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  1. Consonant-vowel interactions in Modern Standard Latvian: a representational and constraint-based account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Urek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I provide a representational and a constraint-based analysis of four interacting palatalization processes operative in Modern Standard Latvian: velar affrication, velar palatalization, yod-palatalization and front vowel raising. The main advantage of the representational account developed here is that it treats all of the mentioned Latvian processes as strictly assimilatory, and at the same time avoids purely stipulative mechanisms characteristic of many feature-geometric approaches to cross-category interactions. The article also contributes to the debate on the role of geometric subsegmental representations in constraint-based computational models, by demonstrating that a principled account of locality, transparency and blocking effects in Latvian palatalization requires the reference to hierarchical autosegmental structures.

  2. Physical Properties of Latvian Clays

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties of clays mostly depends on its mineral and chemical composition, particle size and pH value. The mutual influence of these parameters is complex. Illite is the most abundant clay mineral in Latvia and usually used in building materials and pottery. The viscosity and plasticity of Latvian clays from several deposits were investigated and correlated with mineral composition, particle size and pH value. Fractionated and crude clay samples were used. The p...

  3. Why don’t Latvian pension funds diversify more internationally?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens); D. Vejina; R. Vilans

    2005-01-01

    textabstractLatvian employees have to choose a pension fund for the second-pillar of the Latvian pension system. These pension funds invest about 85% in domestic assets. In this paper, we address the question why this strong home bias might exist. Firstly, we conclude that the Latvian pension law is

  4. Paranormal beliefs of Latvian college students: a Latvian version of the revised paranormal belief scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utinans, A; Ancane, G; Tobacyk, J J; Boyraz, G; Livingston, M M; Tobacyk, J S

    2015-02-01

    A Latvian version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS) was completed by 229 Latvian university students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed six relatively independent factors labeled Magical Abilities, Psychokinesis, Traditional Religious Belief, Superstition, Spirit Travel, and Extraordinary Life Forms. Based on the motivational-control model, it was hypothesized that the societal stressors affecting Latvian society during the last 50 yr. have led to a reduced sense of personal control which, in turn, has resulted in increased endorsement of paranormal beliefs to re-establish a sense of control. The motivational-control hypothesis was not supported. Results indicated that (except for Traditional Religious Belief in women), the majority of these students were disbelievers in paranormal phenomena. As hypothesized, Latvian women reported significantly greater paranormal belief than men.

  5. Comparative study of the qualitative features of the Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs

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    Juris Grigorjevs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a comparative study of the spectral characteristics and distinctive qualitative features of monophthongs of the contemporary Baltic Standard languages pronounced in isolation is described. On the one hand vowels pronounced in isolation do not represent a pronunciation in everyday speech, while on the other hand their production is probably the closest to the acoustic and auditory monophthong targets determined by our mental prototypes. This type of production represents natural hyper-articulation and differs from production of the cardinal vowels. Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs have been studied and compared using the same methods and equipment that permit a reliable comparison of phonetic inventories (quality similarities and differences of both languages. For this paper recordings of six native Lithuanian and six native Latvian male informants (having faultless articulation were used (1944 items were selected and analyzed in total. All informants are speakers of standard language. In this study the standard language is considered as a standardized language (generally the most formal version of the language used for the needs of public life and culture. Reviewing interrelations between vowels of a single language (Lithuanian or Latvian, the mean data acquired in this study is compared with the data of some previous studies. To compare the general tendencies of the relations between Lithuanian and corresponding Latvian long and short monophthongs pronounced in isolation more precisely, the following acoustic parameters (numeric values were calculated: acuteness (graveness, flatness, compactness, and tenseness. The results of the present study confirm the general tendency that qualitative characteristics of the Lithuanian long and corresponding short vowels differ to a great extent. However the quality of Latvian monophthongs produced in isolation varies very little and statistical analysis of the spectral

  6. Comparative study of the qualitative features of the Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs

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    Juris Grigorjevs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a comparative study of the spectral characteristics and distinctive qualitative features of monophthongs of the contemporary Baltic Standard languages pronounced in isolation is described. On the one hand vowels pronounced in isolation do not represent a pronunciation in everyday speech, while on the other hand their production is probably the closest to the acoustic and auditory monophthong targets determined by our mental prototypes. This type of production represents natural hyper-articulation and differs from production of the cardinal vowels.Lithuanian and Latvian monophthongs have been studied and compared using the same methods and equipment that permit a reliable comparison of phonetic inventories (quality similarities and differences of both languages.For this paper recordings of six native Lithuanian and six native Latvian male informants (having faultless articulation were used (1944 items were selected and analyzed in total. All informants are speakers of standard language. In this study the standard language is considered as a standardized language (generally the most formal version of the language used for the needs of public life and culture.Reviewing interrelations between vowels of a single language (Lithuanian or Latvian, the mean data acquired in this study is compared with the data of some previous studies. To compare the general tendencies of the relations between Lithuanian and corresponding Latvian long and short monophthongs pronounced in isolation more precisely, the following acoustic parameters (numeric values were calculated: acuteness (graveness, flatness, compactness, and tenseness.The results of the present study confirm the general tendency that qualitative characteristics of the Lithuanian long and corresponding short vowels differ to a great extent. However the quality of Latvian monophthongs produced in isolation varies very little and statistical analysis of the spectral characteristics

  7. EU Enlargement and Latvian Citizenship Policy

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    Helen M. Morris

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines whether its desire to join the European Union exerted any influence upon Latvian nationality policy. The author concludes that external pressure upon Latvian policymakers during the accession process led to a significantly more liberal and inclusive citizenship law than might have otherwise been adopted. The analysis includes an assessment of current concerns in nationality and minority policy in Latvia including the large number and status of non-citizens, the application of language legislation, and the reform of the education system. EU membership is expected to make Latvian citizenship more attractive for non-citizens and the country will continue to be required to meet its international obligations regarding treatment of the non-citizen population and minorities. However, there is a risk that the completion of accession negotiations and accompanying reduction in European Commission influence coupled with intense pressure on limited economic and administrative resources in the new member states will sideline respect for and protection of minority rights.

  8. Branding elements : A study of the largest Latvian companies

    OpenAIRE

    Rageviciusa, Dina

    2014-01-01

    The thesis studied branding elements and management in the largest Latvian companies. The objective of the research is to provide overview information of branding elements, which are used among the largest Latvian companies. The theoretical framework consists of information about the most common and significant branding elements, their management and impact including what the successful use of branding elements can bring to the company. All that was viewed from three scopes – theory, exam...

  9. Corrective Feedback in L2 Latvian Classrooms: Teacher Perceptions versus the Observed Actualities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilans, Gatis

    2016-01-01

    This two-part study aims to investigate teacher perceptions about providing oral corrective feedback (CF) to minority students of Latvian as a second language and compare the perceptions to the actual provision of CF in L2 Latvian classrooms. The survey sample represents sixty-six L2 Latvian teachers while the classroom observations involved 13…

  10. Steps towards improvement of Latvian geoid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janpaule, Inese; Balodis, Janis

    2013-04-01

    The high precision geoid model is essential for the normal height determination when the GNSS positioning methods are used. In Latvia for more than 10 years gravimetric geoid model LV'98 is broadely used by surveyors and scientists. The computation of this model was performed using GRAVSOFT software using gravimetric measurements, digitised gravimetric data and satellite altimetry data over Baltic sea, the estimated accuracy of LV'98 geoid model is 6-8cm. (J. Kaminskis, 2010) However, the accuracy of Latvian geoid model should be improved. In order to aacomplish this task, the evaluation of several methods and test computations have been made. KTH method was developed at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm. This method utilizes the least-squares modification of the Stokes integral for the biased, unbiased, and optimum stochastic solutions. The modified Bruns-Stokes integral combines the regional terrestrial gravity data with a global geopotential model (GGM) (R. Kiamehr, 2006). DFHRS (Digital Finite-Element Height Reference Surface) method has been developed at the Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Geomatics (R. Jäger, 1999). In the DFHRS concept the area is divided into smaller finite elements - meshes. The height reference surface N in each mesh is calculated by a polynomial in term of (x,y) coordinates. Each group of meshes form a patch, which are related to a set of individual parameters, which are introduced by the datum parametrizations. As an input data the European Gravimetric Geoid Model 1997 (EGG97) and 102 GNSS/levelling points were used. In order to improve the Latvian geoid model quality and accuracy the development of mobile digital zenith telescope for determination of vertical deflections with 0.1" expected accuracy is commenced at University of Latvia, Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation. The project was started in 2010, the goal of it is to design a portable, cheap and robust instrument, using industrially

  11. Current problems in Russian-Latvian relations

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    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Current relations between Russia and Latvia are still influenced by a series of mutual claims that appeared after the demise of the USSR. Latvia — as well as Estonia and Lithuania — is both an EU and NATO member state. However, unlike the above mentioned countries, its relations with Russia are developing at a more pragmatic level. Numerous political differences often result in economic losses both for Latvia and Russia. Despite the fact that Latvia has been an independent state for more than 20 years, there are still some unresolved issues in its relations with Russia. Today, relations between the two countries are often viewed through the prism of EU — Russia relations. Nonetheless, they often do not fit this context. Settling differences between Latvia and Russia will contribute to trade relations, which are increasingly important for both parties. In order to prevent and localise emerging conflicts, diplomats, politicians, and experts should interpret Russian-Latvian relations in view of the national features without referring to theoretical models based on the mythological “unity” of the three Baltic States.

  12. SMT of Latvian, Lithuanian and Estonian languages: a comparative study

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    M. Khalilov; L. Pretkalniņa; N. Kuvaldina; V. Pereseina

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to discover the main challenges in working with Baltic and Estonian languages, and to identify the most significant sources of errors generated by a SMT system trained on large-vocabulary parallel corpora from legislative domain. An immense distinction between Latvian/Lithua

  13. Narratives of Landscape in Latvian History and Memory

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    Vieda Skultans

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Latvian landscape has played a crucial, albeit changing, role in Latvian conceptions of identity. The nineteenth-century nationalist movement was articulated in terms of the relationship between land and people. During the independence period a uniquely local vision of the landscape was nurtured by art and literature, which encouraged a reverence for the landscape. Simultaneously, government policy encouraged agriculture, which flourished. Thus, the Soviets, following their occupation, entered a 'historically saturated landscape' and adopted as their remit the destruction of that landscape. My paper traces the semantic history of Latvian landscape and examines its role in providing a still point in personal narratives of loss and displacement. I conclude that the Soviets only partially succeeded in their mission of destruction. Although they succeeded in changing the physical face of the landscape and farming they were unable to destroy the pastoral vision which is a component of so many Latvian narratives. Our native hearth, Is burning in the sky, In order to come home, We do not open the door, But the cover of a book. We cannot learn from a snail, because home is not a refuge for us, But we will be a refuge for the homeland. Māra Zālīte

  14. The Social Representations of Soviet period in Latvian biographical discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Mārtiņš Kaprāns

    2012-01-01

    The PhD thesis demonstrates how the Latvian public biographical discourse has framed and transformed the understanding of Soviet period over the last 20 years and how these processes were influenced by autobiographers’ collective identities. The conceptual framework of the study is derived from the social representations theory that was founded at the beginning of the 1960s by French social psychologist Serge Moscovici. The empirical part of the thesis is based on three dataset...

  15. Opinion Mining in Latvian Text Using Semantic Polarity Analysis and Machine Learning Approach

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    Gatis Špats

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate approaches for opinion mining in Latvian text. Authors have applied, combined and extended results of several previous studies and public resources to perform opinion mining in Latvian text using two approaches, namely, semantic polarity analysis and machine learning. One of the most significant constraints that make application of opinion mining for written content classification in Latvian text challenging is the limited publicly available text corpora for classifier training. We have joined several sources and created a publically available extended lexicon. Our results are comparable to or outperform current achievements in opinion mining in Latvian. Experiments show that lexicon-based methods provide more accurate opinion mining than the application of Naive Bayes machine learning classifier on Latvian tweets. Methods used during this study could be further extended using human annotators, unsupervised machine learning and bootstrapping to create larger corpora of classified text.

  16. Conditional risk measure modeling for Latvian insurance companies

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    Irina Voronova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current economical situation on the Latvian market insurance companies are forced to consider other possibilities of income generation. One of such opportunities could be seen in cash flows from investment operations, while managing stocks' portfolios. The process of portfolio management is tightly connected with adequate risk management. In the current paper we have used copula approach for estimating portfolio’s conditional risk measures and though to contribute to the discussion about appropriate risk management in the insurance companies.

  17. Sustainability by Education: How Latvian Heritage was Kept Alive in German Exile

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    Franzenburg Geert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is one of the core challenges for education in modern times, particularly concerning cultural heritage. The study evaluates, from a German point of view, how Latvians outside of Latvia after World War II kept their cultural heritage alive by educational concepts, which can be characterized as early roots of modern sustainable education. The evaluation focus concerns a group of Latvians in Germany associated with the Latvian high school in Muenster (MLG. The study concerns the 25 years from 1957 (school relocation to Muenster until 1982 (founding of the organization “Latvian Center of Muenster e.V.” (LCM, and combines interviews and literature research. It underlines that environmental, social and heritage education can be seen as core elements of Latvian education abroad. Therefore, the study will not present a concise history of the Latvian high school in Muenster (MLG, which has already been done (Sprogis, 2009, but will concisely evaluate the educational concepts of this particular period as a model, how Latvians maintained their heritage in a sustainable way.

  18. Financial Literacy of Latvian Citizens: Findings and Conclusions

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    Guna Ciemleja

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis and financial stability issues of the Eurozone countries have demonstrated that the total of financial knowledge and skills of the population that lets people make informed and efficient decisions is of utmost importance. Considering high social importance of financial education, it is necessary to develop a knowledge platform to increase the level of financial literacy. The results obtained in the process of assessment of the level of individual's financial literacy provide information on the factors, which reduce financial efficiency and cause unnecessary costs. Despite a vast body of international experience in the field of financial literacy assessment, one of the main problems is to develop a measuring instrument, which can ensure valid results and can be adapted to the socio-economic and demographic conditions of a definite country. Therefore, in 2015, academic personnel of the Department of Finance, Faculty of Engineering Economics and Management of Riga Technical University conducted research within the project «Enhancing Latvian Citizens' Securitability through Development of the Financial Literacy» and developed an instrument for assessment of the level of financial literacy, which can be used to evaluate financial knowledge of the Latvian citizens taking into consideration all components of financial literacy. The results are briefly described in the current paper.

  19. The Latvian Legion (1943-1945) and Its Role in Latvia’s History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    initiative Thanks to the historians like Timothy Snyder , today the Western world has access to a variety of information on the actual events...and Thomas Lane. The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London: Routledge, 2002. Snyder , Timothy . Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and...by EDMUNDS SVENCS, MAJOR, LATVIAN ARMED FORCES B.A., Latvian National Defense Academy, Riga, 2000 M.A., Riga Teacher Training and Educational

  20. The Interrelationship of Religion and Magic in the Experience\tof Latvians in Timofeyevka, Siberia

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    Aigars Lielbardis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Groups of texts about seasonal celebrations, family customs and charmers are examined in this article in order to reveal the interrelationship of magic and religion in Latvian traditional culture in Timofeyevka. The recollections and knowledge of informants, recorded in 2004 and 2006, during fieldwork in Timofeyevka, have been supplemented with examples published in the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as recently documented examples of Latvian folklore in Latvia. The entire year of seasonal celebrations, which have become closely associated with the Catholic calendar – Christmas, Epiphany, Easter, Pentecost, Midsummer, and the remembrance of the dead in the autumn – has been examined. Annual festivities celebrated in the Latvian community have merged with Slavic festivals, for example, Easter, Pentecost and Midsummer traditions. In the recollections of family customs descriptions of funeral customs dominate over christenings and weddings. Notions of the supernatural are revealed in the stories of personal experience about healing, as well as in belief legends, which tell about the unusual ability of a person to transform into an animal or object. The experiences of the Latvian community of Timofeyevka concerning religion (official religion and magic (unofficial religion cannot be differentiated, because they represent a unified conceptual system in which one adds to the other. The rich traditional cultural heritage in Timofeyevka has been preserved due to the location of the village far away from large cities and main roads, and also due to the Latvian community’s large population numbers in the past.

  1. Latvian dialects in the 21st century: old and new borders

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    Anna Stafecka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Latvian dialects in the 21st century: old and new borders Although historical regional dialects are still relatively well preserved in Latvia, nowadays one can no longer speak of dialects and sub-dialects in the traditional sense because, due to changes of administrative borders, the traditional sub-dialects are subject to attrition and gradual loss. In particular, the contact zone of Central and High Latvian dialect has changed markedly. The border of High Latvian dialect has moved to the east. Since 2013, a project “Latvian Dialects in the 21st Century: a Socio­linguistic Aspect” is being carried out in order to gain an insight into contemporary Latvian dialect situation, analyzing at least three sub-dialects in each dialect. However, we can speak of dialect borders in another aspect. For instance, the borders between the preservation of dialectal features and the impact of standard language, as well as the borders of maintenance of sub-dialectal feature among the speakers of different age groups. Attention is also paid to the use of sub-dialects in central and peripheral parts of territories. The first research results showed that people who live further from the centre use the sub-dialect more often – especially in communication with family members (including the younger generation, relatives and neighbours. The preliminary results show a different situation among dialects. In the sub-dialects of the Middle dialect, which is closest to Standard Latvian, the borderline between sub-dialect and standard language has almost disappeared, since the infor­mants practically do not feel any difference between them. In the Livonianized dialect, there are several features that are still more or less present in the speech of all generations – generalization of masculine gender, reduc­tion of word endings, etc. However, in this dialect, too, the language used by younger speakers is gradually losing the dialectal features. The situation differs

  2. Art Deco in Estonian and Latvian Graphic Design Journals

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    Merle Talvik

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Years of the first independence in Estonia and Latvia involved the second wave of nationalism in art and culture. National theme became a source which had to be treated fashionably. The fashionable European style was art deco that spread in the Baltics, Finland and elsewhere in periphery of Europe from the second half of the 1920s until 1940. The author has examined and analysed a wide variety of Estonian illustrated magazines and journals. The examples of Latvian magazines come from the collections of the Information Centre of Art Academy of Latvia. The article explores common features in the pieces of the following artists: Vabbe – Vidbergs, Vaino – Apsītis, Madernieks – Reindorff, also Luhtein, Siirak, Mugasto, Verny, Triik versus Strunke, Zeberiņš and Kasparsons. The first goal is to prove that graphic design journals in art deco style were very popular in the periphery of Europe in these years. Secondly, the author claims that objects that apparently lie outside the definition of ‘art’ can be subjected to visual analysis in such a way as to open important doors to the understanding of their origin, reception, place in society, and subsequent history. They are reflections of relations of power, aesthetic objectives, changing theories and rituals of art and society. This is the reason why graphic design journals are treated as carriers of culture.

  3. View from Behavioral Economics Theory: Case of Latvian Rural Entrepreneurs

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    Igo Cals

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory of classical economics treats entrepreneurs as subjects who make rational economic decisions. Empirical surveys prove the fact that daily economic decisions made by a separate economic entity can be explained by concepts of behavioral economics rather than classical economics. The economic behavior of entrepreneurs happens to be based on bounded rationality instead of financial justification. The objective of an economic activity presented as economically efficient can turn out to be socially important to a specific entrepreneur and not to national economy as a whole. In the EU countries, agriculture is a subsidised industry of national economy. In this light, status consumption and purchase of positional goods should create a special interest among economists. The objective of this article is to present true reasons of economic decisions made by rural entrepreneurs and to analyse the value hierarchy of Latvian rural entrepreneurs through carrying out a field work and with the help of set of instruments developed by modern economics theory.

  4. Assessment of antibiotic prescribing in Latvian general practitioners

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    Dumpis Uga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though general antibiotic consumption data is available, information on the actual patterns of prescribing antibiotics locally is difficult to obtain. An easy to use methodology was designed to assess ambulatory management of infections by Latvian general practitioners (GPs. Methods GPs were asked to record data in a patient data collection form for every patient that received antibiotics. Study period – (7 days one week in November, 2008. Data recorded included the following details: an antibiotic, the prescribed dose, dosing interval, route of administration combined with the demographic factors of the patient and clinical diagnosis based on a pre-defined list. Results Two hundred forty eight forms out of the 600 (41% were returned by post. Antibiotics were prescribed in 6.4% (1711/26803 of outpatient consultations. In total, 1763 antibiotics were prescribed during the study period. Ninety seven percent of the patients received monotherapy and only 47 (2.7% patients were prescribed two antibiotics. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (33.9% of prescribed, amoxicillin/clavulanate (18,7% and clarithromycin (7.6%. The most commonly treated indications were pharyngitis (29.8%, acute bronchitis (25.3% and rhinosinusitis (10.2%. Pneumonia was mostly treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate (25,7%, amoxicillin (15.7% and clarithromycin (19.3%. Conclusions Methodology employed provided useful additional information on ambulatory practice of prescribing antibiotics and could be used in further assessment studies. Educational interventions should be focused on treatment of acute pharyngitis and bronchitis in children and unnecessary use of quinolones in adults for uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

  5. Slavic Loanwords in the Terms for Dumplings in Latvian

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    Brigita Bušmane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Slavic Loanwords in the Terms for Dumplings in Latvian Food is an essential part of the material culture of every nation. It frequently preserves national traditions and old names longer than other spheres do, additionally, it lets observe the influence of other cultures. According to dictionary data, dumplings were known in Latvia already in the 18th century. Many names for them have been attested in regional subdialects of Latvian; borrowings usually cover wide areas. In this article, basing on ethnographic and linguistic material notations of different antiquity thus tracing the use of names for dumplings almost a century long and referring to dictionary data from 18th–19th century, the author tried to reveal the use and distribution of names for dumplings of Slavic origin in subdialects of Lat­vian, as well as to offer fragmentary data on the use of particular Slavic borrowings in neighboring languages. The Slavic borrowings kļocka, zacirka alongside variant names are widespread in Eastern Latvia, i.e. in a rather narrow or wide area of the High Latvian dialect. In Eastern Latvia, the names klučki, klučkas derived from the Germanic borrowing kluči, with insertion of the consonant k under influence of Russian, have also been registered. From the semantic angle, the borrowings kļockas, klučkas and their variants are denoting dumplings made of various raw materials (e.g., different kinds of flour, also pea-flour, potatoes. Further references to ingredients of this food and its preparation are included in the explanation of the Slavic borrowing zacirka and its variants most typical for the peasants vocabulary in Latgale. The Slavic borrowings examined in this article have not seldom (even up to the last decades of the 20th century been serving as the only names of the said dish in the speech of representants of the oldest generation in the particular area in Eastern Latvia.   Słowiańskie zapożyczenia wśród nazw pierogów w j

  6. Female Leaders in a Radical Right Movement: The Latvian National Front

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    Stasulane, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Gender is the central axis around which the transformation of radical right forces is taking place: a new type of movement is emerging which is not excessively masculine. Latvia is experiencing an increase in women's participation in the radical right, the Latvian National Front (LNF) being a vivid example. The development of the LNF was…

  7. English-Latvian SMT: the challenge of translating into a free word order language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalilov, M.; Fonollosa, J.A.R.; Skadiņa, I.; Brālītis, E.; Pretkalniņa, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two approaches to statistical machine translation (SMT) and their application to a task of English-to-Latvian translation, which is still an open research line in the field of automatic translation. We consider a state-of-the-art phrase-based SMT and an alt

  8. Service quality in banking: developing and testing measurement instrument with Latvian sample data

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    Jelena Titko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the importance of managing service quality in banking that can positively affect customer satisfaction. The goal of the given study is to develop an instrument for measuring service quality perceived by Latvian banks’ retail customers and to determine the most important contributors to customer satisfaction. To achieve this purpose, randomly selected customers of Latvian banks were surveyed, using the authors’ developed questionnaire. The proposed instrument was tested for reliability and validity, using techniques of confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis yielded five service quality dimensions (factors that allowed constructing customer satisfaction factor model EPICA: E – expenses, P – product, I – image, C – competence and emotional intellect, A – access. The subsequent correlation analysis revealed that the strongest relationship is between customer satisfaction and C factor. The results of the current research are crucially important for Latvian banks’ executives because the majority of previous studies in the related field offered measurement scales adequate for measuring service quality in other industries. Besides, the proposed questionnaire is exclusively developed for Latvia and considers Latvian banking sector specifics.

  9. Female Leaders in a Radical Right Movement: The Latvian National Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasulane, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Gender is the central axis around which the transformation of radical right forces is taking place: a new type of movement is emerging which is not excessively masculine. Latvia is experiencing an increase in women's participation in the radical right, the Latvian National Front (LNF) being a vivid example. The development of the LNF was…

  10. Y-Chromosomal Lineages of Latvians in the Context of the Genetic Variation of the Eastern-Baltic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliss, Liana; Timša, Līga; Rootsi, Siiri; Tambets, Kristiina; Pelnena, Inese; Zole, Egija; Puzuka, Agrita; Sabule, Areta; Rozane, Sandra; Lace, Baiba; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Krumina, Astrida; Ranka, Renate; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2015-11-01

    Variations of the nonrecombining Y-chromosomal region were investigated in 159 unrelated Baltic-speaking ethnic Latvians from four different geographic regions, using 28 biallelic markers and 12 short tandem repeats. Eleven different haplogroups (hgs) were detected in a regionally homogeneous Latvian population, among which N1c, R1a, and I1 cover more than 85% of its paternal lineages. When compared its closest geographic neighbors, the composition of the Latvian Y-chromosomal gene pool was found to be very similar to those of Lithuanians and Estonians. Despite the comparable frequency distribution of hg N1c in Latvians and Lithuanians with the Finno-Ugric-speaking populations from the Eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, the observed differences in allelic variances of N1c haplotypes between these two groups are in concordance with the previously stated hypothesis of different dispersal ways of this lineage in the region. More than a third of Latvian paternal lineages belong specifically to a recently defined R1a-M558 hg, indicating an influence from a common source within Eastern Slavic populations on the formation of the present-day Latvian Y-chromosome gene pool. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  11. Acoustic characteristics of the Latvian diphthongs produced by male and female informants

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    Juris Grigorjevs

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was finding acoustic characteristics of the Latvian diphthongs irrespective of the speaker’s gender. The method designed by the author allowed to compare diphthongs of different duration, thus revealing common tendencies both in the formant structures and in the diphthong paths on the vowel plane. A comparison of the diphthong paths with the location of the long monophthongs on psychophysical F2′ vs. F1 plane showed that the paths begin in the vicinity of the corresponding monophthong but end with an undershoot, i.e., not completely reaching the target frequencies. Dynamics of the formant trajectories of the Latvian diphthongs produced in the zero context in most cases display a two-phase pattern with a relatively short steady state of the first component (the longest in [ie] and [uo]: about 1/3 of the total duration and a long transitionary phase with no steady state of the second component. The duration of the Latvian diphthongs (W is between that of the short (V and the long (Vː monophthongs. The durational ratio of the short monophthongs to the diphthongs and the long monophthongs is V : W :  Vː = 1 : 1.5 : 2.

  12. The Latvian version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumba, I; Ruperto, N; Bikis, E; Remberga, S; Saulite, I; Plotkina, N; Viksna, A; Krauca, M; Breca, I; Vikmanis, U

    2001-01-01

    We report herein the results of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation into the Latvian language of the parent's version of two health related quality of life instruments. The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) is a disease specific health instrument that measures functional ability in daily living activities in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) is a generic health instrument designed to capture the physical and psychosocial well-being of children independently from the underlying disease. The Latvian CHAQ CHQ were fully validated with 1 forward and 1 backward translations. A total of 141 subjects were enrolled: 80 patients with JIA (16% systemic onset, 32.5% polyarticular onset, 19% extended oligoarticular subtype, and 32.5% persistent oligoarticular subtype) and 61 healthy children. The CHAQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic, polyarticular and extended oligoarticular subtypes having a higher degree of disability, pain, and a lower overall well-being when compared to their healthy peers. Also the CHQ clinically discriminated between healthy subjects and JIA patients, with the systemic onset, polyarticular onset and extended oligoarticular subtypes having a lower physical and psychosocial well-being when compared to their healthy peers. In conclusion the Latvian version of the CHAQ-CHQ is a reliable, and valid tool for the functional, physical and psychosocial assessment of children with JIA.

  13. Association of SUMO4 M55V polymorphism with autoimmune diabetes in Latvian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedimbi, Saikiran K; Shastry, Arun; Park, Yongsoo; Rumba, Ingrida; Sanjeevi, Carani B

    2006-10-01

    Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO4), located in IDDM5, has been identified as a potential susceptibility gene for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The novel polymorphism M55V, causing an amino acid change in the evolutionarily conserved met55 residue has been shown to activate the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), hence the suspected role of SUMO4 in the pathogenicity of T1DM. The M55V polymorphism has been shown to be associated with susceptibility to T1DM in Asians, but not in Caucasians. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a slowly progressive form of T1DM and SUMO4 M55V has not been studied in LADA to date. The current study aims to test whether Latvians are similar to Caucasians in susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes (T1DM and LADA), with respect to SUMO4 M55V. We studied, age- and sex-matched, Latvian T1DM patients (n = 100) and healthy controls (n = 90) and LADA patients (n = 45) and healthy controls (n = 95). SUMO4 M55V polymorphism was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The allelic frequencies of the A and G alleles were compared with HLA DR3-DR4-positive and HLA DR3-DR4-negative patients to identify any potential relation between HLA DR3-DR4 and SUMO4 M55V. We found no significant association between SUMO4 M55V and T1DM susceptibility in Latvians, the results being in concurrence with the previous studies in Caucasians of British and Canadian origin. Comparison of the A and G alleles with HLA DR3-DR4 did not result in any significant P values. No significant association was found between SUMO4 M55V and LADA. SUMO4 M55V is not associated with susceptibility to T1DM and LADA in Latvians, and Latvians exhibit similarity to other Caucasians with respect to association of SUMO4 M55V with autoimmune diabetes.

  14. The acquisition of the Latvian language as the Second language at preschool age in theory and practice

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    Ingēra Tomme-Jukēvica

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Latvia there are no substantial studies on bilingual preschool children’s Latvian language as the second language. The article provides an overview of the 20th–21st century linguistic theories in the context of child second language acquisition as well as raises awareness about their influence on and use in the learning of preschoolers whose second language is Latvian, carrying out content analysis of the Minority Preschool Education Program (with instruction in Russian, the Latvian Language Program of X preschool education establishment, teaching resources (teaching aid kits, didactic handouts as well as the Latvian language as the second language study content. The conclusion is drawn that the theory of communicative competence and the systemic functional grammar theory prevail as well as the basic principles of the behavioral theory can be discerned. In the teaching resources and learning process it is advisable to more often incorporate the same language material repetition in different situations and new combinations. Consideration must be given to more positive and negative transfer (interference emphasis. To prevent children’s errors it is advisable to provide and incorporate special exercises in the teaching resources as well as methodological recommendations for the Latvian language teachers.

  15. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

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    Radziukynas V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011 and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023.

  16. Economic Consciousness and the System of Values of Latvian University Graduates

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    Voronov Viktor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the attitude of a Latvian university’s graduates to wealth and means of its acquisition, as well as their assessment of their own economic status and preferred moves in case of unemployment. The author estimates the university graduates’ personal capabilities; their interests, skills and qualifications, the extent of their reliance on their own initiative and resources, and their confidence about the future. The article defines the graduates’ economic interests forming motivations and approaches to practical economic behavior according to certain types of economic consciousness.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production from Marine Macroalgae: a Latvian Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilicka, Iluta; Blumberga, Dagnija; Romagnoli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    There is potential environmental benefit to be gained from the use of algae because of their ability to fix CO2, no need for direct land use and utilization of bio-waste (rich in potassium, phosphate and nitrogen based compounds) as a nutrients. The aim of the research is to assess the impact of biogas production and the final use in a cogeneration unit system from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in comparison with a similar reference system using a non-renewable source (e.g. natural gas). The paper is intended to be a preliminary study for understanding the implementation of this novel technology in a Latvian context.

  18. THE LATVIAN LANGUAGE IN THE LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPE OF DAUGAVPILS (THE MIDDLE OF THE 19TH CENTURY - TODAY

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    Solvita Pošeiko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on the LL of Daugavpils from a diachronic point of view in order to describe the usage of the Latvian language in the public space since the middle of the 19th century until today, as well as the socio-economic and political factors which influence the language situation. Research sources are old photos which depict legible signboards, and photos obtained during LL research 2013. The role of the Latvian language in public information increased during the first period of independence, when ideas of nationalism become widespread and the first normative documents about language usage were approved. However, the stability of Latvian as the main language of the public was only established during the first Latvian Republican period at the end of the 20th century, when the State Language Law was passed and implemented in linguistic practice. Currently, the linguistic landscape reflects the political, socio-pragmatic, and social identity motivations of the owners of public texts, but within the confines of the restrictions imposed by language laws

  19. Associations of HLA DR and DQ molecules with Lyme borreliosis in Latvian patients

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    Kovalchuka Lilija

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many autoimmune diseases are associated with variants of HLA genes such as those encoding the MHC complex. This correlation is not absolute, but may help in understanding of the molecular mechanism of disease. The purpose of this study was to determine HLA-DR,-DQ alleles in Latvian patients with Lyme borreliosis and control (healthy persons. Case patients and control subjects were similar in age, gender and ethnic heritage and differed only as regards the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. The study included 25 patients with clinical stage – erythema migrans and 30 control (healthy persons. HLA genotyping was performed by PCR with sequence-specific primers. Results The results show difference in HLA-DRB1 alleles distribution between patients and control subjects. The frequencies of HLA-DRB1 *04 (OR 11.24; p  Conclusions HLA predisposition to Lyme borreliosis appears not to be limited to HLA molecules, but some HLA-DR alleles also have a significant influence, and, may have implications in our understanding of pathogenesis of this disease. In particular, HLA-DRB1*04 and DRB1 *17 (03 may contribute to the Lyme borreliosis development in Latvian population

  20. Relationship between Personality Types Conceptualized by C. G. Jung and Latvian IT Specialist Preferences

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    Maris Dargis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available General people’s personality types, as well as idiosyncrasies and cognition and perception characteristics specific to each type, are a common research item, especially in such areas as pedagogics, human resource management, etc. Personality traits characteristic for individuals and teams of certain specific avocations (i.e., project teams, however, are a much less explored subject. In this area, the amount of conducted research is congruent with the geopolitical location and directly correlates with the possibility of finding practical applications for the findings of said research. This study presents the initial findings of such research, within the scope of which the idiosyncrasies common for IT specialists were explored using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI model. These initial findings can be used as the foundation for further study on the subject, helping to create a general Latvian IT specialist’s personality profile, and, possibly, identifying the areas that need development, while taking into consideration the tendencies and requirements of the Latvian IT market, as well as those of  the labour market worldwide.

  1. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in Latvian patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Rajalingham, Raja; Rumba, Ingrida; Sanjeevi, Carani B

    2004-12-01

    T1DM is very common in Sweden and is positively associated with HLA class II genes. Approximately 89% of the newly diagnosed patients carry the high-risk HLA DR4-DQ8 and DR3-DQ2. The remaining 11% develop T1DM without them. This can be due to involvement of other genes and environmental factors. Natural killer (NK) cells of the innate immune system are important in antiviral and antitumor immunity. They are implicated in the etiology of autoimmune T1DM. Human NK cells express killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) that belong to the polymorphic multigene family in chromosome 19q3.4. They modulate NK cell response by interacting with HLA class I. In addition, polymorphic MICA in HLA class I interacts with non-polymorphic NKG2D receptor on NK cells. We have studied, in addition to HLA-DR and -DQ, genes of the innate immune system MICA and KIR in Latvian patients (n = 98) with T1DM and controls (n = 100). They were genotyped using standard PCR-based typing methods. MICA allele 5 is positively associated with T1DM. KIR2DL2 and KIR2DS2 were both positively associated. Combined association of MICA4 and KIR2DL2 gave an odds ration (OR) of 26.7. However, the combined risk of KIR2DL2 and HLA class II genes, HLADR3 (OR = 73.4), DR4 (OR = 66.8), and DR3 and DR4 (OR = 88.3), was higher. The maximum risk was when KIR2DL2, MICA5, and DR3/DR4 were in combination. In conclusion, our results suggest that a balance between innate and acquired immunity is important, and an imbalance coud lead to T1DM.

  2. Challenges in accounting the forests - a Latvian case study

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    Evija Grege-Staltmane

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest has a long production cycle. Therefore forest bookkeepinghas specific characteristics. However accounting for forest activities has received little attention from accounting researchers. The release of International Accounting Standard 41 "Agriculture" (IAS 41 established a single accounting system for forest assets. The paper analyzes application of IAS 41 which regulates forest accounting. Practice of international forestry companies is examined, and current forest accounting situation in Latvia is investigated. The main factors affecting valuation of a forest in its fair value are discussed and major problems in forest accounting are illuminated.The research indicates that land value and standing timber valueshould be recorded separately and standing timber should be estimated at its fair value. Despite the attempt of the International Accounting Standard Board to improve the accounting with IAS 41 for biological assets, much enhancement in forest accounting is still needed.

  3. Genetic variants in the PSMA6, PSMC6 and PSMA3 genes associated with childhood asthma in Latvian and Taiwanese populations

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    Paramonova N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteasomes mediate functional realization of signaling proteins implicated in asthma pathogenesis. Aim. To evaluate main and sex-specific association between the PSMA6, PSMC6 and PSMA3 proteasomal genes variations and childhood asthma in Latvians and Taiwanese. Methods. SNPs rs2277460, rs1048990, rs2295826, rs2295827 and rs2348071 were genotyped in 102 Latvian and 159 Taiwanese cases for comparison with genetic diversity in populations (191 and 1097 subjects respectively. Results. Haplotype CGACG showed strong (P < 0.0001 association with asthma risk in both populations. All loci heterozygous genotypes and haplotype CCGTA were identified as asthma risk factors in Latvians; rs1048990 and rs2348071 GG homozygotes and rs2295826 and rs2295827 heterozygotes showed asthma risk and protective effect in Taiwanese females respectively. The multi locus genotypes homozygous for alleles being common in Latvian population were identified as protective in Latvians and disease susceptible in Taiwanese. Conclusions. Our results suggest an association of the 14q13-23 proteasomal genes polymorphisms with the childhood asthma in Latvians and Taiwanese and high-light risk and/or protective factors being the same or different between the populations.

  4. Pre-World War II Romania from Latvian Perspective: An Envoy's views

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    Ēriks Jēkabsons

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The paper approaches the working environment and observations of Latvian envoy Ludvigs Ēķis in Romania from the autumn of 1939 when the Latvian Legation was opened in Bucharest until the summer of 1940 when the State of Latvia was liquidated. The main focus is on the Latvian-Romanian relations in this period of time, the Romanian foreign and economical policy and the reaction of Romanian statesmen and society to the events and processes of the first stage of World War: the policy of Soviet Union, Germany and Hungary, the Soviet-Finnish War and other conflicts in region and in Europe. The article is based on the materials stored in the State Archives of Latvia and particularly on Ludvigs Ekis’ reports. In a time when war was raging in Europe, Romania, too, was subject to considerable international pressure. Some similarities can be detected between the developments in this region and in the Baltic States.Rezumat:Lucrarea abordează mediul de lucru şi observaţiile ministrului leton în România Ludvigs Ēķis începând din toamna anului 1939, cand Legaţia letonă a fost deschisă la Bucureşti, până în vara anului 1940, când statul leton a fost lichidat. Lucrarea se va concentra în principal asupra relaţiilor letono-române în această perioadă de timp, asupra politicii externe şi a celei economice, a reacţiei oamenilor de stat şi a societăţii româneşti faţă de evenimente şi procese desfăşurate în prima etapă a primului război mondial: politicile Uniunii Sovietice, Germaniei şi Ungariei, Războiul sovieto-finlandez şi alte conflicte regionale şi europene. Articolul se bazează pe materiale păstrate în arhivele de stat din Letonia şi în special pe rapoartele lui Ludvigs Ēķis. Într-un moment în care războiul făcea ravagii în Europa, România a fost, de asemenea, supusă unor presiuni internaţionale considerabile. Unele similitudini pot fi detectate între evoluţiile din această regiune

  5. The relationship between anomie and participation of Latvian inhabitants in social activities

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    Levina J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate relations between different dimensions of anomie of Latvian inhabitants and their participation in social activities, as well as to find what social activities of Latvian inhabitants best predict their sense of anomie. In this research the secondary data from the third European Quality of Life Survey (European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS, 2012 was used. The Latvian sample consisted of respondents (n = 1009, aged from 18 to 92 years (male – 34.9%, female – 65.1%. To assess anomie three subscales of anomie – Social distrust, Social isolation and Meaninglessness – were used. These subscales [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] were constructed basing on the integrative multidimensional model of anomie, developed by Ļevina, Mārtinsone and Kamerāde [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6], and using questions from the third European Quality of Life Survey [7]. To measure social activities, twenty questions of the third European Quality of Life Survey were used. It was found that all three aspects of anomie – social distrust, social isolation and meaninglessness – were negatively associated with such social activities as interaction with others without doing a specific activity with them, doing an activity with others, helping others and contributing to society (civic activities. Contact by phone, the Internet or by post with a brother, sister or other relative best of all predicted social distrust. Contact by phone, the Internet or by post with any of friends or neighbours, as well as with a brother, sister or other relative together with participation in social activities in a club, society, or an association and attending a meeting of a trade union, a political party or political action group best of all predicted social isolation. Meaninglessness best of all could be predicted by contact by phone, the Internet or by post with any of friends or neighbours as well as with brother, sister or other relative and by

  6. Analysis of Yearly Traffic Fluctuation on Latvian Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimanis, A.; Paeglı¯tis, A.

    2015-11-01

    Average annual daily traffic and average annual truck traffic are two most used metrics for road management decisions. They are calculated from data gathered by continuous counting stations embedded in road pavement, manual counting sessions or mobile counting devices. Last two usually do not last longer than a couple of weeks so the information gathered is influenced by yearly traffic fluctuations. Data containing a total of 8,186,871 vehicles or 1989 days from 4 WIM stations installed on highways in Latvia were used in this study. Each of the files was supposed to contain data from only 1 day and additional data were deleted. No other data cleaning steps were performed, which increased the number of vehicles as counting systems sometimes split vehicles into two. Weekly traffic and weekly truck traffic was normalized against respective average values. Each weekly value was then plotted against its number in a year for better visual perception. Weekly traffic amplitudes were used to assess differences between different locations and standard deviations for fluctuation comparison of truck and regular traffic at the same location. Results show that truck traffic fluctuates more than regular traffic during a year, especially around holidays. Differences between counting locations were larger for regular traffic than truck traffic. These results show that average annual daily traffic could be influenced more if short term counting results are adjusted by factors derived from unsuitable continuous counting stations, but truck traffic is more influenced by the time of year in which counting is done.

  7. Employers’ involvement in the development of professional higher education Latvian experience and challenges

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    Stankevics A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to update lately (since the 2009th year changes in educational policy-makers, employers and professional education cooperative institutional framework outlining the involvement of employers in the increasing importance of education development issues in Latvian. The employers are actively involved in the development of professional higher education in Latvia, thus trying to the maximum extent to solve the problems of human resources availability and employment in all the branches of the economy. In general, this creates conditions for the achievement of the aim of the EU strategy “Europe 2020” to raise the importance of education and to correspond to the demands of the labour market in Latvia.

  8. Latvian Security and Defense Policy within the Twenty-First Century Security Environment

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    Rublovskis Raimonds

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze fundamental factors which form and profoundly shape security and defense policy of the Republic of Latvia. One can argue that historical background, geographical location, common institutional history within the former Soviet Union, the Russia factor, the relative smallness of the territory of state and the population, the ethnic composition of the population, the low density of the population and rather limited financial and manpower resources available for the defense of the Republic of Latvia are the key factors of influence on the state security and defense policy. The core principles of the security and defense policy of Latvia are the membership in powerful global military alliance of NATO and bilateral strategic partnership with the United States. However, security and defense cooperation among the three Baltic States as well as enhanced cooperation within the Baltic-Nordic framework is seen as an important supplementary factor for the increased security of the Republic of Latvia. Latvia has developed a sustainable legal and institutional framework in order to contribute to state security and defense; however, security challenges and significant changes within the global security environment of the twenty-first century will further challenge the ability of the Republic of Latvia to sustain its current legal framework, and more importantly, current institutional structure of Latvian security and defense architecture. Significant internal and external challenges will impact the fundamental pillars of Latvian security and defense policy, such as American strategic shift to the Pacific, and lack of political will to increase defense budgets in European part of NATO. It has to be clear that very independence, security and defense of the Republic of Latvia depend on the ability of NATO to remain an effective organization with timely and efficient decision-making, and the ability of the United States to remain

  9. Influence of thermal treatment and combustible additives on properties of Latvian clay ceramics pellets

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    Liga Dabare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous ceramic pellets for possible environmental application were produced from different Latvian clays by sintering at different temperatures. Their characteristics and influence of additives were analysed using X-ray diffraction, mercury porosimetry and BET tests. The obtained ceramic pellets from calcareous clays after immersion in distilled water change its pH value, which affects their capability to adsorb ions or molecules on the surface. The sorption capabilities are dependent on the pH level of water solution, composition of clays, and used adsorbate. Porosity of the produced pellets is mostly within range from 15 to 25 % throughout all sintering temperatures with a slight decrease at 1050 °C. The specific surface area has a wide range up to 30 m2/g. The highest surface area has pellets sintered at lower temperatures. The adsorption capability of pellets was evaluated using water solutions with different ions. The most promising results were obtained with iodine sorption. For most pellets the sorption capacity was 12.7 mg/g, although for the pellets sintered at 1050 °C it was lower.

  10. Sovremennye problemy rossijsko-latvijskih otnoshenij [Current problems in Russian-Latvian relations

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    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current relations between Russia and Latvia are still influenced by a series of mutual claims that appeared after the demise of the USSR. Latvia — as well as Estonia and Lithuania — is both an EU and NATO member state. However, unlike the above mentioned countries, its relations with Russia are developing at a more pragmatic level. Numerous political differences often result in economic losses both for Latvia and Russia. Despite the fact that Latvia has been an independent state for more than 20 years, there are still some unresolved issues in its relations with Russia. Today, relations between the two countries are often viewed through the prism of EU-Russia relations. Nonetheless, they often do not fit this context. Settling differences between Latvia and Russia will contribute to trade relations, which are increasingly important for both parties. In order to prevent and localise emerging conflicts, diplomats, politicians, and experts should interpret Russian-Latvian relations in view of the national features without referring to theoretical models based on the mythological “unity” of the three Baltic States.

  11. HLA-DR and -DQ gene polymorphism in Latvian patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtauvere, A; Rumba, I; Dzivite, I; Sanjeevi, C B

    1998-10-01

    Latvian insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients (n=101) and healthy controls (n=111) were analyzed for HLA-DR and DQ polymorphism. DR3-DQ2 and DR4-DQ8 were positively associated and DR15-DQ6, DR13-DQ6, DR1-DQ5 and DQ7 negatively associated with the disease. The incidence of IDDM in Latvia is very low (6.5 per 100,000) compared to Sweden (24.4 per 100,000), even though Latvia is close to Sweden. The reasons for the decreased incidence are not clear. When the negatively associated DQ were taken together in the healthy controls, more than 75% of the healthy controls were positive for one of the four negatively associated DQ molecules. The excess frequency of the negatively associated DQ molecules in the general population could explain the lower incidence of IDDM in Latvia. Association of HLA-DR and DQ genes with autoantibody markers shows DR3, but not DQ2, to be increased in GAD65 antibody-positive compared to antibody-negative patients. This association was not observed with ICA512 antibodies.

  12. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

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    Aija Lulle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through aban-doning and forgetting the Soviet past and through the idea of constant threats in the future, locally it is revitalised through giving a life to the abandoned: memories of 'vigorous times' in life-courses and material things. People who dwell at the border did not move themselves: the international border moved several times in one cen-tury leaving border dwellers' memories and significant places on the 'other' side. I focus on how these borders were crossed in the past, how they are (not crossed now, and the social meanings assigned to these circumstances. In the current con-text I follow diverse paths of reasoning that describe how the uneven flow of goods and people through the Latvian-Russian border shapes the power dynamic against which the people living in the border area used to reconstruct imaginaries of 'Soviet times' versus 'Europe' and 'vigorous times' versus decline.

  13. Sostojanie jekonomicheskogo soznanija i cennostnye orientacii vypusknikov latvijskih vuzov [Economic Consciousness and the System of Values of Latvian University Graduates

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    Voronov Victor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the attitude of a Latvian university’s graduates to wealth and means of its acquisition, as well as their assessment of their own economic status and preferred moves in case of unemployment. The author estimates the university graduates’ personal capabilities; their interests, skills and qualifications, the extent of their reliance on their own initiative and resources, and their confidence about the future. The article defines the graduates’ economic interests forming motivations and approaches to practical economic behavior according to certain types of economic consciousness.

  14. Dynamics of telomere length in different age groups in a Latvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zole, Egija; Pliss, Liana; Ranka, Renate; Krumina, Astrida; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2013-12-01

    The shortening of telomeres with ageing is a well-documented observation; however, the reported number of nucleotides in telomeres varies between different laboratories and studies. Such variability is likely caused by ethnic differences between the populations studied. Until now, there were no studies that investigated the variability of telomere length in a senescent Latvian population of the most common mitochondrial haplogroups, defined as H (45%), U (25%), Y chromosomal N1c (40%) and R1a1 (40%). Telomere length was determined in 121 individuals in different age groups, including a control group containing individuals of 20-40 years old and groups of individuals between 60-70 years old, 71-80 years old, 81-90 years old, and above 90 years old. Telomere length was determined using the Southern blot telomeric restriction fragment assay (TRF). Decreased telomere length with ageing was confirmed, but a comparison of centenarians and individuals between 60-90 years of age did not demonstrate a significant difference in telomere length. However, significant variability in telomere length was observed in the control group, indicating probable rapid telomere shortening in some individuals that could lead up to development of health status decline appearing with ageing. Telomere length measured in mononuclear blood cells (MNC) was compared with the telomere length measured in whole peripheral white blood cells (WBC) using TRF. Telomere length in MNC was longer than in WBC for the control group with individuals 20 to 40 years old; in contrast, for the group of individuals aged 65 to 85 years old, measured telomere length was shorter in MNC when compared to WBC.

  15. Drumlins and related glaciogenic landforms of the Madliena Tilted Plain, Central Latvian Lowland

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    Kristaps Lamsters

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new results on the morphometry and spatial distribution of the glaciogenic landforms and ice flow directions in the Madliena Tilted Plain that occupies the eastern part of the Central Latvian Lowland. Landforms were investigated by usingtopographic maps at scales of 1:25 000 and 1:10 000. There were identified and mapped 1461 glaciogenic landforms such as drumlins, end moraine ridges, eskers, ribbed moraines, marginal ridges, lateral shear margin moraines and recessional formations. Particular attention is given to the morphometry, spatial distribution, and the internal structure of drumlins. Glacial landscape of the study area was formed by the Zemgale ice lobe in course of deglaciation of the Late Weichselian Fennoscandian Ice Sheet, when the ice decay was interrupted by the reactivation of the Middle Lithuanian and the NorthLithuanian glacial phases at the end of the Oldest Dryas (18–15 ka BP. The detailed study of the internal structure of the Brenceni drumlin suggests that it consists of glaciotectonically disturbed glacio-aquatic sediments and of a single till thrust sheet between sand sediments on the flank of the drumlin. Morphometric analysis of the drumlin field shows that the mean length of drumlins is about 850 m; the mean width indicates the average size 280 m, and the mean elongation ratio is 3.0. The obtained statistics compared to the morphometry of drumlins worldwide, show close similarity, so it coincides with the concept that in general morphometry of drumlins is mostly independent of their location and the characteristics of the ice streams.

  16. ADVERTISING WITH SOCIAL DISCOURSE AS A BRAND POSITIONING TECHNIQUE: REVIEW OF RESEARCH WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE LATVIAN MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aivars Helde

    2015-09-01

    gender stereotypes we looked at notions about the supposedly traditional behaviors of men and women, and the characteristics and standards of these behaviors, which are grounded in our culture and society. Producers use these ideas to make customers feel they belong in the society, and become psychologically involved, in the story presented by the advertisement. Culture involves human values, actions, patterns, ideas, and material and artificial surroundings that enable interaction among people. The content of culture determines the particular qualities of certain groups of people, which potentially governs their consumer characteristics. This indicates the importance of understanding the way in which culture affects individuals. In today’s information area, the media are the primary means of transmitting and reproducing cultural information. Today’s media shape the image of culture in people’s consciousness.Finally, this study provides an analysis of varying ads, using different means of interpretation. All materials are taken from Latvian media.

  17. LM-research opportunities and activities at the Latvian Academy of Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lielausis, O.

    1996-06-01

    In this presentation selected examples will be considered characterizing the breadth of their interests in LM applications. So, InGaSn eutectic was used as a modeling liquid for investigation of MHD effects typical to some LM-blanket configurations. LM coatings proposed for the protection of divertor plates were considered too. Experiments were performed on a superconducting magnet providing a 5.6 T magnetic field in a 30 liters bore. In a large vacuum chamber (12 m{sup 3}; 6.65 10{sup {minus}4} Pa) lithium cooling system for high temperature reactors was examined. Electromagnetic pumps and flowmeters able to work at lithium temperatures up to 960{degrees}C were tested. A Na loop, where two mounted in line electromagnetic pumps are delivering a 25 atm. pressure. The main Na loop equipped with em. pumps is based on a d=10 cm tubing. LM devices were installed in the Latvian 500 MW nuclear research reactor IRT-5000 too. First, a equipped with conductive e.m. pumps loop, where InGaSn serves as a {gamma}-carrier from activity generator (placed close to the core) to two outer 20 Mrad/h irradiators. Second, a LM system for rector control, where contained in InGaSn indium is used for neutron absorption and reactivity control. A closed cylindrical LM container was installed in the core instead of a traditional control rod. The container is divided in two chambers by means of elastic membranes. The one chamber contains InGaSn, the second GaSn (without In). By means of e.m. pumps the proportion between InGaSn and GaSn in the active zone can be changed ensuring a possibility to control the amount of introduced in the core absorbing material. Long term tests of the system were performed on a zero-power assembly. But for a shorter time the system was inserted in the core of the acting main reactor too and the efficiency of the control was confirmed.

  18. Performance Analysis of Air-to-Water Heat Pump in Latvian Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazjonovs, Janis; Sipkevics, Andrejs; Jakovics, Andris; Dancigs, Andris; Bajare, Diana; Dancigs, Leonards

    2014-12-01

    Strategy of the European Union in efficient energy usage demands to have a higher proportion of renewable energy in the energy market. Since heat pumps are considered to be one of the most efficient heating and cooling systems, they will play an important role in the energy consumption reduction in buildings aimed to meet the target of nearly zero energy buildings set out in the EU Directive 2010/31/EU. Unfortunately, the declared heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) corresponds to a certain outdoor temperature (+7 °C), therefore different climate conditions, building characteristics and settings result in different COP values during the year. The aim of this research is to investigate the Seasonal Performance factor (SPF) values of air-to-water heat pump which better characterize the effectiveness of heat pump in a longer selected period of time, especially during the winter season, in different types of residential buildings in Latvian climate conditions. Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Latvia is characterized by cold, maritime climate (duration of the average heating period being 203 days, the average outdoor air temperature during the heating period being 0.0 °C, the coldest five-day average temperature being -20.7 °C, the average annual air temperature being +6.2 °C, the daily average relative humidity being 79 %). The first part of this research consists of operational air-towater heat pump energy performance monitoring in different residential buildings during the winter season. The second part of the research takes place under natural conditions in an experimental construction stand which is located in an urban environment in Riga, Latvia. The inner area of this test stand, where air-to-water heat pump performance is analyzed, is 9 m2. The ceiling height is 3 m, all external wall constructions (U = 0.16 W/(m2K)) have ventilated facades. To calculate SPF, the

  19. Genotype and allele frequencies of isoniazid-metabolizing enzymes NAT2 and GSTM1 in Latvian tuberculosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igumnova, Viktorija; Capligina, Valentina; Krams, Alvils; Cirule, Andra; Elferts, Didzis; Pole, Ilva; Jansone, Inta; Bandere, Dace; Ranka, Renate

    2016-07-01

    Pharmacogenomic testing of tuberculosis drug-metabolizing enzyme genes was proposed as a strategy to identify patients at risk for suboptimal responses to medications. However, variations of the genotype frequencies among ethnic groups exist and new alleles are been identified. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms of genes encoding metabolic enzymes NAT2 and GSTM1 in tuberculosis patients in Latvia and to estimate the frequency of NAT2 slow acetylator and GSTM1 null genotypes. In total, 85 DNA samples were genotyped, all individuals were Caucasian. An ethnic heterogeneity reflecting the multiethnic population of the country was observed. 49 patients were Latvians, 30 were Russians and 6 of other ethnicity. In total, 7 NAT2 alleles were identified: *4, *5, *6, *7, *11, *12, * and *13. The most frequent was the slow acetylation allele NAT2*6 (frequency 0.388) followed by the slow acetylation allele NAT2*5 and the rapid acetylation allele NAT2*4 (frequencies 0.306 and 0.194, respectively). The predominance of slow (51.8%) and intermediate (43.5%) acetylators compared with rapid acetylators (4.7%) was observed. The GSTM1 null genotype was detected in 48.2% of tuberculosis patients. When subgroup analysis was performed according to ethnicity, the results showed that neither NAT2 allele frequencies nor GSTM1 null genotype frequency did not differ significantly in TB patients of Latvian or Russian ethnicity. Overall, genotyping results were similar with previous reports of a NAT2 gene variation and GSTM1 null genotype frequency in Caucasians. Our findings have a contribution for the pharmacogenetics-based tuberculosis therapy in Latvia in future.

  20. Different KIRs confer susceptibility and protection to adults with latent autoimmune diabetes in Latvian and Asian Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Arun; Sedimbi, Saikiran K; Rajalingam, Raja; Rumba, Ingrida; Kanungo, Alok; Sanjeevi, C B

    2008-12-01

    KIRs (killer Ig-like receptors) expressed on natural killer (NK) cells are an important component of innate (and adaptive) immunity. They are either activatory or inhibitory, and certain KIRs are known to interact with specific motifs of HLA Class I molecules, which is very crucial in determining whether a cell is targeted to lysis or otherwise. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a slowly progressive form of autoimmune diabetes, with an adult onset (>30 years). Because autoantibodies and autoimmunity involved are involved in the etiology of LADA, KIRs might play an important role in conferring susceptibility to or protection against the disease. The purpose of this study was to identify killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes, which are associated with susceptibility to and protection against type 1 diabetes in Latvian and Asian Indian patients with LADA. KIR and HLA-C ligand genotyping was performed using PCR-SSP in LADA patients from Latvia (n= 45) with age- and sex-matched controls (n= 92) and from India (n= 86) with controls (n= 98). Results showed that in Latvian patients with LADA, KIRs 2DL1, 2DS2, and 2DS4 were associated with susceptibility and KIR 2DS5 with protection. In Asian Indian LADA patients, KIRs 2DL5 and 3DL1 were associated with susceptibility and KIRs 2DS1 and 2DS3 with protection. Stratification analyses for KIRs that bind to HLA-C1 and C2 were performed. We concluded that KIRs are important in conferring susceptibility (or protection) to adult patients with LADA in both our study populations. However the KIR genes (and their HLA-C ligands) conferring susceptibility or protection in these two populations differ, showing a role of ethnicity in disease susceptibility.

  1. Association between the PSMB5 and PSMC6 genetic variations and children obesity in the Latvian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramonova N.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the recent data the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Aim of our study was to evaluate a possible association between genetic variations in the PSMB5 and PSMC6 genes and childhood obesity in the Latvian population. Methods. The rs11543947 (PSMB5, rs2295826 and rs2295827 (PSMC6 were genotyped in 94 overweight children versus 191 controls. Stratification was made by family history and sex. Results. Heterozygous genotype at rs11543947 (PSMB5 manifested association with the disease (P < 0.01 in total group and in patients with family history (OR = 2.445 [95 % CI 1.378–4.339] and OR = 2.746 [95 % CI 1.427–5.283], respectively. This genotype was observed more frequently (P < 0.05 in males with family obesity and in females without family history (P < 0.01.The heterozygotes at rs2295826 and rs2295827 showed association (P < 0.01 in obesity (OB, in patients with family history (OR = 2.119 [95 % CI 1.207–3.718] and OR = 2.379 [95 % CI 1.249–4.533], respectively and in males group. The rs11543947/ rs2295826-rs2295827 multi locus genotype heterozygous at all the studied loci and the haplotype represented by the rare alleles were more frequent in obese children when compared to controls (P < 0.001 and P = 0.0001 respectively. Conclusions. Genetic variations of the PSMB5 (rs11543947 and PSMC6 (rs2295826 and rs2295827 genes can influence childhood obesity in Latvians.

  2. Implementation of the EU directive on the energy performance of buildings: Development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of buildings and inspection of boilers. Project document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    'Development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of buildings and inspection of boilers' includes major steps in implementing the EU EPB directive in Latvia. The EPB directive includes a number of efforts: 1. A methodology for calculation of the integrated energy performance of buildings 2. Application of minimum requirements on the energy performance for new buildings 3. Application of minimum requirements on the energy performance for larger existing buildings subject to major renovation 4. Energy performance certification (energy labelling) of buildings 5. Regular inspection of boilers and of air-conditioning systems in buildings, and assessment of heating installations in older systems. The present project includes activities connected to point 4 and point 5. The results will include 4 steps in implementing the EU EPB directive: 1) A Latvian training of certified independent energy auditors to be active conducting energy audits and issuing energy performance certificates. Including a handbook in energy auditing. 2) A Latvian training of certified independent experts for inspection of boilers, air-con systems and assessing older heating systems. Including a handbook in boiler inspection. 3) A proposal for the institutional set-up for a connected scheme for energy auditing and a scheme for boiler inspection 4) Initial information on the scheme of energy auditors and of the boiler inspection. (au)

  3. Stability of sterigmatocystin during the bread making process and its occurrence in bread from the Latvian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veršilovskis, Aleksandrs; Bartkevičs, Vadims

    2012-05-01

    Sterigmatocystin (STC) is a carcinogenic and mutagenic mycotoxin produced by fungi of many Aspergillus species. The aim of this research was to test the stability of STC during the bread making process and to check bread samples from the Latvian market for STC contamination, using a previously developed electrospray positive ionisation (ESI(+)) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Wheat grain naturally contaminated with STC was used for bread baking. STC was found to be stable during the bread-making process. In the food survey 17% of the analysed breads were positive for STC, with concentration levels of 2-7 μg kg(-1). One out of six rye bread samples, one out of nine rye-wheat bread samples and three out of 14 wheat bread samples were contaminated with STC. Four out of five contaminated samples contained whole grains as the main ingredient. We conclude that whole grain bread may be a possible source of STC, although even STC-positive bread samples identified in this study contained quite low toxin levels.

  4. Validation of a Latvian and a Russian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile for use among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugaca, Jolanta; Urtane, Ilga; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Rogovska, Irena

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The need for appraisal of oral health-related quality of life has been increasingly recognized over the last decades. The aim of this study was to develope a Latvian and a Russian version and test the validity of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) for use among adults in Latvia. METHODS. The original English version of the OHIP-49 was translated using the forward-backward technique, pilot-tested, and then applied to 60 adults aged 18 years and above. The questionnaire was filled out during face-to-face interviews conducted by one specialist. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha (α) coefficient and inter-item and item-total correlations. Discriminant and convergent validities were assessed. RESULTS. Cronbach's α was estimated to be 0.96. Inter-item correlations coefficients ranged from 0.19 to 0.91, with averige value 0.35, while item-total correlations coefficients from 0.14 to 0.86. CONCLUSIONS. The OHIP-49 is a reliable and valid questionnaire for the assessment of OHRQoL among adults in Latvia.

  5. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha allele 2 shows an association with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Latvians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtauvere-Brameus, A; Dabadghao, P; Rumba, I; Sanjeevi, C B

    2002-04-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is one of the most common chronic diseases. It is an autoimmune disease. Genes contributing the most for development of IDDM are located on chromosome 6p21.3 in the region called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). HLA-DQ8/DR4 and DQ2/DR3 have shown positive association with IDDM, while DQ6 has negative association with IDDM in most Caucasian populations. The location of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene in the MHC suggests the role of TNF in the etiology of IDDM as an autoimmune disease. The TNF region contains several polymorphisms that are associated with different levels of TNF-alpha production and susceptibility to autoimmune and infectious diseases. Ninety-two Latvian IDDM patients corresponding to WHO diagnostic criteria and 107 unrelated age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analyzed for the frequency of TNF-alpha alleles to test the hypothesis that TNF-alpha is associated with IDDM. We found that TNF-alpha microsatellite allele 2 is associated with IDDM, 29/92 (32%), versus 14/107 (13%) in healthy controls. The test of the strongest association of the MICA A5 allele and TNF-alpha allele 2 with IDDM showed that both are independently associated with the disease.

  6. Body fat in children and adolescents participating in organized sports: Descriptive epidemiological study of 6048 Latvian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnina, Liga; Sauka, Melita; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Nylander, Eva; Selga, Guntars; Ligere, Renate; Karklina, Helena; Priedite, Ilga S; Larins, Viesturs

    2015-08-01

    Pressure among young athletes to meet body composition goals may lead to poor nutrition and affect growth. To examine the proportion of body fat (%BF), measured by bioimpedance analysis, among Latvian children and adolescents participating in organized sports. Our study had a nationally representative sample of 6048 young athletes, aged 10-17 years. Their %BF was measured using a multifrequency, 8-pole, bioelectrical impedance leg-to-hand analyzer. About 19.2% (CI 14.4-20.0) of boys and 15.1% (CI 14.0-16.3) of girls had a %BF value below the recommended levels. The %BF in young female athletes participating in aesthetic sports was lower than among their peers participating in other sports. Young male athletes participating in aesthetic sports had lower %BF levels at 10 and 12 years of age, compared with participants in weight-class sports; and lower levels of %BF from age 10-14 years, compared with participants in non-weight-sensitive sports. Almost every fifth child and adolescent participating in organized sports displayed critically low body fat levels. Body fat needs to be assessed regularly in young athletes, to prevent negative consequences on health. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  7. The Impact of Metal Age® Training Programme on the Well-Being of Latvian Office Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprūdža Dagmāra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that affect the well-being and health of employees and the productivity of organisations. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the Metal Age training programme (MA® on the well-being of office workers, including investigation of work ability, the stress-causing factors and role of leadership. The study was carried out using questions from four international questionnaires about stress, leadership, and work ability. The intervention group had a training course between the surveys using the ME® method. Several employee stress-causing factors were identified: bad relationship with their workmates was mentioned by 94% of workers; competitive and strenuous atmosphere — by more than 80%; psychological violence or bullying at the workplace by more than 80%, and more than 75% of employee’s could not relax after work. Wellness and microclimate in the workplaces were on a relatively high level: the average rating of seven Kiva questions was 7.5. The respondent attitude after ME® did not change significantly. Latvian office workers displayed moderate and good work ability (Work Ability Index, WAI 34.5–38.6. The best work ability was shown in the age group from 20 to 49 (WAI 34.8–39.4; work ability decreased with age. The best correlation was observed between Work Ability Index and “get into situations, that invoke negative feelings” (r = 0.26 and “carrying out ongoing tasks because of other intervening or more urgent matters” (r = −0.24. After ME® the reaction to some stress-causing factors was improved.

  8. Immunity, infectious diseases and the knowledge of 100 Latvian pregnant women of the impact of infectious diseases on the pregnancy and its prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Abramova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Infection diseases may adversely affect the pregnancy, lead to the development of foetal abnormalities, foetal death, congenital infections and preterm birth. Infection is possible in antenatal, postnatal and intranatal way. CMV, adenovirus, enterovirus are the most common viruses which are found during the examination of amniotic fluid. Hundred Latvian pregnant women were offered to fill in the questionnaire with the help of which it will be possible to study their knowledge on infectious diseases during pregnancy and preventive options. The obtained data were compared with foreign literature and foreign studies. Respondents' age was from 19 to 43 years. Only 65% of women are aware that the risk of contracting infectious diseases during pregnancy is higher. Only 7% of women know about all possible ways of infection during pregnancy. 68% of women note that bacterial vaginosis may harm foetus and adversely affect pregnancy. Compared to the study conducted in Japan, Latvian pregnant women know about toxoplasmosis 4% more often than in Japan. Knowledge of pregnant women about the impact of infectious diseases on the foetus and pregnancy, potential infection and prevention ways is insufficient. Women want to know and receive understandable information from health care professionals. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 954-958

  9. Study of association between polymorphisms in the PSMB5 (rs11543947 and PSMA3 (rs2348071 genes and multiple sclerosis in Latvians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalnina J.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional realization of many signalling proteins and transcription factors implicated in the development and progression of multiple sclerosis is mediated by proteasomes. Aim of this case-control study was to evaluate genetic variations in the PSMB5 and PSMA3 genes encoding proteasomal subunits on the susceptibility to multiple sclerosis in Latvians. Methods. The rs11543947 (PSMB5 and rs2348071 (PSMA3 loci were genotyped in 291 multiple sclerosis patients and 305 healthy individuals and analysed general, subtype and sex-specific associations with the disease. Results. Loci rs11543947 and rs2348071 were identified as disease neutral and susceptible respectively. The rs2348071 heterozygous genotype GA showed strong main effect (P < 0.001; OR = 1.891, 95 % CI [1.360–2.628], and moderate (P < 0.01; OR = 1.663, 95 % CI [1.152– 2.402] and strong (P < 0.001; OR = 2.459, 95 % CI [1.534–3.943] association with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive phases of disease respectively. No genotype-sex interaction associated with multiple sclerosis has been detected. Conclusions. Our results suggest susceptibility of the rs2348071 heterozygous genotype to multiple sclerosis in Latvians.

  10. Content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Latvian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V; Viksna, A

    2013-04-01

    Seventeen polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) of the highest priority as well as twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissues of the following freshwater fish species sampled from eleven Latvian freshwater lakes: perch (Perca flavescens), carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla rostrata), bream (Abramis brama), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and roach (Rutilus). To analyze the selected persistent organic pollutants in fish matrices, an optimization of EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A clean-up procedures was carried out, followed by validation of the analytical procedure according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1883/2006. The adopted analytical procedure was in compliance with requirements of the more recent Commission Regulation (EU) No 252/2012. Modifications of carbon column chromatography clean-up and separation steps were used for treatment of the fish samples. Other clean-up procedure stages were performed according to the methods EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A and involved gel permeation chromatography (GPC), as well as manual acidic silica and Florisil column chromatography for purification and fractionation of the samples. An isotope dilution method was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of individual congeners. Analytes of interest were separated and detected using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. The concentration of PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs in freshwater fish and eel samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.0 pg WHO(1998)-PCDD/PCDF-PCB-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight. These levels are below the EU maximum permissible limits although calculation of the content of these compounds relative to the weight of fat shows contamination levels similar to those found in Baltic herring and sprats, that are known to be highly contaminated. A difference in congener pattern between the Baltic Sea fish and freshwater fish was detected

  11. Assessment of the present and future offshore wind power potential: a case study in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizuma, Lita; Avotniece, Zanita; Rupainis, Sergejs; Teilans, Artis

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century.

  12. Sustainable Use Of Macro-Algae For Biogas Production In Latvian Conditions: A Preliminary Study Through An Integrated Mca And Lca Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastare, Laura; Romagnoli, Francesco; Lauka, Dace; Dzene, Ilze; Kuznecova, Tatjana

    2014-12-01

    The study focuses on sustainability evaluation of an algae-based energy system in Latvia with a holistic and integrated approach of multi-criteria analysis combined with life cycle assessment (including a practical side - biogas yield experiments of locally available algae). The study shows potential for sustainable use of algae in Latvian conditions and thus that algal biomass can be utilized for the production of biogas. The most sustainable and feasible scenario of using algae for biogas energy production foresees the collection of algae biomass from natural water bodies. Important beneficial effects through the use of algae are related to avoiding global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication impacts. Biogas batch experiments carried out with the local macrophyte C.demersum have shown a methane yield of 554 l CH4/kg VS.

  13. Assessment of the Present and Future Offshore Wind Power Potential: A Case Study in a Target Territory of the Baltic Sea Near the Latvian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lita Lizuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century.

  14. Enefit gaining Latvian customers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    3. märtsil toimunud Riia linnapea Nils Usakovsi ja Enefiti esindajate kohtumisel räägiti firma tariifidest, mida nad võiks munitsipaalettevõtetele ja -organisatsioonidele pakkuda. Latvenergo tõstab hindu 1. aprillil

  15. Latvian Law Briefs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Läti parlament võttis 2. oktoobril vastu ÜRO 1951. a. pagulaste konventsiooni ratifitseerimise seaduse parandused. Läti põhiseaduse parandusettepanekutest. Endise NLi võimudega koostööd teinud Läti kodanike kohta käinud seaduseelnõu tagasilükkamisest

  16. Enefit gaining Latvian customers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    3. märtsil toimunud Riia linnapea Nils Usakovsi ja Enefiti esindajate kohtumisel räägiti firma tariifidest, mida nad võiks munitsipaalettevõtetele ja -organisatsioonidele pakkuda. Latvenergo tõstab hindu 1. aprillil

  17. Cross-infection prevention, basic hygiene practices and education within nursing and health care in Latvia: a Swedish-Latvian practice development project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunberg Sjöström, Harrieth; Skyman, Eva; Hellström, Lisbeth; Kula, Marite; Grinevika, Valentina

    2003-08-01

    The primary aim of this practice development project was to explore the level of knowledge of nursing and medical staff at the Infection Clinic at Liepaja regarding the spread of infectious diseases. Arrangements were also made for some of the Latvian health care staff to visit the Infection Clinic in Gothenburg to increase their knowledge about basic hygiene and to enable them to study the research in this area. Later we were able to formulate this new knowledge into written guidelines. The theoretical education started with questions regarding staffs expertise in preventing the spread of infections. Areas covered were handwashing, hand disinfection, use of disposable gloves and protective clothing. This revealed a need for development of both theoretical and practical knowledge in this area. However, hygiene practices improved after the theoretical education and the visits to the Infection Clinic in Gothenburg. On our return visit to Liepaja dispensers of liquid soap together with hand disinfectants were evident at every wash basin on the unit. Disposable gloves were also routinely used for the dressing of wounds and invasive procedures. Furthermore, disposable coats and masks were used when caring for highly infectious patients. The key cultural differences were the lack of nursing documentation and the relative absence of a dialogue directly between the nurse and the patient.

  18. Development of the Latvian scheme for energy auditing of buildings and inspection of boilers and air-conditioning systems. Final report institutional set-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    To implement EU directive 93/76/EEC on reduction of carbon dioxide emission by increasing energy efficiency and EU directive 2002/91/EC on building energy efficiency, Latvia must establish and institutional scheme and define all the organisations involved. From a general perspective the institutional scheme must as a minimum include the following four key players: the administrator, the operating unit, the auditors or independent experts, and finally the client. Furthermore, institutions dealing with financing of energy efficiency improvement activities, training and certification of experts, information about auditing and energy efficiency etc. need to be involved. At present there is no governmental or private Latvian organisation that could fully rearrange and assume the duties of an energy audit scheme secretariat. It is therefore recommended initially to place the secretariat as a separate, new unit within the Ministry of Economy, financed by the Ministry of Economy, with the intention of establishing at a later stage (after e.g. 5 years) a separate, new agency, an Energy Efficiency Agency partly financed by the incomes from the energy audit and boiler inspection schemes. The Secretariat should, both in its initial phase and later, assign the tasks of training, information campaigns, quality assurance and evaluation to external organisations. (BA)

  19. Combination of KIR 2DL2 and HLA-C1 (Asn 80) confers susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in Latvians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, A; Sedimbi, S K; Rajalingam, R; Nikitina-Zake, L; Rumba, I; Wigzell, H; Sanjeevi, C B

    2008-12-01

    Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are known to modulate natural killer (NK) and NK T-cell function by interacting with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands on target cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of KIR2D genes with their HLA-C ligands in susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. A total of 98 type 1 diabetes patients and 70 healthy subjects from Latvia were typed for KIR genes and HLA-C ligands using polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping. The HLA C1+/C2+ combination was positively, and C1-/C2+ combination was negatively, associated with type 1 diabetes. Stratification analysis of KIR/HLA-C ligand combinations showed 2DL2+/C1+, 2DL3+/C1+, and 2DS2+ /C1+ to be positively, and 2DL2-/C1- and 2DS2-/ C1- to be negatively, associated. The presence of 2DL2-HLA-C1 in the absence of 2DS1, 2DS2 confers maximum susceptibility. Absence of 2DL2 and HLA-C1 along with absence of 2DS1 and 2DS2 confer maximum protection. A hypothetical model of KIR/ligand combinations on immune responses and type 1 diabetes susceptibility is proposed. Our results suggest that a combination KIR2DL2- HLA-C1 plays a critical role in susceptibility or protection in Latvians against type 1 diabetes.

  20. Microsatellite allele 5 of MHC class I chain-related gene a increases the risk for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in latvians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtauvere-Brameus, A; Ghaderi, M; Rumba, I; Sanjeevi, C B

    2002-04-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is one of the most common chronic diseases. It is an autoimmune, polygenic disease, associated with several genes on different chromosomes. The most important gene is human leukocyte antigen (HLA), also known as major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is located on chromosome 6p21.3. HLA-DQ8/DR4 and DQ2/DR3 are positively associated with IDDM and DQ6 is negatively associated with IDDM in most Caucasian populations. The MICA gene is located in the MHC class I region and is expressed by monocytes, keratinocytes, and endothelial cells. Sequence determination of the MICA gene identifies 5 alleles with 4, 5, 6, and 9 repetitions of GCT or 5 repetitions of GCT with 1 additional insertion (GGCT), and the alleles are referred to as A4, A5, A5.1, A6, and A9. Analysis of allele distribution among 93 Latvian IDDM patients and 108 healthy controls showed that allele A5 of MICA is significantly increased in IDDM patients [33/93 (35%)] compared to healthy controls [22/108 (20%)] (OR = 2.15; P = 0.016). In conclusion, we believe that MICA may play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of IDDM.

  1. JA ES BŪTU SMUKS, ES GRIBĒTU BŪT MEITENE! (‘If I Were Pretty, I Would Like To Be A Girl!’. Debating Transsexualism In The Latvian Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHOJNICKA JOANNA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates a debate on the issues of legal recognition of gender which took place in the Latvian Parliament in 2009 and which is considered a rich source of material for a two-fold analysis. As an example of gendered discourse, it shows the differences between female and male MPs’ ways of tackling this uncomfortable subject. As a discourse about gender, which allows one to study the speakers’ arguments and attitudes, it reveals prejudice, lack of knowledge and conservative thinking. The analysis thus illustrates the language and arguments employed in the public sphere when discussing face-threatening, taboo topics.

  2. Islet autoantibodies in Latvian subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: slow-onset type 1 diabetes or polyendocrine autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtauvere-Brameus, A; Falorni, A; Rumba, I; Sanjeevi, C B

    2002-04-01

    In Latvia diabetes mellitus is diagnosed using the WHO's clinical criteria; assays for the detection of autoantibodies are not available, and hence slowly progressive autoimmune diabetes is likely to be missed. Autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (IA-2) among patients with clinically diagnosed NIDDM identify group of patients with slow-onset type 1 diabetes or LADA. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of polyendocrine autoimmunity among clinically diagnosed NIDDM patients from Latvia. One hundred NIDDM patients and 100 healthy controls were tested for GAD65 and IA-2 autoantibodies as well as 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) and tissue transglutaminase (TTG) antibodies by RIA assay. Age at onset was >or= 30 years, and duration of disease less than 5 years. Of 100 patients, 85 were on oral hypoglycemic agents and 15 were on insulin. Body mass index (BMI) under 19 was recorded in 1% (1 of 100 cases), while overweight (BMI > 25.5 in females and 27 in males) was documented in 45% (45 of 100 cases). GAD65 antibodies were found in 30 of 100 (30%) and IA-2 antibodies in 40 of 100 (40%) patients. Either GAD65 or IA-2 antibodies were found in 55 of 100 (55%). None of the patients carried antibodies against 21-OH and only 1 of 100 (1%) carried antibodies against TTG. From the results obtained in our study we conclude that in Latvian adult NIDDM subjects, islet autoantibodies identify groups of slow-onset type 1 diabetes but not polyendocrine autoimmunity.

  3. Study of a cohort of Latvian workers having participated to the decontamination of the nuclear site of Chernobyl; Etude d`une cohorte de travailleurs lettons ayant participe a la decontamination du site nucleaire de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viel, J.F. [Faculte de Medecine de Besancon, 25 (France)

    1999-11-01

    In the consequences attributable to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, it is debated whether post-disaster psycho-pathology is related to the perception of the level of contamination or the level of contamination itself. To address this issue, the authors have assessed the association of various exposure mental and psychosomatic distress, on a sample of 1,1412 Latvian liquidators drawn from the State Latvian Chernobyl clean-up workers registry. The outcome considered was a mixed mental/psychosomatic disorder occurring during the time period 1986-1995. Comparisons between subgroups of the cohort, classified according to exposure type or level, were based on the proportional hazards model. Length of work ({>=} 28 days) in a 10 km radius from the reactor (relative risk (RR) = 1.39, 95 percent confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.70), work (> 1 time) on the damaged reactor roof (RR 1.46, 95 percent CI 1.02-2.09), forest work (RR 1.41,95 percent CI 1.19-1.68), and fresh fruits consumption ({>=} 1 time/day) (RR 1.72,95 percent CI 1.12-2.65) are risk factors for mixed mental/ psychosomatic disorder. Construction of the sarcophagus (RR 1.82, 95 percent CI 0.89-3.72), is also associated with this outcome, although non significantly. These findings confirm that some exposure variables represent risk factors for mental disorders and suggest some radiation-induced consequences although surely overweight by stress-related effects. (author)

  4. Latvian advertising industry expects growth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Läti Reklaami Assotsiatsiooni (LRA) aastakonverentsil arutati reklaamitööstuse arengusuundi. Balti reklaamiturule prognoositakse suurt kasvu, kuna praegu kulutatakse kõigest 33 eurot inimese kohta, mis on kümme korda vähem kui näiteks Suurbritannias või Iirimaal

  5. Latvian advertising industry expects growth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Läti Reklaami Assotsiatsiooni (LRA) aastakonverentsil arutati reklaamitööstuse arengusuundi. Balti reklaamiturule prognoositakse suurt kasvu, kuna praegu kulutatakse kõigest 33 eurot inimese kohta, mis on kümme korda vähem kui näiteks Suurbritannias või Iirimaal

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Broiler Chicken Meat of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Origin at Estonian Retail Level and from Patients with Severe Enteric Infections in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäesaar, M; Kramarenko, T; Meremäe, K; Sõgel, J; Lillenberg, M; Häkkinen, L; Ivanova, M; Kovalenko, K; Hörman, A; Hänninen, M-L; Roasto, M

    2016-03-01

    The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMIC(TH) method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance.

  7. Microsatellite genotyping of chromosome 14q13.2-14q13 in the vicinity of proteasomal gene PSMA6 and association with Graves' disease in the Latvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjakste, Tatjana; Eglite, Jelena; Sochnevs, Arturs; Marga, Mara; Pirags, Valdis; Collan, Yrjö; Sjakste, Nikolajs

    2004-07-01

    The 270-kb chromosome 14q13.2-14q13 region harboring the proteasomal alpha subunit 6 gene PSMA6 was analyzed for polymorphism of five microsatellite repeats in cases/controls and association with Graves' disease. Four novel microsatellite markers were localized to the 14q13.2 region upstream of PSMA6. Dinucleotide repeats HSMS801, HSMS702, HSMS701 were identified in two introns of the gene KIAA0391; the most upstream trinucleotide HSMS602 marker was found in an intron of the C14orf24 gene. A polymorphism study performed on the Latvian population revealed 13 and 14 alleles for HSMS801 and HSMS702, respectively, seven alleles for HSMS701, and four alleles for HSMS602. Heterozygosity analysis revealed that all the four markers obey Hardy-Weinberg distribution. The previously described HSMS006 marker, represented by 12 alleles, is localized in intron 6 of the PSMA6 gene. No significant differences were observed between patients and controls in allele distribution of the HSMS702 and HSMS701 microsatellite repeats. However, the allele frequencies of HSMS006 and HSMS801 were significantly different between Graves' disease and control subjects. The 181- and 185-bp alleles of HSMS006 and the 133-, 143-, and 149-bp alleles of HSMS801 were found more often, but the 189- and 191-bp alleles of HSMS006 were much less frequent in Graves' disease patients compared with the controls. An additional 174-bp allele of the HSMS602 marker, absent in healthy subjects, was found in Graves' disease patients.

  8. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same w

  9. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  10. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed companie

  11. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  12. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...

  13. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...

  14. (Terminology standardization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehlow, R.A.

    1990-10-19

    Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

  15. Latvian free press dying off / Kira Savchenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savchenko, Kira

    2010-01-01

    Läti päevalehe Diena toimetajateks said poliitilise taustaga Sergejs Ancupovis ja Dzintara Zaluksnis. Päevalehe endised töötajad leiavad, et seoses sellega muutub lehe sisu ning see mõjutab ka ajakirjandusvabadust Lätis

  16. Latvian free press dying off / Kira Savchenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savchenko, Kira

    2010-01-01

    Läti päevalehe Diena toimetajateks said poliitilise taustaga Sergejs Ancupovis ja Dzintara Zaluksnis. Päevalehe endised töötajad leiavad, et seoses sellega muutub lehe sisu ning see mõjutab ka ajakirjandusvabadust Lätis

  17. Viscosity and Plasticity of Latvian Illite Clays

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Due to viscosity and plasticity, clays and clay minerals are used in civil engineering, pottery and also in cosmetics and medicine as thickening agents and emulsion and suspension stabilizers. The rheological properties of clay suspensions are complex. Mostly it is an interaction between mineral composition, clay particle size and pH value and also depends on clay minerals. Clay-water suspension is non-Newtonian fluid showing thixotropic and pseudoplastic properties. Results showed that plast...

  18. EC suspicious of Latvian audit results

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Alates 1. novembrist 2010 ei ole Läti Euroopa Liidu Solidaarsusfondist finantseerimist saanud, kuigi selle abil läbiviidavad projektid pole peatatud, kuna see oli riigi otsus. Finantseerimine peaks taastuma juunis, kui Euroopa Komisjoniga lepitakse riigi rahanduse juhtimis- ja järelevalveprogrammis kokku

  19. EC suspicious of Latvian audit results

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Alates 1. novembrist 2010 ei ole Läti Euroopa Liidu Solidaarsusfondist finantseerimist saanud, kuigi selle abil läbiviidavad projektid pole peatatud, kuna see oli riigi otsus. Finantseerimine peaks taastuma juunis, kui Euroopa Komisjoniga lepitakse riigi rahanduse juhtimis- ja järelevalveprogrammis kokku

  20. Latvian education's uneasy course / Ben Nimmo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nimmo, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Läti Haridus- ja Teadusministeeriumi andmetel õppis 2004.-2005. õppeaastal 55 protsenti Läti üliõpilastest ärinduse, õiguse ja majandusega seotud erialasid. Haridusministeeriumi kõrghariduse osakonna juhataja Janis Cakste ja Läti Kaubandus- ja Tööstuskoja tegevdirektor Janis Leja annavad ülevaate sellise olukorra põhjustest ning selgitavad insenerierialade populariseerimise vajadust

  1. Latvian president addresses unfair spending rumors

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Läti presidendi Valdis Zatlersi sõnul on oluline läbipaistev kommunikatsioon valitsuse ja riigi elanike vahel, et vältida valeinformatsiooni tekkimist Läti majandusliku olukorra kohta. Samuti peab Läti pingutama, et võtta 2012. aastal kasutusele euro

  2. The Latvian Armed Forces today / Raimonds Graube

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Graube, Raimonds

    1999-01-01

    Ülevaade Läti kaitsevägede olukorrast, eesmärkidest, rahvusvahelisest koostööst ja valmistumisest liitumiseks NATO-ga. Tabelid: Läti kaitsejõudude planeerimise süsteem, käsuliinid, kaitsejõudude struktuur rahu- ja sõjaajal. Raimonds Graube biograafia

  3. Latvian education's uneasy course / Ben Nimmo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nimmo, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Läti Haridus- ja Teadusministeeriumi andmetel õppis 2004.-2005. õppeaastal 55 protsenti Läti üliõpilastest ärinduse, õiguse ja majandusega seotud erialasid. Haridusministeeriumi kõrghariduse osakonna juhataja Janis Cakste ja Läti Kaubandus- ja Tööstuskoja tegevdirektor Janis Leja annavad ülevaate sellise olukorra põhjustest ning selgitavad insenerierialade populariseerimise vajadust

  4. The Latvian Armed Forces today / Raimonds Graube

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Graube, Raimonds

    1999-01-01

    Ülevaade Läti kaitsevägede olukorrast, eesmärkidest, rahvusvahelisest koostööst ja valmistumisest liitumiseks NATO-ga. Tabelid: Läti kaitsejõudude planeerimise süsteem, käsuliinid, kaitsejõudude struktuur rahu- ja sõjaajal. Raimonds Graube biograafia

  5. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  6. Standard deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Did you know that having a messy room will make you racist? Or that human beings possess the ability to postpone death until after important ceremonial occasions? Or that people live three to five years longer if they have positive initials, like ACE? All of these ‘facts' have been argued with a straight face by researchers and backed up with reams of data and convincing statistics.As Nobel Prize-winning economist Ronald Coase once cynically observed, ‘If you torture data long enough, it will confess.' Lying with statistics is a time-honoured con. In Standard Deviations, ec

  7. Journal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R

    2003-08-01

    Despite its many imperfections, the peer review process is a firmly established quality control system for scientific literature. It gives readers some assurance that the work and views that are reported meet standards that are acceptable to a journal. Maureen Revington's editorial in a recent issue of the Australian Veterinary Journal (Revington2002) gives a good concise warts and all overview of the process and is well worth reading. I have some concerns about several articles in the December 2002 issue of the New Zealand Veterinary Journal (Volume 50, Number 6), devoted to the health and welfare of farmed deer, that relate to extensive citing of non-peer reviewed papers. I can understand the need for information to flow from researchers to the wider community but that need is already satisfied by publications such as the proceedings of the Deer Branch of the New Zealand Veterinary Association and Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production. Non-peer reviewed papers have been cited in the Journal in the past but never to the extent displayed in this particular issue. It degrades the peer-review process and creates an added burden for reviewers who are forced to grapple with the uncertainties of the science in non-peer reviewed citations. One of my fears is that this process allows science from non peer reviewed articles to be legitimised by its inclusion in a peer reviewed journal and perhaps go on to be accepted as dogma. This is a real danger given the difficulties associated with tracing back to original citations and the increasing volume of scientific literature. It also affords opportunities for agencies to pick up questionable and doubtful science and tout it as support for their products or particular points of view. If deer researchers choose to publish most of their work in proceedings then so be it. However this approach, which seems to becoming increasingly prevalent in the deer sector, is questionable from an established science point

  8. The Electronic Historical Latvian Dictionary Based on the Corpus of Early Written Latvian Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everita Andronova

    2016-12-01

    Główny nacisk położono na opis haseł słownikowych, zawierający istotne uwagi praktyczne i teoretyczne. Omówiono poszczególne części hasła słownikowego, po czym umieszczono komentarz odnoszący się do różnych kwestii związanych z daną częścią (np. wybór hasła wyrazowego i przedstawienia wersji pisowni i do przyję­tych rozwiązań. Szczególną uwagę poświęcono główce hasła, objaśnieniu znaczenia wynikającego z przykładów występujacych w korpusie, różnym rodzajom kolokacji i ich przedstawieniu w słowniku, jak też informacjom etymologicznym. Na końcu zamieszczono zwięzły przegląd oprogramowania słownikowego TLex 2013, oparty na doświadczeniu autorów, zdobytym podczas pracy z tym narzędziem.

  9. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  10. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.; Kulcsar, I.Z.; Roes, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the dev

  11. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  12. Standards help enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Standardization in modern times began from the Industrial Revolution. Various industrial sectors, for which about 300 standardization technical commissions have been established, make up the key fields of China's standardization.

  13. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  14. Dabartinių baltų bendrinių kalbų balsių spektrai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kaukėnienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available THE SPECTRA OF ISOLATED VOWELS OF THE STANDARD BALTIC LANGUAGESSummaryThe article examines the spectra of isolated vowels of the standard Baltic languages, their acoustic, articulation features and their relationship with D. Jones’ cardinal vowels.The acoustic features of the separate vowels of Lithuanian and Latvian are not the same. The vowels [aˑ], [a], [i], [e̤ˑ], [u] are not pronounced in the same place. The timbre of Latvian [i], [e̤ˑ] is higher than that of similar vowels in Lithuanian, but the timbre of isolated Lithuanian [eˑ] is higher than that of the similar Latvian vowel. The timbre of the Latvian isolated vowels [aˑ], [a], [ɔ], [uˑ], [u] is lower than that of similar Lithuanian vowels. The Latvian isolated vowels [iˑ], [uˑ] have a higher F1, that is, they are more open than the corresponding Lithuanian vowels.Besides Latvian isolated [i], [e̤ˑ], [uˑ] are more tense and [u], [ɔ] are more rounded than similar Lithuanian vowels but Lithuanian [iˑ] is more tense than its Latvian correspondent.The spectral analysis and acoustic data allow us to claim that the isolated vowels of the standard Baltic languages are similar to the secondary and primary cardinal vowels. The marked extreme articulation is typical of Latvian and Lithuanian [oˑ], [ɔ], [iˑ], [uˑ].

  15. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  16. Standards and standpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that critique is a necessary component in any study of standards, just as it is implied in the concept of standard itself. From this follows the relevance of reflexively situating our research in relation to the cultural-historical development of standards and standardization...

  17. Arizona Academic Standards: Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Readiness…

  18. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...

  19. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following......, and show that, while standards and standardization are typically associated with stability and sameness, they are essentially a dynamic phenomenon. The paper highlights the contributions of this special issue to the topic of standards as a dynamic phenomenon in organization studies and makes suggestions...... a comprehensive overview of existing research in these three areas, we argue that the dynamic aspects of standardization are under-represented in the scholarly discourse. Furthermore, we identify the main types of tension associated with standardization and the dynamics they generate in each of those three areas...

  20. Water Quality Standards Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Standards Handbook is a compilation of the EPA's water quality standards (WQS) program guidance including recommendations for states, authorized tribes, and territories in reviewing, revising, and implementing WQS.

  1. Radiologic Technology Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the radiologic technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories; Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); Program…

  2. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  3. Catalytic Functions of Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blind (Knut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe three different areas and the examples have illustrated several catalytic functions of standards for innovation. First, the standardisation process reduces the time to market of inventions, research results and innovative technologies. Second, standards themselves promote the diffusi

  4. Standards and standpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that critique is a necessary component in any study of standards, just as it is implied in the concept of standard itself. From this follows the relevance of reflexively situating our research in relation to the cultural-historical development of standards and standardization....... The argument takes off from two different conceptualizations of standards in the literature. On the one hand, standards as immanent to practices (the “Neo-Aristotelian” approach), and on the other hand, standards as imposed to regulate practices (the “neo-pragmatist” and “governmentality” approaches......). It is suggested that this opposition can be superseded by articulating the former alternative, not as an essentialism of “practice,” but as the reflexive assumption of standpoint. Some intricacies of the articulation of standpoint are then discussed, concluding in a proposed dialectics of standard and standpoint....

  5. Catalytic Functions of Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blind (Knut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe three different areas and the examples have illustrated several catalytic functions of standards for innovation. First, the standardisation process reduces the time to market of inventions, research results and innovative technologies. Second, standards themselves promote the

  6. Policy,standard,regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Automobile Standardization Committee secretariat collects comments on the phase III fuel consumption level limit The Committee intends to formulate the standard based on a comprehensive evaluation of the previous two phases.

  7. Collaboration Between Multistakeholder Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Maclean, Camilla

    responsibility is unlikely to support a great variety of partly competing and overlapping standards. Increased collaboration between these standards would enhance both their impact and their adoption by firms. This report examines the nature, benefits, and shortcomings of existing multistakeholder standards...

  8. Questioning the Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dairy quality standards trigger further controversy China’s dairy industry is once again being scrutinized as suspicions abound that major dairy enterprises played a hand in manipulating and lowering quality standards to save costs.The new standards released in March 2010 set the maximum safety limit for bacteria in raw milk at 2 million cells per milliliter, four times

  9. Evidence Standards and Litigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    aspect of the legal system: the evidence standard. We recast the conventional rent-seeking model to consider how alternative evidence standards affect litigation choices. We analyze the interrelation between different evidence standards, the effectiveness of the parties’ efforts, and the merits...

  10. Information Security Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Constantin Tofan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of standards is unanimously accepted and gives the possibility of comparing a personal security system with a given frame of reference adopted at an international level. A good example is the ISO 9000 set of standards regarding the quality management system, which is a common reference regardless of the industry in which a certain company activates. Just like quality control standards for other industrial processes such as manufacturing and customer service, information security standards demonstrate in a methodical and certifiable manner that an organization conforms to industry best practices and procedures. This article offers a review of the world’s most used information security standards.

  11. Business Standardization & Market Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shiyuan

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of the market economy in China requires a renewed understanding of the theory and practice of business standardization. Built on the basic principles of standardization and the market economics, this paper seeks to define the role and status of standardization in the market economy, its aims and priorities. It then describes the deployment of standardization in market competition. Lastly, it explores into the possible transformations of concepts, functions and associated personnel of enterprise standardization in order to keep abreast of the evolving market economy.

  12. Standardization in Beijing Opera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhiyang

    2012-01-01

    Beijing Opera is the treasure of Chinese traditional dramatic arts.More than 200 years of artistic practice is the process that makes it mature and standardized.Although it is not described by standardized academic terminologies,all the performances of 'Chang (Singing)','Nian(Speaking)','Zuo (Acting)' and 'Da (Fighting)' have been following standardization requirement which is called "Chengshi (pattem)" in professional language or "Fan'er" in jargou,literally meaning a standard pattern.The pattern is the an technology format which is refined and summarized in accordance with the beautify principles from natural forms of things in life and then standardized to be the commonly adhered.

  13. 117 Standards Admitted in Civil Administration Standardization Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Ministry of Civil Administration has finalized its Standardization Plan 2007. According to this plan, the Ministry will see that 117 standards, including 8 compulsory national standards, 83 recommended national standards, and 26 professional standards, are prepared by June 2008.

  14. Scoring and Standard Setting with Standardized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini, John J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The continuous method of scoring a performance test composed of standardized patients was compared with a derivative method that assigned each of the 131 examinees (medical residents) a dichotomous score, and use of Angoff's method with these scoring methods was studied. Both methods produce reasonable means and distributions of scores. (SLD)

  15. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance...... in impulse noise, protectors with active noise reduction). Furthermore, an overview of the present European standards (CEN) and the relation to American and Australian/New Zealand standards will be discussed....

  16. Governing through standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    This abstract adresses the ways in which new education standards have become integral to new modes of education governance. The paper explores the role of standards for accelerating the shift from national to transnational governance in higher education. Drawing on the case of higher education...... development in Scandinavia, the paper focuses on the unintended effects of the new international standards. The Bologna process was reframed and recontextualized in ways that undermined the very system it was set out to transform and govern....

  17. Information Security Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Constantin Tofan

    2011-01-01

    The use of standards is unanimously accepted and gives the possibility of comparing a personal security system with a given frame of reference adopted at an international level. A good example is the ISO 9000 set of standards regarding the quality management system, which is a common reference regardless of the industry in which a certain company activates. Just like quality control standards for other industrial processes such as manufacturing and customer service, information security stand...

  18. Standard Model processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, M.L.; Aguilar Saavedra, J.A.; Alekhin, S.; Badger, S.; Bauer, C.W.; Becher, T.; Bertone, V.; Bonvini, M.; Boselli, S.; Bothmann, E.; Boughezal, R.; Cacciari, M.; Carloni Calame, C.M.; Caola, F.; Campbell, J.M.; Carrazza, S.; Chiesa, M.; Cieri, L.; Cimaglia, F.; Febres Cordero, F.; Ferrarese, P.; D'Enterria, D.; Ferrera, G.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Garzelli, M.V.; Germann, E.; Hirschi, V.; Han, T.; Ita, H.; Jäger, B.; Kallweit, S.; Karlberg, A.; Kuttimalai, S.; Krauss, F.; Larkoski, A.J.; Lindert, J.; Luisoni, G.; Maierhöfer, P.; Mattelaer, O.; Martinez, H.; Moch, S.; Montagna, G.; Moretti, M.; Nason, P.; Nicrosini, O.; Oleari, C.; Pagani, D.; Papaefstathiou, A.; Petriello, F.; Piccinini, F.; Pierini, M.; Pierog, T.; Pozzorini, S.; Re, E.; Robens, T.; Rojo, J.; Ruiz, R.; Sakurai, K.; Salam, G.P.; Salfelder, L.; Schönherr, M.; Schulze, M.; Schumann, S.; Selvaggi, M.; Shivaji, A.; Siodmok, A.; Skands, P.; Torrielli, P.; Tramontano, F.; Tsinikos, I.; Tweedie, B.; Vicini, A.; Westhoff, S.; Zaro, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-06-22

    This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.

  19. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID- 20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  20. Flight Standards Automation System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — FAVSIS supports Flight Standards Service (AFS) by maintaining their information on entities such as air carriers, air agencies, designated airmen, and check airmen....

  1. E-learning standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-learning standards refer to a system of common rules for content, authoring software and Learning Management Systems (LMSs - rules that specify how courses can be created and delivered over multiple platforms so that they all operate seamlessly together. Accredited standards ensure that the investment in time and intellectual capital could move from one system to the next. Currently, e-learning standards are being developed by four main organizations: AICC, IEEE, IMS, and ADL. The article presents some aspects of these standards.

  2. Highlights of China Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Management:Standards Guide Sustainable Transformation As of December 2010,more than 50,000 enterprises in China passed the ISO 14001 environment management system certification and more than 400 companies completed the voluntary accounting and authentication of carbon emissions.Environmental management system certification is a "green pass" in international trade.ISO has successively developed the ISO 14000 series environmental management standards and China has converted these standards into its national standards,which play a very important role in sustainable transformation and development of enterprises.

  3. Standardization of hormone determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2013-12-01

    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization.

  4. Standardizing visual display quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besuijen, Ko; Spenkelink, Gerd P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The current ISO 9241–3 standard for visual display quality and the proposed user performance tests are reviewed. The standard is found to be more engineering than ergonomic and problems with system configuration, software applications, display settings, user behaviour, wear and physical environment

  5. Soviet Standardization of Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Morton

    1961-01-01

    After a brief history of influences on the standardization of Russian since the Revolution, the descriptive and normalizing role of specific reference works of grammar, phonetics, vocabulary, and morphology is discussed. Concluding remarks point out a problem caused by a lack of coordination of standardization efforts and the mounting demands for…

  6. State Skill Standards: Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  7. How many standards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maegaard, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of standardisation and standard languages has a long history in linguistics. Tore Kristiansen has contributed to these discussions in various ways, and in this chapter I will focus on his claim that young Danes operate with two standards, one for the media and one for the school. This...

  8. Why Standards Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Michael A.; Caleb, Derry; Mitchell, Stanley G.

    2012-01-01

    When standards are absent, people soon notice. They care when products turn out to be of poor quality, are unreliable, or dangerous because of counterfeiting. By positioning their products in relation to a common standard, firms grow the total size of the market, and can focus their innovation efforts in areas where they have a comparative…

  9. Weston Standard battery

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a Weston AOIP standard battery with its calibration certificate (1956). Inside, the glassware forms an "H". Its name comes from the British physicist Edward Weston. A standard is the materialization of a given quantity whose value is known with great accuracy.

  10. [CAS General Standards 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) is to promote the improvement of programs and services to enhance the quality of student learning and development. CAS is a consortium of professional associations who work collaboratively to develop and promulgate standards and guidelines and to encourage…

  11. Workflow automation architecture standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  12. Academic Standards in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    A+ Education Partnership, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Education policymakers and educators in Alabama are committed to improving the state's public education system to ensure that students gain the knowledge and skills they need to graduate from high school ready for real life. The state is on the path to implementing higher academic standards--the College and Career Ready Standards--which lay a…

  13. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  14. Possible euro delay sends tremor throuhg Latvian government

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Keskpanga presidendi Jean-Claude Trichet' sõnul võib uute riikide liitumine eurotsooniga ilma nende majandust enamarenenud riikidega kooskõlastamata kutsuda esile probleeme EL-i majanduses. Ajalehe Telegraf andmeil võib Brüssel Läti liitmise eurotsooni riikide sekka paari aasta võrra edasi lükata

  15. Latvian legislators say 2010 budget proposal satisfies IMF demands

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Läti rahandusminister Einars Repse ei näe võimalust progressiivse tulumaksu kehtestamiseks. Läti riigieelarve on esimesel lugemisel parlamendis. President Valdis Zatlersi sõnul peab olema valmis selleks, et laenuandjad võivad nõuda riigieelarvesse paranduste tegemist

  16. Mobilization and Defence plans of the Latvian Armed forces

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuzmins, Valdis

    2013-01-01

    Esimesel iseseisvusperioodil töötati välja kolm kaitseplaani, igaühega neist kaasnes mobilisatsiooniplaan. Rahvusvahelise olukorra muutudes töötati ka välja neljas mobilisatsiooniplaan ja alustati viienda mobilisatsiooniplaani väljatöötamist, mida ei jõutud aga lõpetada

  17. Reliability of Latvian Power System’S 330 KV Substations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepomnyaschiy V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Darbā ir apskatīta loģiski - varbūtiskā elektrisko apakšstaciju drošuma aprēķinu metode, ievērojot apakšstaciju atsevišķo elementu atteikumus un releju aizsardzības un automātikas iekārtu nepareizu darbību. Ir iegūti Latvijas energosistēmas 330 kV apakšstaciju drošuma aprēķina rezultāti. Ir izstrādātas rekomendācijas dažāda tipa apakšstaciju slēguma shēmām.

  18. Latvian bank analysts strike back at "overheating hysteria" / Gary Peach

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peach, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Vastukaaluks rahvusvahelisele ajakirjandusele pole Läti kohalike pankade - Parex ja Hansabanka - majandusanalüütikud nii pessimistlikud, prognoosides Läti majandust ja selle võimalikku ülekuumenemist

  19. Latvian economic reforms - experience and lessons / Ojars Kehris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kehris, Ojars

    2002-01-01

    Iseseisva Läti üle kümne aastase ajaloo jooksul läbi viidud peamistest majandusreformidest - saavutused ja ebaõnnestumised. Diagrammid: inimarengu indeks, SKT 1999. aastal ja inflatsioon 1996-2000 EL-is, Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riikides, Balti riikides ja SRÜ-s; SKT kasv aastas Saksamaal (1948-1960); Jaapanis (1948-1960), Indoneesias (1970-1993) ja Lõuna-Koreas (1956-1987)

  20. Latvian economic reforms - experience and lessons / Ojars Kehris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kehris, Ojars

    2002-01-01

    Iseseisva Läti üle kümne aastase ajaloo jooksul läbi viidud peamistest majandusreformidest - saavutused ja ebaõnnestumised. Diagrammid: inimarengu indeks, SKT 1999. aastal ja inflatsioon 1996-2000 EL-is, Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riikides, Balti riikides ja SRÜ-s; SKT kasv aastas Saksamaal (1948-1960); Jaapanis (1948-1960), Indoneesias (1970-1993) ja Lõuna-Koreas (1956-1987)

  1. Latvian legislators say 2010 budget proposal satisfies IMF demands

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Läti rahandusminister Einars Repse ei näe võimalust progressiivse tulumaksu kehtestamiseks. Läti riigieelarve on esimesel lugemisel parlamendis. President Valdis Zatlersi sõnul peab olema valmis selleks, et laenuandjad võivad nõuda riigieelarvesse paranduste tegemist

  2. Latvian PR people are world class / Ada Parr

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parr, Ada

    2004-01-01

    Suhtekorraldusfirma Porter Novelli rahvusvahelise partnerluse juht suhtekorralduse osatähtsuse kasvust ettevõtete äritegevuses, suhtekorraldusturu olukorrast ja teenuste kvaliteedi tasemest Baltimaades. Vt. samas: Ada Parr recommends

  3. Latvian Spartacus or political rebellion by Zatlers? / Karina Oborune

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oborune, Karina

    2011-01-01

    Autor leiab, et president Valdis Zatlersi algatus parlamendi laialisaatmiseks ei too Lätti fundamentaalseid muutusi, kuigi võiks muuta seda, et rahvas ei saa presidenti otse valida ja võiks tekkida uus partei, mille esimeheks võiks saada Valdis Zatlers

  4. Latvian MPs protest Baltic Assembly budget-cut

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Baltimaade parlamendiliikmed peavad läbirääkimisi Balti Assamblee rahastamise osas. Läti parlamendiliikmed saatsid Eesti delegatsioonile kirja, milles protesteerivad rahastamise vähendamise vastu

  5. The Benefits of Green Roofing for Latvian Building Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, P.; Pastars, P

    2013-01-01

    Green roofs serve several purposes for a building, such as absorbing rainwater, providing insulation, creating a habitat for wildlife and helping to lower urban air temperatures and mitigate the heat island effect. The modern trend started when green roofs were developed in Germany in the 1960s, and has since spread to many countries. Today, it is estimated that about 10% of all German roofs have been “greened”. Green roofs are also becoming increasingly popular in the United States, although...

  6. Latvian PR people are world class / Ada Parr

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parr, Ada

    2004-01-01

    Suhtekorraldusfirma Porter Novelli rahvusvahelise partnerluse juht suhtekorralduse osatähtsuse kasvust ettevõtete äritegevuses, suhtekorraldusturu olukorrast ja teenuste kvaliteedi tasemest Baltimaades. Vt. samas: Ada Parr recommends

  7. Chaos returns as new Latvian Saiema convenes / Philip Birzulis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Birzulis, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Enne Läti uue seimi esimest istungit astusid 6 parlamendiliiget Valdis Zatlersi parteist välja, kuna ei olnud rahul koalitsiooni poolt esitatud ministrikandidaatidega. Seimi spiikriks valiti taas Solvita Aboltina. Statistikat praeguse seimi koosseisu kohta

  8. Latvian bank analysts strike back at "overheating hysteria" / Gary Peach

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peach, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Vastukaaluks rahvusvahelisele ajakirjandusele pole Läti kohalike pankade - Parex ja Hansabanka - majandusanalüütikud nii pessimistlikud, prognoosides Läti majandust ja selle võimalikku ülekuumenemist

  9. Chaos returns as new Latvian Saiema convenes / Philip Birzulis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Birzulis, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Enne Läti uue seimi esimest istungit astusid 6 parlamendiliiget Valdis Zatlersi parteist välja, kuna ei olnud rahul koalitsiooni poolt esitatud ministrikandidaatidega. Seimi spiikriks valiti taas Solvita Aboltina. Statistikat praeguse seimi koosseisu kohta

  10. Income as a factor of consumer behaviour in Latvian households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov V. V., Krasko V. D.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Socially oriented public policy in the area of household consumption plays an important role in achieving stable socio-economic development. At the macroeconomic level, the state regulates the process of consumption based on fiscal policy and fair taxation of households, encouraging domestic demand and economic activity. Therefore, the urgent task of modern macroeconomic policy in Latvia is the development and support of socially relevant tools and methods of state regulation of consumption and consumer behaviour of the households, taking into account its main factors: income and taxation.

  11. Bite GSM, Alina bid for new Latvian license

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Läti transpordiministeerium teatas, et on saanud mitmeid pakkumisi riigi kolmanda mobiilioperaatori litsentsi ostmiseks. Litsentsi alghind oksjonil on 1,3 miljonit latti ning enampakkumise võitja peab investeerima telekommunikatsiooni infrastruktuuri arendamisse Lätis vähemalt 150 miljonit eurot.

  12. General Anti-Avoidance Rule in Latvian Tax Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Belevica

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tax law systems of the EU Member States differ strongly; one is based on the specific anti – avoidance provisions governed by the general principle of prohibition of abuse stated in court jurisprudence, the basement of the other is a written judicial rule which prohibits the abuse – general anti – avoidance rule. General anti-avoidance rules are needed because of conflicts of laws in the borders of one state as well the conflicts of different state’s jurisprudence. There is no legal definition of tax avoidance in the EU law nevertheless the notion of tax avoidance is firmly connected to the concept of abuse of law – a general principle of EU law which has got its prompt development in the resent tax case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU. The UK practice is undoubtedly the positive example of methodologically precise legal ruling in the sphere of complicated abstract issues of abuse in tax law. This paper aims to describe the concept of general anti avoidance rule, comparing theoretical cognitions, regulation in Latvia and UK and also tax case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.

  13. Latvian Spartacus or political rebellion by Zatlers? / Karina Oborune

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oborune, Karina

    2011-01-01

    Autor leiab, et president Valdis Zatlersi algatus parlamendi laialisaatmiseks ei too Lätti fundamentaalseid muutusi, kuigi võiks muuta seda, et rahvas ei saa presidenti otse valida ja võiks tekkida uus partei, mille esimeheks võiks saada Valdis Zatlers

  14. Bite GSM, Alina bid for new Latvian license

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Läti transpordiministeerium teatas, et on saanud mitmeid pakkumisi riigi kolmanda mobiilioperaatori litsentsi ostmiseks. Litsentsi alghind oksjonil on 1,3 miljonit latti ning enampakkumise võitja peab investeerima telekommunikatsiooni infrastruktuuri arendamisse Lätis vähemalt 150 miljonit eurot.

  15. Latvian government in double jeopardy with EU, Latvijas Gaze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Läti soovib saada Euroopa Komisjonilt ajapikendust gaasituru liberaliseerimiseks 2010. aastani ning lubab sel juhul sõlmida Latvijas Gaze'ga kokkuleppe, et viimane loobuks gaasitarnete ainuõigusest Lätis

  16. Legionella pneumophila Seropositivity-Associated Factors in Latvian Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valciņa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous environmental exposure of humans to Legionella may induce immune responses and generation of antibodies. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Legionella pneumophila serogroups (SG 1–6 in the general healthy population and identify the associated host-related and environmental risk factors. L. pneumophila SG 1–6 seroprevalence among a total of 2007 blood samples collected from healthy donors was 4.8%. Seroprevalence was higher in women (5.9% than men (3.3% and in areas with a larger number of inhabitants, ranging from 3.5% in rural regions to 6.8% in the capital, Riga. Blood samples from inhabitants of apartment buildings tested positive for L. pneumophila in more cases (5.8% compared to those from inhabitants of single-family homes (2.7%. Residents of buildings with a municipal hot water supply system were more likely to be seropositive for L. pneumophila (OR = 3.16, 95% CI 1.26–7.91. Previous episodes of fever were additionally identified as a risk factor (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.43–4.1. In conclusion, centralized hot water supply, female gender and previous episodes of fever were determined as the main factors associated with L. pneumophila seropositivity in our study population.

  17. Latvian minister wants to jump-start economy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Mõned Läti majandussektorid, eriti ehitussektor kannatavad meetmete pärast, mis valitsus võttis vastu majandusarengu aeglustamiseks. Peaminister Godmanise arvates peaks olema prioriteet majanduskasv, mitte madalamad hinnad

  18. Latvian minister wants to jump-start economy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Mõned Läti majandussektorid, eriti ehitussektor kannatavad meetmete pärast, mis valitsus võttis vastu majandusarengu aeglustamiseks. Peaminister Godmanise arvates peaks olema prioriteet majanduskasv, mitte madalamad hinnad

  19. Possible euro delay sends tremor throuhg Latvian government

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Keskpanga presidendi Jean-Claude Trichet' sõnul võib uute riikide liitumine eurotsooniga ilma nende majandust enamarenenud riikidega kooskõlastamata kutsuda esile probleeme EL-i majanduses. Ajalehe Telegraf andmeil võib Brüssel Läti liitmise eurotsooni riikide sekka paari aasta võrra edasi lükata

  20. Mobilization and Defence plans of the Latvian Armed forces

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuzmins, Valdis

    2013-01-01

    Esimesel iseseisvusperioodil töötati välja kolm kaitseplaani, igaühega neist kaasnes mobilisatsiooniplaan. Rahvusvahelise olukorra muutudes töötati ka välja neljas mobilisatsiooniplaan ja alustati viienda mobilisatsiooniplaani väljatöötamist, mida ei jõutud aga lõpetada

  1. 76 FR 75782 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of... is revising its Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating a reference to a standard... and Explanation of Revisions to the Acetylene Standard IV. Procedural Determinations A....

  2. FDA Recognized Consensus Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database consists of those national and international standards recognized by FDA which manufacturers can declare conformity to and is part of the information...

  3. Striving for "Standard Economy"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Huailin

    2006-01-01

    @@ Promotion of the "standard economy" itself is an integral part of upgrading the quality of China's economic development, transforming economic growth mode and responding to foreign trade barriers as well as a key strategy for improving foreign trade level.

  4. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  5. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  6. 1990 Fischer Standard study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubik, G.J.

    1990-09-12

    The purpose of this work is to develop a set of Titanium areal density standards for calibration and maintenance of the Fischer`s X-ray Fluorescence measurement system characterization curve program. The electron microprobe was calibrated for Titanium films on ceramic substrates using an existing set of laboratory standards (Quantity: 6 Range: 0.310 to 1.605). Fourteen source assemblies were measured and assigned values. These values are based on a mean calculation, of five separate readings, from best curve fit equations developed form the plot of the laboratory standards areal density (Source Measure) versus electron microprobe measurement (reading). The best fit equations were determined using the SAS General Linear Modeling (GLM) procedure. Four separate best fit equations were evaluated (Linear, Quadratic, Cubic and Exponential). Areal density values for the Fischer Standards appear here ordered by best fit equation based on maximum R{sup 2}.

  7. The Standard Cosmological Model

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, D

    2005-01-01

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics (SMPP) is an enormously successful description of high energy physics, driving ever more precise measurements to find "physics beyond the standard model", as well as providing motivation for developing more fundamental ideas that might explain the values of its parameters. Simultaneously, a description of the entire 3-dimensional structure of the present-day Universe is being built up painstakingly. Most of the structure is stochastic in nature, being merely the result of the particular realisation of the "initial conditions" within our observable Universe patch. However, governing this structure is the Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC), which appears to require only about a dozen parameters. Cosmologists are now determining the values of these quantities with increasing precision in order to search for "physics beyond the standard model", as well as trying to develop an understanding of the more fundamental ideas which might explain the values of its parameters. Althoug...

  8. AKRO: Standard Prices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard prices are generated for cost recovery programs in the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) halibut and sablefish, BSAI Rationalized crab, and Central Gulf of...

  9. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  10. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  11. International standards in metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fomina; O.; N.

    2005-01-01

    The existence of incompatible standards in many technical fields represents a technical barrier to international cooperation between enterprises in different countries in the manufacture of high technology products.……

  12. Food Safety & Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ An increasing number of people have realized that food safety is an important issue for public health. It not only concerns public health and safety, but also has direct influence on national economic progress and social development. The development and implementation of food safety standards play a vital role in protecting public health, as well as in standardizing and facilitating the sound development of food production and business.

  13. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  14. Standardization Today and Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Order for the Whole World) Eberstein, H.-H.: Sicherheitstechnisches Recht und Normen ; in: Peters. 0. H. u. A. Meyna: Handbuch der Si- cherheitstechnik...on the Protection of Labor for the Development and Design Sector) Landis, J. W.: Freie Welt - freier Handel - freie Normen ; in: DIN-Mitteilungen 57...Norm auf die Vielfalt effect of company standard on variety KonformitAt zu nationalen Normen conformity to national standards Konformit6t zu

  15. Standardization Practices of Gree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    1.The great importance attached by the company's executives is a strong guarantee for leap-forward development of standardization.To give play to the strategic role of standards in supporting the long-term and sustainable development of the enterprise,the company's management has attached great importance to the standardization work and provided strong capital support and guarantee of resources in standardization.Continuously improve the requirements of corporate technical standards and reliability quality control means,develop core technologies with independent intellectual property rights,continuously achieve major breakthroughs in key technologies and successfully apply to the company's products to help the enterprises maintain rapid and steady development in the market of household electrical appliances with extremely intense competition,achieve remarkable economic and social benefits for the company,and provide strong support for leap-forward development of standardization work.The company has successively and independently developed a series of highend products and technologies which are intemationally advanced.So far,the company has 10 innovations included in the national science and technology programs.

  16. DOE technical standards list. Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listing of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  17. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  18. Consequences of Accounting Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Mingyue

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this article consists in attempting to highlight the importance of concerning about the economic consequences and introducing the foundation of economic consequence theory, proposing that the accounting standard is not only a kind of technical standard, it also has the economic consequences, so it becomes the object which all quarters special interest group gambles to get latent profit. After general characterization of the economic consequences in the second part, the article gives a description of the influences the change of accounting standards bring to the government, the ordinary investors and creditors, the auditors, and the enterprise, establishing a framework that how those groups react as the economic consequences in the third part. The fourth section compare technical theory and accounting standards theory, links the basic norms of accounting such as conservatism, relevance and reliability to the methods of escaping the harm of economic consequences, then proposes some specific methods in the formuhtion of accounting standard. Finally, the article utilizes the methods to settle the problems appearing in Chinese market.

  19. Product evaluation and standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, M

    1986-01-01

    Although it was cumbersome at the time of implementation, the process began to operate effectively once hospital personnel overcame their initial concern over a potential "paperwork jungle" and realized that the paperwork is easy to control. When implementing such a system, it is vital that all personnel make a commitment to the process. Although it can be time-consuming and demanding in that employees must attend meetings, write standards, conduct and coordinate evaluations, the benefits are paid back many times over, both in dollars and staff satisfaction. A major plus of our system is our requirement that the user justify why a product is needed. That need is explained in the content of a product standard. The demerit rating system, while not a precise mathematical science, does indicate the relative importance of each criterion. The final result is a standard product, a standard process and a standard decision, against which both product and process performance can be measured. This measurement is a level of professionalism achieved by the actions of a motivated staff, working in cooperation toward a single goal.

  20. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  1. Science education standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberts, B.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the National Science Education Standards that are being developed at the National Research Council. The Standards are being developed for the following areas: content, teaching, assessment, program, and system. The national science standards will call for the kind of science that provides both an understanding of the basic concepts needed for success in our high technology society, and the acquisition of process skills, or the ability to proceed step by step to solve a practical problem. Science should become a core subject like reading, writing and math in grades K-12. At all levels, the material taught should be interesting, both to students and to teachers. The profession of science teaching must become an attractive one, which is possible to do well without superhuman effort. The scientific community must accept responsibility for achieving these goals.

  2. Fasteners 5 basic standards

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    This 3rd edition of DIN Handbook 193 contains 38 fundamental standards on fasteners, covering such areas as countersinks and counterbores, widths across flats, thread run-outs and thread undercuts, bolt and screw ends, stud ends and tapped holes for compression couplings, driving features, tolerances for screw threads and nomenclature. New to this compilation are DIN 34824 dealing with 12 point sockets for bolts and screws and DIN EN ISO 15065 which reflects current practice in Europe with regard to countersinks for countersunk head screws. Also included for the first time is DIN EN ISO 225 "Fasteners - Bolts, screws, studs and nuts - Symbols and descriptions of dimensions" which, together with DIN ISO 1891, now also incorporates terminology in Chinese, Japanese and Swedish. Four standards have been revised for this edition, among them DIN 918 Supplement 3 which provides information on the current status of European standardization relating to fasteners. DIN Handbook 193 is one of a series of six handbooks on...

  3. Islam, Standards, and Technoscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    Halal (literally, "permissible" or "lawful") production, trade, and standards have become essential to state-regulated Islam and to companies in contemporary Malaysia and Singapore, giving these two countries a special position in the rapidly expanding global market for halal products......, this book provides an exploration of the role of halal production, trade, and standards. Fischer explains how the global markets for halal comprise divergent zones in which Islam, markets, regulatory institutions, and technoscience interact and diverge. Focusing on the "bigger institutional picture......" that frames everyday halal consumption, Fischer provides a multisited ethnography of the overlapping technologies and techniques of production, trade, and standards that together warrant a product as "halal," and thereby help to format the market. Exploring global halal in networks, training, laboratories...

  4. Standards and quality

    CERN Document Server

    El-Tawil, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together a number of subjects of prime importance for any practicing engineer and, students of engineering. The book explains the concepts and functions of voluntary standards, mandatory technical regulations, conformity assessment (testing and measurement of products), certification, quality and quality management systems as well as other management systems such as environmental, social responsibility and food safety management systems.The book also gives a comprehensive description of the role of metrology systems that underpin conformity assessment. A description is given of typical national systems of standards, quality and metrology and how they relate directly or through regional structures to international systems. The book also covers the relation between standards and trade and explains the context and stipulations of the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

  5. Ethics, standards, and TQM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticelli, M G

    1995-04-01

    The most important ethical issue for our profession is the responsibility to assure the care delivered by our colleagues and ourselves meets a self-imposed standard of excellence. There is anecdotal and experimental evidence that we have not fulfilled this obligation. Peer review has proven, for a number of reasons, to be ineffective; however, improvements in the epidemiologic sciences should provide better standards and total quality management (TQM) might prove to be of value in monitoring, comparing and improving the decisions made by physicians. Its promise lies in its emphasis on statistical analysis, its focus on systematic rather than human error, and its use of outcomes as standards. These methods, however, should not diminish our other professional responsibilities: Altruism, peer review, and in Hippocrates' words "to prescribe regimens for the good of our patients-and never do harm to anyone."

  6. Culture of standardization

    OpenAIRE

    García Pantigozo, Manuel; Yenque de Dios, Julio; Docente FII-UNMSM; Gil Benites, Wilber

    2014-01-01

    The culture of standardization has become a competitive advantage; develop those who will survive, and those who do not, will be isolated in the market. Have been established quality standards (ISO 9000), environmental (ISO 14000), on laboratory accreditation (ISO 25) on food (HACCP) and drugs (NCF).  La cultura de la normalización se ha convertido en una ventaja competitiva; quienes la desarrollen sobrevivirán, y los que no, quedarán aislados del mercado. Se han establecido normas sobr...

  7. Airborne Network Camera Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    primarily to cover terminology included in or consistent with the GigE Vision (GEV) and IRIG 106-13 Chapter 10 standards for command and control over a...cover terminology included in or consistent with the GigE Vision1 (GEV) and IRIG 106-13 Chapter 102 standards for command and control over a variety of... IRIG 106-13. June 2013. May be superseded by update. Available at http://www.wsmr.army.mil/RCCsite/Documents/106%20Previous%20Versions/106

  8. Standardization Historical Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1. Indroduction Standardization germinated in ancient times, and began to develop from the beginning of the in-dustrial revolution, and took off in the later years of the 19th Century. It has been closely connected with the development of science and technology, as well as industry and trade throughout human histo-ry. Standardization now plays an important role in nearly every aspect of human life, in different sec-tors of industry and society. It has had a great im-pact on our lives.

  9. Reactive standard deontic logic

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbay, Dov M.; Straßer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a reactive variant of SDL (standard deontic logic): SDLR1 (reactive standard deontic logic). Given a Kripkean view on the semantics of SDL in terms of directed graphs where arrows -> represent the accessibility relation between worlds, reactive models add two elements: arrows -> are labelled as 'active' or 'inactive', and double arrows a dagger connect arrows, e.g. (x(1) -> x(2)) a dagger (x(3) -> x(4)). The idea is that passing through x(1) -> x(2) activates a switch represented...

  10. Coordinate Standard Measurement Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanshaw, R.A.

    2000-02-18

    A Shelton Precision Interferometer Base, which is used for calibration of coordinate standards, was improved through hardware replacement, software geometry error correction, and reduction of vibration effects. Substantial increases in resolution and reliability, as well as reduction in sampling time, were achieved through hardware replacement; vibration effects were reduced substantially through modification of the machine component dampening and software routines; and the majority of the machine's geometry error was corrected through software geometry error correction. Because of these modifications, the uncertainty of coordinate standards calibrated on this device has been reduced dramatically.

  11. Digital Standard Star Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuerry, J. P., Jr.

    The Digital Standard Star Tracker (DSST) is an electro-optical instrument which provides position data used for precise attitude determination. The new DSST design uses flight-proven optical and sensor components from the BASD/NASA Standard Star Tracker (SST) programs while incorporating digital electronics techniques to improve producibility and reliability. This design approach has resulted in a new instrument capable of less than 10 arc second calibrated accuracy with 50 percent of the electrical components and only 10 percent of the electrical assemblies used in the SST.

  12. Conference: STANDARD MODEL @ LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    HCØ institute Universitetsparken 5 DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø Denmark Room: Auditorium 2 STANDARD MODEL @ LHC Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center 10-13 April 2012 This four day meeting will bring together both experimental and theoretical aspects of Standard Model phenomenology at the LHC. The very latest results from the LHC experiments will be under discussion. Topics covered will be split into the following categories:     * QCD (Hard,Soft & PDFs)     * Vector Boson production     * Higgs searches     * Top Quark Physics     * Flavour physics

  13. Beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Csáki, C

    2015-01-01

    We introduce aspects of physics beyond the Standard Model focusing on supersymmetry, extra dimensions, and a composite Higgs as solutions to the Hierarchy problem. Lectures given at the 2013 European School of High Energy Physics, Parádfürdo, Hungary, 5-18 June 2013.

  14. Telecommunications administration standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustwiller, K.D. [GTE Customer Networks, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The administration of telecommunications is critical to proper maintenance and operation. The intent is to be able to properly support telecommunications for the distribution of all information within a building/campus. This standard will provide a uniform administration scheme that is independent of applications, and will establish guidelines for owners, installers, designers and contractors. This standard will accommodate existing building wiring, new building wiring and outside plant wiring. Existing buildings may not readily adapt to all applications of this standard, but the requirement for telecommunications administration is applicable to all buildings. Administration of the telecommunications infrastructure includes documentation (labels, records, drawings, reports, and work orders) of cables, termination hardware, patching and cross-connect facilities, telecommunications rooms, and other telecommunications spaces (conduits, grounding, and cable pathways are documented by Facilities Engineering). The investment in properly documenting telecommunications is a worthwhile effort. It is necessary to adhere to these standards to ensure quality and efficiency for the operation and maintenance of the telecommunications infrastructure for Sandia National Laboratories.

  15. A Standard of Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Dave; Cramer, James E.; Cramer, Mary Kay

    2000-01-01

    Principals can support teachers' pursuit of National Board of Professional Teaching Standards certification by learning about the NBPTS's certification process, putting candidates in contact with NBPTS support programs, facilitating access to technology, providing building access on weekends, volunteering to photocopy or obtain needed materials,…

  16. Setting Environmental Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Gershon

    1975-01-01

    Recent court decisions have pointed out the complexities involved in setting environmental standards. Environmental health is composed of multiple causative agents, most of which work over long periods of time. This makes the cause-and-effect relationship between health statistics and environmental contaminant exposures difficult to prove in…

  17. Organizational Hiring Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yinon; Pfeffer, Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    Using a sample of 254 San Francisco Bay Area establishments, this study examines determinants of organizational hiring selectivity, including use of educational credentials, tests, and screening devices for both white and blue collar workers. Apparently, hiring standards reflect organizations' skill requirements and group preferences for these…

  18. Accessibility Standards, Illustrated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael A.

    The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

  19. Standardized Curriculum for Cosmetology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: cosmetology I and II. The 18 units in cosmetology I are as follows: introduction to cosmetology; Vocational Industrial Clubs of America; the look you like; bacteriology; sterilization and sanitation; hair and disorders; draping,…

  20. Standard PWR for Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negroni, A.; Velona, F. (Ente Nazionale per l' Energia Elettrica, Rome (Italy))

    1983-03-01

    A description is given of the general design for the standard PWR which will be used in the seven to eight nuclear power stations provided for in the Italian national energy plan. Special features to meet Italian conditions include double containment and a common foundation mat for the reactor, auxiliary and fuel buildings.

  1. Standards and Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Gene V.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph has grown out of a series of discussions and a six-month period of reading and reflecting on the literature which were initiated by Fritz Mosher's suggestions to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) to examine the "standards" question. Conversations with Mosher himself and the staff of NAEP have been most…

  2. On Standard Ideals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi De YU

    2003-01-01

    In the paper, we study a class of standard ideals which are more general than the m-primarystandard ideals discussed in [2]. We will prove an important equality concerning I-weak sequences; thusa generalization of the equality of [2] is established.

  3. Accessibility Standards, Illustrated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael A.

    The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

  4. Setting the Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The country’s self-developed document format standard faces a difficult decision and possible extinction as it goes up against mighty Microsoft Since Microsoft’s Office Open Extensible Markup Language (OOXML)document format was accepted as an international stan- dard by the International Organization for

  5. Elevating standards, improving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Richard

    2014-08-01

    In our latest 'technical guidance' article, Richard Clarke, sales and marketing director at one of the UK's leading lift and escalator specialists, Schindler, examines some of the key issues surrounding the specification, maintenance, and operation of lifts in hospitals to help ensure the highest standards of safety and reliability.

  6. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...... of educational texts covering IFRS within the context of a review of the progress of IFRS themselves....

  7. Standardization of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  8. 4G Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China plans to submit homegrown fourth-generation (4G) mobile technology standards to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) between 2008 and 2009, according to Wen Ku, director of the Department of Science and Technology at the Ministry of Information Industry.

  9. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...

  10. Herbal reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  11. Standards and Interoperability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen McGibbon

    2006-01-01

    @@ I am sure that there will be much discussion at the upcoming Baltic IT&T 2005 conference about standards and interoperability, and so I thought I would try to contribute to the debate with this, the first of four articles that I will write for this journal over the coming months.

  12. DOE standard: Radiological control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  13. Department of Energy Standards Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This TSL, intended for use in selecting and using DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards, provides listing of current and inactive DOE technical standards, non-Government standards adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards.

  14. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This technical standards list (TSL) was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of US DOE technical standards and other government and non-government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards. Standards are indexed by type in the appendices to this document. Definitions of and general guidance for the use of standards are also provided.

  15. Autoantibody standardization in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damoiseaux, J.; Tervaert, J.W.; Derksen, R.; Hamann, D.; Hooijkaas, H.; Klasen, I.S.; Kallenberg, C.; Limburg, P.; Smeenk, R.

    2009-01-01

    Several initiatives have been undertaken, independent of the European Autoantibody Standardization Initiative (EASI), to standardize autoantibodies in The Netherlands. The Dutch EASI team has made an inventory of which initiatives on autoantibody standardization are already available and what future

  16. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    Non-Standard elements in architecture bear the promise of a better more specific performance (Oosterhuis 2003). A new understanding of design evolves, which is focusing on open ended approaches, able to negotiate between shifting requirements and to integrate knowledge on process and material......- and machine industry we fabricated a 1:1 demonstrator show casing the potential for performance due to digital fabrication in this sustainable material. The production of a custom made design tool helped not only to explore design variations while keeping up the link to digital production machinery....... Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software...

  17. Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-05-01

    These lectures constitute a short course in ``Beyond the Standard Model`` for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders.

  18. 3G Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saugstrup, Dan; Henten, Anders

    2006-01-01

    angles – technology, markets and economy, policy and regulation, and other social aspects. Findings – The paper concludes that WCDMA will dominate the markets, but that there will be a co-existence of different solutions – also inside individual countries where more than one solution is implemented......Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to analyze which standard/technology will win the 3G mobile markets. In addition, two sub topics are examined. First, which kind of victory will it be – will one technological solution be all-dominating or is co-existence more likely? Second, which...... are the most decisive factors in the battle between the different standards – which roles do respectively technology path-dependence, network effects and strategic concerns play? Design/methodology/approach – The approach taken in the paper is to examine the different kinds of stakeholders – in this field...

  19. The Genomic Standards Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Field

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A vast and rich body of information has grown up as a result of the world's enthusiasm for 'omics technologies. Finding ways to describe and make available this information that maximise its usefulness has become a major effort across the 'omics world. At the heart of this effort is the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC, an open-membership organization that drives community-based standardization activities, Here we provide a short history of the GSC, provide an overview of its range of current activities, and make a call for the scientific community to join forces to improve the quality and quantity of contextual information about our public collections of genomes, metagenomes, and marker gene sequences.

  20. Standarder for god undervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Christiansen, Frederik V; Troelsen, Rie

    foretages på baggrund af forskningsresultater, og ansattes engagement i undervisning vil ofte være på bekostning af forskningsindsatsen – og dermed på bekostning af vedkommendes akademiske karriere. Dette roundtable vil diskutere hvorvidt indførelsen af standarder for god undervisning kan være en del af en...... indsats, som både kan øge kvaliteten i de videregående uddannelser og øge undervisningens status. En sådan standard kan formuleres på mange måder, som har indflydelse på såvel anvendelighed som på selve forståelsen af hvad god undervisning er. Den udviklede model kan opfattes som et dialogredskab...

  1. Beyond standard quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Despite the many empirical successes of QCD, there are a number of intriguing experimental anomalies that have been observed in heavy flavor hadroproduction, in measurements of azimuthal correlations in deep inelastic processes, and in measurements of spin correlations in hadronic reactions. Such phenomena point to color coherence and multiparton correlations in the hadron wavefunctions and physics beyond standard leading twist factorization. Two new high precision tests of QCD and the Standard Model are discussed: classical polarized photoabsorption sum rules, which are sensitive to anomalous couplings and composite structure, and commensurate scale relations, which relate physical observables to each other without scale or scheme ambiguity. The relationship of anomalous couplings to composite structure is also discussed.

  2. New standards; Neue Normen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Stephan [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Testzentrum fuer Solaranlagen des Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik (ITW)

    2013-06-06

    At the end of this year (2013) the international collector standard EN ISO 9806 replaces the existing EN 12975-2 standard. Also EN 12975-1, which is formulating the general requirements for solar collectors will be adjusted during the year. And last but not least: the first time boilers and controller can get the label ''Solar Keymark''. [German] Ende dieses Jahres (2013) soll die internationale Kollektornorm EN ISO 9806 die bisherige EN 12975-2 ersetzen. Auch die EN 12975-1, die allgemeine Anforderungen an Solarkollektoren formuliert, wird im Laufe des Jahres angepasst. Und nicht zuletzt: Erstmals koennen Speicher und Regler das Label ''Solar Keymark'' bekommen.

  3. Hypnosis and performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Green, Joseph P; Jaquith, Leah; Gasior, Donna

    2003-01-01

    Participants received 1 of 3 instructional sets designed to manipulate their performance standards (i.e., criteria used to evaluate hypnotic performance): (a) stringent set (n = 33), these subjects were told that responsive subjects respond immediately to hypnosis and imagine realistically, (b) lenient set (n = 30), these subjects were told that responsive subjects do not necessarily respond immediately or imagine realistically, and (c) control set (n = 34), standard prehypnotic information. As expected, compared to controls, stringent set participants were less responsive to hypnosis, as indexed by measures of actual and estimated suggestibility, subjective involvement, involuntariness, quickness of responding, satisfaction, and imaginative ability. Stringent set participants estimated they passed fewer suggestions, were less satisfied with their performance, and reported less subjective involvement than individuals in the lenient condition.

  4. 76 FR 81295 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... cost on a current mark-to-market basis better aligns the CAS measurement with current accounting and... 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards... Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and......

  5. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  6. Forestry Standardization & Forestry Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Forestry insurance of our country has developed slowly,of which the main difficulty lies in predicting and determining forestry risk,confirming the sum insured,raising the premiums, indemnity for property loss,coordinating forestry insurance and forestry protection,and lack of insurance legal system etc.With the implementation of forestry's standardized project,and overcoming effectively the technological obstacle existing in forestry's insurance,the development speed of forestry's insurance will be accelerated too.

  7. Standard interface file handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States))

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  8. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  9. CALBC silver standard corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Jimeno Yepes, Antonio José; Van Mulligen, Erik M; Kang, Ning; Kors, Jan; Milward, David; Corbett, Peter; Buyko, Ekaterina; Beisswanger, Elena; Hahn, Udo

    2010-02-01

    The CALBC initiative aims to provide a large-scale biomedical text corpus that contains semantic annotations for named entities of different kinds. The generation of this corpus requires that the annotations from different automatic annotation systems be harmonized. In the first phase, the annotation systems from five participants (EMBL-EBI, EMC Rotterdam, NLM, JULIE Lab Jena, and Linguamatics) were gathered. All annotations were delivered in a common annotation format that included concept identifiers in the boundary assignments and that enabled comparison and alignment of the results. During the harmonization phase, the results produced from those different systems were integrated in a single harmonized corpus ("silver standard" corpus) by applying a voting scheme. We give an overview of the processed data and the principles of harmonization--formal boundary reconciliation and semantic matching of named entities. Finally, all submissions of the participants were evaluated against that silver standard corpus. We found that species and disease annotations are better standardized amongst the partners than the annotations of genes and proteins. The raw corpus is now available for additional named entity annotations. Parts of it will be made available later on for a public challenge. We expect that we can improve corpus building activities both in terms of the numbers of named entity classes being covered, as well as the size of the corpus in terms of annotated documents.

  10. Standards for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Nigel; Lloyd-Jones, Gaynor

    2003-02-01

    In the current UK socio-political climate of mounting regulation of professional practice, a debate on the topic of standards amongst medical teachers seems timely. The role of teacher is increasingly recognised as a core professional activity for all doctors and one that cannot be left to chance, aptitude or inclination. As a consequence, faculties have developed a plethora of teacher training programmes for medical teachers. But what is good medical teaching? Unless we know what it is, how can we develop it? One possible approach is to develop clear and comprehensive standards, defining what we mean by competent or effective clinical teaching. In this article we have evaluated and compared two models of standards for clinical educators. The first is the outcome-based approach developed at Dundee Medical School and the second is the scholarship model devised initially by Boyer and then elaborated by Glassick and Fincher et al. The key features of both models are briefly described and their comparative strengths and problematic aspects explored. Both models offer interesting and stimulating ideas and together they provide an instructive contrast. They make a valuable contribution to the ongoing process of improving the provision of medical education.

  11. The Conformal Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Latosinski, Adam; Meissner, Krzysztof A; Nicolai, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    We present an extended version of the Conformal Standard Model (characterized by the absence of any new intermediate scales between the electroweak scale and the Planck scale) with an enlarged scalar sector coupling to right-chiral neutrinos in such a way that the scalar potential and the Yukawa couplings involving only right-chiral neutrinos are invariant under a new global symmetry SU(3)$_N$ which is broken explicitly only by the Yukawa interaction coupling right-chiral neutrinos and the electroweak lepton doublets. We point out four main advantages of such an enlargement, namely: (1) the economy of the (non-supersymmetric) Standard Model, and thus its observational success, is preserved; (2) thanks to the enlarged scalar sector the RG improved one-loop effective potential is everywhere positive with a stable global minimum, thereby avoiding the notorious instability of the Standard Model vacuum; (3) the pseudo-Goldstone bosons resulting from spontaneous breaking of the SU(3)$_N$ symmetry are natural Dark M...

  12. Implementing PAT with Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Laakshmana Sabari; Doolla, Suryanarayana; Khaparde, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Perform Achieve Trade (PAT) is a market-based incentive mechanism to promote energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is to address the challenges inherent to inconsistent representation of business processes, and interoperability issues in PAT like cap-and-trade mechanisms especially when scaled. Studies by various agencies have highlighted that as the mechanism evolves including more industrial sectors and industries in its ambit, implementation will become more challenging. This paper analyses the major needs of PAT (namely tracking, monitoring, auditing & verifying energy-saving reports, and providing technical support & guidance to stakeholders); and how the aforesaid reasons affect them. Though current technologies can handle these challenges to an extent, standardization activities for implementation have been scanty for PAT and this work attempts to evolve them. The inconsistent modification of business processes, rules, and procedures across stakeholders, and interoperability among heterogeneous systems are addressed. This paper proposes the adoption of specifically two standards into PAT, namely Business Process Model and Notation for maintaining consistency in business process modelling, and Common Information Model (IEC 61970, 61968, 62325 combined) for information exchange. Detailed architecture and organization of these adoptions are reported. The work can be used by PAT implementing agencies, stakeholders, and standardization bodies.

  13. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  14. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  15. ISO 50001 Energy Management Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-12

    This powerful standard from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) provides an internationally recognized framework for organizations to voluntarily implement an energy management system.

  16. ESDIS Standards Office (ESO): Requirements, Standards and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Mcinerney, Mark Allen; Enloe, Yonsok K.; Conover, Helen T.; Doyle, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The ESDIS Standards Office assists the ESDIS Project in formulating standards policy for NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS), coordinates standards activities within ESDIS, and provides technical expertise and assistance with standards related tasks within the NASA Earth Science Data System Working Groups (ESDSWG). This poster summarizes information found on the earthdata.nasa.gov site that describes the ESO.

  17. Consistency Across Standards or Standards in a New Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2010-01-01

    Presentation topics include: standards in a changing business model, the new National Space Policy is driving change, a new paradigm for human spaceflight, consistency across standards, the purpose of standards, danger of over-prescriptive standards, a balance is needed (between prescriptive and general standards), enabling versus inhibiting, characteristics of success-oriented standards, characteristics of success-oriented standards, and conclusions. Additional slides include NASA Procedural Requirements 8705.2B identifies human rating standards and requirements, draft health and medical standards for human rating, what's been done, government oversight models, examples of consistency from anthropometry, examples of inconsistency from air quality and appendices of government and non-governmental human factors standards.

  18. No Definite Evidence for Human Endogenous Retroviral HERV-W and HERV-H RNAS in Plasma of Latvian Patients Suffering from Multiple Sclerosis and Other Neurological Diseases / Nav Apstiprinošu Pierādījumu Par Endogēno Retrovīrusu HERV-W Un HERV-H Rns Sastopamību Latvijas Pacientu Ar Multiplo Sklerozi Un Citām NeiroloĢiskām Slimībām Asins Plazmā

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Užameckis Dmitrijs

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disease of unknown aetiology. Several research groups reported an increased level of human endogenous retroviruses HERV-W and HERV-H RNAs in cerebrospinal fluid, plasma and supernatants of cell cultures from MS individuals. To quantify the abundance of extracellular virion-associated HERV, RNAs in blood, plasma samples from Latvian MS patients, patients with other neurological diseases (OND, as well as blood donors (BD, were retrospectively studied by using both our previously published and newly developed quantitative Real-time reverse transcription PCR assays (QPCRs targeting different polymerase (pol gene regions of HERV-W and HERV-H. Unspecific signals due to incomplete removal of DNA were monitored by running the assays with and without reverse transcription (RT± in parallel. According to our score, a few MS, OND and healthy controls gave borderline signals simultaneously with both newly developed HERV-H and HERV-W QPCRs, but the rest were negative. All borderline positive samples also had small amounts of non-retroviral cellular mRNA with possible origin from cell-free circulating RNA fragments, apoptotic bodies or exosomes, which can mimic the previously described virus-like particles. The results do not confirm the previous reports on prevalence of HERV-H or -W virion-associated RNA in plasma of MS patients.

  19. Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    'BSM physics' is a phrase used in several ways. It can refer to physical phenomena established experimentally but not accommodated by the Standard Model, in particular dark matter and neutrino oscillations (technically also anything that has to do with gravity, since gravity is not part of the Standard Model). 'Beyond the Standard Model' can also refer to possible deeper explanations of phenomena that are accommodated by the Standard Model but only with ad hoc parameterizations, such as Yukawa couplings and the strong CP angle. More generally, BSM can be taken to refer to any possible extension of the Standard Model, whether or not the extension solves any particular set of puzzles left unresolved in the SM. In this general sense one sees reference to the BSM 'theory space' of all possible SM extensions, this being a parameter space of coupling constants for new interactions, new charges or other quantum numbers, and parameters describing possible new degrees of freedom or new symmetries. Despite decades of model-building it seems unlikely that we have mapped out most of, or even the most interesting parts of, this theory space. Indeed we do not even know what is the dimensionality of this parameter space, or what fraction of it is already ruled out by experiment. Since Nature is only implementing at most one point in this BSM theory space (at least in our neighborhood of space and time), it might seem an impossible task to map back from a finite number of experimental discoveries and measurements to a unique BSM explanation. Fortunately for theorists the inevitable limitations of experiments themselves, in terms of resolutions, rates, and energy scales, means that in practice there are only a finite number of BSM model 'equivalence classes' competing at any given time to explain any given set of results. BSM phenomenology is a two-way street: not only do experimental results test or constrain BSM models, they also suggest

  20. Viewpoints on Grid Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew A. Chien; Xian-He Sun; Zhi-Wei Xu

    2005-01-01

    @@ At GCC 2003 in Shanghai in December 2003, a panel discussion was held on the future of grid computing and on the role of the Globus Toolkit in future grid standards. Panelists include Andrew Chien (UCSD, USA), Wolfgang Gentzsch (Sun),Francis Lau (HKU, China), Carl Kesselman (USC, USA), Satoshi Matsuoka (TIT, Japan), Xian-He Sun (IIT, USA), Richard Wirt (Intel), Liang-Jie Zhang (IBM Research), Song-Nian Zhou (Platform Computing), and Zhi-Wei Xu (ICT, China), with Hai Jin (HUST, China) served as the coordinator. The panel talks were stimulating and well received. Three of the panel talk notes are selected and included in this viewpoint.

  1. Hazard Communication Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab.

  2. Fractional standard map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Mark, E-mail: edelman@cims.nyu.ed [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Stern College at Yeshiva University, 245 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Tarasov, Vasily E. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States)] [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-28

    Properties of the phase space of the standard map with memory are investigated. This map was obtained from a kicked fractional differential equation. Depending on the value of the map parameter and the fractional order of the derivative in the original differential equation, this nonlinear dynamical system demonstrates attractors (fixed points, stable periodic trajectories, slow converging and slow diverging trajectories, ballistic trajectories, and fractal-like structures) and/or chaotic trajectories. At least one type of fractal-like sticky attractors in the chaotic sea was observed.

  3. World gravity standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uotila, U. A.

    1978-01-01

    In order to use gravity anomalies in geodetic computations and geophysical interpretations, the observed gravity values from which anomalies are derived should be referred to one consistent world wide system. The International Gravity Standardization Net 1971 was adapted by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics at Moscow in 1971, the network was result of extensive cooperation by many organizations and individuals around the world. The network contains more than 1800 stations around the world. The data used in the adjustment included more than 25,000 gravimetry, pendulum and absolute measurements.

  4. Non-standard antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Le Chevalier, Francois; Staraj, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This book aims at describing the wide variety of new technologies and concepts of non-standard antenna systems - reconfigurable, integrated, terahertz, deformable, ultra-wideband, using metamaterials, or MEMS,  etc, and how they open the way to a wide range of applications, from personal security and communications to multifunction radars and towed sonars, or satellite navigation systems, with space-time diversity on transmit and receive. A reference book for designers  in this lively scientific community linking antenna experts and signal processing engineers.

  5. High Availability Electronics Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2006-12-13

    Availability modeling of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) predicts unacceptably low uptime with current electronics systems designs. High Availability (HA) analysis is being used as a guideline for all major machine systems including sources, utilities, cryogenics, magnets, power supplies, instrumentation and controls. R&D teams are seeking to achieve total machine high availability with nominal impact on system cost. The focus of this paper is the investigation of commercial standard HA architectures and packaging for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation. Application of HA design principles to power systems and detector instrumentation are also discussed.

  6. Government by standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, all Danish hospitals have been subjected to a comprehensive, mandatory accreditation system, the so-called Danish Quality Model (DDKM), in order to assure the quality of hospital services. So far there is no evidence of DDKM’s positive effects on clinical outcome and it may even be co......, it is argued that the accreditation system is hard to refuse because it promises to increase the quality of hospital services and, more importantly, because the procedural standards espoused by DDKM work through the structured and accountable freedom of medical staff....

  7. Emergency Management Standards and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication discusses emergency management standards for school use and lists standards recommended by FEMA's National Incident Management System (NIMS). Schools are encouraged to review these standards carefully and to adopt, where applicable, those that meet their needs. The lists of standards, resources, and references contained herein…

  8. Spillover effects of international standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Most studies focus on trade effects and organizational outcomes of international standards, neglecting the effect of standards on employees. Using a two-year matched firm–employee panel dataset, this paper finds that the application of standards improves work conditions in small and medium....... The study reveals unexpected benefits from certification, calling for higher investment in standards....

  9. Spillover effects of international standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Most studies focus on trade effects and organizational outcomes of international standards, neglecting the effect of standards on employees. Using a two-year matched firm–employee panel dataset, this paper finds that the application of standards improves work conditions in small and medium enterp....... The study reveals unexpected benefits from certification, calling for higher investment in standards.......Most studies focus on trade effects and organizational outcomes of international standards, neglecting the effect of standards on employees. Using a two-year matched firm–employee panel dataset, this paper finds that the application of standards improves work conditions in small and medium...

  10. Standardized Referente Evapotranspiration Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Mundo–Molina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented a discussion on the necessity to standardize the Penman–Monteith equations in order to estimate ETo. The proposal is to define an accuracy and standarize equation based in Penman–Monteith. The automated weather station named CIANO (27° 22 ' 144 North latitude and 109" 55' west longitude it was selected tomake comparisons. The compared equations we re: a CIANO weat her station, b Penman–Monteith ASCE (PMA, Penman–Monteith FAO 56 (PM FAO 56, Penman–Monteith estandarizado ASCE (PM Std. ASCE. The results were: a There are important differences between PMA and CIANO weather station. The differences are attributed to the nonstandardization of the equation CIANO weather station, b The coefficient of correlation between both methods was of 0,92, with a standard deviation of 1,63 mm, an average quadratic error of 0,60 mm and one efficiency in the estimation of ETo with respect to the method pattern of 87%.

  11. Standarder for god undervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Christiansen, Frederik V; Troelsen, Rie;

    foretages på baggrund af forskningsresultater, og ansattes engagement i undervisning vil ofte være på bekostning af forskningsindsatsen – og dermed på bekostning af vedkommendes akademiske karriere. Dette roundtable vil diskutere hvorvidt indførelsen af standarder for god undervisning kan være en del af en...... indsats, som både kan øge kvaliteten i de videregående uddannelser og øge undervisningens status. En sådan standard kan formuleres på mange måder, som har indflydelse på såvel anvendelighed som på selve forståelsen af hvad god undervisning er. Den udviklede model kan opfattes som et dialogredskab...... for undervisningsudvikling, men kan også frygtes at blive brugt som et kontrolredskab. Disse forskellige muligheder og dilemmaer vil blive adresseret i samtalen. Oplægsholderne vil tage udgangspunkt i initiativer de er engagerede i på deres egne universiteter og fremhæve de konkrete problemer, som disse initiativer har...

  12. New standard exceeds expectations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, M.J. (Environmental Data Resources Inc., Southport, CT (United States))

    1993-08-01

    The new ASTM environmental due diligence standard is delivering far more than expected when it was conceived in 1990. Its use goes well beyond the relatively narrow legal liability protection that was the primary goal in its development. The real estate industry, spearheaded by the lending community, was preoccupied with environmental risk and liability. Lenders throughout the concept's evolution have been at the forefront in defining environmental due diligence. The lender liability rule is intended to protect property owners from CERCLA liability for property they own or companies they manage (for example, as a result of foreclosure). The new site assessment standard increasingly is considered a benchmark for prudent environmental due diligence in the interest of risk management, not legal liability. The focus on risk management, including collateral devaluation and corporate credit risk, are becoming dominant areas of policy focus in the lending industry. Lenders now are revising their policies to incorporate transactions beyond issues of real estate, in which a company's economic viability and ability to service debt could be impacted by an environmental problem unrelated to property transfers.

  13. The Supersymmetric Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    The Standard Model may be included within a supersymmetric theory, postulating new sparticles that differ by half-a-unit of spin from their standard model partners, and by a new quantum number called R-parity. The lightest one, usually a neutralino, is expected to be stable and a possible candidate for dark matter. The electroweak breaking requires two doublets, leading to several charged and neutral Brout-Englert-Higgs bosons. This also leads to gauge/Higgs unification by providing extra spin-0 partners for the spin-1 W± and Z. It offers the possibility to view, up to a mixing angle, the new 125 GeV boson as the spin-0 partner of the Z under two supersymmetry transformations, i.e. as a Z that would be deprived of its spin. Supersymmetry then relates two existing particles of different spins, in spite of their different gauge symmetry properties, through supersymmetry transformations acting on physical fields in a non-polynomial way. We also discuss how the compactification of extra dimensions, relying on R-parity and other discrete symmetries, may determine both the supersymmetrybreaking and grand-unification scales.

  14. The Supersymmetric Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Fayet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The Standard Model may be included within a supersymmetric theory, postulating new sparticles that differ by half-a-unit of spin from their standard model partners, and by a new quantum number called R-parity. The lightest one, usually a neutralino, is expected to be stable and a possible candidate for dark matter. The electroweak breaking requires two doublets, leading to several charged and neutral Brout- Englert-Higgs bosons. This also leads to gauge/Higgs unification by providing extra spin-0 partners for the spin-1 W$^\\pm$ and Z. It offers the possibility to view, up to a mixing angle, the new 125 GeV boson as the spin-0 partner of the Z under two supersymmetry transformations, i.e. as a Z that would be deprived of its spin. Supersymmetry then relates two existing particles of different spins, in spite of their different gauge symmetry properties, through supersymmetry transformations acting on physical fields in a non-polynomial way. We also discuss how the compactification of extra dimensions, relying ...

  15. Measuring against clinical standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Charles D

    2003-07-15

    Systematic improvement of health services requires the objective measurement of people, practices and organisations against valid and explicit standards in order to identify and implement appropriate change. Effective quality systems must embrace a wide range of definitions of quality, and a similar variety of approaches to defining, measuring and improving. Clinical performance may be examined from three professional viewpoints--clinical competence: assessment of individual practitioners against explicit criteria to recognise achievement and to promote continuing development. Traditional mechanisms of training, registration and accreditation enable clinicians to reach career grades but responsibility for subsequent support is often unclear between employers, professions and registering bodies. Clinical practice: assessment of actual clinical process and outcomes against research-based "best practice" to identify and reduce variation. Peer review, clinical audit and confidential enquiries are examples of this approach, which may involve single or multiple professional groups and their interface with management. Service accreditation: systems to assess health care organisations against published standards in order to encourage best management practice. These are usually run on a regional or national basis and, though sensitive to expectations of patients, managers, clinicians, paying agencies and government, they are usually managed by an impartial but authoritative organisation.

  16. Standardization Promotes Midea Industrial Upgrading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    1.Midea Achievenents in standardization For a long time,Midea attaches high importance to the implementation of standardization.After four decades development,Midea has accumulated advantages in manufacturing,technology,market and personnel to some extent,which form Midea's strategic foundation of enterprise standardization.In 2006,the Group set up the Science & Technology Management Department,enhanced the standardization management function to the Group and made standardization management the more specialized and systemized.

  17. The Diamond Standard Vodka酒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    对于酒的品味不仅仅在酒本身所散发出的醉人魅力,自古以来,拥有艺术品般精湛做工、华美造犁的盛酒器皿也和酒一样流传千古。The Diamond Standard Vodka以“奢侈”、“豪华”作为卖点,除了散发着北欧风格的高贵气质外,由原产自奥地利的施华洛廿奇水晶制成25mm的瓶身更让它身价倍增。以钻石命名的它使用了钻石过滤专利系统,

  18. Standardization of depression measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    comparisons among included measures. Large differences were found in their measurement precision and range, providing a rationale for instrument selection. Published scale-specific threshold scores of depression severity showed remarkable consistencies across different questionnaires. CONCLUSION: An IRT-based......OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... instrument-independent metric for depression severity enables direct comparisons among established measures. The "common ruler" simplifies the interpretation of depression assessment by identifying key thresholds for clinical and epidemiologic decision making and facilitates integrative psychometric research...

  19. Spatial Standard Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to devices and methods for the measurement and/or for the specification of the perceptual intensity of a visual image, or the perceptual distance between a pair of images. Grayscale test and reference images are processed to produce test and reference luminance images. A luminance filter function is convolved with the reference luminance image to produce a local mean luminance reference image. Test and reference contrast images are produced from the local mean luminance reference image and the test and reference luminance images respectively, followed by application of a contrast sensitivity filter. The resulting images are combined according to mathematical prescriptions to produce a Just Noticeable Difference, JND value, indicative of a Spatial Standard Observer, SSO. Some embodiments include masking functions, window functions, special treatment for images lying on or near borders and pre-processing of test images.

  20. Second order Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Espin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known, though not commonly, that one can describe fermions using a second order in derivatives Lagrangian instead of the first order Dirac one. In this description the propagator is scalar, and the complexity is shifted to the vertex, which contains a derivative operator. In this paper we rewrite the Lagrangian of the fermionic sector of the Standard Model in such second order form. The new Lagrangian is extremely compact, and is obtained from the usual first order Lagrangian by integrating out all primed (or dotted 2-component spinors. It thus contains just half of the 2-component spinors that appear in the usual Lagrangian, which suggests a new perspective on unification. We sketch a natural in this framework SU(2×SU(4⊂SO(9 unified theory.

  1. libdrdc: software standards library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Peng, Tie

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents the libdrdc software standards library including internal nomenclature, definitions, units of measure, coordinate reference frames, and representations for use in autonomous systems research. This library is a configurable, portable C-function wrapped C++ / Object Oriented C library developed to be independent of software middleware, system architecture, processor, or operating system. It is designed to use the automatically-tuned linear algebra suite (ATLAS) and Basic Linear Algebra Suite (BLAS) and port to firmware and software. The library goal is to unify data collection and representation for various microcontrollers and Central Processing Unit (CPU) cores and to provide a common Application Binary Interface (ABI) for research projects at all scales. The library supports multi-platform development and currently works on Windows, Unix, GNU/Linux, and Real-Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems (RTEMS). This library is made available under LGPL version 2.1 license.

  2. Standard Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    l^m .:#,"■• y’’:>’£l’S ABO GROUP CONFIRMED |[ Rh OF .NEGATIVE UNITS CONFIRMED fe^/w’H’o’^Ä^ ■ •:.■.■:•• •■’ .Tv-v^l^.>’-V.^^V’ir;i-.^K-V.^’vV-i...using 0.02 ml of whole blood diluted with 5.98 ml of Drabkin’s reagent (1:251 dilution). 51 I. Measure the supernatant hemoglobin concentration...34NcUiod fef*ɜ 17-0? STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Red Blood Cells Collected in the CPDA-1 800 ml Primary PVC Plastic Bag Collection System and

  3. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Peter; Biedermann, Grant; Blain, Matthew G.; Stick, Daniel L.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Olsson, III, Roy H.

    2010-12-28

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  4. Wavelength standards in the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, KN

    2012-01-01

    Wavelength Standards in the Infrared is a compilation of wavelength standards suitable for use with high-resolution infrared spectrographs, including both emission and absorption standards. The book presents atomic line emission standards of argon, krypton, neon, and xenon. These atomic line emission standards are from the deliberations of Commission 14 of the International Astronomical Union, which is the recognized authority for such standards. The text also explains the techniques employed in determining spectral positions in the infrared. One of the techniques used includes the grating con

  5. 23 CFR 625.4 - Standards, policies, and standard specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Accommodation of Utilities, refer to 23 CFR part 645, subpart B. (8) Pavement Design, refer to 23 CFR part 626... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN STANDARDS FOR HIGHWAYS § 625.4 Standards, policies, and standard specifications.... (a) Roadway and appurtenances. (1) A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, AASHTO...

  6. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards AGENCY... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement procedures at least...

  7. Hydropower Reservoir Operation using Standard Operating and Standard Hedging Policies

    OpenAIRE

    T.R. Neelakantan; K. Sasireka

    2013-01-01

    Standard operating policy and hedging policies are commonly used for reservoir operation for municipal or irrigation water supply. Application of these policies to hydropower reservoir operation is complex. In this paper, new standard operating policies and standard hedging policy are proposed for hydropower reservoir operation. The newly proposed policies were applied to the operation of Indira Sagar reservoir in India and demonstrated.

  8. 77 FR 13969 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of... date of its direct final rule that revises the Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating the... that revised the Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating a reference to the Compressed...

  9. 77 FR 13997 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... in the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION... accompanied its direct-final rule revising the Acetylene Standard for general industry. DATES: Effective March...-final rule to update the incorporated references in its Acetylene Standard for general industry at...

  10. 75 FR 5707 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... in the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION... accompanied its direct-final rule revising the Acetylene Standard for general industry. DATES: As of February...- final rule to update the incorporated references in its Acetylene Standard for general industry at...

  11. Standards and Standard Setting and the Post School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the role of standards and standard setting in shaping the expansion of post school education in highly unequal society. It draws on an account of the debates and policies on standards in the UK from the 1980's to today and the wider lessons that can be learned from them. It argues that relying on any type of standards…

  12. Radioactivity standardization in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's national radioactivity measurement standard is maintained at a satellite laboratory in Cape Town by the National Metrology Laboratory (NML) of the Council-for Scientific and Industrial Research. Standardizations are undertaken by a...

  13. Data content standards in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Data content standards tend to be more accessible. Easier to understand. Used directly by many end users. Immediately applicable to Africa. More susceptible to culture and language – Hence, more important to have local standards...

  14. Issues Forum: National Curriculum Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Edward M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "On the Common Core of Learning" (Kennedy); "Constitutional Implications of National Curriculum Standards" (Arons); "Arguments against National Performance Standards" (Fulk, Mantzicopoulos, Hirth); and "The Painful Lessons of Introducing the National Curriculum in England" (Foster). (SK)

  15. Respiratory Therapy Technology Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the respiratory therapy technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation; Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning);…

  16. Issues Forum: National Curriculum Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Edward M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "On the Common Core of Learning" (Kennedy); "Constitutional Implications of National Curriculum Standards" (Arons); "Arguments against National Performance Standards" (Fulk, Mantzicopoulos, Hirth); and "The Painful Lessons of Introducing the National Curriculum in England" (Foster). (SK)

  17. Avionics Maintenance Technology Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the avionics maintenance technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into the following categories: foundations, diploma/degree (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions, diploma/degree (admission requirements, provisional admission…

  18. Minimum quality standards and exports

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the interaction of a minimum quality standard and exports in a vertical product differentiation model when firms sell global products. If ex ante quality of foreign firms is lower (higher) than the quality of exporting firms, a mild minimum quality standard in the home market hinders (supports) exports. The minimum quality standard increases quality in both markets. A welfare maximizing minimum quality standard is always lower under trade than under autarky. A minimum quali...

  19. Understanding Comparability of Examination Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Much of the argument about comparability of examination standards is at cross-purposes; contradictory positions are in fact often both defensible, but they are using the same words to mean different things. To clarify this, two broad conceptualisations of standards can be identified. One sees the standard in the observed phenomena of performance…

  20. Why Adoption of Standards Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Staff Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A total of 39 states have adopted, adapted, or endorsed the Standards for Professional Learning, including the standards issued in 2011 (labeled in red) and those published earlier (labeled in blue). Making a commitment to the standards is a commitment to continuous learning for all educators in a school.

  1. Quality measurement of semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Oude Luttighuis, P.H.W.M.; Hillegersberg, J. van

    2010-01-01

    Quality of semantic standards is unadressed in current research while there is an explicit need from standard developers. The business importance is evident since quality of standards will have impact on its diffusion and achieved interoperability in practice. An instrument to measure the quality of

  2. State Standards: Authenticity vs. Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Marcia R.; Howell, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews problems with the current movement to use national standards and performance assessment to reform education and the impact of the standards on students with disabilities. The characteristics of standards, as they are currently being employed, are discussed, along with issues related to measurement, reliability, and validity. (Author/CR)

  3. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Refereeing standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, C.; Scriven, N.

    2004-08-01

    Wuppertal, Germany (Chaotic and Complex Systems); F W Nijhoff, University of Leeds, UK (Mathematical Physics); G Ghirardi, Universita di Trieste, Italy (Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Information Theory); G Dunne, University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA (Classical and Quantum Field Theory); and L Turner, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM, USA (Fluid and Plasma Theory). It will be an honour and a pleasure to work together with all these talented people towards the high-minded goal of running a world-class scientific journal. As Editor-in-Chief of J. Phys. A, my principal objective will be to raise the standards of this first-rate journal to even higher levels by raising the quality of accepted papers. I believe that this goal will be possible to accomplish. Despite an already high rejection rate, paper submissions are rising rapidly and I anticipate that we will need to be even more stringent in our assessment of quality next year. A letter has already been sent to referees urging them to raise their standards for acceptance. I believe we will make rapid progress in this direction. (I have heard a few people criticize the journal for being a `write-only' journal. My goal is for the worldwide community of mathematical physicists to view J. Phys. A as essential reading.) I am extremely optimistic about the future of J. Phys. A. I believe that we will raise the standards of acceptance while maintaining the short time from submission to decision. I am confident that we will continue to improve the quality of the papers published in this already first-class journal. I look forward to working with the journal's excellent staff, the Board of Editors, and the Advisory Panel.

  4. Negotiation Mechanism of AVS Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Junbin

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction The mission of the Audio Video Coding Standard (AVS) Working Group of China is to develop AVS standards drafts and deliver them to the national standardization administration authorities. Since its establishment in 2002, the AVS Working Group has developed rapidly, growing from 33 members in 2003 to 153 in 2006. By the end of 2006, it had put forward for approval nine standards drafts (Table 1) with Part 2 of the AVS 1.0 draft approved as a national standard in February 2006.

  5. Vocational High School Effectiveness Standard ISO 9001: 2008 for Achievement Content Standards, Standard Process and Competency Standards Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Ratih Pratiwi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Efektivitas Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Berstandar ISO 9001:2008 terhadap Pencapaian Standar Isi, Standar Proses dan Standar Kompetensi Lulusan Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in the effectiveness of the achievement of the content standards, process standards, and competency standards in vocational already standard ISO 9001: 2008 with CMS that has not been standardized ISO 9001: 2008 both in public schools and private schools. Data collection using the questionnaire enclosed Likert scale models. Analysis of data using one-way ANOVA using SPSS. The results showed: (1 there is no difference in effectiveness between public SMK ISO standard ISO standards with private SMK (P = 0.001; (2 there are differences in the effectiveness of public SMK SMK ISO standards with ISO standards have not (P = 0.000; (3 there are differences in the effectiveness of public SMK ISO standards with private vocational yet ISO standards (P = 0.000; (4 there are differences in the effectiveness of the private vocational school with vocational standard ISO standard ISO country has not (P = 0.015; (5 there are differences in the effectiveness of the private vocational bertandar ISO with private vocational yet standardized ISO (P = 0.000; (6 there was no difference in the effectiveness of public SMK has not been standardized by the ISO standard ISO private SMK yet. Key Words: vocational high school standards ISO 9001: 2008, the standard content, process standards, competency standards Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui perbedaan efektivitas pencapaian standar isi, standar proses, dan standar kompetensi lulusan pada SMK yang sudah berstandar ISO 9001:2008 dengan SMK yang belum berstandar ISO 9001:2008 baik pada sekolah negeri maupun sekolah swasta. Pengumpulan data menggunakan kuisioner tertutup model skala likert. Analisis data menggunakan ANOVA one way menggunakan program SPSS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1 ada perbedaan

  6. Standardization Bossts SGGCC Fast Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    OverviewDuring the development of State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC),standardization work is always highlighted,adhering to standardization planning as a focus in standardization work,centered on technology R&D,grid construction,production & operation,industrial development,etc.,SGCC set up a technology standards system with production process as a main line and featured by "Vertical in the end,lateral to the edge",and launched STATE GRID Corporation of China of Technical Standards System.

  7. ASHRAE Standard 62: tobacco industry's influence over national ventilation standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, S Aguinaga; Glantz, S A

    2002-12-01

    To describe the role of the tobacco industry in the development of ventilation standards for indoor air quality by influencing the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Review of tobacco industry documents available on the internet between January 2001 and March 2002. Search terms included "ASHRAE", "ventilation", "minutes", "memo", and the names of key players and organisations as identified in the initial searches. Analysis of ASHRAE and other relevant documents publicly available and the personal files of a Standard 62 committee member; interviews of a selected number of ASHRAE players; observation of an ASHRAE meeting. The tobacco industry has been involved in the development of ventilation standards for over 20 years. It has successfully influenced the standard and continues to attempt to change the standard from a smoke-free framework into an "accommodation" framework. The industry acts directly and through consultants and allies. The major health groups have been largely absent and the health interests have been poorly represented in standard development. While concentrated in the USA, ASHRAE standards are adopted worldwide. The tobacco industry determined that allowing smoking in ventilation standards for indoor air quality was a high priority and dedicated significant human and financial resources to ensure that its interests were represented. The health groups, until recently, have largely ignored the policy implications for tobacco control of standard development. This situation is changing, but unless health groups maintain high visibility within ASHRAE, the tobacco industry may succeed in creating a standard that ignores the dangers of secondhand smoke.

  8. Comparison of CRBRP standards to DOE prescribed standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogg, W W; Copeland, G S

    1983-09-02

    The tables list standards committed to by CRBRP in its design documents, its Environmental Report, and its Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. The compilation of these standards has been placed in column form beside the column of prescribed standards listed under the various headings of Chapter 1 of DOE's Order 5480.1A, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Program for DOE Operations. (The DOE standards listed, however, include all those in the other applicable chapters of 5480.1A as mandated in Chapter 1.) There are some CRBRP systems which are impacted very little, if any, by the safety requirements of 5480.1A's prescribed standards. The standards committed to in those systems are, consequently, not included in this comparison. The comparison is made in detail, however, for standards committed to in those systems of CRBRP having areas of safety corresponding to DOE's jurisdiction/requirements as opposed to areas covered only by the USNRC's jurisdiction/regulations. Included in this document are: (1) a table listing titles of the standards not already listed in the comparison table, and (2) a list of acronyms. It seems apparent by the comparison that CRBRP meets the DOE requirement that the Project standards be equal or better (more conservative) than DOE's own prescribed standards.

  9. Standards and Standard Setting and the Post School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the role of standards and standard setting in shaping the expansion of post school education in highly unequal society. It draws on an account of the debates and policies on standards in the UK from the 1980's to today and the wider lessons that can be learned from them. It argues that relying on any type of…

  10. The IFC standard - a review of history, development, and standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Laakso, Mikael; Kiviniemi, Arto

    2012-01-01

    IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) is an open and standardized data model intended to enable interoperability between building information modeling software applications in the AEC/FM industry. IFC has been in development by an industry consortium since 1994, and since the start of the effort, the evolving industry context, standardization organization, resource availability, and technology development have exposed the standardization process to a dynamic environment. While the overarching mis...

  11. OPINIONSCONCERNINGTHE ORGANIZATIONOF STANDARD COSTS ACCOUNTANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ionescu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to present a way for organizing the accountancy under the conditions of applying the method of standard costs, such that to allow both the registration of standard and effective costs and the separate registration of the deviations from standard costs. Making some pertinent and performance decisions is mainly influenced by the quality of the information provided to managers and by the promptitude they are sent. This desiderate is not possible if using classical methods for calculating costs, reason for which it is mandatory to organize and implement a managerial accountancy, based on using a modern method, namely the method of standard costs. The main implications of this method consist of establishing a pertinent cost, orientated towards the entity management, regardless the activity domain where it is implemented. The carried out study concerns only one of the phases performed for applying the method of standard cost, respectively the organization of the standard costs accountancy.

  12. Standards for bullets and casings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F Song

    2002-11-01

    The Office of Law Enforcement Standards (OLES at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST manages research in many different disciplines of forensic science. One of these projects supports the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN. NIST digitized six bullet signatures from samples provided by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI. Using these signatures as a virtual standard, NIST’s Instrument Shop manufactured 20 reference materials (RM 8240 standard bullets using a numerically-controlled diamond turning machine. Test results show high reproducibility of the bullet signatures on standard bullets. NIST has also developed a new parameter for bullet signature comparisons, using autocorrelation functions, and proposed a diagram for tracing local ballistics measurements to the National Laboratory Center of the ATF and to the FBI. Using an electro-forming process, NIST has manufactured prototype standard casings and test results show high reproducibility for the casing signatures.

  13. Should standardized tests be cancelled?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石青

    2014-01-01

    Standardized testing is a common way of determining the intelligence of test-takers and has been existed for centuries. Due to its unique characteristics, people feel stressful to take these tests. Therefore, whether the standardized testing should be cancelled has become a heated issue in recent years. This paper will first give a brief introduction about the definition of standardized tests and then analyzes their pros and cons, to discuss the necessity of its existence.

  14. Experimental Standards in Sustainability Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara Anne

    of technological standards for sustainable building. Launching from a critical realist social ontology, I collected ethnographic data on the Active House Alliance, its cofounder VELUX, and three of their demonstration building projects in Austria, Germany, and Belgium over the course of three years from 2013...... to 2016. In light of the literature on standards and global experimental governance (GXG), I explicate how experiments unfold processually and how standards makers adjust the standard’s development to learnings and social insights from these experiments....

  15. 76 FR 75840 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of... rulemaking, the Agency is proposing to revise its Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating a... Companion Proposed Rule C. Request for Comment III. Summary and Explanation of Revisions to the...

  16. Radiological Calibration and Standards Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL maintains a state-of-the-art Radiological Calibration and Standards Laboratory on the Hanford Site at Richland, Washington. Laboratory staff provide expertise...

  17. IMPLEMENTING A RISK MANAGEMENT STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After risk management “conquered” more and more project managers’ minds and showed its benefits for business and programs, the need to have a global risk management standard has become a crucial issue in the world of risk management. But having a global risk management standard has been a big challenge, starting from the decision of developing the standard (March-June 2005, to the moment of publishing it, November 2009. So, developing the ISO 31000:2009 standard has been more or less like a bumpy ride. Apparently, the people involved in developing the global risk management standard understood from the very beginning that no challenges are too big, nor any tasks too small and that the task of having a new, comprehensive global risk management standard should be completed with excellence: defining the principles and the framework guiding the risk management process applicable for all type of organizations and for a wide range of activities. Coming up with a global standard should always be based on the real organizations’ needs and should fulfill real risk management requirements. The article is trying to present the pros and cons of risk management standard implementation, challenging the implementation process itself and the added value of implementing the standard due to the lack of implementation enablers, like risk culture, a real problem especially in an international environment.

  18. Data converters for wireless standards

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Chunlei

    2002-01-01

    Wireless communication is witnessing tremendous growth with proliferation of different standards covering wide, local and personal area networks (WAN, LAN and PAN). The trends call for designs that allow 1) smooth migration to future generations of wireless standards with higher data rates for multimedia applications, 2) convergence of wireless services allowing access to different standards from the same wireless device, 3) inter-continental roaming. This requires designs that work across multiple wireless standards, can easily be reused, achieve maximum hardware share at a minimum power consumption levels particularly for mobile battery-operated devices.

  19. [Quality standards for medical laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, P; Beyerle, F

    2006-07-01

    In France, medical laboratories must engage a quality approach according to the standard guide de bonne exécution des analyses (GBEA) and, for hospital laboratories, according to the Agence nationale d'évaluation en santé (Anaes). Except the GBEA and the Anaes handbook, which are obligatory standards by regulations, the biologists can choose, for a complementary and voluntary quality process, between the standards ISO 9001, ISO 17025 or ISO 15189. Our aim is to shed light on the advantages of these five standards by realizing a comparative study of their requirements. This work enabled us to highlight a great number of similarities and to raise the characteristics of these five standards. According to their objectives, the biologists will choose a recognition of their quality management system with an ISO 9001 certification or a recognition extended to the technical skills with an ISO 17025 or ISO 15189 accreditation. The contents of these last two documents are rather close and both integrate requirements of the standard ISO 9001. The standard ISO 17025 is, at first sight, rather distant from the biological analysis, requiring many efforts of adaptation, just like the ISO 9001 standard. The standard ISO 15189 seems to be well adapted but more constraining seeing the details requirements level needed. It necessitates a perfect control of the preanalytical phase, which is difficult to acquire in a clinical framework where the biological fluids are not taken by the laboratory staff.

  20. The Emerging JBIG2 Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, P.; Kossentini, F.; Martins, Bo

    1998-01-01

    The Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group (JBIG), an international study group affiliated with ISO/IEC and ITU-T, is in the process of drafting a new standard for lossy and lossless compression of bi-level images. The new standard, informally referred to as JBIG2, will support model-based coding...... for text and halftones to permit compression ratios up to three times those of existing standards for lossless compression. JBIG2 will also permit lossy preprocessing without specifying how it is to be done. In this case compression ratios up to eight times those of existing standards may be obtained...

  1. The Future of Geospatial Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, L. E.; Simonis, I.

    2016-12-01

    The OGC is an international not-for-profit standards development organization (SDO) committed to making quality standards for the geospatial community. A community of more than 500 member organizations with more than 6,000 people registered at the OGC communication platform drives the development of standards that are freely available for anyone to use and to improve sharing of the world's geospatial data. OGC standards are applied in a variety of application domains including Environment, Defense and Intelligence, Smart Cities, Aviation, Disaster Management, Agriculture, Business Development and Decision Support, and Meteorology. Profiles help to apply information models to different communities, thus adapting to particular needs of that community while ensuring interoperability by using common base models and appropriate support services. Other standards address orthogonal aspects such as handling of Big Data, Crowd-sourced information, Geosemantics, or container for offline data usage. Like most SDOs, the OGC develops and maintains standards through a formal consensus process under the OGC Standards Program (OGC-SP) wherein requirements and use cases are discussed in forums generally open to the public (Domain Working Groups, or DWGs), and Standards Working Groups (SWGs) are established to create standards. However, OGC is unique among SDOs in that it also operates the OGC Interoperability Program (OGC-IP) to provide real-world testing of existing and proposed standards. The OGC-IP is considered the experimental playground, where new technologies are researched and developed in a user-driven process. Its goal is to prototype, test, demonstrate, and promote OGC Standards in a structured environment. Results from the OGC-IP often become requirements for new OGC standards or identify deficiencies in existing OGC standards that can be addressed. This presentation will provide an analysis of the work advanced in the OGC consortium including standards and testbeds

  2. Standards Writers Wade into Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    New guidelines on crafting curriculum materials for the common standards in English/language arts are reigniting debate about how to ensure a marketplace of good instructional materials for the new standards without crossing the line into telling teachers how to teach. The focal point of the conversations is a set of "publishers' criteria" issued…

  3. NIH Standard. Animal Care Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Office of Administrative Management.

    The National Institutes of Health standardized animal care equipment is presented in this catalog. Each piece of equipment is illustrated and described in terms of overall dimensions, construction, and general usage. A price list is included to estimate costs in budgeting, planning, and requisitioning animal care equipment. The standards and…

  4. Standards and (self)implosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja; Staunæs, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    of standards often tends to conceptualize the travelling of standards as contagious processes resulting in epidemic spreads. In this article, the abstract metaphor of epidemic spread is replaced by an analytical configuration of a new mode of educational governance in which orchestrating webs of incentives...

  5. Standards for Graph Algorithm Primitives

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Tim; Bader, David; Berry, Jon; Buluc, Aydin; Dongarra, Jack; Faloutsos, Christos; Feo, John; Gilbert, John; Gonzalez, Joseph; Hendrickson, Bruce; Kepner, Jeremy; Leiserson, Charles; Lumsdaine, Andrew; Padua, David; Poole, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    It is our view that the state of the art in constructing a large collection of graph algorithms in terms of linear algebraic operations is mature enough to support the emergence of a standard set of primitive building blocks. This paper is a position paper defining the problem and announcing our intention to launch an open effort to define this standard.

  6. GAIA Service and Standard Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dormann, Claire; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    A delivery from the ACTS-project GAIA. The report validates the gAIA architecture and standard. It provides results concerning the deployment of distributed brokerage systems over broadband networks.......A delivery from the ACTS-project GAIA. The report validates the gAIA architecture and standard. It provides results concerning the deployment of distributed brokerage systems over broadband networks....

  7. When a Standard Candle Flickers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Cherry, Michael L; Case, Gary L;

    2011-01-01

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma-ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well known,...

  8. On Standardized Testing. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Vito

    This ERIC Digest was adapted from the Association for Childhood Education International's (ACEI) 1991 position paper on standardized testing. Since the publication of "A Nation at Risk" in 1983, standardized testing programs have expanded greatly. Tests may be of pencil-and-paper or performance-oriented varieties. The purposes of tests…

  9. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  10. Electrical Safety Standards in focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ A forum, the IEC/ACOS Workshop Ⅷ-IEC safety standards in support of regulatory requirements, was held on May 22nd-23rd 2006 in Beijing to cerate an environment for technical exchange between the regulators and the standard developers with its theme on the following regards :

  11. Energy informatics: Fundamentals and standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biyao Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on international standardization and power utility practices, this paper presents a preliminary and systematic study on the field of energy informatics and analyzes boundary expansion of information and energy system, and the convergence of energy system and ICT. A comprehensive introduction of the fundamentals and standardization of energy informatics is provided, and several key open issues are identified.

  12. Why We Need "Academic" Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandal, Matthew

    1995-01-01

    What William Spady calls "educentric" standards are clear, rigorous, discipline-based principles that will help prepare students for any future direction. The American Federation of Teachers supports the standards movement because members want all kids to have access to a rich and challenging curriculum and be motivated to achieve at…

  13. Mapping standards for home networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaa, G. van de; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Vries, H.J. de

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we apply a step-by-step approach for the identification of standards for home networking. We develop a classification and we use this classification to categorize sixty-four (sets of) standards. By developing this categorization, we have brought order to the chaos of home networking s

  14. Standardization of Vipera ammodytes antiserum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaceva, Z; Manahilov, R

    1967-01-01

    The determination of the activity of viper antiserum in terms of the effective dose against 1 minimum lethal dose (MLD) of venom often leads to results which are not very reproducible. The present study concerns the preparation of a standard Vipera ammodytes antiserum and the choice of a suitable venom test dose. Portions of purified, concentrated antiserum were distributed into vacuum-sealed ampoules for use as a standard, and the amounts of this standard antiserum needed to neutralize various amounts of ammodytes venom were determined. The antivenin unit (AU) was fixed at 1.90 mg; 1 AU is the amount of standard serum required to protect 50% of white mice weighing 18 g against 0.05 mg (5 MLD) of venom. The use of the standard antiserum for titration of crude antisera in terms of this AU is described.

  15. The Economics of Standards and Standardization in Information and Communication Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Kuhn; Fomin, Vladislav V.

    2006-01-01

    Standards have proven themselves indispensable to the industrial revolution. How are standards developed today? What does the economics of standards tell about the impact of standards upon economic growth and productivity? Do standards influence industry innovation? How are the standardization...

  16. ASHRAE Standard 62: tobacco industry's influence over national ventilation standards

    OpenAIRE

    Bialous, S.; Glantz, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the role of the tobacco industry in the development of ventilation standards for indoor air quality by influencing the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE).

  17. Military Standard Generic Transformed Data Base Design Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-17

    Image Filter Condition Field n IMFLTn Standard Image Filter Code Field n NLUTSn Number of LUTs Field [always 0 or 1] for each LUT NELUTi Number of LUT...IFCn Image Filter Condition IMFLTn Standard Image Filter Code NLUTSn Number of LUTs [SIF/HDI defaults to 0] for each LUT m NELUTM Number of LUT...flexible by design and accomodates traceability, security information, caopressed imagery, encrypted imagery, multi-band imagery and image filter conditions

  18. "There's Nothing Standard about Standards": Exploring Tensions between Two Standards Documents in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Terri; Carter, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Quality in education at the tertiary level is constantly questioned, and increasingly "professional standards" are offered as the solution to the perceived decline in quality. Foucauldian archaeological analysis of teacher graduate and geography graduate standards in Australia is conducted, revealing tensions between the different…

  19. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control.

  20. Outer Space Traffic Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Paul B.

    2013-09-01

    Management of traffic in outer space is a major safety problem. Traffic is increasing. Most satellites are navigable but they have to co-exist with space debris which is not navigable. We need minimum safety rules for outer space traffic. We have the possible beginnings of international safety standards in the form of national space object tracking; Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) standardization through ICAO and the International Committee on GNSS (ICG); the IADC space debris guidelines; and the proposed Code of Conduct. However, safety could be improved by standards for such activities as licensing launches of satellites into outer space; standards for accident investigation and search and rescue: operational safety zones around space objects such as the International Space Station. This paper describes legal authority for minimum safety standards. It considers safety standards established by private agreements among commercial operators. Finally it examines a number of options for an international forum to establish safety standards, including self-regulation, COPUOS, ICAO, ITU, a space code of conduct, and a new space organization.

  1. Global Standards of Market Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fund's capacity to formulate a global standard of civilization in its reform programs; and problems in the development of the global trade, including the issue of intellectual property rights. This book will be of strong interest to students and scholars in wide range of fields relating to the study......Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern...

  2. Atlas C++ Coding Standard Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Albrand, S; Barberis, D; Bosman, M; Jones, B; Stavrianakou, M; Arnault, C; Candlin, D; Candlin, R; Franck, E; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Malon, D; Qian, S; Quarrie, D; Schaffer, R D

    2001-01-01

    This document defines the ATLAS C++ coding standard, that should be adhered to when writing C++ code. It has been adapted from the original "PST Coding Standard" document (http://pst.cern.ch/HandBookWorkBook/Handbook/Programming/programming.html) CERN-UCO/1999/207. The "ATLAS standard" comprises modifications, further justification and examples for some of the rules in the original PST document. All changes were discussed in the ATLAS Offline Software Quality Control Group and feedback from the collaboration was taken into account in the "current" version.

  3. New Gasoline Standard in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Chinese government will reduce sulfur levels of lead-free gasoline to 150 parts per million (ppm) in the revised gas standard for the purpose to help improve air quality. The revised lead-free gas standard, to be announced by the end of this year, will drive gas with sulfur levels of 500 ppm out of market on Dec. 31,2009, said Li Xinmin, deputy director of the pollution control department of the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), at a recent symposium on automobile pollution control. The new standard would meet the Euro-Ⅲ emission norm, which constrained sulfur levels to 150 ppm maximum.

  4. National Green Building Standard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Building America Program is a research and development program to improve the energy performance of new and existing homes. The ultimate goal of the Building America Program is to achieve examples of cost-effective, energy efficient solutions for all U.S. climate zones. Periodic maintenance of an ANSI standard by review of the entire document and action to revise or reaffirm it on a schedule not to exceed five years is required by ANSI. In compliance, a consensus group has once again been formed and the National Green Building Standard is currently being reviewed to comply with the periodic maintenance requirement of an ANSI standard.

  5. Performance standard for dose Calibrator

    CERN Document Server

    Darmawati, S

    2002-01-01

    Dose calibrator is an instrument used in hospitals to determine the activity of radionuclide for nuclear medicine purposes. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has published IEC 1303:1994 standard that can be used as guidance to test the performance of the instrument. This paper briefly describes content of the document,as well as explains the assessment that had been carried out to test the instrument accuracy in Indonesia through intercomparison measurement.Its is suggested that hospitals acquire a medical physicist to perform the test for its dose calibrator. The need for performance standard in the form of Indonesia Standard is also touched.

  6. Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Jacobs

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims of ALT is to promote good practice in the use of learning technology within higher education. Few would not subscribe to this aim, but proclaiming it without a full awareness of the problems it entails is of the same order as proclaiming one's commitment to Peace without further comment. Except for the absolute pacifist, being against war does not mean being against it at any price, but rather being committed to ensuring circumstances in which war will not occur. So it is with good practice in educational technology, which can be achieved only if circumstances are propitious. Such circumstances include sufficient funds, and a willingness in both teacher and learner to accept in whole or in part a technological route – good practice is unlikely to be achieved if technology has been incorporated into the curriculum merely in order to ensure that funds already spent do not appear to have been wasted. Above all, in my view, good practice assumes that users of learning technology are able to concentrate on learning without (necessarily thinking about the technology, since if the technology cannot be made to work transparently, actual practice will at best lag behind ideal practice, and at worst be abandoned altogether. Impatience is a barrier to learning, and particularly if it is the result of struggling with the learning tools themselves. If the teacher or learner is constantly having to tweak the technology, or ending up with a half-baked implementation because the setting-up process has proven too difficult, the learning tool may well be left to gather dust.

  7. Physics beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, José W F

    1991-01-01

    We discuss some of the signatures associated with extensions of the Standard Model related to the neutrino and electroweak symmetry breaking sectors, with and without supersymmetry. The topics include a basic discussion of the theory of neutrino mass and the corresponding extensions of the Standard Model that incorporate massive neutrinos; an overview of the present observational status of neutrino mass searches, with emphasis on solar neutrinos, as well the as cosmological data on the amplitude of primordial density fluctuations; the implications of neutrino mass in cosmological nucleosynthesis, non-accelerator, as well as in high energy particle collider experiments. Turning to the electroweak breaking sector, we discuss the physics potential for Higgs boson searches at LEP200, including Majoron extensions of the Standard Model, and the physics of invisibly decaying Higgs bosons. We discuss the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model phenomenology, as well as some of the laboratory signatures that would be as...

  8. Tests on standard concrete samples

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Compression and tensile tests on standard concrete samples. The use of centrifugal force in tensile testing has been developed by the SB Division and the instruments were built in the Central workshops.

  9. Digital forensic standards: international progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the explosion of digital crime, digital forensics is more often applied. The digital forensic discipline developed rather rapidly, but up to date very little international standardization with regard to processes, procedures or management has...

  10. Global Standards of Market Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern...... thought, as well as its historical application part II presents original case studies that demonstrate the emergence of such standards and explore the diffusion of liberal capitalist ideas through the global political economy and the consequences for development and governance; the International Monetary...... Fund's capacity to formulate a global standard of civilization in its reform programs; and problems in the development of the global trade, including the issue of intellectual property rights. This book will be of strong interest to students and scholars in wide range of fields relating to the study...

  11. On Internationalization of Accounting Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shuyun; Yuncheng

    2007-01-01

    @@ World economy globalization highlighted with deregulation of trade, capital movement and financing has been the dominant trend under the push of rapid growing of modern information technology,creating a urgent demand for internationalized accounting standards.

  12. Radiation control standards and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-12-14

    This manual contains the Radiation Control Standards'' and Radiation Control Procedures'' at Hanford Operations which have been established to provide the necessary control radiation exposures within Irradiation Processing Department. Provision is also made for including, in the form of Bulletins'', other radiological information of general interest to IPD personnel. The purpose of the standards is to establish firm radiological limits within which the Irradiation Processing Department will operate, and to outline our radiation control program in sufficient detail to insure uniform and consistent application throughout all IPD facilities. Radiation Control Procedures are intended to prescribe the best method of accomplishing an objective within the limitations of the Radiation Control Standards. A procedure may be changed at any time provided the suggested changes is generally agreeable to management involved, and is consistent with department policies and the Radiation Control Standards.

  13. Ways of standardizing mining regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macionga, R.

    1990-07-01

    Deals with ways of improving and standardizing mining regulations in Poland. Shortcomings of existing mining regulations and legal rules are discussed, their main disadvantage being their great multitude and variety. Apart from institutional faults there are also constitutional failures, e.g. exaggerated safety requirements. Another weakness of the existing regulations is the terminology used that is not compatible with standardized mining terminology. Conversion of all regulations, directions and legal acts into standards is recommended as the best means of improvement and the best methods of standarization are suggested. The standards should be issued by only one institution which should be the Higher Mining Office. Establishing Higher and District Mining Offices as the only control structures and a standarized mining law is postulated.

  14. National Library of Standards of CNIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Wei; Lu Lili; Li Jing

    2012-01-01

    The National Library of Standards (NLS) of CNIS is a nationallevel standards information research and service institution.The main responsibility of NLS is not only to store standards,but also to provide standards information service for the public.

  15. Towards an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Initiative in Section 5, with a focus on the South African National Accessibility Portal component (referred to as NAP) which forms the basis of our research. We present a NAP presentation technology analysis in Section 6. Section 7... in a better user experience. Standards compliance allows for the separation of concerns: HTML for content, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) for presentation and JavaScript for dynamic behaviour. Standards compliant documents are also...

  16. Enviromental standards and costly monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the features of an optimal regulatory policy composed of pollution standards and probabilities of inspection to verify firms' behavior, where fines for noncompliance depend on the degree of violation. We find that the optimal policy can entail either compliance or noncompliance with the enviromental standards, the latter being more plausible when monitoring costs are high and, surprisingly, when fines for noncompliance are also high. In the event the planner has ...

  17. Standard Model Higgs at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer-Ribas, E

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the LEP experiments collected data at centre of mass energies between 192 and 202 GeV for about 900 pb-1 integrated luminosity. Combined results are presented for the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. No statistically significant excess has been observed when compared to Standard Model background expectation which can be translated into a lower bound on the mass of the Higgs boson at 107.9 GeV/c^2 at 95 % confidence level.

  18. Standardization in optical coating characterisation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Ristau

    2005-01-01

    In the rapid development course of laser technology and modern optics, optical metrology continuously gains importance for the quality management in the industrial production environment and also for research in optical coatings. Besides absorption and scatter losses, the spectral characteristics and laser induced damage thresholds are considered as common quality factors for coated optical components and often define the optimization targets for new products and applications. Also, these quality parameters are the basis for the comparison of commercial optics and can be found in the product catalogues of most manufacturers of optical components. As a consequence, standardization of characterisation procedures for these fundamental properties evolved to a crucial point for the optics industry. During the last decade, adapted standard measurement techniques have been elaborated and discussed by representatives from many industrial companies and research institutes within working groups of the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO). In this contribution, the current state of standardized characterisation techniques for optical coatings is summarised. Selected standards for the measurement of absorption (ISO 11551), scattering (ISO 13696) and laser induced damage thresholds (ISO 11254, Parts 1 and 2) will be described and discussed in view of their applicability and reproducibility. The report will be concluded by an outlook on the current projects and future tasks of standardization in optics characterisation.

  19. CTD writing and editing standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruthers, C. M.

    1991-03-01

    The Computer and Telecommunication Division (CTD) recognizes that the communication of clear, accurate, reasonably complete information is essential to the success of its Laboratory mission. CTD therefore encourages all Division personnel to adhere to the principles of good writing and to the standards for grammar, usage, style, formats, and publication procedures that are described in CTD Writing and Editing Standards. We encourage CTD personnel to read CTD Writing and Editing Standards and to use it continually as a desktop reference. It will help CTD writers to produce better documents consistent with CTD standards in less time. Applying the principles specified in this document on how to write and organize technical information will speed up the editing, review, and revision processes. CTD Writing and Editing Standards complements the Argonne National Laboratory Technical Publications Guide, which serves as the basic Argonne documentation reference on issues concerning DOE orders and guidelines, NRC directives, and other sponsor requirements. However, this Laboratory-wide document does not address matters of grammar or style. Documents recommended in CTD Writing and Editing Standards are usually available for purchase at the Document Distribution Counter (Building 221, Room A-134) or through the mail (by calling extension 2-5405 and ordering copies).

  20. RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in realist synthesis as an alternative systematic review method. This approach offers the potential to expand the knowledge base in policy-relevant areas - for example, by explaining the success, failure or mixed fortunes of complex interventions. No previous publication standards exist for reporting realist syntheses. This standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for realist systematic reviews. Methods We (a collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in realist syntheses; (b considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published syntheses, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, realist research, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d provided real-time support to ongoing realist syntheses and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e synthesized expert input, evidence syntheses and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. Results We identified 35 published realist syntheses, provided real-time support to 9 on-going syntheses and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 37 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 19 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 91%. Conclusion This project used multiple

  1. Standards in neurosonology. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wojcza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specifi c brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler. Part II and III are devoted to standards for specifi c clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-toleft shunts, confi rmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional effi ciency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity.

  2. Standards in neurosonology. Part III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wojczal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler. Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity.

  3. Nuclear Data Verification and Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, Lisa R.; Arif, Muhammad; Thompson, Alan K.

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this interagency program is to provide accurate neutron interaction verification and standardization data for the U.S. Department of Energy Division of Nuclear Physics programs which include astrophysics, radioactive beam studies, and heavy-ion reactions. The measurements made in this program are also useful to other programs that indirectly use the unique properties of the neutron for diagnostic and analytical purposes. These include homeland security, personnel health and safety, nuclear waste disposal, treaty verification, national defense, and nuclear based energy production. The work includes the verification of reference standard cross sections and related neutron data employing the unique facilities and capabilities at NIST and other laboratories as required; leadership and participation in international intercomparisons and collaborations; and the preservation of standard reference deposits. An essential element of the program is critical evaluation of neutron interaction data standards including international coordinations. Data testing of critical data for important applications is included. The program is jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  4. Standards in neurosonology. Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczal, Joanna; Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity).

  5. Beyond the standard model; Au-dela du modele standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuypers, F. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-05-01

    These lecture notes are intended as a pedagogical introduction to several popular extensions of the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. The topics include the Higgs sector, the left-right symmetric model, grand unification and supersymmetry. Phenomenological consequences and search procedures are emphasized. (author) figs., tabs., 18 refs.

  6. The standard model and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Langacker, Paul

    2017-01-01

    This new edition of The Standard Model and Beyond presents an advanced introduction to the physics and formalism of the standard model and other non-abelian gauge theories. It provides a solid background for understanding supersymmetry, string theory, extra dimensions, dynamical symmetry breaking, and cosmology. In addition to updating all of the experimental and phenomenological results from the first edition, it contains a new chapter on collider physics; expanded discussions of Higgs, neutrino, and dark matter physics; and many new problems. The book first reviews calculational techniques in field theory and the status of quantum electrodynamics. It then focuses on global and local symmetries and the construction of non-abelian gauge theories. The structure and tests of quantum chromodynamics, collider physics, the electroweak interactions and theory, and the physics of neutrino mass and mixing are thoroughly explored. The final chapter discusses the motivations for extending the standard model and examin...

  7. Neutrino and The Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bilenky, S M

    2014-01-01

    After discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN the Standard Model acquired a status of the full, correct theory of the elementary particles in the electroweak range. What general conclusions can be inferred from the SM? I am suggesting here that in the framework of such general principles as local gauge symmetry, unification of the weak and electromagnetic interactions and Brout-Englert-Higgs spontaneous breaking of the electroweak symmetry nature chooses the simplest possibilities. It is very plausible that massless left-handed neutrinos (simplest, most economical possibility) play crucial role in the determination of the charged current structure of the Standard Model and that neutrino properties (masses and nature) are determined by a beyond the Standard Model physics. The discovery of the neutrinoless double $\\beta$-decay and proof that neutrinos with definite masses are Majorana particles would be an important evidence in favor of the considered scenario.

  8. Yoruba Writing: Standards and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tèmítọ́pẹ́ Olúmúyìwá Ph.D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of Yorùbá orthography. The first effort at standardizing Yorùbá writing system came in 1875, and there has been a great deal of refinements and orthographies since. Specifically, a great rush of activity in standardizing written Yorùbá came in the years after independence when effort to introduce the teaching of Nigerian languages in schools and the application of those languages to official activities. The present standards were established in 1974, however, there remains a great deal of contention over writing conventions-spelling, grammar, the use of tone marks. The paper explores examples from journalism, religious writing, education and literature, and advertising to demonstrate ongoing deviations from the approved orthography.

  9. A Standard Fit for Neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Peter; Henriksen, Lasse Folke

    2012-01-01

    of activity to inspection (or self-inspection), audit, and certification. In the course of their investigations, the elements of a common narrative are emerging. This links standardization, audit, and certification with neoliberalism and contraction of the state, on one hand, with a reconfiguration......Social scientists and historians writing on techniques of contemporary rule, particularly those influenced by post-Marxist paradigms such as governmentality, have become increasingly preoccupied by the expanding role of standardization and the subjection of an ever-expanding array of spheres...

  10. Innovation and de facto standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Nylund, Petra; Schuster, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Setting technology standards is the route to market growth and to potentially influencing the performance of a whole industry. When a market accepts a particular technology as one that defines the specifications for products in the entire industry, a dominant design is set. In this article, we...... of the increasing speed of technological development and standardization. Additionally, results from a sensitivity analysis for different threshold values of dominant design call for adjusting a binary definition of dominant design with different threshold values depending on the effects under study....

  11. Energy efficiency standards and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Van Buskirk et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 114010) demonstrate that the purchase price, lifecycle cost and price of improving efficiency (i.e. the incremental price of efficiency gain) decline at an accelerated rate following the adoption of the first energy efficiency standards for five consumer products. The authors show these trends using an experience curve framework (i.e. price/cost versus cumulative production). While the paper does not draw a causal link between standards and declining prices, they provide suggestive evidence using markets in the US and Europe. Below, I discuss the potential implications of the work.

  12. EASIER ACCESS TO STANDARDS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Many organizations issuing standards offer reduced prices for publications to their members. Paying a membership fee, even a site membership fee, can therefore be worthwhile - even if relatively few standards are needed. The Library is now exploring the possibility, in collaboration with the rest of the CERN community, of joining standards-issuing organizations. So why not share your costs with the rest of the organization wherever this can be done without violating copyright or access regulations? The Library now provides documentation and other member services from IPC, the Association Connecting Electronics Industries (http://www.ipc.org/html/fsabout.htm) at favourable prices for the entire CERN population. For more information, or if you are a member of any other organization which provides services which could be shared CERN-wide, please contact library.desk@cern.ch . We remind all users of international standards, that CERN has special agreements with ISO and IEC (see Bulletin 50/2000). You can order st...

  13. The illusory nature of standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    2011-01-01

    are unambiguous and apply across cases. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is primarily theoretical and its analysis is based on conceptual content and extent analysis. For the purpose of illustration, the paper draws on the example of organic agricultural standards. Findings – The author shows how illusion...

  14. Challenges to 5G standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Interoperable, ubiquitous and dynamic are key objectives for fifth-generation (5G) communication systems and applications. These characteristics are also at the core of the main challenges that researchers, manufacturers, regulators and standardization bodies face when designing targeted strategies...... for the successful deployment of 5G enabling technologies....

  15. Diffusion of global sustainability standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Greetje; Vellema, Sietze; Wijk, van J.

    2016-01-01

    The past two decades saw a rapid proliferation of sustainability standards created by multi-stakeholder partnerships of multinationals and international NGOs. This paper argues that the transformative capacity of these global partnerships to bring about sustainable change largely depends on how w

  16. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  17. Guidelines for human settlements standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejledningen er en kortfattet gennemgang af alle de sociale, politiske, økonomiske, administrative og tekniske spørgsmål, der må afklares i de indledende faser af arbejdet med at opstille standards for boliger og for infrastruktur i byudviklingsområder i udviklingslande. Vejledningen er på engels...

  18. Phenomenology beyond the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01

    An elementary review of models and phenomenology for physics beyond the Standard Model (excluding supersymmetry). The emphasis is on LHC physics. Based upon a talk given at the ''Physics at LHC'' conference, Vienna, 13-17 July 2004.

  19. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  20. Open Source and Open Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Publication reference: Koper, R. (2008). Open Source and Open Standards. In J. M. Spector, M. Merrill, J. van Merriënboer & M. P. Driscol (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (3rd ed., pp. 355-368). New York: Routledge.

  1. A Tale of Two Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how attempts to establish a more comprehensive standard have undermined indoor air quality and energy efficiency revisions. Describes the Building Owners and Managers Association's major opposition to the revisions and their complaint that the revisions would require drastic changes in structures. Summarizes the debate about what to do…

  2. Standards for Art Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Art Education Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The National Art Education Association (NAEA) is committed to ensuring student access to a highly qualified, certified visual arts educator in every K-12 public school across the United States, recognizing that effective arts instruction is a core component to a 21st-century education. "Standards for Art Teacher Preparation" represents the…

  3. Educational Standards for Chiropractic Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on Chiropractic Education, Des Moines, IA.

    The policy of accreditation for the chiropractic profession and educational standards for chiropractic colleges are presented. The following types are historical development of chiropractic accreditation; the structure and function of the Council on Chiropractic Education; and eligibility, procedures, and classifications for status as an…

  4. Diffusion of global sustainability standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Greetje; Vellema, Sietze; Wijk, van J.

    2016-01-01

    The past two decades saw a rapid proliferation of sustainability standards created by multi-stakeholder partnerships of multinationals and international NGOs. This paper argues that the transformative capacity of these global partnerships to bring about sustainable change largely depends on how w

  5. "Arabian Tales": Standards of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    Virginia Standards of Learning for K-5 are listed in this paper with student activities related to observation of live theatre performances of "Arabian Tales" written and performed by the high school theater touring company, Organized Chaos. This play toured in Virginia in the academic year of 2000-2001. The play runs about 45 minutes.…

  6. Quality and standards in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    1997-01-01

    A manufacturer or supplier of electronic equipment or components needs to know the precise requirements for component certification and quality conformance to meet the demands of the customer. This book ensures that the professional is aware of all the UK, European and International necessities, knows the current status of these regulations and standards, and where to obtain them.

  7. Today Standards--Tomorrow Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Roy

    1997-01-01

    Membership in the worldwide community means that students must possess globally competitive skills. In 1993, the author and the Colorado General Assembly worked to pass a comprehensive educational reform strategy that established "model" content standards in mathematics, science, geography, history, reading, and writing. Uniform…

  8. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  9. Neutrinos and the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Holstein, Barry R

    2000-01-01

    Since their "discovery" by Pauli in 1930, neutrinos have plaed a key part in confirmation of the structure of the standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. After reviewing ways in which this has been manifested in the past, we discuss areas in which neutrinos continue to play this role.

  10. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  11. Future of Software Engineering Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Peter T.

    1997-01-01

    In the new millennium, software engineering standards are expected to continue to influence the process of producing software-intensive systems which are cost-effetive and of high quality. These sytems may range from ground and flight systems used for planetary exploration to educational support systems used in schools as well as consumer-oriented systems.

  12. Challenges to 5G standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Interoperable, ubiquitous and dynamic are key objectives for fifth-generation (5G) communication systems and applications. These characteristics are also at the core of the main challenges that researchers, manufacturers, regulators and standardization bodies face when designing targeted strategies...... for the successful deployment of 5G enabling technologies....

  13. Impact assessment of commodity standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    Voluntary commodity standards are widely used to enhance the performance of tropical agro-food chains and to support the welfare and sustainability of smallholder farmers. Different methods and approaches are used to assess the effectiveness and impact of these certification schemes at

  14. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, J.K. de; Duncan, J.; Budde, E.W.; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modeling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activi

  15. Castles, Kings...and Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Susan M.

    2001-01-01

    Standards can help integrate a curriculum, as a fourth-grade teacher discovered when implementing a unit on the Middle Ages. Students created a medieval fair that demonstrated their learning in medieval history (social studies), pulleys and gears (science and technology), story telling (language arts), and costume and dance (fine arts). (MLH)

  16. A synthetic zero air standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    A Synthetic Zero Air Standard R. E. Hill-Pearce, K. V. Resner, D. R. Worton, P. J. Brewer The National Physical Laboratory Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW UK We present work towards providing traceability for measurements of high impact greenhouse gases identified by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) as critical for global monitoring. Standards for these components are required with challengingly low uncertainties to improve the quality assurance and control processes used for the global networks to better assess climate trends. Currently the WMO compatibility goals require reference standards with uncertainties of < 100 nmolmol-1 for CO2 (northern hemisphere) and < 2 nmolmol-1 for CH4 and CO. High purity zero gas is required for both the balance gas in the preparation of reference standards and for baseline calibrations of instrumentation. Quantification of the amount fraction of the target components in the zero gas is a significant contributor to the uncertainty and is challenging due to limited availability of reference standard at the amount fraction of the measurand and limited analytical techniques with sufficient detection limits. A novel dilutor was used to blend NPL Primary Reference Gas Mixtures containing CO2, CH4 and CO at atmospheric amount fractions with a zero gas under test. Several mixtures were generated with nominal dilution ratios ranging from 2000:1 to 350:1. The baseline of two cavity ring down spectrometers was calibrated using the zero gas under test after purification by oxidative removal of CO and hydrocarbons to < 1 nmolmol-1 (SAES PS15-GC50) followed by the removal of CO2 and water vapour to < 100 pmolmol-1 (SAES MC190). Using the standard addition method.[1] we have quantified the amount fraction of CO, CO2, and CH4 in scrubbed whole air (Scott Marrin) and NPL synthetic zero air. This is the first synthetic zero air standard with a matrix of N2, O2 and Ar closely matching ambient composition with gravimetrically assigned

  17. Overview of North American Hydrogen Sensor Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Kathleen [SRA International, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Lopez, Hugo [UL LLC, Chicago, IL (United States); Cairns, Julie [CSA Group, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wichert, Richard [Professional Engineering, Inc.. Citrus Heights, CA (United States); Rivkin, Carl [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-11

    An overview of the main North American codes and standards associated with hydrogen safety sensors is provided. The distinction between a code and a standard is defined, and the relationship between standards and codes is clarified, especially for those circumstances where a standard or a certification requirement is explicitly referenced within a code. The report identifies three main types of standards commonly applied to hydrogen sensors (interface and controls standards, shock and hazard standards, and performance-based standards). The certification process and a list and description of the main standards and model codes associated with the use of hydrogen safety sensors in hydrogen infrastructure are presented.

  18. Environmental Health Standards for Human Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    James John T.

    2010-01-01

    The discussion of air and water quality standards includes evidence-based standards, factors unique to spaceflight, effects from exposures to combinations of compounds, contingency versus nominal standards, tables of ISO standards for air quality (ppm) and water quality (mg/L), and updating of standards.

  19. 29 CFR 1911.12 - Emergency standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency standards. 1911.12 Section 1911.12 Labor... STANDARDS Commencement of Rulemaking § 1911.12 Emergency standards. (a)(1) Whenever an emergency standard is... section 6(b) of the Act, and the standard as published must serve as a proposed rule. Any notice...

  20. A Metadata Standard for Hydroinformatic Data Conforming to International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notay, Vikram; Carstens, Georg; Lehfeldt, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    The affordable availability of computing power and digital storage has been a boon for the scientific community. The hydroinformatics community has also benefitted from the so-called digital revolution, which has enabled the tackling of more and more complex physical phenomena using hydroinformatic models, instruments, sensors, etc. With models getting more and more complex, computational domains getting larger and the resolution of computational grids and measurement data getting finer, a large amount of data is generated and consumed in any hydroinformatics related project. The ubiquitous availability of internet also contributes to this phenomenon with data being collected through sensor networks connected to telecommunications networks and the internet long before the term Internet of Things existed. Although generally good, this exponential increase in the number of available datasets gives rise to the need to describe this data in a standardised way to not only be able to get a quick overview about the data but to also facilitate interoperability of data from different sources. The Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute (BAW) is a federal authority of the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. BAW acts as a consultant for the safe and efficient operation of the German waterways. As part of its consultation role, BAW operates a number of physical and numerical models for sections of inland and marine waterways. In order to uniformly describe the data produced and consumed by these models throughout BAW and to ensure interoperability with other federal and state institutes on the one hand and with EU countries on the other, a metadata profile for hydroinformatic data has been developed at BAW. The metadata profile is composed in its entirety using the ISO 19115 international standard for metadata related to geographic information. Due to the widespread use of the ISO 19115 standard in the existing geodata infrastructure

  1. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... accounting purposes, the contractor measures $96,225 as the present value (PV) of the $100,000 contribution...,225 as the present value of the July 1, 2017, contribution of $100,000. * * * * * 0 6. In 9904.413.63... Standard (CAS) 412, ``Composition and Measurement of Pension Cost,'' and CAS 413, ``Adjustment...

  2. Fulfilling a Promise: Standards for Technological Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the place of standards in U.S. education, the development of the Standards for Technological Literacy, and the recent publication of "Advancing Excellence in Technological Literacy: Student Assessment, Professional Development, and Program Standards." (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

  3. Interoperability standards, patents and competition policy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larouche, Pierre; Van Overwalle, Geertrui; Delimatsis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    While the traditional literature and the policy statements concerning standardization as such emphasize the benefits of standardization, the intellectual property and competition law literature and policymaking has been more critical of standardization. Intellectual property is relevant, as the tech

  4. Understanding the National Domestic Waste Collection Standards

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Environmental Affairs with the assistance of the CSIR, developed the National Domestic Waste Collection Standards, which contain a range of service standards appropriate to different contexts. The standards, which came into effect...

  5. 24 CFR 982.402 - Subsidy standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Dwelling Unit: Housing Quality Standards, Subsidy Standards, Inspection and Maintenance § 982.402 Subsidy standards. (a) Purpose. (1) The PHA...

  6. 40 CFR 61.22 - Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Underground Uranium Mines § 61.22 Standard. Emissions of radon-222 to the ambient air from an...

  7. Introduction to China Association for Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Association for Standardization (CAS), consisting of organizations and individuals engaged in standardization in China based on the voluntary participation, is a public society of standardization erjoying a 1egal status approved by the Ministry of Civil Affairs.

  8. WCDMA and CDMA2000 Communication Industry Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since the Ministry of Information Industry promulgated the Third Generation (3G) mobile communication "China Standard" TD-SCDMA as the standard for China's communication industry, the ministry has also promulgated WCDMA and CDMA2000 as industrial standards.

  9. 77 FR 37617 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ...-02 Colorimetry--Standard Practice for Obtaining Spectrophotometric Data for Object- Color Evaluation... complete citations for standards on Standards Referred to in This colorimetry, headforms, and...

  10. 77 FR 37587 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ...-02 Colorimetry--Standard Practice for Obtaining Spectrophotometric Data for Object- Color Evaluation... complete citations for standards on Standards Referred to in This colorimetry, headforms, and...

  11. Application of Fields for Adopted Standards in Catalogues of Chinese Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Catalogues of Chinese Standards in electronic format are available from many national websites in the area of standardization, such as Standardization Administration of China (www.sac.gov.cn),China Standard Service Network (www.cssn.net.cn)and so on. It brings convenience to the worldwide users in retrieving Chinese standards. The retrievable Fields of Catalogues of Chinese Standards in electronic format applied in the above websites are roughly same, usually including Standard Number,Chinese Title, English Title, China Classification for Standard, International Classification for Standard,Adopted Standard, Replaced Standard, etc. Users can find the standards by known information.

  12. Composite-technicolor standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar Chivukula, B.; Georgi, Howard

    1987-04-01

    We characterize a class of composite models in which the quarks and leptons and technifermions are built from fermions (preons) bound by strong gauge interactions. We argue that if the preon dynamics has as [SU(3) × U(1)] 5 flavor symmetry that is explicitly broken only by preon mass terms proportional to the quark and lepton mass matrices, then the composite-tech-nicolor theory has a GIM mechanism that suppresses dangerous flavor changing neutral current effects. We show that the compositeness scale must be between ≈1 TeV and ≈2.5 TeV, giving rise to observable deviations from the standard electroweak interactions, and that B overlineB mixing and CP violation in K mesons can differ significantly from the standard model predictions. The lepton flavor symmetries may be observable in the near future in the comparison of the compositeness effects in e +e - → μ +μ - with those in e +e - → e +e -.

  13. Custom v. Standardized Risk Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss when and why custom multi-factor risk models are warranted and give source code for computing some risk factors. Pension/mutual funds do not require customization but standardization. However, using standardized risk models in quant trading with much shorter holding horizons is suboptimal: (1 longer horizon risk factors (value, growth, etc. increase noise trades and trading costs; (2 arbitrary risk factors can neutralize alpha; (3 “standardized” industries are artificial and insufficiently granular; (4 normalization of style risk factors is lost for the trading universe; (5 diversifying risk models lowers P&L correlations, reduces turnover and market impact, and increases capacity. We discuss various aspects of custom risk model building.

  14. Standard guide for computed radiography

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides general tutorial information regarding the fundamental and physical principles of computed radiography (CR), definitions and terminology required to understand the basic CR process. An introduction to some of the limitations that are typically encountered during the establishment of techniques and basic image processing methods are also provided. This guide does not provide specific techniques or acceptance criteria for specific end-user inspection applications. Information presented within this guide may be useful in conjunction with those standards of 1.2. 1.2 CR techniques for general inspection applications may be found in Practice E2033. Technical qualification attributes for CR systems may be found in Practice E2445. Criteria for classification of CR system technical performance levels may be found in Practice E2446. Reference Images Standards E2422, E2660, and E2669 contain digital reference acceptance illustrations. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the st...

  15. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  16. School-based Standard Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Bolon

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available School-based standard testing continues to evolve, yet in some ways it remains surprisingly close to its roots in the first two decades of the twentieth century. After use for many years as a diagnostic and as a filter for access to education, in the closing years of the century it has been pressed into service for state-run political accountability programs. In this role, it is generating vehement controversy that recalls protests over intelligence testing in the early 1920s. This background article explores primary characteristics and issues in the development of school-based standard testing, reviews its typical lack of qualification for political accountability programs, and suggests remedies to address major problems. In general, the attitude toward new techniques of assessment is skeptical, in light of the side-effects and unexpected problems that developed during the evolution of current techniques.

  17. Banning standard cell engineering notebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A family of standardized thick-oxide P-MOS building blocks (standard cells) is described. The information is presented in a form useful for systems designs, logic design, and the preparation of inputs to both sets of Design Automation programs for array design and analysis. A data sheet is provided for each cell and gives the cell name, the cell number, its logic symbol, Boolean equation, truth table, circuit schematic circuit composite, input-output capacitances, and revision date. The circuit type file, also given for each cell, together with the logic drawing contained on the data sheet provides all the information required to prepare input data files for the Design Automation Systems. A detailed description of the electrical design procedure is included.

  18. Neutrinophilic Non-Standard Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Farzan, Yasaman

    2016-01-01

    We construct UV-complete models for non-standard neutrino interactions mediated by a sub-GeV gauge boson Z' coupled to baryon number $B$ or $B-L$. A flavor-dependent Z' coupling to neutrinos is induced by mixing a U(1)'-charged Dirac fermion with the active neutrinos, naturally suppressing flavor violation or non-universality of the charged leptons to the loop level. We show that these models can give rise to large flavor-conserving as well as flavor-violating non-standard neutral-current neutrino interactions potentially observable in current or future oscillation experiments such as DUNE without being in conflict with other constraints such as neutrino scattering or lepton-flavor-violating decays. In particular, the LMA-Dark solution to the solar-neutrino anomaly can be obtained for $U(1)_B$, but not for $U(1)_{B-L}$.

  19. Integrated Standardization and Systems Engineering Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Integrated standardization is one of the fundamenta l forms of modern standardization. It is the combination of system science and the content of standardization. The development of system science has provided theo retic foundation and precondition for integrated standardization. The relevant r esearch on integrated standardization and system engineering illustrate that int egrated standardization is a advanced method which presented with the developmen t of modern science and technology . Integrated st...

  20. Research Notes - Openness and Evolvability - Standards Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    2.1.14 Is migration to alternative standard realistic? ..................................... 7 2.1.15 Have changes to standard occurred in last 2...standard for a particular application other than the standard’s effect on openness. For example , a standard may still pass the openness assessment, but...a standard could be a public standards organisation (such as IEEE, OMG, etc.), a government organisation , private consortium, private enterprise, or

  1. STANDARD FAMILY OF POWER SOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A standard family of power sources is proposed which will minimize the number and variety of power sources , prevent the flooding of the supply system...with hardware that only could be used in a single application and provide the user with a family of power sources from which he could select one...new concept in the deployment of power sources . No longer is a single power source developed for each equipment; rather, the selection of a battery

  2. Explanatory Notes to Standard Compilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Basis for Standard Compilation The economic globalization and China's rapid expansion of foreign exchanges have drastically boosted the demand for translation services. As a result, enterprises offering translation services mushroomed and formed a new industry unlike any other service industry. Though the output value of translation services is not high at the moment, their level and quality have a great impact on the clients because they cover the foreign intercourses in various fields and the construction of major foreign-invested projects.

  3. The Road of Haier Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Brand Strategy Stage (1984 -1991)High Standard and High Quality Build up the brand by improving quality and highlighting the distinctive features of the enterprise.There are about 300 refrigerator manufacturers in China when Haier was just established.By the superior quality of its products,Haier has been maintaining a leading positionin the competition.Haier always sticks to the concept that "quality is everything",rising its competitive strength and building up a famous brand by high quality.

  4. DOE limited standard: Operations assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Purpose of this standard is to provide DOE Field Element assessors with a guide for conducting operations assessments, and provide DOE Field Element managers with the criteria of the EM Operations Assessment Program. Sections 6.1 to 6.21 provide examples of how to assess specific areas; the general techniques of operations assessments (Section 5) may be applied to other areas of health and safety (e.g. fire protection, criticality safety, quality assurance, occupational safety, etc.).

  5. The standard model and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1989-05-01

    In these lectures, my aim is to present a status report on the standard model and some key tests of electroweak unification. Within that context, I also discuss how and where hints of new physics may emerge. To accomplish those goals, I have organized my presentation as follows. I survey the standard model parameters with particular emphasis on the gauge coupling constants and vector boson masses. Examples of new physics appendages are also commented on. In addition, I have included an appendix on dimensional regularization and a simple example which employs that technique. I focus on weak charged current phenomenology. Precision tests of the standard model are described and up-to-date values for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix parameters are presented. Constraints implied by those tests for a 4th generation, extra Z' bosons, and compositeness are discussed. An overview of the physics of tau decays is also included. I discuss weak neutral current phenomenology and the extraction of sin/sup 2//theta/W from experiment. The results presented there are based on a global analysis of all existing data. I have chosen to concentrate that discussion on radiative corrections, the effect of a heavy top quark mass, implications for grand unified theories (GUTS), extra Z' gauge bosons, and atomic parity violation. The potential for further experimental progress is also commented on. Finally, I depart from the narrowest version of the standard model and discuss effects of neutrino masses, mixings, and electromagnetic moments. 32 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Standards for Responsive Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    structural design. ions and propulsion. These onclusions are consistent with several other ongoing ckout. The expertise of the team members and... Structure The Business Team developed the “ORS Bus Standa Transition Plan” which puts the ISET technical rds... Standar PDR Prototype Design b of refinement. In general, ISET standards related to quantity builds (such as I&T flow, production, etc) as well as

  7. WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Lim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations in the Western Pacific Region (WHO Standard was released in 2008. Initially, there were 92/361 controversial acupuncture points (acupoints. Through seven informal consultations and four task force team meetings, 86 points were agreed upon among the 92 controversial acupoints, leaving 6 remaining controversial acupoints, demanding active research in the future. This will enhance the reproducibility and validity of acupuncture studies. It will also lead to a better understanding of acupuncture mechanisms in order to optimize its clinical efficacy for a range of diseases and syndromes. This book has two parts: General Guidelines for Acupuncture Point Locations and WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations. First of all, familiarity with the General Guidelines for Acupuncture Point Locations in this book can help the reader to understand and use the contents of this book in depth. I would like to thank all of the participating experts and scholars for this great work, who have overcome the limits of previous acupuncture references. I also appreciate the dedicated effort and harmonious leadership of Dr Choi Seung-hoon, former Regional Adviser in Traditional Medicine of Western Pacific Office, WHO.

  8. PV system testing and standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlasio, Richard

    1999-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) PV Program System Performance and Engineering Project is being conducted by The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), and Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). It provides PV system, subsystem, and component-level technology-performance characterization testing; test-method development and validation; national and international consensus standards and codes development, test-facility product certification, and laboratory-accreditation program implementation; and information exchange and technical assistance to the PV community. Emphasis is placed on reducing technical and infrastructural barriers to system acceptance, reducing life-cycle cost of systems, providing systems-engineering best practices and guidelines, and leading the national effort in performance and reliability testing, and consensus standards, codes, and certification program development and implementation—thereby ensuring that PV systems meet customers' needs and expectations. A summary of project activities, accomplishments, and future plans is provided and highlighted by an overview of PV system test-procedure and standards development.

  9. Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

  10. Study of federal microwave standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L.

    1980-08-01

    Present and future federal regulatory processes which may impact the permissible levels of microwave radiation emitted by the SPS Microwave Power Transmission (MPTS) were studied. An historical development of US occupational and public microwave standards includes an overview of Western and East European philosophies of environmental protection and neurophysiology which have led to the current widely differing maximum permissible exposure limits to microwaves. The possible convergence of microwave standards is characterized by a lowering of Western exposure levels while Eastern countries consider standard relaxation. A trend toward stricter controls on activities perceived as harmful to public health is under way as is interest in improving the federal regulatory process. Particularly relevant to SPS is the initiation of long-term, low-level microwave exposure programs. Coupled with new developments in instrumentation and dosimetry, the results from chronic exposure program and population exposure studies could be expected within the next five to ten years. Also discussed is the increasing public concern that rf energy is yet another hazardous environmental agent.

  11. Active Faraday optical frequency standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Jingbiao

    2014-11-01

    We propose the mechanism of an active Faraday optical clock, and experimentally demonstrate an active Faraday optical frequency standard based on narrow bandwidth Faraday atomic filter by the method of velocity-selective optical pumping of cesium vapor. The center frequency of the active Faraday optical frequency standard is determined by the cesium 6 (2)S(1/2) F=4 to 6 (2)P(3/2) F'=4 and 5 crossover transition line. The optical heterodyne beat between two similar independent setups shows that the frequency linewidth reaches 281(23) Hz, which is 1.9×10(4) times smaller than the natural linewidth of the cesium 852-nm transition line. The maximum emitted light power reaches 75 μW. The active Faraday optical frequency standard reported here has advantages of narrow linewidth and reduced cavity pulling, which can readily be extended to other atomic transition lines of alkali and alkaline-earth metal atoms trapped in optical lattices at magic wavelengths, making it useful for new generation of optical atomic clocks.

  12. Authentication: A Standard Problem or a Problem of Standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Capes-Davis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproducibility and transparency in biomedical sciences have been called into question, and scientists have been found wanting as a result. Putting aside deliberate fraud, there is evidence that a major contributor to lack of reproducibility is insufficient quality assurance of reagents used in preclinical research. Cell lines are widely used in biomedical research to understand fundamental biological processes and disease states, yet most researchers do not perform a simple, affordable test to authenticate these key resources. Here, we provide a synopsis of the problems we face and how standards can contribute to an achievable solution.

  13. The Publication and Distribution of Chinese Standards and Other Standards-related Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Demei

    2005-01-01

    @@ Standards Press of China (SPC), founded in October 1963, is the only publication center in China licensed to publish national standards, trade standards, and books concerned with standardization, quality, and other science and technology. The main publications are as following:

  14. Next Generation Science Standards: All Standards, All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee; Miller, Emily C.; Januszyk, Rita

    2014-03-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) offer a vision of science teaching and learning that presents both learning opportunities and demands for all students, particularly student groups that have traditionally been underserved in science classrooms. The NGSS have addressed issues of diversity and equity from their inception, and the NGSS Diversity and Equity Team completed four major charges: (1) bias reviews of the NGSS, (2) Appendix D on diversity and equity, (3) inclusion of the topic of diversity and equity across Appendices, and (4) seven case studies of diverse student groups. This article starts with an overview of the NGSS Diversity and Equity charges, followed by a description of each of the four charges. This body of work addresses what science educators can and should do to ensure that the NGSS are accessible to all students, hence the title: " All Standards, All Students." In the coming years, the nation's student diversity will continue to grow rapidly while states adopt and implement the NGSS. Therefore, science teaching for non-dominant student groups equates to science teaching for all students.

  15. Standard and Non-Standard Physics in Neutrino Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Maltoni, M

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the impact of recent solar and atmospheric data in the determination of the neutrino oscillation parameters, taking into account that both the solar nu_e and the atmospheric nu_mu may convert to a mixture of active and sterile neutrinos. Furthermore, in the context of the atmospheric neutrino problem we discuss an extended mechanism of neutrino propagation which combines both oscillations and non-standard neutrino-matter interactions. We use the most recent neutrino data, including the 1496-day Super-K solar and atmospheric data samples, the latest SNO spectral and day/night solar data, and the final MACRO atmospheric results. We confirm the clear preference of all the data for pure-active oscillation solutions, bounding the fraction of sterile neutrino involved in oscillations to be less than 52% in the solar sector and less than 40% in the atmospheric sector, at 3 sigma. For the atmospheric case we also derive a bound on the total amount of non-standard neutrino-matter interactions, bounding the ...

  16. The Economics of Standards and Standardization in Information and Communication Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Kuhn; Fomin, Vladislav V.

    2006-01-01

    Standards have proven themselves indispensable to the industrial revolution. How are standards developed today? What does the economics of standards tell about the impact of standards upon economic growth and productivity? Do standards influence industry innovation? How are the standardization pr...

  17. Fluorescence of ceramic color standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Annette; Clare, John F; Nield, Kathryn M; Deadman, Andrew; Usadi, Eric

    2010-04-20

    Fluorescence has been found in color standards available for use in calibration and verification of color measuring instruments. The fluorescence is excited at wavelengths below about 600?nm and emitted above 700?nm, within the response range of silicon photodiodes, but at the edge of the response of most photomultipliers and outside the range commonly scanned in commercial colorimeters. The degree of fluorescence on two of a set of 12 glossy ceramic tiles is enough to introduce significant error when those tiles have been calibrated in one mode of measurement and are used in another. We report the nature of the fluorescence and the implications for color measurement.

  18. [Humanitarian action threatened by standardization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamou, J

    2002-01-01

    The author analyses the new international context in which humanitarian action is being undertaken. He raises the problem caused by the diverging objectives of impartial, neutral humanitarianism and politically motivated actions that implement strategies of prevention and conflict resolution. He reviews the criticism that humanitarian has come under in recent years and that has resulted in establishment of codes of conduct. However he points out the threat that the concepts of control and "jurisdiction" over humanitarian action represent and analyzes discrepancies between minimal standards and universal principles. The article concludes with a presentation of an alternative solution based on the "Quality" platform being developed by several French NGOs.

  19. Secondary standards for BVRI photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, T. J.; Barnes, T. G., III

    1979-01-01

    A thorough test of Fernie's instrumentation system for matching the Johnson BVRI photometric system has been made. From 1,526 observations of 186 stars in the Arizona-Tonantzintla Catalogue, there were found excellent transformations, except for a slight curvature in the (B-V) transformation, which is easily removed, and a difficulty in (R-I) for highly reddened stars. Photometric values and their uncertainties are given for all the stars, and these are of sufficient quality to serve as secondary standards in BVRI for small- to moderate-size telescopes (1-m).

  20. Alternatives for Raising Living Standards

    OpenAIRE

    William Scarth

    1999-01-01

    Given the fundamental goal of raising living standards in the longer term, much attention is paid to policies that can be expected to increase national saving. With respect to private saving, the mechanism is tax reform - a lower tax on interest income. The basic problem with this approach is that, for a given size of government, some other tax or transfer must be adjusted to finance the interest-tax cut. This fact may make it difficult to ensure that those with only labour income will share ...

  1. Strings, paths, and standard tableaux

    CERN Document Server

    Dasmahapatra, S

    1996-01-01

    For the vacuum sectors of regime-III ABF models, we observe that two sets of combinatorial objects: the strings which parametrize the row-to-row transfer matrix eigenvectors, and the paths which parametrize the corner transfer matrix eigenvectors, can both be expressed in terms of the same set of standard tableaux. Furthermore, the momenta of the strings, the energies of the paths, and the charges of the tableaux are such that there is a weight-preserving bijection between the two sets of eigenvectors, wherein the tableaux play an interpolating role. This bijection is so natural, that we conjecture that it exists in general.

  2. [Standardized terminology for disc disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Pérez, M; Gil Sierra, A; Sánchez Martín, A; Gallego Gómez, P; Pereira Boo, D

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the terminology used to describe morphological alterations in the intervertebral discs. Radiologists must be able to communicate information about the type, location, and severity of these alterations to medical and surgical clinicians. It is crucial to use simple, standard, and unified terminology to ensure comprehension not only among radiologists but also with professionals from the different specialties for whom the radiology reports are written (fundamentally traumatologists and neurosurgeons). This terminology will help ensure a more accurate diagnosis and better patient management.

  3. Leveraging Standards to Promote Program Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michelle D.; Mawhinney, Hanna; Reed, Cynthia J.

    2016-01-01

    Standards provide a foundation for thinking about leadership development and practice. This article explores three sets of standards that impact educational leadership preparation: (a) the recently revised Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards, which are now known as the Practice Standards for Educational Leaders (PSEL);…

  4. 7 CFR 29.24 - Official standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official standards. 29.24 Section 29.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.24 Official standards. Standards for tobacco promulgated by...

  5. 48 CFR 11.102 - Standardization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standardization program... Standardization program. Agencies shall select existing requirements documents or develop new requirements... Standardization Manual, FSPM-0001; for DoD components, DoD 4120.24-M, Defense Standardization Program Policies...

  6. 7 CFR 58.918 - Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standardization. 58.918 Section 58.918 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.918 Standardization. The standardization of the product to obtain a finished product of...

  7. 40 CFR 63.362 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 63.362 Section 63.362... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES Ethylene Oxide Emissions Standards for Sterilization Facilities § 63.362 Standards. (a) Each owner or operator of a source subject to...

  8. 40 CFR 59.102 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 59.102 Section 59.102... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.102 Standards. (a) Except as provided...

  9. 14 CFR 77.3 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards. 77.3 Section 77.3 Aeronautics... AFFECTING NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE General § 77.3 Standards. (a) The standards established in this part for... section 16 of the Federal Airport Act; (3) Developing technical standards and guidance in the design...

  10. 40 CFR 61.112 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 61.112 Section 61.112... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Equipment Leaks (Fugitive Emission Sources) of Benzene § 61.112 Standards. (a) Each owner or operator subject to the provisions...

  11. 49 CFR 397.71 - Federal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal standards. 397.71 Section 397.71... standards. (a) A State or Indian tribe shall comply with the Federal standards under paragraph (b) of this... or may not be transported. (b) The Federal standards are as follows: (1) Enhancement of public...

  12. 40 CFR 191.03 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 191.03 Section 191.03... ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Management and Storage § 191.03 Standards....

  13. 22 CFR 143.11 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards. 143.11 Section 143.11 Foreign... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 143.11 Standards. The standards each agency uses to determine whether an age distinction or age-related term is prohibited are...

  14. 40 CFR 63.962 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 63.962 Section 63.962... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Individual Drain Systems § 63.962 Standards. (a) The owner or operator subject to this...

  15. 40 CFR 63.783 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 63.783 Section 63.783... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating) § 63.783 Standards. (a) No owner or operator...

  16. 36 CFR 905.735-401 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 905.735-401 Section 905.735-401 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Special Standards Applicable to Certain Board Members § 905.735-401 Standards....

  17. 22 CFR 218.11 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards. 218.11 Section 218.11 Foreign... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 218.11 Standards. The standards each agency uses to determine whether an age distinction or age-related term...

  18. 40 CFR 63.322 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 63.322 Section 63.322... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities § 63.322 Standards. (a) The owner or operator of...

  19. 40 CFR 61.302 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 61.302 Section 61.302... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions From Benzene Transfer Operations § 61.302 Standards. (a) The owner or operator of an affected facility...

  20. 40 CFR 192.12 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 192.12 Section 192.12... AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Standards for Cleanup of... Sites § 192.12 Standards. Remedial actions shall be conducted so as to provide reasonable assurance...

  1. 44 CFR 75.11 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards. 75.11 Section 75... PROPERTIES UNDER SELF-INSURANCE PLAN Standards for Exemption § 75.11 Standards. (a) In order to be exempt... hazards which are covered under the Standard Flood Insurance Policy. (3) Provide coverage to...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1362 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards. 63.1362 Section 63.1362... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Pesticide Active Ingredient Production § 63.1362 Standards. (a) On and...

  3. 29 CFR 1911.10 - Construction standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction standards. 1911.10 Section 1911.10 Labor... STANDARDS Commencement of Rulemaking § 1911.10 Construction standards. The Assistant Secretary may promulgate, modify, or revoke a standard applicable to employments in construction work, as defined in §...

  4. When a Standard Candle Flickers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Cherry, Michael L; Case, Gary L

    2011-01-01

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma-ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well known......, since the start of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in 2008 August, a ~ 7% (70 mCrab) decline has been observed in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15-50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline is independently confirmed in the ~ 15-50 ke......-100 keV band with GBM, Swift /BAT, and INTEGRAL /IBIS. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE /PCA since 1999 is consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes are nebular. Correlated variations in the Crab Nebula flux on a ~ 3 year timescale are also seen independently...

  5. Area Optimized Advanced Encryption Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sandip R. Aher

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of the Advanced Encryption Standard candidates has become led to intensive study of both hardware and software implementations. However, number of papers presents various implementation results, it shows that efficiency could still be greatly improved by applying effective design rules adapted to devices and algorithms. This paper shows various approaches for efficient FPGA implementations of the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm. For different applications of the AES algorithm may require different s peed/area tradeoffs, we propose a vital study of the possible implementation schemes, but also the discussion of design methodology and algorithmic optimization in order to improve previous reported results. We propose system to evaluate hardware efficiency at different steps of the design process. We also use an optimal pipeline that takes the place and route constraints into account. Resulting circuits significantly improve the previous reported results: throughput has been up to 18.5 Gbits/sec and the area requirements can be limited to 542 slices and 10 RAM blocks with a ratio throughput/area improved by minimum 25% of the best-known designs in the Xilinx Virtex- E technology.

  6. When A Standard Candle Flickers

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Baumgartner, Wayne H; Beklen, Elif; Bhat, P Narayana; Briggs, Michael S; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Case, Gary L; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Finger, Mark H; Gehrels, Neil; Greiner, Jochen; Jahoda, Keith; Jenke, Peter; Kippen, R Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Krimm, Hans A; Kuulkers, Erik; Meegan, Charles A; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert; Rodi, James C; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Skinner, Gerald K; Swartz, Doug; von Kienlin, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well-known, since the start of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in August 2008, a ~ 7% (70 mcrab) decline has been observed in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline is independently confirmed with three other instruments: the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift/BAT), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA), and the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory Imager on Board INTEGRAL (IBIS). A similar decline is also observed in the ~3 - 15 keV data from the RXTE/PCA and INTEGRAL Joint European Monitor (JEM-X) and in the 50 - 100 keV band with GBM and INTEGRAL/IBIS. Observations from 100 to 500...

  7. Readability of standard appointment letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel M; Gilchrist, Anne

    2010-06-01

    Introduction and aims The first contact a clinical service has with a patient is often an appointment letter and thus it is important that this letter is written in a way which is accessible. One concern is to write in language which is easily able to be read by the majority of recipients. A simple initial way to assess this is by using measures of readability of text.Methods We applied measures to examine the readability of appointment and administrative letters sent to young people by clinicians in the Young People's Department at the Royal Cornhill Hospital in Aberdeen.Results Many letters were unlikely to be understood by our youngest patients. We revised the letters to meet an agreed standard of readability, and agreed their routine use within the team. All letters were significantly improved on standard measures of readability and were preferred by patients.Conclusions The methods used are feasible, easily available and may be helpful to clinicians working in other specialties to improve the level of readability of written communication. This will help patients and families in their first contact with any clinical service.

  8. Standardization in the Cultural Heritage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Mo; Wang mingling; Zhang Lei

    2007-01-01

    China has begun its standardization process in the cultural heritage since 1960.The standards contributed a lot to the development of the heritage conservation practices. In this paper, the author summaries the existing condition of standardization in the cultural heritages and museums field in China, and presents Standards for the Classification of Collected Cultural Heritages. Also this paper points out the problems which exist in the standardization in the cultural heritage, and gives the advice to solve these problems.

  9. Standardization for natural product synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huimin; Medema, Marnix H

    2016-08-27

    Standardization is one of the foundational features of modern-day engineering, and the use of standardized parts and processes is a key element that distinguishes bona fide synthetic biology from traditional genetic engineering. Here, we discuss the role of standardization in natural product synthetic biology, focusing on standardization of data on biosynthetic pathways and gene clusters, as well as the role of standardization in the process of biosynthetic gene cluster engineering.

  10. Beyond the Cosmological Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin; Trodden, Mark

    2014-01-01

    After a decade and a half of research motivated by the accelerating universe, theory and experiment have a reached a certain level of maturity. The development of theoretical models beyond \\Lambda, or smooth dark energy, often called modified gravity, has led to broader insights into a path forward, and a host of observational and experimental tests have been developed. In this review we present the current state of the field and describe a framework for anticipating developments in the next decade. We identify the guiding principles for rigorous and consistent modifications of the standard model, and discuss the prospects for empirical tests. We begin by reviewing attempts to consistently modify Einstein gravity in the infrared, focusing on the notion that additional degrees of freedom introduced by the modification must screen themselves from local tests of gravity. We categorize screening mechanisms into three broad classes: mechanisms which become active in regions of high Newtonian potential, those in wh...

  11. Outlook on China's Food Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The output of many kinds of foods in China have stood first on the world list, such as fruits, vegetables,meats, rape oil, aquiculture, etc. But China's export volume is minor. For example, the rate of apples exported is less than 1% of the total production, accounting for 6% of the world export volume. This results from quality and safety concerns, particularly the latter one. In order to improve this situation, central government has issued Project of Farming Region for Superior Agricultural Products (2003-2007) recently. The project says that 1118 standardized demonstration regions (base) of producing superior agricultural products will be established within the next 5 years. The superior agricultural products include wheat, special-purpose corn, high oil soy been, cotton, "double-low" rape, "double-high″ sugar cane, citrus fruit, apples,beef cattle, mutton sheep, milk, aquiculture etc.

  12. Biofuels: policies, standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Skyrocketing prices of crude oil in the middle of the first decade of the 21st century accompanied by rising prices for food focused political and public attention on the role of biofuels. On the one hand, biofuels were considered as a potential automotive fuel with a bright future, on the other hand, biofuels were accused of competing with food production for land. The truth must lie somewhere in-between and is strongly dependent on the individual circumstance in different countries and regions. As food and energy are closely interconnected and often compete with each other for other resources, such as water, the World Energy Council - following numerous requests of its Member Committees - decided to undertake an independent assessment of biofuels policies, technologies and standards.

  13. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  14. Non-Standard Numeration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ambrož

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We study some properties of non-standard numeration systems with an irrational base ß >1, based on the so-called beta-expansions of real numbers [1]. We discuss two important properties of these systems, namely the Finiteness property, stating whether the set of finite expansions in a given system forms a ring, and then the problem of fractional digits arising under arithmetic operations with integers in a given system. Then we introduce another way of irrational representation of numbers, slightly different from classical beta-expansions. Here we restrict ourselves to one irrational base – the golden mean ? – and we study the Finiteness property again. 

  15. Standardization of GPS data processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Pil Ho

    2001-06-15

    A nationwide GPS network has been constructed with about 60 permanent GPS stations after late 1990s in Korea. For using the GPS in variety of application area like crustal deformation, positioning, or monitoring upper atmosphere, it is necessary to have ability to process the data precisely. Now Korea Astronomy Observatory has the precise GPS data processing technique in Korea because it is difficult to understand characteristics of the parameters we want to estimate, resolve the integer ambiguity, and analyze many errors. There are three reliable GPS data processing software in the world ; Bernese(University of Berne), GIPSY-OASIS(JPL), GAMIT(MIT). These software allow us to achieve millimeter accuracy in the horizontal position and about 1 cm accuracy vertically even for regional networks with a diameter of several thousand kilometers. But we established the standard of GPS data processing using Bernese as main tool and GIPSY{sub O}ASIS as side.

  16. Standardization of type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Coelho, Rodrigo C V; Reis, Ribamar R R; Siffert, Beatriz B

    2014-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been intensively investigated due to its great homogeneity and high luminosity, which make it possible to use them as standardizable candles for the determination of cosmological parameters. In 2011, the physics Nobel prize was awarded for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae. This is a pedagogical article, aimed at those starting their study of that subject, in which we dwell on some topics related to the analysis of SNe Ia and their use in luminosity distance estimators. Here we investigate their spectral properties and light curve standardization, paying careful attention to the fundamental quantities directly related to the SNe Ia observables. Finally, we describe our own step-by-step implementation of a classical light curve fi?tter, the stretch, applying it to real data from the Carnegie Supernova Project.

  17. Arterial Stiffness: Recommendations and Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Raymond R.

    2017-01-01

    The use of arterial stiffness measurements in longitudinal cohorts of normal populations, hypertensive patients, diabetic patients, healthy elderly, and patients on hemodialysis have confirmed the value of this important measure of arterial health, and established its complementary role to measures of blood pressure. Its contribution to understanding cardiovascular and mortality risk beyond blood pressure measurements has moved measures of arterial stiffness into the ranks of factors such as elevated cholesterol, diabetes, and left ventricular hypertrophy in considering cardiovascular risk. The recent international collaboration's publication of reference ranges for normal people and those with hypertension, along with the American Heart Association's recent scientific statement on standardizing arterial stiffness measurements are important aspects to consider in future studies employing these valuable methods, particularly as interventions that not only lower blood pressure but improve arterial function are tested in the clinical arena. PMID:28275588

  18. Standard for Models and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    This NASA Technical Standard establishes uniform practices in modeling and simulation to ensure essential requirements are applied to the design, development, and use of models and simulations (MS), while ensuring acceptance criteria are defined by the program project and approved by the responsible Technical Authority. It also provides an approved set of requirements, recommendations, and criteria with which MS may be developed, accepted, and used in support of NASA activities. As the MS disciplines employed and application areas involved are broad, the common aspects of MS across all NASA activities are addressed. The discipline-specific details of a given MS should be obtained from relevant recommended practices. The primary purpose is to reduce the risks associated with MS-influenced decisions by ensuring the complete communication of the credibility of MS results.

  19. Einstein: The Standard of Greatness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigdon, John (Washington University)

    2005-03-16

    Einstein's seven-month performance in 1905 has no equal in the history of physics. Beginning with his revolutionary paper, completed on March 17, and continuing to September 26, Einstein wrote a total of five papers that changed the infrastructure of physics and today, a century later, these papers remain part of the tectonic bedrock of the discipline. How Einstein approached his physics and what he accomplished certainly provided the basis for his world fame. But while the What? and the How? were, and remain, of primary importance, can they explain Einstein's celebrity standing after 1922 and his iconic status today, fifty years after his death? The question remains: Why is Einstein the standard of greatness?

  20. Watermarking as a traceability standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatrieux, Gouenou; Quantin, Catherine; Allaert, François-André

    2012-01-01

    The exponential increase in the number of electronic document exchanges in healthcare has considerably increased the risk of document drop-out or address errors. It may therefore be important to know to whom the information belongs and who produced it. This becomes a major concern when the document has been involved in processes leading to the choice of therapy and eventually in cases where patients seek damages for medical malpractice. Watermarking, which is the embedding of security elements, such as a digital signature, within a document, can help to ensure that a digital document is reliable. However, at the same time, questions arise about the validity of watermarking-based evidence. In this paper, beyond the technical aspects, we discuss the worldwide legal acceptability of watermarking and the need for its recognition as a standard according to technical characteristics that the CEN and ISO need to agree on.

  1. ENGINEERING DESIGN USING STANDARD CATALOGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URDEA Mihaela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights various types of pre-existing parts in SolidWorks and CATIA referring to the possibility of creating new customized parts or blocks. These parts were intended to help those who work in this field and increase the efficiency of designing. For example, they are used in assemblies with bolts, screws, nuts and washers modeled in SolidWorks and CATIA. These software use special tools to add rapidly fasteners to the available holes features in assemblies. The work also presents the possibility of accessing existing parts libraries created by the users or specialized companies and posted on the Internet. In order to illustrate this activity with standardized components, flexible couplings are used.

  2. CST-01-Central Standard Timing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    薄如蝉翼名为CentralStandardTiming的工作室推出了E—ink材质代号为CST-01的手表,其厚度仅为0.8mm,号称全球最薄。一次充电10分钟便可连续使用15年。该手表屏幕由多层柔性材料构成。整体十分轻巧并且可弯曲,腕带则采用了柔性不锈钢材质。CST-01的预售价格为129美元。约合人民币800元,目前已经在著名的集资网站Kickstarter上创建项目。

  3. Developing the Framed Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Michael J; Chan, H M; Tsou, S T

    2011-01-01

    The framed standard model (FSM) suggested earlier, which incorporates the Higgs field and 3 fermion generations as part of the framed gauge theory structure, is here developed further to show that it gives both quarks and leptons hierarchical masses and mixing matrices akin to what is experimentally observed. Among its many distinguishing features which lead to the above results are (i) the vacuum is degenerate under a global $su(3)$ symmetry which plays the role of fermion generations, (ii) the fermion mass matrix is "universal", rank-one and rotates (changes its orientation in generation space) with changing scale $\\mu$, (iii) the metric in generation space is scale-dependent too, and in general non-flat, (iv) the theta-angle term in the QCD action of topological origin gets transformed into the CP-violating phase of the CKM matrix for quarks, thus offering at the same time a solution to the strong CP problem.

  4. Literary Censorship: The Changing Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Al-Sharqi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Censorship is a double-edged sword that has bred legal, political, and moral wrangling across the globe. The basic controversy, which harkens back to ancient times, stems from the motivation and intention of the censoring authority. The censoring authority controls literary and informational contents, based on the promulgated political, moral, religious, and cultural values of the land. Historically, the politicians, judiciary, clergymen, powerful groups, and the public at large were involved in guarding public morals and rooting out obscenity. The obscenity laws outlawed the selling, purchasing, printing, importing, and mailing of obscene items. However, in today's day and age, the Internet has made it difficult to control the circulation of what was once considered obscene. Censorship has evolved to monitor and control online content to keep abreast with the changing times; nevertheless, it does not always effectively control the questionable content. Moreover, in the past, cultural values and demography played a vital role in deciding what needed to be censored. Internet, as an electronic global village, has redefined demography; therefore, the global as well as indigenous standards upon which literature were once analyzed for censorship is now blurred. The promise of free speech has given power to the people that live in mature democracies. However, there should be a self-imposed code of conduct so that the right of free speech does not infringe on others' right of existence. This paper reviews censorship, tracing its historical path and evolution over the years, its changing standards, and its pros and cons. Lastly, the paper discusses the need to conjoin freedom of speech with the responsibility to protect the diverse cultures, religions, races, sects, genders, and especially the young generation.

  5. Diversification and Challenges of Software Engineering Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Peter T.

    1994-01-01

    The author poses certain questions in this paper: 'In the future, should there be just one software engineering standards set? If so, how can we work towards that goal? What are the challenges of internationalizing standards?' Based on the author's personal view, the statement of his position is as follows: 'There should NOT be just one set of software engineering standards in the future. At the same time, there should NOT be the proliferation of standards, and the number of sets of standards should be kept to a minimum.It is important to understand the diversification of the areas which are spanned by the software engineering standards.' The author goes on to describe the diversification of processes, the diversification in the national and international character of standards organizations, the diversification of the professional organizations producing standards, the diversification of the types of businesses and industries, and the challenges of internationalizing standards.

  6. 1998 federal technical standards workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The theme for the 1998 workshop was Standards Management -- A World of Change and Opportunities. The workshop`s goal was to further the implementation of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-113) through the sharing of standards management success stories, lessons learned, and emerging initiatives within the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. The target audience for this workshop included agency/department and contractor personnel and representatives of standards developing organizations that either used technical standards in their work for the Federal Government of participated in standards writing/management activities in support of the missions and programs of Federal agencies/departments. As with previous standards workshops sponsored by the DOE, views on the technical subject areas under the workshop theme were solicited from and provided by agency Standards Executives and standards program managers, voluntary standards organizations, and the private sector. This report includes vugraphs of the presentations.

  7. Standard for Bamboo and its International Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZhaohui; JIANGZehui; SUNQixiang

    2004-01-01

    The discussion on the present status of standards for bamboo is made. The main group has 15 standards related to bamboo-based panel, bamboo-based panel for form and container with bamboo-based panel. The main technological parameters and making of main types of bamboo-based panels in standards have been analyzed for readers to understand the related standards more easily. Analysis of influence of new national standards of indoor decorating and refurbishing materials on standards for bamboo-based panels in China has been done. The paper compares Chinese standard on methods of tests for bamboo with the respective Indian standard. It is tested that speed' s influence on result of bamboo properties by the experimental data. It is possible to reunite some standards on bamboo in China and India into the uniform international standards on the basis of absorption of the reasonable parts. All the standards for bamboo will be changed with the development of bamboo products and technological process. The paper analyzes the insufficient aspects of the standards and proposes the trend toward international standards. A good standard not only promotes bamboo to well recycling utilization but also mitigates the press of protection of natural forest to realize sustainable development forest.

  8. The ANS mathematics and computation software standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, A. O. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Washington Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Mathematics and Computations Div. of the American Nuclear Society sponsors the ANS-10 Standards Subcommittee. This subcommittee, which is part of the ANS Standards Committee, currently maintains three ANSI/ANS software standards. These standards are: Portability of Scientific and Engineering Software, ANS-10.2; Guidelines for the Verification and Validation of Scientific and Engineering Computer Programs for the Nuclear Industry, ANS-10.4; and Accommodating User Needs in Scientific and Engineering Computer Software Development, ANS-10.5. A fourth Standard, Documentation of Computer Software, ANS-10.3, is available as a historical Standard. (authors)

  9. 47 CFR 90.379 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard... Communications Service (dsrcs) § 90.379 ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard). Roadside Units... incorporated by reference: American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E2213-03, “Standard...

  10. 77 FR 58580 - Interview Room Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... of Justice Programs Interview Room Recording System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard... System Standard and License Plate Reader Standard Workshops. SUMMARY: The National Institute of Justice... development of NIJ performance standards for Interview Room Recording Systems and License Plate Readers used...

  11. 78 FR 43145 - Announcing Approval of Federal Information Processing Standard 186-4, Digital Signature Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Standard 186-4, Digital Signature Standard AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST... of Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 186-4, Digital Signature Standard (DSS). FIPS 186-4 specifies three techniques for the generation and verification of digital signatures that can be used for...

  12. Modular modelling with Physiome standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, Michael T; Nickerson, David P; Nielsen, Poul M F; Hunter, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    The complexity of computational models is increasing, supported by research in modelling tools and frameworks. But relatively little thought has gone into design principles for complex models. We propose a set of design principles for complex model construction with the Physiome standard modelling protocol CellML. By following the principles, models are generated that are extensible and are themselves suitable for reuse in larger models of increasing complexity. We illustrate these principles with examples including an architectural prototype linking, for the first time, electrophysiology, thermodynamically compliant metabolism, signal transduction, gene regulation and synthetic biology. The design principles complement other Physiome research projects, facilitating the application of virtual experiment protocols and model analysis techniques to assist the modelling community in creating libraries of composable, characterised and simulatable quantitative descriptions of physiology. The ability to produce and customise complex computational models has great potential to have a positive impact on human health. As the field develops towards whole-cell models and linking such models in multi-scale frameworks to encompass tissue, organ, or organism levels, reuse of previous modelling efforts will become increasingly necessary. Any modelling group wishing to reuse existing computational models as modules for their own work faces many challenges in the context of construction, storage, retrieval, documentation and analysis of such modules. Physiome standards, frameworks and tools seek to address several of these challenges, especially for models expressed in the modular protocol CellML. Aside from providing a general ability to produce modules, there has been relatively little research work on architectural principles of CellML models that will enable reuse at larger scales. To complement and support the existing tools and frameworks, we develop a set of principles to

  13. EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON MEDICAL DEVICES FOR DENTISTRY.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Deliversky; Mariela Yaneva-Deliverska; Maya Lyapina; Angelina Kisselova

    2015-01-01

    Standards are produced for many different products and services, and may be created for company, national, regional or global application. In Europe there are three different categories of standard: International standard – a standard adopted by an international standardization organization; European standard – a standard adopted by a European standardization body; National standard – a standard adopted by a national standardization body and made available to the public. Harmonized standards ...

  14. 24 CFR 92.251 - Property standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Project Requirements § 92.251 Property standards. (a) (1..., rehabilitation standards, ordinances, and zoning ordinances at the time of project completion, except as...

  15. International Standardization Activities for Optical Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haruo Okamura

    2003-01-01

    International standardization activities for Optical Amplifiers at IECTC86 and ITU-T SG15 are reviewed. Current discussions include Optical Amplifier safety guideline, Reliability standard, Rest methods of Noise and PMD, Definitions of Raman amplifier parameters and OA classification.

  16. Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

  17. On the domestic standards for Smart Cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dmitry Namiot; Manfred Sneps-Sneppe

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the development and use of standards for Smart Cities. This paper considers the current ecosystem of standards in this area, and analyzes the possible development of work in this direction...

  18. National Water Quality Standards Database (NWQSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Water Quality Standards Database (WQSDB) provides access to EPA and state water quality standards (WQS) information in text, tables, and maps. This data...

  19. International Financial Reporting Standards and differential reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Robin; Collis, Jill

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the international development of financial reporting standards for smaller entities from a UK perspective. It examines the three elements of differential reporting: abbreviated accounts, the Financial Reporting Standard for Smaller Entities and exemption from the statutory audit.

  20. 40 CFR 61.192 - Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... more than 20 picocuries per square meter per second (pCi/(m2-sec)) (1.9 pCi/(ft2-sec)) of radon-222 as... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions...