kg b.w.), malathion+various doses of LSEO. Malathion and LSEO were daily per orally (p.o.) administered by intragastric gavage during 30 days. We initially found that malathion treatment induced body weight gain decrease as well as a clear nephro- and hepatotoxicity as assessed by significant relative liver and kidney weight increase and related hemodynamic parameters deregulation. Malathion exposure of mice also induced a considerable perturbation of metabolic parameters. On the other hand, we showed that malathion administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels as well as a depletion of sulfhydril group content (-SH) and antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, and Fe-SOD in the kidney and liver. More importantly, LSEO treatment abolished all malathion-induced body gain loss, liver and kidney relative weight increase, hemodynamic and metabolic disorders, as well as hepatic and renal oxidative stress. In conclusion, our data suggest that LSEO exerted potential hepato- and nephroprotective effects against malathion-induced oxidative stress in mice. The beneficial effect of LSEO might be related, in part, to its antioxidant properties.

  11. Male fertility versus sterility, cytotype, and DNA quantitative variation in seed production in diploid and tetraploid sea lavenders (Limonium sp., Plumbaginaceae) reveal diversity in reproduction modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Róis, Ana Sofia; Teixeira, Generosa; Sharbel, Timothy F; Fuchs, Jörg; Martins, Sérgio; Espírito-Santo, Dalila; Caperta, Ana D

    2012-12-01

    The genus Limonium Miller, a complex taxonomic group, comprises annuals and perennials that can produce sexual and/or asexual seeds (apomixis). In this study, we used diverse cytogenetic and cytometric approaches to analyze male sporogenesis and gametogenesis for characterizing male reproductive output on seed production in Limonium ovalifolium and Limonium multiflorum. We showed here that the first species is mostly composed of diploid cytotypes with 2n = 16 chromosomes and the latter species by tetraploid cytotypes with 2n = 32, 34, 35, 36 chromosomes and had a genome roughly twice as big as the former one. In both species, euploid and aneuploid cytotypes with large metacentric chromosomes having decondensed interstitial sites were found within and among populations, possibly involved in chromosomal reconstructions. L. ovalifolium diploids showed regular meiosis resulting in normal tetrads, while diverse chromosome pairing and segregation irregularities leading to the formation of abnormal meiotic products are found in balanced and non-balanced L. multiflorum tetraploids. Before anther dehiscence, the characteristic unicellular, bicellular, or tricellular pollen grains showing the typical Limonium micro- or macro-reticulate exine ornamentation patterns were observed in L. ovalifolium using scanning electron microscopy. Most of these grains were viable and able to produce pollen tubes in vitro. In both balanced and unbalanced L. multiflorum tetraploids, microspores only developed until the "ring-vacuolate stage" with a collapsed morphology without the typical exine patterns, pointing to a sporophytic defect. These microspores were unviable and therefore never germinated in vitro. L. ovalifolium individuals presented larger pollen grains than those of L. multiflorum, indicating that pollen size and ploidy levels are not correlated in the Limonium system. Cytohistological studies in mature seeds from both species revealed that an embryo and a residual endosperm were present in each seed. Flow cytometric seed screens using such mature seeds showed quantitative variations in seeds ploidy level. It is concluded that male function seems to play an important role in the reproduction modes of Limonium diploids and tetraploids.

  12. Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs; Eignung von Thermolumineszenz-, Chemilumineszenz-, ESR- und Viskositaetsmessungen zur Identifizierung strahlenbehandelter Arzneidrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuettler, C.; Gebhardt, G.; Stock, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-12-31

    Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary`s thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Eignung von Chemilumineszenz-, ESR-, Thermolumineszenz- und Viskositaetsmessungen als Nachweismethode fuer die Behandlung von Arzneidrogen mit ionisierenden Strahlen wurde an Anis, Baldrianwurzel, Baerentraubenblaettern, Birkenblaettern, Bockshornsamen, Cayennepfeffer, Faulbaumrinde, Fenchel, Hagebuttenschalen, Huflattichblaettern

  13. Functional characterization of a C-4 sterol methyl oxidase from the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oger, Elodie; Ghignone, Stefano; Campagnac, Estelle; Fontaine, Joël; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Lanfranco, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Sterols are crucial components of eukaryotic membranes that control membrane fluidity and permeability. They play an important role in cell signaling, polarity and sorting. Since many steps in the pathway are essential, sterol biosynthesis inhibitors (SBI) are widely used as antifungal agents. This work reports the identification and the characterization of a C-4 sterol methyl oxidase (SMO), the first gene involved in the sterol biosynthetic pathway, so far described from an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. The sequence, called GintSMO, shows a primary structure, a hydrophobicity profile and a pattern of histidine-rich motifs which are typical of C-4 methyl sterol oxidases. The complementation assay in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain demonstrates that GintSMO encodes a functional SMO. Changes in GintSMO transcript levels and in the amount of the sterol precursor squalene were observed in in vitro grown extraradical structures exposed to the fenpropimorph SBI fungicide.

  14. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2的低温性能及动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光胤; 黄震雷; 张占军; 周恒辉

    2014-01-01

    通过高温烧结制备了锂离子电池正极材料LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2,并用XRD、SEM和恒流充放电对材料的结构、形貌和低温电性能进行了表征,通过线性极化、GITT和EIS等手段研究分析了低温下LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2性能变差的原因.结果表明,?20℃时,LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2材料的0.1、0.2、1和5 C倍率放电比容量依次为25℃时同倍率下放电比容量的83.2%、68.4%、57.2%和34.1%,放电中值电压比25℃时依次降低了0.049、0.125、0.364和0.531 V.低温充放电过程表现出明显的极化现象,其中最显著的极化来自锂离子穿过活性物质/电解液界面过程以及电荷转移过程,而非锂离子在电极材料内部的扩散过程.

  15. Structural, spectral, dielectric and magnetic properties of Tb–Dy doped Li-Ni nano-ferrites synthesized via micro-emulsion route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junaid, Muhammad, E-mail: junaid.malik95@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Azhar, E-mail: azhar.khan@iub.edu.pk [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Iqbal, F. [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Murtaza, Ghulam [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Ahmad, Mukhtar [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Deanship of scientific research, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Warsi, Muhammad Farooq [Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan)

    2016-12-01

    Terbium (Tb) and dysprosium (Dy) doped lithium-nickel nano-sized ferrites (Li{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 0.8}Tb{sub 0.5x}Dy{sub 0.5x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} where x=0.00−0.08) were prepared by micro-emulsion technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the single phase cubic spinel structure. The lattice constant was increased due to larger ionic radii of Tb{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} cations. The crystallite size was found in the range 30–42 nm. The FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) spectra revealed two significant absorption bands (~400–600 cm{sup −1}) which indicate the formation of cubic spinel structure. The peaking behavior of dielectric parameters was observed beyond 1.5 GHz. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were found to decrease by the increase of Tb–Dy contents and frequency. The doping of Tb and Dy in Li–Ni ferrites led to increase the coercive field (120–156 Oe). The smaller magnetic and dielectric parameters suggested the possible utility of these nano-materials in switching and microwave devices applications. - Highlights: • Li{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 0.8}Tb{sub 0.5x}Dy{sub 0.5x}Fe{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} ferrites were synthesized by micro-emulsion route. • Tb and Dy addition improves coercivity while decreased saturation magnetization. • These nanomaterials can be useful in microwave and switching devices applications.

  16. Pre-Lithiation of Li(Ni1-x-yMnxCoy)O2 Materials Enabling Enhancement of Performance for Li-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Ji, Shunping; Hu, Zongxiang; Zheng, Jiaxin; Xiao, Shu; Lin, Yuan; Xu, Kang; Amine, Khalil; Pan, Feng

    2016-06-22

    Transition metal oxide materials Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 (NMCxyz) based on layered structure are potential cathode candidates for automotive Li-ion batteries because of their high specific capacities and operating potentials. However, the actual usable capacity, cycling stability, and first-cycle Coulombic efficiency remain far from practical. Previously, we reported a combined strategy consisting of depolarization with embedded carbon nanotube (CNT) and activation through pre-lithiation of the NMC host, which significantly improved the reversible capacity and cycling stability of NMC532-based material. In the present work we attempt to understand how pre-lithiation leads to these improvements on an atomic level with experimental investigation and ab initio calculations. By lithiating a series of NMC materials with varying chemical compositions prepared via a conventional approach, we identified the Ni in the NMC lattice as the component responsible for accommodating a double-layered Li structure. Specifically, much better improvements in the cycling stability and capacity can be achieved with the NMC lattices populated with Ni(3+) than those populated with only Ni(2+). Using the XRD we also found that the emergence of a double-layer Li structure is not only reversible during the pre-lithiation and the following delithiation, but also stable against elevated temperatures up to 320 °C. These new findings regarding the mechanism of pre-lithiation as well as how it affects the reversibility and stability of NMC-based cathode materials prepared by the conventional slurry approach will promote the possibility of their application in the future battery industry.

  17. Performance of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/graphite batteries based on aqueous binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Nicholas; von Zamory, Jan; Laszczynski, Nina; Doberdo, Italo; Kim, Guk-Tae; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    This manuscript reports on the manufacturing and characterization of sodium carboxymethylcellulose-based, Li-ion positive electrodes with high active material mass loadings using only water as a solvent. The effect of different calendering forces on the aqueous processed cathode electrodes is also reported. Finally, the performance of balanced full Li-ion cells in pouch cell configuration is investigated. These Li-ion cells subjected to long-term cycling experiment displayed an average coulombic efficiency of 99.96% and retained a specific capacity of almost 70% of its initial capacity after 2000 cycles.

  18. Økologisk risikovurdering af genmodificeret dobbelt herbicidtolerant sojabønne linie FG72 i anmeldelse vedr. markedsføring under Forordning 1829/2003/EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Damgaard, Christian; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov

    2012-01-01

    i Danmark, da de klimatiske forhold udelukker dette. En markedsføring af sojabønnen kan derfor ikke have nogen uøn-skede økologiske konsekvenser i Danmark. I dyrkningsområderne i Sydeuropa kan der ved uheld ske en iblanding af GM-sojabønnefrø i frø til udsæd af ikke-GM soja. En eventuel tilfældig...... spredning af GM-soja vurderes dog ikke at få nogen uønskede økologi-ske konsekvenser. BIOSCIENCE vurderer samlet, at der ikke kan forventes nogen uønskede økologiske konsekvenser for dyre- og planteliv ved markedsføring af den genmodificerede herbicidtolerante FG72-4-sojabønne til andre for-mål end dyrkning...

  19. Nice module. Apollon Solar present their new line of solar modules; Nettes Modul. Apollon Solar stellt Linie fuer neuartige Modultechnologie vor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podewils, C.

    2008-06-15

    Solar modules, TGV engines and perfume Zerstaeuber seem to have nothing in common. The new solar module developed by French producer Apollon Solar makes use of both technologies in the construction process. The contribution presents the 'Nice' module which has many new features. (orig.)

  20. Aplikasi Metode Lean Six Sigma Untuk Usulan Improvisasi Lini Produksi Dengan Mempertimbangkan Faktor Lingkungan. Studi Kasus: Departemen GLS (General Lighting Services PT. Philips Lighting Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftachul Arifin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Departemen GLS (General Lighting Services PT. Philips Lighting Surabaya merupakan produsen lampu pijar. Pada pelaksanaan proses produksinya, perusahaan menemui beberapa kendala yang terkait dengan waste. Analisis lean six sigma dengan menggunakan value stream mapping menunjukkan terjadi defect di mesin finishing dan waiting di mesin mounting. EHS waste juga muncul yang mengindikasikan adanya dampak terhadap lingkungan dan kesehatan serta keselamatan pekerja. Pencarian akar permasalahan dilakukan dengan menggunakan tools RCA (5 whys dan FMEA hingga memunculkan 15 penyebab utama terjadinya ketiga waste tersebut. Pembentukan tim Total productive maintenance, penelitian perbaikan kualitas bulb dan flare, serta eksperimen pengurangan jumlah jenis coil menjadi usulan alternatif yang bisa dilakukan perusahaan. Dengan menggunakan konsep value management didapatkan alternatif terbaik dengan melakukan pembentukan dan pelatihan tim Total productive maintenance. Alternatif ini meningkatkan nilai sigma defect dari 2,92 menjadi 3,08 dan sigma waiting dari 2,83 menjadi 2,89. Indikator dampak lingkungan juga mengindikasikan penurunan yang sejalan.

  1. Re-construction layer effect of LiNi0.8Co0.15Mn0.05O2 with solvent evaporation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwangjin; Park, Jun-Ho; Hong, Suk-Gi; Choi, Byungjin; Heo, Sung; Seo, Seung-Woo; Min, Kyoungmin; Park, Jin-Hwan

    2017-03-20

    The solvent evaporation method on the structural changes and surface chemistry of the cathode and the effect of electrochemical performance of Li1.0Ni0.8Co0.15Mn0.05O2 (NCM) has been investigated. After dissolving of Li residuals using minimum content of solvent in order to minimize the damage of pristine material and the evaporation time, the solvent was evaporated without filtering and remaining powder was re-heated at 700 °C in oxygen environment. Two kinds of solvent, de-ionized water and diluted nitric acid, were used as a solvent. The almost 40% of Li residuals were removed using solvent evaporation method. The NCM sample after solvent evaporation process exhibited an increase in the initial capacity (214.3 mAh/g) compared to the pristine sample (207.4 mAh/g) at 0.1C because of enhancement of electric conductivity caused by decline of Li residuals. The capacity retention of NCM sample after solvent evaporation process (96.0% at the 50th cycle) was also improved compared to that of the pristine NCM sample (90.6% at the 50th cycle). The uniform Li residual layer after solvent treated and heat treatment acted like a coating layer, leading to enhance the cycle performance. The NCM sample using diluted nitric acid showed better performance than that using de-ionized water.

  2. Microwave-enhanced electrochemical cycling performance of the LiNi0.2Mn1.8O4 spinel cathode material at elevated temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raju, Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ,a Funeka P. Nkosi,ab Elumalai Viswanathan,c Mkhulu K. Mathe,a Krishnan Damodaranc and Kenneth I. Ozoemena*ab The well-established poor electrochemical cycling performance of the LiMn2O4 (LMO) spinel cathode material for lithium-ion batteries at elevated... ns ed u nd er a C re at iv e Co m m on s A ttr ib ut io n 3. 0 U np or te d Li ce nc e. View Article Online View Journal | View Issue This journal is© the Owner Societies 2016 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 13074--13083 | 13075...

  3. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.4Mn1.5Cr0.1O4 and Li4Ti5O12

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Liu, GQ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available particles are about 0.5 um, and well distributed. The submicron particles should exhibit better electrochemical properties than large particles. 6 Because the chemical bond of Cr-O is strong, the Cr-doped compound LNMCO can enhance the structure...

  4. Kevad näitusesaalides / Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Gints Gabransi näitusest Rotermanni soolalaos. Liina Jänese koostatud ja Siiri Nõva kujundatud näitusest "Valve Pormeister. Eesti maa-arhitektuuri uuendaja" Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis. Külli K. Kaatsi ja Daniele Mosca näitusest "Salajased aiad" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis

  5. Euro on teel / Ivar Jung

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jung, Ivar

    2005-01-01

    Reet Varblase kureeritud näitus "Oma raha" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 12. XI-4. XII. Gints Gabransi videotest, Jaan Jaanisoo masin-installatsioonist, Siim-Tanel Annuse tööst. 2. XII galeriis toimunud kunstnike, kultuurihuviliste ja rahamaailma esindajate (Eesti Panga asepresident Rein Minka, endine president Vahur Kraft, rahandusministri nõuniku kt Veiko Valkiainen) kohtumisest

  6. Theory and process of production of heavy nonferrous metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paretskii, V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The main principles of solving the problems of increasing the efficiency of processing of ore raw materials in nonferrous metallurgy due to close integration of beneficiation and metallurgy processes are described. Some combined technological schemes, which provide combined use of raw materials, solve the ecological problems of manufacture, and are designed in GINTsVETMET, are presented.

  7. Euro on teel / Ivar Jung

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jung, Ivar

    2005-01-01

    Reet Varblase kureeritud näitus "Oma raha" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 12. XI-4. XII. Gints Gabransi videotest, Jaan Jaanisoo masin-installatsioonist, Siim-Tanel Annuse tööst. 2. XII galeriis toimunud kunstnike, kultuurihuviliste ja rahamaailma esindajate (Eesti Panga asepresident Rein Minka, endine president Vahur Kraft, rahandusministri nõuniku kt Veiko Valkiainen) kohtumisest

  8. Grammatika läti moodi / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    1999-01-01

    Läti nüüdiskunsti näitus "Grammatika" Rotermanni soolalaos. Kuraator Solvita Krese. Eriks Bozhise, rühmituse F5, Renars Kruminshi, Martinsh Ratniksi, Ieva Rubeze, Armins Ozolinshi, Barbara Gaile, Gints Gabransi, Monika I. Pormale, Izolde Cesniece töödest.

  9. Kevad näitusesaalides / Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Gints Gabransi näitusest Rotermanni soolalaos. Liina Jänese koostatud ja Siiri Nõva kujundatud näitusest "Valve Pormeister. Eesti maa-arhitektuuri uuendaja" Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis. Külli K. Kaatsi ja Daniele Mosca näitusest "Salajased aiad" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis

  10. Täna kell 16 avatakse Rotermanni soolalaos...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Hansapanga 2004. a. kunstipreemia laureaadi, läti kunstniku Gints Gabransi (34) personaalnäitus "Nähtav/nähtamatu. Tajumise saar". Teised finalistid olid Egle Rakauskaite (Leedu) ning Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets. Rahvusvahelise žürii koosseis

  11. 薰香疗法缓解血液透析患者动静脉内瘘穿刺疼痛%Effect of lavender aromatherapy on pain following needle insertion into a fistula for hemodialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉晓

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨薰衣草薰香疗法对血液透析患者内瘘穿刺疼痛的影响.方法 将82例维持性血液透析患者随机分为薰香组(n=42)和对照组(n=40),薰香组内瘘穿刺前嗅吸浓度1%薰衣草精油5 min,对照组予空白嗅吸蒸馏水.结果 薰香组内瘘穿刺时的VAS评分、状态焦虑(S-AI)评分显著低于对照组(均P<0.05).结论 薰衣草薰香疗法能有效缓解维持性血液透析患者内瘘穿刺时疼痛和焦虑情绪.

  12. Effect of Irrigation Intervals, Type of Fertilizers and Harvesting Time on Essence Content and Yield of Three Medicinal Plants: Lavender (lavandula angustifolia, Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis and Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis in Mashhad Condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of fertilizer types and irrigation regimes on quality criteria of three medicinal plants: Lavander, Rosemary and Hyssop, an experiment was conducted at Research Field of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during two growing years of 2007-2009. A split plot design with three replications was used. Treatments were three irrigation intervals (10, 20, 30 days as main plots and six fertilizers: including (control, Nitroxin (5lit/ha, nitrogen fertilizer (50 and 100 (kg/ha, cow manure (10 and 20 ton/ha and three medicinal plants as sub-subplots. Animal manure and chemical fertilizer were applied at the time of transferring seedlings to the field and Nitroxin was used with the first irrigation. Results indicated that the effect of irrigation intervals on yield of essential oil in all species was significant (p≤0.01. The highest essential oil content was from Rosemary (1.5% but the highest yield of essential oil was obtained from three species, Lavander (10kg/ha, Rosemary (7kg/ha and Hyssop (12kg/ha with application of biological fertilizer. Application of fertilizer affected significantly (P

  13. Environ: E00827 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00827 Lavender Medicinal herb Linalyl acetate [CPD:C09863], Linalool [CPD:C11389 C...mponent: Linalyl acetate [CPD:C09863] Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: asterids Lamiaceae (mint family) E00827 Lavender ...

  14. Environ: E00554 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available h aerial part of flowering of Lamiaceae (mint family) true lavender Obtained by steam distillation Major com...ponent: Linalyl acetate [CPD:C09863], Linalool [CPD:C11389 C11388] Essential oils [BR:br08321] Dicot plants: asterids Lamiaceae (mint family) E00554 Lavender oil CAS: 8000-28-0 ...

  15. Electrochemical characterization and post-mortem analysis of aged LiMn2O4-Li(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2/graphite lithium ion batteries. Part I: Cycle aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiaszny, Barbara; Ziegler, Jörg C.; Krauß, Elke E.; Schmidt, Jan P.; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen

    2014-04-01

    A detailed capacity fade analysis was carried out for a commercial lithium ion battery with a mixed LiMn2O4/NMC cathode, cycled at room temperature with a continuous discharge rate of 1C. Complementary electrochemical and physical-analytical investigations revealed that the most significant aging processes was loss of cycleable lithium due to SEI-layer formation on the anode. The layer formation is accelerated by transition metals coming from the cathode. Impedance spectroscopy proved a significant increase of the cathode charge transfer resistance and of the serial resistance due to electrolyte decomposition and the formation of a surface layer on the anode. The changing of the impedance spectra of the lithium ion battery with aging could be interpreted with the help of impedance spectra of symmetric cells. From DRT analysis equivalent circuits for anode and cathode were derived, which were used for fitting of the impedance spectra.

  16. Part-II: Exchange current density and ionic diffusivity studies on the ordered and disordered spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Belharouak, Ilias

    2017-04-01

    Additive-free pellets of Li1-xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 have been prepared for the purpose of performing ionic diffusivity and exchange current density studies. Here we report on the characterization of interfacial charge transfer kinetics and ionic diffusivity of ordered (P4332) and disordered (Fd 3 bar m) Li1-xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a function of lithium content at ambient temperature. The exchange current density at the electrode/electrolyte interface is found to be continuously increased with increasing the degree of delithiation for ordered phase (∼0.21-6.5 mA/cm2) at (x = 0.01-0.60), in contrast the disordered phase exhibits gradually decrease of exchange current density in the initial delithiation at the 4 V plateau regime (x = 0.01-0.04) and again monotonously increases (0.65-6.8 mA/cm2) with further delithiation at (x = 0.04-0.60). The ionic diffusivity of ordered and disordered phase is found to be ∼5 × 10-10cm2s-1 and ∼10-9cm2s-1, respectively, and does not vary much with the degree of delithiation. From the obtained results it appears that the chemical diffusivity during electrochemical use is limited by lithium transport, but is fast enough over the entire state-of-charge range to allow charge/discharge of micron-scale particles at practical C-rates.

  17. Towards Li(Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33)O2/graphite batteries with ionic liquid-based electrolytes. I. Electrodes' behavior in lithium half-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, E.; Maresca, G.; Appetecchi, G. B.; Kim, G.-T.; Loeffler, N.; Passerini, S.

    2016-11-01

    Lithium cells based on NMC cathodes or graphite anodes and ionic liquid-based electrolyte mixtures are investigated. The electrode tapes, using water-soluble natural binders, as well as the ionic liquid materials, are prepared through eco-friendly routes involving H2O as the only processing solvent. The Li/NMC and Li/graphite half-cells are studied by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic cycling tests at different temperatures. The results herein reported, demonstrate the performance improvement in terms of cycling behavior and ageing resistance, granted by the ionic liquid mixtures with respect to the electrolytes reported in literature based on a single ionic liquid.

  18. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Coatings on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for Li-Ion Battery Composite Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, M.M.; Kostecki, R.; Marcinek, M.; Wilcoc, J.D.

    2008-12-10

    In this paper, we report results of a novel synthesis method of thin film conductive carbon coatings on LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} cathode active material powders for lithium-ion batteries. Thin layers of graphitic carbon were produced from a solid organic precursor, anthracene, by a one-step microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method. The structure and morphology of the carbon coatings were examined using SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The composite LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} electrodes were electrochemically tested in lithium half coin cells. The composite cathodes made of the carbon-coated LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} powder showed superior electrochemical performance and increased capacity compared to standard composite LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} electrodes.

  19. Relations de phases et cristallogenèse de phases de Chevrel séliniées TRMo_{6Se8} (TR = Terre rare) : premiers résultats sur monocristal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maho, F.; Le Berre, F.; Penã, O.; Horyń, R.; Wojakowski, A.

    1995-01-01

    An approach to grow single crystals of chosen RE-Mo-Se Chevrel phase materials from a liquid phase was done. To reduce the effects of compositional shifts due to incongruent melting (at 1 650-1 750 ^{circ}C), off-stoichiometric selenium-rich compositions were used. Prior to this, a detailed study of phase relations at 1 200 ^{circ}C was done and extended to 1 700 ^{circ}C. First preliminary magnetic and superconducting measurements were done on crystals containing RE = Gd, Ho, Er and Yb. La cristallogenèse de phases de Chevrel séléniés à base de terres rares (TRMo{6}Se{8}) a été réalisée avec succès pour TR = Gd, Ho, Er et Yb. La technique consiste en la fusion (non congruente) des compositions riches en terres rares et en sélénium, dans des nacelles hermétiques, à 1 650-1 750 ^{circ}C. Une étude des relations de phases à 1 200 ^{circ}C et son extension à 1 700 ^{circ}C ont dû être préalablement effectuées. Les mesures préliminaires de propriétés magnétiques et supraconductrices de ces cristaux ont été effectuées.

  20. Tuning of Thermal Stability in Layered Li(Ni x Mn y Co z )O 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jiaxin; Liu, Tongchao; Hu, Zongxiang; Wei, Yi; Song, Xiaohe; Ren, Yang; Wang, Weidong; Rao, Mumin; Lin, Yuan; Chen, Zonghai; Lu, Jun; Wang, Chongmin; Amine, Khalil; Pan, Feng

    2016-09-19

    Understanding and further designing new layered Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 (NMC) (x + y + z = 1) materials with optimized thermal stability is important to rechargeable Li batteries (LIBs) for electrical vehicles (EV). Using ab initio calculations combined with experiments, we clarified how the thermal stability of NMC materials can be tuned by the most unstable oxygen, which is determined by the local coordination structure unit (LCSU) of oxygen (TM(Ni, Mn, Co)3-O-Li3-x'): each O atom bonds with three transition metals (TM) from the TM-layer and three to zero Li from fully discharged to charged states from the Li-layer. Under this model, how the lithium content, valence states of Ni, contents of Ni, Mn, and Co, and Ni/Li disorder to tune the thermal stability of NMC materials by affecting the sites, content, and the release temperature of the most unstable oxygen is proposed. The synergistic effect between Li vacancies and raised valence state of Ni during delithiation process can aggravate instability of oxygen, and oxygen coordinated with more nickel (especially with high valence state) in LSCU becomes more unstable at a fixed delithiation state. The Ni/Li mixing would decrease the thermal stability of the “NiMn” group NMC materials but benefit the thermal stability of “Ni-rich” group, because the Ni in the Li layer would form 180° Ni-O-Ni super exchange chains in “Ni-rich” NMC materials. Mn and Co doping can tune the initial valence state of Ni, local coordination environment of oxygen, and the Ni/Li disorder, thus to tune the thermal stability directly.

  1. Influence of electrolyte additives on the cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) formation on LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 in half cells with Li metal counter electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yunxian; Niehoff, Philip; Börner, Markus; Grützke, Martin; Mönnighoff, Xaver; Behrends, Pascal; Nowak, Sascha; Winter, Martin; Schappacher, Falko M.

    2016-10-01

    Traditional solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) forming additives of vinylene carbonate (VC), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and ethylene sulfite (ES) are studied with respect to their impact on the formation and growth of the cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) layer. T-half cells are assembled and undergo three different electrochemical investigation plans: after formation (0.1C, 5 cycles) and long term cycling (0.1C, 5 constant current cycles + 1C, 100/150 constant current/voltage cycles), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are combined to investigate morphology, CEI composition, CEI thickness and aging products for cells with different electrolyte systems. The obtained results reveal a significant influence of these additives on the CEI composition and CEI growth. With the help of SEM, it is found that large areas of electrolyte decomposition products are formed at the aged electrode surfaces (=after cycling), with the exception when 2 vol% of FEC is added into the reference electrolyte. From XPS measurements, CEI thicknesses are calculated. The reference electrolyte with 2 vol% of FEC shows the thinnest layer after long time aging (0.8 ± 0.2 nm). For the addition of 2 vol% of VC, an incremental growth of the CEI thickness occurs from the 100th to 150th cycle (from 1.0 ± 0.1 nm to 2.9 ± 0.4 nm). By correlating the CEI thickness values with the electrochemical performance, it can be observed that for lithium metal based half cells, the existence of a thinner CEI layer corresponds to a better cycling behavior, with 2 vol% of FEC showing the highest discharge capacity of 114.4 ± 0.2 mAh/g after 150 cycles at 1C. GC-MS shows that both VC and FEC help to prevent fast electrolyte aging.

  2. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 2. Following 3 formation cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  3. Introduction to a series of LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high-power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  4. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 1. Fresh electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  5. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Ni doped spinel LiNi (subx)Mn (sub2-x)O(sub)4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) cathode materials for Li-Ion battery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spherical pristine LiMn(sub2)O(sub4) and Ni doped LiNixMn(sub2-x)O(sub)4 (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) cathode materials for lithium ion battery with high first cycle discharge capacity and excellent cycle performance were synthesized using...

  6. A high-rate long-life Li4Ti5O12/Li[Ni0.45Co0.1Mn1.45]O4 lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hun-Gi; Jang, Min Woo; Hassoun, Jusef; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno

    2011-11-01

    Lithium batteries are receiving considerable attention as storage devices in the renewable energy and sustainable road transport fields. However, low-cost, long-life lithium batteries with higher energy densities are required to facilitate practical application. Here we report a lithium-ion battery that can be cycled at rates as high as 10 C has a life exceeding 500 cycles and an operating temperature range extending from -20 to 55 °C. The estimated energy density is 260 W h kg(-1), which is considerably higher than densities delivered by the presently available Li-ion batteries.

  7. Identifying the Distribution of Al 3+ in LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trease, Nicole M.; Seymour, Ieuan D.; Radin, Maxwell D.; Liu, Haodong; Liu, Hao; Hy, Sunny; Chernova, Natalya; Parikh, Pritesh; Devaraj, Arun; Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Chupas, Peter J.; Chapman, Karena W.; Whittingham, M. Stanley; Meng, Ying Shirley; Van der Van, Anton; Grey, Clare P.

    2016-11-22

    The doping of Al into layered Li transition metal (TM) oxide cathode materials, LiTMO2, is known to improve the structural and thermal stability, although the origin of the enhanced properties is not well understood. The effect of aluminum doping on layer stabilization has been investigated using a combination of techniques to measure the aluminum distribution in layered LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) over multiple length scales with 27Al and 7Li MAS NMR, local electrode atom probe (APT) tomography, X-ray and neutron diffraction, DFT, and SQUID magnetic susceptibility measurements. APT ion maps show a homogenous distribution of Ni, Co, Al and O2 throughout the structure at the single particle level in agreement with the high-temperature phase diagram. 7Li and 27Al NMR indicates that the Ni3+ ions undergo a dynamic Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion. 27Al NMR spectra indicate that the Al reduces the strain associated with the JT distortion, by preferential electronic ordering of the JT long bonds directed toward the Al3+ ion. The ability to understand the complex atomic and orbital ordering around Al3+ demonstrated in the current method will be useful for studying the local environment of Al3+ in a range of transition metal oxide battery materials.

  8. Structural properties and application in lithium cells of Li(Ni0.5Co0.5)1-yFeyO2 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.25) prepared by sol-gel route: Doping optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghany, A. E.; Hashem, A. M.; Elzahany, E. A.; Abuzeid, H. A.; Indris, S.; Nikolowski, K.; Ehrenberg, H.; Zaghib, K.; Mauger, A.; Julien, C. M.

    2016-07-01

    Layered Li(Co0.5Ni0.5)1-yFeyO2 (0.0 ≤ y ≤ 0.25) oxides were prepared by citric-acid assisted sol-gel method. Elemental and structural properties were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering (RS) and Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetometry. EDX images show a homogeneous distribution of Fe ions. XRD and RS spectroscopy reveal that the materials crystallize as a LiNiO2sbnd LiCoO2sbnd LiFeO2 solid solution with the typical rhombohedral α-NaFeO2 structure (R 3 bar m S.G.) up to y = 0.2 at which composition a secondary phase was observed. For y > 0.2 the XRD results show the appearance of the α-LiFeO2 phase with the cubic structure (Fm3m S.G.). The degree of cation mixing investigated by XRD analysis and magnetic measurements is z < 0.04, for y < 0.2. Electrochemical tests of Li(Co0.5Ni0.5)1-yFeyO2 (0.0 ≤ y ≤ 0.1) oxides in lithium cells show the influence of iron substitution. The best results have been obtained for the composition y(Fe) = 0.05, where the electrical conductivity is maximum. A specific capacity 32 mAh g-1 is maintained at 8C rate.

  9. Pengaruh Dosis Pupuk Zeorea dan Konsentrasi ZPT Dekamon 22.43 L Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Tanaman Jagung Manis (Zea mays saccharata Sturt.)

    OpenAIRE

    Aruan, Marnaek H.

    2012-01-01

    MARNAEK HASIHOLAN ARUAN, "Pengaruh Dosis Pupuk Zeorea dan Konsentrasi Zat Pengatur Tumbuh Dekamon 22.43 L Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Tanaman Jagung Manis (Zea mays sacchurata Sturt.)", dibawah bimbingan ibu Ir. Hj. Sabar Ginting, MS selaku ketua komisi pembimbing dan bapak Ir Toga Simannngkalit, MS selaku anggota komisi pembimbing. Penelitian ini telah dilaksanakan di Jalan Matahari Raya Kecamatan Medan Helvetia mulai dari. bulan Januari ,2004 - April 2004. Tujuan dari penelitian...

  10. Pengaruh Bauran Promosi Terhadap Keputusan Konsumen Berkunjung ke Mikie Holiday Fundland Berastagi Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilya, Fetty

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal selling, and direct marketing to decision purchase. This research collects empirical evidence. This research was conducted at Mikie Holiday Fundland, Jamin Ginting street, 50 km Pecen village, Berastagi, North Sumatra, with a total sample of 100 respondents. Based on the research, the results of significance test the effect simultaneously with the F test, the variable of advertising, sales pr...

  11. Substitusi Dedak Padi Dengan Pod Kakao(Theobroma cacao L) Dipermentasi Dengan Rhizopus SP, Saccharomyces SP, Lactobacilus SP Terhadap Performans Ternak Babi Perternakan Larance Jantan

    OpenAIRE

    Bornok Venantius P.

    2013-01-01

    BORNOK VENANTIUS P: Substitution of rice bran with cacao pods fermented by Rhizopus sp, Saccharomyces sp and Lactobacillus sp to performance of male croosbred Landrace swine. Under the supervision by NURZAINNAH GINTING and ISKANDAR SEMBIRING. Cacao pods fermented can be used as an alternative feed a substitution of rice bran for its capacity to improve performance during growth. The objective of this research was to prove potention of cacao pods fermented, which can be seen from consumptio...

  12. Analgesia Is Enhanced by Providing Information regarding Good Outcomes Associated with an Odor: Placebo Effects in Aromatherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Masaoka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No previous report has described whether information regarding an odor used in aromatherapy has placebo effects. We investigated whether placebo analgesia was engendered by verbal information regarding the analgesic effects of an odor. Twelve of 24 subjects were provided with the information that a lavender odor would reduce pain (informed, whereas the other 12 subjects were not (not-informed. Concurrent with respiration recording, the subjects were administered a lavender-odor or no-odor treatment during application of painful stimulation to the forefinger. The subjects reported their experience of pain and its unpleasantness on a visual analogue scale after the painful stimulation. The lavender-odor treatment significantly alleviated pain and unpleasantness compared with the no-odor treatment in the informed (P<0.01 and not-informed groups (P<0.05. The no-odor treatment in the informed group significantly alleviated pain and unpleasantness compared with both the no-odor and lavender-odor treatments in the not-informed group (P<0.05. Rapid and shallow breathing induced by the painful stimulation became slow and deep during the lavender-odor and no-odor treatments in both groups. Information regarding a lavender odor, the lavender odor itself, and slower breathing contributed to reduced perceptions of pain and unpleasantness during painful stimulation, suggesting that placebo effects significantly contribute to analgesia in aromatherapy.

  13. Alternative Cancer Treatments: 11 Options to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid applying large amounts of lavender oil and tea tree oil to the skin. Exercise. Exercise may ... Clinic does not endorse any of the third party products and services advertised. Advertising and sponsorship policy ...

  14. Rose Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dropsy or edema), gout, back and leg pain (sciatica), diabetes, high cholesterol, weight loss, high blood pressure, ... Painful menstruation. Some evidence suggests that applying an aromatherapy formula containing lavender, clary sage, and rose hip ...

  15. Environ: E00555 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rida) Obtained by steam distillation Lavandin is a cross between true lavender (L.angustifolia) and spike la...ifolia [TAX:39329] / L. latifolia [TAX:39331]) The fresh aerial part of flowering of lavandin (Lavandula hyb

  16. Plaadid / Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laks, Tiiu, 1984-

    2008-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Lightspeed Champion "Falling Off The Lavender Bridge", Sebastian Bach "Angel Down", Juanes "La Vida...", raadi Maria "Siin Tallinn", Erich Krieger "Live", Rock Hotel "Rock Hotel Rock Cafes"

  17. Plaadid / Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laks, Tiiu, 1984-

    2008-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Lightspeed Champion "Falling Off The Lavender Bridge", Sebastian Bach "Angel Down", Juanes "La Vida...", raadi Maria "Siin Tallinn", Erich Krieger "Live", Rock Hotel "Rock Hotel Rock Cafes"

  18. 77 FR 13604 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ...-Linie GmbH & Cie. KG. Filing Party: Wade S. Hooker, Esquire; 211 Central Park W.; New York, NY 10024.... Parties: Great White Fleet (US) Ltd. and Agriculture Investment Export, Inc. Filing Party: Wade S. Hooker...

  19. Environ: E00446 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00446 Linum usitatissimum seed Lini semen Flaxseed Crude drug; Medicinal herb Prot...:C06426 C06427] Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Linaceae (flax family) E00446 Linum usitatissimum seed Medicinal

  20. Tervenemine kirgastumise kaudu / Riin Kübarsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kübarsepp, Riin, 1978-

    2002-01-01

    August Künnapu kohaspetsiifiline kuraatoriprojekt "Tervenemine" Mustamäe haiglas, näituse "X mistakes Y for Z" haruprojekt. Paralleele Toomas Altnurme suviste maalide ja taivani kunstniku Michael Lini installatsiooniga "Voodi"

  1. Tervenemine kirgastumise kaudu / Riin Kübarsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kübarsepp, Riin, 1978-

    2002-01-01

    August Künnapu kohaspetsiifiline kuraatoriprojekt "Tervenemine" Mustamäe haiglas, näituse "X mistakes Y for Z" haruprojekt. Paralleele Toomas Altnurme suviste maalide ja taivani kunstniku Michael Lini installatsiooniga "Voodi"

  2. Alcohol consumption and the risk of renal cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Wozniak MB, Brennan P, Brenner DR, Overvad K, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Fagherazzi G, Katzke V, Kühn T, Boeing H, Bergmann MM, Steffen A, Naska A, Trichopoulou A, Trichopoulos D, Saieva C, Grioni S, Panico S, Tumino R, Vineis P, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Peeters PH, Hjartåker A, Weiderpass E, Arriola L, Molina-Montes E, Duell EJ, Santiuste C, Alonso de la Torre R, Barricarte Gurrea A, Stocks T, Johansson M, Ljungberg B, Wareham N, Khaw KT, Travis RC, Cross AJ, Murphy N, Riboli E, Scelo G.Int J Cancer. 2015 Oct 15;137(8):1953-66. [Epub 2015 Apr 28]. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29559.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Raman; Brennan, P; Brenner; Overvad, K; Olsen, A; Tjønneland, A; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Fagherazzi; Katzke, V; Kühn, T; Boeing, H; Bergmann, M M; Steffen, A; Naska, A; Trichopoulou, A; Trichopoulos, D; Saieva, C; Grioni, S; Panico, S; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H; Hjartåker, A; Weiderpass, E; Arriola, L; Molina-Montes, E; Duell, E J; Santiuste, C; Alonso de la Torre, R; Barricarte Gurrea, A; Stocks, T; Johansson, M; Ljungberg, B; Wareham, N; Khaw, K T; Travis, R C; Cross, A J; Murphy, N; Riboli, E; Scelo, G

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cancer. However, there is no information available on the associations in renal cancer subsites. From 1992 to 2010, 477,325 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were followed for incident renal cancers (n = 931). Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. In multivariate analysis, total alcohol consumption at baseline was inversely associated with renal cancer; the HR and 95% CI for the increasing categories of total alcohol consumption at recruitment vs. the light drinkers category were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.82 (0.64-1.04), 0.70 (0.55-0.90), and 0.91 (0.63-1.30), respectively, (ptrend = 0.001). A similar relationship was observed for average lifetime alcohol consumption and for all renal cancer subsites combined or for renal parenchyma subsite. The trend was not observed in hypertensive individuals and not significant in smokers. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of renal cancer.

  3. Riia, Euroopa ja euroopalik ruum / Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varblane, Reet, 1952-

    2004-01-01

    Riia skulptuurikvadriennaal "Euroopa ruum" Riia Arsenalis, Läti raudteemuuseumis ja linnaruumis 4. VI-25. VII. Kuraatorid Kristaps Gulbis, Aigars Bikse. Preemia saanud ungari rühmituse Little Warsaw (Balint Havas, Andras Galik) tööst "Marmori tänav" ning Gints Gabransi (Läti), Tulay Schakiri (Soome), Eestit esindanud Daniela, Paul Rodgersi, Ekke Väli, Jüri Ojaveri jt. töödest. Tagasivaates 1950-ndate skulptuuri linnaruumi paigutatud fotode kaudu esindas Eestit Arseni Mölder. Heli Ryhäneni ja Anne Meskaneni näitusest "Skulptuurid" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis

  4. A genomics resource for investigating regulation of essential oil production in Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alexander; Boecklemann, Astrid; Woronuk, Grant N; Sarker, Lukman; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2010-03-01

    We are developing Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) as a model system for investigating molecular regulation of essential oil (a mixture of mono- and sesquiterpenes) production in plants. As an initial step toward building the necessary 'genomics toolbox' for this species, we constructed two cDNA libraries from lavender leaves and flowers, and obtained sequence information for 14,213 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Based on homology to sequences present in GenBank, our EST collection contains orthologs for genes involved in the 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) and the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathways of terpenoid biosynthesis, and for known terpene synthases and prenyl transferases. To gain insight into the regulation of terpene metabolism in lavender flowers, we evaluated the transcriptional activity of the genes encoding for 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR), which represent regulatory steps of the DXP and MVA pathways, respectively, in glandular trichomes (oil glands) by real-time PCR. While HMGR transcripts were barely detectable, DXS was heavily expressed in this tissue, indicating that essential oil constituents are predominantly produced through the DXP pathway in lavender glandular trichomes. As anticipated, the linalool synthase (LinS)-the gene responsible for the production of linalool, a major constituent of lavender essential oil-was also strongly expressed in glands. Surprisingly, the most abundant transcript in floral glandular trichomes corresponded to a sesquiterpene synthase (cadinene synthase, CadS), although sesquiterpenes are minor constituents of lavender essential oils. This result, coupled to the weak activity of the MVA pathway (the main route for sesquiterpene production) in trichomes, indicates that precursor supply may represent a bottleneck in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in lavender flowers.

  5. 锂离子电池正极材料LiNi1/2Co1/6Mn1/3O2的制备与性能%Synthesis and Characterization of Cathode Material LiNi1/2CO1/6Mn1/3O2 for Lithium-ion Secondary Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国海鹏; 贾梦秋; 廖煜炤; 翟中楠

    2008-01-01

    采用CO2+浓度递增的金属离子混合溶液分次共沉淀方法制备Ni1/2Co1/6Mn1/3(OH)2,以其为前驱体,通过高温固相反应得到具有Co含量梯度的层状LiNi1/2Co1/6Mn1/3O2,探讨了焙烧温度及Co含量梯度对材料的结构和电化学性能的影响.通过X射线衍射、扫描电镜、热重分析及恒电流充放电测试对合成的样品进行了表征.结果表明,700℃合成产物即具有类LiNiO2的六方层状结构,800和850℃合成产物阳离子排列有序度高,层状结构显著.材料结晶度好,粒度均匀,粒径在亚微米级.合成温度800℃的梯度材料具有最佳的电化学性能,2.5~4.2 V,0.1 C倍率充放电50次后,梯度材料的容量仍保持在171.2 mA·h/g.相同的焙烧温度,梯度材料比均匀材料的电化学性能更加优异.

  6. 氧化镍钴锂(LiNi0.8Co0.2O2)为正极的高比能量18650型锂离子电池研究%Study on 18650 Lithium Ion Cell with LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 Cathode Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德全; 付亚娟; 高英; 高洪森; 韩宇

    2004-01-01

    对高比容量、低成本的氧化镍钴锂材料的合成及其在18650型锂离子电池中的性能进行了研究,合成出的批量5 kg的氧化镍钴锂材料的放电比容量达到180 mAh/g以上.以其为正极,MCMB和天然石墨为负极组装的一批18650电池,最高放电容量为2 297 mAh,质量比能量为190 Wh/kg;电池100%DOD,800 mA充放循环600次,容量为初始容量的65%;50% DOD,1A充放循环1 000次,放电终了电压由3.45下降到2.98 V;电池经过过充、过放、短路、挤压等安全试验,未发生起火、爆炸现象.对电极的制作工艺和电池的设计工艺进行优化,设计出的18650样品电池容量为2 530 mAh,质量比能量达到210 Wh/kg,体积比容量550 Wh/L.

  7. New Preparation Method for Cathode Material Li[Ni0.92Co0.04Mn0.04]O2 for Lithium Ion Batteries%锂离子电池正极材料Li[Ni0.92Co0.04Mn0.04]O2的合成新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨驰

    2014-01-01

    采用溶胶-凝胶法在球形Ni(OH)2颗粒表面包覆钴、锰氧化物,合成了核壳结构的镍钴锰酸锂复合正极材料Li[Ni0.92Co0.04Mn0.04]O2.用X射线衍射、扫描电镜、恒电流充放电测试等方法对材料的结构、表观形貌及电化学性能进行了表征.结果表明,与镍酸锂材料相比,该镍酸锂复合正极材料表现出了较高的比容量,较好的循环稳定性及更好的安全性.

  8. LiNi0.8Co0.2O2-based high-power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 4. Following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Daniel A; Haasch, Richard T.

    2017-01-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  9. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 3. Following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  10. 乙二醇溶剂的流变相法合成LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4正极材料的研究%Research on the theological phase method of ethylene glycol solvent in synthetizing cathode material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓园; 江楠

    2013-01-01

    采用乙二醇为溶剂以流变相法合成物相纯净、结晶度高、粒径均匀的立方尖晶石结构的锂离子电池高压正极材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.电化学测试表明:样品具有4.7V的充放电电压平台,在0.5C倍率电流下,80次循环后可逆容量还有127.7 mAh·g-1,容量保持率超过98%,并且经过活化后样品循环的库仑效率基本都保持在98%以上,样品具有较大的可逆容量、极其优秀的循环稳定性和充放电可逆性,这主要是由于样品的高结晶度和较好的颗粒分散性.

  11. 5V正极材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4的自蔓延燃烧合成%Self-propagation combustion synthesis of 5 V cathode material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张真; 张峥; 刘宏基; 刘兴泉

    2011-01-01

    5 V cathode material LiNio.5Mn1.5O4 was synthesized by citric acid assisted self-propagation combustion method. The effects of calcining temperature and annealing time on the material were studied by XRD, SEM and electrochemical tests. The sample synthesized under the optimum condition (calcining temperature was 820 ℃,annealing time was 24 h) had complete spinel structure and morphology, it had a single voltage plateau at 4.7 V. When charged-discharged at3.5~5.1 V with 0.2 C under 20 ℃, the initial specific discharge capacity was 122.7 mAh/g, the capacity retention was 96.9% at the 20th cycle.%用柠檬酸络合辅助的自蔓延燃烧法合成了5V正极材料LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4.用XRD、SEM和电化学测试研究了焙烧温度、退火时间对材料的影响.在最佳条件(焙烧温度为820℃、退火时间为24 h)下合成的样品具有完整的尖晶石结构和形貌,具有单一的4.7V平台,在20℃下以0.2C在3.5-5.1V充放电,首次放电比容量为122.7 mAh/g,第20次循环的容量保持率为96.9%.

  12. 不同锂过量和镍过量对5V正极材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4性能的影响%Effects of excess lithium and excess nickel on the performance of 5 V cathode material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张真; 王超; 张峥; 向小春; 刘兴泉

    2011-01-01

    bstract: 5 V cathode material LiNio.5Mn1.5O4 was synthesized by the self-propagating combustion method with citric acid as the complexing agent. The effects of excess lithium and excess nickel on the structure, morphology and electrochemical properties of LiNio.5Mn1.5O4 were investigated. The results show that: the optimum excess amounts of lithium and nickel for LiNio.5Mn1.5O4 preparation are 9% and 7% (in mole ratio), respectively, when the calcination temperature is 820 "C, the calcination time is 12 h, the annealing temperature is 600 ℃ and the annealing time is 24 h. For the LiNio.5Mn1.5O4 synthesized under the above optimal conditions, its initial discharge capacity reaches 122.7 mAh · G-1, 98.5% of which is still remained after 20 cycles, and there is only one voltage plateau at around 4.7 V found in its initial charge/discharge curve.%采用柠檬酸络合自蔓延燃烧方法制备了5V正极材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.分别考察了不同锂过量和镍过量对LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4材料结构、形貌和电化学性能的影响.结果表明:当焙烧温度为820℃,焙烧时间为12h,退火温度为600℃,退火时间为24 h时,制备LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4的最佳锂过量为9%(摩尔分数,下同),最佳镍过量为7%,在此条件下所制样品的首次放电比容量达到122.7 mA·hg-1,20次循环后的放电比容量保持率为98.5%,且只存在单一的4.7V平台.

  13. Effect observation of Amor Luo Fenjia liniment in combined with oral itraconazole and Amor Luo Fenjia lini-ment combined with oral terbinafine in the treatment of onychomycosis%阿莫罗芬甲搽剂联合口服伊曲康唑与联合口服特比萘芬治疗甲真菌病的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健发

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨甲真菌病采用阿莫罗芬甲搽剂与伊曲康唑口服联合治疗和与特比萘芬口服联合治疗效果展开对比。方法:选取甲真菌病100例,随机分组,分别为阿莫罗芬甲搽剂与伊曲康唑联用组(A 组,n =50)和特比萘芬口服联用组(B 组,n =50),研究两组效果对比。结果:A 组近期痊愈率为26%,远期痊愈率为86%;B 组近期痊愈率为24%,远期痊愈率为60%,远期痊愈率比较,差异有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05);A 组真菌清除率为86%,B 组为70%。两组均无严重不良事件发生。结论:甲真菌病采用阿莫罗芬甲搽剂与伊曲康唑口服联用,可获得理想的临床效果,真菌清除率较高,具有非常重要的应用价值,可显著改善患者生存质量。%Objective To study the onychomycosis by amor Luo Fenjia liniment and combination treatment with oral itraconazole and associated with oral terbinafine treatment effect comparison. Method The 100 cases of onychomycosis were selected and randomly divided into amor Luo Fenjia liniment and itraconazole together group(group A,n = 50)and amor Luo Fenjia liniment and oral terbinafine combi-nation group(group B,n = 50). The effect of the two groups were compared. Results The recent recovery rate of group A was 26% ,the long - term cure rate was 86% ;the recent recovery rate of group B was 24% ,long - term recovery rate was 60% ,the long - term recovery rate of the two groups was statistically significant(P ﹤ 0. 05);The fungal clearance rate of group A was 86% ,B group was 70% . Two groups had no serious adverse events. Conclusion Onychomycosis by amor Luo Fenjia liniment and oral itraconazole together,which can ob-tain ideal clinical effect,fungal clearance rate is higher,it has very important application value,can significantly improve the patients quality of life.

  14. Pr掺杂LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2的制备及电化学性能%Synthesis of Pr-doped LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 and its electrochemical performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔; 李军秀

    2014-01-01

    通过固相法制备了掺杂Pr的锂离子电池正极材料Li[Ni0.5 Co0.2 Mn0.3](1-x)Prx O2(x=0、0.01、0.02、0.03和0.05).用XRD、SEM、充放电测试、循环伏安测试等研究Pr掺杂对材料结构及电化学性能的影响.适量的掺杂不会改变材料的晶体类型,还能减轻阳离子混排,稳定层状结构.在0.1 C(20 mA/g)下,x=0.02样品的首次放电比容量为186.9mAh/g,在5.0C下循环100次后,容量保持率高达94.9%.

  15. Progress in Research of Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Cathode Material for Lithium-ion Batteries%锂离子电池正极材料层状LiN1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏伟; 习小明; 湛中魁

    2006-01-01

    对层状LiN1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2的制备方法(如高温固相合成法、溶胶-凝胶法、共沉淀法)进行了重点论述,并讨论了相应的电化学性能、结构特征和目前存在的问题.并对层状LiN1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2正极材料的发展进行了展望.

  16. The external and internal measurement impact on shear modulus distribution within cyclic small strains in triaxal studies into cohesive soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastrzebska M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with comparison of tangent shear moduli Gs of kaolin from Tułowice obtained from cyclic triaxial tests on the basis of external and internal reading in the small strains range (10-5÷10-3. The tests were carried out on a modernised test bed, enabling full saturation of specimens using the back pressure method as well as a precise internal measurement of strains by means of contactless microdisplacements sensors. The value of linearity factor L is one of adopted quality criteria for two measuring methods. Maintaining a constant deformation rate the influence of various cyclic process parameters (deviator stress amplitude – constant or variable; high or low; initial level of stress and strain, at which the unloading and reloading cycles were started; overconsolidation ratio OCR as well as cycles’ number and arrangement on the "shear modulus – axial strain" characteristic was studied. The obtained values of Gint and Gext (or Lint and Lext clearly show an underestimation (even 5 times of Gs value within the range 10-5÷10-3 when using an external measurement. In addition, the differences between Gint and Gext, which develop differently depending on specified cyclic process parameters, gradually decrease with increasing axial strains.

  17. Expression of phenazine biosynthetic genes during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis of Glomus intraradices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionicia Gloria León-Martínez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To explore the molecular mechanisms that prevail during the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis involving the genus Glomus, we transcriptionally analysed spores of Glomus intraradices BE3 during early hyphal growth. Among 458 transcripts initially identified as being expressed at presymbiotic stages, 20% of sequences had homology to previously characterized eukaryotic genes, 30% were homologous to fungal coding sequences, and 9% showed homology to previously characterized bacterial genes. Among them, GintPbr1a encodes a homolog to Phenazine Biosynthesis Regulator (Pbr of Burkholderia cenocepacia, an pleiotropic regulatory protein that activates phenazine production through transcriptional activation of the protein D isochorismatase biosynthetic enzyme phzD (Ramos et al., 2010. Whereas GintPbr1a is expressed during the presymbiotic phase, the G. intraradices BE3 homolog of phzD (BGintphzD is transcriptionally active at the time of the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. DNA from isolated bacterial cultures found in spores of G. intraradices BE3 confirmed that both BGintPbr1a and BGintphzD are present in the genome of its potential endosymbionts. Taken together, our results indicate that spores of G. intraradices BE3 express bacterial phenazine biosynthetic genes at the onset of the fungal-plant symbiotic interaction.

  18. Vacuum stability and radiative electroweak symmetry breaking in an SO(10) dark matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambrini, Yann; Nagata, Natsumi; Olive, Keith A.; Zheng, Jiaming

    2016-06-01

    Vacuum stability in the Standard Model is problematic as the Higgs quartic self-coupling runs negative at a renormalization scale of about 1010 GeV . We consider a nonsupersymmetric SO(10) grand unification model for which gauge coupling unification is made possible through an intermediate scale gauge group, Gint=SU (3 )C⊗SU (2 )L⊗SU (2 )R⊗U (1 )B -L . Gint is broken by the vacuum expectation value of a 126 of SO(10) which not only provides for neutrino masses through the seesaw mechanism but also preserves a discrete Z2 that can account for the stability of a dark matter candidate, here taken to be the Standard Model singlet component of a bosonic 16 . We show that in addition to these features the model insures the positivity of the Higgs quartic coupling through its interactions to the dark matter multiplet and 126 . We also show that the Higgs mass squared runs negative, triggering electroweak symmetry breaking. Thus, the vacuum stability is achieved along with radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and captures two more important elements of supersymmetric models without low-energy supersymmetry. The conditions for perturbativity of quartic couplings and for radiative electroweak symmetry breaking lead to tight upper and lower limits on the dark matter mass, respectively, and this dark matter mass region (1.35-2 TeV) can be probed in future direct detection experiments.

  19. The mito-DAMP cardiolipin blocks IL-10 production causing persistent inflammation during bacterial pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Raundhal, Mahesh; Chen, Bill B.; Morse, Christina; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Khare, Anupriya; Oriss, Timothy B.; Huff, Rachael; Lee, Janet S.; St. Croix, Claudette M.; Watkins, Simon; Mallampalli, Rama K.; Kagan, Valerian E.; Ray, Anuradha; Ray, Prabir

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a significant healthcare burden worldwide. Failure to resolve inflammation after infection precipitates lung injury and an increase in morbidity and mortality. Gram-negative bacteria are common in pneumonia and increased levels of the mito-damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) cardiolipin can be detected in the lungs. Here we show that mice infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae develop lung injury with accumulation of cardiolipin. Cardiolipin inhibits resolution of inflammation by suppressing production of anti-inflammatory IL-10 by lung CD11b+Ly6GintLy6CloF4/80+ cells. Cardiolipin induces PPARγ SUMOylation, which causes recruitment of a repressive NCOR/HDAC3 complex to the IL-10 promoter, but not the TNF promoter, thereby tipping the balance towards inflammation rather than resolution. Inhibition of HDAC activity by sodium butyrate enhances recruitment of acetylated histone 3 to the IL-10 promoter and increases the concentration of IL-10 in the lungs. These findings identify a mechanism of persistent inflammation during pneumonia and indicate the potential of HDAC inhibition as a therapy. PMID:28074841

  20. Effect of aromatherapy massage on dysmenorrhea in Turkish students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apay, Serap Ejder; Arslan, Sevban; Akpinar, Reva Balci; Celebioglu, Ayda

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy massage on dysmenorrhea. The study used a quasiexperimental design with the subjects as their own control. Every participant applied both aromatherapy massage with lavender oil and placebo massage with odorless liquid petrolatum [soft paraffin]. The population comprised 438 midwifery and nursing students. The 150 students who had declared that they had suffered from dysmenorrhea used a visual analog scale to indicate their level of pain. Higher scores reflected a greater severity of dysmenorrhea. Forty-four students volunteered to participate in the study. When the lavender massage and the placebo massage were compared, the visual analog scale score of the lavender massage was found to decrease at a statistically significant rate. This study showed that massage was effective in reducing dysmenorrhea. In addition, this study showed that the effect of aromatherapy massage on pain was higher than that of placebo massage.

  1. Improved microwave steam distillation apparatus for isolation of essential oils. Comparison with conventional steam distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Naima; Vian, Maryline Abert; Bornard, Isabelle; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed; Chemat, Farid

    2008-11-14

    Steam distillation (SD) is routinely used by analysts for the isolation of essential oils from herbs, flowers and spices prior to gas chromatographic analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for an improved microwave steam distillation (MSD) of essential oils from aromatic natural products was developed. To demonstrate its feasibility, MSD was compared with the conventional technique, SD, for the analysis of volatile compounds from dry lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lamiaceae). Essential oils isolated by MSD were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by SD, but MSD was better than SD in terms of rapidity (6 min versus 30 min for lavender flowers), thereby allowing substantial savings of costs in terms of time and energy. Lavender flowers treated by MSD and SD were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by MSD, in contrast to conventional SD.

  2. A comparative study of Si-containing electrolyte additives for lithium ion battery: Which one is better and why is it better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang; Xing, Lidan; Zhu, Yunmin; Zheng, Xiongwen; Cai, Dandan; Li, Weishan

    2017-02-01

    Influence of two Si-containing electrolyte additives, tris(trimethylsilyl)borate (TMSB) and tris(trimethylsilyl)phosphate (TMSP), on the cyclic stability of high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode has been systematically studied in this work. The capacity retention of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cycling in STD (1M LiPF6/EC: EMC = 3:7), TMSB- and TMSP-containing electrolytes is 23%, 85% and 71% after 600 cycles at 1C rate, respectively, revealing that the ability of TMSB on improving the cyclic performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is superior to that of TMSP. Experimental and theoretical characterizations show that the preferential reaction of both TMSB and TMSP generates thin and uniform film on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 surface, which effectively suppress the continuous oxidation reaction of electrolyte. While the film generated from TMSB, which contains B and Si-rich compounds, shows better ability on restraining the growth of interfacial resistance during cycling, resulting in better cyclic stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 than that of TMSP.

  3. Improving cyclic stability of lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode at elevated temperature by using dimethyl phenylphosphonite as electrolyte additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Shaowei; Xu, Mengqing; Liao, Xiaolin; Xing, Lidan; Li, Weishan

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrolyte additive, dimethyl phenylphosphonite (DMPP), is reported in this paper to be able to improve significantly the cyclic stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery at elevated temperature. When experiencing charge/discharge cycling at 50 °C with 1C (1C = 146.7 mAh g-1) rate in a standard (STD) electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC)/dimethyl carbonate (DMC), EC/DMC = 1/2 in volume), LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 suffers serious discharge capacity decaying, with a capacity retention of 42% after 100 cycles. With adding 0.5% DMPP into the STD electrolyte, the capacity retention is increased to 91%. This improvement can be ascribed to the preferential oxidation of DMPP to the STD electrolyte and the subsequent formation of a protective film on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, which suppresses the electrolyte decomposition and protects LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 from destruction. Theoretical calculations together with voltammetric analyses demonstrate the preferential oxidation of DMPP and the consequent suppression of electrolyte decomposition, while the observations from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirm the protection that DMPP provides for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.

  4. 4-(Trifluoromethyl)-benzonitrile: A novel electrolyte additive for lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenna; Xing, Lidan; Wang, Yating; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Weishan; Xie, Fengchao; Xia, Shengan

    2014-12-01

    In this work, 4-(Trifluoromethyl)-benzonitrile (4-TB) is used as a novel electrolyte additive for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery. Charge-discharge tests show that the cyclic stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is significantly improved by using 0.5 wt.% 4-TB. With using 4-TB, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 delivers an initial capacity of 133 mAh g-1 and maintains 121 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles with a capacity retention of 91%, compared to the 75% of that using base electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate(EC)/dimethyl carbonate(DMC)). The results from linear sweep voltammetry, density functional theory calculations, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and inductively coupled plasma, indicate that 4-TB has lower oxidative stability than EC and DMC, and is preferentially oxidized on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 forming a low-impedance protective film, which prevents the subsequent oxidation decomposition of the electrolyte and suppresses the manganese dissolution from LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.

  5. New record of Phytophthora root and stem rot of Lavandula angustifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek B. Orlikowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora cinnamomi was isolated from rotted root and stem parts of lavender as well as from soil taken from containers with diseased plants. Additionally Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium spp. and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were often isolated from diseased tissues. P. cinnamomi colonised leaves and stem parts of 4 lavender species in laboratory trials and caused stem rot of plants in greenhouse experiments. Cardinal temperature for in vitro growth were about 7,5 and 32°C with optimum 25-27,5°C. The species colonised stem tissues at temperature ranged from 10° to 32°C.

  6. Sub-2 nm Thick Fluoroalkylsilane Self-Assembled Monolayer-Coated High Voltage Spinel Crystals as Promising Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Kida, Satoru; Uchida, Shuhei; Teshima, Katsuya

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate herein that an ultra-thin fluoroalkylsilane self-assembled monolayer coating can be used as a modifying agent at LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-δcathode/electrolyte interfaces in 5V-class lithium-ion batteries. Bare LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-δ cathode showed substantial capacity fading, with capacity dropping to 79% of the original capacity after 100 cycles at a rate of 1C, which was entirely due to dissolution of Mn3+ from the spinel lattice via oxidative decomposition of the organic electrolyte. Capacity retention was improved to 97% on coating ultra-thin FAS17-SAM onto the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode surface. Such surface protection with highly ordered fluoroalkyl chains insulated the cathode from direct contact with the organic electrolyte and led to increased tolerance to HF.

  7. Kepemimpinan Model Gembala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ronda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tren kepemimpinan teiah berkembang sangat pesat dan dapat dengan mudah dipelajari secara mandiri. Bahkan nirai dan prinsip biblika teiahmewarnai semua lini prinsip iJmu kepemimpinan. Namun dalam lini praktika, kita diperhadapkan dengan kompleksitas kulrural, masalah sosial, dari konteks yang sangat beragam. saat ini kita tidak boleh berhenti dengan penerapan kepemimpinan dalam kehidupan kita. Ada banyak keunikanyang akan kita temukan di lapangan. Seperti kata Robert Clinton, kita sedang memasuki"universitas kehidupan" ("university of life", di mana penerapan nilai kepemimpinan tidak pernah berhenti. Niiai-nilai itu harus terus digali dandiaplikasikan.

  8. The Effect of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on Survival of Mice Inoculated wtih West Nile Virus and Exposed to Cold Stress,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    such as Coxackie virus B4 Herpes Simplex Type 2 or Encephalitis viruses (Loria et al. 1988, Ben-Nathan et al. 1991). It was suggested that DHEA may...Johnson T., Lavender J. F., Multin E. and Rasmussen A. F. (1963). The influence of avoidance - learning stress on resistance to Coxackie B virus in mice

  9. Pop / Erik Morna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Morna, Erik, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Lightspeed Champion "Falling Off the Lavender Bridge", Godsmack - "Good Times, Bad Times...Ten Years of Godsmack", Burnt Friedmann "First Night Forever", Steve Jansen "Slope", Vanessa Carlton "Heroes & Thieves", House of Games "Rise and Shine", Op:l Bastards "The Job"

  10. What Would Liz and Larry Say? Performing Critical Approaches to Choreographic Mentorship in American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that Liz Lerman's and Larry Lavender's approaches to mentoring student choreographers denote a shift in the philosophy of choreographic mentorship in higher education, because they reflect current concerns in critical pedagogy. My particular interest is in the relationship established between student artist and educator when a…

  11. 27 CFR 21.54 - Formula No. 27-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 27-B. 21.54 Section 21.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... gallon of lavender oil, N.F., and 100 pounds of green soap, U.S.P. Note. The requirements of this...

  12. 2371-IJBCS-Article-Lamiae Bachiri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 9(3): 1308-1318, June 2015. ISSN 1997-342X (Online), ISSN 1991-8631 (Print) ..... Journal of. Animal &Plant Sciences, 23: 2071-7024. Chu CJ, Kemper KJ. 2001. Lavender ... History of nomenclature of Lavandula ...

  13. Efficacy of new inhibitors of ethylene perception in improvement of display quality of miniature potted roses (Rosa hybrida L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buanong, Mantana; Mibus, Heiko; Sisler, Edward C.

    2005-01-01

    1-Octylcyclopropene (1-OCP)and 1-Decylcyclopropene (1-DCP),ethylene receptor inhibitors,analogues to 1-MCP,substituted with longer carbon chain in the 1-position were investigated in miniature potted roses cultivar ‘Lavender ’.All levels of both chemicals protected as compared to untreated plants.1...

  14. Pop / Erik Morna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Morna, Erik, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Lightspeed Champion "Falling Off the Lavender Bridge", Godsmack - "Good Times, Bad Times...Ten Years of Godsmack", Burnt Friedmann "First Night Forever", Steve Jansen "Slope", Vanessa Carlton "Heroes & Thieves", House of Games "Rise and Shine", Op:l Bastards "The Job"

  15. The repellent and persistent toxic effects of essential oils against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechita, I S; Poirel, M T; Cozma, V; Zenner, L

    2015-12-15

    The economic impact of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, the lack of new acaricides, the occurrence of resistance and tighter legislation have all led to the need to find new ways to control this pest. One promising alternative method of control focuses on employing repellent and/or toxic effects of selected plant essential oils against D. gallinae. Ten essential oils (basil, thyme, coriander, eucalyptus, lavender, lemon, fir tree, oregano, mint, and juniper) were tested for the persistence of toxic and repellent effects. In filter-paper toxicity bioassays against D. gallinae, the best results were observed for lavender (more than 97% mortality after 48 and 72 h) and thyme (84% at 72 h) at a dose of 0.12 mg/cm(2). In addition, two oils showed significant persistent toxic effects 15 and 30 days post application to filter papers. Thyme was the most effective (100% mortality at 72 h), followed by lavender (nearly 80% mortality after 72 h). Out of the ten oils tested for their repellent effect, thyme was the strongest, with nearly 80% of the tested area avoided by mites; oregano caused a 60% avoidance and lavender exhibited an effect close to 40%. All other oils exhibited a repellent effect of less than 30%. None of the experiments showed a repellent effect for HM (commercial alimentary oil) or negative controls. We found that the thyme and lavender essential oils exhibited promising results when tested in vitro for toxic and repellent effects against D. gallinae; thus, we suggest that future experiments focus on in vivo tests using these oils in farm units.

  16. 电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法测定锂离子电池三元正极材料LiNi1-x-yCox MnyO2中钠%Determination of sodium in ternary cathode material (LiNi1-x-yCoxMnyO2) for lithium ion battery by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳曦; 陈珍华; 郑雪琴

    2014-01-01

    在锂离子三元正极材料LiNi1-x-y CoxMnyO2中,钠离子会占据锂离子的位置,钠离子的存在会降低材料的克容量,因此需要严格控制材料中钠含量.在研究采用电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法(ICP-AES)测定锂离子三元正极材料LiNi1-xyCoxMnyO2中的杂质元素钠含量的条件包括样品的溶解方法、测定介质盐酸的浓度、称样量、仪器参数基础上、建立了锂离子三元正极材料LiNi1-x-yCoxMnyO2中钠的测定方法.方法无需进行基体匹配、添加消电离剂等烦琐操作步骤就能得到准确、稳定的测量结果.方法的回收率在97.8%~103.6%之间,样品分析结果相对标准偏差小于2.5%,完全能够满足三元正极材料分析的要求.

  17. Potential role of D-myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthase and 14-3-3 genes in the crosstalk between Zea mays and Rhizophagus intraradices under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Sun, Yuqing; Ruan, Yuan; Xu, Lijiiao; Hu, Yajun; Hao, Zhipeng; Zhang, Xin; Li, Hong; Wang, Youshan; Yang, Liguo; Chen, Baodong

    2016-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is known to stimulate plant drought tolerance. However, the mechanisms underlying the synergistic responses of the symbiotic partners to drought stress are largely unknown. A split-root experiment was designed to investigate the molecular interactions between a host plant and an AM fungus (AMF) under drought stress. In the two-compartment cultivation system, an entire or only a half root system of a maize plant was inoculated with an AMF, Rhizophagus intraradices, in the presence of localized or systemic drought treatment. Plant physiological parameters including growth, water status, and phosphorus concentration, and the expression of drought tolerance-related genes in both roots and R. intraradices were recorded. Although mycorrhizal inoculation in either one or both compartments systemically decreased abscisic acid (ABA) content in the whole root system subjected to systemic or local drought stress, we observed local and/or systemic AM effects on root physiological traits and the expression of functional genes in both roots and R. intraradices. Interestingly, the simultaneous increase in the expression of plant genes encoding D-myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthase (IPS) and 14-3-3-like protein GF14 (14-3GF), which were responsible for ABA signal transduction, was found to be involved in the activation of 14-3-3 protein and aquaporins (GintAQPF1 and GintAQPF2) in R. intraradices. These findings suggest that coexpression of IPS and 14-3GF is responsible for the crosstalk between maize and R. intraradices under drought stress, and potentially induces the synergistic actions of the symbiotic partners in enhancing plant drought tolerance.

  18. orova. Ace

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the distribution of risk factors Tsehayneh K. et al 187 orova. Ace. AssESSMENT ... SkS of diabetes among diabetic patients attending Jimma Hospital diabetic lini. METHODS: A .... literacy status, 9ccupation. 獻 king was collected ...

  19. Effect of mixed and single crops on disease suppressiveness of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, G.A.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of mixed cropping on disease suppressiveness of soils was tested for two cropping systems, Brussels sprouts¿barley and triticale¿white clover. Disease suppressiveness of field soils was evaluated in bioassays for the soilborne pathogens Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini,

  20. Kunst - Religion - Gesellschaft : das Werk Johan Thorn Prikkers zwischen 1890 und 1912

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser-Schmid, Christiane Susanne Annabella

    2008-01-01

    Der Künstler Johan Thorn Prikker (1868-1932), in den Niederlanden in erster Linie fur seine symbolistischen Gemälde und seine Art-Nouveau-Entwürfe fur Grafik, Textilien und Möbel bekannt, wurde in Deutschland als Pionier der modernen Glasmalerei kanonisiert. Diese Aufspaltung in ein niederländisches

  1. Kommentarer vedr. eventuelle ændringer af den tidligere risikovurdering. Zea mays (1507). Supplerende oplysninger til EFSA. Modtaget 17-12-2004, deadline 28-01-2005, svar 25-01-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2004-01-01

    "DMU har modtaget og vurderet de supplerende oplysninger (brev fra Skov- og Naturstyrelsen d. 16-12-2004) til ansøgningen om tilladelse til markedsføring af genetisk modificeret majs C/ES/01/01 (linie 1507). Vi har gennemgået oplysningerne i det tilsendte materiale for at se om de giver anledning...

  2. Dansk sekretær i DAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2007-01-01

    Danmark lå noget længere nede ad listen, hvad deltagere angår - på linie med Algeriet, Venezuela og Estland! Selvom Euroanalysis kongressen og DANSAK kongressen nu holdes i henholdsvis ulige og lige år, så var det alligevel kun de tre medlemmer af Analytikergruppen fra DTU, som repræsenterede Danmark. Det...

  3. Fideo ja Vilm Pärnus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Pärnu Fideo- ja Vilmifestival 2.-3. apr. Muuseumi Aidas. Margus Tiitsmaa ja Sütevaka Andrese performance'test. Jasper Zoova ja Erno Võsa installatsioonist "Eesti mehe ja naise identifitseerimise masin". Taivani kunstniku Eliza Lin'i fotoinstallatsioonist ja videost

  4. Fideo ja Vilm Pärnus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Pärnu Fideo- ja Vilmifestival 2.-3. apr. Muuseumi Aidas. Margus Tiitsmaa ja Sütevaka Andrese performance'test. Jasper Zoova ja Erno Võsa installatsioonist "Eesti mehe ja naise identifitseerimise masin". Taivani kunstniku Eliza Lin'i fotoinstallatsioonist ja videost

  5. En marketingafdeling gør ingen forskel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe

    2007-01-01

    forhold til markedet på linie med virksomheder, hvor der sidder fuldtids marketingansvarlige. Der er ingen forskel. Det viser en undersøgelse blandt 99 mellemstore danske fremstillingsvirksomheder med 50 til 250 ansatte, som Institut for Marketing & Management på Syddansk Universitet står bag. Resultatet...

  6. Screening of bacterial isolates from various European soils for in vitro antagonistic activity towards Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum : Site-dependent composition and diversity revealed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adesina, Modupe F.; Lembke, Antje; Costa, Rodrigo; Speksnijder, Arien; Smalla, Kornelia

    2007-01-01

    A cultivation-based approach was used to determine the in vitro antagonistic potential of soil bacteria towards Rhizoctonia solani AG3 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini (Foln3). Four composite soil samples were collected from four agricultural sites with previous documentation of disease

  7. Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation Surgery with Autogenous Bone Grafts as Ceiling : A Pilot Study and Test of Principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Telleman, Gerdien; Vissink, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies have pointed out that the mere elevation of the maxillary sinus membrane might suffice to allow for bone formation indicating the additional use of augmentation materials to be redundant. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether elevation of the sinus mucosal lini

  8. Det spektakulære museum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thau, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Forfatteren mener at museumsarkitekturen idag fungerer på linie med tidligere kirkebyggeri som et domæne for en artistisk overgiven dyrkelse af arkitektur som sådan. Til gengæld er det ikke indskreven i en symbolsk eller hierakisk orden. Den æstetiske gestus er næppe mindre påfaldende, men langt ...

  9. Ozonides: intermediates in ozone-induced toxicity. A study on their mechanism of toxic action and detoxification by antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Ozone is a major constituent of photochemical smog. The toxicity of ozone is well documented and has been related to its strong oxidative potential. The principal target organ for ozone toxicity is the respiratory system. Unsaturated fatty acids, which are present in both the lipids of the lung lini

  10. THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FUSARIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, L J; Cerecedo, L R; Mull, R P; Nord, F F

    1945-04-13

    It has been shown that Fusarium lini B. grown on an artificial stock culture medium when supplemented with thiamin provides adequate amounts of the B-complex vitamins for normal growth, reproduction and lactation in mice, and that it compares very favorably with brewer's yeast in its food value.

  11. Autonomous Mobile Systems 2012 22 Fachgespräch Stuttgart, 26 bis 28 September 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Zweigle, Oliver; Häußermann, Kai; Eckstein, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    In erster Linie werden Tagungsberichte von Fachtagungen der Gesellschaft für Informatik veröffentlicht, die regelmäßig, oft in Zusammenarbeit mit anderen wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaften, von den Fachausschüssen der Gesellschaft für Informatik veranstaltet werden. Die Auswahl der Vorträge erfolgt im allgemeinen durch international zusammengesetzte Programmkomitees. Die Tagungssprache ist Deutsch.

  12. Trimethylsilylcyclopentadiene as a novel electrolyte additive for high temperature application of lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wenqiang; Ye, Changchun; Yang, Xuerui; Xing, Lidan; Liao, Youhao; Liu, Xiang; Li, Weishan

    2017-10-01

    Electrolyte additives are necessary for the application of high potential cathode in high energy density lithium ion batteries, especially at elevated temperature. However, the electrolyte additives that can effectively suppress the dissolution of transition metal ions from cathode have seldom been developed up to date. In this work, we propose a novel electrolyte additive, trimethylsilylcyclopentadiene (SE), for high temperature application of a representative high potential cathode, lithium nickel manganese oxide (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4). It is found that the dissolution of Mn and Ni from LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 can be effectively suppressed by applying SE. With applying 0.25% SE, the dissolved amount of Mn and Ni is decreased by 97.4% and 98%, respectively, after 100 cycles at 55 °C. Correspondingly, the cyclic performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is significantly improved. Physical characterizations and electrochemical measurements show that SE can be preferentially oxidized and generate a protective film on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. The resulting film inhibits the electrolyte decomposition and the transition metal ion dissolution.

  13. The analgesic effect of odour and music upon dressing change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, F M A; Brodie, E E; Coull, A; Coyne, L; Howd, A; Milne, A; Niven, C C; Robbins, R

    Vascular wounds may require frequent dressing changes over a long period of time, often involving pain, which may not be adequately controlled with conventional analgesia. Complementary analgesia may be beneficial as an adjunctive therapy. This pilot study presented eight patients with two odour therapies, lavender and lemon, two music therapies, relaxing and preferred music and a control condition, during vascular wound dressing changes. Although the therapies did not reduce the pain intensity during the dressing change there was a significant reduction in pain intensity for the lavender therapy and a reduction in pain intensity for the relaxing music therapy after the dressing change. This supports the use of these complementary therapies, which are inexpensive, easy to administer and have no known side effects, as adjunctive analgesia in this patient population. Earlier administration before dressing change may enhance these effects. Further research is required to ascertain why certain complementary therapies are more effective than others at relieving pain.

  14. Insecticidal effects of essential oils from various plants against larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanat, Mehmet; Alma, M Hakki

    2004-02-01

    Along with sulfate turpentine, the essential oils obtained by steam distillation from nine plant species naturally grown in Turkish forests were tested at three different concentrations to evaluate their effectiveness against the larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff). The results indicated that the essential oils from the nine species and sulfate turpentine were effective against the larvae of T pityocampa. The most effective essential oil in the control of the larvae was steam-distilled wood turpentine, followed by thyme herb oil, juniper berry oil, laurel leaf oil, lavender flower oil, eucalyptus leaf oil, lavender leaf oil, cypress berry oil, essential oil of styrax and sulfate turpentine, respectively, in terms of mean mortality time. It is therefore feasible to use these essential oils as environment-friendly insecticides in the control of T pityocampa.

  15. Efficacy of herbal essential oils as insecticides against the housefly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthusiri, Jirisuda; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-03-01

    The insecticidal effects of 20 essential oils derived from herbs, were tested against the housefly species Musca domestica L. using a susceptibility test. Each was applied in ethyl alcohol at concentrations of 1, 5 and 10% (v/v). Ten percent concentrations of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), Mentha piperita (peppermint) and Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) oils were the most effective, showing 100% knockdown at 30 and 60 minutes. The KT50 values for C. citratus, M. piperita and L. angustifolia were 5.14, 5.36 and 8.23 minutes, respectively. These essential oils caused 100% mortality among houseflies 24 hours after exposure. The LC50 values for C. citratus, M. piperita and L. angustifolia were 2.22, 2.62 and 3.26 minutes, respectively. This study reveals lemongrass, peppermint and lavender essential oils have the potential to control housefly populations and should be further studied for field applications.

  16. Electrochemical and thermal studies of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenquan

    The structural, electrochemical, and thermal characteristics of carbonaceous anodes and LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathode in Li-ion cells were investigated using various electrochemical and calorimetric techniques. The electrode-electrolyte interface was investigated for various carbonaceous materials such as graphite with different shapes, surface modified graphite with copper, and novel carbon material derived from sepiolite template. The structural and morphological properties were determined using XRD, TGA, SEM, BET techniques. The electrochemical characteristics were studied using conventional electrochemical techniques such as galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance (AC and DC) methods. It was observed that the electrochemical active surface area instead of the BET area plays a critical role in the irreversible capacity loss associated with the carbonaceous anodes. It was also found that the exfoliation of carbon anodes especially in PC based electrolyte could be significantly reduced by protective copper coating of the natural graphite. LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathode material was found to possess high energy density and excellent cycling characteristics. The structural and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.8Co 0.2O2 synthesized by sol-gel and solid-state methods were studied. Results of the AC impedance spectroscopy carried out on LiNi 0.8Co0.2O2 cathodes revealed that the charge transfer resistance is a function of the state of charge. The solid state Li + diffusion was calculated to be around 10-13 cm2/s in the oxide particle by Warburg impedance method. In addition, the cell fabricated with LiNi0.8Co0.2O 2 cathode showed excellent energy and power performance under static and dynamic load conditions that prevail in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. Thermal properties of the LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathode, carbonaceous anodes, and Li-ion cells fabricated with these electrodes were also investigated using isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC), differential

  17. Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Αntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

  18. Efficacy of plant extracts against stored-products fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Ana; Carolino, Manuela; Bastos, Margarida; Mexia, António

    2006-09-01

    The fungistatic activity of six aqueous extracts of plants were tested against Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Fusarium culmorum. The plants were, chamomile (Anthemis nobilis L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl.), French lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), malva (Malva sylvestris L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). The more concentrated extracts of chamomile and malva inhibited totally the growth of the tested fungi with malva the most effective one.

  19. Effectiveness of Indonesian Essential Oil Mixture of Lemongrass, Cananga, and Patchouli in Relaxation through Inhalation: A Clinical Test on Healthy Woman with High Potential for Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Siahaan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relaxation is one of many mechanisms for coping with stress. One of the most widely used methods for relaxation is aromatherapy with the application of essential oils. Known for their therapeutic benefits, essential oils can be extracted from various Indonesian native herbs such as lemongrass (sereh wangi or Cymbopogon winterianus, cananga or ylang-ylang (kenanga or Canarium odoratum, and patchouli (nilam or Pogostemon cabin. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a mixture of Indonesian essential oil made of lemongrass, cananga, and patchouli extracts. Experiment was conducted by asking a number of subjects to inhale the oil mixture and assessing its effectiveness in terms of psychological relaxation by using Visual Analog Scale or VAS and of physical relaxation by examining the subjects’ blood pressure (MAP, pulse frequency, and breathing frequency. The result was then compared with that of lavender oil and with the control group. The study was conducted on 60 healthy women through single-blind clinical trials (before and after using the “intent to treat” approach, followed by a startle test. Participants were divided into three groups: (1 20 participants who were treated with Indonesian essential oil mixture, (2 20 participants who were treated with lavender oil, and (3 20 participants who served as the control group. Psychological relaxation measurement showed that Indonesian essential oil mixture produced the same degree of effectiveness as lavender oil and the control groups did, although both treatments tended to produce better results than the control group did. However, physical relaxation measurement showed that Indonesian essential oil mixture produced a higher degree of effectiveness than lavender oil and tended to produce a better result than the control group did, especially in terms of blood pressure based on MAP scores.

  20. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Myung-Haeng Hur; Yun Seok Yang; Myeong Soo Lee

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight...

  1. Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used.

  2. Reversible Guest Binding in a Non-Porous FeII Coordination Polymer Host Toggles Spin Crossover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennartson, Anders; Southon, Peter; Sciortino, Natasha F.

    2015-01-01

    )4 CN)2 ](SbF6 )4 ( 2 ) are low spin at room temperature, as are those in the polymeric adiponitrile-linked acetone solvate polymer {[Fe(bpte)(μ2-NC(CH2)4CN)]-(BPh4)2⋅Me2CO} ( 3⋅ Me2 CO). On heating 3⋅ Me2CO to 80 °C, the acetone is abruptly removed with an accompanying purple to dull lavender colour...

  3. Reforming Essential Oil%重整精油

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林翔云

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of reforming natural essential oil was introduced in this paper. By listing the example of reforming rose oil and lavender oil, the reforming method and process were studied.%讲述天然精油重整的必要性、重整方法和重整过程.列举了玫瑰与薰衣草2个重整精油实例以供参考.

  4. Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Land Clearing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    12,000 16,000 Feet 2000 Landcover For Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Florida Landeuse, Cover and Forms Classification - Austral ian P1ne...Cabbage Palm - Mowed I Mamta ned Grounds Upland Forest Graminoid marsh beach - Coastal Strand - Mangrove - Oak/Palmetto - Woody Exot1cs (Brazllllan...gnaphalodes(Argusia gnaphalodes) Sea lavender E Verbena maritime(Glandularia maritima) Coastal vervain E

  5. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-01-01

    The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L.), common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill.), horsemint (Mentha longifolia L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.). The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs fro...

  6. Essential Oils for Complementary Treatment of Surgical Patients: State of the Art

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna Stea; Alina Beraudi; Dalila De Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    Aromatherapy is the controlled use of plant essences for therapeutic purposes. Its applications are numerous (i.e., wellbeing, labour, infections, dementia, and anxiety treatment) but often they have not been scientifically validated. The aim of the present study is to review the available literature to determine if there is evidence for effectiveness of aromatherapy in surgical patients to treat anxiety and insomnia, to control pain and nausea, and to dress wound. Efficacy studies of lavende...

  7. The olfactory marketing and judgment of environmental quality: an experiment in a company services.

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Melo Miranda; Davi Arruda Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Based in some marketing atmosphere and environmental stimuli theories, this study is in fact a manipulation of aroma experiment in a company of the hotel industry, using the lavender scent The main purpose was to analyze the relationship between the olfactory stimuli, the quality of the environment. According to some researches, we have noticed that olfactory stimuli provoke effects on clients’ perception and, after that, positive or negative reactions toward the environment. Besides presenti...

  8. Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.

  9. THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS ON NORMAL AND PATHOGENIC MICROFLORA FROM MILK

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Pașca; Liviu Alexandru Mărghitaș; Dan Dezmirean; Otilia Bobiș; Victorița Bonta; Rodica Mărgăoan; Flore Chirilă; Nicodim Fit

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of antibacterial activity of some plant alcoholic extracts over bacteria in milk as an alternative to current antibiotics. Tests were conducted on alcoholic extracts from sage (Salvia officinalis), two hop species Brewers Gold and Perle and two essential oils (rosemary - Rosmarinus officinalis and lavender - Lavandula angustifolia). The antibacterial susceptibility has been evaluated over 24 strains isolated from normal milk and mastitis milk, belonging to ...

  10. Physical Properties of Gum Karaya-Starch-Essential Oil Patches

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils are used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Despite the recent marketing of novel essential-oil-containing patches, there is no information on their production, constituents, or physical properties. The objectives of this study were to produce essential-oil patches and characterize their physical properties. The essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) was included at concentrations of 2.5% to 10% in patches manufactured from the exudate gum karaya, propylene g...

  11. Effect of aromatherapy on dental patient anxiety: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental anxiety is a common and potentially distressing problem, both for the patients and for dental practitioners. It is considered to be the main barrier and affects the working lives of dental professional potentially compromising their performance. Aim: To know the effect of aromatherapy in the reduction of dental anxiety and to compare the anxiety levels of dental patients with the control group. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial design was used. Of 40 dental clinics in Khammam town, 10 dental clinics were selected by simple random sampling method. A total of 100 patients attending the dental clinic for the first time were included in the study. Ambient odor of lavender was maintained with a candle warmer. A questionnaire comprising demographic information, smoking status, Modified dental anxiety scale (Humphries et al. in 1995, was given to the patients when they were waiting in the waiting room. Student's t-test and ANOVA test were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Considerable decrease in anxiety scores in 3 age groups was observed. A statistically significant (P = 0.002 decrease with age in mean anxiety score. A significant difference in anxiety scores of lavender group, a significant decrease of anxiety scores with an increase of age. Conclusion: Lavender decreased the current anxiety scores of patients effectively.

  12. Catalase, glutathione peroxidase, metabolic syndrome, superoxide dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarsikah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Labor pain is part of a normal process, which often causes physiological and psychological stress to mother. These stress have impact to both mother and fetus. Largely (90% labor comes with pain and in some cases severe pain. Non-pharmacological approach is one of alternatives to reduce labor pain. This research aims to analyse the analgesic effect of lavender aromatherapy inhalation on labor pain in primigravida in the active phase. The study was pra-experimental by observing one group before and after treatment. The group involved 30 parturients in RB Kasih Ibu Jatirogo district of Tuban, East Java. The sampling method was based on consecutive admission. The variables were measured by using numerical rating scales (NRS. Univariable quantitative analysis was applied to describe the pain before and after treatment. Wilcoxon signed ranks test bivariable quantitative analysis was used to investigate pain relief with significance level of p<0.05. The univariable analysis result revealed that mean pain score before treatment was 7.3 (SD 1.1 and after treatment 5.9 (SD 1.4. Wilcoxon signed ranks test result showed significant pain relief after lavender aromatherapy inhalation (Z=-4.338, p=0.000. The research shows that there is a reduction of labor pain after lavender aromatherapy inhalation.

  13. The effects of aromatherapy in relieving symptoms related to job stress among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao-Chuan; Fang, Shu-Hui; Fang, Li

    2015-02-01

    Workplace-related stress has become today's most serious occupational hazard. Aromatherapy is a simple, convenient and non-invasive method of stress relief. There is little research regarding the efficacy of aromatherapy by means of inhaling essential oil in reducing workplace stress-related symptoms among nurses. Therefore, this study was to examine the effectiveness of lavender oil inhalation in reducing job stress-related symptoms among nurses. The 53 nurses in the experimental group pinned small bottles containing 3% lavender oil on the clothes of their right chests, whereas 57 participants in the control group pinned bottles with no lavender oil. Aromatherapy was shown to be effective in the reduction of the number of stress symptoms for 3 or 4 days. The stress symptoms of the experimental group decreased from 6.1 to 2.8 after aromatherapy was carried out (P = 0.126, 0.159, 0.035 and 0.026). This represented a significant decrease in stress, whereas the stress symptoms in the control group increased from 5.6 to 5.8. Hospital staff managers are still encouraged to include aromatherapy concepts and techniques in the continuing education of nursing staff. Concurrently, future research should focus on the possible side effects of aromatherapy to assure safety.

  14. Investigation of the chemical composition-antibacterial activity relationship of essential oils by chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinović, Dragoljub L; Ilić, Budimir S; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana M; Nikolić, Nikola D; Miladinović, Ljiljana C; Cvetković, Olga G

    2012-05-01

    The antibacterial effects of Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Lavandula angustifolia (Lamiaceae), and Calamintha nepeta (Lamiaceae) Savi subsp. nepeta var. subisodonda (Borb.) Hayek essential oils on five different bacteria were estimated. Laboratory control strain and clinical isolates from different pathogenic media were researched by broth microdilution method, with an emphasis on a chemical composition-antibacterial activity relationship. The main constituents of thyme oil were thymol (59.95%) and p-cymene (18.34%). Linalool acetate (38.23%) and β-linalool (35.01%) were main compounds in lavender oil. C. nepeta essential oil was characterized by a high percentage of piperitone oxide (59.07%) and limonene (9.05%). Essential oils have been found to have antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. Classification and comparison of essential oils on the basis of their chemical composition and antibacterial activity were made by utilization of appropriate chemometric methods. The chemical principal component analysis (PCA) and hierachical cluster analysis (HCA) separated essential oils into two groups and two sub-groups. Thyme essential oil forms separate chemical HCA group and exhibits highest antibacterial activity, similar to tetracycline. Essential oils of lavender and C. nepeta in the same chemical HCA group were classified in different groups, within antibacterial PCA and HCA analyses. Lavender oil exhibits higher antibacterial ability in comparison with C. nepeta essential oil, probably based on the concept of synergistic activity of essential oil components.

  15. Patch size has no effect on insect visitation rate per unit area in garden-scale flower patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Madsen, Andy; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the effect of flower patch size on insect flower visitation rate have compared relatively large patches (10-1000s m2) and have generally found a negative relationship per unit area or per flower. Here, we investigate the effects of patch size on insect visitation in patches of smaller area (range c. 0.1-3.1 m2), which are of particular relevance to ornamental flower beds in parks and gardens. We studied two common garden plant species in full bloom with 6 patch sizes each: borage (Borago officinalis) and lavender (Lavandula × intermedia 'Grosso'). We quantified flower visitation by insects by making repeated counts of the insects foraging at each patch. On borage, all insects were honey bees (Apis mellifera, n = 5506 counts). On lavender, insects (n = 737 counts) were bumble bees (Bombus spp., 76.9%), flies (Diptera, 22.4%), and butterflies (Lepidoptera, 0.7%). On both plant species we found positive linear effects of patch size on insect numbers. However, there was no effect of patch size on the number of insects per unit area or per flower and, on lavender, for all insects combined or only bumble bees. The results show that it is possible to make unbiased comparisons of the attractiveness of plant species or varieties to flower-visiting insects using patches of different size within the small scale range studied and make possible projects aimed at comparing ornamental plant varieties using existing garden flower patches of variable area.

  16. Essential oils in the management of the donkey louse, Bovicola ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellse, L; Sands, B; Burden, F A; Wall, R

    2016-05-01

    Chewing lice are widespread and clinically compromising parasites of livestock and equids. Their management is complicated by growing levels of resistance to commonly applied insecticides. Hence, the development of novel approaches to their control is of major clinical interest. To assess the effects of incorporating the essential oils of tea tree and lavender into a grooming programme for populations of donkeys with natural infestations of Bovicola ocellatus in the UK and Ireland when louse populations were at their winter seasonal peak. In vivo field trial. Suspensions of 5% (v/v) tea tree or lavender oil or an excipient only control were groomed into the coats of winter-housed donkeys (n = 198) on 2 occasions, 2 weeks apart. Louse counts were conducted before each application and 2 weeks later. After 2 applications, the groups groomed with lavender or tea tree oil suspensions had a significant reduction in louse intensity, with a mean decline in louse abundance of 78% (95% confidence interval 76-80%). Louse numbers in the groups groomed with excipient only either did not change or increased significantly. Donkey hair length had no effect on the decline in louse numbers. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of essential oil suspensions during grooming can be used to manage louse populations successfully. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Acaricidal and insecticidal activity of essential oils on Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Natalia; Gende, Liesel B; Bailac, Pedro; Marcangeli, Jorge A; Eguaras, Martín J

    2009-12-01

    Varroa destructor is an external parasitic mite that is a serious pest of honeybees and has caused severe losses of colonies worldwide. One of the feasible alternative treatments being used for their control is essential oils. The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioactivity of some essential oils on V. destructor and Apis mellifera in relation with their chemical composition and physicochemical properties. Lavender, lavendin and laurel essential oils showed linalool as main compound in their composition. 1,8-Cineole was also present as a predominant component in the laurel essential oil. However, thyme oil was characterized by a high concentration of thymol. Mites and bees toxicity was tested by means of complete exposure method. For mites, LC(50) values for laurel, lavender and lavendin essential oil did not show significant variation throughout all observation times. However, the LC(50) values for thyme oil at 48 and 72 h were lower than at 24 h. Bee mortality was evident only in treatment with thyme oil. At 48 and 72 h, lavender essential oil presented better selectivity indexes. In this research, all essential oils caused mite mortality without severe harmful effects on adult bees. The simultaneous evaluation of the physicochemical analysis of the essential oils, the characterization of the dosage response relationships among them, and the mortality effects on mite and bees, give us the possibility to obtain comparative results for future research in Varroa control.

  18. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, So Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group) for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL) regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery. PMID:28154606

  19. Evaluation of different Mediterranean essential oils as prophylactic agents in anisakidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mateos Pérez, Magdalena; Navarro Moll, Concepción; Merino Espinosa, Gema; Valero López, Adela

    2017-12-01

    Anisakis Dujardin 1845 (Anisakidae) nematodes can cause gastrointestinal and allergic diseases when humans eat raw or undercooked seafood containing larvae. There is currently no drug available in the market against this parasitic disease, and the study of plant-derived molecules could be useful in the discovery of effective compounds. This research assesses the biocidal activity of a range of essential oils (EOs) from some Mediterranean plants against larvae found in the musculature of fresh fish. EOs composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. All the EOs were diluted at 5% v/v in olive oil to cover the fish with the solutions for 24 h. The larvae that abandoned the muscle and the larvae obtained from the artificial digestion of the fish were collected. Controls were carried out in parallel. Furthermore, Wistar rats were infected with the live larvae collected from the in vitro trials in order to find any larvae that may have penetrated the gastrointestinal wall. Between 60.8% and 87.6% of parasites treated with EOs abandoned the fish muscle, and the highest in vitro mortality rate was achieved with oregano EO (53.9%). Rats previously treated with oregano, cumin and Spanish lavender EOs showed no detectable lesions in the digestive tract due to the infection with larvae. Oregano (Origanum vulgare L. Lamiaceae), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. Apiaceae) and Spanish lavender (Lavender stoechas L. Lamiaceae) EOs could be used as promising ingredients in the development of products for the control of anisakiasis.

  20. Frank Robert Tangherlini — the Founder of an Alternative Relativistic Kinematics (On the Occasion of His 85th Birthday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malykin G. B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Already fifty years ago, Frank Robert Tangherlini, an American theoretical physicist, suggested an original procedure which, targeting the synchronization of clocks located in two different inertial reference frames of the space, was di erent from that Einstein had introduced. As a result of these, Tangherlini had deduced the so-called the Tangher- lini transformations, which are a sort of the transformations of the spatial coordinates and time being moved from one inertial reference frame into another one. The Tangher- lini transformations differ from the Lorentz transformations (which can be meant clas- sic ones in the theory of relativity and, in particular, suggest the velocity of light to be anisotropic in a moving inertial reference frame. The Tangherlini transformations be- ing applied provide adequate explanations to all well-known interference experiments checking of the Special Theory of Relativity.

  1. 锰基锂正极半导体材料禁带特性研究%Study on the band gap character of Mn-base lithium anode material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴汉杰; 梁兴华; 黄美红; 宋清清; 刘浩

    2015-01-01

    For doping Ni and Fe solid material, studying on Mn-base lithium anode material by using high temperature synthesis method, the preparation of the Mn-Base lithium anode semiconductor material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.1O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.2O4. The crystal structure of the sample was analyzed and collected through X-ray diffractometry (XRD), It also tested spectrum features of the material by using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer, The character of charge-discharge were showed by high precision electrical tester. Testing results showed that Mn-base lithium anode semiconducting material was diamond structure, crystal structure was space group of Fd3m and the cubic crystal system. When absorption coefficient of ultraviolet visible light of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.1O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.2O4 were respectively 0.830, 0.839 and 0.857, the width of the band gap were respectively 2.24e V, 2.22e V, 1.85eV. Electrical characteristics tests indicated that there were two charge–discharge platforms and between 3.45 V and 4.8 V in the semi-finished products of the battery.%采用高温合成法对掺杂Ni和Fe固体物质锰基锂正极材料进行研究,制备出锰基锂正极半导体材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4,LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.1O4和LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.2O4,利用X射线衍射仪分析该产物的晶体结构,运用紫外可见光纤光谱仪测试该材料的光谱特征,采用高精度电池测试仪测试半电池的充放电特性.测试结果表明:锰基锂正极半导体材料为立方尖晶石结构,其晶体结构是立方晶系,Fd3m空间群.LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4,LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.1O4和LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.2O4的紫外可见光吸收系数分别处于0.830,0.839和0.857时,禁带宽度分别为0.989 eV,0.966 eV和0.922 eV.半电池电特性测试表明:充放电电压范围处于3.45 V~4.8 V区间,充放电出现了2个平台.

  2. Das Verhalten von Mastputen bei unterschiedlicher Besatzdichte und Einstreuart

    OpenAIRE

    Günthner, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Die Europäische Union bereitet eine Haltungsverordnung für Puten vor, die in Deutschland die freiwillige Vereinbarung ersetzen soll. Die vorliegende Untersuchung soll wissenschaftliche Grundlagen zum Verhalten der Puten bei unterschiedlichen Besatzdichten liefern, um somit die bevorstehende Revision der Vereinbarung zu unterstützen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden in 2 Mast-Durchgängen (Winter und Sommer) das Verhalten von Puten der Linie B.U.T. Big 6 bei unterschiedlichen Besatzdichten und...

  3. Impact of electrolyte solvent and additive choices on high voltage Li-ion pouch cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jian; Nelson, K. J.; Lu, Zhonghua; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    The effects that various electrolyte solvents and electrolyte additives had on both LaPO4-coated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 and uncoated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite pouch cells were studied using automated storage, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, gas production and long-term cycling experiments. Storage experiments showed that the voltage drop during storage at 4.3 or 4.4 V for both coated and uncoated cells was very similar for the same electrolyte choice. At 4.5 V or above, the LaPO4-coated cells had a significantly smaller voltage drop than the uncoated cells except when fluorinated electrolytes were used. Automated charge discharge cycling/impedance spectroscopy testing of cells held at 4.5 V for 24 h every cycle showed that all cells containing ethylene carbonate:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte or sulfolane:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte exhibited severe capacity fade. By contrast, cells containing fluorinated electrolytes had the best capacity retention and smallest impedance growth during these aggressive cycling/hold tests. Long-term cycling experiments to 4.5 V confirmed that cells containing fluorinated electrolyte had the best cycling performance in the uncoated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite cells while cells containing sulfolane:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte had the best cycling performance in coated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite cells.

  4. Untersuchung der Rolle von Rhodopsin 7 und Cryptochrom im Sehprozess von Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Grebler, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    Ausgangspunkt für die Detektion von Licht ist im gesamten Tierreich die Absorption von Photonen durch photorezeptive Proteine, die sogenannten Opsine und in geringerem Ausmaß die Typ 1 Cryptochrome. Die Taufliege Drosophila melanogaster besitzt sechs eingehend charakterisierte, auch als Rhodopsine bezeichnete Opsine (Rh1-Rh6) und ein Cryptochrom (CRY). Neben den Ocellen und den Hofbauer-Buchner Äuglein werden die Rhodopsine in erster Linie in den Photorezeptorzellen der Komplexaugen, den Haup...

  5. Skulptuur kui avaliku ruumi keskkond / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Skulptuuri mõistest, keskkonnana lahendatud skulptuuridest. Daniel Libeskindi projekteeritud Holokausti tornist ja Eksiili aiast Berliini juudimuuseumis, Maya Lini (sünd. 1959) Vietnami sõja veteranide memoriaalist (1982) Washington DC-s, Joseph Beuysi aiaskulptuurist "7000 tamme" (1982-1987) Kasselis, Raoul Kurvitza "Katedraalist kodututele" (1999) Vabaduse väljakul, Andres Kure heliinstallatsioonist "Metroopol" (1999) Tallinna Liivalaia t. jalakäijate tunnelis

  6. (Lehr-Film(-lehren. Potenziale von Lehrfilmen für die Medienbildung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Stewen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Christian Stewen schlägt in seinem Impulspapier vor, Lehrfilme im Unterricht nicht in erster Linie zur Vermittlung von Wissensinhalten einzusetzen, sondern anhand ihrer die medialen Prozesse der Entstehung und Vermittlung von Wissen in schulischen Unterrichtssituationen zu veranschaulichen und zu problematisieren. "[T]he educational film is one which contributes to the achievement of desirable educational goals by making effective use of the motion picture as a medium of communication." (McClusky 1947: 372

  7. Skulptuur kui avaliku ruumi keskkond / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Skulptuuri mõistest, keskkonnana lahendatud skulptuuridest. Daniel Libeskindi projekteeritud Holokausti tornist ja Eksiili aiast Berliini juudimuuseumis, Maya Lini (sünd. 1959) Vietnami sõja veteranide memoriaalist (1982) Washington DC-s, Joseph Beuysi aiaskulptuurist "7000 tamme" (1982-1987) Kasselis, Raoul Kurvitza "Katedraalist kodututele" (1999) Vabaduse väljakul, Andres Kure heliinstallatsioonist "Metroopol" (1999) Tallinna Liivalaia t. jalakäijate tunnelis

  8. Fortsetzung der Beschreibung von neuen Fischarten der Sunda-Expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popta, C.M.L.

    1912-01-01

    Diese Art trägt zu Ehren des Herrn General-Sekretär Dr. FRANT seinen Namen. Der Körper ist länglich, die Rückenlinie ist ziemlich convex und geht gerade vom Rumpf auf den Schwanz hinüber. Die ventrale Linie ist nur wenig convex, schnürt sich hinter dem Rumpf etwas ein, bevor sie sich auf dem Schwanz

  9. Brune bønner på danske middagsborde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerno, Gudrun Lau

    2005-01-01

    Linser, nødder og olivenolie eller pasta, ris og kartofler? Hvad skal vi spise for at bevare den slanke linie? Ifølge nogle eksperter bør kost¬pyramiden vendes på hovedet, mens andre mener, at den er god nok, som den er. Hvad er op og ned på kostpyramiden og eksperternes råd? Det spørgsmål forsøger...

  10. Forschungsdatenmanagement als überregionale Aufgabe der Informationsversorgung - was kann eine Zentrale Fachbibliothek wie ZB MED Leibniz-Informationszentrum Lebenswissenschaften leisten?

    OpenAIRE

    Birte Lindstädt

    2015-01-01

    Forschungsdaten sind in aller Munde. Soll sich eine überregionale tätige Bibliothek deshalb auf diesem Feld engagieren? Und falls ja, für wen und wie? Auf der Grundlage einer breit angelegten Markt- und Zielgruppenanalyse strebt ZB MED ein zielgruppengerechtes Angebot im Bereich Forschungsdatenmanagement an, das sich in erster Linie an den Bedürfnissen der lebenswissenschaftlichen Fächer ausrichtet. Research Data Management is much talked about at present. Should a national library get ...

  11. Study of vaporization of LiI, LiI/C70, LiI/LiF/C70 from the Knudsen cell located into ionization chamber of the mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đustebek Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vaporization of LiI, LiI/C70 and LiI/LIF/C70 were studied using a Knudsen cell located into ionization chamber of a magnetic sector mass spectrometer in a temperature range from 350 ˚C to 850 ˚C. Аs the ion species, LinI+ (n = 2, 3, 4, and 6 were identified from a mixture LiI/C70. While the clusters LinI+ and LinF+ (n = 2 - 6 were detected from a mixture LiI/LiF/C70. The intensities of LinI+ were higher than the emission of LinF+ cluster when the ratio of LiI to LiF was 2:1. By contrast, the emission of the LinF+ is favored when the ratio of LiI to LiF was 1:2. These results show that the vaporization of a mixture LiI/LIF/C70 from the Knudsen cell located into ionization chamber of the mass spectrometer represents an efficient and simple way to obtain and investigate clusters of the type LinX, X-F, I. In this work it has also been shown that the trend of the ln (Intensity, arbit. units versus temperature for all LinI+ clusters before and after the melting point of LiI was not same. It suggested that the way of the formation of these clusters can be different due to changes in temperature. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172019

  12. Eine neuartige Roboterkinematik für die laparoskopische Single-Port Chirurgie

    OpenAIRE

    Sanagoo, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Minimal invasive Operationstechniken haben sich in den letzten Jahren sehr schnell weiterentwickelt. Unter anderem konnte sich die roboterassistierte Laparoskopie auf dem Markt etablieren. Solche Systeme können jedoch sehr eingeschränkt für die Single-Port Laparoskopie eingesetzt werden. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde basierend auf einer sphärischen Parallelkinematik ein kompakter Manipulator entwickelt. Dieser Manipulator wird in erster Linie für die laparoskopische Single-Port Chirurgie g...

  13. Lebensstile als Instrument zur Segmentierung von Markt und Marken

    OpenAIRE

    Förster, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    (1) Das Konstrukt des Lebensstils stellt für den Automobilmarkt in erster Linie ein Instrument zur Segmentierung des Marktes dar. Bestimmte Zielgruppen werden identifiziert und der Absatz der Produkte für diesen Personenkreis wird optimiert. Standardisierte Modelle der Sozialwissenschaften werden in der Ökonomie unmittelbar eingesetzt. Untersucht wurde der Lebensstil im Rahmen dieser Arbeit in einem erweiterten Kontext – unter anderem erfolgte eine Betrachtung des Lebensstils neben alternativ...

  14. Restrukturierung und Globalisierung der deutschen Automobilhersteller : Sogeffekte für die Zulieferer

    OpenAIRE

    Pries, Ludger

    1999-01-01

    "In den neunziger Jahren befinden sich die drei großen Konzerne der deutschen Automobilindustrie - BMW, Daimler-Benz und Volkswagen - in einem beachtenswerten Globalisierungsschub. Dieser unterscheidet sich stark von der Internationalisierung japanischer Automobilproduzenten in den achtziger Jahren und ist nicht in erster Linie ein nur konjunkturelles Phänomen, sondern steht in einem wechselseitigen Verstärkungsprozess mit Strategien der Produktionsmodernisierung und der tiefergreifenden Umst...

  15. Synthesis, Characterization and Density Functional Study of LiMn1.5Ni 0.5O4 Electrode for Lithium ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aruna Bharathi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses material issues of development of Li-ion batteries to store electrical energy. The performance of the battery is improved by developing the high energy density cathode materials at Nano level. This paper explains the synthesis of most interesting cathode material Lithium Manganese Spinel and its derivatives like transition metal oxide (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 using Co-Precipitation chemical method; it is one of the eco-friendly ,effective, economic and easy preparation method. The structural features of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was characterized by XRD – analysis indicated that prepared sample mainly belong to cubic crystal form with Fd3m space group ,with lattice parameter a  8.265 and average crystal size of 31.59 nm and compared the experimental results with computation details from first principle computation methods with Quantum wise Atomistix Tool Kit (ATK,Virtual Nano Lab. First principle computation methods provide important role in emerging and optimizing this electrode material. In this study we present an overview of the computation approach aimed at building LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 crystal as cathode for Lithium ion battery. We show each significant property can be related to the structural component in the material and can be computed from first principle. By direct comparison with experimental results, we assume to interpret that first principle computation can help to accelerate the design & development of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as cathode material of lithium ion battery for energy storage.

  16. 中国扁叶蝉亚科一新属三新种(同翅目,叶蝉科,扁叶蝉亚科)%A NEW GENUS AND THREE NEW SPECIES OF PENTHIMIINAE (HOMOPTERA,CICADELLIDAE) FROM CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程霞英; 李子忠

    2005-01-01

    报道扁叶蝉亚科1新属,网背叶蝉属Reticuluma gen.nov.及3新种,柑橘网背叶蝉R.citrana sp.nov.(模式种)、林氏网背叶蝉R.lini sp.nov.和刺茎网背叶蝉R.spinata sp.nov.模式标本存放于贵州大学昆虫研究所.

  17. Achieving high capacity and rate capability in layered lithium transition metal oxide cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Juhyeon; Susanto, Dieky; Noh, Jae-Kyo; Ali, Ghulam; Cho, Byung Won; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Kim, Jong Hak; Oh, Si Hyoung

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we target to find a new composition for a layered mixed metal oxide, which has a high structural stability and a good electrochemical performance. Our strategy is to alter the transition metal composition focusing on the relative amounts of redox active Ni and Co to the inactive Mn, based on highly-stabilized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses show that the degree of cation disorder decreases on increasing the ratio of Ni and Co to Mn, by the presence of Ni3+, suggesting that slightly higher Ni and Co contents lead to improved structural stability. Electrochemical studies demonstrate that LiNi0.4Co0.4Mn0.2O2 cathodes exhibit considerable improvements in both the reversible capacity and the rate capabilities at a voltage range of 2.5-4.6 V. In situ XRD measurements reveal that LiNi0.4Co0.4Mn0.2O2 maintains a single-phase and undergoes lesser structural variations compared to controlled compositions during a delithiation process up to 4.6 V, while achieving a high reversible capacity over 200 mAh g-1. As a result, LiNi0.4Co0.4Mn0.2O2 experiences fewer structural degradations during electrochemical cycling, which explains the excellent long-term cycling performance.

  18. EFFECT OF COATED CARBON ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CATHODE MATERIALS FOR POWER LITHIUM ION BATTERY%碳包覆对动力锂离子电池正极材料电化学性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董怡辰; 王振波; 秦华

    2011-01-01

    概述了碳材料包覆对动力锂离子电池正极材料LiFePO4,LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4和Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2电化学性能的影响,综述了不同碳源炭化后形成的碳的特性及对各种电极材料性能的影响,总结了碳包覆动力锂离子电池正极材料的发展方向.%Effect of coated carbon on the performance of cathode materials of LiFePO4, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, and Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3 ]O2 for power lithium ion battery were reviewed in this paper.The influences of different carbon sources on carbon properties after their carbonization and the performances of different cathode materials coated carbon were introduced.The development progress of the cathode materials coated carbon for power lithium ion battery was presented.

  19. Lithium recycling and cathode material regeneration from acid leach liquor of spent lithium-ion battery via facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; He, Yinghe

    2017-06-01

    A novel process for extracting transition metals, recovering lithium and regenerating cathode materials based on facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes has been developed. 100% manganese, 99% cobalt and 85% nickel are co-extracted and separated from lithium by D2EHPA in kerosene. Then, Li is recovered from the raffinate as Li2CO3 with the purity of 99.2% by precipitation method. Finally, organic load phase is stripped with 0.5M H2SO4, and the cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is directly regenerated from stripping liquor without separating metal individually by co-precipitation method. The regenerative cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is miro spherical morphology without any impurities, which can meet with LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 production standard of China and exhibits good electrochemical performance. Moreover, a waste battery management model is introduced to guarantee the material supply for spent battery recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sub-2 nm Thick Fluoroalkylsilane Self-Assembled Monolayer-Coated High Voltage Spinel Crystals as Promising Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Kida, Satoru; Uchida, Shuhei; Teshima, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate herein that an ultra-thin fluoroalkylsilane self-assembled monolayer coating can be used as a modifying agent at LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4−δcathode/electrolyte interfaces in 5V-class lithium-ion batteries. Bare LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4−δ cathode showed substantial capacity fading, with capacity dropping to 79% of the original capacity after 100 cycles at a rate of 1C, which was entirely due to dissolution of Mn3+ from the spinel lattice via oxidative decomposition of the organic electrolyte. Capacity retention was improved to 97% on coating ultra-thin FAS17-SAM onto the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode surface. Such surface protection with highly ordered fluoroalkyl chains insulated the cathode from direct contact with the organic electrolyte and led to increased tolerance to HF. PMID:27553901

  1. LiNi_(0.49)Mn_(1.49)Y_(0.02)O_4的合成及其电化学性能研究%Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Yttrium-Doped LiNi_(0.49)Mn_(1.49)Y_(0.02)O_4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张先文; 章正熙; 杨立; 房少华; 屈龙

    2012-01-01

    The LiNi0.49 Mn1.49 Y0.02 O4 cathode material was synthesized using the citric acid-assisted sol-gel method by partial substitutions of Ni and Mn with Y in the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 material.The influences of Y doping on the structure and electrochemical properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction,cyclic voltammetry,galvanostatic charge/discharge tests and AC impedance spectroscopy.The results showed that the introduction of Y into the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 greatly improved the cycle performance and rate capability.When the charge and discharge current was 1C in the potential range from 3.5 to 4.9 V,the LiNi0.49Mn1.49Y0.02O4 electrode delivered the initial discharge capacity of 114.9 and 113.0 mAh·g-1 after 100 cycles with the capacity retention was 98.3%.AC impedance data indicated that the LiNi0.49Mn1.49Y0.02O4 electrode had the lower impedance value during cycling,and Y doping effectively stabilized the crystal structure.%应用柠檬酸辅助溶胶-凝胶法.合成了Y3+掺杂的尖晶石LiNi0.49Mn1.49Y0.02O4材料.XRD、循环伏安、恒流充放电和交流阻抗测试结果表明,Y3+的掺杂能提高LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4的倍率和循环性能.在电压区间3.5~4.9V,1C倍率下,其初始放电比容量为114.9 mAh.g-1,100次循环后放电比容量仍可达113.0 mAh.g-1,容量保持率为98.3%.掺杂Y3+能减小材料界面阻抗.

  2. Dataset on the electronic and thermal transport properties of quaternary compounds of (PbTe0.95−x(PbSex(PbS0.05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianta Ginting

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “High thermoelectric performance in pseudo quaternary compounds of (PbTe0.95−x(PbSex(PbS0.05 by simultaneous band convergence and nano precipitation” (Ginting et al., 2017 [1]. We measured electrical and thermal transport properties such as temperature-dependent Hall carrier density nH, Hall mobility μH, thermal diffusivity D, heat capacity Cp, and power factor S2σ in (PbTe0.95−x(PbSex(PbS0.05 (x=0.0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.35, and 0.95 compounds with other related compounds from references. From the theoretical fitting of thermal conductivity κ, we found that the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity follows nano-structure model as well as alloy scattering. Transmission electron microscopy images shows that there are numerous nano-scale precipitates in a matrix. Owing to the low thermal conductivity and high power factor, we report high thermoelectric performances such as the high ZT, engineering ZTeng, efficiency η.

  3. Direct correlation of internal gradients and pore size distributions with low field NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lizhi; Liao, Guangzhi; Blümich, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    Internal magnetic field gradients Gint, which arise from the magnetic susceptibility difference Δχ between solid matrix and fluid in porous media relate to the pore geometry. However, this relationship is complex and not well understood. Here we correlate internal-gradient distributions to pore-size distributions directly to examine internal gradients in detail at low field NMR. The pore-size distributions were obtained by the method of Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF), and the internal-gradient distributions were measured with the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method. The internal-gradient-pore-size distributions correlation maps were obtained for water in packs of glass beads with different diameter and in a sandstone sample. The relationship between internal gradients and pore structure is analyzed in detail by considering the restricted diffusion of fluids in porous samples. For each case diffusion regimes are assigned by plotting normalized CPMG data and comparing the diffusion lengths, the dephasing lengths and pore diameters. In the free-diffusion limit, the correlation maps reveal the true relationship between pore structure and internal gradients so that Δχ can be approximated from the correlation maps. This limit is met most easily at low field. It provides information about porous media, which is expected to benefit the oil industry, in particular NMR well logging.

  4. The symbiosis with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis drives root water transport in flooded tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Polanco, Monica; Molina, Sonia; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Aroca, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    It is known that the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within the plant roots enhances the tolerance of the host plant to different environmental stresses, although the positive effect of the fungi in plants under waterlogged conditions has not been well studied. Tolerance of plants to flooding can be achieved through different molecular, physiological and anatomical adaptations, which will affect their water uptake capacity and therefore their root hydraulic properties. Here, we investigated the root hydraulic properties under non-flooded and flooded conditions in non-mycorrhizal tomato plants and plants inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Only flooded mycorrhizal plants increased their root hydraulic conductivity, and this effect was correlated with a higher expression of the plant aquaporin SlPIP1;7 and the fungal aquaporin GintAQP1. There was also a higher abundance of the PIP2 protein phoshorylated at Ser280 in mycorrhizal flooded plants. The role of plant hormones (ethylene, ABA and IAA) in root hydraulic properties was also taken into consideration, and it was concluded that, in mycorrhizal flooded plants, ethylene has a secondary role regulating root hydraulic conductivity whereas IAA may be the key hormone that allows the enhancement of root hydraulic conductivity in mycorrhizal plants under low oxygen conditions.

  5. ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION OF HEPATOPROTECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslanian MA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathology problemof hepatobiliary system (HBS of contagious origin becomes relevant with the increase of disturbance and complications of lipid metabolism and bile pigments among young people. Leading role in prophylaxis and treatment in the context of this pathology belongs to antibacterialc hemotherapeutic agents. However, along with antimicrobial activity, numerous side effects can be observed during treatment with antibacterial agents. According to the recent study on hepatobiliary system (HBS, therapeutic effect can be seen only while using herbal medicine with choleretic action as well as their various compositions.Amountof medicine with the appropriate effect is insufficient, that is why the study was conducted towards finding effective combinations of plant substances of different groups for the purpose of creatingan effective medicine for treatment of hepatobiliary system (HBS of contagious origin. Aim of the work The purpose of study was to examine antibacterial properties of different combinations with flamin and lavender oil in combined medicine during the course of treatment of cholecystitis and cholangitis. Materials and methods. It the result of study 61 microbial strains were distinguished and identified from the pathological material taken from 53 patients with cholecystitis and cholangitis. All distinguished clinical microbial strains taken from the patients were tested for sensitivity to combined medicine in the form of tablets with flamin and lavender oil. Minimal inhibitory concentration for S. aureus АТСС 25923 amounted to 250-350 ug/ml, for E. coli АТСС 25922 - 350±50,0 ug/ml, for P. aeruginosa АТСС 27853 750±100,0 ug/ml, for Р. vulgaris АТСС 4636 - 850±100,0 ug/ml, minimal inhibitory concentration to the tablets № 2 та № 3 amounted to > 1000 мкг/мл. Minimal inhibitory concentration for B. subtilis АТСС 6633 amounted to 250±50,0 ug/ml, for C. albicans ATCC 885/653 300±50,0 ug

  6. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of the essential oils of various plants against tomato grey mould disease agent Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Emine Mine; Kurt, Sener; Soylu, Soner

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to find an alternative to synthetic fungicides currently used in the control of devastating fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould disease of tomato. Antifungal activities of essential oils obtained from aerial parts of aromatic plants, which belong to the Lamiacea family such as origanum (Origanum syriacum L. var. bevanii), lavender (Lavandula stoechas L. var. stoechas) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), were investigated against B. cinerea. Contact and volatile phase effects of different concentrations of the essential oils were found to inhibit the growth of B. cinerea in a dose-dependent manner. Volatile phase effects of essential oils were consistently found to be more effective on fungal growth than contact phase effect. A volatile vapour of origanum oil at 0.2 μg/ml air was found to completely inhibit the growth of B. cinerea. Complete growth inhibition of pathogen by essential oil of lavender and rosemary was, however, observed at 1.6 μg/ml air concentrations. For the determination of the contact phase effects of the tested essential oils, origanum oil at 12.8 μg/ml was found to inhibit the growth of B. cinerea completely. Essential oils of rosemary and lavender were inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations (25.6 μg/ml). Spore germination and germ tube elongation were also inhibited by the essential oils tested. Light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations revealed that the essential oils cause considerable morphological degenerations of the fungal hyphae such as cytoplasmic coagulation, vacuolations, hyphal shrivelling and protoplast leakage and loss of conidiation. In vivo assays with the origanum essential oil, being the most efficient essential oil, under greenhouse conditions using susceptible tomato plants resulted in good protection against grey mould severity especially as a curative treatment. This study has demonstrated that the essential oils are potential and

  7. A Case Study of Allelopathic Effect on Weeds in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaveya T. Petrova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most powerful and effective method of weed control is by chemical substances called herbicides. In recent years, they were published quite data on different side effects of herbicides on humans, animals, crops and the environment as a whole. Therefore, the increased interest for biological weed control lately is reasonable, since its improvement and expansion will contribute to limiting excessive use of herbicides, respectively their harmful effects and will support the successful implementation of complex weed control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of selected plant species, containing allelopathic active substances, on germination, growth and biomass of some widespread weeds in wheat. Experiments were carried out at laboratory conditions using seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., sort Sadovo 1 and most common weeds therein: Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense (L Pers, white pigweed (Chenopodium album L., twitch (Cynodon dactylon L. and curly dock (Rumex crispus L.. Allelopathic substances were extracted with distilled water from flowers of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill., leaves of basil (Ocimum basilicum L., leaves of spearmint (Mentha longifolia (L Huds., and leaves of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.. Of the tested active allelopathic plants, the most negative impact on germination of all weeds seeds (including wheat, as well as on the development of plants exhibited the water extract of lavender. Lavender and basil had a stronger negative effect on white pigweed and twitch compared with both mint species. A significant inhibitory effect of spearmint even at low concentrations was recorded on the germination of all weed species tested while the wheat was slightly affected, which manifests this plant as a potential effective species in strategies for weed control management.

  8. In vitro effect of essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants on mushroom pathogens: Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola, Mycogone perniciosa, and Cladobotryum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanović Brankica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lavender, anise, chamomile, fennel, geranium, oregano, parsley, and sage essential oils were tested for their effectiveness against mushroom pathogens: Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola, Mycogone perniciosa, and Cladobotryum sp. Isolates were exposed to the volatile phase of the oils and then ventilated in order to determine if the effect of the oil was lethal to the pathogen. Oregano and geranium oils were the most toxic, having a fungicidal effect at 0.02-0.08 μl/ml of air, depending on the pathogen. Oregano oil was characterized by high content of carvacrol and thymol, while citranelol and geraniol were the main components of geranium oil.

  9. Nurses experience of aromatherapy use with dementia patients experiencing disturbed sleep patterns. An action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Berit

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an insight into nurses' experiences of incorporating aromatherapy into the care of residents suffering from dementia, anxiety and disturbed sleep patterns. Twenty-four residents and twelve nurses from four nursing homes participated in an action research study. The use of lavender augustofolia essential oil diffused nightly was perceived as an effective care modality reducing insomnia and anxiety in this patient cohort. Nurses experienced some negative attitudes among colleagues because they considered aromatherapy as not evidence based. Nurses require greater access to evidence based use of Aromatherapy. Further research is needed to study how smell can enhance dementia care.

  10. Phenotypic differentiation of species from Aspergillus section Flavi on neutral red desiccated coconut agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atanda, O. O.; Adetunji, M. C.; Ezekiel, C. N.

    2014-01-01

    isolates produced aflatoxins in the culture medium in varying quantities. Plates of aflatoxigenic A. flavus L strains fluoresced bluish purple/lavender around the colony on the obverse and pastel blue on the reverse side due to aflatoxin B production while those of A. minisclerotigenes, A. parasiticus...... and A. parvisclerotigenus fluoresced with a light blue or light turquoise ring around the colony on the obverse and light sky blue or cadet blue on the reverse side depending on the amount of aflatoxin B and G produced. The colour of fluorescence significantly correlated (r=0.95, P=0.001) with the type...

  11. Antibacterial activity chemical composition relationship of the essential oils from cultivated plants from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Nemanja S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial effects of essential oils from Serbian cultivated plants, Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiace and Lavandula angustifolia L. (Lamiace on different bacteria were investigated, with an emphasis on an antibacterial activity-chemical composition relationship. Essential oil was obtained from airdried aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation for 3 h using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The essential oil analyses were performed simultaneously by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS systems. The main constituents of thyme oil were thymol (59.95% and p-cymene (18.34%. Linalyl acetate (38.23% and linalool (35.01% were main compounds in lavender oil. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils samples was tested towards 5 different bacteria: laboratory control strain obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and clinical isolates from different pathogenic media. Gram negative bacteria were represented by Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 43895 and Salmonella enteretidis ATCC 9027 while researched Gram positive strains were Bacillus cereus ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. Essential oils from thyme have been found to have antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested, with a range of MIC values from 0.025 to 0.10 l/ml and MBC values from 0.05 to 0.78 l/ml. Lavender oils demonstrated MIC values from 0.025 to 0.20 l/ml and MBC values from 0.05 and 0.78 l/ml. Reference antibiotic tetracycline was active in concentrations between 0.025 and 0.05 l/ml. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oil of thyme, while Gram-negative bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oil of lavender. Essential oils from thyme and lavender may be used at low concentrations for prevention and treatment of

  12. Preliminary Exploration of a Novel Type High-effi-ciency Mosquito-repellent Compound Essential Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei; Jing; Zhou; Yin; Sun; Yizhe; Wang; Tao; Yang; Jingya

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils were extracted from flowers and branches of Cestrum genus plant Telosma cordata(Burm. F.) Merr.,and used for purifying the mosquito-repellent refined oils. The yielded extracts were mixed with single nerve-smoothing or nerve-exciting components from lavender and peppermint or mixed with basal oils(like evening primrose),in order to prepare the novel type compound essential oils conferring mosquito-repellent and air-refreshing actions. The resulted compound was prepared into solid air freshener.

  13. Enhancement of electrochemical performance by simultaneous substitution of Ni and Mn with Fe in Ni-Mn spinel cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziltas-Yavuz, Nilüfer; Yavuz, Murat; Indris, Sylvio; Bramnik, Natalia N.; Knapp, Michael; Dolotko, Oleksandr; Das, Bijoy; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Bhaskar, Aiswarya

    2016-09-01

    LiNi0.5-xFe2xMn1.5-xO4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2) spinel cathode materials are synthesized using citric acid-assisted sol-gel method with final calcination temperature of 1000 °C. The structure and morphology of the materials are characterized by using synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction as well as scanning electron microscopy. Different from the parent LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) material, the Fe-doped spinels do not contain a rock-salt type impurity phase. However, they contain additional layered (C2/m) and spinel Fe3O4 (Fd 3 bar m) phases in small amounts. The substitution of Fe into the spinel structure has been confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Fe-doped spinels exhibit improved cycling stability (with a C/2 charge-discharge rate) and rate capability compared to the parent LNMO at room temperature in a voltage range 3.5-5.0 V. Among all these samples, the composition LiNi0.4Fe0.2Mn1.4O4 shows the best room temperature cycling stability (capacity retention of 92% after 300 cycles) as well as the highest initial discharge capacity (134 mAh g-1). The delivered capacities at high C-rates (especially at 10C and 20C) with respect to the capacity delivered at C/2 are higher for all Fe-doped samples compared to the parent LNMO. Furthermore, Fe-doping improves the thermal stability of the Ni-Mn spinels in the delithiated state.

  14. Investigation of physico-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries by deconvolution of electrochemical impedance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Balasundaram; Ramar, Vishwanathan; Yap, Christopher; Balaya, Palani

    2017-09-01

    The individual physico-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries namely solid-state diffusion and charge transfer polarization are difficult to be tracked by impedance spectroscopy due to simultaneous contributions from cathode and anode. A deeper understanding of various polarization processes in lithium-ion batteries is important to enhance storage performance and cycle life. In this context, the polarization processes occurring in cylindrical 18650 cells comprising different cathodes against graphite anode (LiNi0.2Mn0.2Co0.6O2vs. graphite; LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2vs. graphite; LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2vs. graphite and LiFePO4vs. graphite) are investigated by deconvolution of impedance spectra across various states of charge. Further, cathodes and anodes are extracted from the investigated 18650-type cells and tested in half-cells against Li-metal as well as in symmetric cell configurations to understand the contribution of cathode and anode to the full cells of various battery chemistries studied. Except for the LiFePO4vs. graphite cell, the polarization resistance in graphite of other cells are found to be higher than those of the investigated cathodes, proving that the polarization in lithium-ion battery is largely influenced by the graphitic anode. Furthermore, the charge transfer polarization resistance encountered by the cathodes investigated in this work is found to be a strong function of the states of charge.

  15. Generalized functions and calculus operators of Mathematica applied to evaluation of influence lines and envelopes of statically indeterminate beams

    OpenAIRE

    Walentyński, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    W pracy przedstawiono metodę analityczną znalezienia funkcji linii wpływu w belkach statycznie niewyznaczalnych. Są przedstawione rozwiązania równania czwartego rzędu z występowaniem po prawej stronie drugiej i trzeciej pochodnej delty Diraca. Wykazano, że ich rozwiązaniem są linie wpływu momentów i sił poprzecznych. Ponadto, dzięki Mathematica, postać analityczna funkcji obwiedni mogą być wyznaczone. The paper presents an analytical method of finding functions of influence lines of static...

  16. Reducing Carbon Footprint Direction of the Development of Aviation Fuels / Redukcja Emisji Dwutlenku Węgla Kierunkiem Rozwoju Paliw Lotniczych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Białecki Tomasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Publikacja przedstawia kierunek rozwoju paliw do silników odrzutowych, wyznaczony przez redukcję emisji dwutlenku węgla w lotnictwie. Tematyka ta jest efektem realizacji założonego przez Organizację Międzynarodowego Lotnictwa Cywilnego celu zmniejszenia o połowę emisji CO2. Dodatkowo przedstawia możliwości zastosowania drugiej generacji biopaliw w lotnictwie oraz rentowność zastosowania takiego paliwa przez linie lotnicze na skalę komercyjną

  17. Von der synoptischen zur analytischen neumatischen Notation: Am Beispiel des Sticherons von Germanos Neon Patron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peno Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački Die Abwesenheit eines einheitlichen Schlussels in der Dechiffrage der sogenannten 'alten' neumatischen Intonation (vor der letzten Reform anfangs des neunzehnten Jarhunderts ist in erster Linie durch ihre Natur selbst bedingt. Die immanenten Eigenschaften der neumatischen Schrift sind in der Arbeet durch einen Verglich der stenographischen Schriften der ausgewahlten Sticherons Germanos Neon Patrons (Handschrift EBE 975, 18. Jahrhundert, der 'analitischen' Transcription derselben verfasst, durch CHOURMOUSIOS CHARTOPH YLAX (Handscrhrift EBE MпT 747-750 und der Interpretation der zeitgenossischen Kirchensanger, die die Chourmousios melismatische Schrift zusatzlich melodisch verziert haben, dargestellt.

  18. X-ray absorption near-edge structure study on positive electrodes of degraded lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Hironori; Koike, Shinji; Sakaebe, Hikari; Saito, Yoshiyasu; Hori, Hironobu; Kageyama, Hiroyuki; Tatsumi, Kuniaki

    18650-type cylindrical cells using LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2 (NMC) and hard carbon as positive and negative electrode material, respectively, were fabricated and degraded by cycle tests. The capacity of the cells remained more than 95% and 85% after cycle tests at 25 and 50 °C, respectively. After the cycle tests, Li-deficient cubic phase was observed on the surface of NMC. This phenomenon should be related to the degradation mechanism of this type of cell.

  19. A Spacecraft Charging Capability for SXTF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-17

    energy 0.5-4 MoV 101 electrons Artificial high energy 0.5-S Mex 10 9 ele ctrons Natural positive ions 5-50 kV Sx10 Artificial positive ions 5-50 keV...shielding). Placement of the source underground would be advantageous for economy of shielding. Any underground location other than below the tank may lead...shielding, it is recommended that the accelerator( be located underground with beam linies to thle tank. [lhe tii rections of the eam should be toward

  20. Application of Magnetron Sputtering in Fabricating MEMS Microbatteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wan; YANG Zhi-min; XING Guang-jian; MAO Chang-hui; DU Jun

    2004-01-01

    With the development of MEMS and the electronic devices's miniaturization and integration, a new kind of power sources that can satisfy the need for high energy density is required. Microbatteries are being researched abroad for their advantages of extreme thinness and long-term power supply. The development of MEMS microbatteries are reviewed and suggestedmagnetron sputtering in fabricating a high-performance microbattery. The technics as annealing are analyzed. The microbattery with a LiNi1-x Cox O2 cathode exhibited stable cycle ability and a high specific discharge capacity, which was attributed to the alloying effect of the LiNiO2and LiCoO2.

  1. Möglichkeiten der Schaumsklerotherapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partsch B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Verwendung von Verödungsschaum aus oberflächenaktiven Verödungsmitteln wie Polidocanol hat in den vergangenen 10 Jahren zu einer Renaissance der Sklerotherapie geführt. Während die konventionelle Sklerotherapie in erster Linie zur Behandlung von Besenreisern und kleineren Varizen verwendet wurde, eröffnet sich durch die Schaumsklerosierung in Kombination mit hochauflösenden Ultraschallsonden auch die Möglichkeit, Stammvarizen unter Ultraschallkontrolle erfolgreich zu behandeln. Endovenöse Kathetertechniken zur Ablation von Stammvarizen mit Laser oder Radiofrequenzwellen sind vergleichsweise aufwendig und kostenintensiv.

  2. Electrodeposition of polymer electrolyte in nanostructured electrodes for enhanced electrochemical performance of thin-film Li-ion microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salian, Girish D.; Lebouin, Chrystelle; Demoulin, A.; Lepihin, M. S.; Maria, S.; Galeyeva, A. K.; Kurbatov, A. P.; Djenizian, Thierry

    2017-02-01

    We report that electrodeposition of polymer electrolyte in nanostructured electrodes has a strong influence on the electrochemical properties of thin-film Li-ion microbatteries. Electropolymerization of PMMA-PEG (polymethyl methacrylate-polyethylene glycol) was carried out on both the anode (self-supported titania nanotubes) and the cathode (porous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4) by cyclic voltammetry and the resulting electrode-electrolyte interface was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical characterizations performed by galvanostatic experiments reveal that the capacity values obtained at different C-rates are doubled when the electrodes are completely filled by the polymer electrolyte.

  3. The wandering spleen: Diagnosis by ultrasonography, CT, MR(A), and scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled erythrocytes; Dystopie der Milz: Nachweis mittels Ultraschall, CT, MR(A) und {sup 99m}Tc-Szintigraphie mit alterierten Erythrozyten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinter, D.; Diehl, S.J.; Georgi, M. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Schaub, M. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Klinische Medizin

    1999-07-01

    The wandering spleen is a rare, congenital malformation, which may pose diagnostic difficulties particularly in differentiating the wandering spleen from other abdominal masses. The diagnostic modalities of choice are contrast-enhanced CT and MRT, and scintigraphy with labelled eryhtrocytes for selective detection of splenic parenchyma. (orig./MG) [German] Dystopien der Milz sind seltene kongenitale Anomalien, die differential-diagnostische Probleme bezueglich der Abgrenzung zu anderen abdominellen Raumforderungen bereiten koennen. Die Diagnostik stuetzt sich in erster Linie auf die Schnittbildverfahren CT und MRT nach Kontrastmittelgabe, wobei die Szintigraphie mit alterierten Erythrozyten den selektiven Nachweis von Milzparenchym erlaubt. (orig.)

  4. On The Problem of Constructing Routes, Part I: Preface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertsbakh Ilya B.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a preface of the translation of the 1967 paper by Linis and Maksim, “On the problem of constructing routes” (in Russian (in the Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Aviation Engineering, Issue 102, pp. 36-45. It marks 50-year to the deficit function (DF model initially developed in this 1967 work; the DF model then paved the way to further research of vehicle-fleet management in terms of optimal routing and scheduling. The merit of this translation is to describe the roots of the DF modelling to enable further studies to emerge with more contributions.

  5. 英伦气韵 香港TAZAMANIA BALLROOM酒吧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏天(编译)

    2011-01-01

    出生于突尼斯的设计师Tom Dixon,在1980年代中期崭露头角,被誉为"未经后天栽培的焊铁家具设计天才"。他曾加盟享誉国际的意大利家具生产商Cappel-lini,并设计了经典的"S chair"座椅。此次他受杨其龙先生的邀请设计TAZAMANIA BALLROOM,其结果令人惊艳。

  6. Servqual Method: Analisis Kualitas Pelayanan Beauty Advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Widyastuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa kualitas pelayanan beauty advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar guna meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan pada konsumen. Pengambilan data menggunakan skala kualitas pelayanan yang disusun berdasarkan metode Servqual dari (Parasuraman, dkk., 1988 pada 72 orang konsumen Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar. Sampel diambil dengan menggunakan teknik insidental random sampling. Analisis data menggunakan pengukuran gap 5 dari metode Servqual. Hasil penelitian menemukan ada kesenjangan pelayanan (service gap antara persepsi dan harapan konsumen sebesar -81.09 dimana nilai minus disini berarti, kinerja kerja beauty advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar berada pada kategori rendah. Kesimpulannya, beauty advisor sebagai garda lini depan dalam pemasaran belum bekerja secara optimal.

  7. Optimization of environment compatible analysis methods for mineral hydrocarbons in the soil; Optimierung umweltvertraeglicher Analysenverfahren fuer Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffe im Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flachowsky, J.; Borsdorf, H. [eds.] [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Loehmannsroeben, H.G.; Roch, T. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany); Leopom, P. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Reimers, C. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany); Matz, G.; Kuebler, J. [MOBILAB GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Christall, B. [SOFIA GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Hahn, M.; Matschiner, H. [Elektrochemie Halle GmbH (Germany); Baermann, A. [Dr. Baermann und Partner Mikroanalytik, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes several analytical methods for the quantitative chemical analysis of mineral oil hydrocarbons in soils. The measuring methods are investigated on accuracy, errors, sample preparation methods, analysis of reference materials and real materials. (SR) [Deutsch] Mit dieser Schrift praesentiert die Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt der Oeffentlichkeit Ergebnisse zu alternativen umweltvertraeglichen Bestimmungsmethoden fuer Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffe in Boeden. Es war in erster Linie das Ziel aller beteiligten Forscher und Entwickler, die heute noch in der Anwendung befindliche Vorschrift nach DIN 38409 H18 zur Analytik von Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffen durch eine sowohl umweltfreundliche als auch insgesamt aussagekraeftige Methode zu substituieren. (orig.)

  8. A Prototype Decision Support System for the Location of Military Water Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    SOURCE O POLUTION 6. CHMUmNCATIONS DISTANCE TO ROADS RAILROADS BIDOS 7. SITE CaODITIOB (If mic s stem, use Items 9 amd 10)szctmrt IT’r BANKS (If surface...11* b. Friendly Forces (1) 7th TAP furnish close air apt to 27th Arad Div, priority to 2d Bde. (2) U.S. Border Patrol units 8 and 9. c. Att and Det...division will hold at phase lini PIZZA but will be prepared to continue advance on order. (2) Fires: Priority of air and artillery to 2d Bde. Annex C

  9. Zwischenbilanz und Verbesserungspotenziale der Europa-2020-Strategie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Während die Instrumente der Economic Governance während der Krise erheblich gestärkt wurden, sind im Bereich der sozialen Dimension Europas keine Fortschritte zu verzeichnen. Die in erster Linie auf strikter überwachte und zentral gesteuerte Budgetpolitiken setzenden Verfahren im Europäischen...... Semester haben die ohnehin bestehende Nachrangigkeit sozialer Ziele in der EU weiterhin gefestigt. Dieser Beitrag zieht eine Zwischenbilanz der Europa-2020-Strategie. Der Fokus liegt auf dem Widerspruch zwischen den sozial- und beschäftigungspolitischen Zielen und den gleichzeitigen Vorgaben zur...... werden Verbesserungspotenziale der Europa-2020-Strategie diskutiert....

  10. Magie, Hexen und Strafverfolgung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In der Reihe „Historische Einführungen“ des Campus Verlags versucht Johannes Dillinger, die Entwicklung von Magie- und Hexereivorstellungen vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart zu beschreiben. Die Hexenverfolgungen und -prozesse der Frühen Neuzeit und ihre Voraussetzungen nehmen dabei etwas mehr als die Hälfte der Gesamtdarstellung ein. Das Buch bietet in erster Linie eine Einführung in die neuere und neueste Sekundärliteratur und die dort besprochenen aktuellen Streitpunkte. In einem Teilabschnitt wird auch auf die Hexenverfolgung als Frauenverfolgung eingegangen und nach Ursachen für den hohen Frauenanteil unter den Verfolgten geforscht.

  11. Empirische Untersuchung zum Image der School of International Business (SIB) der Hochschule Reutlingen

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Im Oktober 2006 wurde erstmalig eine Vollerhebung bei den Studierenden der School of International Business (SIB) der Hochschule Reutlingen durchgeführt. Die Befragung richtete sich an die Studierenden aller Studiengänge der SIB und verfolgte in erster Linie das Ziel, die Einstellung der Studierenden zu ihrer Fakultät zu ermitteln und zu quantifizieren. Die Ergebnisse dieser Status-Quo-Analyse dienen darüber hinaus als Anhaltspunkt für die bedürfnisorientierte zukünftige Ausrichtung der Fakul...

  12. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie de Rapper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1 : 1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%, additive (48.9%, non-interactive (23.7%, and antagonistic (0.7% interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1 : 1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender.

  13. Evaluating Effects of Aromatherapy Massage on Sleep in Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim I. Williams

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found beneficial effects of aromatherapy massage for agitation in people with dementia, for pain relief and for poor sleep. Children with autism often have sleep difficulties, and it was thought that aromatherapy massage might enable more rapid sleep onset, less sleep disruption and longer sleep duration. Twelve children with autism and learning difficulties (2 girls and 10 boys aged between 12 years 2 months to 15 years 7 months in a residential school participated in a within subjects repeated measures design: 3 nights when the children were given aromatherapy massage with lavender oil were compared with 14 nights when it was not given. The children were checked every 30 min throughout the night to determine the time taken for the children to settle to sleep, the number of awakenings and the sleep duration. One boy's data were not analyzed owing to lengthy absence. Repeated measures analysis revealed no differences in any of the sleep measures between the nights when the children were given aromatherapy massage and nights when the children were not given aromatherapy massage. The results suggest that the use of aromatherapy massage with lavender oil has no beneficial effect on the sleep patterns of children with autism attending a residential school. It is possible that there are greater effects in the home environment or with longer-term interventions.

  14. Repellence of the red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda from grafted apple trees by impregnation of rubber budding strips with essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Rob W H M; Swarts, Henk J; van der Linden, Anton; Visser, J H

    2007-05-01

    The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by 'shield budding'. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely or partially, leading to bad union of the buds with the rootstocks. Budding strips are used very often by growers to bind scion buds to rootstocks. These strips cannot prevent midges from reaching the damaged tissue. Chemical treatments applied to the grafts and other types of strip do not provide better protection against the pest and may cause other risks for growers. In orchard experiments in 2000 and 2001, the authors evaluated the repellent action provided by three essential oils and five compounds of plant origin against the midges by impregnating budding strips with them. The essential oils of lavender, Lavandula angustifolia (P. Mill.), and alpha-terpineol decreased the infestation of buds by more than 95 and 80% respectively. The other potential repellents tested [the essential oil of Juniperus virginiana (L.), citronellal, the essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl, R-carvone, linalool and R-fenchone] decreased infestation by 67, 66, 51, 45, 37 and 25% respectively. The formulation and commercial development of budding strips impregnated with lavender oil is discussed.

  15. Herbal Medicines In The Treatment of Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This review will indicate the quality of the evidence supporting the clinical effects of a number of commonly used types of herbal medicines for psychiatric and neurological disorders. Method: We conducted a review of literature to understand the biochemical and evidential bases for the use of herbs in psychiatric and neurological disorders as follow: 1 Alzheimer’s disease, 2 Depression, 3 Anxiety, 4 Insomnia, 5 Substance use disorders, 6 Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, 7 Migraine. Results: Evidences support use of Ginkgo biloba, Huperzine A, Galantamine, Melissa officinalis,and Salvia officinalis for Alzheimer’s disease; St. John’s wort, Lavender, and Saffron for depression; Passionflower, and Kava, for anxiety disorders; Valerian, and English Lavender for sleep disorders; Hypericum for substance related disorders; Ginkgo biloba, and Passionflower for ADHD; and feverfew, and Butterbur root for migraine. The highest level of confidence derives from well-designed, randomized, double blind controlled studies. Conclusion: Herbs may have beneficial effects in variety of psychiatric and neurological disorder; however we must consider their potential side effects and drug-drug interactions.

  16. Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Estaca, J; López de Lacey, A; López-Caballero, M E; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

    2010-10-01

    Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on the introduction and cultivation of Zantedeschia aesthiopica%彩色马蹄莲引种栽培试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱红; 吴彩琼; 贾彩娟; 周学青; 徐义炎

    2006-01-01

    对从国外引进的彩色马蹄莲6个切花品种和8个盆栽品种的生产周期、园艺性状和烂球率进行了观察试验,结果表明:1.Lavender Gen、Pink persuasion、Little Dream、Flamingo、Littlt Jin 等5个品种的生产周期在80~86天之间,比参试的其他品种短13天左右;2.烂球率最低的是Celestre(1.6%),其次分加别为Nerolie(2.4%)、Little Jim (4.0%),最高的是Pink persuasion (20.2%);3.以园艺性状综合评价为指标,切花品种Chianti、Elliotiana、Flamingo、Lavender Gen和盆栽品种Celestre、Gold Star、Little Dream、Little Jim表现良好,建议在深圳地区引进应用.

  18. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  19. Permeation of limonene through disposable nitrile gloves using a dextrous robot hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaee, Sean; S Que Hee, Shane

    2017-03-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeation of the low-volatile solvent limonene through different disposable, unlined, unsupported, nitrile exam whole gloves (blue, purple, sterling, and lavender, from Kimberly-Clark). This study utilized a moving and static dextrous robot hand as part of a novel dynamic permeation system that allowed sampling at specific times. Quantitation of limonene in samples was based on capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the internal standard method (4-bromophenol). The average post-permeation thicknesses (before reconditioning) for all gloves for both the moving and static hand were more than 10% of the pre-permeation ones (P≤0.05), although this was not so on reconditioning. The standardized breakthrough times and steady-state permeation periods were similar for the blue, purple, and sterling gloves. Both methods had similar sensitivity. The lavender glove showed a higher permeation rate (0.490±0.031 μg/cm(2)/min) for the moving robotic hand compared to the non-moving hand (P≤0.05), this being ascribed to a thickness threshold. Permeation parameters for the static and dynamic robot hand models indicate that both methods have similar sensitivity in detecting the analyte during permeation and the blue, purple, and sterling gloves behave similarly during the permeation process whether moving or non-moving.

  20. Residual and ovicidal efficacy of essential oil-based formulations in vitro against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, B; Ellse, L; Wall, R

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils have shown good experimental potential as novel veterinary ectoparasiticides. However, if they are to be used as veterinary products, they must be available in formulations that are suitable for practical application against specific ectoparasites. Here, the efficacies of formulations containing 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oil, in combination with two emulsifiers [a surfactant, 5% (w/v) N-lauroylsarcosine sodium salt (SLS), and a soluble polymer, 5% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)], with or without 10% coconut oil, were tested in contact bioassays against the donkey chewing louse Bovicola ocellatus (Piaget) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). Residual activity was quantified in open and closed containers; ovicidal efficacy was also examined. Exposure to either of 5% (v/v) lavender or tea tree oils with SLS or PVP resulted in louse mortality of 100%, but when coconut oil was included as an excipient, significantly lower efficacy was recorded. However, the formulations became significantly less effective after 2 h in open containers and 40 h in closed containers. The results confirm that the residual activity of essential oils is relatively transitory and the addition of 10% coconut oil does not prolong the period of insecticidal activity by slowing essential oil evaporation. Too short a period of residual activity is likely to be a significant impediment to the effective practical use of essential oils. However, unlike many synthetic pediculicides, the essential oils tested here were highly ovicidal, which suggests that prolonged residual activity may not be essential to kill newly hatched nymphs after treatment.

  1. Eco-friendly and cleaner process for isolation of essential oil using microwave energy: experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Asma; Ginies, Christian; Romdhane, Mehrez; Chemat, Farid

    2009-06-26

    Microwave steam diffusion (MSD) was developed as a cleaner and new process design and operation for isolation of essentials oils and was compared to conventional steam diffusion (SD). The essential oils extracted by MSD for 3 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional steam diffusion for 20 min. In addition, an optimal operating steam flow rate of 25 g min(-1) and microwave power 200 W were found to ensure complete extraction yield with reduced extraction time. To confirm the efficiency of this process a mathematical model was proposed to describe the mass transfer of essential oil from lavender. Solid-steam mass transfer coefficients obtained by MSD were six times higher than obtained by SD. Scanning electronic microscopy was used to confirm the extraction mechanism of the essential oil present in the glandular trichomes of the flowers from lavender outer surface. MSD was better than SD in terms of energy saving, cleanliness and reduced waste water.

  2. "More than Honey": Investigation on Volatiles from Monovarietal Honeys Using New Analytical and Sensory Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Barbara; Urdl, Katharina; Jurek, Andrea; Leitner, Erich

    2017-02-15

    Eight monovarietal honeys from dandelion, fir tree, linden tree, chestnut tree, robinia, orange, lavender, and rape were investigated with respect to their volatile compounds and sensory properties. Analysis of the volatile compounds was performed by gas chromatographic techniques (one-dimensional GC-MS as well as comprehensive GC×GC-MS). For sensory evaluation Napping in combination with ultraflash profiling was applied using sensory experts. For dandelion honey, 34 volatile compounds are described for the first time to be present in dandelion honey. PCA and cluster analysis of the volatile compounds, respectively, show high correlation with the PCA obtained from sensory evaluation. Lavender and linden honey showed sensory characteristics that were not expected from these honey types. Analysis of the volatile compounds resulted in the identification of odor-active compounds that are very likely derived from sources other than the respective honeyflow. Contamination with essential oils used in apiculture is very likely to be the reason for the occurrence of these compounds in the investigated honeys.

  3. Evaluation of biological and chemical insect repellents and their potential adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, Margit; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Schmidt, Jürgen; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Plant extracts, particularly plant oils, had been used and were still in use as repellents against mosquitoes. Some of them (e.g., lavender, geraniol, and citriodiol) have been notified by the European Commission as active substances to be used in repellents, which are categorized as biocides in product type 19. In the literature, it is known that these substances must be added to repellent products in high concentrations (e.g., 20% and more) in order to reach repellent efficacy. Therefore, the question arose whether they also have repellent effects if they were added as fragrances at low concentrations of 0.25 or 1% to registered active substances in order to obtain a better scent of this product. In the present study, the repellent effects of 0.25 and 1% additions of 15 plant extracts (citronellol, cinerol, citral, menthol, linalyl acetate, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogon nardus, lilac, sandalwood, Vitex agnus castus, rosewood, lavender, geraniol, and paramenthan diol) when exposed on skin to hungry Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. These experiments showed that there was no repellent effect in any of these compounds even when the test was done already 10 min after distributing any of the compounds onto the hands of volunteers. These experiments have proven that these 15 compounds do not produce repellent effects as long as they are used in low concentrations of 0.25 or 1% as fragrances to ameliorate the odor of a notified repellent that is brought onto the skin.

  4. Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil into the mouse hindpaw: effects on capsaicin-induced nociceptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurada, Tsukasa; Kuwahata, Hikari; Katsuyama, Soh; Komatsu, Takaaki; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Bagetta, Giacinto; Sakurada, Shinobu

    2009-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of aromatherapy oils, there have not been many studies exploring the biological activities of bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso) essential oil (BEO). Recently, we have investigated the effects of BEO injected into the plantar surface of the hindpaw in the capsaicin test in mice. The intraplantar injection of capsaicin produced an intense and short-lived licking/biting response toward the injected hindpaw. The capsaicin-induced nociceptive response was reduced significantly by intraplantar injection of BEO. The essential oils of Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea), Thyme ct. linalool (linalool chemotype of Thymus vulgaris), Lavender Reydovan (Lavandula hybrida reydovan), and True Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), had similar antinociceptive effects on the capsaicin-induced nociceptive response, while Orange Sweet (Citrus sinensis) essential oil was without effect. In contrast to a small number of pharmacological studies of BEO, there is ample evidence regarding isolated components of BEO which are also found in other essential oils. The most abundant compounds found in the volatile fraction are the monoterpene hydrocarbons, such as limonene, gamma-terpinene, beta-pinene, and oxygenated derivatives, linalool and linalyl acetate. Of these monoterpenes, the pharmacological activities of linalool have been examined. Following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice, linalool produces antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects in different animal models in addition to anti-inflammatory properties. Linalool also possesses anticonvulsant activity in experimental models of epilepsy. We address the importance of linalool or linalyl acetate in BEO-or the other essential oil-induced antinociception.

  5. Antifungal (in vitro activity of plant extracts for the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villacís-Aldaz Luis Alfredo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal effect of five plant extracts: nettle (Urtica dioica, chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile, frame (Artemisia vulgaris, lavender (Lavandula officinalis and chamico (Datura ferox were evaluated at laboratory level for control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum of the tree tomato (Solanum betaceum, using two methods of extraction (maceration and steam trapping, in the results obtained, statistical differences were observed in the percentage of inhibition of mycelial growth of the fungus, the treatment with lavender extract obtained by the steam trapping method presented the greatest efficiency for anthracnose control (66.23%. The other treatments tested also showed effectiveness against the anthracnose pathogen in the following order of inhibition: chamomile (52.78%, frame (21.63, chamico (24.14%, nettle (12.94, the ability of various species to inhibit certain fungal diseases, taking into account the different content of secondary metabolites that have each of the plant species, constituting new clean production alternatives that reduce the use of chemical pesticides for the control of fungal diseases.

  6. Penentuan persentase transmisi eritema dan pigmentasi beberapa minyak atsiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widji Soeratri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged and repetitive skin exposure to the sunlight can cause several disadvantageous effects. The harmful UV radiation of sunlight includes UV-A, which is implicated in tanning, photo aging and UV-B, which is especially responsible for erythema. For protecting the skin against UV light, the pharmaceutical sunscreen products with several active ingredients include natural productessential oils are used. In this experiment we have investigated the effect of several essential oils as protection of the skin against UV light. The essential oil that used in this experiment were Lavender oil, Kenanga oil, Nilam oil, Geranium oil, Rosemary oil, Neroli oil, and Rose Moroccan oil. The sunscreen effectiveness determination was performed in vitro by determine their percentage of erythema transmission and percentage of pigmentation transmission employed spectrophotometer at wavelength 292.5–372.5 nm. The results showed only lavender oil was effective as sunscreen with the percentage of erythema transmission and percentage of pigmentation transmission was 9.94% and 80.15%, respectively. It was categories as suntan.

  7. Biochemical composition and antioxidant properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil are shielded by propolis against UV radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Angelo; Angelo, Gismondi; Canuti, Lorena; Lorena, Canuti; Grispo, Marta; Marta, Grispo; Canini, Antonella; Antonella, Canini

    2014-01-01

    UV radiations are principal causes of skin cancer and aging. Suntan creams were developed to protect epidermis and derma layers against photodegradation and photooxidation. The addition of antioxidant plant extracts (i.e. essential oil) to sunscreens is habitually performed, to increase their UV protective effects and to contrast pro-radical and cytotoxic compounds present in these solutions. According to these observations, in the present work, the alteration of chemical composition and bioactive properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil, exposed to UV light, was investigated. UV induced a significant deterioration of lavender oil biochemical profile. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of this solution, in in vitro tests and directly on B16-F10 melanoma cells, greatly decreased after UV treatment. Our results also showed that essential oil was shielded from UV stress by propolis addition. Even after UV treatment, bee glue highly protected lavender oil secondary metabolites from degradation and also preserved their antiradical properties, both in in vitro antioxidant assays and in cell oxidative damage evaluations. This research proposed propolis as highly efficient UV protective and antiradical additive for sunscreens, cosmetics and alimentary or pharmaceutical products containing plant extracts.

  8. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization.

  9. Analysis of enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes in plant emissions using portable dynamic air sampling/solid-phase microextraction (PDAS-SPME) and chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Williams, Jonathan

    A portable dynamic air sampler (PDAS) using a porous polymer solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibre has been validated for the determination of biogenic enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes in air. These compounds were adsorbed in the field, and then thermally desorbed at 250 °C in a gas chromatograph injector port connected via a β-cyclodextrin capillary separating column to a mass spectrometer. The optimized method has been applied for investigating the emissions of enantiomeric monoterpenes from Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir), Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) and Lavandula lanata (Lavender) which were selected as representative of coniferous trees and aromatic plants, respectively. The enantiomers of α-pinene, sabinene, camphene, δ-3-carene, β-pinene, limonene, β-phellandrene, 4-carene and camphor were successfully determined in the emissions from the three plants. While Douglas-fir showed a strong predominance toward (-)-enantiomers, Rosemary and Lavender demonstrated a large variation in enantiomeric distribution of monoterpenes. The simplicity, rapidity and sensitivity of dynamic sampling with porous polymer coated SPME fibres coupled to chiral capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) makes this method potentially useful for in-field investigations of atmosphere-biosphere interactions and studies of optically explicit atmospheric chemistry.

  10. Growth inhibition of Aspergillus ochraceus ZMPBF 318 and Penicillium expansum ZMPBF 565 by four essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvek, Domagoj; Markov, Ksenija; Frece, Jadranka; Landeka Dragicević, Tibela; Majica, Matea; Delas, Frane

    2010-06-01

    Fungi produce a large variety of extracellular proteins, organic acids, and other metabolites and can adapt to several environmental conditions. Mycotoxin-producing moulds of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are common food contaminants. One of the natural ways to protect food from mould contamination is to use essential oils. In this study, we evaluated the effect of essential oils of cinnamon, lavender, rosemary, and sage at 1 % (v/v) concentration in yeast media inoculated with spores (final concentration 106 mL-1 media) of Aspergillus ochraceus ZMPBF 318 and Penicillium expansum ZMPBF 565, alone or in combination, on fungal biomass. Cinnamon showed the best inhibitory effect (100 %). Lavender oil best inhibited the growth of Aspergillus ochraceus (nearly 100 %), and was less successful with Penicillium expansum (having dropped to 57 % on day 28). With cultivation time the inhibitory effect of sage and rosemary oil grew for Aspergillus ochraceus and dropped for Penicillium expansum.These results suggest that fungi can be controlled with essential oils, especially with cinnamon oil.

  11. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production.

  12. Enraizamento de microestacas de Lavandula angustifolia Rooting of Lavandula angustifolia microcuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A eliminação da etapa de enraizamento in vitro na micropropagação de plantas é desejável do ponto de vista econômico, além de proporcionar a melhoria na qualidade do sistema radicial formado. Dois experimentos foram realizados com os objetivos de avaliar diferentes concentrações (0; 2,5; 5,0 e 10mM de ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento ex vitro de lavanda (L. angustifolia, cv. 'Provence Blue' e avaliar a capacidade de enraizamento ex vitro das cultivares 'Vera', 'Provence Blue', 'English' e 'Elegance Ice'. Após 30 dias, foi avaliado o número de microestacas enraizadas, comprimento das raízes principais, porcentagem de enraizamento e porcentagem de sobrevivência. A concentração de 5,0mM de AIB foi mais efetiva para o comprimento de raízes e porcentagem de enraizamento das microestacas de lavanda cv. 'Provence Blue', apesar de reduzir o número de raízes formadas. Entre as cultivares estudadas, a porcentagem de sobrevivência das plantas variou de 82% a 100%. As cultivares apresentaram diferenças no enraizamento ex vitro das microestacas, sendo as maiores médias de porcentagem de enraizamento registradas na 'Provence Blue' e 'Elegance Ice'. Conclui-se que a microestaquia pode ser uma técnica eficiente para a propagação de lavanda, pelo tratamento das microestacas com 5,0mM de AIB, por proporcionar alta porcentagem de enraizamento e sobrevivência das plantas.Two experiments were carried out aiming to evaluate the ex vitro rooting of L. angustifolia cv. 'Provence Blue' treated with different concentrations (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10mM of indolebutyric acid (IBA with talc as a vehicle to evaluated the ex vitro rooting of 'Vera', 'Provence Blue', 'English' and 'Elegance Ice' lavender cultivars. The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse using three concentrations of AIB plus control. After the 30th day, it was evaluated: surviving microcuttings percentage, percentage of rooted microcuttings, roots number, roots length

  13. 三种植物精油抑菌效果的研究%Study on Antimicrobial Activity of the Three Plant Essential Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米热古丽·伊马木; 余雄; 阿依古丽; 龙宣杞; 王恬

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The antibacterial activities of lavender, rose and grape seed plant essential oils with different concentrations are studied in this paper. [ Method] Essential oils antibacterial activities were investigated by disc diffusion assay method . [ Result] Any concentration of lavender oil and rose oil could inhibit all bacterial species tested in our study, 3 % of lavender oil and rose oil showed the highest antibacterial activity, and activities of grape seed oil were relatively less than those of the others. The antibacterial activity on bacterial species tested in our study of 3% lavender essential oil were Staphylococcus aureus > Bacillus subtilis > Staphylicoccus albus > Lactobacillus plantarum > Escherichia coli > Enterococcus faecalis > Pediococcus pentosaceus, and 3% of rose oil essential oil were Enterococcus faecalis > Pediococcus pertosaceus > Staphylococcus aureus > Staphylicoccus albus > Lnctobacillus plantarum > Escherichia coli > Bacillus subtilis. [Conclusion]The study proved that 3% lavender oil and rose oils had strong antibacterial activities to the bacteria mentioned above and they can be used as natural antibacterial agents.%[目的]研究不同浓度的新疆薰衣草、玫瑰和葡萄籽精油对7种供试菌种的抑菌效果.[方法]采用滤纸片扩散法.[结果]不同浓度的薰衣草、玫瑰和葡萄籽精油对7种供试菌种具有一定的抑菌活性.3%的薰衣草和玫瑰精油对供试菌抑菌效果最好,其中3%薰衣草精油对7种供试菌种抑菌5种菌的活性强度为:金黄色葡萄球菌>枯草芽孢杆菌>白色葡萄球菌>植物乳杆菌>大肠杆菌>粪肠球菌>戊糖片球菌,3%玫瑰精油为:粪肠球菌>戊糖片球菌>金黄色葡萄球菌>白色葡萄球菌>植物乳杆菌>大肠杆菌>枯草芽孢杆菌.葡萄籽精油的抑菌效果相对其它两种精油较弱.[结论]薰衣草和玫瑰精油对上述细菌具有较强的抑菌效果,可作为天然抑菌剂.

  14. Characterization of Three New Glutaredoxin Genes in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus irregularis: Putative Role of RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 in Iron Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Elisabeth; Benabdellah, Karim; Ferrol, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are small ubiquitous oxidoreductases involved in the regulation of the redox state in living cells. In an attempt to identify the full complement of GRXs in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, three additional GRX homologs, besides the formerly characterized GintGRX1 (renamed here as RiGRX1), were identified. The three new GRXs (RiGRX4, RiGRX5 and RiGRX6) contain the CXXS domain of monothiol GRXs, but whereas RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 belong to class II GRXs, RiGRX6 belongs to class I together with RiGRX1. By using a yeast expression system, we observed that the newly identified homologs partially reverted sensitivity of the GRX deletion yeast strains to external oxidants. Furthermore, our results indicated that RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 play a role in iron homeostasis in yeast. Gene expression analyses revealed that RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 were more highly expressed in the intraradical (IRM) than in the extraradical mycelium (ERM). Exposure of the ERM to hydrogen peroxide induced up-regulation of RiGRX1, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 gene expression. RiGRX4 expression was also up-regulated in the ERM when the fungus was grown in media supplemented with a high iron concentration. These data indicate the two monothiol class II GRXs, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5, might be involved in oxidative stress protection and in the regulation of fungal iron homeostasis. Increased expression of RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 in the IRM suggests that these GRXs should play a key role in oxidative stress protection of R. irregularis during its in planta phase. PMID:26900849

  15. Characterization of Three New Glutaredoxin Genes in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus irregularis: Putative Role of RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 in Iron Homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Tamayo

    Full Text Available Glutaredoxins (GRXs are small ubiquitous oxidoreductases involved in the regulation of the redox state in living cells. In an attempt to identify the full complement of GRXs in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, three additional GRX homologs, besides the formerly characterized GintGRX1 (renamed here as RiGRX1, were identified. The three new GRXs (RiGRX4, RiGRX5 and RiGRX6 contain the CXXS domain of monothiol GRXs, but whereas RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 belong to class II GRXs, RiGRX6 belongs to class I together with RiGRX1. By using a yeast expression system, we observed that the newly identified homologs partially reverted sensitivity of the GRX deletion yeast strains to external oxidants. Furthermore, our results indicated that RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 play a role in iron homeostasis in yeast. Gene expression analyses revealed that RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 were more highly expressed in the intraradical (IRM than in the extraradical mycelium (ERM. Exposure of the ERM to hydrogen peroxide induced up-regulation of RiGRX1, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 gene expression. RiGRX4 expression was also up-regulated in the ERM when the fungus was grown in media supplemented with a high iron concentration. These data indicate the two monothiol class II GRXs, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5, might be involved in oxidative stress protection and in the regulation of fungal iron homeostasis. Increased expression of RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 in the IRM suggests that these GRXs should play a key role in oxidative stress protection of R. irregularis during its in planta phase.

  16. Improving the Performance of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Using Spinel Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Arrebola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we examined the use of nanospinels to construct batttery electrodes. We chose two spinels suitable as cathode materials (LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, which are representative of 4 and 5 V versus Li metal, resp. and one providing good results as anode (Li4Ti5O12. In order to ensure good cell performance, nanometric particles must meet another requirement; thus they should contain few surface or bulk defects (i.e., they should be highly crystalline. Because the synthesis of such spinels usually requires a thermal treatment, ensuring that they will meet both requirements entails accuratly controlling in the synthesis conditions. Thermal decomposition of nanooxalate in the spinel-conaining elements obtained by mechanochenical activation in the presence of polymers provides a simple, effective route for this purpose. We prepared two types of hybrid lithium-ion batteries using LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as cathode materials, and Li4Ti5O12 as anode material. The electrochemical properties of these cells were compared with those of a similar configuration made from micrometric particles. The nano-nano configuration exhibited higher reversibility and better performance than the micro-micro configuartion in both types of cells, possibly as a result of lithium ions in the former being able to migrate more easily into the electrode material.

  17. Preparation and Electrochemical Performance of High Power Lithium Ion Battery%高功率型锂离子电池的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锋涛

    2015-01-01

    The 18650/1300 mA·h Li-ion batteries were prepared with LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as positive electrode and graphite as negative electrode. The discharge capacity of the batteries at 5 C was about 99% of the capacity obtained at 1.0 C. The capacity was over 87% of the original capacity after 900 cycles. Furthermore, there was no exploding and fire when the batteries were short circuited by puncturing.%采用 LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2作为正极材料,石墨为负极材料,制成18650型/1300 mA·h 功率型圆柱电池;该类电池5 C 放电容量相当于1 C 放电容量的99%,5 C 循环测试900次后,容量剩余87%以上;经过针刺后,电池没有起火爆炸。

  18. Performance degradation of high-power lithium-ion cells-Electrochemistry of harvested electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, D. P.; Knuth, J. L.; Dees, D. W.; Bloom, I.; Christophersen, J. P.

    The performance of 18650-type high-power lithium-ion cells is being evaluated as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Technology Development (ATD) program. In this article, we present accelerated aging data acquired on 18650-cells containing LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2- or LiNi 0.8Co 0.1Al 0.1O 2-based positive electrodes, MAG-10 graphite-based negative electrodes, and 1.2-M LiPF 6 in EC:EMC (3:7 by wt.) electrolyte. Capacity and impedance data acquired on electrodes harvested from these cells highlight the contributions of the positive and negative electrodes to the degradation of cell performance. We also describe test methodologies used to examine the electrochemical characteristics of the harvested electrodes. Identifying and optimizing cell components responsible for performance degradation should enable the development of new lithium-ion cell chemistries that will meet the 15-year cell calendar life goal established by DOEs FreedomCar initiative.

  19. Thermal abuse performance of high-power 18650 Li-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, E. P.; Doughty, D. H.

    High-power 18650 Li-ion cells have been developed for hybrid electric vehicle applications as part of the DOE Advanced Technology Development (ATD) program. The thermal abuse response of two advanced chemistries (Gen1 and Gen2) were measured and compared with commercial Sony 18650 cells. Gen1 cells consisted of an MCMB graphite based anode and a LiNi 0.85Co 0.15O 2 cathode material while the Gen2 cells consisted of a MAG10 anode graphite and a LiNi 0.80Co 0.15 Al 0.05O 2 cathode. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to measure the thermal response and properties of the cells and cell materials up to 400 °C. The MCMB graphite was found to result in increased thermal stability of the cells due to more effective solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation. The Al stabilized cathodes were seen to have higher peak reaction temperatures that also gave improved cell thermal response. The effects of accelerated aging on cell properties were also determined. Aging resulted in improved cell thermal stability with the anodes showing a rapid reduction in exothermic reactions while the cathodes only showed reduced reactions after more extended aging.

  20. Low-cost waste incineration and recycling from the operator`s point of view; Kostenguenstige thermische Abfallverwertung und Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz aus Betreibersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgorf, J. [Saarberg-Oekotechnic GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The 1996 Act on Recycling and Waste Management specified that waste production should be reduced first of all, and that waste still produced should be recycled or used for power generation. Dumping and `classic` incineration are permissible only if it is the more acceptable solution from an environmental point of view. There are two categories of thermal treatment: Thermal treatment of `waste for dumping`, and use of the energy content of `waste for utilisation`. The contribution analyzes the effects of the law on future waste management concepts in consideration of the current situation of thermal treatment of residual waste. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das im Oktober 1996 in Kraft getretene Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz (KrW-/AbfG) schreibt in den Grundsaetzen der Kreislaufwirtschaft fest, dass Abfaelle in erster Linie zu vermeiden und in zweiter Linie stofflich oder energetisch zu verwerten sind. Die Beseitigung von Abfaellen - und darunter faellt auch die `klassische` Muellverbrennung - ist nur dann zugelassen, wenn sie gegenueber der Verwertung die umweltvertraeglichere Loesung darstellt. Fuer die thermische Behandlung von Abfaellen denfiniert das KrW-/AbfG deshalb zwei Wege mit unterschiedlichen Ansaetzen: Zum einen die thermische Behandlung von `Abfaellen zur Beseitigung`, wie sie bisher in vielen Anlagen zur Muellverbrennung realisiert worden ist und zum anderen die energetische Nutzung von `Abfaellen zur Verwertung`. Der vorliegende Beitrag soll die Auswirkung dieser Vorgabe auf zukuenftige Abfallwirtschaftskonzepte unter Beruecksichtigung der derzeitigen Situation der thermischen Restabfallbehandlung darstellen. (orig.)