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Sample records for lateral photo voltage

  1. High voltage photo switch package module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen E

    2014-02-18

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces, and at least one light-input surface. First metallic layers are formed on the electrode-interface surfaces, and one or more optical waveguides having input and output ends are bonded to the substrate so that the output end of each waveguide is bonded to a corresponding one of the light-input surfaces of the photo-conductive substrate. This forms a waveguide-substrate interface for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer. A dielectric material such as epoxy is then used to encapsulate the photo-conductive substrate and optical waveguide so that only the metallic layers and the input end of the optical waveguide are exposed. Second metallic layers are then formed on the first metallic layers so that the waveguide-substrate interface is positioned under the second metallic layers.

  2. Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPS U.S. Air Force Academy Warrior Care Warrior Games Women's History Month Tag: Search Tag Sort By Squadron Ruck March Download Full Image Photo Details F-22 Demonstration Download Full Image Photo Details

  3. One-dimensional breakdown voltage model of SOI RESURF lateral power device based on lateral linearly graded approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Guo Yu-Feng; Xu Yue; Lin Hong; Yang Hui; Hong Yang; Yao Jia-Fei

    2015-01-01

    A novel one-dimensional (1D) analytical model is proposed for quantifying the breakdown voltage of a reduced surface field (RESURF) lateral power device fabricated on silicon on an insulator (SOI) substrate. We assume that the charges in the depletion region contribute to the lateral PN junctions along the diagonal of the area shared by the lateral and vertical depletion regions. Based on the assumption, the lateral PN junction behaves as a linearly graded junction, thus resulting in a reduced surface electric field and high breakdown voltage. Using the proposed model, the breakdown voltage as a function of device parameters is investigated and compared with the numerical simulation by the TCAD tools. The analytical results are shown to be in fair agreement with the numerical results. Finally, a new RESURF criterion is derived which offers a useful scheme to optimize the structure parameters. This simple 1D model provides a clear physical insight into the RESURF effect and a new explanation on the improvement in breakdown voltage in an SOI RESURF device. (paper)

  4. High voltage photo-switch package module having encapsulation with profiled metallized concavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen A

    2015-05-05

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces metalized with first metallic layers formed thereon, and encapsulated with a dielectric encapsulation material such as for example epoxy. The first metallic layers are exposed through the encapsulation via encapsulation concavities which have a known contour profile, such as a Rogowski edge profile. Second metallic layers are then formed to line the concavities and come in contact with the first metal layer, to form profiled and metalized encapsulation concavities which mitigate enhancement points at the edges of electrodes matingly seated in the concavities. One or more optical waveguides may also be bonded to the substrate for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer, with the encapsulation also encapsulating the waveguides.

  5. Analysis of the photo voltage decay /PVD/ method for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in P-N junction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Roos, O.

    1981-01-01

    The photo voltage decay (PVD) method for the measurement of minority carrier lifetimes in P-N junction solar cells with cell thickness comparable to or even less than the minority carrier diffusion length is examined. The method involves the generation of free carriers in the quasi-neutral bulk material by flashes of light and the monitoring of the subsequent decay of the induced open-circuit voltages as the carriers recombine, which is dependent on minority carrier recombination lifetime. It is shown that the voltage versus time curve for an ordinary solar cell (N(+)-P junction) is proportional to the inverse minority carrier lifetime plus a factor expressing the ratio of diffusion length to cell thickness. In the case of an ideal back-surface-field cell (N(+)-P-P(+) junction) however, the slope is directly proportional to the inverse minority carrier lifetime. It is noted that since most BSF cells are not ideal, possessing a sizable back surface recombination velocity, the PVD measurements must be treated with caution and supplemented with other nonstationary methods.

  6. Novel high-voltage power lateral MOSFET with adaptive buried electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wen-Tong; Wu Li-Juan; Qiao Ming; Luo Xiao-Rong; Zhang Bo; Li Zhao-Ji

    2012-01-01

    A new high-voltage and low-specific on-resistance (R on,sp ) adaptive buried electrode (ABE) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) power lateral MOSFET and its analytical model of the electric fields are proposed. The MOSFET features are that the electrodes are in the buried oxide (BOX) layer, the negative drain voltage V d is divided into many partial voltages and the output to the electrodes is in the buried oxide layer and the potentials on the electrodes change linearly from the drain to the source. Because the interface silicon layer potentials are lower than the neighboring electrode potentials, the electronic potential wells are formed above the electrode regions, and the hole potential wells are formed in the spacing of two neighbouring electrode regions. The interface hole concentration is much higher than the electron concentration through designing the buried layer electrode potentials. Based on the interface charge enhanced dielectric layer field theory, the electric field strength in the buried layer is enhanced. The vertical electric field E I and the breakdown voltage (BV) of ABE SOI are 545 V/μm and −587 V in the 50 μm long drift region and the 1 μm thick dielectric layer, and a low R on,sp is obtained. Furthermore, the structure also alleviates the self-heating effect (SHE). The analytical model matches the simulation results. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  7. Analytical Model for Voltage-Dependent Photo and Dark Currents in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesbahus Saleheen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A physics-based explicit mathematical model for the external voltage-dependent forward dark current in bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic solar cells is developed by considering Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH recombination and solving the continuity equations for both electrons and holes. An analytical model for the external voltage-dependent photocurrent in BHJ organic solar cells is also proposed by incorporating exponential photon absorption, dissociation efficiency of bound electron-hole pairs (EHPs, carrier trapping, and carrier drift and diffusion in the photon absorption layer. Modified Braun’s model is used to compute the electric field-dependent dissociation efficiency of the bound EHPs. The overall net current is calculated considering the actual solar spectrum. The mathematical models are verified by comparing the model calculations with various published experimental results. We analyze the effects of the contact properties, blend compositions, charge carrier transport properties (carrier mobility and lifetime, and cell design on the current-voltage characteristics. The power conversion efficiency of BHJ organic solar cells mostly depends on electron transport properties of the acceptor layer. The results of this paper indicate that improvement of charge carrier transport (both mobility and lifetime and dissociation of bound EHPs in organic blend are critically important to increase the power conversion efficiency of the BHJ solar cells.

  8. Proton conducting sodium alginate electrolyte laterally coupled low-voltage oxide-based transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang Hui; Wan, Qing, E-mail: wanqing@nju.edu.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Qiang Zhu, Li, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Shi, Yi [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-03-31

    Solution-processed sodium alginate electrolyte film shows a high proton conductivity of ∼5.5 × 10{sup −3} S/cm and a high lateral electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance of ∼2.0 μF/cm{sup 2} at room temperature with a relative humidity of 57%. Low-voltage in-plane-gate indium-zinc-oxide-based EDL transistors laterally gated by sodium alginate electrolytes are fabricated on glass substrates. The field-effect mobility, current ON/OFF ratio, and subthreshold swing of such EDL transistors are estimated to be 4.2 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, 2.8 × 10{sup 6}, and 130 mV/decade, respectively. At last, a low-voltage driven resistor-load inverter is also demonstrated. Such in-plane-gate EDL transistors have potential applications in portable electronics and low-cost biosensors.

  9. Very low power, high voltage base for a Photo Multiplier Tube for the KM3NeT deep sea neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, P; Heine, E; Peek, H

    2010-01-01

    The described system is developed in the framework of a deep-sea submerged Very Large Volume neutrino Telescope where photons are detected by a large number of Photo Multiplier Tubes. These PMTs are placed in optical modules (OM). A basic Cockcroft-Walton (CW) voltage multiplier circuit design is used to generate multiple voltages to drive the dynodes of the photomultiplier tube. To achieve a long lifetime and a high reliability the dissipation in the OM must be kept to the minimum. The design is also constrained by size restrictions, load current, voltage range, and the maximum allowable ripple in the output voltage. A surface mount PMT-base PCB prototype is designed and successfully tested. The system draws less than 1.5 mA of supply current at a voltage of 3.3 V with outputs up to -1400 Vdc cathode voltage, a factor 10 less than the commercially available state of the art.

  10. Very low power, high voltage base for a Photo Multiplier Tube for the KM3NeT deep sea neutrino telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Timmer, P; Peek, H

    2010-01-01

    The described system is developed in the framework of a deep-sea submerged Very Large Volume neutrino Telescope where photons are detected by a large number of Photo Multiplier Tubes. These PMTs are placed in optical modules (OM). A basic Cockcroft-Walton (CW) voltage multiplier circuit design is used to generate multiple voltages to drive the dynodes of the photomultiplier tube. To achieve a long lifetime and a high reliability the dissipation in the OM must be kept to the minimum. The design is also constrained by size restrictions, load current, voltage range, and the maximum allowable ripple in the output voltage. A surface mount PMT-base PCB prototype is designed and successfully tested. The system draws less than 1.5 mA of supply current at a voltage of 3.3 V with outputs up to -1400 Vdc cathode voltage, a factor 10 less than the commercially available state of the art

  11. A mathematical model for predicting photo-induced voltage and photostriction of PLZT with coupled multi-physics fields and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J H; Wang, X J; Wang, J

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to propose a mathematical model of PLZT ceramic with coupled multi-physics fields, e.g. thermal, electric, mechanical and light field. To this end, the coupling relationships of multi-physics fields and the mechanism of some effects resulting in the photostrictive effect are analyzed theoretically, based on which a mathematical model considering coupled multi-physics fields is established. According to the analysis and experimental results, the mathematical model can explain the hysteresis phenomenon and the variation trend of the photo-induced voltage very well and is in agreement with the experimental curves. In addition, the PLZT bimorph is applied as an energy transducer for a photovoltaic–electrostatic hybrid actuated micromirror, and the relation of the rotation angle and the photo-induced voltage is discussed based on the novel photostrictive mathematical model. (paper)

  12. Low voltage EPMA: experiments on a new frontier in microanalysis - analytical lateral resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournelle, J; Cathey, H; Pinard, P T; Richter, S

    2016-01-01

    Field emission (FE) electron gun sources provide new capabilities for high lateral resolution EPMA. The determination of analytical lateral resolution is not as straightforward as that for electron microscopy imaging. Results from two sets of experiments to determine the actual lateral resolution for accurate EPMA are presented for Kα X-ray lines of Si and Al and La of Fe at 5 and 7 keV in a silicate glass. These results are compared to theoretical predictions and Monte Carlo simulations of analytical lateral resolution. The experiments suggest little is gained in lateral resolution by dropping from 7 to 5 keV in EPMA of this silicate glass. (paper)

  13. Lateral bending of tapered piezo-semiconductive nanostructures for ultra-sensitive mechanical force to voltage conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneo, Rodolfo; Falconi, Christian

    2013-07-05

    Quasi-1D piezoelectric nanostructures may offer unprecedented sensitivity for transducing minuscule input mechanical forces into high output voltages due to both scaling laws and increased piezoelectric coefficients. However, until now both theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that, for a given mechanical force, lateral bending of piezoelectric nanowires results in lower output electric potentials than vertical compression. Here we demonstrate that this result only applies to nanostructures with a constant cross-section. Moreover, though it is commonly believed that the output electric potential of a strained piezo-semiconductive device can only be reduced by the presence of free charges, we show that the output piezopotential of laterally bent tapered nanostructures, with typical doping levels and very small input forces, can be even increased up to two times by free charges.Our analyses confirm that, though not optimal for piezoelectric energy harvesting, lateral bending of tapered nanostructures with typical doping levels can be ideal for transducing tiny input mechanical forces into high and accessible piezopotentials. Our results provide guidelines for designing high-performance piezo-nano-devices for energy harvesting, mechanical sensing, piezotronics, piezo-phototronics, and piezo-controlled chemical reactions, among others.

  14. Lateral bending of tapered piezo-semiconductive nanostructures for ultra-sensitive mechanical force to voltage conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araneo, Rodolfo; Falconi, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Quasi-1D piezoelectric nanostructures may offer unprecedented sensitivity for transducing minuscule input mechanical forces into high output voltages due to both scaling laws and increased piezoelectric coefficients. However, until now both theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that, for a given mechanical force, lateral bending of piezoelectric nanowires results in lower output electric potentials than vertical compression. Here we demonstrate that this result only applies to nanostructures with a constant cross-section. Moreover, though it is commonly believed that the output electric potential of a strained piezo-semiconductive device can only be reduced by the presence of free charges, we show that the output piezopotential of laterally bent tapered nanostructures, with typical doping levels and very small input forces, can be even increased up to two times by free charges. Our analyses confirm that, though not optimal for piezoelectric energy harvesting, lateral bending of tapered nanostructures with typical doping levels can be ideal for transducing tiny input mechanical forces into high and accessible piezopotentials. Our results provide guidelines for designing high-performance piezo-nano-devices for energy harvesting, mechanical sensing, piezotronics, piezo-phototronics, and piezo-controlled chemical reactions, among others. (paper)

  15. Behaviour of total surface charge in SiO2-Si system under short-pulsed ultraviolet irradiation cycles characterised by surface photo voltage technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ban-Hong; Lee, Wah-Pheng; Yow, Ho-Kwang; Tou, Teck-Yong

    2009-01-01

    Effects of time-accumulated ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and surface treatment on thermally oxidized p-type silicon wafers were investigated by using the surface photo voltage (SPV) technique via the direct measurement of the total surface charge, Q SC . The rise and fall times of Q sc curves, as a function of accumulated UV irradiation, depended on the thermal oxide thickness. A simple model was proposed to explain the time-varying characteristics of Q sc based on the UV-induced bond breaking of SiOH and SiH, and photoemission of bulk electrons to wafer surface where O 2 - charges were formed. While these mechanisms resulted in charge variations and hence in Q sc , these could be removed by rinsing the silicon wafers in de-ionized water followed by spin-dry or blow-dry by an ionizer fan. Empirical parameters were used in the model simulations and curve-fitting of Q SC . The simulated results suggested that initial changes in the characteristic behaviour of Q sc were mainly due to the net changes in the positive and negative charges, but subsequently were dominated by the accumulation of O 2 - during the UV irradiation.

  16. Modelling of current-voltage characteristics of infrared photo-detectors based on type – II InAs/GaSb super-lattice diodes with unipolar blocking layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Gopal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that current-voltage characteristics of infrared photo-detectors based on type-II InAs/GaSb super-lattices with uni-polar blocking layers can be modelled similar to a junction diode with a finite series resistance on account of blocking barriers. As an example this paper presents the results of a study of current-voltage characteristics of a type II InAs/GaSb super-lattice diode with PbIbN architecture using a recently proposed [J. Appl. Phys. 116, 084502 (2014] method for modelling of illuminated photovoltaic detectors. The thermal diffusion, generation – recombination (g-r, and ohmic currents are found as principal components besides a component of photocurrent due to background illumination. The experimentally observed reverse bias diode current in excess of thermal current (diffusion + g-r, photo-current and ohmic shunt current is reported to be best described by an exponential function of the type, Iexcess = Ir0 + K1exp(K2 V, where Ir0, K1 and K2 are fitting parameters and V is the applied bias voltage. The present investigations suggest that the exponential growth of excess current with the applied bias voltage may be taking place along the localized regions in the diode. These localized regions are the shunt resistance paths on account of the surface leakage currents and/or defects and dislocations in the base of the diode.

  17. [An autopsy case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with prominent muscle cramps, fasciculation, and high titer of anti-voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Aki; Sakai, Naoko; Shinbo, Junsuke; Hashidate, Hideki; Igarashi, Shuichi; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Yamazaki, Motoyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The patient was a 55-year-old male who had prominent fasciculation and muscle cramps. Muscle weakness and atrophy of the trunk, respiratory system, and extremities gradually progressed. On the basis of these features, we diagnosed this patient as having amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), however, the upper motor neuron signs were not significant. Following the detection of the anti-voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody at 907.5 pM (normal VGKC complex antibody in the development of cramp-fasciculation syndrome has been speculated. In this ALS patient, the antibodies might be associated with pathomechanisms underlying the characteristic symptoms.

  18. Photo-electret effects in homogenous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabiev, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    In the given work is shown the opportunity and created the theory of photo-electret condition in semiconductors with Dember mechanism of photo-voltage generation. Photo-electret of such type can be created, instead of traditional and without an external field as a result of only one illumination. Polar factor, in this case, is the distinction of electrons and holes mobility. Considered the multilayered structure with homogeneous photoactive micro areas shared by the layers, which are interfering to alignment of carriers concentration. We consider, that the homogeneous photoactive areas contain deep levels of stick. Because of addition of elementary photo voltage in separate micro photo cells it is formed the abnormal-large photo voltage (APV-effect). Let's notice, that Dember photo-voltage in a separate micro photo-cell ≤kT/q. From the received expressions, in practically important, special case, when quasi- balance between valent zone and stick levels established in much more smaller time, than free hole lifetime, and we received, that photo-voltage is relaxing. Comparing of the received expressions with the laws of photo voltage attenuation in p-n- junction structures shows their identity; the difference is only in absolute meanings of photo voltage. During the illumination in the semiconductor are created the superfluous concentration of charge carriers and part from them stays at deep levels. At de-energizing light there is a gradual generation of carriers located at these levels

  19. OAS :: Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    subscriptions Videos Photos Live Webcast Social Media Facebook @oasofficial Facebook Twitter @oas_official Photos and Symbols Authorities Social Media Facebook Twitter Newsletters Press and Communications Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber

  20. Influenza Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Polio Whooping cough Influenza (flu) Rabies Yellow fever Influenza Photos Photographs accompanied by text that reads "Courtesy ... of these photos are quite graphic. Shows how influenza germs spread through the air when someone coughs ...

  1. Depth-resolved ultra-violet spectroscopic photo current-voltage measurements for the analysis of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor epilayer deposited on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozden, Burcu; Yang, Chungman; Tong, Fei; Khanal, Min P.; Mirkhani, Vahid; Sk, Mobbassar Hassan; Ahyi, Ayayi Claude; Park, Minseo

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the depth-dependent defect distribution of the deep level traps in the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) epi-structures can be analyzed by using the depth-resolved ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopic photo current-voltage (IV) (DR-UV-SPIV). It is of great importance to analyze deep level defects in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure, since it is recognized that deep level defects are the main source for causing current collapse phenomena leading to reduced device reliability. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-layers were grown on a 6 in. Si wafer by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The DR-UV-SPIV measurement was performed using a monochromatized UV light illumination from a Xe lamp. The key strength of the DR-UV-SPIV is its ability to provide information on the depth-dependent electrically active defect distribution along the epi-layer growth direction. The DR-UV-SPIV data showed variations in the depth-dependent defect distribution across the wafer. As a result, rapid feedback on the depth-dependent electrical homogeneity of the electrically active defect distribution in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-structure grown on a Si wafer with minimal sample preparation can be elucidated from the DR-UV-SPIV in combination with our previously demonstrated spectroscopic photo-IV measurement with the sub-bandgap excitation.

  2. Depth-resolved ultra-violet spectroscopic photo current-voltage measurements for the analysis of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor epilayer deposited on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozden, Burcu; Yang, Chungman; Tong, Fei; Khanal, Min P.; Mirkhani, Vahid; Sk, Mobbassar Hassan; Ahyi, Ayayi Claude; Park, Minseo, E-mail: park@physics.auburn.edu [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    We have demonstrated that the depth-dependent defect distribution of the deep level traps in the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) epi-structures can be analyzed by using the depth-resolved ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopic photo current-voltage (IV) (DR-UV-SPIV). It is of great importance to analyze deep level defects in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure, since it is recognized that deep level defects are the main source for causing current collapse phenomena leading to reduced device reliability. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-layers were grown on a 6 in. Si wafer by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The DR-UV-SPIV measurement was performed using a monochromatized UV light illumination from a Xe lamp. The key strength of the DR-UV-SPIV is its ability to provide information on the depth-dependent electrically active defect distribution along the epi-layer growth direction. The DR-UV-SPIV data showed variations in the depth-dependent defect distribution across the wafer. As a result, rapid feedback on the depth-dependent electrical homogeneity of the electrically active defect distribution in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-structure grown on a Si wafer with minimal sample preparation can be elucidated from the DR-UV-SPIV in combination with our previously demonstrated spectroscopic photo-IV measurement with the sub-bandgap excitation.

  3. Spin-polarization and spin-flip in a triple-quantum-dot ring by using tunable lateral bias voltage and Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi, Mohamad, E-mail: Mo_molavi@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizabadi, Edris, E-mail: Edris@iust.ac.ir [School of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    By using the Green's function formalism, we investigate the effects of single particle energy levels of a quantum dot on the spin-dependent transmission properties through a triple-quantum-dot ring structure. In this structure, one of the quantum dots has been regarded to be non-magnetic and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction is imposed locally on this dot while the two others can be magnetic. The on-site energy of dots, manipulates the interference of the electron spinors that are transmitted to output leads. Our results show that the effects of magnetic dots on spin-dependent transmission properties are the same as the difference of on-site energies of the various dots, which is applicable by a controllable lateral bias voltage externally. Besides, by tuning the parameters such as Rashba spin-orbit interaction, and on-site energy of dots and magnetic flux inside the ring, the structure can be indicated the spin-flip effect and behave as a full spin polarizer or splitter. - Highlights: • The effects of magnetic dots on spin-dependent transmission properties are the same as the difference of on-site energies of the various dots. • In the situation that the QDs have non-zero on-site energies, the system can demonstrate the full spin-polarization. • By tuning the Rashba spin-orbit strength and magnetic flux encountered by the ring the system operates as a Stern-Gerlach apparatus.

  4. The L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Ca [subscript V] 1.2 Mediates Fear Extinction and Modulates Synaptic Tone in the Lateral Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Stephanie J.; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2017-01-01

    L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LVGCCs) have been implicated in both the formation and the reduction of fear through Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. Despite the implication of LVGCCs in fear learning and extinction, studies of the individual LVGCC subtypes, Ca[subscript V]1.2 and Ca[subscript V] 1.3, using transgenic mice have…

  5. CERN Photo club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Photo club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Photo Club organizes in collaboration with Canon Switzerland a photo contest open to all members of the CERN (Persons with a CERN access card). The only restriction is that the photos must have been taken with a CANON camera (DSLR, bridge or compact) between 1 and 31 October 2016. Send your three best pictures at  Photo.Contest@cern.ch with a short description explaining the images. Further information on the Photo club website: http://photoclub.web.cern.ch/content/photo-contest-october-2016

  6. USRCRN Photo Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photos of USRCRN stations and their immediate surroundings. Taken by engineering techs from NOAA's Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD). Photos are...

  7. CRN Photo Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photos of CRN stations and their immediate surroundings. Taken by engineering techs from NOAA's Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD). Photos are used...

  8. Transmembrane voltage: Potential to induce lateral microdomains.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malínský, Jan; Tanner, W.; Opekarová, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1861, č. 8 (2016), s. 806-811 ISSN 1388-1981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10641S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : membrane microdomain * membrane potential * fluorescence spectroscopy * membrane structure * fluorescence microscopy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.547, year: 2016

  9. Satellite photo of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    This photo from the Landsat5 orbital telescope shows the locations of CERN's Meyrin and Prevessin sites near Geneva on the Swiss-France border. The tunnels housing the LHC and SPS accelerators are also illustrated. Photo credit: US Geological Survey/photo by Jane Doe.

  10. ATLAS HEC PHOTOS TRIUMF

    CERN Multimedia

    1997-01-01

    Photo 1 - Removal of a glued foil from the glue press. The foils still need to be cut with a steel rule die and the HV pins soldered on. Photo 2 - Inspection of EST foil. Photo 3 - Placing the first plate of the front Module 0 on the stacking table with the tie-rods in place. Photo 4 - As each gap is stacked, it is tested by applying 3kV across each honeycomb sheet and ensuring that the current draw is low (a few tens of nA). Photo 5 - HV testing on a stacked front module. Photo 6 - Detail of a gap in a module. Four sheets of honeycomb spacing mats separate the centre PAD foil from the two EST foils on either side, and hold the EST foils away from the copper absorber structure. Photo 7 - Last plate of rear module being stacked. Photo 8 - Stacked rear module 0. Photo 9 - Four Module 0's, one front and one rear from TRIUMF, one from Germany, and one from and one from Russia, are "married" into one structure. In this picture, two front modules are married together. Photo 10 - After two modules are married, they ...

  11. NEFSC Photo Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photos of fish, marine mammals, turtles, ships, and other related subjects for use by students, educators, scientists, media, etc.

  12. Epitomize Your Photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vajda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of digital photography, sharing of photos with friends and family has become very popular. When people share their photos, they usually organize them into albums according to events or places. To tell the story of some important events in one’s life, it is desirable to have an efficient summarization tool which can help people to receive a quick overview of an album containing large number of photos. In this paper, we present and analyze an approach for photo album summarization through a novel social game “Epitome” as a Facebook application. This social game can collect research data, and, at the same time, it provides a collage or a cover photo of the user’s photo album, while the user enjoys playing the game. The proof of concept of the proposed method is demonstrated through a set of experiments on several photo albums. As a benchmark comparison to this game, we perform automatic visual analysis considering several state-of-the-art features. We also evaluate the usability of the game by making use of a questionnaire on several subjects who played the “Epitome” game. Furthermore, we address privacy issues concerning shared photos in Facebook applications.

  13. Photos from the CMS Photo Book

    CERN Multimedia

    Boreham, S

    2008-01-01

    Photos from the CMS Photo Book. Activities at Point 5 in Cessy, France, between 1998 - 2008. Images of assembly and Installation of the CMS detector: - Civil Engineering - Assembly in the Surface Building - Lowering of the Heavy Elements - Installing and connecting the CMS detector in the underground experiment These images illustrate the assembly, installation and commissioning of the CMS detector. They cover the activities at Point 5 in Cessy, France, between 1998 and 2008. CMS is one of the most complex scientific instruments ever built. It has taken about 20 years to go from conceptual design to the completion of construction of the CMS detector for the LHC start-up in September 2008. Accomplishing this has required the talents, efforts and resources of over 2500 scientists and engineers from about 180 institutions in 38 countries. caverns Compiled by: S. Cittolin, F. Marcastel and T.S. Virdee

  14. [Development of residual voltage testing equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohui; Wu, Mingjun; Cao, Li; He, Jinyi; Deng, Zhensheng

    2014-07-01

    For the existing measurement methods of residual voltage which can't turn the power off at peak voltage exactly and simultaneously display waveforms, a new residual voltage detection method is put forward in this paper. First, the zero point of the power supply is detected with zero cross detection circuit and is inputted to a single-chip microcomputer in the form of pulse signal. Secend, when the zero point delays to the peak voltage, the single-chip microcomputer sends control signal to power off the relay. At last, the waveform of the residual voltage is displayed on a principal computer or oscilloscope. The experimental results show that the device designed in this paper can turn the power off at peak voltage and is able to accurately display the voltage waveform immediately after power off and the standard deviation of the residual voltage is less than 0.2 V at exactly one second and later.

  15. Photos and Videos

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observers are required to take photos and/or videos of all incidentally caught sea turtles, marine mammals, seabirds and unusual or rare fish. On the first 3...

  16. Photos of the conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Birgitta  Åhman is the photographer of the series of pictures from the conference, also for the cover photo of the full paper edition showing Kongsvold Mountain Hut and Biological Station.

  17. Characterization of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinu, N. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France)], E-mail: dinu@lal.in2p3.fr; Barrillon, P.; Bazin, C. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M.G. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Bondil-Blin, S. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), 38050 Trento (Italy); Chaumat, V. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Collazuol, G. [Scuola Normale Superiore (SNS), 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); De La Taille, C. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Del Guerra, A. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Llosa, G. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , 56127 Pisa (Italy); Marcatili, S. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Melchiorri, M.; Piemonte, C. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), 38050 Trento (Italy); Puill, V. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Tarolli, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), 38050 Trento (Italy); Vagnucci, J.F. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), 38050 Trento (Italy)

    2009-10-21

    This work reports on the electrical as well as the optical characterizations of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM). The electrical test consists of the measurement of the static (breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, post-breakdown dark current) as well as the dynamic characteristics (gain, dark count rate). The optical test consists of the estimation of the photon detection efficiency as a function of wavelength as well as operation voltage.

  18. Characterization of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, N.; Barrillon, P.; Bazin, C.; Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M.G.; Bondil-Blin, S.; Boscardin, M.; Chaumat, V.; Collazuol, G.; De La Taille, C.; Del Guerra, A.; Llosa, G.; Marcatili, S.; Melchiorri, M.; Piemonte, C.; Puill, V.; Tarolli, A.; Vagnucci, J.F.; Zorzi, N.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on the electrical as well as the optical characterizations of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM). The electrical test consists of the measurement of the static (breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, post-breakdown dark current) as well as the dynamic characteristics (gain, dark count rate). The optical test consists of the estimation of the photon detection efficiency as a function of wavelength as well as operation voltage.

  19. Photo-reactive charge trapping memory based on lanthanide complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiaqing; Lo, Wai-Sum; Zhou, Li; Sun, Qi-Jun; Chan, Chi-Fai; Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Yan, Yan; Wong, Wing-Tak; Wong, Ka-Leung; Roy, V. A. L.

    2015-10-01

    Traditional utilization of photo-induced excitons is popularly but restricted in the fields of photovoltaic devices as well as photodetectors, and efforts on broadening its function have always been attempted. However, rare reports are available on organic field effect transistor (OFET) memory employing photo-induced charges. Here, we demonstrate an OFET memory containing a novel organic lanthanide complex Eu(tta)3ppta (Eu(tta)3 = Europium(III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate, ppta = 2-phenyl-4,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine), in which the photo-induced charges can be successfully trapped and detrapped. The luminescent complex emits intense red emission upon ultraviolet (UV) light excitation and serves as a trapping element of holes injected from the pentacene semiconductor layer. Memory window can be significantly enlarged by light-assisted programming and erasing procedures, during which the photo-induced excitons in the semiconductor layer are separated by voltage bias. The enhancement of memory window is attributed to the increasing number of photo-induced excitons by the UV light. The charges are stored in this luminescent complex for at least 104 s after withdrawing voltage bias. The present study on photo-assisted novel memory may motivate the research on a new type of light tunable charge trapping photo-reactive memory devices.

  20. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based...

  1. Photo-switching element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki, Yuichi

    1987-10-31

    Photo-input MOS transistor (Photo-switching element) cannot give enough ON/OFF ratio but requires an auxiliary condenser for a certain type of application. In addition, PN junction of amorphous silicon is not practical because it gives high leak current resulting in low electromotive force. In this invention, a solar cell was constructed with a lower electrode consisting of a transparent electro-conducting film, a photosensitive part consisting of an amorphous Si layer of p-i-n layer construction, and an upper metal electrode consisting of Cr or Nichrome, and a thin film transistor was placed on the solar cell, and further the upper metal electrode was co-used as a gate electrode of the thin film transistor; this set-up of this invention enabled to attain an efficient photo-electric conversion of the incident light, high electromotive force of the solar cell, and the transistor with high ON/OFF ratio. (3 figs)

  2. Influence of radiation on photo-electric characteristics of silicon photo cells with optical coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madatov, R.S.; Safarov, N.A.; Gasymova, V.G.; Abdurragimov, A.A.; Allahverdiev, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the given work results of measurements volt-ampere and spectral characteristics of silicon photo cells with optical coverings ZnS+Nd 2 O 3 irradiated accelerated electrons with energy 4.5 MeV are carried out. Elements have been made by diffusion of phosphorus in p-silicon with specific resistance 2 Ω·cm. Under condition of illumination from source AMI the photocurrent of short circuit made 40 mA/cm 2 , and a photo voltage of idling 0.52 V, efficiency made 15 %. To receive low reflection in wide area of spectral sensitivity and by that as much as possible to increase efficiency of elements with the help of two-layer coverings. The irradiation of samples was made on linear accelerator EL4-6 at room temperature. It is received, that with increase in a dose of an irradiation the Photocurrent and photo voltage decreases, and speed reduction of a photo-current is stronger, than photo voltage. The critical integrated stream for these elements makes 4·10 12 el/cm 2 . In all researched samples radiating reduction of a voltage of idling in an interval of 10 10 -10 14 el/cm 2 makes 8-10 %. The analysis of spectral characteristics of the irradiated samples show, that reduction of a photocurrent in long-wave areas of a spectrum is connected by creation of radiating defects in a base part of an element. The increase in a critical stream in silicon solar elements with optical a covering in comparison with elements without a covering is connected with low concentration of defects in the base, created with electron. Thus, on the basis of complex research of influence on radiating stability silicon solar elements us it is established, that two-layer coverings not only increases efficiency of photo cells, but also considerably raise value of an integrated stream electrons, that is equivalent to increase in service life of the elements working in conditions of radiation

  3. Voltage regulating circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A voltage regulating circuit comprising a rectifier (2) for receiving an AC voltage (Vmains) and for generating a rectified AC voltage (vrec), and a capacitor (3) connected in parallel with said rectified AC voltage for providing a DC voltage (VDC) over a load (5), characterized by a unidirectional

  4. ECR Plasma Photos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Biri, S.; Palinkas, J.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from He, methane, N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe gases and from their mixtures. The effects of the main external setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, microwave power, microwave frequency) were studied to the shape, color and structure of the plasma. The double frequency mode (9+14 GHz) was also realized and photos of this special 'star-in-star' shape plasma were recorded. A study was performed to analyze and understand the color of the ECR plasmas. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas. To our best knowledge our work is the first systematic study of ECR plasmas in the visible light region. When looking in the plasma chamber of an ECRIS we can see an axial image of the plasma (figure 1) in conformity with experimental setup. Most of the quantitative information was obtained through the summarised values of the Analogue Digital Unit (ADU) of pixels. By decreasing the strength of the magnetic trap we clearly observed that the brightness of the central part of the plasma gradually decreases, i.e. the plasma becomes more and more 'empty'. Figure 2 shows a photo series of ECR plasma at decreasing axial magnetic field. The radial size of the plasma increased because of the ascendant resonant zone. By increasing the power of the injected microwave an optimum (or at least saturation) was found in the brightness of the plasma. We found correlation between the gas dosing rates and plasma intensities. When sweeping the frequency of the microwave in a wide region

  5. Photo catalyst; Ko shokubai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    While titanium oxide is excited by the light, electrons of titanium oxide are taken away by the light energy to form positive holes. Water will be decomposed into hydrogen ion and hydroxy radical (OH) by these positive holes. This hydroxy radical is a strong reactive substance called active oxygen, it decomposes organisms. Besides this photo- catalyst function, the titanium oxide can also make surface of a substance superhydrophilic. The super hydrophilicity results in not forming water drops on the glass surface but spreading all over the surface to prevent a covering of fog on the glass surface. The published patents concerning the photo catalysts were 593 from Jan. 1998 to Jan. 1999. The applicant order is the first TOTO 143, the second Daikin Industry 19, the third Toshiba Raitech, Nitto Denko, Hitachi 17 respectively. (NEDO)

  6. EOS Inoovation Photo's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    What did four years of energy innovation bring the Netherlands? Which are the main lessons learned and what are the best opportunities for the market? The Energy Research Strategy programme (EOS) gave the answers to these questions for various topics in the form of images by means of so-called I nnovation Photos' on Biomass, Built Environment, Industrial Energy Efficiency, Smart Grids, Heat, Offshore Wind, and Solar PV. [nl

  7. Large-aperture hybrid photo-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.; Nakayama, H.; Kusaka, A.; Kakuno, H.; Abe, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Aihara, H.; Tanaka, M.; Shiozawa, M.; Kyushima, H.; Suyama, M.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed the first complete large-aperture (13-inch diameter) hybrid photo-detector (HPD). The withstanding voltage problem has been overcome and we were able to attain an HPD operating voltage of +20 kV. Adoption of our newly developed backside illumination avalanche diode (AD) was also critical in successfully countering the additional problem of an increase in AD leakage after the activation process. We observed single photon signal timing jitter of under 450 ps in FWHM, electron transit time of ∼12 ns, and clear pulse height separation up to several photoelectron peaks, all greatly superior to the performance of any conventional large-aperture photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In addition, our HPD has a much simpler structure than conventional large-aperture PMTs, which simplifies mass production and lowers manufacturing cost. We believe that these attributes position our HPD as the most suitable photo-detector for the next generation mega-ton class water-Cherenkov detector, which is expected to be more than 20x larger than the Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector

  8. Photo-onycholysis from minocycline. Side effects of minocycline therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kestel, J.L. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Minocycline, prescribed for a patient with acne, produced a photosensitivity reaction (photo-onycholysis) involving the fingernails. The onset of this reaction coincided with an increase in sun exposure and cleared several months later, when the drug was discontinued. This type of reaction has been reported to occur in patients taking tetracycline or a member of the tetracycline group of antibiotics, of which minocycline is a member. This appears to be first report of photo-onycholysis due to minocycline

  9. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  10. ATLAS TileCal Submodule Production Photos (2001)

    CERN Multimedia

    Errede, S.

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 - Dirty Spacers Photo 2 - Washing Plates Photo 3 - Throw Photo 4 - Catch Photo 5 - Mascot Photo 6 - Glue Machine Photo 7 - Gluing Photo 8 - Finished submodule Photo 9 - Submodule being final welded Photo 10 - Paint tank Photo 11 - Submodule is wrapped Photo 12 - Exhaustion

  11. Science photo library

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    SPL [Science Photo Library] holds a wide range of pictures on all aspects of science, medicine and technology. The pictures come with detailed captions and are available as high quality transparencies in medium or 35mm format. Digital files can be made available on request. Our website provides low resolution files of the pictures in this catalogue, which you can search and download for layout presentation use once you have registered. High resolution files or reproduction are available on request and can be delivered to you by disk or ISDN. Visit the online catalog: www.sciencephoto.com

  12. Mystery photos: Christmas edition

    CERN Multimedia

    Alex Brown, Jens Vigen, Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    Paraphrasing George R.R. Martin's novel Game of Thrones’ most famous quote: “Christmas is coming”. According to tradition, we’ve themed our last issue of the year to share the spirit of the festivities with our readers. We’ve collected some pictures of snowy scenes and Christmas parties at CERN from our archives.   Identifying pictures and albums in the CERN photo archive continues apace and we still need your help. However, in keeping with the holiday spirit, we’ve set you some Christmassy challenges. Were you at any of the events shown below, or do you recognise anyone in the pictures? Get in touch by email: photo.archive@cern.ch or use the “suggest a caption” link on each picture’s page. So far, more than 33,000 pictures have been uploaded, with nearly 1,000 old album records inspected and about 150 new ones created. We’ve had contact from an ever-increasing number of reti...

  13. Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Water Photo-Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Antonino S.; Girolamo, Mariarita; Siracusano, Stefania; Sebastian, David; Baglio, Vincenzo; Schuster, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Water-fed photo-electrolysis cells equipped with perfluorosulfonic acid (Nafion® 115) and quaternary ammonium-based (Fumatech® FAA3) ion exchange membranes as separator for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions were investigated. Protonic or anionic ionomer dispersions were deposited on the electrodes to extend the interface with the electrolyte. The photo-anode consisted of a large band-gap Ti-oxide semiconductor. The effect of membrane characteristics on the photo-electrochemical conversion of solar energy was investigated for photo-voltage-driven electrolysis cells. Photo-electrolysis cells were also studied for operation under electrical bias-assisted mode. The pH of the membrane/ionomer had a paramount effect on the photo-electrolytic conversion. The anionic membrane showed enhanced performance compared to the Nafion®-based cell when just TiO2 anatase was used as photo-anode. This was associated with better oxygen evolution kinetics in alkaline conditions compared to acidic environment. However, oxygen evolution kinetics in acidic conditions were significantly enhanced by using a Ti sub-oxide as surface promoter in order to facilitate the adsorption of OH species as precursors of oxygen evolution. However, the same surface promoter appeared to inhibit oxygen evolution in an alkaline environment probably as a consequence of the strong adsorption of OH species on the surface under such conditions. These results show that a proper combination of photo-anode and polymer electrolyte membrane is essential to maximize photo-electrolytic conversion. PMID:28468242

  14. High voltage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Industrial processes usually require electrical power. This power is used to drive motors, to heat materials, or in electrochemical processes. Often the power requirements of a plant require the electric power to be delivered at high voltage. In this paper high voltage is considered any voltage over 600 V. This voltage could be as high as 138,000 V for some very large facilities. The characteristics of this voltage and the enormous amounts of power being transmitted necessitate special safety considerations. Safety must be considered during the four activities associated with a high voltage electrical system. These activities are: Design; Installation; Operation; and Maintenance

  15. Advances in Home Photo Printing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Lin; Brian Atkins; Huitao Luo

    2004-01-01

    With digital camera adoptions going main stream, consumers capture a record number of photos.Currently, the majority of the digital photos are printed at home. One of the key enablers of this transformation is the advancement of home photo printing technologies. In the past few years, inkjet printing technologies have continued to deliver smaller drop size, larger number of inks, and longer-lasting prints. In the mean time, advanced image processing automatically enhances captured digital photos while being printed. The combination of the above two forces has closed the gap between the home photo prints and AgX prints. It will give an overview of the home photo printing market and technology trends, and discuss major advancements in automatic image processing.

  16. Voltage regulator for generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoi, K

    1989-01-17

    It is an object of this invention to provide a voltage regulator for a generator charging a battery, wherein even if the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator rises abnormally high, possible thermal breakage of the semiconductor elements constituting the voltage regulator can be avoided. A feature of this invention is that the semiconductor elements can be protected from thermal breakage, even at an abnormal ambient temperature rise at the voltage regulator for the battery charging generator, by controlling a maximum conduction ratio of a power transistor in the voltage regulator in accordance with the temperature at the voltage regulator. This is achieved through a switching device connected in series to the field coil of the generator and adapted to be controlled in accordance with an output voltage of the generator and the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator. 6 figs.

  17. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  18. Kodak's Photo CD and Proposed Photo YCC Color Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrows, Henry; Urrows, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    Describes new technology being developed by Eastman Kodak for storing 35mm color photos on compact disk (CD) and discusses its applications for desktop publishing. Benefits of photo CD and costs are examined, a proposed universal color standard that is an improved way to represent color digitally is explained, and software is discussed. (LRW)

  19. Photo-response of a P3HT:PCBM blend in metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devynck, M.; Rostirolla, B.; Watson, C. P.; Taylor, D. M., E-mail: d.m.taylor@bangor.ac.uk [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean Street, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 1UT (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-03

    Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors are investigated, in which the insulator is cross-linked polyvinylphenol and the active layer a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, and the electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Admittance spectra and capacitance-voltage measurements obtained in the dark both display similar behaviour to those previously observed in P3HT-only devices. However, the photo-capacitance response is significantly enhanced in the P3HT:PCBM case, where exciton dissociation leads to electron transfer into the PCBM component. The results are consistent with a network of PCBM aggregates that is continuous through the film but with no lateral interconnection between the aggregates at or near the blend/insulator interface.

  20. Photo-induced-heat localization on nanostructured metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Ceren; Kahler, Niloofar; Grave de Peralta, Luis; Kumar, Golden; Bernussi, Ayrton A.

    2017-09-01

    Materials with large photo-thermal energy conversion efficiency are essential for renewable energy applications. Photo-excitation is an effective approach to generate controlled and localized heat at relatively low excitation optical powers. However, lateral heat diffusion to the surrounding illuminated areas accompanied by low photo-thermal energy conversion efficiency remains a challenge for metallic surfaces. Surface nanoengineering has proven to be a successful approach to further absorption and heat generation. Here, we show that pronounced spatial heat localization and high temperatures can be achieved with arrays of amorphous metallic glass nanorods under infrared optical illumination. Thermography measurements revealed marked temperature contrast between illuminated and non-illuminated areas even under low optical power excitation conditions. This attribute allowed for generating legible photo-induced thermal patterns on textured metallic glass surfaces.

  1. Study of the transparent electrode photo-galvano-voltaic cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-chu, B.

    1980-01-01

    A simple photo-galvano-voltaic cell has been constructed by using a Nesa glass coated with SnO/sub 2/ on both sides as transparent electrodes, one of which is further coated with a photosensitizing dyestuff, meso-tetraphenylporphrin (TPP), forming the photo-cathode, and using an aqueous solution of thionine and Fe/sup + + +//Fe/sup + +/ redox couple as the electrolytic solution. By adding a surfactant, Na Lauryl sulfate, into the solution the surface resistance of the TPP film is greatly lowered, so that the photocurrent of the cell is markedly enhanced and the light conversion efficiency is increased more than twofold. It has been demonstrated that a multilayer liquid film photo-galvano-voltaic cell with film thickness less than 100 ..mu.. can greatly increase the light conversion efficiency, and the open-circuit voltage of more than two volts can be easily achieved.

  2. Ground-based photo monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick C. Hall

    2000-01-01

    Ground-based photo monitoring is repeat photography using ground-based cameras to document change in vegetation or soil. Assume those installing the photo location will not be the ones re-photographing it. This requires a protocol that includes: (1) a map to locate the monitoring area, (2) another map diagramming the photographic layout, (3) type and make of film such...

  3. Correlation-Preserving Photo Collage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingjie; Zhang, Hongjie; Jing, Guangmei; Guo, Yanwen; Chen, Zhonggui; Wang, Wenping

    2017-05-12

    A new method is presented for producing photo collages that preserve content correlation of photos. We use deep learning techniques to find correlation among given photos to facilitate their embedding on the canvas, and develop an efficient combinatorial optimization technique to make correlated photos stay close to each other. To make efficient use of canvas space, our method first extracts salient regions of photos and packs only these salient regions. We allow the salient regions to have arbitrary shapes, therefore yielding informative, yet more compact collages than by other similar collage methods based on salient regions. We present extensive experimental results, user study results, and comparisons against the state-of-the-art methods to show the superiority of our method.

  4. In-tank photo analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorvick, C.A.; Baird, D.B.; Heasler, P.G.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents an analysis performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) of photographs showing the interior of a single shell tank (SST) at the Hanford site. This report shows that in-tank photos can be used to create a plan-view map of the waste surface inside a tank, and that measuring the elevation of the waste surface from the photos is possible, but not accurate enough to be useful at this time. In-tank photos were acquired for Tanks BX111 and T111. The BX111 photos were used to create the waste surface map and to measure the waste surface elevation. T111 photos were used to measure the waste surface elevation. Uncertainty analyses of the mapping and surface elevation are included to show the accuracy of the calculations for both methods

  5. Golden Jubilee photos

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    We continue our series of CERN's Golden Jubilee photos, with some of the highlights of events and their preparation as well as occasional glimpses of the Laboratory's fifty-year history. Following last week's behind-the-scenes glance at the organisation of festivities, this week we take a look at a group of young artists. They are visiting the Laboratory with the aim of creating works of art, that will go on display during the Jubilee celebrations. Art and particle physics Particle physics can be a source of inspiration for artists, as illustrated by this week's visit1 to CERN of 17 students from British, Danish, Dutch, Greek, Irish and Swiss art schools. The students are here to find ideas for works of art that will be displayed this October in the framework of CERN's Golden Jubilee celebrations. In the opinion of the group's organiser, Andy Charalambous, the purpose of the visit is to confront the artists with a world that is totally alien to their own and to allow them an opportunity to immerse themselve...

  6. Influence of X and gamma radiation and bias conditions on dropout voltage of voltage regulators serial transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukic, V.; Osmokrovic, P.; Stankovic, S.; Kovacevic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Research topic presented in this paper is degradation of characteristics of low-dropout voltage regulator's serial transistor during exposure of device to the ionizing radiation. Voltage regulators were exposed to X and γ radiation in two modes: without bias conditions, and with bias conditions and load. Tested circuits are representatives of the first and the second generation of low-dropout voltage regulators, with lateral and vertical PNP serial transistor: LM2940 and L4940. Experimental results of output voltage and serial dropout voltage change in function of total ionizing dose, during the medium-dose-rate exposure, were presented. (author) [sr

  7. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based......, and remote power generation for light towers, camper vans, boats, beacons, and buoys etc. A review of current state-of-the-art is presented. The best performing converters achieve moderately high peak efficiencies at high input voltage and medium power level. However, system dimensioning and cost are often...

  8. ATLAS Pixel Group - Photo Gallery from Irradiation

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Photos 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 - Photos taken before irradiation of Pixel Test Analog Chip and Pmbars (April 2000) Photos 8,9,10,11 - Irradiation of VDC chips (May 2000) Photos 12, 13 - Irradiation of Passive Components (June 2000) Photos 14,15, 16 - Irradiation of Marebo Chip (November 1999)

  9. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered. (author)

  10. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  11. Stray voltage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, B.; Piercy, R.; Dick, P. [Kinetrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). Transmission and Distribution Technologies

    2008-04-09

    This report discussed issues related to farm stray voltage and evaluated mitigation strategies and costs for limiting voltage to farms. A 3-phase, 3-wire system with no neutral ground was used throughout North America before the 1930s. Transformers were connected phase to phase without any electrical connection between the primary and secondary sides of the transformers. Distribution voltage levels were then increased and multi-grounded neutral wires were added. The earth now forms a parallel return path for the neutral current that allows part of the neutral current to flow continuously through the earth. The arrangement is responsible for causing stray voltage. Stray voltage causes uneven milk production, increased incidences of mastitis, and can create a reluctance to drink water amongst cows when stray voltages are present. Off-farm sources of stray voltage include phase unbalances, undersized neutral wire, and high resistance splices on the neutral wire. Mitigation strategies for reducing stray voltage include phase balancing; conversion from single to 3-phase; increasing distribution voltage levels, and changing pole configurations. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  12. High voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Farouk AM

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by a new revival of worldwide interest in extra-high-voltage (EHV) and ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission, High Voltage Engineering merges the latest research with the extensive experience of the best in the field to deliver a comprehensive treatment of electrical insulation systems for the next generation of utility engineers and electric power professionals. The book offers extensive coverage of the physical basis of high-voltage engineering, from insulation stress and strength to lightning attachment and protection and beyond. Presenting information critical to the design, selec

  13. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  14. Location - Global Positioning System (GPS) Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Digital photos tagged with GPS location information. The St. Paul District maintains a digital library of over 10,000 GPS photos. Photos are often associated with...

  15. AL-USRCRN Photo Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photos of Alabama USRCRN stations and their immediate surroundings. Taken by engineering techs from NOAA's Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD)....

  16. Effects of multiple viewings of an ultraviolet photo on sun protection behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, H I M

    2018-05-02

    To determine whether multiple viewings of one's ultraviolet (UV) facial photo differentially affects subsequent sun protection behaviors relative to a single viewing. Pretest-posttest control group. Southern California college students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to be shown their UV facial photo one time, multiple times over the course of 2 weeks, or not at all. Emotional reactions, perceived susceptibility to skin damage, and sun protection intentions were assessed immediately, and sun protection behaviors were assessed during a surprise telephonic follow-up 1 month later. Immediately after viewing a UV photo of their face, participants reported significantly greater perceived susceptibility to skin damage, greater intentions to engage in future sun protection, and more negative emotions than those who had not seen a UV photo. Moreover, 1 month later, those who had viewed their UV photo were less likely to report having sunbathed and reported significantly greater sun protection than did controls. There were no differences in sun protection behaviors between those who had been shown their UV photo only once during the initial intervention session and those who had been sent their UV photo several times thereafter. However, among those who had been sent their UV photo several times, those who reported having viewed their photo on additional occasions reported significantly greater sun protection behaviors than those who had not. Being randomly assigned to view a UV facial photo multiple times generally neither strengthened nor weakened effects on subsequent sun protection behaviors relative to being shown the photo just once. However, among those who were sent their photo and thus had the option of viewing it more often than they had been assigned to, those who chose to view their photo more frequently also engaged in more sun protection behaviors. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  18. Photo-Detectors Integrated with Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. L. Figueiredo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on photo-detectors consisting of an optical waveguide that incorporates a resonant tunneling diode (RTD. Operating at wavelengths around 1.55 μm in the optical communications C band we achieve maximum sensitivities of around 0.29 A/W which is dependent on the bias voltage. This is due to the nature of RTD nonlinear current-voltage characteristic that has a negative differential resistance (NDR region. The resonant tunneling diode photo-detector (RTD-PD can be operated in either non-oscillating or oscillating regimes depending on the bias voltage quiescent point. The oscillating regime is apparent when the RTD-PD is biased in the NDR region giving rise to electrical gain and microwave self-sustained oscillations Taking advantage of the RTD’s NDR distinctive characteristics, we demonstrate efficient detection of gigahertz (GHz modulated optical carriers and optical control of a RTD GHz oscillator. RTD-PD based devices can have applications in generation and optical control of GHz low-phase noise oscillators, clock recovery systems, and fiber optic enabled radio frequency communication systems.

  19. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1 (Hungary); Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)

    2010-02-15

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  20. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J.; Biri, S.

    2010-01-01

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  1. based dynamic voltage restorer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    operation due to presence of increased use of nonlinear loads (computers, microcontrollers ... simulations of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) was achieved using MATLAB/Simulink. ..... using Discrete PWM generator, then the IGBT inverter.

  2. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  3. Low-voltage gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Zavolskiy, N. A.; Sedov, A. S.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, the gyrotrons were primarily developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive of plasmas in controlled fusion reactors where a multi-megawatt, quasi-continuous millimeter-wave power is required. In addition to this important application, there are other applications (and their number increases with time) which do not require a very high power level, but such issues as the ability to operate at low voltages and have compact devices are very important. For example, gyrotrons are of interest for a dynamic nuclear polarization, which improves the sensitivity of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this paper, some issues important for operation of gyrotrons driven by low-voltage electron beams are analyzed. An emphasis is made on the efficiency of low-voltage gyrotron operation at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonics. These efficiencies calculated with the account for ohmic losses were, first, determined in the framework of the generalized gyrotron theory based on the cold-cavity approximation. Then, more accurate, self-consistent calculations for the fundamental and second harmonic low-voltage sub-THz gyrotron designs were carried out. Results of these calculations are presented and discussed. It is shown that operation of the fundamental and second harmonic gyrotrons with noticeable efficiencies is possible even at voltages as low as 5–10 kV. Even the third harmonic gyrotrons can operate at voltages about 15 kV, albeit with rather low efficiency (1%–2% in the submillimeter wavelength region).

  4. Synthesis and photo-electrochemical properties of spinel-ferrite-coated hematite for solar water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Seenivasan; Moon, Hee; Kim, Do-Heyoung

    2018-01-01

    Photo-electrochemical water splitting with hematite photo-anodes under solar irradiation has attracted considerable attention as regards the production of renewable hydrogen energy. However, many challenges remain unresolved, as the full contribution of the catalytic over-layers has not been fully realized. Herein, we incorporate uniform spinel nickel-ferrite over-layers in hematite photo-anodes to obtain an improved understanding of the associated intrinsic changes. We achieve a 1.5-mA/cm2 photo-current density at 1.23 VRHE (RHE: reversible hydrogen electrode) under one-sun illumination conditions, along with a negative shift of 200 mV in the onset potential, for NiFe2O4-coated Sn-doped hematite photo-anodes. Fundamental electrochemical analyses clearly show that the shift in the onset potential is predominantly due to the enhanced photo-voltage development inside the hematite, rather than being purely caused by the interfacial kinetics. These insights reveal a new direction for fundamental research on photo-anodes towards fabrication of more efficient photo-anode systems.

  5. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepke, Matthias [Garbsen, DE; Eisermann, Henning [Edermissen, DE

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  6. Photo-medical valley. 'Photo medical research center'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Shunichi; Daido, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Toshiki

    2008-01-01

    To develop a much more compact cancer diagnosis and therapeutic instrument using high intensity laser technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has successfully proposed this novel effort to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) program as the creation of a 'photo-medical industrial valley' base in 2007 fiscal year. In this report, a new laser techniques to drive controlled ion beams is described. It is very important approach to realize a laser-driven ion accelerator. (author)

  7. High frequency breakdown voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Thanh Duy.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information about the effect of frequency on the breakdown voltage of an air gap at standard pressure and temperature, 76 mm Hg and O degrees C, respectively. The frequencies of interest are 47 MHz and 60 MHz. Additionally, the breakdown in vacuum is briefly considered. The breakdown mechanism is explained on the basis of collision and ionization. The presence of the positive ions produced by ionization enhances the field in the gap, and thus determines the breakdown. When a low-frequency voltage is applied across the gap, the breakdown mechanism is the same as that caused by the DC or static voltage. However, when the frequency exceeds the first critical value f c , the positive ions are trapped in the gap, increasing the field considerably. This makes the breakdown occur earlier; in other words, the breakdown voltage is lowered. As the frequency increases two decades or more, the second critical frequency, f ce , is reached. This time the electrons start being trapped in the gap. Those electrons that travel multiple times across the gap before reaching the positive electrode result in an enormous number of electrons and positive ions being present in the gap. The result is a further decrease of the breakdown voltage. However, increasing the frequency does not decrease the breakdown voltage correspondingly. In fact, the associated breakdown field intensity is almost constant (about 29 kV/cm).The reason is that the recombination rate increases and counterbalances the production rate, thus reducing the effect of the positive ions' concentration in the gap. The theory of collision and ionization does not apply to the breakdown in vacuum. It seems that the breakdown in vacuum is primarily determined by the irregularities on the surfaces of the electrodes. Therefore, the effect of frequency on the breakdown, if any, is of secondary importance

  8. Digital voltage discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhicheng

    1992-01-01

    A digital voltage discriminator is described, which is synthesized by digital comparator and ADC. The threshold is program controllable with high stability. Digital region of confusion is approximately equal to 1.5 LSB. This discriminator has a single channel analyzer function model with channel width of 1.5 LSB

  9. High-voltage picoamperemeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugl, Andrea; Ball, Markus; Boehmer, Michael; Doerheim, Sverre; Hoenle, Andreas; Konorov, Igor [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Ketzer, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Current measurements in the nano- and picoampere region on high voltage are an important tool to understand charge transfer processes in micropattern gas detectors like the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). They are currently used to e.g. optimize the field configuration in a multi-GEM stack to be used in the ALICE TPC after the upgrade of the experiment during the 2nd long shutdown of the LHC. Devices which allow measurements down to 1pA at high voltage up to 6 kV have been developed at TU Muenchen. They are based on analog current measurements via the voltage drop over a switchable shunt. A microcontroller collects 128 digital ADC values and calculates their mean and standard deviation. This information is sent with a wireless transmitting unit to a computer and stored in a root file. A nearly unlimited number of devices can be operated simultaneously and read out by a single receiver. The results can also be displayed on a LCD directly at the device. Battery operation and the wireless readout are important to protect the user from any contact to high voltage. The principle of the device is explained, and systematic studies of their properties are shown.

  10. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it…

  11. Mitigation of Unbalanced Voltage Sags and Voltage Unbalance in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Any problem with voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) etc. can be used to mitigate the voltage problems in the distribution system...... to unbalanced faults. The compensation of unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE distribution network is done by using the four STATCOM compensators already existing in the test grid. The simulations are carried out in DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0........ The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and net-works like this. The voltage unbalances, for the tested cases in the CIGRE LV test network are mainly due to single phase loads and due...

  12. Practices surrounding children's photos in homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Nijholt, Antinus; Grassel, Guido; Chi, E.H.; Höök, K,

    2012-01-01

    New parents cherish photos of their children. In their homes one can observe a varied set of arrangements of their young ones' photos. We studied eight families with young children to learn about their practices related to photos. We provide preliminary results from the field study and elaborate on

  13. Mitigation of Voltage Sags in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Any problem in voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) etc. are commonly used for the mitigation of voltage p....... The compensation of voltage sags in the different parts of CIGRE distribution network is done by using the four STATCOM compensators already existing in the test grid. The simulations are carried out in DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0.......Any problem in voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) etc. are commonly used for the mitigation of voltage...... problems in the distribution system. The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate voltage sags in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and networks like this. The voltage sags, for the tested cases in the CIGRE LV test network are mainly due to three phase faults...

  14. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.; Abdelghany, Mohamed A.; Elsayed, Mohannad Yomn; Elshurafa, Amro M; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  15. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  16. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  17. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  18. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  19. Suppressing voltage transients in high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lickel, K.F.; Stonebank, R.

    1979-01-01

    A high voltage power supply for an X-ray tubes includes voltage adjusting means, a high voltage transformer, switch means connected to make and interrupt the primary current of the transformer, and over-voltage suppression means to suppress the voltage transient produced when the current is switched on. In order to reduce the power losses in the suppression means, an impedance is connected in the transformer primary circuit on operation of the switch means and is subsequently short-circuited by a switch controlled by a timer after a period which is automatically adjusted to the duration of the transient overvoltage. (U.K.)

  20. Benchmarking of Voltage Sag Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2012-01-01

    The increased penetration of renewable energy systems, like photovoltaic and wind power systems, rises the concern about the power quality and stability of the utility grid. Some regulations for Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) for medium voltage or high voltage applications, are coming into force...

  1. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  2. Transient voltage sharing in series-coupled high voltage switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available For switching voltages in excess of the maximum blocking voltage of a switching element (for example, thyristor, MOSFET or bipolar transistor such elements are often coupled in series - and additional circuitry has to be provided to ensure equal voltage sharing. Between each such series element and system ground there is a certain parasitic capacitance that may draw a significant current during high-speed voltage transients. The "open" switch is modelled as a ladder network. Analy­sis reveals an exponential progression in the distribution of the applied voltage across the elements. Overstressing thus oc­curs in some of the elements at levels of the total voltage that are significantly below the design value. This difficulty is overcome by grading the voltage sharing circuitry, coupled in parallel with each element, in a prescribed manner, as set out here.

  3. Coordinated Voltage Control of Distributed PV Inverters for Voltage Regulation in Low Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews and analyzes the existing voltage control methods of distributed solar PV inverters to improve the voltage regulation and thereby the hosting capacity of a low-voltage distribution network. A novel coordinated voltage control method is proposed based on voltage sensitivity...... optimization. The proposed method is used to calculate the voltage bands and droop settings of PV inverters at each node by the supervisory controller. The local controller of each PV inverter implements the volt/var control and if necessary, the active power curtailment as per the received settings and based...... on measured local voltages. The advantage of the proposed method is that the calculated reactive power and active power droop settings enable fair contribution of the PV inverters at each node to the voltage regulation. Simulation studies are conducted using DigSilent Power factory software on a simplified...

  4. Sensing voltage across lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Kenton J.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of electrical potentials across lipid bilayers by specialized membrane proteins is required for many fundamental cellular processes such as the generation and propagation of nerve impulses. These membrane proteins possess modular voltage-sensing domains, a notable example being the S1-S4 domains of voltage-activated ion channels. Ground-breaking structural studies on these domains explain how voltage sensors are designed and reveal important interactions with the surrounding lipid membrane. Although further structures are needed to fully understand the conformational changes that occur during voltage sensing, the available data help to frame several key concepts that are fundamental to the mechanism of voltage sensing. PMID:19092925

  5. Person Recognition in Social Media Photos

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Seong Joon; Benenson, Rodrigo; Fritz, Mario; Schiele, Bernt

    2017-01-01

    People nowadays share large parts of their personal lives through social media. Being able to automatically recognise people in personal photos may greatly enhance user convenience by easing photo album organisation. For human identification task, however, traditional focus of computer vision has been face recognition and pedestrian re-identification. Person recognition in social media photos sets new challenges for computer vision, including non-cooperative subjects (e.g. backward viewpoints...

  6. Laguna Verde - A photo story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-04-15

    Safety is one of the main factors in the construction and operation of a modern nuclear power plant. There are many barriers between the fission products produced in the fuel elements of the core, and the environment: the cladding of the fuel pins which are enclosed in the reactor core, the pressure vessel containing the core and which in turn is enclosed in the reactor containment, all this being located in a low-pressure secondary containment or reactor building. Despite these precautions, nuclear safety is still a widely-discussed issue. The important fact remains, however, that there has not been a single radiation-induced fatality or serious injury at any civilian nuclear power plant during 20 years of nuclear power generation. This includes the accident that occurred in March 1979 at the Three Mile Island nuclear plant in the USA. A substantial component contributing to safety in a nuclear power plant is the containment. The following photos of Laguna Verde, Mexico's first nuclear power station being constructed at Alta Lucero in Vera Cruz, give an impression of how strong this concrete and steel containment actually is. Laguna Verde consists of two 600 MWe units and the plant is scheduled for commercial operation in 1982. Construction began in 1974. Both units are boiling-water reactors. The photos show, in general, the construction of the primary containment for the reactors (the dry wells). The dry well contains the reactor itself and has two layers: the leak-tight steel liner and the heavy concrete building. The purpose of the primary containment is to retain steam and gases that might escape in an emergency and to direct these through relief tubes to a water pond for cooling. Surrounding this primary containment will be a reactor building which serves as a secondary low-pressure containment, able to operate at pressures up to 0.2 atmospheres.

  7. iPhoto '11 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2011-01-01

    With better ways to get your photos online and new options for creating printed projects, iPhoto '11 makes it easier than ever to transfer photos from a digital camera, organize them, and publish, print, or share them in maps-but there's still no printed manual for the program. Fortunately, David Pogue and Lesa Snider team up in this witty, authoritative book that should have been in the box. Organize your collection. Discover all of the options for grouping your pictures-by events, in albums, or based on who's in the photo or where it was taken.Sharpen your editing skills. Learn how to use

  8. BVA members wow judges in photo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-03

    Earlier this year, BVA ran its inaugural photo competition, giving members the opportunity to showcase the work of the veterinary profession and the animals and wildlife they encounter. Standing out from over 400 high-quality entries, judges picked the images reproduced in this month's BVA News as the winning and highly commended photos. To see all the entries and hear from the winners, visit www.bva.co.uk/vet-photos-2016/. There will be another photo competition in 2017 with more categories to be announced. British Veterinary Association.

  9. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Marzocchi, Badder

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter is made of scintillating lead tungstate crystals, using avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. The high voltage system, consisting of 1224 channels, biases groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  10. Heat-pump performance: voltage dip/sag, under-voltage and over-voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J.B. Heffernan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reverse cycle air-source heat-pumps are an increasingly significant load in New Zealand and in many other countries. This has raised concern over the impact wide-spread use of heat-pumps may have on the grid. The characteristics of the loads connected to the power system are changing because of heat-pumps. Their performance during under-voltage events such as voltage dips has the potential to compound the event and possibly cause voltage collapse. In this study, results from testing six heat-pumps are presented to assess their performance at various voltages and hence their impact on voltage stability.

  11. ArF photo resist pattern sample preparation method using FIB without protective coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okushima, Hirohisa; Onozuka, Toshihiko; Kuroda, Yasushi; Yaguchi, Toshie; Umemura, Kaoru; Tamochi, Ryuichiro; Watanabe, Kenji; Hasegawa, Norio; Kawata, Isao; Rijpers, Bart

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method of FIB (FIB: focused ion beam) sample preparation to accurately evaluate critical dimensions and profiles of ArF photo resist patterns without the use of a protective coating on the photo resist. In order to accomplish this, the FIB micro-sampling method that is one of effective FIB milling and fabrication method was employed. First a Si cap is picked up from a silicon wafer and fixed to ArF photo resist patterns to protect against ion beam irradiation. Then, a micro-sample, a piece of Si-capped ArF photo resist, was extracted from the bulk ArF photo resist. In this procedure, this silicon cap always protects ArF photo resist patterns against ion beam irradiation. For the next step, the micro-sample is fixed to a needle stub of the FIB-STEM (STEM: scanning transmission electron microscopy) compatible rotation holder. This sample on the needle stub was rotated 180 degrees and milled from the side of Si substrate. Lastly, the sample is milled to the thickness of 2μm. In this process, the ion beam is irradiating from the silicon substrate side to minimize the ion beam irradiation damages on the ArF photo resist patterns. EDX (EDX: Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis proved that no gallium ions were detected on the surface of the ArF photo resist patterns. The feasibility of high accelerating voltage observation of STEM to observe line edge roughness of a thick sample like 2μm without shrinkage has been demonstrated.

  12. Photo field emission spectroscopy of the tantalum band structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleint, Ch.; Radon, T.

    1978-01-01

    Photo field emission (PFE) currents of clean and barium covered tantalum tips have been measured with single lines of the mercury arc spectrum and phase-sensitive detection. Field strength and work function were determined from Fowler-Nordheim plots of the FE currents. Shoulders in the PFE current-voltage characteristics could be correlated to transitions in the band structure of tantalum according to a recently proposed two-step PFE model. A comparison with the relativistic calculations of Mattheiss and the nonrelativistic bands of Petroff and Viswanathan shows that Mattheiss' bands are more appropriate. Beside direct transitions several nondirect transitions from the different features composing the upper two density of states maxima below the Fermi edge of tantalum have been found. (Auth.)

  13. A ZnO nanowire-based photo-inverter with pulse-induced fast recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Syed Raza Ali; Lee, Young Tack; Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Hossein; Ha, Ryong; Choi, Heon-Jin; Im, Seongil

    2013-11-21

    We demonstrate a fast response photo-inverter comprised of one transparent gated ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor (FET) and one opaque FET respectively as the driver and load. Under ultraviolet (UV) light the transfer curve of the transparent gate FET shifts to the negative side and so does the voltage transfer curve (VTC) of the inverter. After termination of UV exposure the recovery of photo-induced current takes a long time in general. This persistent photoconductivity (PPC) is due to hole trapping on the surface of ZnO NWs. Here, we used a positive voltage short pulse after UV exposure, for the first time resolving the PPC issue in nanowire-based photo-detectors by accumulating electrons at the ZnO/dielectric interface. We found that a pulse duration as small as 200 ns was sufficient to reach a full recovery to the dark state from the UV induced state, realizing a fast UV detector with a voltage output.

  14. Modeling Photo-multiplier Gain and Regenerating Pulse Height Data for Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinall, Michael D.; Jones, Ashley R.

    2018-01-01

    Systems that adopt organic scintillation detector arrays often require a calibration process prior to the intended measurement campaign to correct for significant performance variances between detectors within the array. These differences exist because of low tolerances associated with photo-multiplier tube technology and environmental influences. Differences in detector response can be corrected for by adjusting the supplied photo-multiplier tube voltage to control its gain and the effect that this has on the pulse height spectra from a gamma-only calibration source with a defined photo-peak. Automated methods that analyze these spectra and adjust the photo-multiplier tube bias accordingly are emerging for hardware that integrate acquisition electronics and high voltage control. However, development of such algorithms require access to the hardware, multiple detectors and calibration source for prolonged periods, all with associated constraints and risks. In this work, we report on a software function and related models developed to rescale and regenerate pulse height data acquired from a single scintillation detector. Such a function could be used to generate significant and varied pulse height data that can be used to integration-test algorithms that are capable of automatically response matching multiple detectors using pulse height spectra analysis. Furthermore, a function of this sort removes the dependence on multiple detectors, digital analyzers and calibration source. Results show a good match between the real and regenerated pulse height data. The function has also been used successfully to develop auto-calibration algorithms.

  15. High voltage isolation transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  16. Partnering with Families through Photo Collages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupa, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the implementation and benefits of a photo-based family communication method called Daily Explorations. Daily Explorations are one- to two-page photo collages that are annotated with meaningful explanations of children's play and e-mailed to parents every day. The process, described in more detail in this article, is a…

  17. Using Participatory Photo Novels to Teach Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kallol

    2012-01-01

    Teaching the restless young generation business students of today is not easy. Furthermore, the traditional lecture method has failed miserably to engage the business students and deliver significant learning. The author presents a discussion on the photo novel as an attractive communication medium and the participatory photo novel as an…

  18. Nature and numbers a mathematical photo shooting

    CERN Document Server

    Glaeser, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The book offers 180 pages of spectacular photos and unusual views and insights. Learn to see the world with different eyes and be prepared for many surprises and new facts. The photos give rise to questions that are carefully explained with mathematics.

  19. Functional diversity of potassium channel voltage-sensing domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas, León D

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels or Kv's are membrane proteins with fundamental physiological roles. They are composed of 2 main functional protein domains, the pore domain, which regulates ion permeation, and the voltage-sensing domain, which is in charge of sensing voltage and undergoing a conformational change that is later transduced into pore opening. The voltage-sensing domain or VSD is a highly conserved structural motif found in all voltage-gated ion channels and can also exist as an independent feature, giving rise to voltage sensitive enzymes and also sustaining proton fluxes in proton-permeable channels. In spite of the structural conservation of VSDs in potassium channels, there are several differences in the details of VSD function found across variants of Kvs. These differences are mainly reflected in variations in the electrostatic energy needed to open different potassium channels. In turn, the differences in detailed VSD functioning among voltage-gated potassium channels might have physiological consequences that have not been explored and which might reflect evolutionary adaptations to the different roles played by Kv channels in cell physiology.

  20. Photo-Elicitation and Visual Semiotics: A Unique Methodology for Studying Inclusion for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockall, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The methodology in this paper discusses the use of photographs as an elicitation strategy that can reveal the thinking processes of participants in a qualitatively rich manner. Photo-elicitation techniques combined with a Piercian semiotic perspective offer a unique method for creating a frame of action for later participant analysis. Illustrative…

  1. A perceptual metric for photo retouching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Eric; Farid, Hany

    2011-12-13

    In recent years, advertisers and magazine editors have been widely criticized for taking digital photo retouching to an extreme. Impossibly thin, tall, and wrinkle- and blemish-free models are routinely splashed onto billboards, advertisements, and magazine covers. The ubiquity of these unrealistic and highly idealized images has been linked to eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction in men, women, and children. In response, several countries have considered legislating the labeling of retouched photos. We describe a quantitative and perceptually meaningful metric of photo retouching. Photographs are rated on the degree to which they have been digitally altered by explicitly modeling and estimating geometric and photometric changes. This metric correlates well with perceptual judgments of photo retouching and can be used to objectively judge by how much a retouched photo has strayed from reality.

  2. Mystery photos from CERN's history

    CERN Multimedia

    Jens Vigen

    2014-01-01

    Over the first 50 years of its existence, before digital photography became the norm, CERN accumulated about a quarter of a million hard-copy images in its archive. Now, a project is underway to digitise the entire collection and make it searchable via the CERN Document Server (CDS).   Some 120,000 black and white images from the period 1955-1985 are currently being digitised, with files being uploaded in batches of several hundred per week. They are then automatically sorted into albums based on the existing information. In most cases, at least some descriptions exist, allowing us to identify the pictures. However, many albums are still in need of titles, the names of the people in the photos, descriptions of equipment, etc., and we believe that much of this information could be crowd-sourced from the CERN community. Here are some highlights from the first few thousand uploads, some of which we do have information about: But what about these pictures? Here we have far less information &...

  3. Mystery photos: challenge No. 4!

    CERN Multimedia

    Alex Brown, Jens Vigen

    2014-01-01

    It has been said that the Higgs boson was the last piece of an incomplete puzzle. The Standard Model looks pretty good, but doesn’t tell the whole story. Similarly, the tens of thousands of pieces in the CERN Photo Archive puzzle are gradually falling into place.   As we inspect album matches and gather caption information from people at CERN and around the world, the corners and edges are becoming clear. But we’ve got a big chunk of non-descript sky to plough through now. Sometimes, we can fit some pieces together without knowing what they show. We have grouped certain images into albums based on similarity. These are now in need of titles and descriptions. You can find them here. Meanwhile, here are some of our favourite pictures recently identified and matched to their corresponding albums: But what about the others? Can you help us identify any of the following pictures? Each picture’s CERN Document Server (CDS) page has its own “suggest a captio...

  4. Pulse-voltage fast generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeev, R.I.; Nikiforov, M.G.; Kharchenko, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The design is described and the test results of a four-channel pulse-voltage generator with maximum output voltage 200 kV are presented. The measurement results of generator triggering time depending on the value and polarity of the triggering voltage pulse for different triggering circuits are presented. The tests have shown stable triggering of all four channels of the generator in the range up to 40 % from selfbreakdown voltage. The generator triggering delay in the given range is <25 ns, asynchronism in channel triggering is <±1 ns

  5. Voltage Dependence of Supercapacitor Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szewczyk Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Double-Layer Capacitors (EDLC, called Supercapacitors (SC, are electronic devices that are capable to store a relatively high amount of energy in a small volume comparing to other types of capacitors. They are composed of an activated carbon layer and electrolyte solution. The charge is stored on electrodes, forming the Helmholtz layer, and in electrolyte. The capacitance of supercapacitor is voltage- dependent. We propose an experimental method, based on monitoring of charging and discharging a supercapacitor, which enables to evaluate the charge in an SC structure as well as the Capacitance-Voltage (C-V dependence. The measurement setup, method and experimental results of charging/discharging commercially available supercapacitors in various voltage and current conditions are presented. The total charge stored in an SC structure is proportional to the square of voltage at SC electrodes while the charge on electrodes increases linearly with the voltage on SC electrodes. The Helmholtz capacitance increases linearly with the voltage bias while a sublinear increase of total capacitance was found. The voltage on SC increases after the discharge of electrodes due to diffusion of charges from the electrolyte to the electrodes. We have found that the recovery voltage value is linearly proportional to the initial bias voltage value.

  6. Photocatalysis for Renewable Energy Production Using PhotoFuelCells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Michal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a short review of our recent studies on PhotoFuelCells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume a fuel to produce electricity or hydrogen, and presents some unpublished data concerning both electricity and hydrogen production. PhotoFuelCells have been constructed using nanoparticulate titania photoanodes and various cathode electrodes bearing a few different types of electrocatalyst. In the case where the cell functioned with an aerated cathode, the cathode electrode was made of carbon cloth carrying a carbon paste made of carbon black and dispersed Pt nanoparticles. When the cell was operated in the absence of oxygen, the electrocatalyst was deposited on an FTO slide using a special commercial carbon paste, which was again enriched with Pt nanoparticles. Mixing of Pt with carbon paste decreased the quantity of Pt necessary to act as electrocatalyst. PhotoFuelCells can produce electricity without bias and with relatively high open-circuit voltage when they function in the presence of fuel and with an aerated cathode. In that case, titania can be sensitized in the visible region by CdS quantum dots. In the present work, CdS was deposited by the SILAR method. Other metal chalcogenides are not functional as sensitizers because the combined photoanode in their presence does not have enough oxidative power to oxidize the fuel. Concerning hydrogen production, it was found that it is difficult to produce hydrogen in an alkaline environment even under bias, however, this is still possible if losses are minimized. One way to limit losses is to short-circuit anode and cathode electrode and put them close together. This is achieved in the “photoelectrocatalytic leaf”, which was presently demonstrated capable of producing hydrogen even in a strongly alkaline environment.

  7. Low pull-in voltage electrostatic MEMS switch using liquid dielectric

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Kosel, Jü rgen; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present an electrostatic MEMS switch with liquids as dielectric to reduce the actuation voltage. The concept is verified by simulating a lateral dual gate switch, where the required pull-in voltage is reduced by more than 8 times

  8. Temporary over voltages in the high voltage networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelja, Petar; Naumov, Radomir; Mrvic, Jovan; Minovski, Risto

    2001-01-01

    The paper treats the temporary over voltages that may arise in the high voltage networks as a result of: ground faults, loss of load, loss of one or two phases and switching operation. Based on the analysis, the measures for their limitation are proposed. (Original)

  9. Coupling between the voltage-sensing and pore domains in a voltage-gated potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schow, Eric V; Freites, J Alfredo; Nizkorodov, Alex; White, Stephen H; Tobias, Douglas J

    2012-07-01

    Voltage-dependent potassium (Kv), sodium (Nav), and calcium channels open and close in response to changes in transmembrane (TM) potential, thus regulating cell excitability by controlling ion flow across the membrane. An outstanding question concerning voltage gating is how voltage-induced conformational changes of the channel voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) are coupled through the S4-S5 interfacial linking helices to the opening and closing of the pore domain (PD). To investigate the coupling between the VSDs and the PD, we generated a closed Kv channel configuration from Aeropyrum pernix (KvAP) using atomistic simulations with experiment-based restraints on the VSDs. Full closure of the channel required, in addition to the experimentally determined TM displacement, that the VSDs be displaced both inwardly and laterally around the PD. This twisting motion generates a tight hydrophobic interface between the S4-S5 linkers and the C-terminal ends of the pore domain S6 helices in agreement with available experimental evidence.

  10. Spike voltage topography in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Asadollahi, Marjan; Shimamoto, Shoichi; Lorenzo, Matthew; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-07-15

    We investigated the voltage topography of interictal spikes in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to see whether topography was related to etiology for TLE. Adults with TLE, who had epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant seizures from 2011 until 2014 at Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center were selected. Two groups of patients were studied: patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on MRI and those with other MRI findings. The voltage topography maps of the interictal spikes at the peak were created using BESA software. We classified the interictal spikes as polar, basal, lateral, or others. Thirty-four patients were studied, from which the characteristics of 340 spikes were investigated. The most common type of spike orientation was others (186 spikes; 54.7%), followed by lateral (146; 42.9%), polar (5; 1.5%), and basal (3; 0.9%). Characteristics of the voltage topography maps of the spikes between the two groups of patients were somewhat different. Five spikes in patients with MTS had polar orientation, but none of the spikes in patients with other MRI findings had polar orientation (odds ratio=6.98, 95% confidence interval=0.38 to 127.38; p=0.07). Scalp topographic mapping of interictal spikes has the potential to offer different information than visual inspection alone. The present results do not allow an immediate clinical application of our findings; however, detecting a polar spike in a patient with TLE may increase the possibility of mesial temporal sclerosis as the underlying etiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lateral collateral ligament (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

  12. Golden Jubilee Photos. Challenging Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Theory might provide the scaffolding of physics, but it takes experiments to put up the brickwork. The Large Electron-Positron Collider project (LEP), which included four experiments (ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL), was designed to test the Standard Model of particle physics. This is the muon spectrometer in the L3 detector with the magnet doors opened, 1993. L3's magnet will be a component in the ALICE experiment working with the LHC. With more than 17 million Z boson decays observed in the first five years, and 40 thousand W boson pairs collected later, LEP allowed physicists to test the Standard Model to an unprecedented level of precision. LEP also measured the number of families of matter particles (three), and predicted the mass of the Top quark, which was later discovered in the US. Occasionally, the LEP data showed small anomalies, but most of them disappeared after closer scrutiny: mainly, it revealed the coherent pattern of particle physics that the Standard Model had predicted. Perhaps the most tan...

  13. Computer controlled high voltage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunov, B; Georgiev, G; Dimitrov, L [and others

    1996-12-31

    A multichannel computer controlled high-voltage power supply system is developed. The basic technical parameters of the system are: output voltage -100-3000 V, output current - 0-3 mA, maximum number of channels in one crate - 78. 3 refs.

  14. A Voltage Quality Detection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Mu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate various...

  15. Deuteron photo-disintegration at large energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterveld, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Current proposals at CEBAF include the measurement of cross sections and polarization observables of exclusive photo-reactions such as deuteron photo-disintegration and pion photo-production from nucleons. At issue is the applicability of traditional meson-exchange models versus quark models of these reactions at photon energies of several GeV. Beam energies above 4 GeV at CEBAF could make possible the measurement of these reactions over a kinematic range sufficiently broad to distinguish between the models. Estimates of counting rates for a Hall-C experiment to measure the γd → pn cross section are presented

  16. Photo-polymer for recording holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideo Tanigawa; Taichi Ichihashi; Takashi Matsuo

    1999-01-01

    The photo-polymerizable materials for recording holograms were composed of higher-index polymers, lower-index monomers, and photo-initiators. The materials have sensitivity from UV green light (514.5 nm ). The diffraction efficiencies of the transmission holograms recorded by two beams from a laser were more than 80%. These holograms have good physical and chemical stability. The mechanisms of the formation of holograms was discussed. In this paper, experimental results for transmission holograms are reported and the mechanisms of refractive index modulation in photo-polymerization of the materials are discussed

  17. Voltage Controlled Dynamic Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Future power system is expected to be characterized by increased penetration of intermittent sources. Random and rapid fluctuations in demands together with intermittency in generation impose new challenges for power balancing in the existing system. Conventional techniques of balancing by large...... central or dispersed generations might not be sufficient for future scenario. One of the effective methods to cope with this scenario is to enable demand response. This paper proposes a dynamic voltage regulation based demand response technique to be applied in low voltage (LV) distribution feeders....... An adaptive dynamic model has been developed to determine composite voltage dependency of an aggregated load on feeder level. Following the demand dispatch or control signal, optimum voltage setting at the LV substation is determined based on the voltage dependency of the load. Furthermore, a new technique...

  18. Transient voltage oscillations in coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet coils may be excited into internal voltage oscillations by transient voltages. Such oscillations may electrically stress the magnet's dielectric components to many times its normal stress. This may precipitate a dielectric failure, and the attendant prolonged loss of service and costly repair work. Therefore, it is important to know the natural frequencies of oscillations of a magnet during the design stage, and to determine whether the expected switching transient voltages can excite the magnet into high-voltage internal oscillations. The series capacitance of a winding significantly affects its natural frequencies. However, the series capacitance is difficult to calculate, because it may comprise complex capacitance network, consisting of intra- and inter-coil turn-to-turn capacitances of the coil sections. A method of calculating the series capacitance of a winding is proposed. This method is rigorous but simple to execute. The time-varying transient voltages along the winding are also calculated

  19. Development of analog solid-state photo-detectors for Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina, E-mail: giuseppina.bisogni@pi.infn.it; Morrocchi, Matteo

    2016-02-11

    Solid-state photo-detectors are one of the main innovations of past century in the field of sensors. First produced in the early forties with the invention of the p–n junction in silicon and the study of its optical properties, photo-detectors received a major boost in the sixties when the p-i-n (PIN) photodiode was developed and successfully used in several applications. The development of devices with internal gain, avalanche photodiodes (APD) first and then Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes, named single photon avalanche diode (SPAD), leads to a substantial improvement in sensitivity and allowed single photon detection. Later on, thousands of SPADs have been assembled in arrays of few millimeters squared (named SiPM, silicon photo-multiplier) with single photon resolution. The high internal gain of SiPMs, together with other features peculiar of the silicon technology like compactness, speed and compatibility with magnetic fields, promoted SiPMs as the principal photo-detector competitor of photomultipliers in many applications from radiation detection to medical imaging. This paper provides a review of the properties of analog solid-state photo-detectors. Particular emphasis is given to latest advances on Positron Emission Tomography instrumentation boosted by the adoption of the silicon photo-detectors as an alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Special attention is dedicated to the SiPMs, which are playing a key role in the development of innovative scanners.

  20. Development of analog solid-state photo-detectors for Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina; Morrocchi, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state photo-detectors are one of the main innovations of past century in the field of sensors. First produced in the early forties with the invention of the p–n junction in silicon and the study of its optical properties, photo-detectors received a major boost in the sixties when the p-i-n (PIN) photodiode was developed and successfully used in several applications. The development of devices with internal gain, avalanche photodiodes (APD) first and then Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes, named single photon avalanche diode (SPAD), leads to a substantial improvement in sensitivity and allowed single photon detection. Later on, thousands of SPADs have been assembled in arrays of few millimeters squared (named SiPM, silicon photo-multiplier) with single photon resolution. The high internal gain of SiPMs, together with other features peculiar of the silicon technology like compactness, speed and compatibility with magnetic fields, promoted SiPMs as the principal photo-detector competitor of photomultipliers in many applications from radiation detection to medical imaging. This paper provides a review of the properties of analog solid-state photo-detectors. Particular emphasis is given to latest advances on Positron Emission Tomography instrumentation boosted by the adoption of the silicon photo-detectors as an alternative to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Special attention is dedicated to the SiPMs, which are playing a key role in the development of innovative scanners.

  1. 1954 Lea County DHO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  2. 1944 AAF 661 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  3. Biscayne Bay Dolphin Photo ID System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — It has been shown through a variety of photo-identification studies that populations of bottlenose dolphin inhabit the various embayments along the coast of Florida....

  4. 1943 AAF 332 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  5. 1941 Otero County CTF Aerial Photo Idnex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  6. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Photo Identification Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This photo collection contains identification and other images and video of Hawaiian monk seals taken by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists as part of the...

  7. 1947 Sandoval County DFD Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  8. Participatory Surveillance and Photo Sharing Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Damkjaer, Maja Sonne; Bøge, Ask Risom

    2019-01-01

    -material perspective on photo-sharing practices. Information, Communication & Society, 19(4), 475–488. Sontag, S. (1977). On Photography. Picador. Steeves, V., & Jones, O. (2010). Editorial: Surveillance, Children and Childhood. Surveillance & Society, 7(3/4), 187–191....... that parents do not generally plan to store or organize their photos, and even less their children’s photos. This seems to indicate a shift from a pre-digital perception of photos as objects to be packaged, accumulated, framed etc. which can age and disappear (see Sontag, 1977) to something perceived less....... References: Albrechtslund, A. (2008). Online Social Networking as Participatory Surveillance. First Monday, 13(3). Fotel, T., & Thomsen, T. U. (2002). The Surveillance of Children’s Mobility. Surveillance & Society, 1(4), 535-554. Lobinger, K. (2016). Photographs as things–photographs of things. A texto...

  9. A way to the Photo Master Expert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Toshihiko

    After the author presided over the photographer's group for 15 years or more, the author met with the Photo Master certificate examination. And the author took the certificate examination, and was authorized as a Photo Master Expert in 2005. In this report, the outline how photographic technology has been mastered in order to adapt the photographer's group to the great change of photography from film to digital and how the contents of the activity of a photographer's group have changed is described. And the progress which took the Photo Master certificate examination as a good opportunity to prove the achievement level of those activities is described. And as a photographic activity after Photo Master Expert authorization, the shooting method of mural painting in the royal tomb of Amenophis III is described.

  10. 1946 Eddy County DEO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  11. 1936 Curry County AG Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  12. 1944 AAF 649 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  13. Photos of Slapped-Cheek Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parvovirus B19 and Fifth Disease Note: Javascript is disabled or ... this page: About CDC.gov . Parvovirus Home About Parvovirus B19 Fifth Disease Pregnancy and Fifth Disease Photos of ...

  14. 1944 AAF 547 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  15. An introduction to photo-injector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travier, C.

    1993-07-01

    A quick overview is given of the RF gun basic theory for photo-injectors and of the presently achievable technical parameters thus providing some guidelines to help the designer in his choices. Simple scaling laws and formulas for both beam dynamics and technical parameters are proposed and compared to corresponding values for existing photo-injectors. Various sophisticated schemes used to improve the performances beyond those given by a straightforward approach are reviewed. (author) 65 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  16. All new custom path photo book creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wiley; Muzzolini, Russ

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present an all new custom path to allow consumers to have full control to their photos and the format of their books, while providing them with guidance to make their creation fast and easy. The users can choose to fully automate the initial creation, and then customize every page. The system manage many design themes along with numerous design elements, such as layouts, backgrounds, embellishments and pattern bands. The users can also utilize photos from multiple sources including their computers, Shutterfly accounts, Shutterfly Share sites and Facebook. The users can also use a photo as background, add, move and resize photos and text - putting what they want where they want instead of being confined to templates. The new path allows users to add embellishments anywhere in the book, and the high-performance platform can support up to 1,000 photos per book and up to 25 pictures per page. The path offers either Smart Autofill or Storyboard features allowing customers to populate their books with photos so they can add captions and customize the pages.

  17. Photo-Induced Micellization of Block Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kuwayama

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We found novel photo-induced micellizations through photolysis, photoelectron transfer, and photo-Claisen rearrangement. The photolysis-induced micellization was attained using poly(4-tert-butoxystyrene-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer (PBSt-b-PSt. BSt-b-PSt showed no self-assembly in dichloromethane and existed as isolated copolymers. Dynamic light scattering demonstrated that the copolymer produced spherical micelles in this solvent due to irradiation with a high-pressure mercury lamp in the presence of photo-acid generators, such as bis(alkylphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate, diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate, and triphenylsulfonium triflate. The 1H NMR analysis confirmed that PBSt-b-PSt was converted into poly(4-vinylphenol-block-PSt by the irradiation, resulting in self-assembly into micelles. The irradiation in the presence of the photo-acid generator also induced the micellization of poly(4-pyridinemethoxymethylstyrene-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer (PPySt-b-PSt. Micellization occurred by electron transfer from the pyridine to the photo-acid generator in their excited states and provided monodispersed spherical micelles with cores of PPySt blocks. Further, the photo-Claisen rearrangement caused the micellization of poly(4-allyloxystyrene-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer (PASt-b-PSt. Micellization was promoted in cyclohexane at room temperature without a catalyst. During micellization, the elimination of the allyl groups competitively occurred along with the photorearrangement of the 4-allyloxystyrene units into the 3-allyl-4-hydroxystyrene units.

  18. LOFT voltage insertion calibaration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillitt, D.N.; Miyasaki, F.S.

    1975-08-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility is an experimental facility built around a ''scaled'' version of a large pressurized water reactor (LPWR). Part of this facility is the Data Acquisition and Visual Display System (DAVDS) as defined by the LOFT System Design Document SDD 1.4.2C. The DAVDS has a 702 data channel recording capability of which 548 are recorded digitally. The DAVDS also contains a Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem used to inject precise and known voltage steps into the recording systems. The computer program that controls the Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem is presented. 7 references. (auth)

  19. Power-MOSFET Voltage Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-six parallel MOSFET devices with two-stage feedback circuit form a high-current dc voltage regulator that also acts as fully-on solid-state switch when fuel-cell out-put falls below regulated voltage. Ripple voltage is less than 20 mV, transient recovery time is less than 50 ms. Parallel MOSFET's act as high-current dc regulator and switch. Regulator can be used wherever large direct currents must be controlled. Can be applied to inverters, industrial furnaces photovoltaic solar generators, dc motors, and electric autos.

  20. Automatic digital photo-book making system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wiley; Teo, Patrick; Muzzolini, Russ

    2010-02-01

    The diversity of photo products has grown more than ever before. A group of photos are not only printed individually, but also can be arranged in specific order to tell a story, such as in a photo book, a calendar or a poster collage. Similar to making a traditional scrapbook, digital photo book tools allow the user to choose a book style/theme, layouts of pages, backgrounds and the way the pictures are arranged. This process is often time consuming to users, given the number of images and the choices of layout/background combinations. In this paper, we developed a system to automatically generate photo books with only a few initial selections required. The system utilizes time stamps, color indices, orientations and other image properties to best fit pictures into a final photo book. The common way of telling a story is to lay the pictures out in chronological order. If the pictures are proximate in time, they will coincide with each other and are often logically related. The pictures are naturally clustered along a time line. Breaks between clusters can be used as a guide to separate pages or spreads, thus, pictures that are logically related can stay close on the same page or spread. When people are making a photo book, it is helpful to start with chronologically grouped images, but time alone wont be enough to complete the process. Each page is limited by the number of layouts available. Many aesthetic rules also apply, such as, emphasis of preferred pictures, consistency of local image density throughout the whole book, matching a background to the content of the images, and the variety of adjacent page layouts. We developed an algorithm to group images onto pages under the constraints of aesthetic rules. We also apply content analysis based on the color and blurriness of each picture, to match backgrounds and to adjust page layouts. Some of our aesthetic rules are fixed and given by designers. Other aesthetic rules are statistic models trained by using

  1. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-18

    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  2. Reliability criteria for voltage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Carson W; Silverstein, Brian L [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In face of costs pressures, there is need to allocate scare resources more effectively in order to achieve voltage stability. This naturally leads to development of probabilistic criteria and notions of rick management. In this paper it is presented a discussion about criteria for long term voltage stability limited to the case in which the time frames are topically several minutes. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig.

  3. High voltage distributions in RPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Muranishi, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, E.; Takahashi, T.; Teramoto, Y.

    1996-01-01

    High voltage distributions on the inner surfaces of RPCs electrodes were calculated by using a two-dimensional resistor network model. The calculated result shows that the surface resistivity of the electrodes should be high, compared to their volume resistivity, to get a uniform high voltage over the surface. Our model predicts that the rate capabilities of RPCs should be inversely proportional to the thickness of the electrodes if the ratio of surface-to-volume resistivity is low. (orig.)

  4. Fully solution processed Al-TiO2-Si (MIS) structured photo-detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sandip; Kumar, Arvind

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a high performance photo detector by fully solution processed technique. The detector is fabricated with photo sensitive, low temperature (200˚C) and sol-gel processed titanium dioxide (TiO2) dielectric material on silicon substrate in the form of MIS structure with top aluminum gate. The optical detection experiment is performed on Al—TiO2—Si (MIS) device by measuring the capacitance—voltage (CV at 100 kHz) curve within the visible region of light (365 — 700 nm). The presence of light shift the flat band voltage (VFB) from 290 mV to 360 mV due to the generation of photo activated charge carriers by UV (365 nm) and white light, respectively. Moreover, the generation of the charge carrier increases drastically by the combination of UV and white, which resulting as a very large shift (600 mV) in the VFB. The entire experiment was performed in normal lab conditions with open air environment, without any clean room facility.

  5. Macroeconomic Assessment of Voltage Sags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Küfeoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The electric power sector has changed dramatically since the 1980s. Electricity customers are now demanding uninterrupted and high quality service from both utilities and authorities. By becoming more and more dependent on the voltage sensitive electronic equipment, the industry sector is the one which is affected the most by voltage disturbances. Voltage sags are one of the most crucial problems for these customers. The utilities, on the other hand, conduct cost-benefit analyses before going through new investment projects. At this point, understanding the costs of voltage sags become imperative for planning purposes. The characteristics of electric power consumption and hence the susceptibility against voltage sags differ considerably among different industry subsectors. Therefore, a model that will address the estimation of worth of electric power reliability for a large number of customer groups is necessary. This paper introduces a macroeconomic model to calculate Customer Voltage Sag Costs (CVSCs for the industry sector customers. The proposed model makes use of analytical data such as value added, annual energy consumption, working hours, and average outage durations and provides a straightforward, credible, and easy to follow methodology for the estimation of CVSCs.

  6. A matter of quantum voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M., E-mail: Shawn.Kathmann@pnnl.gov [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. The variation of voltages in matter can be measured by experiment, however, modern supercomputers allow the calculation of accurate quantum voltages with spatial resolutions of bulk systems well beyond what can currently be measured provided a sufficient level of theory is employed. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (V{sub o}) – the spatial average of these quantum voltages referenced to the vacuum. Here we establish a protocol to reliably evaluate V{sub o} from quantum calculations. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of V{sub o} for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Certain aspects in this regard are highlighted making use of simple model systems/approximations. Furthermore, we predict V{sub o} as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms.

  7. Detection of Tampering Inconsistencies on Mobile Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hong; Kot, Alex C.

    Fast proliferation of mobile cameras and the deteriorating trust on digital images have created needs in determining the integrity of photos captured by mobile devices. As tampering often creates some inconsistencies, we propose in this paper a novel framework to statistically detect the image tampering inconsistency using accurately detected demosaicing weights features. By first cropping four non-overlapping blocks, each from one of the four quadrants in the mobile photo, we extract a set of demosaicing weights features from each block based on a partial derivative correlation model. Through regularizing the eigenspectrum of the within-photo covariance matrix and performing eigenfeature transformation, we further derive a compact set of eigen demosaicing weights features, which are sensitive to image signal mixing from different photo sources. A metric is then proposed to quantify the inconsistency based on the eigen weights features among the blocks cropped from different regions of the mobile photo. Through comparison, we show our eigen weights features perform better than the eigen features extracted from several other conventional sets of statistical forensics features in detecting the presence of tampering. Experimentally, our method shows a good confidence in tampering detection especially when one of the four cropped blocks is from a different camera model or brand with different demosaicing process.

  8. Sequential solar photo-fenton-biological system for the treatment of winery wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosteo, R; Sarasa, J; Ormad, Maria P; Ovelleiro, J L

    2008-08-27

    In this study, winery wastewaters are considered for degradation using heterogeneous photo-Fenton as a preliminary step before biotreatment. The heterogeneous photo-Fenton process assisted by solar light is able to partially degrade the organic matter present in winery wastewaters. When an initial hydrogen peroxide concentration of 0.1 M is used over 24 h of treatment, a degradation yield of organic matter (measured as TOC) of around 50% is reached. The later treatment (activated sludge process) allows the elimination of 90% of the initial TOC present in pretreated winery wastewaters without producing nondesired side-effects, such as the bulking phenomenon, which is usually detected when this treatment is used alone. The final effluent contains a concentration of organic matter (measured as COD) of 128 mg O2/L. The coupled system comprising the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process and biological treatment based on activated sludge in simple stage is a real alternative for the treatment of winery wastewater.

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a tri-layer ZnO photo-electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui; Bai, Jiafan; Feng, Bo; Lu, Xiong; Weng, Jie; Jiang, Chongxi; Wang, Jianxin, E-mail: j.wang63@gmail.com

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram for the energy-level, the paths of charge transfer, the model of light scattering in the top layer and the assembly of the DSSC. Highlights: •We successfully fabricated ZnO photo-anodes with a tri-layer ZnO structure. •The ZnO seed layer decreased the transfer resistance at the ZnO/FTO interface. •The ZnO light scattering layer could increase the number of photoelectrons. •J{sub sc} and V{sub oc} were greatly enhanced via the use of the tri-layer ZnO structure. •The efficiency of the DSSCs for a tri-layer ZnO structure was the highest. -- Abstract: In this paper, a tri-layer ZnO structure was designed to fabricate the photo-anodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The results showed that an overall energy-conversion efficiency of 1.18% was achieved for DSSC with the tri-layer photo-anode, which was 14% higher than that obtained from a bilayer ZnO photo-anode (with an efficiency of 1.04%) and 76% higher than that fabricated with a single layer photo-anode (with an efficiency of 0.67%). The photo-current density and the open circuit voltage have greatly increased via the use of the tri-layer ZnO structure. Thus, the tri-layer ZnO structure might provide a new route for the improvement of the overall energy-conversion efficiency for the DSSC of ZnO.

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a tri-layer ZnO photo-electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hui; Bai, Jiafan; Feng, Bo; Lu, Xiong; Weng, Jie; Jiang, Chongxi; Wang, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram for the energy-level, the paths of charge transfer, the model of light scattering in the top layer and the assembly of the DSSC. Highlights: •We successfully fabricated ZnO photo-anodes with a tri-layer ZnO structure. •The ZnO seed layer decreased the transfer resistance at the ZnO/FTO interface. •The ZnO light scattering layer could increase the number of photoelectrons. •J sc and V oc were greatly enhanced via the use of the tri-layer ZnO structure. •The efficiency of the DSSCs for a tri-layer ZnO structure was the highest. -- Abstract: In this paper, a tri-layer ZnO structure was designed to fabricate the photo-anodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The results showed that an overall energy-conversion efficiency of 1.18% was achieved for DSSC with the tri-layer photo-anode, which was 14% higher than that obtained from a bilayer ZnO photo-anode (with an efficiency of 1.04%) and 76% higher than that fabricated with a single layer photo-anode (with an efficiency of 0.67%). The photo-current density and the open circuit voltage have greatly increased via the use of the tri-layer ZnO structure. Thus, the tri-layer ZnO structure might provide a new route for the improvement of the overall energy-conversion efficiency for the DSSC of ZnO

  11. Semantic photo books: leveraging blogs and social media for photo book creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbath, Mohamad; Sandhaus, Philipp; Boll, Susanne

    2011-03-01

    Recently, we observed a substantial increase in the users' interest in sharing their photos online in travel blogs, social communities and photo sharing websites. An interesting aspect of these web platforms is their high level of user-media interaction and thus a high-quality source of semantic annotations: Users comment on the photos of each others, add external links to their travel blogs, tag each other in the social communities and add captions and descriptions to their photos. However, while those media assets are shared online, many users still highly appreciate the representation of these media in appealing physical photo books where the semantics are represented in form of descriptive text, maps, and external elements in addition to their related photos. Thus, in this paper we aim at fulfilling this need and provide an approach for creating photo books from Web 2.0 resources. We concentrate on two kinds of online shared media as resources for printable photo books: (a) Blogs especially travel blogs (b) Social community websites like Facebook which witness a rapidly growing number of shared media elements including photos. We introduce an approach to select media elements including photos, geographical maps and texts from both blogs and social networks semi-automatically, and then use these elements to create a printable photo book with an appealing layout. Because the selected media elements can be too many for the resulting book, we choose the most proper ones by exploiting content based, social based, and interactive based criteria. Additionally we add external media elements such as geographical maps, texts and externally hosted photos from linked resources. Having selected the important media, our approach uses a genetic algorithm to create an appealing layout using aesthetical rules, such as positioning the photo with the related text or map in a way that respects the golden ratio and symmetry. Distributing the media over the pages is done by

  12. Mitigation of voltage sags in the distribution system with dynamic voltage restorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viglas, D.; Belan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic voltage restorer is a custom power device that is used to improve voltage sags or swells in electrical distribution system. The components of the Dynamic Voltage Restorer consist of injection transformers, voltage source inverter, passive filters and energy storage. The main function of the Dynamic voltage restorer is used to inject three phase voltage in series and in synchronism with the grid voltages in order to compensate voltage disturbances. This article deals with mitigation of voltage sags caused by three-phase short circuit. Dynamic voltage restorer is modelled in MATLAB/Simulink. (Authors)

  13. Looking at the Family Photo Album

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbye, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Having been the most widespread practice of photography since the late 19th century, it is only in the recent few decades that family photography has come into focus of academic attention. Scholars working with family albums have mainly come from anthropology, whereas scholars from the aesthetical......, and affective qualities that reach further than the individual owner and that should be put forward, also within the fields of aesthetics and humanities. Family photo albums are about social and emotional communication, they can be interpreted as ways of understanding and coming to terms with life...... fields, art history, photography studies, and cultural studies have been more hesitant about how to approach such a material. Using three family photo albums from the late 1960s and onwards as examples, the goal of this paper is to underline that family photos contain emotional, psychological...

  14. Problems of photo-radiative action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinchuk, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    The most interesting photo-radiation effects observed in the last few years are discussed, in particular, considerable reduction ip material radiation resistance under the combined effect of ionizing and visible radiation. Intermediate active particles are shown to absorb the light according to the mechanism of ''direct'' absorption and as a result of photo-sensibilization reactions as well. Channels of absorbed light energy dissipation depend on the nature and structure of the intermediate active particles, temperature, light radiation frequency and other parameters. Problems are considered which solution promotes further development of photo-radiation chemistry and that are important for such branches of modern physical chemistry as kinetics and mechanism of elementary processes in organic solids, radiation resistance and ageing of organic polymers

  15. Taking Your iPhoto '11 to the Max

    CERN Document Server

    Grothaus, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Taking Your iPhoto '11 to the Max walks users through Apple's most popular software application in the iLife suite - iPhoto. This book helps readers use iPhoto to its fullest to organize and create digital memories and keepsakes. * Learn all about Apple's newest version of iPhoto - iPhoto '11 * Explore iPhoto, one menu button at a time * Walk-through tutorials guide you step-by-step What you'll learn * How to import existing photo libraries from popular Windows applications * How to organize and edit your photos * How to tag your photos using iPhoto's Faces and Places features * How to create

  16. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fasanella, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter utilizes scintillating lead tungstate crystals, with avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. 1224 HV channels bias groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  17. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fasanella, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter utilizes scintillating lead tungstate crystals, with avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. 1224 HV channels bias groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  18. Animation of Mapped Photo Collections for Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hideyuki; Arikawa, Masatoshi

    Our research goal is to facilitate the sharing of stories with digital photographs. Some map websites now collect stories associated with peoples' relationships to places. Users map collections of places and include their intangible emotional associations with each location along with photographs, videos, etc. Though this framework of mapping stories is important, it is not sufficiently expressive to communicate stories in a narrative fashion. For example, when the number of the mapped collections of places is particularly large, it is neither easy for viewers to interpret the map nor is it easy for the creator to express a story as a series of events in the real world. This is because each narrative, in the form of a sequence of textual narratives, a sequence of photographs, a movie, or audio is mapped to just one point. As a result, it is up to the viewer to decide which points on the map must be read, and in what order. The conventional framework is fairly suitable for mapping and expressing fragments or snapshots of a whole story and not for conveying the whole story as a narrative using the entire map as the setting. We therefore propose a new framework, Spatial Slideshow, for mapping personal photo collections and representing them as stories such as route guidances, sightseeing guidances, historical topics, fieldwork records, personal diaries, and so on. It is a fusion of personal photo mapping and photo storytelling. Each story is conveyed through a sequence of mapped photographs, presented as a synchronized animation of a map and an enhanced photo slideshow. The main technical novelty of this paper is a method for creating three-dimensional animations of photographs that induce the visual effect of motion from photo to photo. We believe that the proposed framework may have considerable significance in facilitating the grassroots development of spatial content driven by visual communication concerning real-world locations or events.

  19. Voltage stress effects on microcircuit accelerated life test failure rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of Arrhenius and Eyring reaction rate models for describing microcircuit aging characteristics as a function of junction temperature and applied voltage was evaluated. The results of a matrix of accelerated life tests with a single metal oxide semiconductor microcircuit operated at six different combinations of temperature and voltage were used to evaluate the models. A total of 450 devices from two different lots were tested at ambient temperatures between 200 C and 250 C and applied voltages between 5 Vdc and 15 Vdc. A statistical analysis of the surface related failure data resulted in bimodal failure distributions comprising two lognormal distributions; a 'freak' distribution observed early in time, and a 'main' distribution observed later in time. The Arrhenius model was shown to provide a good description of device aging as a function of temperature at a fixed voltage. The Eyring model also appeared to provide a reasonable description of main distribution device aging as a function of temperature and voltage. Circuit diagrams are shown.

  20. -MoS2 Lateral Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming-yang

    2018-02-28

    2D layered heterostructures have attracted intensive interests due to their unique optical, transport, and interfacial properties. The laterally stitched heterojunction based on dissimilar 2D transition metal dichalcogenides forms an intrinsic p–n junction without the necessity of applying an external voltage. However, no scalable processes are reported to construct the devices with such lateral heterostructures. Here, a scalable strategy, two-step and location-selective chemical vapor deposition, is reported to synthesize self-aligned WSe2–MoS2 monolayer lateral heterojunction arrays and demonstrates their light-emitting devices. The proposed fabrication process enables the growth of high-quality interfaces and the first successful observation of electroluminescence at the WSe2–MoS2 lateral heterojunction. The electroluminescence study has confirmed the type-I alignment at the interface rather than commonly believed type-II alignment. This self-aligned growth process paves the way for constructing various 2D lateral heterostructures in a scalable manner, practically important for integrated 2D circuit applications.

  1. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  2. The photo-dielectric effect in bio-systems and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anitoff, Oleg Eric

    1983-01-01

    The first part of this thesis describes the photo-dielectric spectrometer, an original measurement set-up designed in order to enable the kinetic study of dielectric (or magnetic) relaxation in laser excited systems. In the second part, this new technique is applied to three systems: 1) thylakoid (the photo-electrochemically active part of the chloroplasts of green plants) and protochlorophyllide-protein complex: synchronous photo-dielectric effect, measure of the mean polarizability of laser excited states and of their degree of photonicity. 2) phases with electron traps: vitrified thylakoid (77K); chloro-aluminium chlorophthalocyanine: delayed photo-dielectric effect (RITDC) with memory effect in the former case. This effect results from the L-Fault stabilization of inverted hydrogenoid states e - L n H + , this hypothesis being further confirmed by the observation of the chemical activity of γ irradiated phosphate glasses (phosphorylative activity). These later systems can also be phonon activated at pH 8, thus opening the way to the quantitative analysis of the electro-vibronic interaction in chromophore-protein complexes. 3) Inverted micelles of Aerosol O.T.: thermodynamical and kinetic analysis of the structure of bounded water aggregates through photo-thermo-dielectric effect. (author) [fr

  3. Low-Energy Real-Time OS Using Voltage Scheduling Algorithm for Variable Voltage Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Okuma, Takanori; Yasuura, Hiroto

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time OS based on $ mu $ITRON using proposed voltage scheduling algorithm for variable voltage processors which can vary supply voltage dynamically. The proposed voltage scheduling algorithms assign voltage level for each task dynamically in order to minimize energy consumption under timing constraints. Using the presented real-time OS, running tasks with low supply voltage leads to drastic energy reduction. In addition, the presented voltage scheduling algorithm is ...

  4. Development of a New Cascade Voltage-Doubler for Voltage Multiplication

    OpenAIRE

    Toudeshki, Arash; Mariun, Norman; Hizam, Hashim; Abdul Wahab, Noor Izzri

    2014-01-01

    For more than eight decades, cascade voltage-doubler circuits are used as a method to produce DC output voltage higher than the input voltage. In this paper, the topological developments of cascade voltage-doublers are reviewed. A new circuit configuration for cascade voltage-doubler is presented. This circuit can produce a higher value of the DC output voltage and better output quality compared to the conventional cascade voltage-doubler circuits, with the same number of stages.

  5. Cavity Voltage Phase Modulation MD

    CERN Document Server

    Mastoridis, Themistoklis; Molendijk, John; Timko, Helga; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The LHC RF/LLRF system is currently configured for extremely stable RF voltage to minimize transient beam loading effects. The present scheme cannot be extended beyond nominal beam current since the demanded power would exceed the peak klystron power and lead to saturation. A new scheme has therefore been proposed: for beam currents above nominal (and possibly earlier), the cavity phase modulation by the beam will not be corrected (transient beam loading), but the strong RF feedback and One-Turn Delay feedback will still be active for loop and beam stability in physics. To achieve this, the voltage set point will be adapted for each bunch. The goal of this MD was to test a new algorithm that would adjust the voltage set point to achieve the cavity phase modulation that would minimize klystron forward power.

  6. Design of shielded voltage divider for impulse voltage measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shohei; Kouno, Teruya; Maruyama, Yoshio; Kikuchi, Koji.

    1976-01-01

    The dividers used for the study of the insulation and electric discharge phenomena in high voltage equipments have the problems of the change of response characteristics owing to adjacent bodies and of induced noise. To improve the characteristics, the enclosed type divider shielded with metal has been investigated, and the divider of excellent response has been obtained by adopting the frequency-separating divider system, which is divided into two parts, resistance divider (lower frequency region) and capacitance divider (higher frequency region), for avoiding to degrade the response. Theoretical analysis was carried out in the cases that residual inductance can be neglected or can not be neglected in the small capacitance divider, and that the connecting wires are added. Next, the structure of the divider and the design of the electric field for the divider manufactured on the basis of the theory are described. The response characteristics were measured. The results show that 1 MV impulse voltage can be measured within the response time of 10 ns. Though this divider aims at the impulse voltage, the duration time of which is about that of standard lightning impulse, in view of the heat capacity because of the input resistance of 10.5 kΩ, it is expected that the divider can be applied to the voltage of longer duration time by increasing the input resistance in future. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Unbalanced Voltage Compensation in Low Voltage Residential AC Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Douglass, Philip; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and test of a control algorithm for active front-end rectifiers that draw power from a residential AC grid to feed heat pump loads. The control algorithm is able to control the phase to neutral or phase to phase RMS voltages at the point of common coupling...

  8. Later zaaien kost opbrengst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, J.

    2000-01-01

    Onderzoek naar de gevolgen van het uitstellen van het zaaitijdstip op de gewasproductie en op opbrengstderving, bijvoorbeeld doordat de grond later bewerkt kan worden door een hogere grondwaterstand als gevolg van peilverhoging

  9. The high voltage homopolar generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. H.; Gully, J. H.; Driga, M. D.

    1986-11-01

    System and component design features of proposed high voltage homopolar generator (HVHPG) are described. The system is to have an open circuit voltage of 500 V, a peak output current of 500 kA, 3.25 MJ of stored inertial energy and possess an average magnetic-flux density of 5 T. Stator assembly components are discussed, including the stator, mount structure, hydrostatic bearings, main and motoring brushgears and rotor. Planned operational procedures such as monitoring the rotor to full speed and operation with a superconducting field coil are delineated.

  10. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  11. An Affect-Responsive Interactive Photo Frame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibeklioğlu, H.; Kosunen, I.; Ortega Hortas, M.; Salah, A.A.; Zuzánek, P.; Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.

    2010-01-01

    We develop an interactive photo-frame system in which a series of videos of a single person are automatically segmented and a response logic is derived to interact with the user in real-time. The system is composed of five modules. The first module analyzes the uploaded videos and prepares segments

  12. Treatability Study Pilot Test Operation Field Photos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Photos in each group are in chronological order as captured: Group I Tank Platform Setup, November 14, 2017; Group II Tank Setup, November 15, 2017; Group III Aboveground Injestion System (AIS) Setup, November 20, 2017; Group IV Chemical Mixing, November 21, 2017; Group V KB-1 Bacteria Injection, November 27, 2017; Group VI Miscellaneous.

  13. Photo-Interviewing to Explore Everyday Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukhave, Elise Bromann; Huniche, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article sheds light on the potential and the limitations of photo-interviewing for the study of human occupation and in so doing, reflects the rapid growth in the use of participatory visual methods in a number of other disciplines. Using a study that explored first person perspecti...

  14. Photos of Measles and People with Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Resources Related Links Measles and Rubella Initiative World Health Organization Pan American Health Organization Photos of Measles and ... Library (PHIL) Related Links Measles and Rubella Initiative World Health Organization Pan American Health Organization Language: English (US) Español ( ...

  15. Microalgal distribution, diversity and photo-physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microalgal distribution, diversity and photo-physiological performance across five ... D'Esny (MAPD), the sandy beach of Blue Bay (SBBB) and the estuarine area of Le ... Microalgal density in the water column (micro-phytoplankton) was highest in ... Diatom was the most abundant microalgal group, followed by dinoflagellate ...

  16. Elongational viscosity of photo-oxidated LDPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.; Wagner, Manfred H.

    2014-05-01

    Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, timedeformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.

  17. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  18. Resilient architecture design for voltage variation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddi, Vijay Janapa

    2013-01-01

    Shrinking feature size and diminishing supply voltage are making circuits sensitive to supply voltage fluctuations within the microprocessor, caused by normal workload activity changes. If left unattended, voltage fluctuations can lead to timing violations or even transistor lifetime issues that degrade processor robustness. Mechanisms that learn to tolerate, avoid, and eliminate voltage fluctuations based on program and microarchitectural events can help steer the processor clear of danger, thus enabling tighter voltage margins that improve performance or lower power consumption. We describe

  19. Visit to the Russian Production and Assembly Sites in March 2000 (photos obtained from MPI)

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Photo1 - EST electrode production at LPI. Photo2 - EST electrode production at LPI. Photo3 - EST electrode production at LPI. Photo4 - Cold test of EST electrodes at LPI. Photo5 - Cold test of EST electrodes at LPI. Photo6 - The device for cleaning honeycomb mats at JINR. Photo7 - Module assembly at IHEP. Photo8 - Module assembly at IHEP. Photo9 - Module assembly at IHEP. Photo10 - Transport cases for "Molniya" modules (former bomb cases)

  20. Nanosecond field emitted and photo-field emitted current pulses from ZrC tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, R.; Bakker, R.J.; Gough, C.; Paraliev, M.; Pedrozzi, M.; Le Pimpec, F.; Rivkin, L.; Wrulich, A.

    2006-01-01

    In order to find electron sources with low thermal emittance, cathodes based on single tip field emitter are investigated. Maximum peak current, measured from single tip in ZrC with a typical apex radius around 1 μm, are presented. Voltage pulses of 2 ns duration and up to 50 kV amplitude lead to field emission current up to 470 mA from one ZrC tip. Combination of high applied electric field with laser illumination gives the possibility to modulate the emission with laser pulses. Nanoseconds current pulses have been emitted with laser pulses at 1064 nm illuminating a ZrC tip under high-DC electric field. The dependence of photo-field emitted current with the applied voltage can be explained by the Schottky effect

  1. Nanosecond field emitted and photo-field emitted current pulses from ZrC tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganter, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: romain.ganter@psi.ch; Bakker, R.J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Gough, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Paraliev, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Pedrozzi, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Le Pimpec, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Rivkin, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Wrulich, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland)

    2006-09-15

    In order to find electron sources with low thermal emittance, cathodes based on single tip field emitter are investigated. Maximum peak current, measured from single tip in ZrC with a typical apex radius around 1 {mu}m, are presented. Voltage pulses of 2 ns duration and up to 50 kV amplitude lead to field emission current up to 470 mA from one ZrC tip. Combination of high applied electric field with laser illumination gives the possibility to modulate the emission with laser pulses. Nanoseconds current pulses have been emitted with laser pulses at 1064 nm illuminating a ZrC tip under high-DC electric field. The dependence of photo-field emitted current with the applied voltage can be explained by the Schottky effect.

  2. Voltage Weak DC Distribution Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailu, T.G.; Mackay, L.J.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of voltage weak DC distribution systems. These systems have relatively small system capacitance. The size of system capacitance, which stores energy, has a considerable effect on the value of fault currents, control complexity, and system reliability. A number of

  3. Nonlinear electrokinetics at large voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazant, Martin Z [Department of Chemical Engineering and Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sabri Kilic, Mustafa; Ajdari, Armand [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Storey, Brian D [Franklin W Olin College of Engineering, Needham, MA 02492 (United States)], E-mail: bazant@mit.edu

    2009-07-15

    The classical theory of electrokinetic phenomena assumes a dilute solution of point-like ions in chemical equilibrium with a surface whose double-layer voltage is of order the thermal voltage, k{sub B}T/e=25 mV. In nonlinear 'induced-charge' electrokinetic phenomena, such as ac electro-osmosis, several volts {approx}100k{sub B}T/e are applied to the double layer, and the theory breaks down and cannot explain many observed features. We argue that, under such a large voltage, counterions 'condense' near the surface, even for dilute bulk solutions. Based on simple models, we predict that the double-layer capacitance decreases and the electro-osmotic mobility saturates at large voltages, due to steric repulsion and increased viscosity of the condensed layer, respectively. The former suffices to explain observed high-frequency flow reversal in ac electro-osmosis; the latter leads to a salt concentration dependence of induced-charge flows comparable to experiments, although a complete theory is still lacking.

  4. High voltage power network construction

    CERN Document Server

    Harker, Keith

    2018-01-01

    This book examines the key requirements, considerations, complexities and constraints relevant to the task of high voltage power network construction, from design, finance, contracts and project management to installation and commissioning, with the aim of providing an overview of the holistic end to end construction task in a single volume.

  5. Voltage control of ferromagnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyao Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Voltage control of magnetism in multiferroics, where the ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity are simultaneously exhibiting, is of great importance to achieve compact, fast and energy efficient voltage controllable magnetic/microwave devices. Particularly, these devices are widely used in radar, aircraft, cell phones and satellites, where volume, response time and energy consumption is critical. Researchers realized electric field tuning of magnetic properties like magnetization, magnetic anisotropy and permeability in varied multiferroic heterostructures such as bulk, thin films and nanostructure by different magnetoelectric (ME coupling mechanism: strain/stress, interfacial charge, spin–electromagnetic (EM coupling and exchange coupling, etc. In this review, we focus on voltage control of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR in multiferroics. ME coupling-induced FMR change is critical in microwave devices, where the electric field tuning of magnetic effective anisotropic field determines the tunability of the performance of microwave devices. Experimentally, FMR measurement technique is also an important method to determine the small effective magnetic field change in small amount of magnetic material precisely due to its high sensitivity and to reveal the deep science of multiferroics, especially, voltage control of magnetism in novel mechanisms like interfacial charge, spin–EM coupling and exchange coupling.

  6. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  7. Photo oxidative degradation of azure-B by sono-photo-Fenton and photo-Fenton reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prahlad Vaishnave

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A model for the decomposition of azure-B by photo-Fenton reagent in the presence of ultrasound in homogeneous aqueous solution has been described. The photochemical decomposition rate of azure-B is markedly increased in the presence of ultrasound. It is a rather inexpensive reagent for wastewater treatment. The effect of different variables like the concentration of ferric ion, concentration of dye, hydrogen peroxide, pH, light intensity etc. on the reaction rate has been observed. The progress of the sono-photochemical degradation was monitored spectrophotometrically. The optimum sono-photochemical degradation conditions were experimentally determined. The results showed that the dye was completely oxidized and degraded into CO2 and H2O. A suitable tentative mechanism for sono-photochemical bleaching of azure-B by sono-photo-Fenton’s reaction has been proposed.

  8. Voltage linear transformation circuit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Lucas R. W.; Jin, Moon-Seob; Scott, R. Phillip; Luder, Ryan J.; Hart, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Many engineering projects require automated control of analog voltages over a specified range. We have developed a computer interface comprising custom hardware and MATLAB code to provide real-time control of a Thorlabs adaptive optics (AO) kit. The hardware interface includes an op amp cascade to linearly shift and scale a voltage range. With easy modifications, any linear transformation can be accommodated. In AO applications, the design is suitable to drive a range of different types of deformable and fast steering mirrors (FSM's). Our original motivation and application was to control an Optics in Motion (OIM) FSM which requires the customer to devise a unique interface to supply voltages to the mirror controller to set the mirror's angular deflection. The FSM is in an optical servo loop with a wave front sensor (WFS), which controls the dynamic behavior of the mirror's deflection. The code acquires wavefront data from the WFS and fits a plane, which is subsequently converted into its corresponding angular deflection. The FSM provides +/-3° optical angular deflection for a +/-10 V voltage swing. Voltages are applied to the mirror via a National Instruments digital-to-analog converter (DAC) followed by an op amp cascade circuit. This system has been integrated into our Thorlabs AO testbed which currently runs at 11 Hz, but with planned software upgrades, the system update rate is expected to improve to 500 Hz. To show that the FSM subsystem is ready for this speed, we conducted two different PID tuning runs at different step commands. Once 500 Hz is achieved, we plan to make the code and method for our interface solution freely available to the community.

  9. Photo-electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation of molecular radicals and fragments produced by laser photo-dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahon, Laurent

    1991-01-01

    This research thesis reports the combined use of a laser and of a synchrotron radiation in order to respectively photo-dissociate a molecule and to photo-ionize fragments which are analysed by photo-electron spectroscopy. This association allows, on the one hand, radical photo-ionization to be studied, and, on the other hand, polyatomic molecule photo-dissociation to be studied. The author studied the photo-excitation and/or photo-ionization in layer 4d (resp. 3d) of atomic iodine (resp. bromine) produced almost complete laser photo-dissociation of I_2 (resp. Br_2). He discuses the processes of relaxation of transitions from valence 4d to 5p (resp. 3d to 4p) which occur either by direct self-ionization or by resonant Auger effect, and reports the study of photo-dissociation of s-tetrazine (C_2N_4H_2) [fr

  10. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  11. Person Recognition in Personal Photo Collections

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Seong Joon; Benenson, Rodrigo; Fritz, Mario; Schiele, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Recognising persons in everyday photos presents major challenges (occluded faces, different clothing, locations, etc.) for machine vision. We propose a convnet based person recognition system on which we provide an in-depth analysis of informativeness of different body cues, impact of training data, and the common failure modes of the system. In addition, we discuss the limitations of existing benchmarks and propose more challenging ones. Our method is simple and is built on open source and o...

  12. Concentrated Photo Voltaics (CPV: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Centro S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated PhotoVoltaic (CPV, among green energy solutions, nowadays has the ambition to reach grid-parity without subside. CPV substitutes large areas of expensive semiconductor solar cells, with concentrating optics made of cheap materials. Moreover the cells that are suitable for CPV exhibits an unprecedented efficiency and their technology is progressing every year. A case study project, TwinFocus®, will be presented in detail.

  13. Instagram photos reveal predictive markers of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Reece, Andrew G.; Danforth, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Using Instagram data from 166 individuals, we applied machine learning tools to successfully identify markers of depression. Statistical features were computationally extracted from 43,950 participant Instagram photos, using color analysis, metadata components, and algorithmic face detection. Resulting models outperformed general practitioners' average diagnostic success rate for depression. These results held even when the analysis was restricted to posts made before depressed individuals we...

  14. Photo electron emission microscopy of polarity-patterned materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W-C; Rodriguez, B J; Gruverman, A; Nemanich, R J

    2005-01-01

    This study presents variable photon energy photo electron emission microscopy (PEEM) of polarity-patterned epitaxial GaN films, and ferroelectric LiNbO 3 (LNO) single crystals and PbZrTiO 3 (PZT) thin films. The photo electrons were excited with spontaneous emission from the tunable UV free electron laser (FEL) at Duke University. We report PEEM observation of polarity contrast and measurement of the photothreshold of each polar region of the materials. For a cleaned GaN film with laterally patterned Ga- and N-face polarities, we found a higher photoelectric yield from the N-face regions compared with the Ga-face regions. Through the photon energy dependent contrast in the PEEM images of the surfaces, we can deduce that the threshold of the N-face region is less than ∼4.9 eV while that of the Ga-face regions is greater than 6.3 eV. In both LNO and PZT, bright emission was detected from the negatively poled domains, indicating that the emission threshold of the negative domain is lower than that of the positive domain. For LNO, the measured photothreshold was ∼4.6 eV at the negative domain and ∼6.2 eV at the positive domain, while for PZT, the threshold of the negative domain was less than 4.3 eV. Moreover, PEEM observation of the PZT surface at elevated temperatures displayed that the domain contrast disappeared near the Curie temperature of ∼300 deg. C. The PEEM polarity contrast of the polar materials is discussed in terms of internal screening from free carriers and defects and the external screening due to adsorbed ions

  15. Photo electron emission microscopy of polarity-patterned materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.-C.; Rodriguez, B. J.; Gruverman, A.; Nemanich, R. J.

    2005-04-01

    This study presents variable photon energy photo electron emission microscopy (PEEM) of polarity-patterned epitaxial GaN films, and ferroelectric LiNbO3 (LNO) single crystals and PbZrTiO3 (PZT) thin films. The photo electrons were excited with spontaneous emission from the tunable UV free electron laser (FEL) at Duke University. We report PEEM observation of polarity contrast and measurement of the photothreshold of each polar region of the materials. For a cleaned GaN film with laterally patterned Ga- and N-face polarities, we found a higher photoelectric yield from the N-face regions compared with the Ga-face regions. Through the photon energy dependent contrast in the PEEM images of the surfaces, we can deduce that the threshold of the N-face region is less than ~4.9 eV while that of the Ga-face regions is greater than 6.3 eV. In both LNO and PZT, bright emission was detected from the negatively poled domains, indicating that the emission threshold of the negative domain is lower than that of the positive domain. For LNO, the measured photothreshold was ~4.6 eV at the negative domain and ~6.2 eV at the positive domain, while for PZT, the threshold of the negative domain was less than 4.3 eV. Moreover, PEEM observation of the PZT surface at elevated temperatures displayed that the domain contrast disappeared near the Curie temperature of ~300 °C. The PEEM polarity contrast of the polar materials is discussed in terms of internal screening from free carriers and defects and the external screening due to adsorbed ions.

  16. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  17. Stamina in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colerick, E J

    1985-01-01

    Patterns of aging raise a number of important questions concerning the paths to successful adaptation. What gives some older individuals their staying power in the face of misfortune? What causes others to function less effectively when stressed, to resist change? Clearly, the margin of safety, the degree of elasticity and resilience varies across individuals in the later years. This study focuses on event histories and current behavior of 62 elderly men and women (Phase I) and reports by their confidants (N = 62; Phase II). A central proposition, that stamina in later life depends, in part, on the appraisal of previous events involving loss is investigated using a model that incorporates aspects of earlier life, cognitive appraisal and clinically judged dimensions of stamina in old age. Multivariate (particularly path analytic) techniques are used to test the links between variable foci. Results suggest that antecedents of stamina involve the interaction of social resources and cognitive orientations. Specifically, stamina in later life is contingent, for the most part, on a triumphant, positive outlook during periods of adversity. Elderly so oriented are also those with robust health histories and marked educational accomplishments. Conversely, persons who view situations involving loss as threatening, overwhelming and potentially defeating experience no such outcome; low levels of stamina mark their later years. Interestingly, quality childhood ties matter for stamina in old age only by increasing the likelihood of perceptions of a supportive environment during hard times. The findings corroborate the general pattern of research documenting the importance of cognitive orientations in adaptive processes.

  18. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  19. Laterally situated sinus pericranii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshu, K.; Takahashi, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sinus pericranii has been reported to be situated usually along the midline. Two cases of laterally situated sinus pericranii are presented. Venous blood was obtained by puncturing the tumors directly. Injection of contrast medium into the tumors demonstrated a communication between the tumors and the intracranial venous sinuses through marked diploic veins. (orig.)

  20. A fast photo-counter with multi-level buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hu; Zhou Peiling; Yao Kun; Guo Guangcan

    1992-01-01

    Digital Photon Correlator (DPC) is composed of a Photo-counter and a data processing unit. The performance of Photo-counter in data acquisition system has a direct influence on data processing. The Photo-counter with fast carry designed here has multi-level buffers. Photon pulses can be correctly and dynamically recorded by the Photo-counter and processed by a single chip computer

  1. Analyzing randomly occurring voltage breakdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    During acceptance testing of high-vacuum neutron tubes, 40% of the tubes failed after experiencing high-voltage breakdowns during the aging process. Use of a digitizer in place of an oscilloscope revealed two types of breakdowns, only one of which affected acceptance testing. This information allowed redesign of the aging sequence to prevent tube damage and improve yield and quality of the final product

  2. Advances in high voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Haddad, A

    2005-01-01

    This book addresses the very latest research and development issues in high voltage technology and is intended as a reference source for researchers and students in the field, specifically covering developments throughout the past decade. This unique blend of expert authors and comprehensive subject coverage means that this book is ideally suited as a reference source for engineers and academics in the field for years to come.

  3. High-voltage CMOS detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrler, F.; Blanco, R.; Leys, R.; Perić, I.

    2016-01-01

    High-voltage CMOS (HVCMOS) pixel sensors are depleted active pixel sensors implemented in standard commercial CMOS processes. The sensor element is the n-well/p-substrate diode. The sensor electronics are entirely placed inside the n-well which is at the same time used as the charge collection electrode. High voltage is used to deplete the part of the substrate around the n-well. HVCMOS sensors allow implementation of complex in-pixel electronics. This, together with fast signal collection, allows a good time resolution, which is required for particle tracking in high energy physics. HVCMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI and are considered as an option for both ATLAS and CLIC (CERN). Radiation tolerance and time walk compensation have been tested and results are presented. - Highlights: • High-voltage CMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI (Switzerland). • HVCMOS sensors are considered as an option for ATLAS (LHC/CERN) and CLIC (CERN). • Efficiency of more than 95% (99%) has been measured with (un-)irradiated chips. • The time resolution measured in the beam tests is nearly 100 ns. • We plan to improve time resolution and efficiency by using high-resistive substrate.

  4. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Masafumi

    2003-01-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  5. High-voltage CMOS detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrler, F., E-mail: felix.ehrler@student.kit.edu; Blanco, R.; Leys, R.; Perić, I.

    2016-07-11

    High-voltage CMOS (HVCMOS) pixel sensors are depleted active pixel sensors implemented in standard commercial CMOS processes. The sensor element is the n-well/p-substrate diode. The sensor electronics are entirely placed inside the n-well which is at the same time used as the charge collection electrode. High voltage is used to deplete the part of the substrate around the n-well. HVCMOS sensors allow implementation of complex in-pixel electronics. This, together with fast signal collection, allows a good time resolution, which is required for particle tracking in high energy physics. HVCMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI and are considered as an option for both ATLAS and CLIC (CERN). Radiation tolerance and time walk compensation have been tested and results are presented. - Highlights: • High-voltage CMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI (Switzerland). • HVCMOS sensors are considered as an option for ATLAS (LHC/CERN) and CLIC (CERN). • Efficiency of more than 95% (99%) has been measured with (un-)irradiated chips. • The time resolution measured in the beam tests is nearly 100 ns. • We plan to improve time resolution and efficiency by using high-resistive substrate.

  6. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochi, Masafumi [Iwasaki Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  7. Light-voltage conversion apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, Yoshiki

    1987-09-19

    In a light-voltage conversion unit, when input signal is applied, the output signal to the control circuit has quick rise-up time and slow breaking time. In order to improve this, a short-circuit transistor is placed at the diode, and this transistor is forced ON, when an output signal to the control circuit is lowered down to a constant voltage, to short-circuit between the output terminals. This, however, has a demerit of high power consumption by a transistor. In this invention, by connecting a light-emitting element which gets ON at the first transition and a light-emitting element which gets ON at the last transition, placing a light receiving element in front of each light-emitting element, when an input signal is applied; thus a load is driven only with ON signal of each light-emitting element, eliminating the delay in the last transition. All of these give a quick responsive light-voltage conversion without unnecessary power consumption. (5 figs)

  8. CERN Photo Club (CPC) / Canon Contest - My View of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Steyaert, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Photo Club has organized in collaboration with Canon Switzerland a photo contest open to all members of the CERN (Persons with a CERN access card). The only restriction is that the photos must have been taken with a CANON camera (DSLR, bridge or compact) between 1 and 31 October 2016.

  9. Low pull-in voltage electrostatic MEMS switch using liquid dielectric

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we present an electrostatic MEMS switch with liquids as dielectric to reduce the actuation voltage. The concept is verified by simulating a lateral dual gate switch, where the required pull-in voltage is reduced by more than 8 times after using water as a dielectric, to become as low as 5.36V. The proposed switch is simulated using COMSOL multiphysics using various liquid volumes to study their effect on the switching performance. Finally, we propose the usage of the lateral switch as a single switch XOR logic gate.

  10. Symmetric voltage-controlled variable resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanelli, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Feedback network makes resistance of field-effect transistor (FET) same for current flowing in either direction. It combines control voltage with source and load voltages to give symmetric current/voltage characteristics. Since circuit produces same magnitude output voltage for current flowing in either direction, it introduces no offset in presense of altering polarity signals. It is therefore ideal for sensor and effector circuits in servocontrol systems.

  11. Ultra Low-Voltage Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    if in a solar battery charger the level of illumination were to drop due to cloud cover, the diode would prevent discharging of the battery when...the source voltage becomes lower than battery voltage. The drawback of a simple circuit like this is that once the source voltage is lower than the...longer charged when the battery voltage is above the OV setting. Figure 13. Block diagram of BQ25504 circuit . (From [10]) 18 THIS PAGE

  12. Efficient photo-catalytic degradation of malachite green using nickel tungstate material as photo-catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaïli, N; Boudjamaa, A; Kebir, M; Bachari, K

    2017-03-01

    The present study focused on the evaluation of photo-catalytic and photo-electrochemical properties of the photo-catalyst based on nickel tungstate material prepared by a nitrate method through the degradation of malachite green (MG) dye's. The effect of catalyst loading and dye concentration was examined. Physico-chemical, optical, electrical, electrochemical, and photo-electrochemical properties of the prepared material were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET analysis, optical reflectance diffuse (DR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry (CV), current intensity, mott-shottky, and nyquist. XRD revealed the formation of monoclinic structure with a small particle size. BET surface area of the sample was around 10 m 2 /g. The results show that the degradation of MG was more than 80%, achieved after 3 h of irradiation at pH 4.6 and with a catalyst loading of 75 mg. Also, it was found that the dye photo-degradation obeyed the pseudo-first order kinetic via Langmuir Hinshelwood model.

  13. Enrique Díaz and Present Phpotographies (From Graphic Notes to Photo-essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Monroy Nasr

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available With "Enrique Díaz and Present Phpotographies (From Graphic Notes to Photo-essays ", the author presents part of our photo­graphic history, as well as some aspects of its development as a form of journalism and of art. She rescues the figure of Enrique Díaz Reyna as representative of the union of graphic journalists, due to his technical, formal and conceptual traits, all of them tools with which he opened important paths and innovative graphical and aesthetic proposals. This essay presents some aspects of the graphic journalist's work in Mexico City, from the twenties to the forties. As a guide to the photographer's extensi­ve work, the author reviews some of the proposals he made as his work became more mature: first, the graphic note, later, recrea­ting the photo-reportage, and finally, exploring with photoessays. Thus, attention is centered particularly on Díaz Reyna's visual language, where the signs of a distinctive modernity appro­priate of his time allow us to understand a substantial part of the transition towards a contemporary and  truly national photo-journalism.

  14. Voltage Quality of Grid Connected Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Sun, Tao

    2004-01-01

    Grid connected wind turbines may cause quality problems, such as voltage variation and flicker. This paper discusses the voltage variation and flicker emission of grid connected wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generators. A method to compensate flicker by using a voltage source converter...

  15. Manufacturing technology for practical Josephson voltage normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlmann, Johannes; Kieler, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we present the manufacturing technology for the fabrication of integrated superconducting Josephson serial circuits for voltage normals. First we summarize some foundations for Josephson voltage normals and sketch the concept and the setup of the circuits, before we describe the manufacturing technology form modern practical Josephson voltage normals.

  16. 49 CFR 234.221 - Lamp voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lamp voltage. 234.221 Section 234.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.221 Lamp voltage. The voltage at each lamp shall be...

  17. Bootstrapped Low-Voltage Analog Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    Novel low-voltage constant-impedance analog switch circuits are proposed. The switch element is a single MOSFET, and constant-impedance operation is obtained using simple circuits to adjust the gate and bulk voltages relative to the switched signal. Low-voltage (1-volt) operation is made feasible...

  18. Photo-assisted local oxidation of GaN using an atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, J S; Hu, Z S; Lu, T Y; Chen, L W; Chen, S W; Lin, T Y; Hsiao, C-L; Chen, K-H; Chen, L-C

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a photo-assisted atomic force microscope (AFM) local oxidation technique which is capable of producing highly smooth oxide patterns with heights reaching several tens of nanometres on both n- and p-types of GaN (and in principle on most semiconductors) without the use of chemicals. The novel methodology relies on UV illumination of the surface of the substrate during conventional AFM local oxidation. A low 1.2 V threshold voltage for n-type GaN was obtained, which can be explained by UV photo-generation of excess electron-hole pairs in the substrate near the junction, thereby reducing the electric field required to drive carrier flow through the tip-sample Schottky barrier. It was demonstrated that the presence or absence of light alone was sufficient to switch the growth of the oxide on or off. The photo-assisted AFM oxidation technique is of immediate interest to the semiconductor industry for the fabrication of GaN-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices and nanodevices, improves chances for AFM-type data storage, and presents new degrees of freedom for process control technique

  19. Probing photo-ionization: experiments on positive streamers in pure gases and mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijdam, S; Van de Wetering, F M J H; Blanc, R; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U

    2010-01-01

    Positive streamers are thought to propagate by photo-ionization; the parameters of photo-ionization depend on the nitrogen : oxygen ratio. Therefore we study streamers in nitrogen with 20%, 0.2% and 0.01% oxygen and in pure nitrogen as well as in pure oxygen and argon. Our new experimental set-up guarantees contamination of the pure gases to be well below 1 ppm. Streamers in oxygen are difficult to measure as they emit considerably less light in the sensitivity range of our fast ICCD camera than the other gases. Streamers in pure nitrogen and in all nitrogen-oxygen mixtures look generally similar, but become somewhat thinner and branch more with decreasing oxygen content. In pure nitrogen the streamers can branch so much that they resemble feathers. This feature is even more pronounced in pure argon, with approximately 10 2 hair tips cm -3 in the feathers at 200 mbar; this density can be interpreted as the free electron density creating avalanches towards the streamer stem. It is remarkable that the streamer velocity is essentially the same for similar voltage and pressure in all nitrogen-oxygen mixtures as well as in pure nitrogen, while the oxygen concentration and therefore the photo-ionization lengths vary by more than five orders of magnitude. Streamers in argon have essentially the same velocity as well. The physical similarity of streamers at different pressures is confirmed in all gases; the minimal diameters are smaller than in earlier measurements.

  20. Probing photo-ionization: experiments on positive streamers in pure gases and mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijdam, S; Van de Wetering, F M J H; Blanc, R; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U, E-mail: s.nijdam@tue.n [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department Applied Physics, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-04-14

    Positive streamers are thought to propagate by photo-ionization; the parameters of photo-ionization depend on the nitrogen : oxygen ratio. Therefore we study streamers in nitrogen with 20%, 0.2% and 0.01% oxygen and in pure nitrogen as well as in pure oxygen and argon. Our new experimental set-up guarantees contamination of the pure gases to be well below 1 ppm. Streamers in oxygen are difficult to measure as they emit considerably less light in the sensitivity range of our fast ICCD camera than the other gases. Streamers in pure nitrogen and in all nitrogen-oxygen mixtures look generally similar, but become somewhat thinner and branch more with decreasing oxygen content. In pure nitrogen the streamers can branch so much that they resemble feathers. This feature is even more pronounced in pure argon, with approximately 10{sup 2} hair tips cm{sup -3} in the feathers at 200 mbar; this density can be interpreted as the free electron density creating avalanches towards the streamer stem. It is remarkable that the streamer velocity is essentially the same for similar voltage and pressure in all nitrogen-oxygen mixtures as well as in pure nitrogen, while the oxygen concentration and therefore the photo-ionization lengths vary by more than five orders of magnitude. Streamers in argon have essentially the same velocity as well. The physical similarity of streamers at different pressures is confirmed in all gases; the minimal diameters are smaller than in earlier measurements.

  1. Voltage generators of high voltage high power accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svinin, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    High voltage electron accelerators are widely used in modern radiation installations for industrial purposes. In the near future further increasing of their power may be effected, which enables to raise the efficiency of the radiation processes known and to master new power-consuming production in industry. Improvement of HV generators by increasing their power and efficiency is one of many scientific and engineering aspects the successful solution of which provides further development of these accelerators and their technical parameters. The subject is discussed in detail. (author)

  2. Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) of Danish Transmission System - Concept design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Abildgaard, Hans; Lund, P.

    2014-01-01

    For more than 20 years it has been a consistent plan by all Danish governments to turn the Danish power production away from fossil fuels towards renewable energy. The result today is that 37% of the total Danish power consumption was covered by mainly wind energy in 2013 aiming at 50% by 2020......, objectives, constraints, algorithms for optimal power flow and some special functions in particular systems, which inspires the concept design of a Danish AVC system to address the future challenges of voltage control. In the concept, the Danish AVC design is based on a centralized control scheme. All...... the substation loses the telecommunications to the control center. RPCs will be integrated to the AVC system as normative regulators in the later stage. Distributed generation units can be organized as virtual power plants and participate in voltage control at transmission level. Energinet.dk as the Danish TSO...

  3. A high-voltage triggered pseudospark discharge experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaswamy, K.; Destler, W.W.; Rodgers, J.

    1996-01-01

    The design and execution of a pulsed high-voltage (350 endash 400 keV) triggered pseudospark discharge experiment is reported. Experimental studies were carried out to obtain an optimal design for stable and reliable pseudospark operation in a high-voltage regime (approx-gt 350 kV). Experiments were performed to determine the most suitable fill gas for electron-beam formation. The pseudospark discharge is initiated by a trigger mechanism involving a flashover between the trigger electrode and hollow cathode housing. Experimental results characterizing the electron-beam energy using the range-energy method are reported. Source size imaging was carried out using an x-ray pinhole camera and a novel technique using Mylar as a witness plate. It was experimentally determined that strong pinching occurred later in time and was associated with the lower-energy electrons. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  4. Lateral Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  5. On the excess photon noise in single-beam measurements with photo-emissive and photo-conductive cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, C.T.J.

    In this paper the so-called excess photon noise is theoretically considered with regard to noise power measurements with a single, illumined photo-emissive or photo-conductive cell. Starting from a modification of Mandel's stochastic association of the emission of photo-electrons with wave

  6. Organizations Utilize Lateral Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline C.

    2017-01-01

    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  7. Advantages of later motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrskylä, M; Barclay, K; Goisis, A

    2017-01-01

    In high-income countries childbearing has been increasingly postponed since the 1970s and it is crucial to understand the consequences of this demographic shift. The literature has tended to characterize later motherhood as a significant health threat for children and parents. We contribute to this debate by reviewing recent evidence suggesting that an older maternal age can also have positive effects. Literature linking the age at parenthood with the sociodemographic characteristics of the parents, with macrolevel interactions, and with subjective well-being. Comprehensive review of the existing literature. Recent studies show that there can also be advantages associated with later motherhood. First, whilst in past older mothers had low levels of education and large families, currently older mothers tend to have higher education and smaller families than their younger peers. Consequently, children born to older mothers in the past tended to have worse outcomes than children born to younger mothers, whilst the opposite is true in recent cohorts. Second, postponement of childbearing means that the child is born at a later date and in a later birth cohort, and may benefit from secular changes in the macroenvironment. Evidence shows that when the positive trends in the macroenvironment are strong they overweigh the negative effects of reproductive ageing. Third, existing studies show that happiness increases around and after childbirth among older mothers, whereas for younger mothers the effect does not exist or is short-lived. There are important sociodemographic pathways associated with postponement of childbearing which might compensate or even more than compensate for the biological disadvantages associated with reproductive ageing.

  8. Strategies for the photo-control of endogenous protein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechun, Katherine E; Arndt, Katja M; Woolley, G Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Photo-controlled or 'optogenetic' effectors interfacing with endogenous protein machinery allow the roles of endogenous proteins to be probed. There are two main approaches being used to develop optogenetic effectors: (i) caging strategies using photo-controlled conformational changes, and (ii) protein relocalization strategies using photo-controlled protein-protein interactions. Numerous specific examples of these approaches have been reported and efforts to develop general methods for photo-control of endogenous proteins are a current focus. The development of improved screening and selection methods for photo-switchable proteins would advance the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of an applied voltage on direct interspecies electron transfer via conductive materials for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yeol; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Hee-Deung

    2017-10-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between exoelectrogenic bacteria and methanogenic archaea via conductive materials is reported as an efficient method to produce methane in anaerobic organic waste digestion. A voltage can be applied to the conductive materials to accelerate the DIET between two groups of microorganisms to produce methane. To evaluate this hypothesis, two sets of anaerobic serum bottles with and without applied voltage were used with a pair of graphite rods as conductive materials to facilitate DIET. Initially, the methane production rate was similar between the two sets of serum bottles, and later the serum bottles with an applied voltage of 0.39V showed a 168% higher methane production rate than serum bottles without an applied voltage. In cyclic voltammograms, the characteristic redox peaks for hydrogen and acetate oxidation were identified in the serum bottles with an applied voltage. In the microbial community analyses, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g. Methanobacterium) were observed to be abundant in serum bottles with an applied voltage, while methanogens utilizing carbon dioxide (e.g., Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina) were dominant in serum bottles without an applied voltage. Taken together, the applied voltage on conductive materials might not be effective to promote DIET in methane production. Instead, it appeared to generate a condition for hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Voltage Management in Unbalanced Low Voltage Networks Using a Decoupled Phase-Tap-Changer Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppo, Massimiliano; Turri, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies a medium voltage-low voltage transformer with a decoupled on load tap changer capability on each phase. The overall objective is the evaluation of the potential benefits on a low voltage network of such possibility. A realistic Danish low voltage network is used for the analysis...

  11. 76 FR 70721 - Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Staff Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD12-5-000] Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Staff Workshop Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Workshop on Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids on Thursday, December 1, 2011...

  12. Zika-Virus-Related Photo Sharing on Pinterest and Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Blankenship, Elizabeth B; Goff, M Elizabeth; Mullican, Lindsay A; Chan, Kwun Cheung; Saroha, Nitin; Duke, Carmen H; Eremeeva, Marina E; Fu, King-Wa; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2017-12-01

    Pinterest (San Francisco, CA) and Instagram (Menlo Park, CA) are 2 popular photo-sharing social media platforms among young individuals. We assessed differences between Instagram and Pinterest in relaying photographic information regarding Zika virus. Specifically, we investigated whether the percentage of Zika-virus-related photos with Spanish or Portuguese texts embedded therein was higher for Instagram than for Pinterest and whether the contents of Zika-virus-related photos shared on Pinterest were different from those shared on Instagram. We retrieved and manually coded 616 Pinterest (key words: "zika" AND "virus") and 616 Instagram (hashtag: #zikavirus) photos. Among the manually coded samples, 47% (290/616) of Pinterest photos and 23% (144/616) of Instagram photos were relevant to Zika virus. Words were embedded in 57% (164/290) of relevant Pinterest photos and all 144 relevant Instagram photos. Among the photos with embedded words, photos in Spanish or Portuguese were more prevalent on Instagram (77/144, 53%) than on Pinterest (14/164, 9%). There were more Zika-virus-related photos on Instagram than on Pinterest pertinent to Zika virus prevention (59/144, 41%, versus 41/290, 14%; PInstagram are similar platforms for Zika virus prevention communication. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:656-659).

  13. Unified Photo Enhancement by Discovering Aesthetic Communities From Flickr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Richang; Zhang, Luming; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-03-01

    Photo enhancement refers to the process of increasing the aesthetic appeal of a photo, such as changing the photo aspect ratio and spatial recomposition. It is a widely used technique in the printing industry, graphic design, and cinematography. In this paper, we propose a unified and socially aware photo enhancement framework which can leverage the experience of photographers with various aesthetic topics (e.g., portrait and landscape). We focus on photos from the image hosting site Flickr, which has 87 million users and to which more than 3.5 million photos are uploaded daily. First, a tagwise regularized topic model is proposed to describe the aesthetic topic of each Flickr user, and coherent and interpretable topics are discovered by leveraging both the visual features and tags of photos. Next, a graph is constructed to describe the similarities in aesthetic topics between the users. Noticeably, densely connected users have similar aesthetic topics, which are categorized into different communities by a dense subgraph mining algorithm. Finally, a probabilistic model is exploited to enhance the aesthetic attractiveness of a test photo by leveraging the photographic experiences of Flickr users from the corresponding communities of that photo. Paired-comparison-based user studies show that our method performs competitively on photo retargeting and recomposition. Moreover, our approach accurately detects aesthetic communities in a photo set crawled from nearly 100000 Flickr users.

  14. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  15. Nanoparticle-assisted photo-Fenton reaction for photo-decomposition of humic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Jhuma; Basumallick, Srijita

    2017-11-01

    We report here the synthesis of CuO-doped ZnO composite nanomaterials (NMs) by chemical route and demonstrated for the first time that these NMs are efficient catalysts for H2O2-assisted photo-decomposition (photo-Fenton type catalyst) of humic acid, a natural pollutant of surface water by solar irradiation. This has been explained by faster electron transfer to OH radical at the p-n hetero-junction of this composite catalyst. Application of this composite catalyst in decomposing humus substances of local pond water by solar energy has been demonstrated.

  16. Capacitor Voltages Measurement and Balancing in Flying Capacitor Multilevel Converters Utilizing a Single Voltage Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farivar, Glen; Ghias, Amer M. Y. M.; Hredzak, Branislav

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for measuring capacitor voltages in multilevel flying capacitor (FC) converters that requires only one voltage sensor per phase leg. Multiple dc voltage sensors traditionally used to measure the capacitor voltages are replaced with a single voltage sensor at the ac...... side of the phase leg. The proposed method is subsequently used to balance the capacitor voltages using only the measured ac voltage. The operation of the proposed measurement and balancing method is independent of the number of the converter levels. Experimental results presented for a five-level FC...

  17. Photo catalytic degradation of m-cresol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavarria C, N.; Jimenez B, J.; Garcia S, I.; Valenzuela, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The degradation of m-cresol was studied, a persistent organic compound that is consider a pollutant of residual water. There for a photo catalysis system was used, which consists in a glass reactor where is placed an aqueous solution of m-cresol and a semiconductor is added, in this case, titanium oxide. The solutions were irradiated with ultraviolet light and the surplus m-cresol was measured by UV vis spectrometry. The results indicate that the m-cresol is degraded until a 40% after 5 hours of irradiation in such conditions. (Author)

  18. Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamponi, Gerald Werner

    Voltage Gated Calcium Channels is the first comprehensive book in the calcium channel field, encompassing over thirty years of progress towards our understanding of calcium channel structure, function, regulation, physiology, pharmacology, and genetics. This book balances contributions from many of the leading authorities in the calcium channel field with fresh perspectives from risings stars in the area, taking into account the most recent literature and concepts. This is the only all-encompassing calcium channel book currently available, and is an essential resource for academic researchers at all levels in the areas neuroscience, biophysics, and cardiovascular sciences, as well as to researchers in the drug discovery area.

  19. Laparoscopic Puestow: lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biteman, Benjamin R; Harr, Jeffrey N; Brody, Fred

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a painful inflammatory disease that leads to progressive and irreversible destruction of pancreatic parenchyma [1]. A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy, also known as the Puestow procedure, is performed for symptomatic chronic pancreatitis associated with a dilated pancreatic duct secondary to calcifications or strictures [4]. An open approach is used traditionally due to the complexity of the case, and there have only been a handful of laparoscopic case reports [2]. This video depicts a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis. A 45-year-old gentleman with a 20-year history of chronic alcohol abuse presented with diffuse abdominal pain. His pain was worse postprandially and associated with loose stools. A computed tomography scan revealed multiple calcified deposits within the body and tail of the pancreas, and a dilated pancreatic duct measuring 1.4 cm with a proximal obstructing calcified stone. A 5-port foregut technique was used, and a 15-cm pancreatic ductotomy was performed with an ultrasonic scalpel. Calcified stones were cleared from the duct, and a roux-en-y pancreaticojejunostomy was performed using a hand-sewn technique. The patient had a relatively uncomplicated hospital course with return of bowel function on postoperative day 4. His patient-controlled analgesic device was discontinued on post operative day 3. He was ambulating, tolerating a regular diet and discharged home on postoperative day 5. At 12- and 26-month follow-up, he remains off narcotics, but still requires 1-2 tabs of pancreatic enzyme replacement per meal. Most importantly, he has not had any alcohol for over 2 years. The two primary goals in treating chronic pancreatitis include long-term pain relief and improvements in quality of life [3]. For patients with chronic pancreatitis and a dilated pancreatic duct, a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy may be an effective approach to decrease pain and improve quality of life.

  20. Modified puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppa, Eugene P; Pappas, Theodore N

    2009-05-01

    There are various surgical options for the treatment of pain associated with chronic pancreatitis. The modified Puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy has been proven to be effective in ameliorating symptoms and expediting return to normal lifestyle while maintaining a low rate of morbidity and mortality. However, the debate regarding which surgical treatment provides the best outcomes is controversial. The aims of this manuscript are to identify the patient population for which the Puestow benefits the most and discuss the pertinent technical aspects of the surgical procedure.

  1. Beyond voltage-gated ion channels: Voltage-operated membrane proteins and cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Chen, Xingjuan; Xue, Yucong; Gamper, Nikita; Zhang, Xuan

    2018-04-18

    Voltage-gated ion channels were believed to be the only voltage-sensitive proteins in excitable (and some non-excitable) cells for a long time. Emerging evidence indicates that the voltage-operated model is shared by some other transmembrane proteins expressed in both excitable and non-excitable cells. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about voltage-operated proteins, which are not classic voltage-gated ion channels as well as the voltage-dependent processes in cells for which single voltage-sensitive proteins have yet to be identified. Particularly, we will focus on the following. (1) Voltage-sensitive phosphoinositide phosphatases (VSP) with four transmembrane segments homologous to the voltage sensor domain (VSD) of voltage-gated ion channels; VSPs are the first family of proteins, other than the voltage-gated ion channels, for which there is sufficient evidence for the existence of the VSD domain; (2) Voltage-gated proton channels comprising of a single voltage-sensing domain and lacking an identified pore domain; (3) G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the depolarization-evoked potentiation of Ca 2+ mobilization; (4) Plasma membrane (PM) depolarization-induced but Ca 2+ -independent exocytosis in neurons. (5) Voltage-dependent metabolism of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns[4,5]P 2 , PIP 2 ) in the PM. These recent discoveries expand our understanding of voltage-operated processes within cellular membranes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Low Voltage Ride-Through of Two-Stage Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems Through the Inherent Linear Power-Voltage Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Liu, Hongpeng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a cost-effective control scheme for two-stage grid-connected PhotoVoltaic (PV) systems in Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) operation is proposed. In the case of LVRT, the active power injection by PV panels should be limited to prevent from inverter over-current and also energy...... aggregation at the dc-link, which will challenge the dc-link capacitor lifetime if remains uncontrolled. At the same time, reactive currents should be injected upon any demand imposed by the system operators. In the proposed scheme, the two objectives can be feasibly achieved. The active power is regulated...... point tracking controller without significant hardware or software modifications. In this way, the PV system will not operate at the maximum power point, whereas the inverter will not face any over-current challenge but can provide reactive power support in response to the grid voltage fault...

  3. Sulfamethoxazole abatement by photo-Fenton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Oscar; Sans, Carme; Esplugas, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the abatement of 200 mg L -1 sulfamethoxazole (SMX) solution by means of photo-Fenton process. Biodegradability of the treated solutions was followed by the ratio biochemical oxygen demand at five days/chemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 /COD) and toxicity by Microtox[reg] and inhibition tests. Experiments with different initial concentration of H 2 O 2 were carried out. The initial amount of Fe 2+ and pH of the solution were set at 10 mg L -1 and 2.8 respectively. The temperature of the reactor was kept constant in all the experiments (25 ± 0.8 deg. C). Photo-Fenton process is thought to be a successful treatment step to improve the biodegradability of wastewater containing SMX. The complete antibiotic removal was achieved for a H 2 O 2 dose over 300 mg L -1 . Biodegradability (BOD 5 /COD) rose from zero (SMX solution) to values higher than 0.3 (treated solutions). Toxicity and inhibition tests pointed out in the same direction: oxidized intermediates for initial H 2 O 2 dose over 300 mg L -1 showed no toxicity effects on pure bacteria and no inhibition on activated sludge activity

  4. Photo, thermal and chemical degradation of riboflavin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Sheraz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Riboflavin (RF, also known as vitamin B2, belongs to the class of water-soluble vitamins and is widely present in a variety of food products. It is sensitive to light and high temperature, and therefore, needs a consideration of these factors for its stability in food products and pharmaceutical preparations. A number of other factors have also been identified that affect the stability of RF. These factors include radiation source, its intensity and wavelength, pH, presence of oxygen, buffer concentration and ionic strength, solvent polarity and viscosity, and use of stabilizers and complexing agents. A detailed review of the literature in this field has been made and all those factors that affect the photo, thermal and chemical degradation of RF have been discussed. RF undergoes degradation through several mechanisms and an understanding of the mode of photo- and thermal degradation of RF may help in the stabilization of the vitamin. A general scheme for the photodegradation of RF is presented.

  5. Observability of Low Voltage grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Loeches, Ruben Sánchez; Iov, Florin; Kemal, Mohammed Seifu

    2017-01-01

    Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid ...... an updated state of the art on DSSE-AMI based, adaptive data collection techniques and database management system types. Moreover, the ongoing Danish RemoteGRID project is presented as a realistic case study.......Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid....... It becomes unrealistic to provide near real time full observability of the LV grid by applying Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) utilizing the classical data collection and storage/preprocessing techniques. This paper investigates up-todate the observability problem in LV grids by providing...

  6. A Prototype RICH Detector Using Multi-Anode Photo Multiplier Tubes and Hybrid Photo-Diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, E; Bibby, J H; Brook, N H; Doucas, G; Duane, A; Easo, S; Eklund, L; French, M; Gibson, V; Gys, Thierry; Halley, A W; Harnew, N; John, M; Piedigrossi, D; Rademacker, J; Simmons, B; Smale, N J; Teixeira-Dias, P; Toudup, L W; Websdale, David M; Wilkinson, G R; Wotton, S A

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a prototype Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector is studied using a charged particle beam. The detector performance, using CF4 and air as radiators, is described. Cherenkov angle precision and photoelectron yield using hybrid photo-diodes and multi-anode PMTs agree with simulations and are assessed in terms of the requirements of the LHCb experiment.

  7. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  8. New photo-curable resin compositions for stereolithography with a new photo-fabricator: SCS-300P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura Tetsuya; Tanabe Takayoshi; Ukachi Takashi

    1999-01-01

    Stereolithography is the technology which can create a three-dimensional free-forin in short time according to the slice data of an object. A thin layer of the solidified resin is formed at the surface of the liquid UV curable resin by irradiation of UV laser which is driven by the slice data of the object. Ever since the invention of the stereolithography, there has been a considerable interest to realize the CAD date into a practical three dimensional model. Conventional stereolithographic machines equip gas lasers which are operated at high voltage and requires water cooling system. These disadvantages prevent a wide spread of application of stereolithographic technology. A new sterolithographic machine, SCS-300P has been developed and introduced by SONY Corporation last year. This brand new machine is featuring a high power solid-state UV laser, low machine price, small in size and equips easy-resin-exchange system for maintenance. The biggest difference of SCS-300P from the conventional machines is the laser system. SCS-300P equips pulse laser with the wave length of 355 run which is a third harmonic of YAG laser. The energy of each pulse with a duration time of 20 nsec is more than five thousand times higher than that of continuous emission such as Argon ion laser employed in the conventional machines. With using conventional LTV curable resins, high photo-energy tends to give a gelation even in a dark region or give an undesirable excess-cure underneath of the cured layer. It is thus needed to develop the resin suitable for high power pulse lasers. In this paper, we report a newly developed UV curable resin compositions suitable for SCS-300P which equips high power solid-state pulse laser

  9. Charge transport and recombination in bulk heterojunction solar cells studied by the photoinduced charge extraction in linearly increasing voltage technique

    OpenAIRE

    Mozer, AJ; Sariciftci, NS; Osterbacka, R; Westerling, M; Juska, G; LUTSEN, Laurence; VANDERZANDE, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Charge carrier mobility and recombination in a bulk heterojunction solar cell based on the mixture of poly[2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)-C-61 (PCBM) has been studied using the novel technique of photoinduced charge carrier extraction in a linearly increasing voltage (Photo-CELIV). In this technique, charge carriers are photogenerated by a short laser flash, and extracted under a reverse bias voltage ramp after ...

  10. Power conditioning using dynamic voltage restorers under different voltage sag types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Ahmed M; Abdel Aleem, Shady H E; Ibrahim, Ahmed M; Balci, Murat E; El-Zahab, Essam E A

    2016-01-01

    Voltage sags can be symmetrical or unsymmetrical depending on the causes of the sag. At the present time, one of the most common procedures for mitigating voltage sags is by the use of dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs). By definition, a DVR is a controlled voltage source inserted between the network and a sensitive load through a booster transformer injecting voltage into the network in order to correct any disturbance affecting a sensitive load voltage. In this paper, modelling of DVR for voltage correction using MatLab software is presented. The performance of the device under different voltage sag types is described, where the voltage sag types are introduced using the different types of short-circuit faults included in the environment of the MatLab/Simulink package. The robustness of the proposed device is evaluated using the common voltage sag indices, while taking into account voltage and current unbalance percentages, where maintaining the total harmonic distortion percentage of the load voltage within a specified range is desired. Finally, several simulation results are shown in order to highlight that the DVR is capable of effective correction of the voltage sag while minimizing the grid voltage unbalance and distortion, regardless of the fault type.

  11. Charge transport and recombination in bulk heterojunction solar cells studied by the photoinduced charge extraction in linearly increasing voltage technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozer, A. J.; Sariciftci, N. S.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Österbacka, R.; Westerling, M.; Juška, G.

    2005-03-01

    Charge carrier mobility and recombination in a bulk heterojunction solar cell based on the mixture of poly[2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)-C61 (PCBM) has been studied using the novel technique of photoinduced charge carrier extraction in a linearly increasing voltage (Photo-CELIV). In this technique, charge carriers are photogenerated by a short laser flash, and extracted under a reverse bias voltage ramp after an adjustable delay time (tdel). The Photo-CELIV mobility at room temperature is found to be μ =2×10-4cm2V-1s-1, which is almost independent on charge carrier density, but slightly dependent on tdel. Furthermore, determination of charge carrier lifetime and demonstration of an electric field dependent mobility is presented.

  12. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  13. Sulphonated hypocrellin B sensitized photo damage to ascetic hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Jiachang; Wang Tiandun; Pang Suzhen; An Jingyi; Jiang Lijing

    1994-01-01

    The cellular uptake of sulphonated hypocrellin (S-HB), as well as photo damage on cellular viability, lipid peroxidation and intrinsic fluorescence quenching of membrane protein was studied. It was found that S-HB suitable dissolved in aqueous solution, its cellular uptake is slower than HB. The photo damage on cellular viability both photo sensitizers was close to each other, however the photo sensitizers were different in physical and chemical properties. The HB photo damage target of cells was membrane, but the sulphonated HB photo damage target of cells may be part of organelles, besides the membrane. the experiments showed the sulphonated HB would be suggested as a potential advantage for photodynamic therapy of tumor in clinical application

  14. High voltage load resistor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Monty Ray [Smithfield, VA

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  15. Theoretical analysis of magnetic sensor output voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haishun; Dun Chaochao; Dou Linming; Yang Weiming

    2011-01-01

    The output voltage is an important parameter to determine the stress state in magnetic stress measurement, the relationship between the output voltage and the difference in the principal stresses was investigated by a comprehensive application of magnetic circuit theory, magnetization theory, stress analysis as well as the law of electromagnetic induction, and a corresponding quantitative equation was derived. It is drawn that the output voltage is proportional to the difference in the principal stresses, and related to the angle between the principal stress and the direction of the sensor. This investigation provides a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement by output voltage. - Research highlights: → A comprehensive investigation of magnetic stress signal. → Derived a quantitative equation about output voltage and the principal stresses. → The output voltage is proportional to the difference of the principal stresses. → Provide a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement.

  16. Voltage-Controlled Floating Resistor Using DDCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumngern

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new simple configuration to realize the voltage-controlled floating resistor, which is suitable for integrated circuit implementation. The proposed resistor is composed of three main components: MOS transistor operating in the non-saturation region, DDCC, and MOS voltage divider. The MOS transistor operating in the non-saturation region is used to configure a floating linear resistor. The DDCC and the MOS transistor voltage divider are used for canceling the nonlinear component term of MOS transistor in the non-saturation region to obtain a linear current/voltage relationship. The DDCC is employed to provide a simple summer of the circuit. This circuit offers an ease for realizing the voltage divider circuit and the temperature effect that includes in term of threshold voltage can be compensated. The proposed configuration employs only 16 MOS transistors. The performances of the proposed circuit are simulated with PSPICE to confirm the presented theory.

  17. Sn whiskers removed by energy photo flashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, N.; Yang, M.; Novak, J.; Igor, P.; Osterman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sn whiskers were sintered by intense light flashing (Photosintering). ► Photosintering can effectively eliminate Sn whiskers. ► Photosintering would not damage electronic devices. ► Photosintering is a very promising approach to improve Sn-based electronic surface termination. - Abstract: Sn whiskers have been known to be the major issue resulting in electronic circuit shorts. In this study, we present a novel energy photo flashing approach (photosintering) to shorten and eliminate Sn whiskers. It has been found that photosintering is very effective to modify and remove Sn whiskers; only a sub-millisecond duration photosintering can amazingly get rid of over 90 vol.% of Sn whiskers. Moreover, this photosintering approach has also been proved to cause no damages to electronic devices, suggesting it is a potentially promising way to improve Sn-based electronic surface termination.

  18. Quantum modelling of photo-excited processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Marta M.D.; Correia, Helena M.G.

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of quantum field theory and the dipole approximation, a self-consistent quantum molecular dynamics method is used to investigate the effect of chain length on the probability of formation or decay of both singlet and triplet excitons due to photon absorption or emission in isolated poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) chains. We found that the probability of the photo-induced intra-molecular singlet exciton formation and decay increases linearly with chain length and the probability for triplet exciton formation and decay does not depend on the chain length. Polymers with long chains have thus an advantage over small molecules in solar cell and light-emitting diode (LED) applications because their efficiency depends on the number of intra-molecular singlet excitons formed or emitted in the device, which is expected to increase with the conjugation length

  19. Towards Photo Watercolorization with Artistic Verisimilitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaoyi; Wang, Bin; Fei, Yun; Qian, Kanglai; Wang, Wenping; Chen, Jiating; Yong, Jun-Hai

    2014-10-01

    We present a novel artistic-verisimilitude driven system for watercolor rendering of images and photos. Our system achieves realistic simulation of a set of important characteristics of watercolor paintings that have not been well implemented before. Specifically, we designed several image filters to achieve: 1) watercolor-specified color transferring; 2) saliency-based level-of-detail drawing; 3) hand tremor effect due to human neural noise; and 4) an artistically controlled wet-in-wet effect in the border regions of different wet pigments. A user study indicates that our method can produce watercolor results of artistic verisimilitude better than previous filter-based or physical-based methods. Furthermore, our algorithm is efficient and can easily be parallelized, making it suitable for interactive image watercolorization.

  20. Spectrum analysis of a voltage source converter due to semiconductor voltage drops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Eltouki, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    It is known that power electronic voltage source converters are non-ideal. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review on the effect of semiconductor voltage drop on the output voltage spectrum, using single-phase H-bridge two-level converter topology with natural sampled pulse width modulation....... The paper describes the analysis of output voltage spectrum, when the semiconductor voltage drop is added. The results of the analysis of the spectral contribution including and excluding semiconductor voltage drop reveal a good agreement between the theoretical results, simulations and laboratory...

  1. Content-aware automatic cropping for consumer photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Tretter, Daniel; Lin, Qian

    2013-03-01

    Consumer photos are typically authored once, but need to be retargeted for reuse in various situations. These include printing a photo on different size paper, changing the size and aspect ratio of an embedded photo to accommodate the dynamic content layout of web pages or documents, adapting a large photo for browsing on small displays such as mobile phone screens, and improving the aesthetic quality of a photo that was badly composed at the capture time. In this paper, we propose a novel, effective, and comprehensive content-aware automatic cropping (hereafter referred to as "autocrop") method for consumer photos to achieve the above purposes. Our autocrop method combines the state-of-the-art context-aware saliency detection algorithm, which aims to infer the likely intent of the photographer, and the "branch-and-bound" efficient subwindow search optimization technique, which seeks to locate the globally optimal cropping rectangle in a fast manner. Unlike most current autocrop methods, which can only crop a photo into an arbitrary rectangle, our autocrop method can automatically crop a photo into either a rectangle of arbitrary dimensions or a rectangle of the desired aspect ratio specified by the user. The aggressiveness of the cropping operation may be either automatically determined by the method or manually indicated by the user with ease. In addition, our autocrop method is extended to support the cropping of a photo into non-rectangular shapes such as polygons of any number of sides. It may also be potentially extended to return multiple cropping suggestions, which will enable the creation of new photos to enrich the original photo collections. Our experimental results show that the proposed autocrop method in this paper can generate high-quality crops for consumer photos of various types.

  2. Overview of selective photo-reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisawa, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    Selective reaction process especially isotope separation is a key technology for the development of the technologies related to the nuclear energy. However only a few species are separated on a production scale using the conventional processes such as thermal diffusion, chemical exchange reaction and distillation for lighter isotopes, and gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion for uranium. As these methods are based on statistical thermodynamics and have low enrichment factors, they need repetitive operations of separation with many separating units combined together. Electro-magnetic separation method known as the one with high separation factor can be applied to most of the elements, but extremely low production rate is realized, which is uneconomical. From the above point of view, much attention has been pain to the laser process. This method can be applied to either gas, liquid or solid phase, and high separation factors are basically realized only in gaseous phase. Since the beginning of the studies on isotope separation in early 1970s, many ideas have been proposed for the selective photo-reaction process such as photoionization, multiphoton dissociation and state selective chemical reaction. As a result of experimental and theoretical efforts, large scale production of some isotopes have been intended. Production of deuterium by infrared multi-photodissociation method was studied aiming at the replacement of the conventional dual temperature exchange process, and lots of experiments have been achieved intensively for the uranium enrichment. A stepwise selective photoionization method has also been studied for the isotopic separation of many elements, especially uranium enrichment. To implement the laser processes on a large scale production system, advanced performances are required not only for the tunable laser systems but also for many related technologies such as atomic/molecular source, photo-reactor and extractor of products. (author)

  3. Distributed Monitoring of Voltage Collapse Sensitivity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson-Porco, John W.; Bullo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of voltage stability margins is a promising direction for wide-area monitoring systems. Accurate monitoring architectures for long-term voltage instability are typically centralized and lack scalability, while completely decentralized approaches relying on local measurements tend towards inaccuracy. Here we present distributed linear algorithms for the online computation of voltage collapse sensitivity indices. The computations are collectively performed by processors embedded ...

  4. High voltage investigations for ITER coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, S.; Fietz, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    The superconducting ITER magnets will be excited with high voltage during operation and fast discharge. Because the coils are complex systems the internal voltage distribution can differ to a large extent from the ideal linear voltage distribution. In case of fast excitations internal voltages between conductor and radial plate of a TF coil can be even higher than the terminal voltage of 3.5 kV to ground which appears during a fast discharge without a fault. Hence the determination of the transient voltage distribution is important for a proper insulation co-ordination and will provide a necessary basis for the verification of the individual insulation design and the choice of test voltages and waveforms. Especially the extent of internal overvoltages in case of failures, e. g. malfunction of discharge units and / or arcing is of special interest. Transient calculations for the ITER TF coil system have been performed for fast discharge and fault scenarios to define test voltages for ITER TF. The conductor and radial plate insulation of the ITER TF Model Coil were exposed at room temperature to test voltages derived from the results from these calculations. Breakdown appeared during the highest AC voltage step. A fault scenario for the TF fast discharge system is presented where one fault triggers a second fault, leading to considerable voltage stress. In addition a FEM model of Poloidal Field Coil 3 for the determination of the parameters of a detailed network model is presented in order to prepare detailed investigations of the transient voltage behaviour of the PF coils. (author)

  5. Fully low voltage and large area searching scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Zongqiang; Wang, Jihui; Lu, Qingyou

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel scanning tunneling microscope (STM), which allows the tip to travel a large distance (millimeters) on the sample and take images (to find microscopic targets) anywhere it reaches without losing atomic resolution. This broad range searching capability, together with the coarse approach and scan motion, is all done with only one single piezoelectric tube scanner as well as with only low voltages (<15 V). Simple structure, low interference and high precision are thus achieved. To this end, a pillar and a tube scanner are mounted in parallel on a base with one ball glued on the pillar top and two balls glued on the scanner top. These three balls form a narrow triangle, which supports a triangular slider piece. By inertial stepping, the scanner can move the slider toward the pillar (coarse approach) or rotate the slider about the pillar (travel along sample surface). Since all the stepping motions are driven by the scanner's lateral bending which is large per unit voltage, high voltages are unnecessary. The technology is also applicable to scanning force microscopes (SFM) such as atomic force microscopes (AFM), etc

  6. Studies of radiation blistering effects on voltage holding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    The surfaces of niobium and tungsten wires were blistered by 300-keV helium-ion irradiation and then tested for voltage holding. A cylindrical projection-tube technique was employed so that regions of strong electron emission could be observed and later examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Blistering was found to cause significant increases in pre-breakdown currents. However, these currents tend to saturate over a region corresponding to around 200-400 kV/cm surface field such that the ultimate voltage breakdown limit is not seriously reduced. Emission image observations and SEM photographs suggest that, in many cases, parts of the blistered surface are gradually erected by the strong surface fields, but this may not occur until after several arc breakdowns. SEM photographs also indicate that vapor from the anode may play an important part in the breakdown mechanism. Implications of these results to the design of devices important to fusion development, such as direct collectors and ion sources, are briefly discussed. The importance of future in situ irradiation-voltage experiments is also stressed. (U.S.)

  7. Photo-dissociation of hydrogen passivated dopants in gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, L.; Larsson, J.A.; Nolan, M.; Murtagh, M.; Greer, J.C.; Barbe, M.; Bailly, F.; Chevallier, J.; Silvestre, F.S.; Loridant-Bernard, D.; Constant, E.; Constant, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the photo-dissociation mechanisms of hydrogen passivated n- and p-type dopants in gallium arsenide is presented. The photo-induced dissociation of the Si Ga -H complex has been observed for relatively low photon energies (3.48 eV), whereas the photo-dissociation of C As -H is not observed for photon energies up to 5.58 eV. This fundamental difference in the photo-dissociation behavior between the two dopants is explained in terms of the localized excitation energies about the Si-H and C-H bonds

  8. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  9. Microprocessor-controlled, programmable ramp voltage generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.

    1978-11-01

    A special-purpose voltage generator has been developed for driving the quadrupole mass filter of a residual gas analyzer. The generator is microprocessor-controlled with desired ramping parameters programmed by setting front-panel digital thumb switches. The start voltage, stop voltage, and time of each excursion are selectable. A maximum of five start-stop levels may be pre-selected for each program. The ramp voltage is 0 to 10 volts with sweep times from 0.1 to 999.99 seconds

  10. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidari, E.; Keskin, M.; Maloberti, F.

    1999-01-01

    Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications.......Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications....

  11. Voltage-dependent gating in a "voltage sensor-less" ion channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley T Kurata

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The voltage sensitivity of voltage-gated cation channels is primarily attributed to conformational changes of a four transmembrane segment voltage-sensing domain, conserved across many levels of biological complexity. We have identified a remarkable point mutation that confers significant voltage dependence to Kir6.2, a ligand-gated channel that lacks any canonical voltage-sensing domain. Similar to voltage-dependent Kv channels, the Kir6.2[L157E] mutant exhibits time-dependent activation upon membrane depolarization, resulting in an outwardly rectifying current-voltage relationship. This voltage dependence is convergent with the intrinsic ligand-dependent gating mechanisms of Kir6.2, since increasing the membrane PIP2 content saturates Po and eliminates voltage dependence, whereas voltage activation is more dramatic when channel Po is reduced by application of ATP or poly-lysine. These experiments thus demonstrate an inherent voltage dependence of gating in a "ligand-gated" K+ channel, and thereby provide a new view of voltage-dependent gating mechanisms in ion channels. Most interestingly, the voltage- and ligand-dependent gating of Kir6.2[L157E] is highly sensitive to intracellular [K+], indicating an interaction between ion permeation and gating. While these two key features of channel function are classically dealt with separately, the results provide a framework for understanding their interaction, which is likely to be a general, if latent, feature of the superfamily of cation channels.

  12. Photo catalytic degradation of nitrobenzene using nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} photo catalyst doped with Zn ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynoso S, E. A.; Perez S, S.; Reyes C, A. P.; Castro R, C. L.; Felix N, R. M.; Lin H, S. W. [Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, Centro de Graduados e Investigacion, Apdo. Postal 1166, 22000 Tijuana, Baja California (Mexico); Paraguay D, F. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Apdo. Postal 311109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Alonso N, G. [UNAM, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Km 107, Apdo. Postal 356, 22800 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    Photo catalysis is a method widely used in the degradation of organic pollutants of the environment. The development of new materials is very important to improve the photo catalytic properties and to find new applications for TiO{sub 2} as a photo catalyst. In this article we reported the synthesis of a photo catalyst based on TiO{sub 2} doped with Zn{sup 2+} ions highly efficient in the degradation of nitrobenzene. The results of photo catalytic activity experiments showed that the Zn{sup 2+} doped TiO{sub 2} is more active that un-doped TiO{sub 2} catalyst with an efficiency of 99% for the nitrobenzene degradation at 120 min with an apparent rate constant of 35 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1}. For the characterization of photo catalyst X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used. (Author)

  13. Photo catalytic degradation of nitrobenzene using nanocrystalline TiO2 photo catalyst doped with Zn ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynoso S, E. A.; Perez S, S.; Reyes C, A. P.; Castro R, C. L.; Felix N, R. M.; Lin H, S. W.; Paraguay D, F.; Alonso N, G.

    2013-01-01

    Photo catalysis is a method widely used in the degradation of organic pollutants of the environment. The development of new materials is very important to improve the photo catalytic properties and to find new applications for TiO 2 as a photo catalyst. In this article we reported the synthesis of a photo catalyst based on TiO 2 doped with Zn 2+ ions highly efficient in the degradation of nitrobenzene. The results of photo catalytic activity experiments showed that the Zn 2+ doped TiO 2 is more active that un-doped TiO 2 catalyst with an efficiency of 99% for the nitrobenzene degradation at 120 min with an apparent rate constant of 35 x 10 -3 min -1 . For the characterization of photo catalyst X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used. (Author)

  14. Excitation of voltage oscillations in an induction voltage adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichelle Bruner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The induction voltage adder is an accelerator architecture used in recent designs of pulsed-power driven x-ray radiographic systems such as Sandia National Laboratories’ Radiographic Integrated Test Stand (RITS, the Atomic Weapons Establishment’s planned Hydrus Facility, and the Naval Research Laboratory’s Mercury. Each of these designs relies on magnetic insulation to prevent electron loss across the anode-cathode gap in the vicinity of the adder as well as in the coaxial transmission line. Particle-in-cell simulations of the RITS adder and transmission line show that, as magnetic insulation is being established during a pulse, some electron loss occurs across the gap. Sufficient delay in the cavity pulse timings provides an opportunity for high-momentum electrons to deeply penetrate the cavities of the adder cells where they can excite radio-frequency resonances. These oscillations may be amplified in subsequent gaps, resulting in oscillations in the output power. The specific modes supported by the RITS-6 accelerator and details of the mechanism by which they are excited are presented in this paper.

  15. Mapping of Residues Forming the Voltage Sensor of the Voltage-Dependent Anion-Selective Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lorie; Blachly-Dyson, Elizabeth; Colombini, Marco; Forte, Michael

    1993-06-01

    Voltage-gated ion-channel proteins contain "voltage-sensing" domains that drive the conformational transitions between open and closed states in response to changes in transmembrane voltage. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to identify residues affecting the voltage sensitivity of a mitochondrial channel, the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC). Although charge changes at many sites had no effect, at other sites substitutions that increased positive charge also increased the steepness of voltage dependance and substitutions that decreased positive charge decreased voltage dependance by an appropriate amount. In contrast to the plasma membrane K^+ and Na^+ channels, these residues are distributed over large parts of the VDAC protein. These results have been used to define the conformational transitions that accompany voltage gating of an ion channel. This gating mechanism requires the movement of large portions of the VDAC protein through the membrane.

  16. Robotic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (Puestow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, John J; Sawin, Robert

    2011-06-01

    A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ), also known as the Puestow procedure, is a complex procedure performed for chronic pancreatitis when the pancreatic duct is dilated and unable to drain properly. Traditionally, these procedures are performed with open surgery. A minimally invasive approach to the LPJ using rigid handheld nonarticulating instruments is tedious and rarely performed. In fact, there are no prior laparoscopic case reports for LPJ in children and only a small handful of cases in the adult literature. This lack of laparoscopic information may be an indication of the difficulty in performing this complex operation with nonarticulating laparoscopic instruments. The advantages of robotic surgery may help overcome these difficulties. We present the first robotic LPJ ever reported in a 14-year-old child with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. This case demonstrates the utility of this advanced surgical technology and may lead to a new minimally invasive option for both adults and children with chronic pancreatitis requiring surgical intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lateral loadings on snubber assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the installation of snubber assemblies in power plants with respect to transverse or lateral loads as well as axial loads. Evaluation of the effects of low level, lateral loads was performed by analytical means. At higher loadings, the snubber assembly could no longer be treated as a column; therefore, the effects of lateral loadings was determined by test. The test consisted of applying both lateral and axial loads simultaneously. Results of both the analysis and the test showed that the application of lateral loads had a considerable effect on the snubber assemblies

  18. A Self-Aligned a-IGZO Thin-Film Transistor Using a New Two-Photo-Mask Process with a Continuous Etching Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the parasitic capacitance and the number of photo-masks can improve operational speed and reduce fabrication costs. Therefore, in this study, a new two-photo-mask process is proposed that exhibits a self-aligned structure without an etching-stop layer. Combining the backside-ultraviolet (BUV exposure and backside-lift-off (BLO schemes can not only prevent the damage when etching the source/drain (S/D electrodes but also reduce the number of photo-masks required during fabrication and minimize the parasitic capacitance with the decreasing of gate overlap length at same time. Compared with traditional fabrication processes, the proposed process yields that thin-film transistors (TFTs exhibit comparable field-effect mobility (9.5 cm2/V·s, threshold voltage (3.39 V, and subthreshold swing (0.3 V/decade. The delay time of an inverter fabricated using the proposed process was considerably decreased.

  19. A Self-Aligned a-IGZO Thin-Film Transistor Using a New Two-Photo-Mask Process with a Continuous Etching Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Shang, Ming-Chi; Li, Bo-Jyun; Lin, Yu-Zuo; Wang, Shea-Jue; Lee, Win-Der

    2014-08-11

    Minimizing the parasitic capacitance and the number of photo-masks can improve operational speed and reduce fabrication costs. Therefore, in this study, a new two-photo-mask process is proposed that exhibits a self-aligned structure without an etching-stop layer. Combining the backside-ultraviolet (BUV) exposure and backside-lift-off (BLO) schemes can not only prevent the damage when etching the source/drain (S/D) electrodes but also reduce the number of photo-masks required during fabrication and minimize the parasitic capacitance with the decreasing of gate overlap length at same time. Compared with traditional fabrication processes, the proposed process yields that thin-film transistors (TFTs) exhibit comparable field-effect mobility (9.5 cm²/V·s), threshold voltage (3.39 V), and subthreshold swing (0.3 V/decade). The delay time of an inverter fabricated using the proposed process was considerably decreased.

  20. Enhancement in photo-electrochemical efficiency by reducing recombination rate in branched TiO2 nanotube array on functionalizing with ZnO micro crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Muzaffar Ahmad; Ashraf Shah, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    In this study, branched TiO2 nanotube array were fabricated through electrochemical anodization process at constant voltage using third generation electrolyte. On account of morphological advantage, these nanotubes shows significant enhancement in photo-electrochemical property than compact or conventional titania nanotube array. However, their photo-electrochemical efficiency intensifies on coating with ZnO micro-crystals. ZnO coated branched TiO2 nanotube array shows a photocurrent density of 27.8 mA cm‑2 which is 1.55 times the photocurrent density (17.2 mA cm‑2) shown by bare branched titania nanotubes. The significant enhancement in photocurrent density shown by the resulting ZnO/TiO2 hybrid structure is attributed to suppression in electron–hole recombination phenomenon by offering smooth pathway to photo generated excitons on account of staggered band edge positions in individual semiconductors.

  1. Photo-electrochemical Investigation of Radiation-Enhanced Galvanic Coupling and Hydrogen Permeation in TPBAR-related Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-02

    Research conducted in FY17 used photo-electrochemical methods to investigate the potential for radiationenhanced galvanic coupling in tritium-producing burnable absorber rod (TPBAR) materials. Specifically, a laboratory electrochemical cell was coupled with UV light in order to perform electrochemical opencircuit voltage and galvanic current measurements, techniques that have been used successfully in previous studies to replicate galvanic processes in reactor settings. UV irradiation can mimic reactor-like behavior because, similar to both directly and indirectly ionizing radiation, UV photons with energy greater than the band gap of the material will generate free charge carriers (electrons and holes) and can substantially alter the passivating effect of metal oxides.

  2. Photo-electrochemical Investigation of Radiation-Enhanced Galvanic Coupling and Hydrogen Permeation in TPBAR-related Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, G.

    2017-01-01

    Research conducted in FY17 used photo-electrochemical methods to investigate the potential for radiationenhanced galvanic coupling in tritium-producing burnable absorber rod (TPBAR) materials. Specifically, a laboratory electrochemical cell was coupled with UV light in order to perform electrochemical opencircuit voltage and galvanic current measurements, techniques that have been used successfully in previous studies to replicate galvanic processes in reactor settings. UV irradiation can mimic reactor-like behavior because, similar to both directly and indirectly ionizing radiation, UV photons with energy greater than the band gap of the material will generate free charge carriers (electrons and holes) and can substantially alter the passivating effect of metal oxides.

  3. Voltage stability in low voltage microgrids in aspects of active and reactive power demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parol Mirosław

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Low voltage microgrids are autonomous subsystems, in which generation, storage and power and electrical energy consumption appear. In the paper the main attention has been paid to the voltage stability issue in low voltage microgrid for different variants of its operation. In the introduction a notion of microgrid has been presented, and also the issue of influence of active and reactive power balance on node voltage level has been described. Then description of voltage stability issue has been presented. The conditions of voltage stability and indicators used to determine voltage stability margin in the microgrid have been described. Description of the low voltage test microgrid, as well as research methodology along with definition of considered variants of its operation have been presented further. The results of exemplary calculations carried out for the daily changes in node load of the active and reactive power, i.e. the voltage and the voltage stability margin indexes in nodes have been presented. Furthermore, the changes of voltage stability margin indexes depending on the variant of the microgrid operation have been presented. Summary and formulation of conclusions related to the issue of voltage stability in microgrids have been included at the end of the paper.

  4. Influence of current limitation on voltage stability with voltage sourced converter HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2013-01-01

    A first study of voltage stability with relevant amount of Voltage Sourced Converter based High Voltage Direct Current (VSC-HVDC) transmission is presented, with particular focus on the converters’ behaviour when reaching their rated current. The detrimental effect of entering the current...

  5. Voltage-Sensitive Load Controllers for Voltage Regulation and Increased Load Factor in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel controller design for controlling appliances based on local measurements of voltage. The controller finds the normalized voltage deviation accounting for the sensitivity of voltage measurements to appliance state. The controller produces a signal indicating desired pow...

  6. On-site voltage measurement with capacitive sensors on high voltage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Steennis, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    In Extra/High-Voltage (EHV/HV) power systems, over-voltages occur e.g. due to transients or resonances. At places where no conventional voltage measurement devices can be installed, on-site measurement of these occurrences requires preferably non intrusive sensors, which can be installed with little

  7. 76 FR 72203 - Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Reliability Workshop Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD12-5-000] Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Reliability Workshop Agenda As announced in the Notice of Staff..., from 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. to explore the interaction between voltage control, reliability, and economic...

  8. Study of the photo-detection efficiency of FBK High-Density silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappalà, G.; Regazzoni, V.; Acerbi, F.; Ferri, A.; Gola, A.; Paternoster, G.; Zorzi, N.; Piemonte, C.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a study of the factors contributing to the Photo-Detection Efficiency of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs): Quantum Efficiency, Triggering Probability and Fill Factor. Two different SiPM High-Density technologies are tested, NUV-HD, based on n-on-p junction, and RGB-HD, based on p-on-n junction, developed at FBK, Trento. The quantum efficiency was measured on photodiodes produced along with the SiPMs. The triggering probability, as a function of wavelength and bias voltage, was measured on circular Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) with 100% fill factor. Square SPADs, having the same layout of single SiPM cells, were studied to measure the effective fill factor and compare it to the nominal value. The comparison of the circular and square SPADs allows to get the transition region size between the effective active area of the cell and the one defined by the layout.

  9. Morphology-dependent photo-induced polarization recovery in ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. Y.; Liu, G.; Sando, D.; Nagarajan, V.; Seidel, J.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate photo-induced ferroelectric domain switching in a series of Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (PZT/LSMO) bilayer thin films with varying surface morphologies by piezoresponse force microscopy under light illumination. We demonstrate that reverse poled ferroelectric regions can be almost fully recovered under laser irradiation of the PZT layer and that the recovery process is dependent on the surface morphology on the nanometer scale. The recovery process is well described by the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model, and the evolution speed is controlled by light intensity, sample thickness, and initial write voltage. Our findings shed light on optical control of the domain structure in ferroelectric thin films with different surface morphologies.

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Low Voltage Arcs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghezzi, L.; Balestrero, A.

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and Simulation of Low Voltage Arcs is an attempt to improve the physical understanding, mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the electric arcs that are found during current interruptions in low voltage circuit breakers. An empirical description is gained by refined electrical

  11. Reduced Voltage Scaling in Clock Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel circuit technique to generate a reduced voltage swing (RVS signals for active power reduction on main buses and clocks. This is achieved without performance degradation, without extra power supply requirement, and with minimum area overhead. The technique stops the discharge path on the net that is swinging low at a certain voltage value. It reduces active power on the target net by as much as 33% compared to traditional full swing signaling. The logic 0 voltage value is programmable through control bits. If desired, the reduced-swing mode can also be disabled. The approach assumes that the logic 0 voltage value is always less than the threshold voltage of the nMOS receivers, which eliminate the need of the low to high voltage translation. The reduced noise margin and the increased leakage on the receiver transistors using this approach have been addressed through the selective usage of multithreshold voltage (MTV devices and the programmability of the low voltage value.

  12. The LMF triaxial MITL voltage adder system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Bennett, L.F.; Lockner, T.R.; Olson, R.E.; Poukey, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The light-ion microfusion driver design consists of multiple accelerating modules fired in coincidence and sequentially in order to provide the desired ion energy, power pulse shape and energy deposition uniformity on an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target. The basic energy source is a number of Marx generators which, through the appropriate pulse power conditioning, provide the necessary voltage pulse wave form to the accelerating gaps or feeds of each module. The cavity gaps are inductively isolated, and the voltage addition occurs in the center conductor of the voltage adder which is the positive electrode while the electrons of the sheath flow closer to the outer cylinder which is the magnetically insulated cathode electrode. Each module powers a separate two-stage extraction diode which provides a low divergence ion beam. In order to provide the two separate voltage pulses required by the diode, a triaxial adder system is designed for each module. The voltage addition occurs in two separate MITLs. The center hollow cylinder (anode) of the second MITL also serves as the outer cathode electrode for the extension of the first voltage adder MITL. The voltage of the second stage is about twice that of the first stage. The cavities are connected in series to form the outer cylinder of each module. The accelerating modules are positioned radially in a symmetrical way around the fusion chamber. A preliminary conceptual design of the LMF modules with emphasis on the voltage adders and extension MITLs will be presented and discussed

  13. Time isolation high-voltage impulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chodorow, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    Lewis' high-voltage impulse generator is analyzed in greater detail, demonstrating that voltage between adjacent nodes can be equalized by proper selection of parasitic impedances. This permits improved TEM mode propagation to a matched load, with more faithful source waveform preservation

  14. High-voltage engineering and testing

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Hugh M

    2013-01-01

    This 3rd edition of High Voltage Engineering Testing describes strategic developments in the field and reflects on how they can best be managed. All the key components of high voltage and distribution systems are covered including electric power networks, UHV and HV. Distribution systems including HVDC and power electronic systems are also considered.

  15. Improving transition voltage spectroscopy of molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS) is a promising spectroscopic tool for molecular junctions. The principles in TVS is to find the minimum on a Fowler-Nordheim plot where ln(I/V2) is plotted against 1/V and relate the voltage at the minimum Vmin to the closest molecular level. Importantly, Vmin...

  16. Reducing Ripple In A Switching Voltage Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulkovich, John; Rodriguez, G. Ernest

    1994-01-01

    Ripple voltage in output of switching voltage regulator reduced substantially by simple additional circuitry adding little to overall weight and size of regulator. Heretofore, additional filtering circuitry needed to obtain comparable reductions in ripple typically as large and heavy as original regulator. Current opposing ripple current injected into filter capacitor.

  17. Wide-range voltage modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider's Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-μs wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 μs, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented

  18. Voltage Effect in Holograms of Polyvinyl Alcohol with FeCl3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Olivares-Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We show experimentally that the metallic salt, FeCl3, at different concentrations, provides photosensitivity and conductivity characteristics with poly(vinyl alcohol material. The holographic recording in this photosensitive material was made in real time. The effect of applied voltage on holographic diffraction gratings in the recording process and the changes in their diffraction efficiency, depending on their composition, are shown. In addition, we describe the photo-mechanism, physicochemical processes, and water condensations involved in changes of the formation of images due to applied voltage. The results suggest that polymers doped with metallic salts may have potential as inexpensive photosensitive materials that are easy to work under normal laboratory condition.

  19. A novel categorisation system to organise a large photo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The white shark Carcharodon carcharias was one of the first elasmobranch species where photo identification was used to identify unique individuals. In this study, we propose guidelines that improve the current photo identification technique for white sharks by presenting a novel categorisation system. Using this method, a ...

  20. Reversing the AAPT Photo Contest: A Physics Teacher Education Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechter, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    This year while awaiting the arrival of the AAPT High School Physics Photo Contest poster, I developed an idea for my physics teacher education course that used the photo contest in a new context. While using an external source like a photograph to learn physics is not new to physics education, this article describes how we used the foundational…

  1. Reading Urban Environment by Photo: A Critical Tool for Socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reading Urban Environment by Photo: A Critical Tool for Socio-Cultural Analyzing. ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... In the last decades usage of photos in landscape and urban design grow noticeably; yet applying it in architectural research or education for discovering social determinations needs more ...

  2. A library of georeferenced photos from the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiangming; Dorovskoy, Pavel; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Bridge, Eli

    2011-12-01

    A picture is worth a thousand of words, and every day hundreds of scientists, students, and environmentally aware citizens are taking field photos to document their observations of rocks, glaciers, soils, forests, wetlands, croplands, rangelands, livestock, and birds and mammals, as well as important events such as droughts, floods, wildfires, insect emergences, and infectious disease outbreaks. Where are those field photos stored? Can they be shared in a timely fashion to support education, research, and the leisure activities of citizens across the world? What are the financial and intellectual costs if those field photos are lost or not shared? Recently, researchers at the University of Oklahoma developed and released the Global Geo-Referenced Field Photo Library (hereinafter referred to as the Field Photo Library; http://www.eomf.ou.edu/photos/), a Web-based data portal designed for researchers and educators who wish to archive and share field photos from across the world, each tagged with exact positioning data (Figure 1). The data portal has a simple user interface that allows people to upload, query, and download georeferenced field photos in the library.

  3. Japanese and Korean Kindergartners' Perspectives of Play Using Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-­Taylor, Satomi; Ro, Yeonsun; Han, Jihee; Ito, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine Japanese and Korean kindergarteners' perspectives by asking them to photograph play and explain why their photos represent play (photo elicitation interviews). The participants consisted of 50 kindergarteners on Japan's main island and 50 kindergarteners in South Korea. Japanese and Korean kindergartners…

  4. Practical considerations in voltage stability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with some of the most important practical issues related to voltage stability assessment of large practical systems. A brief discussion of the practical aspects of voltage stability problem and prevention of voltage instability is given first, followed by descriptions of different analytical techniques and tools for voltage stability analysis. Presentations of analytical tools is focused on the VSTAB program which incorporates the modal analysis, continuation power flow, and shortest distance to instability techniques, Finally, an example case study of a practical large system is presented. The case study illustrates how modal analysis is used to determine the most effective load shedding scheme for preventing voltage instability. (author) 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Voltage-assisted polymer wafer bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsanik, J S; Bernstein, J J

    2012-01-01

    Polymer wafer bonding is a widely used process for fabrication of microfluidic devices. However, best practices for polymer bonds do not achieve sufficient bond strength for many applications. By applying a voltage to a polymer bond in a process called voltage-assisted bonding, bond strength is shown to improve dramatically for two polymers (Cytop™ and poly(methyl methacrylate)). Several experiments were performed to provide a starting point for further exploration of this technique. An optimal voltage range is experimentally observed with a reduction in bonding strength at higher voltages. Additionally, voltage-assisted bonding is shown to reduce void diameter due to bond defects. An electrostatic force model is proposed to explain the improved bond characteristics. This process can be used to improve bond strength for most polymers. (paper)

  6. Voltage-gated lipid ion channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, Andreas; Heimburg, Thomas Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic lipid membranes can display channel-like ion conduction events even in the absence of proteins. We show here that these events are voltage-gated with a quadratic voltage dependence as expected from electrostatic theory of capacitors. To this end, we recorded channel traces and current...... histograms in patch-experiments on lipid membranes. We derived a theoretical current-voltage relationship for pores in lipid membranes that describes the experimental data very well when assuming an asymmetric membrane. We determined the equilibrium constant between closed and open state and the open...... probability as a function of voltage. The voltage-dependence of the lipid pores is found comparable to that of protein channels. Lifetime distributions of open and closed events indicate that the channel open distribution does not follow exponential statistics but rather power law behavior for long open times...

  7. Non-contact current and voltage sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Gary D; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C; Schappert, Michael A

    2014-03-25

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing that contains the current and voltage sensors, which may be a ferrite cylinder with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap along the circumference to measure current, or alternative a winding provided through the cylinder along its axis and a capacitive plate or wire disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  8. Coordinated Voltage Control of Active Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a centralized coordinated voltage control method for active distribution network to solve off-limit problem of voltage after incorporation of distributed generation (DG. The proposed method consists of two parts, it coordinated primal-dual interior point method-based voltage regulation schemes of DG reactive powers and capacitors with centralized on-load tap changer (OLTC controlling method which utilizes system’s maximum and minimum voltages, to improve the qualified rate of voltage and reduce the operation numbers of OLTC. The proposed coordination has considered the cost of capacitors. The method is tested using a radial edited IEEE-33 nodes distribution network which is modelled using MATLAB.

  9. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jun Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty.

  10. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  11. Reliability of supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage in substations extra high voltage to high voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Dragoslav M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Switchgear for auxiliary low voltage in substations (SS of extra high voltages (EHV to high voltage (HV - SS EHV/HV kV/kV is of special interest for the functioning of these important SS, as it provides a supply for system of protection and other vital functions of SS. The article addresses several characteristic examples involving MV lines with varying degrees of independence of their supply, and the possible application of direct transformation EHV/LV through special voltage transformers. Auxiliary sources such as inverters and diesel generators, which have limited power and expensive energy, are also used for the supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage. Corresponding reliability indices are calculated for all examples including mean expected annual engagement of diesel generators. The applicability of certain solutions of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage SS EHV/HV, taking into account their reliability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness is analyzed too. In particular, the analysis of applications of direct transformation EHV/LV for supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage, for both new and existing SS EHV/HV.

  12. Recent progress in photo-injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1996-10-01

    In photoinjector electron guns, electrons are emitted from a photocathode by a short laser pulse and then accelerated by intense RF fields in a resonant cavity. Photoinjectors are very versatile tools. Normally we think of them in terms of the production of high electron density in 6-D phase space, for reasons such as injection to laser accelerators, generation of x-rays by Compton scattering and short wavelength FELs. Another example for the use of photo-injectors is the production of a high charge in a short time, for wake- field acceleration, two-beam accelerators and high-power, long-wavelength FELs. There are other potential uses, such as the generation of polarized electrons, compact accelerators for industrial applications and more. Photoinjectors are in operation in many electron accelerator facilities and a large number of new guns are under construction. The purpose of this work is to present some trend setting recent results that have been obtained in some of these laboratories. In particular the subjects of high density in 6-D phase space, new diagnostic tools, photocathode advances and high-charge production will be discussed

  13. Golden Jubilee Photos: World Wide Web

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the 1980s, the Internet was already a valuable tool to scientists, allowing them to exchange e-mails and to access powerful computers remotely. A more simple means of sharing information was needed, however, and CERN, with its long tradition of informatics and networking, was the ideal place to find it. Moreover, hundreds of scientists from all over the world were starting to work together on preparations for the experiments at the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider. In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee (see photo), a young scientist working at CERN, drafted a proposal for an information-management system combining the internet, personal computers and computer-aided document consultation, known as hypertext. In 1990 he was joined by Robert Cailliau and the weaving of the World Wide Web began in earnest, even though only two CERN computers were allocated to the task at the time. The Web subsequently underwent a steady expansion to include the world's main particle physics institutes. The Web was not the...

  14. Golden Jubilee photos: Precision is their motto

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1980s, CERN embarked on the enormous Large Electron-Positron Collider construction project. The excavation of the 27-kilometre LEP tunnel was a huge technical challenge. The tunnel-boring machines excavated the tunnel in 3.3 km octants and had to be operated with extraordinary precision to ensure that they reached their destination - the bottom of the next vertical shaft - precisely on target. The tunnel was excavated before high-performance instruments were developed for the construction of the Channel Tunnel. As no firms were willing to perform the surveying work, CERN's own surveyors, with experience from the SPS behind them, took up the challenge. At the surface, the surveyors established the world's most accurate geodetic network, performing measurements to an accuracy of 10-7, or 1mm per 10 km, using the Terrameter (see photo). The excavation of the tunnel was completed in 1988 and the finished tunnel's trajectory was found to diverge from the theoretical value specified by the...

  15. RTOD-photo operations and procedures manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-03-15

    This document presents a survey of the EG&G NRDS photographic operation in four major sections and includes the work scope, procedures, some technical backgrounding and operational information. Two sections, Instrumentation and Photo Systems, include the areas of direct responsibilities while a section on Film Handling and Coordination and a section covering special information, pertinent to the project, are included to adequately complete this survey. The photographic group is housed in two trailers within the control point area at NRDS and from these trailers provides photographic support at a number of locations. Four camera bunkers, three camera towers, a kinescope system, a microfilm system and remote camera controls comprise the facilities that the group maintains and operates outside these trailers. The work load includes major items such as: motion picture coverage of the nuclear rocket engine tests, data record microfilming, kinescope recording, and documentary coverage of the company related operational responsibilities. In addition, a number of minor photographic services are extended, when required. The nature of the work, because of its importance within the research and development efforts at NRDS, requires optimum quality and efficiency throughout. The many procedures outlined here have been designed to satisfy these requirements.

  16. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  17. Photos vs silhouettes for evaluation of African American profile esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, Andrew; Weinstein, Martin; Borislow, Alan J; Braitman, Leonard E

    2012-02-01

    Patient photos and silhouettes are commonly used in clinical evaluations and orthodontic research to evaluate profile esthetics. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of photos or silhouettes is a more appropriate method of evaluating African American profile esthetics and whether there are different profile esthetic preferences among clinicians when using photos compared with silhouettes. Pretreatment records of 20 adolescent African American patients were selected (10 male, 10 female) from the orthodontic clinic at the Albert Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia. Each patient's profile photo was digitally changed with imaging software (Dolphin Imaging and Management Solutions, Chatsworth, Calif) to fabricate a series of 7 photos and 7 silhouettes with lip positions at uniform distances relative to Ricketts' E-line standard. Fifteen raters consisting of orthodontic faculty and residents were asked to select the most esthetically pleasing profile from each patient's photo series and silhouette series. More rater preferences for the photographs (86%) were within the acceptable esthetic range (within 2 mm of the E-line in either direction) than were their preferences for silhouettes (66%) (P esthetic norm were more often preferred in the silhouettes than in the photos. Thirty-one percent of the silhouettes preferred by the raters were flatter than the norm compared with 9% of the photos (P = 0.003). Fuller profiles were preferred in only 3% of the silhouettes and 5% of the photos (P = 0.6). Esthetic attractiveness of faces of African American orthodontic patients is rated differently in photos and silhouettes. When evaluating soft-tissue esthetic profile preferences, rater preferences in the photographs were closer to the established esthetic norm than were their preferences in the silhouettes. Using silhouettes to evaluate patient esthetics could influence clinicians or researchers to select profiles that are flatter than the established

  18. Photo-excited charge collection spectroscopy probing the traps in field-effect transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Im, Seongil; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Solid state field-effect devices such as organic and inorganic-channel thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been expected to promote advances in display and sensor electronics. The operational stabilities of such TFTs are thus important, strongly depending on the nature and density of charge traps present at the channel/dielectric interface or in the thin-film channel itself. This book contains how to characterize these traps, starting from the device physics of field-effect transistor (FET). Unlike conventional analysis techniques which are away from well-resolving spectral results, newly-introduced photo-excited charge-collection spectroscopy (PECCS) utilizes the photo-induced threshold voltage response from any type of working transistor devices with organic-, inorganic-, and even nano-channels, directly probing on the traps. So, our technique PECCS has been discussed through more than ten refereed-journal papers in the fields of device electronics, applied physics, applied chemistry, nano-devices and materia...

  19. Molecularly imprinted photo-sensitive polyglutamic acid nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing of hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rongli; Xu, Sheng; Luo, Jing; Liu, Xiaoya

    2015-01-01

    A voltammetric sensor for hemoglobin (Hb) was prepared from molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MINPs) via electrophoretic deposition. A photo-sensitive copolymer composed of poly-γ-glutamic grafted with the fluorophore 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin was converted into nanoparticles that were imprinted with Hb. The resultant MINPs were then placed on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) via electrophoretic deposition. Subsequent photo-crosslinking locks the recognition sites. The template was removed by extraction with a mixture of acetic acid and methanol at a ratio of 1:9 (v:v) to obtain a voltammetric sensor for Hb. The current response of the sensor at a working voltage of −260 mV is linearly related to the concentration of Hb in the range from 5 to 100 μg mL −1 , and recoveries range from 98.7 to 102.3 %. Compared to the respective non-imprinted nanoparticles, the sensor displays high recognition capability and affinity for Hb. (author)

  20. Influence of reverse bias on the LEDs properties used as photo-detectors in VLC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Marcin; Siuzdak, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Continuous increasing share of light emitting diodes (LEDs) in a lighting market, which we observe during the last couple years, opens new possibilities. Especially, when we talk about practical realization the concept of visible light communications (VLC), which gains on popularity recently. The VLC concept presupposes utilization of illumination systems for a purpose of data transmission. It means, the emitters, in this case the LEDs, will not of a light source only, but also the data transmitters. Currently, most of the conducted researches in this area is concentrated on achievement of effective transmission methods. It means a transmission only in one direction. This is not enough, when we talk about the fully functional transmission system. Ensuring of feedback transmission channel is a necessary also. One of the ideas, which was postulated by authors of this article, is using for this purpose the LEDs in a double role. A utilization of LEDs as photo-detectors requires a reverse polarization, in contrast to a forward bias, which has a place when they work as light emitters. Ensuring of proper polarization get significant meaning. The article presents the investigations results on the influence of reverse bias on photo-receiving properties of LEDs used as light detectors. The conducted research proved that an improvement of sensitivity and bandwidth parameters are possible by application of appropriate value of the reverse voltage in a receiver.

  1. A High Sensitivity Preamplifier for Quartz Tuning Forks in QEPAS (Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Starecki

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available All the preamplifiers dedicated for Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS applications that have so far been reported in the literature have been based on operational amplifiers working in transimpedance configurations. Taking into consideration that QEPAS sensors are based on quartz tuning forks, and that quartz has a relatively high voltage constant and relatively low charge constant, it seems that a transimpedance amplifier is not an optimal solution. This paper describes the design of a quartz QEPAS sensor preamplifier, implemented with voltage amplifier configuration. Discussion of an electrical model of the circuit and preliminary measurements are presented. Both theoretical analysis and experiments show that use of the voltage configuration allows for a substantial increase of the output signal in comparison to the transimpedance circuit with the same tuning fork working in identical conditions. Assuming that the sensitivity of the QEPAS technique depends directly on the properties of the preamplifier, use of the voltage amplifier configuration should result in an increase of QEPAS sensitivity by one to two orders of magnitude.

  2. A High Sensitivity Preamplifier for Quartz Tuning Forks in QEPAS (Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy) Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starecki, Tomasz; Wieczorek, Piotr Z

    2017-11-03

    All the preamplifiers dedicated for Quartz Enhanced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS) applications that have so far been reported in the literature have been based on operational amplifiers working in transimpedance configurations. Taking into consideration that QEPAS sensors are based on quartz tuning forks, and that quartz has a relatively high voltage constant and relatively low charge constant, it seems that a transimpedance amplifier is not an optimal solution. This paper describes the design of a quartz QEPAS sensor preamplifier, implemented with voltage amplifier configuration. Discussion of an electrical model of the circuit and preliminary measurements are presented. Both theoretical analysis and experiments show that use of the voltage configuration allows for a substantial increase of the output signal in comparison to the transimpedance circuit with the same tuning fork working in identical conditions. Assuming that the sensitivity of the QEPAS technique depends directly on the properties of the preamplifier, use of the voltage amplifier configuration should result in an increase of QEPAS sensitivity by one to two orders of magnitude.

  3. A Novel Index for Online Voltage Stability Assessment Based on Correlation Characteristic of Voltage Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Aghamohammadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Voltage instability is a major threat for security of power systems. Preserving voltage security margin at a certain limit is a vital requirement for today’s power systems. Assessment of voltage security margin is a challenging task demanding sophisticated indices. In this paper, for the purpose of on line voltage security assessment a new index based on the correlation characteristic of network voltage profile is proposed. Voltage profile comprising all bus voltages contains the effect of network structure, load-generation patterns and reactive power compensation on the system behaviour and voltage security margin. Therefore, the proposed index is capable to clearly reveal the effect of system characteristics and events on the voltage security margin. The most attractive feature for this index is its fast and easy calculation from synchronously measured voltage profile without any need to system modelling and simulation and without any dependency on network size. At any instant of system operation by merely measuring network voltage profile and no further simulation calculation this index could be evaluated with respect to a specific reference profile. The results show that the behaviour of this index with respect to the change in system security is independent of the selected reference profile. The simplicity and easy calculation make this index very suitable for on line application. The proposed approach has been demonstrated on IEEE 39 bus test system with promising results showing its effectiveness and applicability.

  4. ICT Based HIL Validation of Voltage Control Coordination in Smart Grids Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Shahid

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to validate the capability of renewable generation (ReGen plants to provide online voltage control coordination ancillary service to the system operators in smart grids. Simulation studies about online coordination concepts from ReGen plants have already been identified in previous publications. However, here, the results are validated through a real-time Hardware-In-the-Loop framework using an exemplary benchmark grid area in Denmark as a base case that includes flexible renewable power plants providing voltage control functionality. The provision of voltage control support from ReGen plants is verified on a large-scale power system against the baseline scenario, considering the hierarchical industrial controller platforms used nowadays in power plants. Moreover, the verification of online voltage control support is carried out by taking into account a communication network as well as the associated data traffic patterns obtained from a real network. Based on the sets of recordings, guidelines and recommendations for practical implementation of the developed control algorithms for targeted ancillary service are made. This provides a deep insight for stakeholders, i.e., wind turbine and photo-voltaic system manufacturers and system operators, regarding the existing boundaries for current technologies and requirements for accommodating the new ancillary services in industrial application.

  5. Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    Final Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/01/2009 – 12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Lateral Mixing Experiment (LATMIX) focused on mixing and...anomalies. LATMIX2 targeted the wintertime Gulf Stream, where deep mixed layers, strong lateral density gradients (Gulf Stream north wall) and the

  6. ATLAS TileCal Sub-Module Production at UIUC - Photos of Prototype PMT Test Setup

    CERN Multimedia

    Errede, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 - Entrance to the lab. Photo 2 - A shot of the center of the lab. Photo 3 - The back of the lab. The Dark Box: Photo 4 - A view of the outside of the Dark Box along with its dry nitrogen system. Photo 5 - A view of the inside of the Dark Box. Photo 6 - The LED holder, beam splitter (removed in this shot), and a pulsing circuit. Photo 7 - The PMT holder. Photo 8 - A possible design for a Stepper Motor controlled filter wheel. Photo 9 - Polishing area for the optical fibers. R&D Work on Stepper Motor/Motion Control: Photo 10 - The complete prototype of the Stepper Motor setup. Photo 11 - The prototype of the Main Stepper Motor Driver Board. Photo 12 - The prototype of the Stepper Motor Power Amplifer. Photo 13 - The prototype of the Stepper Motor LabPC + Interface Board.

  7. Novel Voltage limiting concept for avalance breakdown protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, L.C.H.; Bezooijen, van A.; Mahmoudi, R.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Destructive over-voltage breakdown of cellular phone power transistors is prevented by using a new voltage-limiting concept. The output voltage is detected by an avalanche-based detector, and limited by decreasing the output power when needed. The voltage detector contains a low voltage bipolar NPN

  8. Integrated vehicle's lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  9. Integrated vehicle’s lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  10. Unified analytical threshold voltage model for non-uniformly doped dual metal gate fully depleted silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rathnamala; Katti, Guruprasad; Havaldar, Dnyanesh S.; DasGupta, Nandita; DasGupta, Amitava

    2009-03-01

    The paper describes the unified analytical threshold voltage model for non-uniformly doped, dual metal gate (DMG) fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FDSOI) MOSFETs based on the solution of 2D Poisson's equation. 2D Poisson's equation is solved analytically for appropriate boundary conditions using separation of variables technique. The solution is then extended to obtain the threshold voltage of the FDSOI MOSFET. The model is able to handle any kind of non-uniform doping, viz. vertical, lateral as well as laterally asymetric channel (LAC) profile in the SOI film in addition to the DMG structure. The analytical results are validated with the numerical simulations using the device simulator MEDICI.

  11. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  12. Lateral protonic/electronic hybrid oxide thin-film transistor gated by SiO2 nanogranular films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Li Qiang; Chao, Jin Yu; Xiao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Ionic/electronic interaction offers an additional dimension in the recent advancements of condensed materials. Here, lateral gate control of conductivities of indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) films is reported. An electric-double-layer (EDL) transistor configuration was utilized with a phosphorous-doped SiO 2 nanogranular film to provide a strong lateral electric field. Due to the strong lateral protonic/electronic interfacial coupling effect, the IZO EDL transistor could operate at a low-voltage of 1 V. A resistor-loaded inverter is built, showing a high voltage gain of ∼8 at a low supply voltage of 1 V. The lateral ionic/electronic coupling effects are interesting for bioelectronics and portable electronics

  13. Lateral protonic/electronic hybrid oxide thin-film transistor gated by SiO{sub 2} nanogranular films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Li Qiang, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn; Chao, Jin Yu; Xiao, Hui [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Ionic/electronic interaction offers an additional dimension in the recent advancements of condensed materials. Here, lateral gate control of conductivities of indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) films is reported. An electric-double-layer (EDL) transistor configuration was utilized with a phosphorous-doped SiO{sub 2} nanogranular film to provide a strong lateral electric field. Due to the strong lateral protonic/electronic interfacial coupling effect, the IZO EDL transistor could operate at a low-voltage of 1 V. A resistor-loaded inverter is built, showing a high voltage gain of ∼8 at a low supply voltage of 1 V. The lateral ionic/electronic coupling effects are interesting for bioelectronics and portable electronics.

  14. MD-11 PCA - Research flight team photo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    On Aug. 30, 1995, a the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 transport aircraft landed equipped with a computer-assisted engine control system that has the potential to increase flight safety. In landings at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on August 29 and 30, the aircraft demonstrated software used in the aircraft's flight control computer that essentially landed the MD-11 without a need for the pilot to manipulate the flight controls significantly. In partnership with McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), with Pratt & Whitney and Honeywell helping to design the software, NASA developed this propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system following a series of incidents in which hydraulic failures resulted in the loss of flight controls. This new system enables a pilot to operate and land the aircraft safely when its normal, hydraulically-activated control surfaces are disabled. This August 29, 1995, photo shows the MD-11 team. Back row, left to right: Tim Dingen, MDA pilot; John Miller, MD-11 Chief pilot (MDA); Wayne Anselmo, MD-11 Flight Test Engineer (MDA); Gordon Fullerton, PCA Project pilot; Bill Burcham, PCA Chief Engineer; Rudey Duran, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA); John Feather, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA); Daryl Townsend, Crew Chief; Henry Hernandez, aircraft mechanic; Bob Baron, PCA Project Manager; Don Hermann, aircraft mechanic; Jerry Cousins, aircraft mechanic; Eric Petersen, PCA Manager (Honeywell); Trindel Maine, PCA Data Engineer; Jeff Kahler, PCA Software Engineer (Honeywell); Steve Goldthorpe, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA). Front row, left to right: Teresa Hass, Senior Project Management Analyst; Hollie Allingham (Aguilera), Senior Project Management Analyst; Taher Zeglum, PCA Data Engineer (MDA); Drew Pappas, PCA Project Manager (MDA); John Burken, PCA Control Engineer.

  15. High voltage electricity installations a planning perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Jay, Stephen Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The presence of high voltage power lines has provoked widespread concern for many years. High Voltage Electricity Installations presents an in-depth study of policy surrounding the planning of high voltage installations, discussing the manner in which they are percieved by the public, and the associated environmental issues. An analysis of these concerns, along with the geographical, environmental and political influences that shape their expression, is presented. Investigates local planning policy in an area of the energy sector that is of highly topical environmental and public concern Cover

  16. Investigation of voltage swell mitigation using STATCOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razak, N A Abdul; Jaafar, S; Hussain, I S

    2013-01-01

    STATCOM is one of the best applications of a self commutated FACTS device to control power quality problems in the distribution system. This project proposed a STATCOM model with voltage control mechanism. DQ transformation was implemented in the controller system to achieve better estimation. Then, the model was used to investigate and analyse voltage swell problem in distribution system. The simulation results show that voltage swell could contaminate distribution network with unwanted harmonic frequencies. Negative sequence frequencies give harmful effects to the network. System connected with proposed STATCOM model illustrates that it could mitigate this problems efficiently.

  17. Analysis of NSTX TF Joint Voltage Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolley R

    2005-01-01

    This report presents findings of analyses of recorded current and voltage data associated with 72 electrical joints operating at high current and high mechanical stress. The analysis goal was to characterize the mechanical behavior of each joint and thus evaluate its mechanical supports. The joints are part of the toroidal field (TF) magnet system of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) pulsed plasma device operating at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Since there is not sufficient space near the joints for much traditional mechanical instrumentation, small voltage probes were installed on each joint and their voltage monitoring waveforms have been recorded on sampling digitizers during each NSTX ''shot''

  18. Photo-induced reduction of flavin mononucleotide in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, S.-H.; Dick, B.; Penzkofer, A.

    2007-01-01

    The photo-induced reduction of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in aqueous solutions is studied by absorption spectra measurement under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Samples without exogenous reducing agent and with the exogenous reducing agents ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and dithiothreitol (DTT) are investigated. Under anaerobic conditions the photo-induced reduction with and without reducing agents is irreversible. Under aerobic conditions the photo-reduction without added reducing agent is small compared to the photo-degradation, and the photo-reduction of FMN by the reducing agents is reversible (re-oxidation in the dark). During photo-excitation of FMN the dissolved oxygen is consumed by singlet oxygen formation and subsequent chemical reaction. After light switch-off slow re-oxidation (slow absorption recovery) occurs due to air in-diffusion from surface. EDTA degradation by FMN excitation leads to oxygen scavenging. The quantum efficiencies of photo-reduction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions are determined. The re-oxidation of reduced FMN under aerobic conditions and due to air injection is investigated

  19. Anomalous high photoconductivity in short channel indium-zinc-oxide photo-transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun-Sik; Jeon, Sanghun

    2015-01-01

    Upon light exposure, an indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) presents higher photoconductivity by several orders of magnitude at the negative gate bias region. Among various device geometrical factors, scaling down the channel length of the photo-transistor results in an anomalous increase in photoconductivity. To probe the origin of this high photoconductivity in short-channel device, we measured transient current, current–voltage, and capacitance–voltage characteristics of IZO–TFTs with various channel lengths and widths before and after illumination. Under the illumination, the equilibrium potential region which lies far from front interface exists only in short-channel devices, forming the un-depleted conducting back channel. This region plays an important role in carrier transport under the illumination, leading to high photoconductivity in short-channel devices. Photon exposure coupled with gate-modulated band bending for short-channel devices leads to the accumulation of V o ++ at the front channel and screening negative gate bias, thereby generating high current flow in the un-depleted back-channel region

  20. Lateral spin injection and detection via electrodeposited Fe/GaAs contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Majumder, Sarmita

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies of lateral spin injection and detection through electrodeposited Fe/GaAs tunnel contacts are reported in this thesis. An enhanced spin valve voltage is demonstrated via non-local lateral spin transport measurements compared to their vacuum-deposited counterparts. We have proposed a simple theoretical model to explain this result. Combined with experimental evidence for interfacial oxygen from atom probe tomography, we speculate that the enhancements occur due to a magne...

  1. Controlled structures in laterally patterned barrier discharges by illumination of the semiconductor electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, R; Schumann, T; Stollenwerk, L

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we present a possibility to actively control emerging patterns in laterally extended barrier discharges. One of the barriers is a high-ohmic semiconductive GaAs electrode. As the electrode is illuminated from its plasma-far side, the voltage inside the plasma gap is increased. If the gap voltage becomes higher than the ignition voltage of the gas, a discharge is started. A corresponding electrical model is given. The lateral resolution of control for a laterally homogeneous discharge is investigated. It is found that the luminescence of the discharge is controlled by both a variation of illumination power density and a variation of the applied voltage. However, during an increase in the applied voltage, the discharge may become larger than the area of illumination. Further, an investigation of the patterned discharge control shows that the number of current spots depends on the illumination power density and the area of illumination. The behaviour of current spot appearance suggests an inhibitory influence, preventing a discharge in its immediate surrounding and limiting the total number of current spots. (paper)

  2. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.

    2016-01-01

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  3. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H., E-mail: hendrik.jansen@desy.de

    2016-09-21

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  4. Design and Control of a Dynamic Voltage Restorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John Godsk

    voltage until the energy storage is completely drained or the voltages have returned to normal voltage levels. The control of the HV-DVR is a combined feedforward and feedback control to have a fast response time and load independent voltages. The control is implemented in a rotating dq-reference frame...... electric consumers against voltage dips and surges in the medium and low voltage distribution grid. The thesis first gives an introduction to relevant power quality issues for a DVR and power electronic controllers for voltage dip mitigation. Thereafter the operation and the elements in a DVR are described...... of symmetrical and non-symmetrical voltage dips. In most cases the DVR is capable of restoring the load voltages within 2 ms. During the transition phases load voltage oscillations can be generated and during the return of the supply voltages short time over-voltages can be generated by the DVR. Both...

  5. Fiber-optic voltage measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Miaoyuan; Nie, De-Xin; Li, Yan; Peng, Yu; Lin, Qi-Qing; Wang, Jing-Gang

    1993-09-01

    A new fibre optic voltage measuring system has been developed based on the electrooptic effect of bismuth germanium oxide (Bi4Ge3O12)crystal. It uses the LED as the light source. The light beam emitted from the light source is transmitted to the sensor through the optic fibre and the intensity of the output beam is changed by the applied voltage. This optic signal is transmitted to the PIN detector and converted to an electric signal which is processed by the electronic circuit and 8098 single chip microcomputer the output voltage signal obtained is directly proportional to the applied voltage. This paper describes the principle the configuration and the performance parameters of the system. Test results are evaluated and discussed.

  6. Constant potential high-voltage generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnick, T.A.; Dupuis, W.A.; Palermo, T.

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray tube voltage generator with automatic stabilization circuitry is disclosed. The generator includes a source of pulsating direct current voltage such as from a rectified 3 phase transformer. This pulsating voltage is supplied to the cathode and anode of an X-ray tube and forms an accelerating potential for electrons within that tube. The accelerating potential is stabilized with a feedback signal which is provided by a feedback network. The network includes an error signal generator which compares an instantaneous accelerating potential with a preferred reference accelerating potential and generates an error function. This error function is transmitted to a control tube grid which in turn causes the voltage difference between X-ray tube cathode and anode to stabilize and thereby reduce the error function. In this way stabilized accelerating potentials are realized and uniform X-ray energy distributions produced. (Auth.)

  7. Nested high voltage generator/particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a modular high voltage particle accelerator having an emission axis and an emission end, the accelerator. It comprises: a plurality of high voltage generators in nested adjacency to form a nested stack, each the generator comprising a cup-like housing having a base and a tubular sleeve extending from the base, a primary transformer winding encircling the nested stack; a secondary transformer winding between each adjacent pair of housings, magnetically linked to the primary transformer winding through the gaps; a power supply respective to each of the secondary windings converting alternating voltage from its respective secondary winding to d.c. voltage, the housings at the emission end forming a hollow throat for particle acceleration, a vacuum seal at the emission end of the throat which enables the throat to be evacuated; a particle source in the thrond power means to energize the primary transformer winding

  8. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, R.S.

    1985-08-05

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  9. Behaviour of Belle II ARICH Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindo, H.; Adachi, I.; Dolenec, R.; Hataya, K.; Iori, S.; Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H.; Kataura, R.; Kawai, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Konno, T.; Korpar, S.; Kriz˘an, P.; Kumita, T.; Mrvar, M.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Šantelj, L.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Yonenaga, M.; Yusa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The proximity-focusing Aerogel Ring-Imaging Cherenkov detector (ARICH) has been designed to separate kaons from pions in the forward end-cap of the Belle II spectrometer. The detector will be placed in 1.5 T magnetic field and must have immunity to it. In ARICH R&D, we solve the problem with new equipment called Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector (HAPD) which developed by Hamamatsu Photonics. Recently the production of about 500 HAPDs was completed. We test HAPDs in magnetic field in KEK. We found some HAPDs have significant amount of dead time, which reaches up to 30% in the worst case. The dead time is caused by very large (more than 10,000 times larger than a single photon signal) and frequent (∼5 Hz) signals, which make electronics paralysed. The huge signals are observed in about 30% of HAPDs. To identify the origin and understand the mechanism, we perform some extra test of HAPDs. We find a strange dependence of the huge signals to the APD bias voltage. If we reduce the bias voltage applied to one of the 4 APDs by 10 V, the frequency of the huge signals is much reduced. On the other hand, if we reduce the voltage of all the 4 HAPDs, huge signals do not decrease, or even increase in some case. We also find the huge signals seems to be related to the vacuum inside HAPD. We present about the observation of the huge signals of HAPDs in the magnetic field, and our strategy to manage it.

  10. Voltage, Temperature, Frequency Margin Test Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the tests is to establish the camera functionality when it is exposed to an extreme environment for prolonged periods, thus simulating the end of life performance. This environment covers temperature, input clock frequency and supply voltage variation......The purpose of the tests is to establish the camera functionality when it is exposed to an extreme environment for prolonged periods, thus simulating the end of life performance. This environment covers temperature, input clock frequency and supply voltage variation...

  11. Detecting Faults In High-Voltage Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Raymond K.

    1988-01-01

    Simple fixture quickly shows whether high-voltage transformer has excessive voids in dielectric materials and whether high-voltage lead wires too close to transformer case. Fixture is "go/no-go" indicator; corona appears if transformer contains such faults. Nests in wire mesh supported by cap of clear epoxy. If transformer has defects, blue glow of corona appears in mesh and is seen through cap.

  12. Ultra-low Voltage CMOS Cascode Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Torsten; Cassia, Marco

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we design a folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier in a standard CMOS process, which has a measured 69 dB DC gain, a 2 MHz bandwidth and compatible input- and output voltage levels at a 1 V power supply. This is done by a novel Current Driven Bulk (CDB) technique, which reduces the MOST threshold voltage by forcing a constant current though the transistor bulk terminal. We also look at limitations and improvements of this CDB technique.

  13. Ultra-low Voltage CMOS Cascode Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten; Cassia, Marco

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we design a folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier in a standard CMOS process, which has a measured 69 dB DC gain, a 2 MHz bandwidth and compatible input- and output voltage levels at a 1 V power supply. This is done by a novel Current Driven Bulk (CDB) technique......, which reduces the MOST threshold voltage by forcing a constant current though the transistor bulk terminal. We also look at limitations and improvements of this CDB technique....

  14. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, James F [Livermore, CA; Yee, Daniel D [Dublin, CA

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  15. Rad-Hard, Miniaturized, Scalable, High-Voltage Switching Module for Power Applications Rad-Hard, Miniaturized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adell, Philippe C.; Mojarradi, Mohammad; DelCastillo, Linda Y.; Vo, Tuan A.

    2011-01-01

    A paper discusses the successful development of a miniaturized radiation hardened high-voltage switching module operating at 2.5 kV suitable for space application. The high-voltage architecture was designed, fabricated, and tested using a commercial process that uses a unique combination of 0.25 micrometer CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) transistors and high-voltage lateral DMOS (diffusion metal oxide semiconductor) device with high breakdown voltage (greater than 650 V). The high-voltage requirements are achieved by stacking a number of DMOS devices within one module, while two modules can be placed in series to achieve higher voltages. Besides the high-voltage requirements, a second generation prototype is currently being developed to provide improved switching capabilities (rise time and fall time for full range of target voltages and currents), the ability to scale the output voltage to a desired value with good accuracy (few percent) up to 10 kV, to cover a wide range of high-voltage applications. In addition, to ensure miniaturization, long life, and high reliability, the assemblies will require intensive high-voltage electrostatic modeling (optimized E-field distribution throughout the module) to complete the proposed packaging approach and test the applicability of using advanced materials in a space-like environment (temperature and pressure) to help prevent potential arcing and corona due to high field regions. Finally, a single-event effect evaluation would have to be performed and single-event mitigation methods implemented at the design and system level or developed to ensure complete radiation hardness of the module.

  16. Golden Jubilee Photos - The cathedrals of matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In their day, LEP and its four detectors were the biggest of "big science," both in the size of the detectors and the international collaborations that produced them. Initially each detector had certain measurements in which it excelled, and with later upgrades they all performed well across-the-board. By making overlapping measurements, but using different methods, the results from the four detectors reinforced each other. For detecting the direction and momenta of charged particles with extreme accuracy, the ALEPH detector had at its core a time projection chamber, for years the world's biggest. The experiment also became renowned for its innovative software for visualizing particle collisions. Of the LEP detectors, DELPHI was the most innovative, including what was the world's largest superconducting magnet. One of DELPHI's main strengths was its ability to unambiguously identify many types of charged particles. L3's strong point was accurate measurements of the momenta of electrons and their heavier c...

  17. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  18. Experimental validation of prototype high voltage bushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sejal; Tyagi, H.; Sharma, D.; Parmar, D.; M. N., Vishnudev; Joshi, K.; Patel, K.; Yadav, A.; Patel, R.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-08-01

    Prototype High voltage bushing (PHVB) is a scaled down configuration of DNB High Voltage Bushing (HVB) of ITER. It is designed for operation at 50 kV DC to ensure operational performance and thereby confirming the design configuration of DNB HVB. Two concentric insulators viz. Ceramic and Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) rings are used as double layered vacuum boundary for 50 kV isolation between grounded and high voltage flanges. Stress shields are designed for smooth electric field distribution. During ceramic to Kovar brazing, spilling cannot be controlled which may lead to high localized electrostatic stress. To understand spilling phenomenon and precise stress calculation, quantitative analysis was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of brazed sample and similar configuration modeled while performing the Finite Element (FE) analysis. FE analysis of PHVB is performed to find out electrical stresses on different areas of PHVB and are maintained similar to DNB HV Bushing. With this configuration, the experiment is performed considering ITER like vacuum and electrical parameters. Initial HV test is performed by temporary vacuum sealing arrangements using gaskets/O-rings at both ends in order to achieve desired vacuum and keep the system maintainable. During validation test, 50 kV voltage withstand is performed for one hour. Voltage withstand test for 60 kV DC (20% higher rated voltage) have also been performed without any breakdown. Successful operation of PHVB confirms the design of DNB HV Bushing. In this paper, configuration of PHVB with experimental validation data is presented.

  19. VKCDB: Voltage-gated potassium channel database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallin Warren J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of voltage-gated potassium channels comprises a functionally diverse group of membrane proteins. They help maintain and regulate the potassium ion-based component of the membrane potential and are thus central to many critical physiological processes. VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium [K] Channel DataBase is a database of structural and functional data on these channels. It is designed as a resource for research on the molecular basis of voltage-gated potassium channel function. Description Voltage-gated potassium channel sequences were identified by using BLASTP to search GENBANK and SWISSPROT. Annotations for all voltage-gated potassium channels were selectively parsed and integrated into VKCDB. Electrophysiological and pharmacological data for the channels were collected from published journal articles. Transmembrane domain predictions by TMHMM and PHD are included for each VKCDB entry. Multiple sequence alignments of conserved domains of channels of the four Kv families and the KCNQ family are also included. Currently VKCDB contains 346 channel entries. It can be browsed and searched using a set of functionally relevant categories. Protein sequences can also be searched using a local BLAST engine. Conclusions VKCDB is a resource for comparative studies of voltage-gated potassium channels. The methods used to construct VKCDB are general; they can be used to create specialized databases for other protein families. VKCDB is accessible at http://vkcdb.biology.ualberta.ca.

  20. Beam induced rf cavity transient voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Wang, J.M.

    1998-10-01

    The authors calculate the transient voltage induced in a radio frequency cavity by the injection of a relativistic bunched beam into a circular accelerator. A simplified model of the beam induced voltage, using a single tone current signal, is generated and compared with the voltage induced by a more realistic model of a point-like bunched beam. The high Q limit of the bunched beam model is shown to be related simply to the simplified model. Both models are shown to induce voltages at the resonant frequency ω r of the cavity and at an integer multiple of the bunch revolution frequency (i.e. the accelerating frequency for powered cavity operation) hω ο . The presence of two nearby frequencies in the cavity leads to a modulation of the carrier wave exp(hω ο t). A special emphasis is placed in this paper on studying the modulation function. These models prove useful for computing the transient voltage induced in superconducting rf cavities, which was the motivation behind this research. The modulation of the transient cavity voltage discussed in this paper is the physical basis of the recently observed and explained new kinds of longitudinal rigid dipole mode which differs from the conventional Robinson mode

  1. Prediction of breakdown voltages in novel gases for high voltage insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.

    2015-07-01

    This thesis submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich examines the use of sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) and similar gases as important insulation media for high voltage equipment. Due to its superior insulation properties, SF{sub 6} is widely used in gas-insulated switchgear. However, the gas also has a very high global warming potential and the content of SF{sub 6} in the atmosphere is constantly increasing. The search for new insulation gases using classical breakdown experiments is discussed. A model for SF{sub 6} based on the stepped leader model is described. This calculates the breakdown voltages in arbitrary electrode configurations and under standard voltage waveforms. Thus, the thesis provides a method for the prediction of breakdown voltages of arbitrary field configurations under standard voltage waveforms for gases with electron-attaching properties. With this, further gases can be characterized for usage as high voltage insulation media.

  2. Prediction of breakdown voltages in novel gases for high voltage insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich examines the use of sulphur hexafluoride (SF_6) and similar gases as important insulation media for high voltage equipment. Due to its superior insulation properties, SF_6 is widely used in gas-insulated switchgear. However, the gas also has a very high global warming potential and the content of SF_6 in the atmosphere is constantly increasing. The search for new insulation gases using classical breakdown experiments is discussed. A model for SF_6 based on the stepped leader model is described. This calculates the breakdown voltages in arbitrary electrode configurations and under standard voltage waveforms. Thus, the thesis provides a method for the prediction of breakdown voltages of arbitrary field configurations under standard voltage waveforms for gases with electron-attaching properties. With this, further gases can be characterized for usage as high voltage insulation media

  3. Advanced Control of the Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Mitigating Voltage Sags in Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung Vo Tien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a vector control with two cascaded loops to improve the properties of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR to minimize Voltage Sags on the grid. Thereby, a vector controlled structure was built on the rotating dq-coordinate system with the combination of voltage control and the current control. The proposed DVR control method is modelled using MATLAB-Simulink. It is tested using balanced/unbalanced voltage sags as well as fluctuant and distorted voltages. As a result, by using this controlling method, the dynamic characteristics of the system have been improved significantly. The system performed with higher accuracy, faster response and lower distortion in the voltage sags compensation. The paper presents real time experimental results to verify the performance of the proposed method in real environments.

  4. Multifunction Voltage-Mode Filter Using Single Voltage Differencing Differential Difference Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaichana Amornchai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage mode multifunction filter based on single voltage differencing differential difference amplifier (VDDDA is presented. The proposed filter with three input voltages and single output voltage is constructed with single VDDDA, two capacitors and two resistors. Its quality factor can be adjusted without affecting natural frequency. Also, the natural frequency can be electronically tuned via adjusting of bias current. The filter can offer five output responses, high-pas (HP, band-pass (BP, band-reject (BR, low-pass (LP and all-ass (AP functions in the same circuit topology. The output response can be selected by choosing the suitable input voltage without the component matching condition and the requirement of additional double gain voltage amplifier. PSpice simulation results to confirm an operation of the proposed filter correspond to the theory.

  5. How to Use SANC to Improve the PHOTOS Monte Carlo Simulation of Bremsstrahlung In Leptonic W-Boson Decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanava, G.; ); Was, Z.; )

    2003-01-01

    Using the SANC system we study the one-loop electroweak standard model predictions, including virtual and real photon emission, for the decays of the on-shell vector boson, W → lν l γ. The complete one-loop corrections and exact photon emission matrix element are taken into account. For the phase space integration, the Monte Carlo technique is used. This provides a useful element, first for the evaluation of the theoretical uncertainty of PHOTOS. Later we analyse the source of the differences between SANC and PHOTOS and we calculate the additional weight, which once installed, improves predictions of PHOTOS simulations. We can conclude that, after the correction of the weight is implemented, the theoretical uncertainty of PHOTOS simulations due to an incomplete first-order matrix element is reduced to below, for observables not tagging the photon in a direct way, and to 10% otherwise. This is interesting for applications in the phenomenology of the ongoing LEP2 and future LC and LHC experimental studies. (author)

  6. 1935 15' Quad #004 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. Route to Photo-Enabled Random Terahertz Metasurfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Luke; Gongora, J. S. Totero; Tunesi, Jacob D.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Pasquazi, Alessia; Peccianti, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the enhancement and phase change of the THz emission from photo-excited randomly structured black silicon substrates mediated by an induced metallic state of the nanostructured surface.

  8. 1935 15' Quad #009 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #062 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #127 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #350 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #387 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #243 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #155 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #129 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #059 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #221 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #266 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #130 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #410 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #368 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #180 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #349 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #063 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #147 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. Mini Review - Phenolics for skin photo-aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Atif

    2017-07-01

    Photo-aging is one of the foremost problems caused by generation of reactive oxygen species when skin is exposed on UV irradiation. In view of that, generation of reactive oxygen species intermingle with proteins, DNA, saccharides and fatty acids triggering oxidative mutilation and effects are in the appearance of distressed cell metabolism, morphological and ultra-structural changes, mistreat on the routes and revisions in the demarcation, propagation and skin apoptosis living cells which leads to photo-aging. Plant phenolics are universally found in both edible and inedible plants and have extended substantial interest as photo-protective for human skin due to their antioxidant activities. The objective of this review is to highlight the use of plant phenolics for their antioxidant activities against photo-aging.

  7. 1935 15' Quad #032 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #056 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. Geochemical prospect ion results of Mariscala aerial photo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, J.

    1989-01-01

    This report shows the geochemical prospect ion results carried out within the framework of the metalical mining prospect ion in Mariscala aerial photo. Lavalleja district belong to the Mining inventory programme of Uruguay.

  10. Photo-degradation behaviour of roseoflavin in some aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, A.; Penzkofer, A.; Mathes, T.; Hegemann, P.

    2010-01-01

    An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-riboflavin, RoF) in aqueous solutions was carried out. The studies were concentrated on roseoflavin in pH 8 phosphate buffer. Absorption cross-section spectra, fluorescence excitation spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were determined. The fluorescence of RoF is quenched by photo-induced intra-molecular charge-transfer at room temperature. The photo-degradation of RoF in un-buffered water, in Tris-HCl buffer, and in phosphate buffer was studied. Phosphate buffer and to a smaller extent Tris buffer catalyse the RoF photo-degradation. Photo-excitation of the primary photoproduct, 8-methylamino-riboflavin (8-MNH-RF), enhanced the RoF degradation by triplet 8-MNH-RF - singlet RoF excitation transfer with subsequent triplet-state RoF degradation.

  11. Photo-degradation behaviour of roseoflavin in some aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, A.; Penzkofer, A.; Mathes, T.; Hegemann, P.

    2010-03-01

    An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-riboflavin, RoF) in aqueous solutions was carried out. The studies were concentrated on roseoflavin in pH 8 phosphate buffer. Absorption cross-section spectra, fluorescence excitation spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were determined. The fluorescence of RoF is quenched by photo-induced intra-molecular charge-transfer at room temperature. The photo-degradation of RoF in un-buffered water, in Tris-HCl buffer, and in phosphate buffer was studied. Phosphate buffer and to a smaller extent Tris buffer catalyse the RoF photo-degradation. Photo-excitation of the primary photoproduct, 8-methylamino-riboflavin (8-MNH-RF), enhanced the RoF degradation by triplet 8-MNH-RF - singlet RoF excitation transfer with subsequent triplet-state RoF degradation.

  12. 1935 15' Quad #222 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #122 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #265 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #202 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. Before and After Photos: Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Before and after photos: Treatment of hypertrophic scars ...

  17. The Photo-Pneumatic CO2 Analyzer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to build a new technology, the photo-pneumatic analyzer. It is small, solid-state, inexpensive, and appropriate for observations of atmospheric...

  18. Photo-degradation behaviour of roseoflavin in some aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, A. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Mathes, T.; Hegemann, P. [Institut fuer Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-03-24

    An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-riboflavin, RoF) in aqueous solutions was carried out. The studies were concentrated on roseoflavin in pH 8 phosphate buffer. Absorption cross-section spectra, fluorescence excitation spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were determined. The fluorescence of RoF is quenched by photo-induced intra-molecular charge-transfer at room temperature. The photo-degradation of RoF in un-buffered water, in Tris-HCl buffer, and in phosphate buffer was studied. Phosphate buffer and to a smaller extent Tris buffer catalyse the RoF photo-degradation. Photo-excitation of the primary photoproduct, 8-methylamino-riboflavin (8-MNH-RF), enhanced the RoF degradation by triplet 8-MNH-RF - singlet RoF excitation transfer with subsequent triplet-state RoF degradation.

  19. 1935 15' Quad #364 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #292 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #246 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. USDA-ASCS 1936-1939 Air Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a digital version of aerial photographs taken during the 1936-1939 time frame for the USDA-ASCS. These photos were originally recorded at a scale of...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #371 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. Gulf of Mexico sperm whale photo-ID catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photo-identification data on sperm whales occupying the north central Gulf of Mexico have been collected during vessel surveys. Photographs of sperm whales are taken...

  5. Route to Photo-Enabled Random Terahertz Metasurfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Luke

    2017-07-17

    We experimentally investigate the enhancement and phase change of the THz emission from photo-excited randomly structured black silicon substrates mediated by an induced metallic state of the nanostructured surface.

  6. 1935 15' Quad #223 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1946 Whitewater-Animas DDR Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #370 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. Geology of photo linear elements, Great Divide Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, D. L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground examination of photo linear elements in the Great Divide Basin, Wyoming indicates little if any tectonic control. Aeolian aspects are more widespread and pervasive than previously considered.

  10. 1935 15' Quad #319 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #181 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #173 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1936 Quay County AG Index Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #345 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #272 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #417 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #339 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #490 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #270 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #219 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #145 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #227 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #132 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #298 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #100 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #152 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #226 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #361 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #126 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #037 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. Gulf of Mexico killer whale photo-ID catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photo-identification data on killer whales occupying the northern Gulf of Mexico have been collected in association with large vessel surveys since 1991. Photographs...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #297 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1947 Dona Ana County DEY Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #124 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #388 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #267 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #386 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #259 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #195 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #373 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #172 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #197 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #179 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #269 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #242 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. Astronauts Armstrong and Scott during photo session outside KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (left), command pilot, and David R. Scott, pilot, the Gemini 8 prime crew, during a photo session outside the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Mission Control Center. They are standing in front of a radar dish.

  7. 1935 15' Quad #049 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #084 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #054 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #057 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #086 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #010 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #079 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #055 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #083 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #035 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #033 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #012 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #008 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #013 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #110 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #011 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #078 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #109 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #036 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #105 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #085 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #007 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #080 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #201 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #082 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #061 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #106 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #006 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #058 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #108 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #060 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #030 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #075 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #074 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...