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Sample records for late blight disease

  1. Management of Tomato Late Blight Disease Using Reduced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in locations where disease pressure is high, a ... Materials and Methods ... rinsed with sterilized dH2O for 5 to 10 minutes, followed ... Equipment and Consumables, Birmingham, ... (06o05'S; 35o37'E) with an altitude of 524 m. ... per plant and the weight of each individual fruit ..... Furthermore, the protective effect offered by.

  2. Regional spore dispersal as a factor in disease risk warnings for potato late blight: a proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, G.J.T.; Skelsey, P.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Moene, A.F.; Werf, van der W.

    2009-01-01

    This study develops and tests novel approaches that significantly reduce the fungicide input necessary for potato late blight control while maintaining the required high level of disease control. The central premise is that fungicide inputs can be reduced by reducing dose rates on more resistant

  3. Regional spore dispersal as a factor in disease risk warnings for potato late blight: A proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skelsey, P.; Kessel, G.J.T.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Moene, A.F.; Werf, van der W.

    2009-01-01

    This study develops and tests a novel approach for including regional risk factors in operational disease risk warnings against potato late blight. The central premise is that fungicide inputs can be reduced by omitting applications on days when conditions are unsuitable for the atmospheric

  4. Regional spore dispersal as a factor in disease risk warnings for potato late blight : A proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skelsey, P.; Kessel, G. J. T.; Holtslag, A. A. M.; Moene, A. F.; van der Werf, W.

    2009-01-01

    This study develops and tests a novel approach for including regional risk factors in operational disease risk warnings against potato late blight. The central premise is that fungicide inputs can be reduced by omitting applications on days when conditions are unsuitable for the atmospheric

  5. Artificial neural network for prediction of the area under the disease progress curve of tomato late blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pedrosa Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Artificial neural networks (ANN are computational models inspired by the neural systems of living beings capable of learning from examples and using them to solve problems such as non-linear prediction, and pattern recognition, in addition to several other applications. In this study, ANN were used to predict the value of the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC for the tomato late blight pathosystem. The AUDPC is widely used by epidemiologic studies of polycyclic diseases, especially those regarding quantitative resistance of genotypes. However, a series of six evaluations over time is necessary to obtain the final area value for this pathosystem. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of ANN to construct an AUDPC in the tomato late blight pathosystem, using a reduced number of severity evaluations. For this, four independent experiments were performed giving a total of 1836 plants infected with Phytophthora infestans pathogen. They were assessed every three days, comprised six opportunities and AUDPC calculations were performed by the conventional method. After the ANN were created it was possible to predict the AUDPC with correlations of 0.97 and 0.84 when compared to conventional methods, using 50 % and 67 % of the genotype evaluations, respectively. When using the ANN created in an experiment to predict the AUDPC of the other experiments the average correlation was 0.94, with two evaluations, 0.96, with three evaluations, between the predicted values of the ANN and they were observed in six evaluations. We present in this study a new paradigm for the use of AUDPC information in tomato experiments faced with P. infestans. This new proposed paradigm might be adapted to different pathosystems.

  6. Biocontrol of Late Blight (Phytophthora capsici Disease and Growth Promotion of Pepper by Burkholderia cepacia MPC-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Sopheareth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A chitinolytic bacterial strain having strong antifungal activity was isolated and identified as Burkholderia cepacia MPC-7 based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. MPC-7 solubilized insoluble phosphorous in hydroxyapatite agar media. It produced gluconic acid and 2-ketogluconic acid related to the decrease in pH of broth culture. The antagonist produced benzoic acid (BA and phenylacetic acid (PA. The authentic compounds, BA and PA, showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against yeast, several bacterial and fungal pathogens in vitro. To demonstrate the biocontrol efficiency of MPC-7 on late blight disease caused by Phytophthora capsici, pepper plants in pot trials were treated with modified medium only (M, M plus zoospore inoculation (MP, MPC-7 cultured broth (B and B plus zoospore inoculation (BP. With the sudden increase in root mortality, plants in MP wilted as early as five days after pathogen inoculation. However, plant in BP did not show any symptom of wilting until five days. Root mortality in BP was markedly reduced for as much as 50%. Plants in B had higher dry weight, P concentration in root, and larger leaf area compared to those in M and MP. These results suggested that B. cepacia MPC-7 should be considered as a candidate for the biological fertilizer as well as antimicrobial agent for pepper plants.

  7. Mapping, isolation and characterization of genes responsible for late blight resistance in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, M.

    2010-01-01

    Late blight (LB), caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most
    devastating diseases on potato. Resistance (R) genes from the wild species Solanum demissum
    have been used by breeders to generate late blight resistant cultivars, but resistance was soon
    overcome

  8. Analysing potato late blight control as a social-ecological system using fuzzy cognitive mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacilly, Francine C.A.; Groot, Jeroen C.J.; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Schaap, Ben F.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is one of the main diseases in potato production, causing major losses in yield. Applying environmentally harmful fungicides is the prevailing and classical method for controlling late blight, thus contaminating food and water. There is

  9. Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of various plants against tomato late blight disease agent Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, E Mine; Soylu, Soner; Kurt, Sener

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find an alternative to synthetic fungicides currently used in the control of devastating oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, causal agent of late blight disease of tomato. Antifungal activities of essential oils obtained from aerial parts of aromatic plants such as oregano (Origanum syriacum var. bevanii), thyme (Thymbra spicata subsp. spicata), lavender (Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), and laurel (Laurus nobilis), were investigated against P. infestans. Both contact and volatile phase effects of different concentrations of the essential oils used were determined by using two in vitro methods. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also determined by GC-MS analysis. Major compounds found in essential oils of thyme, oregano, rosemary, lavender, fennel and laurel were carvacrol (37.9%), carvacrol (79.8), borneol (20.4%), camphor (20.2%), anethole (82.8%) and 1,8-cineole (35.5%), respectively. All essential oils were found to inhibit the growth of P. infestans in a dose-dependent manner. Volatile phase effect of oregano and thyme oils at 0.3 microg/ml air was found to completely inhibit the growth of P. infestans. Complete growth inhibition of pathogen by essential oil of fennel, rosemary, lavender and laurel was, however, observed at 0.4-2.0 microg/ml air concentrations. For the determination of the contact phase effects of the tested essential oils, oregano, thyme and fennel oils at 6.4 microg/ml were found to inhibit the growth of P. infestans completely. Essential oils of rosemary, lavender and laurel were inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations (12.8, 25.6, 51.2 microg/ml respectively). Volatile phase effects of essential oils were consistently found to be more effective on fungal growth than contact phase effect. Sporangial production was also inhibited by the essential oil tested. Light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation on

  10. Role of Solanum dulcamara L. in Potato Late Blight Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golas, T.M.; Weerden, van der G.M.; Berg, van den R.G.; Mariani, C.; Allefs, J.J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Four sites with naturally growing Solanum dulcamara were surveyed during 2006 and 2007 for the presence of late blight. Despite 2 years of observations, no late blight was detected among natural populations of bittersweet. Nevertheless, repeated infections occurred on few S. dulcamara plants from a

  11. Reactions of some potato genotypes to late blight in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reactions of some potato genotypes to late blight in Cameroon. D. K. Njualem, P. Demo, H. A. Mendoza, J. T. Koi, S. F. Nana. Abstract. Field experiments were conducted in Cameroon in 1995 and 1996 to evaluate reactions of different potato genotypes to late blight. There were significant differences among genotypes for ...

  12. Integrating cultural control methods for tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwine, J.; Frinking, H.D.; Jeger, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Cultural control measures against tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) were evaluated in six field experiments over 3 years in Uganda. Each experiment included sanitation (removal of diseased plant tissues), fungicide (mancozeb) application, and an untreated control, as standard treatments.

  13. Epidemiology and integrated control of potato late blight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, L R; Schepers, H T A M; Hermansen, A

    2011-01-01

    tend not to be grown on a large scale. From the grower’s perspective, the savings in fungicide input that can be achieved with these varieties are not compensated by the higher (perceived) risk of blight. Fungicides play a crucial role in the integrated control of late blight. The spray strategies...

  14. Strategies to control late blight in potatoes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Evenhuis, A.; Spits, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    In Europe an aggressive genetically diverse population of potato late blight is present which regularly causes problems in all potato growing regions. It is therefore of the utmost importance that blight is managed in an integrated way by combining a range of measures. Hygiene measures can keep the

  15. R gene stacking by trans- and cisgenesis to achieve durable late blight resistance in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Among the many diseases of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), which is the third food crop in the world after wheat and rice, late blight caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most serious diseases. In the last century, major resistance (R)

  16. Impact of fungicide applications for late blight management on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of late blight infections, caused by Phytophthora infestans, was evaluated on thirteen huckleberry (Solanum scabrum) varieties during the 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons in Dschang, Cameroon. A randomised split block design was used. Plants were sprayed four times with Ridomil Plus® (12% metalaxyl + ...

  17. Control of Late Blight of Tomato and Potato by Oilgochitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ho Choi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4-linked D-glucosamine and Nacetyl- D-glucosamine. There have been many reports on the induced systemic resistance and in vivo antifungal activities of higher molecular weight chitosans with molecular weights over 3,000 amu (atomatic mass unit, but there are few papers on in vivo antifungal activities of low molecular weight chitosans (oligochitosans with molecular weights less than 3,000 amu. In our study, an oligochitosan sample (320?3,000 amu showed a potent 1-day protective activity with control values more than 94% at concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ?g/ml especially against tomato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans under growth chamber conditions. It also displayed a moderate 1-day protective activity with control values of 67?89% at concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ?g/ml against wheat leaf rust and red pepper anthracnose. On the other hand, it showed a 16-hr curative activity against red pepper anthracnose, but not against tomato late blight and wheat leaf rust. In field experiments, oligochitosan effectively suppressed the development of late blight on potato and tomato plants with control values of 72% and 48%, respectively. The results strongly indicate that oligochitosan can be used as an eco-friendly organic material for the control of late blight on tomato and potato plants.

  18. Epidemiology and integrated control of Potato Late Blight in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, R.J.; Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Hermansen, A.; Bain, R.; Bradshaw, N.; Ritchie, F.; Shaw, D.S.; Evenhuis, A.; Kessel, G.J.T.; Wander, J.G.N.; Andersson, B.; Hansen, J.G.; Hannukkala, A.; Naerstad, R.; Nielsen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight, is a major threat to potato production in northwestern Europe. Before 1980, the worldwide population of P. infestans outside Mexico appeared to be asexual and to consist of a single clonal lineage of A1 mating type characterized by a single

  19. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL for Resistance to Late Blight in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip R. Panthee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans (Montagne, Bary is a devastating disease of tomato worldwide. There are three known major genes, Ph-1, Ph-2, and Ph-3, conferring resistance to late blight. In addition to these three genes, it is also believed that there are additional factors or quantitative trait loci (QTL conferring resistance to late blight. Precise molecular mapping of all those major genes and potential QTL is important in the development of suitable molecular markers and hence, marker-assisted selection (MAS. The objective of the present study was to map the genes and QTL associated with late blight resistance in a tomato population derived from intra-specific crosses. To achieve this objective, a population, derived from the crossings of NC 1CELBR × Fla. 7775, consisting of 250 individuals at F2 and F2-derived families, were evaluated in replicated trials. These were conducted at Mountain Horticultural Crops Reseach & Extension Center (MHCREC at Mills River, NC, and Mountain Research Staion (MRS at Waynesville, NC in 2011, 2014, and 2015. There were two major QTL associated with late blight resistance located on chromosomes 9 and 10 with likelihood of odd (LOD scores of more than 42 and 6, explaining 67% and 14% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. The major QTLs are probably caused by the Ph-2 and Ph-3 genes. Furthermore, there was a minor QTL on chromosomes 12, which has not been reported before. This minor QTL may be novel and may be worth investigating further. Source of resistance to Ph-2, Ph-3, and this minor QTL traces back to line L3707, or Richter’s Wild Tomato. The combination of major genes and minor QTL may provide a durable resistance to late blight in tomato.

  20. Assessment of the Socio-Economic Impact of Late Blight and State-of-the-Art Management in European Organic Potato Production Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamm, L.; Smit, A.B.; Hospers, M.; Janssens, S.R.M.; Buurma, J.S.; Molgaard, J.P.; Laerke, P.E.; Hansen, H.H.; Hermans, A.; Bodker, L.; Bertrand, C.; Lambion, J.; Finckh, M.R.; Schuler, C.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Ruissen, T.; Nielsen, B.J.; Solberg, S.; Speiser, B.; Wolfe, M.S.; Philips, S.; Wilcoxon, S.J.; Leifert, C.

    2004-01-01

    In Europe, late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease affecting organic (and conventional) potato production. Under suitable environmental conditions the disease can spread rapidly and it can cause complete crop loss. The extent of damage due to late blight

  1. Quantitative Effects of Early and Late Blights on Tomato Yields in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Early blight caused by Alternaria solani and late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans are the major diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum in Cameroon. The effect of both diseases on fruit yield was evaluated during the 1995 growing season in Dschang, Cameroon.Ten varieties were planted in the first trial (March-July and nine in the second (July- November. In both trials, plots were sprayed weekly with Ridomil Plus (2.0 kg/ha before flowering and with maneb (1.6 kg/ha after flowering. Early blight was more severe in the early part of the first trial, while late blight caused most damage during the second. Marketable yields varied according to variety. High yields in sprayed plots were obtained in Dona F1 (61.63 t/ha and Heinz 1370 (68.24 t/ha during the first trial, and in Fline (58.35 t/ha, Mecline (64.25 t/ha, and Moboline (55.16 t/ha during the second trial. Percent fruit infection in sprayed plots caused by both diseases varied according to variety from 12 to 65% in the first season and from 14 to 52% in the second, while losses in marketable yields for both blights were as high as 100% in unsprayed plots.

  2. Potato agriculture, late blight science, and the molecularization of plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R Steven

    2008-01-01

    By the mid-1980s nucleic-acid based methods were penetrating the farthest reaches of biological science, triggering rivalries among practitioners, altering relationships among subfields, and transforming the research front. This article delivers a "bottom up" analysis of that transformation at work in one important area of biological science, plant pathology, by tracing the "molecularization" of efforts to understand and control one notorious plant disease -- the late blight of potatoes. It mobilizes the research literature of late blight science as a tool through which to trace the changing typography of the research front from 1983 to 2003. During these years molecularization intensified the traditional fragmentation of the late blight research community, even as it dramatically integrated study of the causal organism into broader areas of biology. In these decades the pathogen responsible for late blight, the oomycete "Phytophthora infestans," was discovered to be undergoing massive, frightening, and still largely unexplained genetic diversification -- a circumstance that lends the episode examined here an urgency that reinforces its historiographical significance as a case-study in the molecularization of the biological sciences.

  3. Some fungal endophytes from vegetable crops and their anti-oomycete activities against tomato late blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-Y; Choi, G J; Lee, H B; Lee, S-W; Lim, H K; Jang, K S; Son, S W; Lee, S O; Cho, K Y; Sung, N D; Kim, J-C

    2007-03-01

    To isolate endophytic fungi from vegetable plants and examine their in vivo anti-oomycete activity against Phytophthora infestans in tomato plants. Endophytic fungi were isolated from surface-sterilized plant tissues and anti-oomycete activity was measured by in vivo assay using tomato seedlings. Endophytic fungi showing potent anti-oomycete activity were identified by morphological characteristics and nuclear ribosomal ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequence analysis. A total of 152 isolates were obtained from 66 healthy tissue samples of cucumber, red pepper, tomato, pumpkin and Chinese cabbage and the fermentation broths of 23 isolates showed potent in vivo anti-oomycete activity against tomato late blight with control values over 90%. The Fusarium oxysporum strain EF119, which was isolated from roots of red pepper, showed the most potent disease control efficacy against tomato late blight. In dual-culture tests, it inhibited the growth of Pythium ultimum, P. infestans and Phytophthora capsici. Among endophytic fungi isolated from healthy tissues of vegetable plants, F. oxysporum EF119 showed the most potent in vivo anti-oomycete activity against tomato late blight and in vitro anti-oomycete activity against several oomycete pathogens. Endophytic fungi showing anti-oomycete activity in vitro and in vivo may be used as biocontrol agents particularly of tomato late blight.

  4. Late Blight of Potato (Phytophthora infestans I: Fungicides Application and Associated Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Majeed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. has been remained an important agricultural crop in resolving global food issues through decades. The crop has experienced enormous growth in terms of production throughout the world in recent decades because of improvement in agricultural mechanization, fertilizers application and irrigation practices. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of this valuable crop is still vulnerable to losses due to prevalence of different viral, bacterial, fungal and nematodes infestations. Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, is one of the most threatening pathogenic diseases which not only results in direct crop losses but also cause farmers to embrace huge monetary expenses for disease control and preventive measures. The disease is well known for notorious ‘Irish Famine’ which resulted in drop of Irish population by more than 20% as result of hunger and potato starvation. Globally, annual losses of crop and money spend on fungicides for late blight control exceeds one trillion US dollars. This paper reviews the significance of late blight of potato and controlling strategies adopted for minimizing yield losses incurred by this disease by the use of synthetic fungicides. Advantages and disadvantages of fungicides application are discussed.

  5. Partial resistance of tomatoes against Phytophthora infestans, the late blight fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkensteen, L.J.

    1973-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the source of inoculum of the late blight fungus on tomatoes is the late blight fungus on potato crops. In regions of Europe mentioned, where tomatoes are grown in the open, P. infestans on tomatoes is the main source of inoculum. Especially in

  6. Phytophthora betacei, a new species within Phytophthora clade 1c causing late blight on Solanum betaceum in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mideros, M.F.; Turissini, D.A.; Guayazán, N.; Ibarra-Avila, H.; Danies, G.; Cárdenas, M.; Myers, K.; Tabima, J.; Goss, E.M.; Bernal, A.; Lagos, L.E.; Grajales, A.; Gonzalez, L.N.; Cooke, D.E.L.; Fry, W.E.; Grünwald, N.; Matute, D.R.; Restrepo, S.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past few years, symptoms akin to late blight disease have been reported on a variety of crop plants in South America. Despite the economic importance of these crops, the causal agents of the diseases belonging to the genus Phytophthora have not been completely characterized. In this study,

  7. In vitro induction of variability through radiation for late blight resistance and heat tolerance in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosal, S.S.; Das, A.; Gopal, J.; Minocha, J.L.; Chopra, H.R.; Dhaliwal, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    In vitro cultured shoots of potato, cvs. 'Kufri Jyoti' and 'Kufri Chandramukhi', were irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy gamma rays. Microtubers, obtained from MIV3 shoots multiplied in vitro, were planted in pots. The resulting plants were screened for resistance to late blight, using detached leaf method. In 'Kufri Chandramukhi', 42% plants and in 'Kufri Jyoti' 36% plants, obtained from 40 Gy treatment, showed resistance to late blight. The frequency of resistant plants was lower from 20 Gy treatment. The progenies of putatively resistant plants were grown in field, and inoculated with sporangial inoculum of late blight fungus. The field grown progeny segregated for disease resistance, and approximately 56% plants showed resistance. During the next propagation, the frequency of resistant plants increased to 72%. For developing heat tolerance, microtubers obtained from 20 and 40 Gy treatments and in vitro multiplied M 1 V 3 shoots were cultured at high temperature of 28C. In both varieties, the number of the microtubers per plant was highly reduced and the resulting microtubers had distorted shape but showed better germination (62%), even in early sowing at relatively higher temperature. Of the two radiation doses, the higher dose of 40 Gy gave better results in both the varieties. Heat tolerance was also assessed from chlorophyll persistence. The progenies from putative heat-tolerant plants were tested in field by planting at higher temperature in two subsequent generations. The heat tolerant plants segregated in each generation, but the frequency of heat-tolerant plants increased. (author)

  8. Discovery and characterization of the major late blight resistance complex in potato: genomic structure, functional diversity, and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, S.

    2005-01-01

    Potato is the most important non-cereal crop in the world. Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease of potato. In the mid-191h century, P. infestans attacked the European potato fields and this resulted in a widespread famine in Ireland.

  9. Efficacy of fungicide combinations, phosphoric acid, and plant extract from stinging nettle on potato late blight management and tuber yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans is a major constraint to potato production. Inadequate management of the disease has often resulted in heavy losses in various production regions. We assessed the efficacy of fungicides, phosphoric acid, and stinging nettle plant extract combinations for...

  10. Crop connectivity under climate change: future environmental and geographic risks of potato late blight in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelsey, Peter; Cooke, David E L; Lynott, James S; Lees, Alison K

    2016-11-01

    The impact of climate change on dispersal processes is largely ignored in risk assessments for crop diseases, as inoculum is generally assumed to be ubiquitous and nonlimiting. We suggest that consideration of the impact of climate change on the connectivity of crops for inoculum transmission may provide additional explanatory and predictive power in disease risk assessments, leading to improved recommendations for agricultural adaptation to climate change. In this study, a crop-growth model was combined with aerobiological models and a newly developed infection risk model to provide a framework for quantifying the impact of future climates on the risk of disease occurrence and spread. The integrated model uses standard meteorological variables and can be easily adapted to various crop pathosystems characterized by airborne inoculum. In a case study, the framework was used with data defining the spatial distribution of potato crops in Scotland and spatially coherent, probabilistic climate change data to project the future connectivity of crop distributions for Phytophthora infestans (causal agent of potato late blight) inoculum and the subsequent risk of infection. Projections and control recommendations are provided for multiple combinations of potato cultivar and CO 2 emissions scenario, and temporal and spatial averaging schemes. Overall, we found that relative to current climatic conditions, the risk of late blight will increase in Scotland during the first half of the potato growing season and decrease during the second half. To guide adaptation strategies, we also investigated the potential impact of climate change-driven shifts in the cropping season. Advancing the start of the potato growing season by 1 month proved to be an effective strategy from both an agronomic and late blight management perspective. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Influence of day-length and isolates of Phytophthora infestans on field resistance to late blight of potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihovilovich, E; Munive, S; Bonierbale, M

    2010-04-01

    Main and interaction effects of day-length and pathogen isolate on the reaction and expression of field resistance to Phytophthora infestans were analyzed in a sample of standard clones for partial resistance to potato late blight, and in the BCT mapping population derived from a backcross of Solanum berthaultii to Solanum tuberosum. Detached leaves from plants grown in field plots exposed to short- and long day-length conditions were independently inoculated with two P. infestans isolates and incubated in chambers under short- and long photoperiods, respectively. Lesion growth rate (LGR) was used for resistance assessment. Analysis of variance revealed a significant contribution of genotype x isolate x day-length interaction to variation in LGR indicating that field resistance of genotypes to foliar late blight under a given day-length depended on the infecting isolate. An allele segregating from S. berthaultii with opposite effects on foliar resistance to late blight under long- and short day-lengths, respectively, was identified at a quantitative trait locus (QTL) that mapped on chromosome 1. This allele was associated with positive (decreased resistance) and negative (increased resistance) additive effects on LGR, under short- and long day-length conditions, respectively. Disease progress on whole plants inoculated with the same isolate under field conditions validated the direction of its effect in short day-length regimes. The present study suggests the occurrence of an isolate-specific QTL that displays interaction with isolate behavior under contrasting environments, such as those with different day-lengths. This study highlights the importance of exposing genotypes to a highly variable population of the pathogen under contrasting environments when stability to late blight resistance is to be assessed or marker-assisted selection is attempted for the manipulation of quantitative resistance to late blight.

  12. Gene Profiling in Late Blight Resistance in Potato Genotype SD20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Late blight caused by the oomycete fungus Phytophthora infestans (Pi is the most serious obstacle to potato (Solanum tuberosum production in the world. A super race isolate, CN152, which was identified from Sichuan Province, China, could overcome nearly all known late blight resistance genes and caused serious damage in China. The potato genotype SD20 was verified to be highly resistant to CN152; however, the molecular regulation network underlying late blight resistance pathway remains unclear in SD20. Here, we performed a time-course experiment to systematically profile the late blight resistance response genes using RNA-sequencing in SD20. We identified 3354 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, which mainly encoded transcription factors and protein kinases, and also included four NBS-LRR genes. The late blight responsive genes showed time-point-specific induction/repression. Multi-signaling pathways of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways involved in resistance and defense against Pi in SD20. Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses indicated that the DEGs were significantly enriched in metabolic process, protein serine/threonine kinase activity, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Forty-three DEGs were involved in immune response, of which 19 were enriched in hypersensitive response reaction, which could play an important role in broad-spectrum resistance to Pi infection. Experimental verification confirmed the induced expression of the responsive genes in the late blight resistance signaling pathway, such as WRKY, ERF, MAPK, and NBS-LRR family genes. Our results provided valuable information for understanding late blight resistance mechanism of potato.

  13. The use of tissue culture techniques with irradiation to improve potato resistance to late blight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2004-01-01

    A mutation breeding program was conducted to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum) resistance to late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans. In vitro cultured explants from potato cvs. Draga, Diamant, Spunta were irradiated with gamma ray doses 25, 30, and 35 Gy. Growing shoots were cut and re-cultured every 2 weeks until the 4 t h generation (MV 4 ) to make sure no chimeral tissues still existed in the mutant material. Plantlets were subsequently propagated to obtain enough explants for in vitro selection pressure. Around 3000 plantlets from the three cultivars were subjected to selection pressure using co-culture technique. MV 4 explants were incubated in jars, containing MS medium, with mycelia of P. infestans. Surviving plantlets were propagated and re-incubated with the pathogen for three consecutive generations. Resistant plantlets were acclimatized and transferred to pots and grown under glasshouse conditions. Plants were later inoculated, at the adult stage, with sporangial suspension. Cultivar Draga produced the highest number of resistant plants. Ten plants of Draga appeared to be resistant to late blight whereas only one plant from each of the other 2 cultivars was resistant. Mutant plants varied in number of produced minitubers from 13 to 70, Also, weight of these minitubers varied from less than 1 to 35 grams. Selected mutant lines will undergo further testing under field conditions for P. infestans resistance and other agronomic characteristics. (author)

  14. In vitro induction, isolation and selection of potato mutants resistant to late blight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2003-01-01

    A mutation breeding program was conducted to improve potato resistance to late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans. In vitro cultured explants from cvs Draga, Diamant, Spunta were irradiated with gamma ray doses 25, 30, and 35 Gy. Growing shoots were cut and re-cultured every 2 weeks until the 4 th generation (MV 4 ) to make sure no chimeral tissues still existed in the mutant material. Plantlets were subsequently propagated to obtain enough explants for in vitro selection pressure. Around 3,000 plantlets from the 3 cultivars were subjected to selection pressure using co-culture technique. MV 4 explants were incubated in jars, containing MS medium, with mycelia of P. infestans. Surviving plantlets were propagated and re-incubated with the pathogen for 3 consecutive generations. Resistant plantlets were acclimatized and transferred to pots and grown under glasshouse conditions. Plants were later inoculated, at the adult stage, with sporangial suspension. Cv Draga produced the highest number of resistant plants. Ten plants of Draga appeared to be resistant to late blight, whereas only one plant from each of the other 2 cvs was resistant. Mutant plants varied in number of produced minitubers from 13 to 70. Also, weight of these minitubers varied from less than 1 to 35 grams. Selected mutant lines will undergo further testing under field conditions for P. infestans resistance and other agronomic characteristics

  15. Genetic control of late blight, yield and some yield related traits in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.Y.; Asghar, M.; Khan, A.R.; Iqbal, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic control of late blight (LB) and some economic traits was assessed to identify genotypes suitable for the hybrids were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., development of late blight resistant hybrids in tomato. 10 F/sub 1/ hybrid were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., TMS1 and TMS2 with 5 elite lines viz., Nagina, Riogrande, Roma, 88572 and Picdenato according to line x tester technique. Disease resistance was measured using detached leaf and whole plant assay techniques. Data were also recorded for days to maturity, number of fruit per plant, single fruit weight and yield per plant. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among crosses, lines, testers and line x tester interaction for almost all parameters. Estimate of genetic components indicated preponderance of additive type of gene action for detached leaf assay, whole plant assay, number of fruit per plant and yield per plant whereas non-additive type of gene action for days to maturity and single fruit weight. Among parents, TMS2, Nagina, Roma and Picdenato showed significant favorable general combing ability (GCA) effects for disease rating traits while TMS1 and Riogrande indicated desirable GCA effects for yield and some yield related traits. Among hybrids, TMS2 x Roma and TMS1 x Riogrande had significant specific combing ability (SCA) effects for detached and whole plant assays. However, hybrid TMS2 x Roma appeared as good combination of LB resistance as it had both parents with desirable GCA effects. All hybrids showed average type of SCA effects for yield and yield components. Genetic control of LB revealed that a multiple crossing program involving genotypes with high GCA effects would be rewarding to identify LB resistant genotypes in early generations. (author)

  16. Molecular characterization of early blight disease resistant and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani is one of the major factors limiting potato production worldwide. Developing highly resistant cultivars is the most effective way to control the disease. In this study, 20 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 6 simple sequence repeats (SSR) primers were ...

  17. Debate on the Exploitation of Natural Plant Diversity to Create Late Blight Resistance in Potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a debate on intriguing propositions relating to the scientific, agronomic, societal and economic impact of the BIOEXPLOIT project, focusing on late blight resistance in potato. It discusses (i) whether identifying pathogen effectors will facilitate selecting durable R genes,

  18. Addressing the human and technical dimensions of potato IPM using farmer field schools (FFS): CIP and partners' experience on late blight management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starting in the 1990’s, the International Potato Center (CIP)’s integrated pest management team for potato late blight (IPM-LB) realized the importance of addressing the management of this complex potato disease by combining crop protection and management sciences, with social and behavioral science...

  19. Field management of Phytophthora blight disease of cocoyam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L). is an important edible tuber crop, but taro leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae has been the greatest constraint to cocoyam production in Nigeria since 2009. Field trials were conducted to determine the effect of fungicides and the spray regimes on leaf growth, disease incidence, ...

  20. Chemical control of blossom blight disease of sarpagandha caused ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Chemical control of blossom blight disease of sarpagandha caused by Colletotrichum capsici. R. S. Shukla, Abdul-Khaliq and M. Alam*. Department of Plant Pathology, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Council of Scientific and Industrial. Research, P. O. CIMAP, Lucknow–226 015, India.

  1. Creation of initial breeding material of potato with complex resistance to Fusarium dry rot and tuber late blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Гордієнко

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To select the initial breeding material with complex resistance to Fusarium dry rot and tuber late blight among the created potato of secondary interspecific hyb­rids. Methods. Interspecific hybridization, laboratory test, analytical approach. Results. Based on the interspecific hybridization, the initial breeding material was created and the degree of its resistance to the above pathogens was determined by way of artificial infection of tubers with the inoculum of such fungi as Fusarium sambucinum Fuck and Phytophthora infestans (Mont. De Bary. During interspecific hybridization based on schemes of saturating and enriching crosses, using forms of various species with a high phenotypic expression of resistance to Fusarium dry rot, the result of the cumulative effect of genes that control resistance to the pathogen was observed. Crossing combinations differed significantly for the degree of population average manifestation of resistance to the diseases. Conclusions. Combinations В54, В53, В61 with a mean resistance (above 7 grades to Fusarium dry rot have been selected. Such combinations as B52, B50 and B54 had increased resistance to tuber late blight. It was found that the combination В54 is characterized by complex resistance to both diseases. For further work, the following samples with complex resistance to Fusarium dry rot and tuber late blight (7 grades or more were selected: В59с42, В59с43, В50с16, В50с19, В50с44, В51с1, В51с26, В51с28, В52с11, В52с23, В52с24, В52с29, В53с1, В53с11, В53с17 , В53с23, В54с13, В54с14.

  2. In vitro and in vivo effect of poplar bud (Populi gemma Extracts on late blight (Phytophthora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint János

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of populin extract from black poplar (Populus nigra on late blight was assessed under laboratory and field conditions. The growth rate of hyphae was found to be significantly lower after 1v/v% populin application, and no hyphae growth was detected under 3 and 6v/v% populin application. Populin also reduced the light blight severity on potato leaves under field conditions. From our results, we have concluded that populin extract can be considered as a new and environmentally-friendly alternative for the control of late blight under field conditions.

  3. Potential effects of diurnal temperature oscillations on potato late blight with special reference to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, S K; Goss, E M; Dufault, N S; van Bruggen, A H C

    2015-02-01

    Global climate change will have effects on diurnal temperature oscillations as well as on average temperatures. Studies on potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) development have not considered daily temperature oscillations. We hypothesize that growth and development rates of P. infestans would be less influenced by change in average temperature as the magnitude of fluctuations in daily temperatures increases. We investigated the effects of seven constant (10, 12, 15, 17, 20, 23, and 27°C) and diurnally oscillating (±5 and ±10°C) temperatures around the same means on number of lesions, incubation period, latent period, radial lesion growth rate, and sporulation intensity on detached potato leaves inoculated with two P. infestans isolates from clonal lineages US-8 and US-23. A four-parameter thermodynamic model was used to describe relationships between temperature and disease development measurements. Incubation and latency progression accelerated with increasing oscillations at low mean temperatures but slowed down with increasing oscillations at high mean temperatures (P effects of global climate change on disease development.

  4. Botanicals and Phosphonate Show Potential to Replace Copper for Control of Potato Late Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rudolf Forrer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Potato late blight (PLB caused by Phytophthora infestans (Pi is the most harmful disease in potato production worldwide. In organic farming, copper is used despite its persistence in soil and toxicity to soil organisms. To replace copper, suspensions of powders from three promising botanicals, including bark of buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA, roots of medicinal rhubarb (Rheum palmatum and galls of the nutgall tree (Galla chinensis, were tested in multi-year field experiments. The current study shows for the first time that botanicals could replace copper under field conditions and best PLB reduction on leaves was achieved with FA, reaching a level close to that of 2 to 3 kg copper per hectare and year. Better results than with copper were achieved with Phosfik® (Ph, a phosphonate-based product. For both FA and Ph, the mode of action is based on induced resistance, for Ph also on direct fungicidal effects. A disadvantage of Ph is the accumulation of residues in potato tubers. Nevertheless, two to three applications with 2 to 3 L/ha of Ph would be feasible to not exceed a minimal risk level (MLR of 20 mg/kg of phosphorous acid as proposed by the European Food Safety Authority. Due to an excellent environmental profile and a complex mode of action counteracting Pi resistance, phosphonate-based products would be most suitable for sustainable PLB management in integrated pest management (IPM programmes.

  5. Development of late blight resistance and heat tolerance through gamma irradiation of shoot cultures in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosal, S.S.; Jitender Kaur, Adas; Minocha, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    In vitro shoot cultures of two potato varieties viz., Kufri jyoti and Kufri Chandramukhi were gamma irradiated at 20 Gy and 40 Gy. Micro tubers were induced in micro propagated M1V3 generation. For heat tolerance micro tubers were induced at elevated (28 C ) incubation temperature (optimum being 20 1C ) and were characterized by early sowing, chlorophyll persistence and harvest index. The number of micro tubers/plant was highly reduced at elevated temperature and the resulting tubers exhibited distorted shapes and growth of apical buds. Thus obtained micro tubers exhibited better germination (62.3%) even in early sowing at relatively higher temperature. The progenies from putative heat tolerant plants were grown in the field by sowing at higher temperature for four subsequent generations. Heat tolerant plants segregated in each generation but the frequency of heat tolerant plants increased in the advanced generation. For developing late blight resistance micro tubers produced from irradiated shoot cultures were sown in pots and resulting plants were screened using detached leaf method. The progenies of putative resistant plants grown in the field were artificially inoculated with sporangial inoculum of Phytophthora infection's. Field grown plants exhibited segregation with respect to disease reaction and about 56 per cent plants showed resistance. Segregation was reduced during following generation and the frequency of resistant plants was increased up to 72.3 per cent. Thus, repeated selections has helped in developing stable mutants in both the varieties

  6. Reducing Severity of Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans and Improving Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Tuber Yield with Pre-Harvest Application of Calcium Nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewubnesh Wendimu Seifu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of pre-harvest application of calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and combined application of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate (1:1 was evaluated in reducing the severity of P. infestans and improving potato tuber yield. Pot experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of combination of two potato varieties (Shenkola and Gera and three types of calcium nutrients (calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate, each at three levels (5, 10, and 15 g per liter per plant and the control treatment (0 g of calcium nutrients. In comparison to the control treatment, the application of calcium nutrients significantly decreased the severity of late blight disease and improved potato tuber yield. The effect of calcium nutrients on the severity of late blight disease and potato tuber yield differed among the two potato varieties. The maximum severity reduction (60% was noticed in the Gera potato variety with the application of calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate (1:1, supplied at 15 g per plant. However, the highest average tuber yield was obtained with the application of calcium nitrate at 15 g per plant, and average tuber yield was increased by 77% in both potato varieties. Hence, foliar application of either calcium nitrate alone or calcium nitrate mixed with calcium chloride was found to be more efficient than the application of calcium chloride alone. This result suggests that the nitrate ion present in the calcium nitrate may make a difference in terms of reducing the severity of late blight disease and improving potato tuber yield. The lowered severity of late blight disease and the increased tuber yield in potato plants sprayed with calcium nutrients may be because of the higher accumulation of calcium in the plant tissue.

  7. Palisade Russet: A late blight resistant potato cultivar having a low incidence of sugar ends and high specific gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisade Russet is a medium-late maturing, lightly russeted potato breeding clone notable for its resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) infection of foliage and tuber. Palisade Russet is suitable for processing with low tuber glucose concentrations observed following long-term storage ...

  8. Species tree estimation for the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and close relatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E Blair

    Full Text Available To better understand the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, an accurate estimate of the species phylogeny must be known. Traditionally, gene trees have served as a proxy for the species tree, although it was acknowledged early on that these trees represented different evolutionary processes. Discordances among gene trees and between the gene trees and the species tree are also expected in closely related species that have rapidly diverged, due to processes such as the incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. Recently, methods have been developed for the explicit estimation of species trees, using information from multilocus gene trees while accommodating heterogeneity among them. Here we have used three distinct approaches to estimate the species tree for five Phytophthora pathogens, including P. infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and tomato. Our concatenation-based "supergene" approach was unable to resolve relationships even with data from both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and from multiple isolates per species. Our multispecies coalescent approach using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods was able to estimate a moderately supported species tree showing a close relationship among P. infestans, P. andina, and P. ipomoeae. The topology of the species tree was also identical to the dominant phylogenetic history estimated in our third approach, Bayesian concordance analysis. Our results support previous suggestions that P. andina is a hybrid species, with P. infestans representing one parental lineage. The other parental lineage is not known, but represents an independent evolutionary lineage more closely related to P. ipomoeae. While all five species likely originated in the New World, further study is needed to determine when and under what conditions this hybridization event may have occurred.

  9. Species tree estimation for the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Jaime E; Coffey, Michael D; Martin, Frank N

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, an accurate estimate of the species phylogeny must be known. Traditionally, gene trees have served as a proxy for the species tree, although it was acknowledged early on that these trees represented different evolutionary processes. Discordances among gene trees and between the gene trees and the species tree are also expected in closely related species that have rapidly diverged, due to processes such as the incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. Recently, methods have been developed for the explicit estimation of species trees, using information from multilocus gene trees while accommodating heterogeneity among them. Here we have used three distinct approaches to estimate the species tree for five Phytophthora pathogens, including P. infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and tomato. Our concatenation-based "supergene" approach was unable to resolve relationships even with data from both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and from multiple isolates per species. Our multispecies coalescent approach using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods was able to estimate a moderately supported species tree showing a close relationship among P. infestans, P. andina, and P. ipomoeae. The topology of the species tree was also identical to the dominant phylogenetic history estimated in our third approach, Bayesian concordance analysis. Our results support previous suggestions that P. andina is a hybrid species, with P. infestans representing one parental lineage. The other parental lineage is not known, but represents an independent evolutionary lineage more closely related to P. ipomoeae. While all five species likely originated in the New World, further study is needed to determine when and under what conditions this hybridization event may have occurred.

  10. An Assessment of the Impact of Two Late Blight Tolerant Potato Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walingo, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    A study was made to assess the impact of two late blight tolerant potato varieties Tigoni and Asante releases in 1998. The appraisal and impact assessment set out to collect information on the adoption of the two varieties; assess their economic impact; and forecast future prospects for these two varieties and identity constraints to their adoption and diffusion in three divisions of Molo, Timboroa and Laikipia. The methodology adopted was conducting field surveys between September and October 2001, and gathering secondary information from the Ministry of Agriculture, research Centres, seed companies, NGO's and farmers. Results indicated that high yield, early maturity, tolerant to late blight, good market for ware potatoes and good taste were the advantages of Tigoni and Asante, widely recognised in all survey sites. Disadvantages of Tigoni and Asante were poor storage, rapid greening of tubers (mainly for Tigoni), and limited availability of planting material. The two varieties had higher yield benefits, net benefit per hectare and higher rates of return compared to the local varieties. the rate of returns when the local cultivars were substituted by the new improved varieties ranged from 556 to 1070%. Data on diffusion of Tigoni and Asante showed that combined acreage of varieties Tigoni and Asante rose to 196.3, 137.5 and 1476 ha in Molo, Timboroa and Laikipia respectively. The future forecast for the two varieties is good if the limitation on seed availability is addressed

  11. Food safety evaluation for R-proteins introduced by biotechnology: A case study of VNT1 in late blight protected potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habig, Jeffrey W; Rowland, Aaron; Pence, Matthew G; Zhong, Cathy X

    2018-06-01

    Resistance genes (R-genes) from wild potato species confer protection against disease and can be introduced into cultivated potato varieties using breeding or biotechnology. The R-gene, Rpi-vnt1, which encodes the VNT1 protein, protects against late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans. Heterologous expression and purification of active VNT1 in quantities sufficient for regulatory biosafety studies was problematic, making it impractical to generate hazard characterization data. As a case study for R-proteins, a weight-of-evidence, tiered approach was used to evaluate the safety of VNT1. The hazard potential of VNT1 was identified from relevant safety information including history of safe use, bioinformatics, mode of action, expression levels, and dietary intake. From the assessment it was concluded that Tier II hazard characterization was not needed. R-proteins homologous to VNT1 and identified in edible crops, have a history of safe consumption. VNT1 does not share sequence identity with known allergens. Expression levels of R-proteins are generally low, and VNT1 was not detected in potato varieties expressing the Rpi-vnt1 gene. With minimal hazard and negligible exposure, the risks associated with consumption of R-proteins in late blight protected potatoes are exceedingly low. R-proteins introduced into potatoes to confer late blight protection are safe for consumption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene expression profiling during asexual development of the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans reveals a highly dynamic transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judelson, H.S.; Ah-Fong, A.M.V.; Aux, G.; Avrova, A.O.; Bruce, C.; Cakir, C.; Cunha, da L.; Grenville-Briggs, L.; Latijnhouwers, M.; Ligterink, W.; Meijer, H.J.G.; Roberts, S.; Thurber, C.S.; Whisson, S.C.; Birch, P.R.J.; Govers, F.; Kamoun, S.; West, van P.; Windass, J.

    2008-01-01

    Much of the pathogenic success of Phytophthora infestans, the potato and tomato late blight agent, relies on its ability to generate from mycelia large amounts of sporangia, which release zoospores that encyst and form infection structures. To better understand these stages, Affymetrix GeneChips

  13. Rainfall thresholds as support for timing fungicide applications in the control of potato late blight in Ecuador and Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Peter; Taipe, Arturo; Perez, Willmer G.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulated rainfall thresholds were studied in seven field experiments conducted in Ecuador and Peru for their value in timing applications of fungicide to control potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans. Fungicide regimes based on accumulated rainfall thresholds ranging from 10 to 70...

  14. The genetic variance of resistance in M3 lines of rice against leaf blight disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiono

    1979-01-01

    Seeds of Pelita I/1 rice variety were irradiated with 20, 30, 40 and 50 krad of gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Plants of M 3 lines were inoculated with bacterial leaf blight, Xanthomonas oryzae (Uzeda and Ishiyama) Downson, using clipping method. The coefficient of genetic variability of resistance against leaf blight disease increased with increasing dose. Highly significant difference in the genetic variance of resistance were found between the treated samples and the control. Dose of 20 krad gave good probability for selection of plants resistant against leaf blight disease. (author)

  15. In vitro induction of variation through radiation for late blight resistance and heat tolerance in potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minocha, J L; Das, A; Gopal, J; Gosal, S S [Biotechnology Centre, Punjab Agricultural Univ., Ludhiana, Punjab (India)

    1997-07-01

    In vitro plants were obtained from nodal sections of sprouts of cvs. `Kufri Jyoti` and `Kufri Chandramukhi` of potato cultured on MS medium with 3% sucrose. Callus from leaves of in vitro cultured plantlets was induced on modified Linsmaier and Skoog medium supplemented with 5 mg/1 NAA. The obtained shoots and calli were irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy gamma rays. Irradiatied shoots were transferred to MS medium with 8% sucrose for multiplication, and then to MS medium with 8% sucrose and 10 mg/1 BAP to induce microtuber formation, which gave on average 1.3 microtubers per plant. The microtubers were planted in pots and variation was observed in plant morphology and tuber characters. To study variation for late blight resistance, irradiated calli were kept on Gamborg B-5 medium with culture filtrate of Phytophthora infestans. To induce variation for heat tolerance, in vitro shoots from irradiated material were mass-propagated and allowed to produce microtubers at high temperature. (author). 3 refs, 3 tabs.

  16. In vitro induction of variation through radiation for late blight resistance and heat tolerance in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minocha, J.L.; Das, A.; Gopal, J.; Gosal, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    In vitro plants were obtained from nodal sections of sprouts of cvs. 'Kufri Jyoti' and 'Kufri Chandramukhi' of potato cultured on MS medium with 3% sucrose. Callus from leaves of in vitro cultured plantlets was induced on modified Linsmaier and Skoog medium supplemented with 5 mg/1 NAA. The obtained shoots and calli were irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy gamma rays. Irradiatied shoots were transferred to MS medium with 8% sucrose for multiplication, and then to MS medium with 8% sucrose and 10 mg/1 BAP to induce microtuber formation, which gave on average 1.3 microtubers per plant. The microtubers were planted in pots and variation was observed in plant morphology and tuber characters. To study variation for late blight resistance, irradiated calli were kept on Gamborg B-5 medium with culture filtrate of Phytophthora infestans. To induce variation for heat tolerance, in vitro shoots from irradiated material were mass-propagated and allowed to produce microtubers at high temperature. (author). 3 refs, 3 tabs

  17. Melatonin Attenuates Potato Late Blight by Disrupting Cell Growth, Stress Tolerance, Fungicide Susceptibility and Homeostasis of Gene Expression in Phytophthora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora infestans (P. infestans is the causal agent of potato late blight, which caused the devastating Irish Potato Famine during 1845-1852. Until now, potato late blight is still the most serious threat to potato growth and has caused significant economic losses worldwide. Melatonin can induce plant innate immunity against pathogen infection, but the direct effects of melatonin on plant pathogens are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of melatonin on P. infestans. Exogenous melatonin significantly attenuated the potato late blight by inhibiting mycelial growth, changing cell ultrastructure, and reducing stress tolerance of P. infestans. Notably, synergistic anti-fungal effects of melatonin with fungicides on P. infestans suggest that melatonin could reduce the dose levels and enhance the efficacy of fungicide against potato late blight. A transcriptome analysis was carried out to mine downstream genes whose expression levels were affected by melatonin. The analysis of the transcriptome suggests that 66 differentially expressed genes involved in amino acid metabolic processes were significantly affected by melatonin. Moreover, the differentially expressed genes associated with stress tolerance, fungicide resistance, and virulence were also affected. These findings contribute to a new understanding of the direct functions of the melatonin on P. infestans and provide a potential ecofriendly biocontrol approach using a melatonin-based paradigm and application to prevent potato late blight.

  18. In Vitro Screening of Antibacterial Agents for Suppression of Fire Blight Disease in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Su Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since fire blight disease on apple and pear was produced in Korea in 2015, there were no registered chemicals to control against this disease. Instead, several antibacterial chemicals that were registered for other bacterial diseases such as soft rot and bacterial spot have been authorized by Rural Development Administration (RDA. However, these chemicals are not tested efficacy for fire blight disease except damage by those treatments on apple and pear in Korea. Thus, we evaluated efficiency using in vitro and in planta assays of antibacterial chemicals such as antibiotics and copper compounds including kasugamycin, oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and streptomycin, and copper hydroxide, copper sulfate, oxine copper and tribasic copper sulfate, respectively. We also tested two kinds of biological agents. As expected, significant antibacterial effect was observed in vitro test of both antibiotics and copper-based chemicals. In planta test based on disease severity including ooze and water-soaked formation on immature pears, bacterial populations on blooms, and blight lesion formation in artificially inoculated shoots, kasugamycin, oxytetracycline and streptomycin have been shown the most efficiency among tested antibiotics. Four copper-based chemicals tested in this study, control effects are little bit lower than agricultural antibiotics but they seem to be available to use in terms of winter season. Biocontrol agents were also shown possibility to treat in eco-friendly farms. In addition, there are no antibiotic resistance genes in Korean isolates against antibiotics, which were selected for suppression of fire blight in this study.

  19. Action and reaction of host and pathogen during Fusarium head blight disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Nicholson, Paul; Doohan, Fiona M

    2010-01-01

    The Fusarium species Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, Which are responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease, reduced world-wide cereal crop yield and, as a consequence of their mycotoxin production in cereal grain, impact on both human and animal health. Their study is greatly p...

  20. Comparison of two strategies for use of translaminar and contact fungicide in the control of potato late blight in the highland tropics of Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Peter; Leon, D.; Andrade-Piedra, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Strategies based on using the translaminar fungicide cymoxanil for control of potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, were compared in the highland tropics of Ecuador in three separate field experiments. In one strategy, a commercial formulation of cymoxanil mixed with mancozeb was ...

  1. Biological control of fusarium seedling blight disease of wheat and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mojibur R; Fischer, Sven; Egan, Damian; Doohan, Fiona M

    2006-04-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium fungi, including F. culmorum, cause seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight diseases of cereals, resulting in yield loss. In a screen for potential disease control organisms and agents, Pseudomonas fluorescens strains MKB 100 and MKB 249, P. frederiksbergensis strain 202, Pseudomonas sp. strain MKB 158, and chitosan all significantly reduced the extent of both wheat coleoptile growth retardation and wheat and barley seedling blight caused by F. culmorum (by 53 to 91%). Trichodiene synthase is a Fusarium enzyme necessary for trichothecene mycotoxin biosynthesis; expression of the gene encoding this enzyme in wheat was 33% lower in stem base tissue coinoculated with Pseudomonas sp. strain MKB 158 and F. culmorum than in wheat treated with bacterial culture medium and F. culmorum. When wheat and barley were grown in soil amended with either chitosan, P. fluorescens strain MKB 249, Pseudomonas sp. strain MKB 158, or culture filtrates of these bacteria, the level of disease symptoms on F. culmorum-inoculated stem base tissue (at 12 days post- F. culmorum inoculation) was >/=31% less than the level on F. culmorum-inoculated plants grown in culture medium-amended soil. It seems likely that at least part of the biocontrol activity of these bacteria and chitosan may be due to the induction of systemic disease resistance in host plants. Also, in coinoculation studies, Pseudomonas sp. strain MKB 158 induced the expression of a wheat class III plant peroxidase gene (a pathogenesis-related gene).

  2. Anthesis, the infectious process and disease progress curves for fusarium head blight in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fusarium head blight of wheat (Triticum aestivum, caused by the fungus Gibberella zeae, is a floral infecting disease that causes quantitative and qualitative losses to winter cereals. In Brazil, the sanitary situation of wheat has led to research in order to develop strategies for sustainable production, even under adverse weather conditions. To increase the knowledge of the relationship among the presence of anthesis, the infectious process, the disease progress and the saprophytic fungi present in wheat anthers, studies were conducted in the experimental field of University of Passo Fundo (UPF, using the cultivar Marfim, in the 2011 growing season. The disease incidence in spikes and spikelets was evaluated. The presence of exserted anthers increased the spike exposure time to the inoculum. The final incidence of fusarium head blight, in the field, was dependent on the presence of exserted anthers. The disease followed an aggregation pattern and its evolution increased with time, apparently showing growth according to secondary cycles. The fungi isolated from exserted anthers (Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Drechslera spp. and Epicoccum sp. did not compete for the infection site of fusarium head blight in wheat, not interfering with the incidence of F. graminearum.

  3. Sirococcus Shoot Blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Nicholls; Kathryn Robbins

    1984-01-01

    Sirococcus shoot blight, caused by the fungus Sirococcus strobilinus Preuss, affects conifers in the Northern United States and southern Canada. The fungus infects the new shoots; diseased seedlings and saplings are especially affected. In the United States, sirococcus shoot blight has become increasingly widespread since the early 1970's. When favorable...

  4. Eficiência do metalaxyl no controle da requeima do tomateiro Efficiency of Metalaxyl to control tomato late blight

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    Celson Rodrigues

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a eficiência das dosagens de 1; 2,5 e 5 g/cova do fungicida Ridomil 50 gr (metalaxyl 50 g/kg, em aplicação única no solo, comparada com a dosagem de 400 g/100 litros de água do Fólio (metalaxyl + clorotalonil, 80 + 400 g/kg e do Ridomil Mancozeb br (metalaxyl + mancozeb, 80 + 640 g/kg, em dez pulverizações, para o controle da requeima do tomateiro cv. Santa Clara. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. A percentagem de área foliar lesionada pela requeima foi de 2,75% no tratamento com Folio, 7,25% com Ridomil Mancozeb br; 18,25; 18,50 e 24,25% com as dosagens crescentes do Ridomil 50 gr, e 34,25% com a ausência de tratamento com fungicidas (testemunha. A produção de frutos comercialmente aceitáveis por dez plantas de tomateiro, avaliadas em cada parcela experimental, durante quatro semanas a partir de 90 dias do transplantio do tomateiro foi de 10,26 kg para o tratamento com o Folio, 9,10 kg para o Ridomil Mancozeb br, 2,07 kg; 1,86 e 1,74 kg para as dosagens crescentes do Ridomil 50 gr, enquanto para a testemunha foi de 1,58 kg. Estes resultados demonstraram a superioridade dos fungicidas Folio e Ridomil Mancozeb br em relação ao Ridomil 50 gr, para o controle da requeima do tomateiro, nas condições experimentais utilizadas.An experiment was conducted to study the efficiency of the dosages of 1; 2.5 and 5 g/plant, of the fungicide ridomil 50 gr (metalaxyl, 50 g/kg, in only one application in the soil, compared with the dosage of 400 g/100 liters of water, of the folio (metalaxyl + chlorothalonil, 80 + 400 g/kg and of the ridomil mancozeb br (metalaxyl + mancozeb, 80 + 640 g/kg, in ten pulverizations for the control of the late blight of the tomato cv. Santa Clara. The experiments were set up in a complete randomized design, with six treatments and four replications. The percentage of the damaged foliage area caused by late blight was of 2.75% in the treatment

  5. The relationship between anatomical and morphological characteristics of green tomato fruit and their susceptibility to late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary

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    Elżbieta Horodecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the studies carried out in 1983-1985 was to determine the relationships between the degree of susceptibility of green tomato fruit to late blight and several of the anatomical and morphological features of these fruits. It was found that in the studied material representing a wide range of susceptibility (from various degrees of resistance to susceptible the extent of infection was dependent on the covering layer thickness (with cuticle and number of hairs on the skin.

  6. Appraisal of artificial screening techniques of tomato to accurately reflect field performance of the late blight resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Nowakowska

    Full Text Available Late blight (LB caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans continues to thwart global tomato production, while only few resistant cultivars have been introduced locally. In order to gain from the released tomato germplasm with LB resistance, we compared the 5-year field performance of LB resistance in several tomato cultigens, with the results of controlled conditions testing (i.e., detached leaflet/leaf, whole plant. In case of these artificial screening techniques, the effects of plant age and inoculum concentration were additionally considered. In the field trials, LA 1033, L 3707, L 3708 displayed the highest LB resistance, and could be used for cultivar development under Polish conditions. Of the three methods using controlled conditions, the detached leaf and the whole plant tests had the highest correlation with the field experiments. The plant age effect on LB resistance in tomato reported here, irrespective of the cultigen tested or inoculum concentration used, makes it important to standardize the test parameters when screening for resistance. Our results help show why other reports disagree on LB resistance in tomato.

  7. ASSESSING CHANGES IN POTATO CANOPY CAUSED BY LATE BLIGHT IN ORGANIC PRODUCTION SYSTEMS THROUGH UAV-BASED PUSHBROOM IMAGING SPECTROMETER

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    M. H. D. Franceschini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Productivity of cropping systems can be constrained simultaneously by different limiting factors and approaches allowing to indicate and identify plants under stress in field conditions can be valuable for farmers and breeders. In organic production systems, sensing solutions are not frequently studied, despite their potential for crop traits retrieval and stress assessment. In this study, spectral data in the optical domain acquired using a pushbroom spectrometer on board of a unmanned aerial vehicle is used to evaluate the potential of this information for assessment of late blight (Phytophthora infestans incidence on potato (Solanum tuberosum under organic cultivation. Vegetation indices formulations with two and three spectral bands were tested for the complete range of the spectral information acquired (i.e., from 450 to 900 nm, with 10 nm of spectral resolution. This evaluation concerned the discrimination between plots cultivated with only one resistant potato variety in contrast with plots with a variety mixture, with resistant and susceptible cultivars. Results indicated that indices based on three spectral bands performed better and optimal wavelengths (i.e., near 490, 530 and 670 nm are not only related to chlorophyll content but also to other leaf pigments like carotenoids.

  8. Gene expression profiling during asexual development of the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans reveals a highly dynamic transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judelson, Howard S; Ah-Fong, Audrey M V; Aux, George; Avrova, Anna O; Bruce, Catherine; Cakir, Cahid; da Cunha, Luis; Grenville-Briggs, Laura; Latijnhouwers, Maita; Ligterink, Wilco; Meijer, Harold J G; Roberts, Samuel; Thurber, Carrie S; Whisson, Stephen C; Birch, Paul R J; Govers, Francine; Kamoun, Sophien; van West, Pieter; Windass, John

    2008-04-01

    Much of the pathogenic success of Phytophthora infestans, the potato and tomato late blight agent, relies on its ability to generate from mycelia large amounts of sporangia, which release zoospores that encyst and form infection structures. To better understand these stages, Affymetrix GeneChips based on 15,650 unigenes were designed and used to profile the life cycle. Approximately half of P. infestans genes were found to exhibit significant differential expression between developmental transitions, with approximately (1)/(10) being stage-specific and most changes occurring during zoosporogenesis. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays confirmed the robustness of the array results and showed that similar patterns of differential expression were obtained regardless of whether hyphae were from laboratory media or infected tomato. Differentially expressed genes encode potential cellular regulators, especially protein kinases; metabolic enzymes such as those involved in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, or the biosynthesis of amino acids or lipids; regulators of DNA synthesis; structural proteins, including predicted flagellar proteins; and pathogenicity factors, including cell-wall-degrading enzymes, RXLR effector proteins, and enzymes protecting against plant defense responses. Curiously, some stage-specific transcripts do not appear to encode functional proteins. These findings reveal many new aspects of oomycete biology, as well as potential targets for crop protection chemicals.

  9. Assessing Changes in Potato Canopy Caused by Late Blight in Organic Production Systems Through Uav-Based Pushbroom Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, M. H. D.; Bartholomeus, H.; van Apeldoorn, D.; Suomalainen, J.; Kooistra, L.

    2017-08-01

    Productivity of cropping systems can be constrained simultaneously by different limiting factors and approaches allowing to indicate and identify plants under stress in field conditions can be valuable for farmers and breeders. In organic production systems, sensing solutions are not frequently studied, despite their potential for crop traits retrieval and stress assessment. In this study, spectral data in the optical domain acquired using a pushbroom spectrometer on board of a unmanned aerial vehicle is used to evaluate the potential of this information for assessment of late blight (Phytophthora infestans) incidence on potato (Solanum tuberosum) under organic cultivation. Vegetation indices formulations with two and three spectral bands were tested for the complete range of the spectral information acquired (i.e., from 450 to 900 nm, with 10 nm of spectral resolution). This evaluation concerned the discrimination between plots cultivated with only one resistant potato variety in contrast with plots with a variety mixture, with resistant and susceptible cultivars. Results indicated that indices based on three spectral bands performed better and optimal wavelengths (i.e., near 490, 530 and 670 nm) are not only related to chlorophyll content but also to other leaf pigments like carotenoids.

  10. An arabinobio-hydrolase (Arb93B) from Fusarium graminearum is associated with wheat head blight disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most important diseases of wheat and barley worldwide. FHB not only reduces crop yield, but the fungus also contaminates grains with mycotoxins, which are harmful to humans and animals. A previous study demonstrated...

  11. Soil Baiting, Rapid PCR Assay and Quantitative Real Time PCR to Diagnose Late Blight of Potato in Quarantine Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touseef Hussain

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora infestans (mont de Bary is a pathogen of great concern across the globe, and accurate detection is an important component in responding to the outbreaks of potential disease. Although the molecular diagnostic protocol used in regulatory programs has been evaluated but till date methods implying direct comparison has rarely used. In this study, a known area soil samples from potato fields where light blight appear every year (both A1 and A2 mating type was assayed by soil bait method, PCR assay detection and quantification of the inoculums. Suspected disease symptoms appeared on bait tubers were further confirmed by rapid PCR, inoculums were quantified through Real Time PCR, which confirms presence of P. infestans. These diagnostic methods can be highly correlated with one another. Potato tuber baiting increased the sensitivity of the assay compared with direct extraction of DNA from tuber and soil samples. Our study determines diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the assays to determine the performance of each method. Overall, molecular techniques based on different types of PCR amplification and Real-time PCR can lead to high throughput, faster and more accurate detection method which can be used in quarantine programmes in potato industry and diagnostic laboratory.

  12. Chitosan-induced immunity in Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze against blister blight disease is mediated by nitric-oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Swarnendu; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Panda, Koustubh; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2017-06-01

    Blister blight disease, caused by an obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen, Exobasidium vexans Massee is posing a serious threat for tea cultivation in Asia. As the use of chemical pesticides on tea leaves substantially increases the toxic risks of tea consumption, serious attempts are being made to control such pathogens by boosting the intrinsic natural defense responses against invading pathogens in tea plants. In this study, the nature and durability of resistance offered by chitosan and the possible mechanism of chitosan-induced defense induction in Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze plants against blister blight disease were investigated. Foliar application of 0.01% chitosan solution at 15 days interval not only reduced the blister blight incidence for two seasons, but also maintained the induced expressions of different defense related enzymes and total phenol content compared to the control. Defense responses induced by chitosan were found to be down regulated under nitric oxide (NO) deficient conditions in vivo, indicating that the observed chitosan-induced resistance is probably activated via NO signaling. Such role of NO in host defense response was further established by application of the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), which produced similar defense responses accomplished through chitosan treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that increased production of NO in chitosan-treated tea plants may play a critical role in triggering the innate defense responses effective against plant pathogens, including that causing the blister blight disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Induced mutation for disease resistance in rice with special reference to blast, bacterial blight and tungro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Rice varieties Ratna, Pusa 2-21, Vijaya and Pankaj have been treated with gamma rays, EMS or sodium azide to improve their resistance against blast, bacterial leaf blight or tungro virus. For blast and tungro, mutants with improved resistance were selected. Variation in reaction to bacterial leaf blight has been used in crossbreeding to accumulate genes for resistance. (author)

  14. Long-term impact of shoot blight disease on red pine saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda M. Haugen; Michael E. Ostry

    2013-01-01

    Damage from Sirococcus and Diplodia shoot blights of red pine is widespread and periodically severe in the Lake States. An outbreak of shoot blight occurred in red pine sapling plantations across northern Wisconsin, northern Minnesota, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan in 1993. We established monitoring plots in red pine sapling...

  15. The receptor-like kinase SERK3/BAK1 is required for basal resistance against the late blight pathogen phytophthora infestans in Nicotiana benthamiana.

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    Angela Chaparro-Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans causes late blight, an economically important disease, on members of the nightshade family (Solanaceae, such as the crop plants potato and tomato. The related plant Nicotiana benthamiana is a model system to study plant-pathogen interactions, and the susceptibility of N. benthamiana to Phytophthora species varies from susceptible to resistant. Little is known about the extent to which plant basal immunity, mediated by membrane receptors that recognise conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, contributes to P. infestans resistance.We found that different species of Phytophthora have varying degrees of virulence on N. benthamiana ranging from avirulence (incompatible interaction to moderate virulence through to full aggressiveness. The leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK BAK1/SERK3 is a major modulator of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI in Arabidopsis thaliana and N. benthamiana. We cloned two NbSerk3 homologs, NbSerk3A and NbSerk3B, from N. benthamiana based on sequence similarity to the A. thaliana gene. N. benthamiana plants silenced for NbSerk3 showed markedly enhanced susceptibility to P. infestans infection but were not altered in resistance to Phytophthora mirabilis, a sister species of P. infestans that specializes on a different host plant. Furthermore, silencing of NbSerk3 reduced the cell death response triggered by the INF1, a secreted P. infestans protein with features of PAMPs.We demonstrated that N. benthamiana NbSERK3 significantly contributes to resistance to P. infestans and regulates the immune responses triggered by the P. infestans PAMP protein INF1. In the future, the identification of novel surface receptors that associate with NbSERK3A and/or NbSERK3B should lead to the identification of new receptors that mediate recognition of oomycete PAMPs, such as INF1.

  16. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p potato plants.

  17. Fire blight in Georgia

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    Dali L. Gaganidze

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight is distinguished among the fruit tree diseases by harmfulness. Fire blight damages about 180 cultural and wild plants belonging to the Rosaceae family. Quince, apple and pear are the most susceptible to the disease. At present, the disease occurs in over 40 countries of Europe and Asia. Economic damage caused by fire blight is expressed not only in crop losses, but also, it poses threat of eradication to entire fruit tree gardens. Erwinia amylovora, causative bacteria of fire blight in fruit trees, is included in the A2 list of quarantine organisms. In 2016, the employees of the Plant Pest Diagnostic Department of the Laboratory of the Georgian Ministry of Agriculture have detected Erwinia amylovora in apple seedlings from Mtskheta district. National Food Agency, Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia informed FAO on pathogen detection. The aim of the study is detection of the bacterium Erwinia amylovora by molecular method (PCR in the samples of fruit trees, suspicious on fire blight collected in the regions of Eastern (Kvemo Kartli, Shida Kartli and Kakheti and Western Georgia (Imereti.The bacterium Erwinia amylovora was detected by real time and conventional PCR methods using specific primers and thus the fire blight disease confirmed in 23 samples of plant material from Shida Kartli (11 apples, 6 pear and 6 quince samples, in 5 samples from Kvemo Kartli (1 quince and 4 apple samples, in 2 samples of apples from Kakheti region and 1 sample of pear collected in Imereti (Zestafoni. Keywords: Fire blight, Erwinia amylovora, Conventional PCR, Real time PCR, DNA, Bacterium

  18. Sources of resistance in chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) land races against ascochyta rabiei causal agent of ascochyta blight disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duzdemir, O.; Selvi, B.; Yanar, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Ascochyta blight disease, caused by the fungus Ascochyta rabiei, is a major yield limiting factor of chickpea in Turkey and around the world. This study was conducted to identify sources of genetic resistance against chickpea blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei. For this purpose, 68 chickpea land races of different origins were evaluated in both field and growth chamber conditions during 2008-2009 growing seassons. Two standard cultivars were used as a reference, Inci (resistant) and Canitez (susceptible). Disease severity scoring was conducted on a 1-9 rating scale 21 days after inoculation in growth chamber test and at flowering and pot filling stages in field tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test showed a significant difference among the chickpea landraces in ascochyta blight resistance at p<0.05. None of the chickpea land races was highly resistant to the pathogen in growth chamber and field conditions. Only two landraces (10A and 28B) were moderately resistant to the disease. Some of the landraces resulted in a particular plant to exhibit no disease symptoms, indicating that the variation within chickpea land races was high. Therefore, seeds of this plant were harvested separately and preserved for further evaluations. (author)

  19. The impact of R1and R3a genes on tuber resistance to late blight of the potato breeding clones

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    Zoteyeva Nadezhda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potato breeding clones were evaluated for resistance to late blight (agent Phytophthora infestans using tuber inoculation tests and for presence of the resistance alleles of R1 and R3a genes in polymerase chain reaction tests. Among clones tested those expressing high, moderate and low resistance were identified. The data were analysed for the impact of R1 and R3a genes on tuber resistance to late blight in tested plant material. In previous evaluations performed on smaller amount of clones the tuber resistance levels significantly depended on presence/absence of the resistance allele of R3a gene and did not depend on presence of R1 gene allele. In the current study the statistical analyses did not prove the significant difference in resistance levels depending on presence of the resistance alleles, neither of R1 gene, nor of R3a gene. Tuber resistant clones bearing R3a gene resistance alleles still noticeably prevailed over the clones bearing the alleles of R1 gene as well as over the clones bearing the no resistance alleles of both genes. In several cases the resistance of clones with detected resistance allele of R1 gene was higher compared to those derived from the same crosses and showing amplification of the allele of R3a gene or those with no resistance alleles. Clones accumulating the resistance alleles of both (R1 and R3a genes expressed high tuber resistance accompanied by necrotic reaction.

  20. Defense Response and Suppression of Phytophthora Blight Disease of Pepper by Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Lentinula edodes

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    Dae-Sun Kang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The spent mushroom substrate (SMS of Lentinula edodes that was derived from sawdust bag cultivation was used as materials for controlling Phytophthora blight disease of pepper. Water extract from SMS (WESMS of L. edodes inhibited mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici, suppressed Phytophthora blight disease of pepper seedlings by 65% and promoted growth of the plant over 30%. In high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis, oxalic acid was detected as the main organic acid compound in WESMS and inhibited the fungal mycelium at a minimum concentration of 200 mg/l. In quantitative real-time PCR, the transcriptional expression of CaBPR1 (PR protein 1, CaBGLU (β-1,3-glucanase, CaPR-4 (PR protein 4, and CaPR-10 (PR protein 10 were significantly enhanced on WESMS and DL-β-aminobutyric acid (BABA treated pepper leaves. In addition, the salicylic acid content was also increased 4 to 6 folds in the WESMS and BABA treated pepper leaves compared to water treated leaf sample. These findings suggest that WESMS of L. edodes suppress Phytophthora blight disease of pepper through multiple effects including antifungal activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction.

  1. Genomics-enabled analysis of the emergent disease cotton bacterial blight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Z Phillips

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton bacterial blight (CBB, an important disease of (Gossypium hirsutum in the early 20th century, had been controlled by resistant germplasm for over half a century. Recently, CBB re-emerged as an agronomic problem in the United States. Here, we report analysis of cotton variety planting statistics that indicate a steady increase in the percentage of susceptible cotton varieties grown each year since 2009. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strains from the current outbreak cluster with race 18 Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum (Xcm strains. Illumina based draft genomes were generated for thirteen Xcm isolates and analyzed along with 4 previously published Xcm genomes. These genomes encode 24 conserved and nine variable type three effectors. Strains in the race 18 clade contain 3 to 5 more effectors than other Xcm strains. SMRT sequencing of two geographically and temporally diverse strains of Xcm yielded circular chromosomes and accompanying plasmids. These genomes encode eight and thirteen distinct transcription activator-like effector genes. RNA-sequencing revealed 52 genes induced within two cotton cultivars by both tested Xcm strains. This gene list includes a homeologous pair of genes, with homology to the known susceptibility gene, MLO. In contrast, the two strains of Xcm induce different clade III SWEET sugar transporters. Subsequent genome wide analysis revealed patterns in the overall expression of homeologous gene pairs in cotton after inoculation by Xcm. These data reveal important insights into the Xcm-G. hirsutum disease complex and strategies for future development of resistant cultivars.

  2. Auxin as a player in the biocontrol of Fusarium head blight disease of barley and its potential as a disease control agent

    OpenAIRE

    Petti, Carloalberto; Reiber, Kathrin; Ali, Shahin S; Berney, Margaret; Doohan, Fiona M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Mechanisms involved in the biological control of plant diseases are varied and complex. Hormones, including the auxin indole acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), are essential regulators of a multitude of biological functions, including plant responses to biotic and abiotic stressors. This study set out to determine what hormones might play a role in Pseudomonas fluorescens –mediated control of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease of barley and to determine if biocontr...

  3. An efficient method for zoospore production, infection and real-time quantification of Phytophthora cajani causing Phytophthora blight disease in pigeonpea under elevated atmospheric CO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Tarafdar, Avijit; Telangre, Rameshwar

    2015-03-25

    Phytophthora blight caused by Phytophthora cajani is an emerging disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) affecting the crop irrespective of cropping system, cultivar grown and soil types. Current detection and identification methods for Phytophthora species rely primarily on cultural and morphological characteristics, the assessment of which is time-consuming and not always suitable. Sensitive and reliable methods for isolation, identification, zoospore production and estimating infection severity are therefore desirable in case of Phytophthora blight of pigeonpea. In this study, protocols for isolation and identification of Phytophthora blight of pigeonpea were standardized. Also the method for zoospore production and in planta infection of P. cajani was developed. Quantification of fungal colonization by P. cajani using real-time PCR was further standardized. Phytophthora species infecting pigeonpea was identified based on mycological characters such as growth pattern, mycelium structure and sporangial morphology of the isolates and confirmed through molecular characterization (sequence deposited in GenBank). For Phytophthora disease development, zoospore suspension of 1 × 10(5) zoospores per ml was found optimum. Phytophthora specific real-time PCR assay was developed using specific primers based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 2. Use of real-time PCR allowed the quantitative estimation of fungal biomass in plant tissues. Detection sensitivities were within the range of 0.001 pg fungal DNA. A study to see the effect of elevated CO₂ on Phytophthora blight incidence was also conducted which indicated no significant difference in disease incidence, but incubation period delayed under elevated CO₂ as compared to ambient level. The zoospore infection method for Phytophthora blight of pigeonpea will facilitate the small and large scale inoculation experiments and thus devise a platform for rapid and reliable screening against Phytophthora blight

  4. Effect of Temperature on Growth and Sporulation of US-22, US-23, and US-24 Clonal Lineages of Phytophthora infestans and Implications for Late Blight Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl Johnson, Anna C; Frost, Kenneth E; Rouse, Douglas I; Gevens, Amanda J

    2015-04-01

    Epidemics of late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, have been studied by plant pathologists and regarded with great concern by potato and tomato growers since the Irish potato famine in the 1840s. P. infestans populations have continued to evolve, with unique clonal lineages arising which differ in pathogen fitness and pathogenicity, potentially impacting epidemiology. In 2012 and 2013, the US-23 clonal lineage predominated late blight epidemics in most U.S. potato and tomato production regions, including Wisconsin. This lineage was unknown prior to 2009. For isolates of three recently identified clonal lineages of P. infestans (US-22, US-23, and US-24), sporulation rates were experimentally determined on potato and tomato foliage and the effect of temperature on lesion growth rate on tomato was investigated. The US-22 and US-23 isolates had greater lesion growth rates on tomato than US-24 isolates. Sporulation rates for all isolates were greater on potato than tomato, and the US-23 isolates had greater sporulation rates on both tomato and potato than the US-22 and US-24 isolates. Experimentally determined correlates of fitness were input to the LATEBLIGHT model and epidemics were simulated using archived Wisconsin weather data from four growing seasons (2009 to 2012) to investigate the effect of isolates of these new lineages on late blight epidemiology. The fast lesion growth rates of US-22 and US-23 isolates resulted in severe epidemics in all years tested, particularly in 2011. The greater sporulation rates of P. infestans on potato resulted in simulated epidemics that progressed faster than epidemics simulated for tomato; the high sporulation rates of US-23 isolates resulted in simulated epidemics more severe than simulated epidemics of isolates of the US-22 and US-24 isolates and EC-1 clonal lineages on potato and tomato. Additionally, US-23 isolates consistently caused severe simulated epidemics when lesion growth rate and sporulation

  5. Hypothyroidism in late-onset Pompe disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Schneider

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Hypothyroidism was found at a higher prevalence in patients with late-onset Pompe disease compared to the general adult population at UMMC. Studies in larger populations of patients with Pompe disease would be needed to confirm an association of Pompe disease and hypothyroidism. Challenges include finding an adequate sample size, due the rarity of Pompe disease.

  6. Produtividade da batata em função da irrigação e do controle químico da requeima Potato productivity as a function of irrigation and chemical control of Late Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenir L Grimm

    2011-02-01

    .75, 0.50 ETm and no irrigation. Results showed that in dry and high temperature periods, yield was affected by irrigation, mainly when crop water demand was supplied with 100% ETm. During wet periods, yield was affected by the efficient control of Late Blight. The Blitecast model with a severity value of 18 (Bli18 was the most efficient for controlling the disease. Irrigations applied at least every three days did not affect Late Blight incidence and development.

  7. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF BANDED LEAF AND SHEATH BLIGHT DISEASE (Rhizoctonia solani KUHN IN CORN WITH FORMULATED Bacillus subtilis BR23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amran Muis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. causing banded leaf and sheath blight diseases is one of the important fungi of corn world wide. The fungus is commonly controlled by using fungicide because no resistant variety available. The objective of the study was to develop a seed treatment formulation of the selected Bacillus subtilis to control R. solani in corn. The study was conducted in the Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Bañòs, College, Laguna from May 2004 to August 2005, using sweet corn var. IPB Supersweet as test plant. Corn seeds were surface sterilized for 10 minutes in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution and 5% ethanol, washed thrice with sterile distilled water and air-dried. The seeds were coated with formulated B. subtilis BR23 and used for several experiments, such as evaluation for their germination and growth in the laboratory, effectively on R. solani in the baked and nonbaked field soil under greenhouse condition, and in the microplots artificially infested with R. solani. The treatment was compared with other standard seed treatment of synthetic fungicides such as captan (10 g per kg seeds and metalaxyl (10 g per kg seeds. The experiments were designed in a completely random design with three replications. Parameters observed were seed germination, plant height, disease scores, and plant yield. Laboratory formulated B. subtilis BR23 used as seed treatment had no detrimental effects on seed germination and seedling vigor. In microplots artificially infested with a selected highly virulent R. solani, seed treatment with the same formulation increased grain yield by 27% compared to that of the control captan seed treatment with 14.4%. The studies showed the potential of B. subtilis BR23 for commercialization as a seed treatment for the control of banded leaf and sheath blight disease (R. solani in corn.

  8. Induction of Xa10-like Genes in Rice Cultivar Nipponbare Confers Disease Resistance to Rice Bacterial Blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tian, Dongsheng; Gu, Keyu; Yang, Xiaobei; Wang, Lanlan; Zeng, Xuan; Yin, Zhongchao

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial blight of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, is one of the most destructive bacterial diseases throughout the major rice-growing regions in the world. The rice disease resistance (R) gene Xa10 confers race-specific disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that deliver the corresponding transcription activator-like (TAL) effector AvrXa10. Upon bacterial infection, AvrXa10 binds specifically to the effector binding element in the promoter of the R gene and activates its expression. Xa10 encodes an executor R protein that triggers hypersensitive response and activates disease resistance. 'Nipponbare' rice carries two Xa10-like genes in its genome, of which one is the susceptible allele of the Xa23 gene, a Xa10-like TAL effector-dependent executor R gene isolated recently from 'CBB23' rice. However, the function of the two Xa10-like genes in disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains has not been investigated. Here, we designated the two Xa10-like genes as Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni and characterized their function for disease resistance to rice bacterial blight. Both Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni provided disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that deliver the matching artificially designed TAL effectors (dTALE). Transgenic rice plants containing Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni under the Xa10 promoter provided specific disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that deliver AvrXa10. Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni knock-out mutants abolished dTALE-dependent disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Heterologous expression of Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni in Nicotiana benthamiana triggered cell death. The 19-amino-acid residues at the N-terminal regions of XA10 or XA10-Ni are dispensable for their function in inducing cell death in N. benthamiana and the C-terminal regions of XA10, XA10-Ni, and XA23-Ni are interchangeable among each other without affecting their function. Like XA10, both XA10-Ni and XA23-Ni locate to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane

  9. Survey of tomato diseases in Cameroon

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    Fontem, DA.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is the most widely cultivated field vegetable crop in Cameroon. On-farm surveys were undertaken from November 1988 to October 1991 to identify nursery and field diseases in major tomato producing areas of Cameroon, Damping-off and seedling blights were the main seedling diseases. Of the eleven diseases observed in the field, the most widely distributed and severe on the foliage and fruits were early (Alternaria solani and late (Phytophthora infestans blights. Late blight was the most severe disease in the wet season while early blight was most severe in the dry season. Nine pathogens were associated with various fruit rots. This study indicates the need for an identification of appropriate control methods for early and late blights of tomato in Cameroon.

  10. Rice mutation breeding for resistance against leaf blight disease and brown planthopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiono; Ismachin, M

    1981-01-01

    Seeds of Pelita 1/1 were treated variously with EMS 1%, 20, 30, 35, 40 and 50 krad doses gamma rays from a Co 60 source. The 1% EMS treatment, of presoaking for 36 hours in distilled water and stored for one week before sowing, yielded more mutants resistant against bacterial leaf blight compared to other treatments with EMS. Treatment with 20 krad of gamma rays gave an indication of a good probability for improving resistance. Screening for brown planthopper resistance among 350 M 4 lines yielded 4 moderate resistant (MR) lines. However, no resistant line was found. From 36 crosses between the mutants and IR-26 or mutants with Mudgo 86 promising lines were found. The promising lines, beside resistant against brown planthopper, were selected based on early maturity and short stem. (author)

  11. Characterization of a disease susceptibility locus for exploring an efficient way to improve rice resistance against bacterial blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Cheng; Weihua Mao; Wenya Xie; Qinsong Liu; Jianbo Cao; Meng Yuan; Qinglu Zhang; Xianghua Li; Shiping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae (Xoo) is the most harmful bacterial disease of rice worldwide.Previously,we characterized major disease resistance (MR) gene xa25,which confers race-specific resistance to Xoo strain PXO339.The xa25 is a recessive allele of the SWEET13 locus,but SWEET13's interaction with PXO339 and how efficiently using this locus for rice breeding still need to be defined.Here we show that the SWEET13 allele from rice Zhenshan 97 is a susceptibility gene to PXO339.Using this allele's promoter to regulate xa25 resulted in disease,suggesting that the promoter is a key determinant in SWEET13 caused disease in Zhanshan 97 after PXO339 infection.PXO339 transcriptionally induces SWEET13 to cause disease.Partial suppressing SWEET13 expression leads to a high level of resistance to PXO339.Thus,the transcriptionally suppressed SWEET13 functions as xa25 in resistance to PXO339.Hybrid rice is widely grown in many countries.However,recessive MR genes have not been efficiently used for disease resistance breeding in hybrid rice production for both parents of the hybrid have to carry the same recessive gene.However,the suppressed SWEET13 functions dominantly,which will have advantage to improve the resistance of hybrid rice to xa25-incomptible Xoo.

  12. Progression of Late-Onset Stargardt Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lambertus, Stanley; Lindner, Moritz; Bax, Nathalie M.; Mauschitz, Matthias M.; Nadal, Jennifer; Schmid, Matthias; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Holz, Frank G.; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Fleckenstein, Monika; Hoyng, Carel B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Identification of sensitive biomarkers is essential to determine potential effects of emerging therapeutic trials for Stargardt disease. This study aimed to describe the natural history of late-onset Stargardt, and demonstrates the accuracy of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy progression as an outcome measure. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study collecting multicenter data from 47 patients (91 eyes) with late-onset Stargardt, defined by clinical phenotype...

  13. Hypothyroidism in late-onset Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Joseph; Burmeister, Lynn A; Rudser, Kyle; Whitley, Chester B; Jarnes Utz, Jeanine

    2016-09-01

    In Pompe disease, a deficiency of acid α-glucosidase enzyme activity leads to pathologic accumulation of glycogen in tissues. Phenotype heterogeneity in Pompe includes an infantile form and late-onset forms (juvenile- and adult-onset forms). Symptoms common to all phenotypes include progressive muscle weakness and worsening respiratory function. Patients with late-onset forms of Pompe disease commonly complain of chronic fatigue and generalized muscle weakness prior to being diagnosed with Pompe disease, and this may lead to consideration of hypothyroidism in the differential diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypothyroidism in the adult-onset form of Pompe disease. Electronic chart review was performed at the Advanced Therapies Clinic at the University of Minnesota Medical Center (UMMC) to identify patients with late-onset Pompe disease. The identified charts were reviewed for a co-diagnosis of hypothyroidism. A query was made to the clinical data repository at UMMC searching diagnosis ICD9 code 244.9 (hypothyroidism not otherwise specified) and/or presence of levothyroxine from 2011 to 2014 in patients 18 years of age and older. The clinical data repository found a prevalence of hypothyroidism of 3.15% (56,072 of 1,782,720 patients) in the adult patient population at UMMC. Ten adult patients with Pompe disease were identified, five with the diagnosis of hypothyroidism (50%, 95% CI: 23.7, 76.3, p Hypothyroidism was found at a higher prevalence in patients with late-onset Pompe disease compared to the general adult population at UMMC. Studies in larger populations of patients with Pompe disease would be needed to confirm an association of Pompe disease and hypothyroidism. Challenges include finding an adequate sample size, due the rarity of Pompe disease.

  14. Thiamine primed defense provides reliable alternative to systemic fungicide carbendazim against sheath blight disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, Rajeev Nayan; Joshi, Rohit; Shukla, Alok; Pandey, Mayank; Kumar, J

    2012-08-01

    A novel pathogen defense strategy by thiamine priming was evaluated for its efficacy against sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani AG-1A, of rice and compared with that of systemic fungicide, carbendazim (BCM). Seeds of semidwarf, high yielding, basmati rice variety Vasumati were treated with thiamine (50 mM) and BCM (4 mM). The pot cultured plants were challenge inoculated with R. solani after 40 days of sowing and effect of thiamine and BCM on rice growth and yield traits was examined. Higher hydrogen peroxide content, total phenolics accumulation, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity under thiamine treatment displayed elevated level of systemic resistance, which was further augmented under challenging pathogen infection. High transcript level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) validated mode of thiamine primed defense. Though minimum disease severity was observed under BCM treatment, thiamine produced comparable results, with 18.12 per cent lower efficacy. Along with fortifying defense components and minor influence on photosynthetic pigments and nitrate reductase (NR) activity, thiamine treatment significantly reduced pathogen-induced loss in photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll fluorescence, NR activity and NR transcript level. Physiological traits affected under pathogen infection were found signatory for characterizing plant's response under disease and were detectable at early stage of infection. These findings provide a novel paradigm for developing alternative, environmentally safe strategies to control plant diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Progression of Late-Onset Stargardt Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambertus, S.; Lindner, M.; Bax, N.M.; Mauschitz, M.M.; Nadal, J.; Schmid, M.; Schmitz-Valckenberg, S.; Hollander, A.I. den; Weber, B.H.; Holz, F.G.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Fleckenstein, M.; Hoyng, C.B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Identification of sensitive biomarkers is essential to determine potential effects of emerging therapeutic trials for Stargardt disease. This study aimed to describe the natural history of late-onset Stargardt, and demonstrates the accuracy of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy

  16. Bacterial stem blight of alfalfa: A disease that increases frost damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa producers count on the first harvest in late spring to deliver the highest tonnage and best quality of forage of the year. A late frost can significantly reduce both yield and quality. Losses are due not only to the physical damage from freezing of the alfalfa stem and leaves but also from d...

  17. Sistemas de previsão de requeima em cultivos de batata em Santa Maria, RS Forecast systems of late blight in potato crops in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leosane Cristina Bosco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de previsão constituem alternativa para o controle eficiente da requeima em batata e consequente redução da quantidade de fungicidas utilizados, dos custos de produção e da poluição ambiental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os sistemas de previsão de ocorrência de requeima, Blitecast e Prophy, em cultivos de primavera e outono de batata, cultivar Macaca, suscetível a requeima, na região produtora de Santa Maria (RS. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na primavera de 2006 e outono de 2007 com a cultivar Macaca. Os dados meteorológicos foram coletados no centro da área experimental com uma estação automática e com psicrômetros instalados em diferentes níveis. Os tratamentos foram arranjados no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo diferenciados por meio dos valores de severidade acumulados, calculados pelos sistemas de previsão Blitecast e Prophy. Os valores de severidade acumulados foram utilizados como indicadores do momento de aplicação de fungicida para o controle da requeima. Verificou-se que a utilização do sistema de previsão de requeima Prophy, com acúmulo de 15, 20 ou 25 valores de severidade e do sistema Blitecast com 24 valores de severidade acumulados, para o genótipo de batata suscetível, Macaca, permite reduzir o número de aplicações de fungicidas sem afetar significativamente a produtividade de tubérculos comerciais.The forecast systems are an alternative to the efficient control of late blight potatoes and consequent reduction in the amount of fungicide and thereby reduce production costs and environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to evaluate forecast systems, Blitecast and Prophy, for late blight occurrence in Macaca potato cultivar in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experiments were carried out during Spring 2006 and Autumn 2007 with the Macaca cultivar characterized as susceptible to late blight. Meteorological

  18. Late haemorrhagic disease of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Emine; Sarper, Nazan; Türker, Gülcan; Corapçioğlu, Funda; Etuş, Volkan

    2006-09-01

    Late haemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN) can occur owing to a lack of vitamin K prophylaxis, as a manifestation of an underlying disorder or idiopatically from the 8th day to 12 weeks after birth. Eight infants admitted to Kocaeli University Hospital with nine episodes of late HDN between January 2002 and April 2005 were evaluated retrospectively from hospital records. The median age at presentation was 46 (26-111) days. All the infants were born at full-term to healthy mothers and were exclusively breast-fed. All had an uneventful perinatal history, except one who had meconium aspiration. Four patients had received no vitamin K prophylaxis and another three had uncertain histories. At presentation, six had intracranial bleeding and the remainder had bleeding either from the venepuncture site or the gastro-intestinal tract. The presenting signs and symptoms were irritability, vomiting, bulging or full fontanelle, convulsions and diminished or absent neonatal reflexes. Galactosaemia was detected in a 2-month-old infant with prolonged jaundice. There was no surgery-related mortality or complications but one survived for only 2 days on ventilatory support following surgery. Only one of the six survivors had severe neurological sequelae. Late HDN frequently presents with intracranial haemorrhage, leading to high morbidity and mortality. HDN can be the manifestation of an underlying metabolic disorder. Vitamin K prophylaxis of the newborn should be routine in developing countries.

  19. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of alien introgressions with gene Fhb3 for resistance to Fusarium head blight disease of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance was identified in the alien species Leymus racemosus, and wheat-Leymus introgression lines with FHB resistance were reported previously. Detailed molecular cytogenetic analysis of alien introgressions T01, T09, and T14 and the mapping of Fhb3, a new gene for FHB...

  20. Progression of Late-Onset Stargardt Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertus, Stanley; Lindner, Moritz; Bax, Nathalie M; Mauschitz, Matthias M; Nadal, Jennifer; Schmid, Matthias; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; den Hollander, Anneke I; Weber, Bernhard H F; Holz, Frank G; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Fleckenstein, Monika; Hoyng, Carel B

    2016-10-01

    Identification of sensitive biomarkers is essential to determine potential effects of emerging therapeutic trials for Stargardt disease. This study aimed to describe the natural history of late-onset Stargardt, and demonstrates the accuracy of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy progression as an outcome measure. We performed a retrospective cohort study collecting multicenter data from 47 patients (91 eyes) with late-onset Stargardt, defined by clinical phenotype, at least one ABCA4 mutation, and age at disease onset ≥ 45 years. We analyzed RPE atrophy progression on fundus autofluorescence and near-infrared reflectance imaging using semiautomated software and a linear mixed model. We performed sample size calculations to assess the power in a simulated 2-year interventional study and assessed visual endpoints using time-to-event analysis. Over time, progression of RPE atrophy was observed (mean: 0.22 mm/year, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19-0.27). By including only patients with bilateral RPE atrophy in a future trial, 32 patients are needed to reach a power of 83.9% (95% CI: 83.1-84.6), assuming a fixed therapeutic effect size of 30%. We found a median interval between disease onset and visual acuity decline to 20/32, 20/80, and 20/200 of 2.74 (95% CI: 0.54-4.41), 10.15 (95% CI: 6.13-11.38), and 11.38 (95% CI: 6.13-13.34) years, respectively. We show that RPE atrophy represents a robust biomarker to monitor disease progression in future therapeutic trials. In contrast, the variability in terms of the course of visual acuity was high.

  1. In Silico Identification of Mimicking Molecules as Defense Inducers Triggering Jasmonic Acid Mediated Immunity against Alternaria Blight Disease in Brassica Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Pandey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria brassicicola are two major phytopathogenic fungi which cause Alternaria blight, a recalcitrant disease on Brassica crops throughout the world, which is highly destructive and responsible for significant yield losses. Since no resistant source is available against Alternaria blight, therefore, efforts have been made in the present study to identify defense inducer molecules which can induce jasmonic acid (JA mediated defense against the disease. It is believed that JA triggered defense response will prevent necrotrophic mode of colonization of Alternaria brassicae fungus. The JA receptor, COI1 is one of the potential targets for triggering JA mediated immunity through interaction with JA signal. In the present study, few mimicking compounds more efficient than naturally occurring JA in terms of interaction with COI1 were identified through virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulation studies. A high quality structural model of COI1 was developed using the protein sequence of Brassica rapa. This was followed by virtual screening of 767 analogs of JA from ZINC database for interaction with COI1. Two analogs viz. ZINC27640214 and ZINC43772052 showed more binding affinity with COI1 as compared to naturally occurring JA. Molecular dynamics simulation of COI1 and COI1-JA complex, as well as best screened interacting structural analogs of JA with COI1 was done for 50 ns to validate the stability of system. It was found that ZINC27640214 possesses efficient, stable, and good cell permeability properties. Based on the obtained results and its physicochemical properties, it is capable of mimicking JA signaling and may be used as defense inducers for triggering JA mediated resistance against Alternaria blight, only after further validation through field trials.

  2. Lipid transfer proteins and protease inhibitors as key factors in the priming of barley responses to Fusarium head blight disease by a biocontrol strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Carloalberto; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona

    2010-11-01

    Strains of non-pathogenic pseudomonad bacteria, can elicit host defence responses against pathogenic microorganisms. Pseudomonas fluorescens strain MKB158 can protect cereals from pathogenesis by Fusarium fungi, including Fusarium head blight which is an economically important disease due to its association with both yield loss and mycotoxin contamination of grain. Using the 22 K barley Affymetrix chip, trancriptome studies were undertaken to determine the local effect of P. fluorescens strain MKB158 on the transcriptome of barley head tissue, and to discriminate transcripts primed by the bacterium to respond to challenge by Fusarium culmorum, a causal agent of the economically important Fusarium head blight disease of cereals. The bacterium significantly affected the accumulation of 1203 transcripts and primed 74 to positively, and 14 to negatively, respond to the pathogen (P = 0.05). This is the first study to give insights into bacterium priming in the Triticeae tribe of grasses and associated transcripts were classified into 13 functional classes, associated with diverse functions, including detoxification, cell wall biosynthesis and the amplification of host defence responses. In silico analysis of Arabidopsis homologs of bacterium-primed barley genes indicated that, as is the case in dicots, jasmonic acid plays a role in pseudomonad priming of host responses. Additionally, the transcriptome studies described herein also reveal new insights into bacterium-mediated priming of host defences against necrotrophs, including the positive effects on grain filling, lignin deposition, oxidative stress responses, and the inhibition of protease inhibitors and proteins that play a key role in programmed cell death.

  3. Classifying Wheat Hyperspectral Pixels of Healthy Heads and Fusarium Head Blight Disease Using a Deep Neural Network in the Wild Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Jin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Classification of healthy and diseased wheat heads in a rapid and non-destructive manner for the early diagnosis of Fusarium head blight disease research is difficult. Our work applies a deep neural network classification algorithm to the pixels of hyperspectral image to accurately discern the disease area. The spectra of hyperspectral image pixels in a manually selected region of interest are preprocessed via mean removal to eliminate interference, due to the time interval and the environment. The generalization of the classification model is considered, and two improvements are made to the model framework. First, the pixel spectra data are reshaped into a two-dimensional data structure for the input layer of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN. After training two types of CNNs, the assessment shows that a two-dimensional CNN model is more efficient than a one-dimensional CNN. Second, a hybrid neural network with a convolutional layer and bidirectional recurrent layer is reconstructed to improve the generalization of the model. When considering the characteristics of the dataset and models, the confusion matrices that are based on the testing dataset indicate that the classification model is effective for background and disease classification of hyperspectral image pixels. The results of the model show that the two-dimensional convolutional bidirectional gated recurrent unit neural network (2D-CNN-BidGRU has an F1 score and accuracy of 0.75 and 0.743, respectively, for the total testing dataset. A comparison of all the models shows that the hybrid neural network of 2D-CNN-BidGRU is the best at preventing over-fitting and optimize the generalization. Our results illustrate that the hybrid structure deep neural network is an excellent classification algorithm for healthy and Fusarium head blight diseased classification in the field of hyperspectral imagery.

  4. Auxin as a player in the biocontrol of Fusarium head blight disease of barley and its potential as a disease control agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petti Carloalberto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms involved in the biological control of plant diseases are varied and complex. Hormones, including the auxin indole acetic acid (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA, are essential regulators of a multitude of biological functions, including plant responses to biotic and abiotic stressors. This study set out to determine what hormones might play a role in Pseudomonas fluorescens –mediated control of Fusarium head blight (FHB disease of barley and to determine if biocontrol-associated hormones directly affect disease development. Results A previous study distinguished bacterium-responsive genes from bacterium-primed genes, distinguished by the fact that the latter are only up-regulated when both P. fluorescens and the pathogen Fusarium culmorum are present. In silico analysis of the promoter sequences available for a subset of the bacterium-primed genes identified several hormones, including IAA and ABA as potential regulators of transcription. Treatment with the bacterium or pathogen resulted in increased IAA and ABA levels in head tissue; both microbes had additive effects on the accumulation of IAA but not of ABA. The microbe-induced accumulation of ABA preceded that of IAA. Gene expression analysis showed that both hormones up-regulated the accumulation of bacterium-primed genes. But IAA, more than ABA up-regulated the transcription of the ABA biosynthesis gene NCED or the signalling gene Pi2, both of which were previously shown to be bacterium-responsive rather than primed. Application of IAA, but not of ABA reduced both disease severity and yield loss caused by F. culmorum, but neither hormone affect in vitro fungal growth. Conclusions Both IAA and ABA are involved in the P. fluorescens-mediated control of FHB disease of barley. Gene expression studies also support the hypothesis that IAA plays a role in the primed response to F. culmorum. This hypothesis was validated by the fact that pre-application of IAA reduced

  5. Auxin as a player in the biocontrol of Fusarium head blight disease of barley and its potential as a disease control agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Carloalberto; Reiber, Kathrin; Ali, Shahin S; Berney, Margaret; Doohan, Fiona M

    2012-11-22

    Mechanisms involved in the biological control of plant diseases are varied and complex. Hormones, including the auxin indole acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), are essential regulators of a multitude of biological functions, including plant responses to biotic and abiotic stressors. This study set out to determine what hormones might play a role in Pseudomonas fluorescens -mediated control of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease of barley and to determine if biocontrol-associated hormones directly affect disease development. A previous study distinguished bacterium-responsive genes from bacterium-primed genes, distinguished by the fact that the latter are only up-regulated when both P. fluorescens and the pathogen Fusarium culmorum are present. In silico analysis of the promoter sequences available for a subset of the bacterium-primed genes identified several hormones, including IAA and ABA as potential regulators of transcription. Treatment with the bacterium or pathogen resulted in increased IAA and ABA levels in head tissue; both microbes had additive effects on the accumulation of IAA but not of ABA. The microbe-induced accumulation of ABA preceded that of IAA. Gene expression analysis showed that both hormones up-regulated the accumulation of bacterium-primed genes. But IAA, more than ABA up-regulated the transcription of the ABA biosynthesis gene NCED or the signalling gene Pi2, both of which were previously shown to be bacterium-responsive rather than primed. Application of IAA, but not of ABA reduced both disease severity and yield loss caused by F. culmorum, but neither hormone affect in vitro fungal growth. Both IAA and ABA are involved in the P. fluorescens-mediated control of FHB disease of barley. Gene expression studies also support the hypothesis that IAA plays a role in the primed response to F. culmorum. This hypothesis was validated by the fact that pre-application of IAA reduced both symptoms and yield loss asssociated with the disease

  6. Bio-protective microbial agents from rhizosphere eco-systems trigger plant defense responses provide protection against sheath blight disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Udai B; Malviya, Deepti; Wasiullah; Singh, Shailendra; Pradhan, Jatindra K; Singh, Bhanu P; Roy, Manish; Imram, Mohd; Pathak, Neelam; Baisyal, B M; Rai, Jai P; Sarma, B K; Singh, Rajiv K; Sharma, P K; Kaur, Saman Deep; Manna, M C; Sharma, Sushil K; Sharma, Arun K

    2016-11-01

    Sheath blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.) caused by Rhizoctonia solani is a major disease and attempts are being made to develop microbe based technologies for biocontrol of this pathogen. However, the mechanisms of biocontrol are not fully understood and still require indepth study in the backdrop of emerging concepts in biological systems. The present investigation was aimed at deciphering the mechanisms of biocontrol of sheath blight of rice employing Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum as model agents for biocontrol. Initially 25, 5 and 5 strains of P. fluorescens, T. viride and T. harzianum, respectively, were screened for their biocontrol potential. Out of which, six strains with higher value of percent inhibition of fungal mycelium in dual plate assay were selected. The role of P. fluorescens, T. viride and T. harzianum were investigated in induction and bioaccumulation of natural antioxidants, defence-related biomolecules and other changes in plant which lead not only to growth promotion but also protection from pathogenic stress conditions in rice. The two most promising strains, P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501 selected on the basis of in planta evaluation, when applied individually or in combination, significantly enhanced the accumulation of defence-related biomolecules, enzymes and exhibited biocontrol potential against R. solani. A modified/newly developed delivery system was applied for the first time in the experiments involving inoculation of plants with both bioagents, viz. P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501. Results suggested that application of P. fluorescens PF-08 and T. harzianum UBSTH-501 alone or in combination, not only helps in control of the disease but also increases plant growth along with reduction in application of toxic chemical pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Late-onset Huntington's disease: diagnostic and prognostic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsis, Georgios; Karadima, Georgia; Kladi, Athina; Panas, Marios

    2014-07-01

    To address diagnostic and prognostic issues in patients with late-onset Huntington's disease (HD). We analyzed a cohort of 41 late-onset (≥60 years) HD patients and compared them to 39 late-onset patients referred for HD testing that were negative for the HD-expansion and to 290 usual-onset (20-59 years) HD patients. Disease severity was assessed by the Total Functional Capacity Scale. Late-onset HD comprised 11.5% of our HD cohort. In total, 70.7% of late-onset HD patients had positive family history compared to 15.4% of late-onset expansion-negative patients (p < 0.001). Clinical features at onset or presentation could not usefully distinguish between late-onset expansion-positive and negative patients, excepting hemichorea, which was absent from the HD group (p = 0.024). Chorea was the first clinical feature in 53.7% and a presenting feature in 90.2% of late-onset HD. The mutation hit rate for late-onset patients was 51.3%, lower than in usual-onset patients (p = 0.04). Frequencies of chorea, cognitive impairment and psychiatric manifestations at onset or presentation were not significantly different between late-onset and usual-onset HD patients. Gait unsteadiness however was more common at presentation in late-onset HD (p = 0.007). Late-onset HD patients reached a severe stage of illness on average 2.8 years earlier than usual-onset HD patients (p = 0.046). A positive family history suggestive of HD, although absent in a third of patients, remains a helpful clue in diagnosing late-onset HD. Prognosis of late-onset HD in terms of Total Functional Capacity appears no better and shows a trend of being somewhat less favorable compared to usual-onset HD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parkinson's disease therapy: treatment of early and late disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Purpose To summarize the current strategies for the treatment of early and late Parkinson's disease (PD). Data sources The presented guidelines are based on the review of the literature as well as the author's extensive experience with the treatment of 7000 patients with PD over the past 25 years. Results An analysis of reported data as well as personal experience suggest that while young patients seem to have a slower progression of the disease, they are at a higher risk for developing levodopa induced complications, such as motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. It is, therefore, prudent practice to delay levodopa therapy, particularly in younger patients, until the PD symptoms become troublesome and interfere with social or occupational functioning. Other strategies, such as the use of deprenyl, amantadine, trihexyphenidyl and dopamine agonists, should be employed before instituting levodopa therapy. Entacopone and dopamine agonists are useful in smoothing out levodopa related motor fluctuations. Surgical interventions, such as pallidotomy and pallidal or subthalamic deep brain stimulation, are effective therapeutic strategies, but should be reserved only for patients in whom optimal medical therapy fails to provide satisfactory control of symptoms. Conclusion The medical and surgical treatment of patients with PD must be individualized and tailored to the needs of the individual patient.

  9. Characterizing heterogeneity of disease incidence in a spatial hierarchy: a case study from a decade of observations of fusarium head blight of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriss, A B; Paul, P A; Madden, L V

    2012-09-01

    A multilevel analysis of heterogeneity of disease incidence was conducted based on observations of Fusarium head blight (caused by Fusarium graminearum) in Ohio during the 2002-11 growing seasons. Sampling consisted of counting the number of diseased and healthy wheat spikes per 0.3 m of row at 10 sites (about 30 m apart) in a total of 67 to 159 sampled fields in 12 to 32 sampled counties per year. Incidence was then determined as the proportion of diseased spikes at each site. Spatial heterogeneity of incidence among counties, fields within counties, and sites within fields and counties was characterized by fitting a generalized linear mixed model to the data, using a complementary log-log link function, with the assumption that the disease status of spikes was binomially distributed conditional on the effects of county, field, and site. Based on the estimated variance terms, there was highly significant spatial heterogeneity among counties and among fields within counties each year; magnitude of the estimated variances was similar for counties and fields. The lowest level of heterogeneity was among sites within fields, and the site variance was either 0 or not significantly greater than 0 in 3 of the 10 years. Based on the variances, the intracluster correlation of disease status of spikes within sites indicated that spikes from the same site were somewhat more likely to share the same disease status relative to spikes from other sites, fields, or counties. The estimated best linear unbiased predictor (EBLUP) for each county was determined, showing large differences across the state in disease incidence (as represented by the link function of the estimated probability that a spike was diseased) but no consistency between years for the different counties. The effects of geographical location, corn and wheat acreage per county, and environmental conditions on the EBLUP for each county were not significant in the majority of years.

  10. Effect of Trichoderma harzianum biomass and Bradyrhizobium sp. strain NC 92 to control leaf blight disease of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea caused by Rhizoctonia solani in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mana Kanjanamaneesathian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred and sixty two strains of Trichoderma spp. were isolated from 23 soil samples in which groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. and bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. had been planted in Songkhla, Phattalung, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Narathiwat and Yala provinces. These fungi were tested against Rhizoctonia solani, a causal agent of leaf blight of bambara groundnut, using dual culture technique on PDA medium. Among 462 isolates tested, 226 isolates had an ability to overgrow R. solani completely. Further testing found 13 isolates having the ability to parasitize mycelia of R. solani. Among these isolates, ThB-1-54 produced a cellulolytic enzyme on congo-red agar. This isolate was later identified as T. harzianum Rifai. In the field test, applying biomass of the isolate ThB-1-54 cultured on ground mesocarp fiber of oil palm, the combination of the isolate ThB-1-54 on ground mesocarp fiber of oil palm and Bradyrhizobium sp. (strain NC 92, or fungicide (iprodione had no effect on disease severity, yield, or the amount of total nitrogen content in stems or seeds of bambara groundnut plant.

  11. Some new and noteworthy diseases of poplars in India. [Botryodiplodia sett-rot; Alternaria tip blight; Cladosporium leaf spot; Fusarium pink incrustation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.

    1983-09-01

    Four new diseases of poplars namely Botryodiplodia sett-rott, Alternaria tip blight, Cladosporium leaf spot and Fusarium pink incrustation are described in this paper. Botryodiplodia palmarum causes sett-rott of poplars both at pre-sprouting and post-sprouting stage. The pathogen also causes mortality of poplar plants in the field within 4-6 weeks after planting. Alternaria stage of Pleuspora infectoria has been found as the cause of blackening and dying of growing tips and young leaves of a Populus sp. and P. deltoides in nurseries. Cladosporium humile has been recorded as the cause of brown spot followed by crumpling and premature shedding of leaves in P. ciliata, P. nigra and P. alba. The cause of Fusarium incrustation disease on P. cilata has been identified as Fusarium sp. of Gibbosum group. Pathogenicity of Botryodiplodia palmarum and Alternaria stage of Pleospora infectoria was confirmed by artificial inoculations. Brief descriptions of Alternaria, Cladosporium and Fusarium are also given. The paper also gives a short account of some noteworthy diseases recorded on poplars namely Ganoderma root rot, foliage ruts and stem cankers. Ganoderma root-rot is found to reach alarming proportions in closely spaced poplar plantations. Melampsora ciliata, an indigenous rust, is found to attack mainly clones of P. deltoides, P. yunnanensis, P. trichocarpa, P. alba and some cultivars of P. x euramericana in nurseries. A brief account of three types of stem cankers i.e. cankers due to pink disease fungus, Corticium salmonicolor, sun-scaled cankers and cankers associated with slime flux on various clones of P. deltoides is also given.

  12. Evaluation of chickpea genotypes for resistance to Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei disease in the dry highlands of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. KIMURTO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum is an edible legume grown widely for its nutritious seed, which is rich in protein, minerals, vitamins and dietary fibre. It’s a new crop in Kenya whose potential has not been utilized fully due to abiotic and biotic stresses that limit its productivity. The crop is affected mainly by Ascochyta blight (AB which is widespread in cool dry highlands causing up to 100% yield loss. The objective of this study was to evalu- ate the resistance of selected chickpea genotypes to AB in dry highlands of Kenya. The study was done in 2 sites (Egerton University-Njoro and Agricultural Training centre-ATC-Koibatek for one season during long rains of 2010/2011 growing season. Thirty six genotypes from reference sets and mini-core samples introduced from ICR- SAT were evaluated. There were significant (P<0.001 differences in AB responses and grain yield performance in test genotypes in both sites. AB was more severe at Egerton-Njoro (mean score 5.7 than ATC-Koibatek (mean score 4.25, with subsequent low grain yield. Genotypes ICC7052, ICC4463, ICC4363, ICC2884, ICC7150, ICC15294 and ICC11627 had both highest grain yield in decreasing order (mean range 1790-1053 Kg ha-1 and best resist- ance to AB. Further evaluation is needed in other multi-locations and their use in breeding program determined especially because of their undesirable black seed color. Commercial varieties (LDT068, LDT065, Chania desi 1, and Saina K1 were all susceptible to AB, but with grain yield >1200 Kg ha-1. The findings of the study showed that chickpea should be sown during the short rains (summer in the dry highlands of Kenya when conditions are drier and warmer and less favorable for AB infection. However yield could be increased by shifting the sowing date from dry season to long rain (winter thus avoiding terminal drought if AB resistant cultivars with acceptable agronomic traits could be identified.

  13. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barritt, Andrew W; Anderson, Stuart J; Leigh, P Nigel; Ridha, Basil H

    2017-10-01

    We discuss the assessment and differential diagnoses of a young adult Hungarian man with a 1-year history of a progressive and symmetric amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like syndrome, along with irregular action tremor and stimulus-sensitive myoclonus of the arms. MR scan of the brain showed isolated cerebellar atrophy and formal neuropsychometric testing identified significant subclinical deficits in attention, processing speed and memory. We suspected a form of GM 2 gangliosidosis, and white cell enzyme analysis showed markedly reduced enzymatic activity of β-hexosaminidase A. Genetic testing subsequently revealed two heterozygous pathogenic mutations in the HEXA gene (c.1499delT p.(Leu500fs) and c.805G>A p.(Gly269Ser)), confirming the very rare diagnosis of adult-onset Tay-Sachs disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Late-onset CMV disease following CMV prophylaxis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common opportunistic infection after solid-organ transplantation, increasing morbidity and mortality. Three months of oral valganciclovir have been shown to provide effective prophylaxis. Late-onset CMV disease, occurring after the discontinuation of prophylaxis, is now increasingly recognised. AIMS: To investigate the incidence and the time of detection of CMV infections in liver transplant recipients who received CMV prophylaxis. METHODS: Retrospective review of 64 high- and moderate-risk patients with 1 year of follow-up. RESULTS: The incidence of CMV infection was 12.5%, with 4.7% disease. All cases of symptomatic CMV disease were of late-onset. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of CMV infections in this study was low compared with literature reports; however, the late-onset disease is an emerging problem. Detection of late-onset disease may be delayed because of less frequent clinic follow-up visits. Increased regular laboratory monitoring may allow earlier detection at the asymptomatic infection stage.

  15. Clinical presentation of late haemorrhagic disease of newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, R.; Memon, Y.; Majeed, F.

    2008-01-01

    To observe the clinical presentation of late haemorrhagic disease of the newborn (LHDNB), and clinical improvement after the administration of vitamin K/sub 1/. This is a prospective descriptive study. All the children older than seven days who presented with bleeding were admitted in pediatrics ward of Isra University Hyderabad from April 2006 to April 2007 were included. Data collection was done by means of detailed proforma. Analysis was done on SPSS version 11. Thirty five cases were included. Commonest site of bleeding was subcutaneous followed by oral and injection site. Mean age of late haemorrhagic disease of newborn was 109 days and minimum age of presentation was 28 days. Common clinical presentations were irritability, convulsions, poor reflexes and poor feeding. Mostly recovery was within 24 hours after vit K. Late HDN results in severe hemorrhage especially hemorrhage in the central nervous system. Administration of Vitamin K (1mg, 1M) at birth can present these severe complications. (author)

  16. Late onset Pompe disease- new genetic variant: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient was not given enzyme replacement therapy due to cost but received high protein therapy and Oxygen supplementation using Oxygen extractor machine. She is worsening due to respiratory failure. Conclusion: This is a new genetic variant isolated of late-onset Pompe disease which presents with almost pure ...

  17. Screening for late-onset Pompe disease in western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Julie Schjødtz; Pedersen, E G; Gaist, D

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) is a rare autosomal recessively inherited metabolic myopathy caused by reduced activity of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-glucosidase. In a previous screening study at two large neuromuscular university clinics in Denmark, three patients with LOPD were...

  18. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groof, A.; Guelen, L.; Deijs, M.; Wal, van der Y.; Miyata, M.; Ng, K.S.; Grinsven, van L.; Simmelink, B.; Biermann, Y.; Grisez, L.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Ronde, de A.; Chang, S.F.; Schrier, C.; Hoek, L.

    2015-01-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained

  19. Severe late anemia of hemolytic disease of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Simon; James, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    Late anemia is a well-recognized complication of Rhesus hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). The incidence of Rhesus HDN is declining, with a tendency for more severely affected pregnancies to be managed in specialist centres. Consequently, many paediatric departments may see relatively few affected infants with comparatively mild disease, and the risk of late anemia in such cases may not always be appreciated. Two cases of infants born with evidence of Rhesus isoimmunization noted at birth and encountering no immediate problems other than mild hyperbilirubinemia are described. After an uneventful early neonatal course, both infants were discharged without follow-up and presented in the second to third weeks of life with severe, life-threatening anemia, leading to neurological sequelae in one case. The importance of close surveillance, including hemoglobin measurements, in all infants with Rhesus hemolytic disease, irrespective of initial severity, is reiterated. PMID:20212966

  20. Progresso do crestamento gomoso e perdas na cultura da melancia Disease progress and crop losses due to watermelon gummy stem blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil R. dos Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O progresso do crestamento gomoso e as perdas na cultura da melancia foram estudados em ensaios de campo com inoculação artificial de Didymella bryoniae. Para o estudo do progresso da doença foram utilizadas duas áreas indenes, cada uma com 24 x 32 m, e nenhuma medida de controle foi adotada. Para obtenção das curvas de progresso, quantificou-se a percentagem média de área foliar afetada em uma área de 768 m², aos 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 74, 80 e 87 dias após o plantio (DAP. Ficou demonstrado que a doença progride segundo o modelo exponencial, mesmo sob condições não muito favoráveis, na ausência de chuvas e com baixo nível de inóculo inicial. Os valores máximos de severidade foram observados aos 87 DAP (12,5-13,6% da área foliar doente. No ensaio de perdas, utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Cinco níveis de doença foram obtidos pela aplicação de doses decrescentes da mistura clorotalonil e tiofanato metílico (g/100 L de água: (a 0,0 g i.a. (testemunha; (b clorotalonil 25 g + tiofanato metílico 10 g; (c clorotalonil 75 g + tiofanato metílico; 30 g; (d clorotalonil 125 g + tiofanato metílico 50 g; (e clorotalonil 250 g + tiofanato metílico 100 g. A doença foi avaliada uma única vez, aos 78 DAP por meio de uma escala de notas de 0 a 9, baseada na porcentagem de área foliar doente. A severidade máxima foi observada aos 78 DAP na testemunha (26,5% de área foliar doente. Houve alta (r=-0,96 correlação negativa entre os níveis da doença nas folhas e a produção de frutos, com redução de até 19,2% na produtividade da melancia devido ao crestamento gomoso do caule. O controle químico foi eficiente a partir da dosagem de clorotalonil 125 g + tiofanato metílico 50 g.Progress and losses due to gummy stem blight were studied in field plots artificially inoculated with Didymella bryoniae. For the temporal disease progress study, two fields (24 x

  1. Ação de acibenzolar-s-methyl isolado e em mistura com fungicidas no controle da requeima da batata Action of acibenzolar-S-methyl, isolated and in a mixture with fungicides on potato late blight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus G. Töfoli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Visando avaliar o desempenho de acibenzolar-S-methyl (BTH isolado e em mistura com os fungicidas mancozeb, chlorothalonil e metaxyl-M+chlorothalonil no controle da requeima da batata, foram realizados dois experimentos em cultivos comerciais nos municípios paulistas de Pilar do Sul (cv. Baraka e Bragança Paulista (cv. Asterix, de maio a agosto e agosto a outubro de 2001, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com 4 repetições, com cada parcela medindo 25 m². Durante os experimentos foram realizadas um total de 10 pulverizações, a intervalos de 5 a 10 dias com pulverizador costal munido de barra de aplicação contendo 5 bicos TXKV26, pressão constante (4 bar e volume médio de 800 L/ha. Avaliou-se a severidade nas folhas (0 a 100%, nas hastes ( escala de notas de 1 a 5 e a produtividade comercial de tubérculos. O BTH apresentou efeitos significativos de controle quando utilizado isolado e em mistura com fungicidas de contato e sistêmico. Os maiores aumentos relativos de produtividade foram verificados para as misturas de BTH com mancozeb e chlorothalonil.To evaluate the performance of acibenzolar-S-methyl (BTH, alone and mixed with mancozeb, chlorothalonil and metaxyl-M+chlorothalonil, for the control of potato late blight, two experiments were carried out in commercial crops in the counties of Pilar do Sul (cv. Baraka and Bragança Paulista (cv. Asterix, state of São Paulo, Brazil, from May to August and August to October 2001, respectively. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four replications, with each plot measuring 25 m². A total of 10 sprayings was done at 5- to 10-day intervals with a backpack sprayer using a 5-nozzle (TXKV26 spray wand, constant pressure of 4 bars (58 psi and average volume of 800 L/ha. Evaluations were done in regard to the severity on the leaves (0 to 100%, on the stems (score from 1 to 5 and the commercial yield of tubers. BTH presented expressive effects

  2. The pepper Bs4C proteins are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and confer disease resistance to bacterial blight in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zeng, Xuan; Tian, Dongsheng; Yang, Xiaobei; Wang, Lanlan; Yin, Zhongchao

    2018-03-30

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE)-dependent dominant disease resistance (R) genes in plants, also referred to as executor R genes, are induced on infection by phytopathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas harbouring the corresponding TALE genes. Unlike the traditional R proteins, the executor R proteins do not determine the resistance specificity and may function broadly in different plant species. The executor R gene Bs4C-R in the resistant genotype PI 235047 of the pepper species Capsicum pubescens (CpBs4C-R) confers disease resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) harbouring the TALE genes avrBsP/avrBs4. In this study, the synthetic genes of CpBs4C-R and two other Bs4C-like genes, the susceptible allele in the genotype PI585270 of C. pubescens (CpBs4C-S) and the CaBs4C-R homologue gene in the cultivar 'CM334' of Capsicum annum (CaBs4C), were characterized in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) and rice (Oryza sativa). The Bs4C genes induced cell death in N. benthamiana. The functional Bs4C-eCFP fusion proteins were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane in the leaf epidermal cells of N. benthamiana. The Xa10 promoter-Bs4C fusion genes in transgenic rice conferred strain-specific disease resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal agent of bacterial blight in rice, and were specifically induced by the Xa10-incompatible Xoo strain PXO99 A (pHM1avrXa10). The results indicate that the Bs4C proteins from pepper species function broadly in rice and the Bs4C protein-mediated cell death from the ER is conserved between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, which can be utilized to engineer novel and enhanced disease resistance in heterologous plants. © 2018 TEMASEK LIFE SCIENCES LABORATORY. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2018 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  3. Biological control of Black Pod Disease and Seedling Blight of cacao caused by Phytophthora Species using Trichoderma from Aceh Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L., suffers large yield losses in Aceh Indonesia to the disease black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora spp. Despite having the largest area under cacao production in Sumatra, farmers in the Aceh region have low overall production because of losses to insect pests and b...

  4. Urban blight and urban redesign

    OpenAIRE

    Zsilincsar, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban blight dates back to the 19th century when industrialisation starting in Europe and North America initiated an uncontrolled urban growth in combination with strong demand in cheap an quickly constructed housing. Ghettoisation of mainly the working-class population and other “marginal groups” were the consequence together with a constant decay of single buildings, whole blocks and quarters. These general aspects of urban blight with its additional facettes or aspects re...

  5. Pyramiding of blast and bacterial leaf blight resistance genes into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (Hebert) Barr. and bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) are two major diseases of rice (Oryza sativa). The use of varietal resistance is the most appropriate strategy for controlling the diseases, and molecular assisted selection can ...

  6. Improvement of common bacterial blight resistance in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common bacterial blight (CBB) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli is an important seed-borne disease of dry beans in South Africa. Development of resistant cultivars is considered the best control measurement for the disease. Backcross breeding was used to improve BB resistance in the small white ...

  7. New cardiovascular targets to prevent late onset Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence of dementia rises to between 20% and 40% with advancing age. The dominant cause of dementia in approximately 70% of these patients is Alzheimer disease. There is no effective disease-modifying pharmaceutical treatment for this neurodegenerative disease. A wide range of Alzheimer drugs that appeared effective in animal models have recently failed to show clinical benefit in patients. However, hopeful news has emerged from recent studies that suggest that therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing cardiovascular disease may also reduce the prevalence of dementia due to Alzheimer disease. This review summarizes the evidence for this link between cardiovascular disease and late onset Alzheimer dementia. Only evidence from human research is considered here. Longitudinal studies show an association between high blood pressure and pathological accumulation of the protein amyloid-beta42, and an even stronger association between vascular stiffness and amyloid accumulation, in elderly subjects. Amyloid-beta42 accumulation is considered to be an early marker of Alzheimer disease, and increases the risk of subsequent cognitive decline and development of dementia. These observations could provide an explanation for recent observations of reduced dementia prevalence associated with improved cardiovascular care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of salivary catalase activity in blighted ovum gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ahmadizadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anembryonic gestation (blighted ovum is the most common identifiable pathology in the first trimester of pregnancy, always leads to miscarriage. Early pregnancy failures from blighted ovum are often due to chromosomal abnormalities and a poor quality of sperm or egg. Oxidative stresses as a factor of disturbance balance between the production of free radicals and antioxidant defenses is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including mouth and throat cancer and cardiovascular disease. Catalase is one of the defensive systems against damages caused by oxidative stress in human. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of salivary catalase in women with blighted ovum and women with history of normal pregnancy. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 34 patient women with blighted ovum and 34 healthy women as a control group. The study was performed in biochemistry laboratory at the University of Guilan from October 2015 to July 2015. The age range was 20-44 years and 18-45 years in patient and control groups, respectively. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected using spitting method. Catalase activity was measured by evaluating the constant rate of hydrogen peroxide decomposition in patient and control groups. Results: The patient group matched with healthy subjects in average age and having no other diseases history. The biochemical enzymatic assays indicate that the average catalase activities of saliva in patient and control groups were 14.47±3.8 and 16.42±3.48, respectively. Therefore, the catalase activity was significantly reduced in patient group as compared to the control group (P=0.03. Conclusion: The obtained results suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of blighted ovum. Therefore, determination the activity of other antioxidant enzymes, in addition to catalse, may be used as a marker for diagnosis of blighted ovum. More studies with larger studied

  9. Atypical presentation of late-onset Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deik, Andres; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficient Beta-hexosaminidase A activity. We describe a 53-year-old woman who presented with adult-onset leg weakness, and whose initial diagnosis was progressive muscular atrophy without identifiable etiology. Development of cerebellar ataxia in mid-life prompted reassessment. Beta-hexosaminidase A quantification assay demonstrated absence of the isozyme. Genetic testing identified compound heterozygous mutations in the HEXA gene, confirming the diagnosis of LOTS. The phenotypic spectrum of LOTS includes motor neuronopathy, ataxia, choreoathetosis, neuropathy, and psychiatric symptoms in various combinations. This patient highlights the emergence of different clinical features over many years and emphasizes the need to consider LOTS in the differential diagnosis of progressive muscular atrophy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  11. Fire blight resistance in wild accessions of Malus sieversii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) is a devastating bacterial disease in apple that results in severe economic losses. Epidemics are becoming more common as susceptible cultivars and rootstocks are being planted, and control is becoming more difficult as antibiotic-resistant strains develop. Resistan...

  12. Field reaction of cassava genotypes to anthracnose, bacterial blight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field reaction of cassava genotypes to anthracnose, bacterial blight, cassava mosaic disease and their effects on yield. ... The BYDV-PAV and BYDV-RPV serotypes were identified from 9 and 10 of the 11 surveyed fields, respectively, with the two serotypes co-infecting some plants. Of the nine wheat cultivars surveyed, four ...

  13. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ad de Groof

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease.

  14. How to manage a late diagnosed Hirschsprung′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ouladsaiad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: How to manage a late diagnosed Hirschsprung′s disease (HD and how to avoid calibre discrepancy? Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with HD over 2 years in our hospital from January 2009 to December 2012. Data were analysed for clinical presentations, investigations, surgical procedures and post-operative outcome. Results: Fifteen patients, operated by one single surgeon, were included in this study. The mean age was 6 years (2-16 years. Patients had an ultra-short segment type in 4 cases, rectosigmoid type in 9 cases and descending colonic aganglionosis in 2 cases. Rectal wash out was effective in 12 patients. A blowhole transverse colostomy was performed in 2 patients. Twelve patients underwent one single stage endorectal pull-through. Anastomosis incongruence was avoided by a plication procedure never described before. The assessment of post-operative outcomes by the paediatric incontinence and constipation scoring system revealed a normal continence function in all our patients, but 3 patients suffered from soiling secondary to constipation. Conclusion: One single stage pull-through can be safe and effective in children with late diagnosed HD. Routine rectal washout is a good way to prepare the colon. In some cases, blowhole colostomy can be an option. Anastomosis incongruence is a challenge; we describe a plication procedure to avoid it.

  15. Late-onset Pompe disease: first clinical description in Russia

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    S. S. Nikitin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late-onset Pompe-disease (LOPD is an adult form of the glycogenosis type II. The age of onset ranges from 1 till 75 y.o. and older. The diagnosis of LOPD is based on the presence of trunk and limb-girdle muscle weakness with hyperlordosis, respiratory failure, ocasionally accompanied by cardiomyopathy, persistent mild elevation of creatine kinase, dry blood spot test of the enzyme activity and DNA-analysis of GAA-gene. Early recognition of the LOPD and beginning of the enzyme replacement therapy is important in preventing severe motor and respiratory deficit, the patient disability and in increasing the survival in those patients.

  16. Borderlines between sarcopenia and mild late-onset muscle disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna ePalmio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous natural or disease-related alterations occur in different tissues of the body with advancing age. Sarcopenia is defined as age-related decrease of muscle mass and strength beginning in mid-adulthood and accelerating in people older than 60 years. Pathophysiology of sarcopenia involves both neural and muscle dependent mechanisms and is enhanced by multiple factors. Aged muscles show loss in fiber number, fiber atrophy and gradual increase in the number of ragged red fibers and cytochrome c oxidase-negative fibers. Generalized loss of muscle tissue and increased amount of intramuscular fat is seen on muscle imaging. However, the degree of these changes vary greatly between individuals and the distinction between normal age-related weakening of muscle strength and clinically significant muscle disease is not always obvious. Because some of the genetic myopathies can present at a very late age and be mild in severity, the correct diagnosis is easily missed. We highlight this difficult borderline zone between sarcopenia and muscle disease by two examples: LGMD1D and myotonic dystrophy type 2. Muscle MRI is a useful tool to help differentiate myopathies from sarcopenia and to reach the correct diagnosis also in the elderly.

  17. An agent-based model on disease management in potato cultivation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacilly, F.C.A.; Hofstede, G.J.; Groot, J.C.J.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this project the host-pathogen system of potato (Solanum tuberosum) - late blight (Phytophthora infestans) was analysed as a model system to study management of crop-disease interactions. Resistant cultivars play an important role in sustainable management of the disease. We used an agent-based

  18. The Effect of Salicylic Acid and Chelated Magnesium Sulfate on Matters Allocation in Vegetative and Reproductive Parts in Pear cv. Louise Bonne Infected to Fire Blight Disease

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    mahjabin adel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Distribution of photosynthetic substances between vegetative and reproductive parts is influenced by the environmental factors as well as plant nutrition status. Therefore, application of nutrient substances (such as chelated magnesium sulfate and salicylic acid combination can influence the distribution of photosynthetic substances which in turn result in changes in allocation of photo-assimilates between vegetative and reproductive parts. Since the investigation of partitioning of photo- assimilates is complex and the interpretation of treatments effects on partitioning of substances is difficult in garden plants, this examination has been focused on external application of nutritional treatments on different organs growth by comparing the effects of salicylic acid and chelated magnesium sulfate on the allocation of photo- assimilates. Materials and Methods: This experiment was performed in a commercial 10-year old orchard of Qazvin in 2013. Initially, 60 uniform pears (cv. Louise Bonne which were infected to fire blight disease were selected. Before treatment imposing, agronomic practices such as removing and pruning infected shoots were applied. Treatments were combination of salicylic acid and chelated magnesium sulfate at different levels, which were applied on foliage under the conditions of neutral pollution to fire blight. In the present research, vegetative parameters (current shoot growth, leaf weight, leaf area, relative water content and so on and reproductive parameters (length: diameter ratio and density of fruit and so on were measured. The fully expanded leaves were collected randomly from each replicate. After washing the samples were weighed and these values referred to as initial readings (fresh weight. Then, the leaf samples were placed in distilled water for 24 h in the dark at room temperature. The turgid leaves were blotted dry and weighed (saturation weight. After weighing, the material was oven-dried at 70

  19. Induction of antimicrobial 3-deoxyflavonoids in pome fruit trees controls fire blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbwirth, Heidrun; Fischer, Thilo C; Roemmelt, Susanne; Spinelli, Francesco; Schlangen, Karin; Peterek, Silke; Sabatini, Emidio; Messina, Christian; Speakman, John-Bryan; Andreotti, Carlo; Rademacher, Wilhelm; Bazzi, Carlo; Costa, Guglielmo; Treutter, Dieter; Forkmann, Gert; Stich, Karl

    2003-01-01

    Fire blight, a devastating bacterial disease in pome fruits, causes severe economic losses worldwide. Hitherto, an effective control could only be achieved by using antibiotics, but this implies potential risks for human health, livestock and environment. A new approach allows transient inhibition of a step in the flavonoid pathway, thereby inducing the formation of a novel antimicrobial 3-deoxyflavonoid controlling fire blight in apple and pear leaves. This compound is closely related to natural phytoalexins in sorghum. The approach does not only provide a safe method to control fire blight: Resistance against different pathogens is also induced in other crop plants.

  20. Differential Disease Progression in Atrophic Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Late-Onset Stargardt Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Moritz; Lambertus, Stanley; Mauschitz, Matthias M; Bax, Nathalie M; Kersten, Eveline; Lüning, Anna; Nadal, Jennifer; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Schmid, Matthias; Holz, Frank G; Hoyng, Carel B; Fleckenstein, Monika

    2017-02-01

    To compare the disease course of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy secondary to age-related macula degeneratio (AMD) and late-onset Stargardt disease (STGD1). Patients were examined longitudinally by fundus autofluorescence, near-infrared reflectance imaging, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Areas of RPE atrophy were quantified using semi-automated software, and the status of the fovea was evaluated based on autofluorescence and near-infrared reflectance images. Mixed-effects models were used to compare atrophy progression rates. BCVA loss and loss of foveal integrity were analyzed using Turnbull's estimator. A total of 151 patients (226 eyes) with RPE atrophy secondary to AMD and 38 patients (66 eyes) with RPE atrophy secondary to late-onset STGD1 were examined for a median time of 2.3 years (interquartile range, 2.7). Mean baseline age was 74.2 years (SD, 7.6) in AMD and 63.4 (SD, 9.9) in late-onset STGD1 (P = 1.1 × 10-7). Square root atrophy progression was significantly faster in AMD when compared with late-onset STGD1 (0.28 mm/year [SE, 0.01] vs. 0.23 [SE, 0.03]; P = 0.030). In late-onset STGD1, the median survival of the fovea was significantly longer when compared with eyes with AMD (8.60 vs. 3.35 years; P = 0.005) with a trend to a later BCVA loss of ≥3 lines (5.97 vs. 4.37 years; P = 0.382). These natural history data indicate differential disease progression in AMD versus late-onset STGD1. The results underline the relevance of refined phenotyping in elderly patients presenting with RPE atrophy in regard to prognosis and design of interventional trials.

  1. Construction of 2 intraspecific linkage maps and identification of resistance QTLs for Phytophthora capsici root-rot and foliar-blight diseases of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Berke, Terry F; Massoudi, Mark; Black, Lowell L; Huestis, Gordon; Choi, Doil; Lee, Sanghyeob; Prince, James P

    2005-08-01

    Two linkage maps of pepper were constructed and used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring resistance to Phytophthora capsici. Inoculations were done with 7 isolates: 3 from Taiwan, 3 from California, and 1 from New Mexico. The first map was constructed from a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the PSP-11 (susceptible) x PI201234 (resistant) cross; and the second map was from a set of F(2) lines of the Joe E. Parker' (susceptible) x 'Criollo de Morelos 334' (resistant) cross. The RIL map covered 1466.1 cM of the pepper genome, and it consisted of 144 markers -- 91 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 34 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), 15 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 1 sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), and 3 morphological markers -- distributed over 17 linkage groups. The morphological markers mapped on this population were erect fruit habit (up), elongated fruit shape (fs(e)), and fasciculate fruit clusters (fa). The F(2) map consisted of 113 markers (51 AFLPs, 45 RAPDs, 14 SSRs, and 3 SCARs) distributed in 16 linkage groups, covering a total of 1089.2 cM of the pepper genome. Resistance to both root rot and foliar blight were evaluated in the RIL population using the 3 Taiwan isolates; the remaining isolates were used for the root-rot test only. Sixteen chromosomal regions of the RIL map contained single QTLs or clusters of resistance QTLs that had an effect on root rot and (or) foliar blight, revealing a complex set of genetics involved in resistance to P. capsici. Five QTLs were detected in the F(2) map that had an effect on resistance to root rot.

  2. Parâmetros genéticos da resistência ao complexo da queima-das-folhas em populações de cenoura Genetic parameters of the resistance to the leaf blight disease complex in carrot populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani O Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os parâmetros genéticos vinculados ao complexo de patógenos causadores da queima-das-folhas de cenoura foram determinados utilizando famílias de meio-irmãos oriundas de populações do grupo varietal 'Brasília'. Ainda, verificou-se quais populações eram capazes de proporcionar maior ganho para este caráter. O experimento foi conduzido em Brasília entre novembro/06 e fevereiro/07. Foram avaliadas cinco populações em fase final de melhoramento (processamento 1 (P1, processamento 2 (P2, mesa 3 (M3, mesa 4 (M4 e mesa 5 (M5, utilizando delineamento em blocos ao acaso com duas repetições (parcelas de 2 m². A avaliação da severidade da queima-das-folhas foi feita aos 90 dias após semeio e os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância para estimar os parâmetros genéticos e o ganho direto esperado com a seleção. O caráter resistência à queima-das-folhas apresentou-se significativo em diferenciar as populações. A população P1 mostrou os maiores valores dos parâmetros genéticos e ganhos esperados com a seleção, ao passo que a população M3 mostrou-se a menos promissora na obtenção de ganhos para níveis mais elevados de resistência. Os valores da relação entre os coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e de herdabilidade foram baixos. Estes dados podem ser explicados pela ausência de variabilidade genética nas populações, mas também podem indicar a necessidade de um maior refinamento nos processos de avaliação e de inoculação em condições de campo, de forma a garantir o estabelecimento de epidemias mais uniformes da queima-das-folhas nas parcelas experimentais.The genetic parameters associated with resistance to the carrot leaf blight disease complex were evaluated using half-sib families derived from the varietal group 'Brasília'. We also evaluated which populations would provide larger gains for this character. Field assay was carried out in Brasília during the summer season (from

  3. Fungicides and Application Timing for Control of Early Leafspot, Southern Blight, and Sclerotinia Blight of Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. James Grichar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in south Texas near Yoakum and from 2008 to 2011 in central Texas near Stephenville to evaluate various fungicides for foliar and soilborne disease control as well as peanut yield response under irrigation. Control of Sclerotinia blight caused by Sclerotinia minor Jagger with penthiopyrad at 1.78 L/ha was comparable to fluazinam or boscalid; however, the 1.2 L/ha dose of penthiopyrad did not provide consistent control. Peanut yield was reduced with the lower penthiopyrad dose when compared with boscalid, fluazinam, or the high dose of penthiopyrad. Control of early leaf spot, caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori or southern blight, caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., with penthiopyrad in a systems approach was comparable with propiconazole, prothioconazole, or pyraclostrobin systems and resulted in disease control that was higher than the nontreated control. Peanut yield was also comparable with the penthiopyrad, propiconazole, prothioconazole, or pyraclostrobin systems and reflects the ability of the newer fungicides to control multiple diseases found in Texas peanut production.

  4. DHA supplementation for late onset Stargardt disease: NAT-3 study

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    Giuseppe Querques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Querques1, Pascale Benlian1, Bernard Chanu2, Nicolas Leveziel1, Gabriel Coscas1, Gisele Soubrane1, Eric H Souied11Department of Ophthalmology, University of Paris XII, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Creteil, 2Department of Nutrition, University of Paris XII, Hopital Henry Mondor, Creteil, FranceBackground: We analyzed the effects of a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA supplementation in patients affected with late onset Stargardt disease (STGD.Methods: DHA (840 mg/day was given to 20 STGD patients for six months. A complete ophthalmologic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG, was performed at inclusion day 0 (D0 and at month 6 (M6.Results: Overall, no statistical differences have been observed at M6 vs D0 as regards BCVA and mfERG (P > 0.05. Mild Improvement of BCVA and improvement of mfERG was noted in seven/40 eyes of four/20 patients. In the first patient, the peak of the a wave increased from 66 nV/deg² to 75.4 nV/deg² in the right eye (RE and 24.5 nV/deg² to 49.1 nV/deg² in the left eye (LE. The peak of the b wave improved from 122 nV/deg² to 157 nV/deg² in the RE, and 102 nV/deg² to 149 nV/deg² in the LE. In the second patient peaks of the a and b waves respectively increased from 11.8 nV/deg² to 72.1 nV/deg² and 53 nV/deg² to 185 nV/deg² in the RE. In the third patient the peak of the a wave increased from 37 nV/deg² to 43 nV/deg² in the RE, and from 31 nV/deg² to 45 nV/deg² in the LE; the peak of the b wave improved from 70 nV/deg² to 89 nV/deg² in the RE, and from 101 nV/deg² to 108 nV/deg² in the LE. In the fourth patient, the peak of the a wave increased from 39 nV/deg² to 42 nV/deg² in the RE, and from 40 nV/deg² to 43 nV/deg² in the LE; the peak of the b wave improved from 86 nV/deg² to 94 nV/deg² in the RE, and from 87 nV/deg² to 107 nV/deg² in the LE.Conclusion: DHA seems to influence some functional parameters in patients affected with

  5. Early and late endocrine effects in pediatric central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ivy R; Cheung, Clement C

    2014-01-01

    Endocrinopathies are frequently linked to central nervous system disease, both as early effects prior to the disease diagnosis and/or late effects after the disease has been treated. In particular, tumors and infiltrative diseases of the brain and pituitary, such as craniopharyngioma, optic pathway and hypothalamic gliomas, intracranial germ cell tumor, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, can present with abnormal endocrine manifestations that precede the development of neurological symptoms. Early endocrine effects include diabetes insipidus, growth failure, obesity, and precocious or delayed puberty. With improving prognosis and treatment of childhood brain tumors, many survivors experience late endocrine effects related to medical and surgical interventions. Chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axes governing growth, thyroid, gonadal, and adrenal function. In addition, obesity and metabolic alterations are frequent late manifestations. Diagnosing and treating both early and late endocrine manifestations can dramatically improve the growth, well-being, and quality of life of patients with childhood central nervous system diseases.

  6. Genetic mapping of ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using a simple sequence repeat linkage map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tar'an, B; Warkentin, T D; Tullu, A; Vandenberg, A

    2007-01-01

    Ascochyta blight, caused by the fungus Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., is one of the most devastating diseases of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) worldwide. Research was conducted to map genetic factors for resistance to ascochyta blight using a linkage map constructed with 144 simple sequence repeat markers and 1 morphological marker (fc, flower colour). Stem cutting was used to vegetatively propagate 186 F2 plants derived from a cross between Cicer arietinum L. 'ICCV96029' and 'CDC Frontier'. A total of 556 cutting-derived plants were evaluated for their reaction to ascochyta blight under controlled conditions. Disease reaction of the F1 and F2 plants demonstrated that the resistance was dominantly inherited. A Fain's test based on the means and variances of the ascochyta blight reaction of the F3 families showed that a few genes were segregating in the population. Composite interval mapping identified 3 genomic regions that were associated with the reaction to ascochyta blight. One quantitative trait locus (QTL) on each of LG3, LG4, and LG6 accounted for 13%, 29%, and 12%, respectively, of the total estimated phenotypic variation for the reaction to ascochyta blight. Together, these loci controlled 56% of the total estimated phenotypic variation. The QTL on LG4 and LG6 were in common with the previously reported QTL for ascochyta blight resistance, whereas the QTL on LG3 was unique to the current population.

  7. Ranking cultivated blueberry for Mummy Berry Blight and Fruit Infection Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated the resistance of more than 100 blueberry cultivar to both phases of the disease...

  8. Induction of resistance to bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae) disease in the high yielding variety Vijaya (IR 8 x T 90)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, S.Y.; Kaur, S.; Rao, M.

    1976-01-01

    The high-yield variety Vijaya ( IR 8 x T 90), susceptible to bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae, Uyeda and Ishiyama Dawson), was treated with EMS to induce resistance. Dehusked seeds were pre-soaked in distilled water for 4 hrs, and subjected to 0.1% and 0.2% EMS for 6 hrs. Seed germination and survival was low in 0.2% EMS. Seedlings of M 1 were raised in pots, and panicles of individual plants harvested separately. The seeds of M 2 (8800 plants) generation were grown in nursery beds, and transplanted in field after 30 days. The plants were inoculated at the boot leaf stage with X.oryzae by the clipping method, and lesion length measured 15 days later. The frequency distribution of controls was bimodal, the EMS-treated population polymodal with new peaks. A wider range of variability was induced on the resistant and susceptible side. In M 2 0.36% resistant and 0.62% moderately resistant plants occurred. The seeds of (11) resistant and (20) moderately resistant plants of M 2 were sown for M 3 generation. These plants also segregated in the range of 0-31 and 0-32 cm lesion length. The frequency distribution curve was polymodal. M 2 from ''R'' showed 1.07% of resistant plants and 0.42% from ''MR'', against, 4.28% of moderately resistant plants from ''R'' and 3.22% from ''MR''. Susceptible plants of M 2 also segregated towards resistance (1.15%) and moderately resistant (6.96%) plants in M 3 generation. Resistant (25) and moderately resistant (147) plants of M 3 were carried forward to M 4 generation, and segregated in the range of 2.1-25 cm lesion length. The frequency curve was polymodal. No resistant plant (up to 2.0 cm lesion length) could be isolated in M 4 . The percentage of moderately resistant plants was 4.44% from ''R'' of M 3 and 4.82% from ''MR'' of M 3 and 4.77% from ''S'' of M 3 generation. The yield of resistant plants was low whereas the yield of moderately resistant plants equalled the parent; the yield of susceptible segregants equalled or

  9. First record of Glomerella cingulata causing leaf blight on Talauma ovata (Magnoliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,Bruno Sérgio; Pereira,Olinto Liparini; Batista,Márcio Luiz; Barreto,Robert Weingart

    2005-01-01

    Glomerella cingulata was found causing severe leaf blight on Talauma ovata, a common tree species in the Atlantic tropical rain forest floodplains of Southern Brazil. The disease and pathogen are described and illustrated and patogenicity is also demonstrated. This is the first report of this disease.

  10. Enzyme replacement therapy in late-onset Pompe's disease : A three-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, LPF; Van den Hout, JMP; Kamphoven, JHJ; Disseldorp, JAM; Remmerswaal, M; Arts, WFM; Loonen, MCB; Vulto, AG; Van Doorn, PA; De Jong, G; Hop, W; Smit, GPA; Shapira, SK; Boer, MA; van Diggelen, OP; Reuser, AJJ; Van der Ploeg, AT

    Pompe's disease is an autosomal recessive myopathy. The characteristic lysosomal storage of glycogen is caused by acid et-glucosidase deficiency. Patients with late-onset Pompe's disease present with progressive muscle weakness also affecting pulmonary function. In search of a treatment, we

  11. An inducible mouse model of late onset Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Smith, David; Eliott-Smith, Elena; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Reinkensmeier, Gabriele; Butters, Terry D; Lemm, Thorsten; Sandhoff, Konrad; Perry, V Hugh; Dwek, Raymond A; Platt, Frances M

    2002-08-01

    Mouse models of the G(M2) gangliosidoses, Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease, are null for the hexosaminidase alpha and beta subunits respectively. The Sandhoff (Hexb-/-) mouse has severe neurological disease and mimics the human infantile onset variant. However, the Tay-Sachs (Hexa-/-) mouse model lacks an overt phenotype as mice can partially bypass the blocked catabolic pathway and escape disease. We have investigated whether a subset of Tay-Sachs mice develop late onset disease. We have found that approximately 65% of the mice develop one or more clinical signs of the disease within their natural life span (n = 52, P disease at an earlier age (n = 21, P Tay-Sachs mice confirmed that pregnancy induces late onset Tay-Sachs disease. Onset of symptoms correlated with reduced up-regulation of hexosaminidase B, a component of the bypass pathway.

  12. Late Thyroid Sequlae after Treatment of Hodgkin's Disease (HD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abaza, A.

    2012-01-01

    To identify the late effects of radio- chemotherapy (CTH) on thyroid gland in long-term survivors (LTS) HD patients regularly attending the pediatric oncology clinic of National Cancer Institute (NCI), 42 LTS (33 males and 9 females) were studied, together with 26 newly-diagnosed (ND) HD patients (15 males and 11 females) and 28 healthy controls. During 3 years period, all patients subjected to through clinical history/ examination. Files of LTS were revised for date of diagnoses, original site (s), stage, histopathological subtypes and dose/ duration of therapy. Clinical examination was done with laying stress on neck examination for thyroid swelling and lymphadenopathy. Lab investigations include hormonal assay of thyroid and parathyroid (T3, T4, TSH, Thyroglobin, and parathormone). In LTS the mean age was 14.9±3.4 yrs. versus 9.5±3.7 yrs. in ND patients. In LTS, treatment modalities included radiotherapy (RT) alone (2.4%), CTH alone (26.2%) or combination chemo-RT (71.4%). The mean followup time was 7.47±2.19 yrs. The incidence of hyper-/hypo-thyroidism was significantly higher in LTS. High TSH was found only among patients who received chemo-RT (11/26) with thyroid irradiation (IR) in the whole neck field. Finally, the study documented that the hyper-/hypo-thyroidism was one of the long-term complication of radio-CTH in HD patients. Recommendations regarding the follow-up of therapy for HD were discussed. New strategies and evidence based surveillance of the long-term effects are needed for dealing with HD, especially in children

  13. Symptoms of main Callistephus chinensis L. Nees. diseases under Ukrainian urban ecosystem conditions of the forest-steppe zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenko Alla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathological monitoring of C. chinensis (L. Nees. has proven withering and root rot to be the dominating diseases in agrobiocenoses under Ukrainian urban ecosystem conditions of the forest-steppe zone. Their spread was 5,1 and 4 times more than one of spotting. The complex of plant pathogenic overground and underground microflora consists of 24 causative agents. B. cinerea, F. oxysporum, V. albo-atrum have been found on all the vegetative and reproductive parts of Callistephus chinensis (L. Nees., , Ph. cactorum – on plant overground and underground parts, Rh. solani – on underground parts and seeds, A. zinniae – on overground parts and seeds. The main C. chinensis (L. Nees. disease symptoms have been diagnosed (leaf spots, powdery mildew, verticillium wilt, rust, ramularia spot, septoria spots, botrytis blight, grey mold rot, late blight, fusarium blight, black stem.

  14. Probable late lyme disease: a variant manifestation of untreated Borrelia burgdorferi infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Lyme disease, a bacterial infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, can cause early and late manifestations. The category of probable Lyme disease was recently added to the CDC surveillance case definition to describe patients with serologic evidence of exposure and physician-diagnosed disease in the absence of objective signs. We present a retrospective case series of 13 untreated patients with persistent symptoms of greater than 12 weeks duration who meet these criteria and suggest a label of ‘probable late Lyme disease’ for this presentation. Methods The sample for this analysis draws from a retrospective chart review of consecutive, adult patients presenting between August 2002 and August 2007 to the author (JA), an infectious disease specialist. Patients were included in the analysis if their current illness had lasted greater than or equal to 12 weeks duration at the time of evaluation. Results Probable late Lyme patients with positive IgG serology but no history of previous physician-documented Lyme disease or appropriate Lyme treatment were found to represent 6% of our heterogeneous sample presenting with ≥ 12 weeks of symptom duration. Patients experienced a range of symptoms including fatigue, widespread pain, and cognitive complaints. Approximately one-third of this subset reported a patient-observed rash at illness onset, with a similar proportion having been exposed to non-recommended antibiotics or glucocorticosteroid treatment for their initial disease. A clinically significant response to antibiotics treatment was noted in the majority of patients with probable late Lyme disease, although post-treatment symptom recurrence was common. Conclusions We suggest that patients with probable late Lyme disease share features with both confirmed late Lyme disease and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. Physicians should consider the recent inclusion of probable Lyme disease in the CDC Lyme disease surveillance

  15. Characterization of a new pathovar of Agrobacterium vitis causing banana leaf blight in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siliang; Long, Mengling; Fu, Gang; Lin, Shanhai; Qin, Liping; Hu, Chunjin; Cen, Zhenlu; Lu, Jie; Li, Qiqin

    2015-01-01

    A new banana leaf blight was found in Nanning city, China, during a 7-year survey (2003-2009) of the bacterial diseases on banana plants. Eight bacterial strains were isolated from affected banana leaves, and identified as an intraspecific taxon of Agrobacterium vitis based on their 16S rDNA sequence similarities with those of 37 randomly selected bacterial strains registered in GenBank database. The representative strain Ag-1 was virulent on banana leaves and shared similar growth and biochemical reactions with the reference strain IAM14140 of A. vitis. The strains causing banana leaf blight were denominated as A. vitis pv. musae. The traditional A. vitis strains virulent to grapevines were proposed to be revised as A. vitis pv. vitis. This is the first record of a new type of A. vitis causing banana leaf blight in China. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The suitability of Finnish climate for fire blight (Erwinia amylovora epidemics on apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Marinova-Todorova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight, which is an important disease of apples and pears, has never been detected in continental Finland. In this study the suitability of the Finnish climate for apple blossom blight infections by Erwinia amylovora was evaluated with the epidemiological model MaryblytTM. This was done in fourteen locations, and for two apple cultivars differing in flowering times. Climatic conditions were predicted to be suitable for blossom infections in 18 - 51% of the years, and the annual period of suitable conditions was predicted to last up to two to five days, depending on the location and apple cultivar. The suitable period was predicted to be longer in some locations in central Finland than in those in the southernmost parts of the country. Based on these results the official surveys that are carried out to confirm the absence of fire blight in Finland cannot be targeted only to some parts of the country.

  17. Molecular identification of GAPDHs in cassava highlights the antagonism of MeGAPCs and MeATG8s in plant disease resistance against cassava bacterial blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hongqiu; Xie, Yanwei; Liu, Guoyin; Lin, Daozhe; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2018-06-01

    MeGAPCs were identified as negative regulators of plant disease resistance, and the interaction of MeGAPCs and MeATG8s was highlighted in plant defense response. As an important enzyme of glycolysis metabolic pathway, glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (GAPDH) plays important roles in plant development, abiotic stress and immune responses. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is most important tropical crop and one of the major food crops, however, no information is available about GAPDH gene family in cassava. In this study, 14 MeGAPDHs including 6 cytosol GAPDHs (MeGAPCs) were identified from cassava, and the transcripts of 14 MeGAPDHs in response to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam) indicated their possible involvement in immune responses. Further investigation showed that MeGAPCs are negative regulators of disease resistance against Xam. Through transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, we found that overexpression of MeGAPCs led to decreased disease resistance against Xam. On the contrary, MeGAPCs-silenced cassava plants through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) conferred improved disease resistance. Notably, MeGAPCs physically interacted with autophagy-related protein 8b (MeATG8b) and MeATG8e and inhibited autophagic activity. Moreover, MeATG8b and MeATG8e negatively regulated the activities of NAD-dependent MeGAPDHs, and are involved in MeGAPCs-mediated disease resistance. Taken together, this study highlights the involvement of MeGAPCs in plant disease resistance, through interacting with MeATG8b and MeATG8e.

  18. Validation of a tuber blight (Phytophthora infestans) prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato tuber blight caused by Phytophthora infestans accounts for significant losses in storage. There is limited published quantitative data on predicting tuber blight. We validated a tuber blight prediction model developed in New York with cultivars Allegany, NY 101, and Katahdin using independent...

  19. Relative Susceptibility of Quince, Pear, and Apple Cultivars to Fire Blight Following Greenhouse Inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora (EA) is one of the most serious diseases of plants in the family Rosaceae, and Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) is considered one of the most susceptible host genera. Apple (Malus sp.) and pear (Pyrus sp.) cultivars ranging from most susceptible to most resistan...

  20. QTL identification for early blight resistance (Alternaria solani) in a Solanum lycopersicum x S. arcanum cross.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaerani, R.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Linden, van der C.G.; Vosman, B.; Stam, P.; Voorrips, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) Sorauer, the causal agent of early blight (EB) disease, infects aerial parts of tomato at both seedling and adult plant stages. Resistant cultivars would facilitate a sustainable EB management. EB resistance is a quantitatively expressed character, a fact that

  1. Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. C. Nyaka Ngobisa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations – Selangor, Perak, and Johor states – in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15 containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis.

  2. Controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans E325 for biocontrol of fire blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microencapsulation and controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 (E325), which is an antagonist to bacterial pathogen (Erwinia amylovora) of fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear, have been investigated. Uniform core-shell alginate microcapsules (AMCs), 60-300 µm in diamet...

  3. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: adverse effects of medications and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B E; Hatters-Friedman, S; Fernandes-Filho, J A; Anthony, K; Natowicz, M R

    2006-09-12

    The authors conducted a retrospective and brief prospective study of adverse effects of approximately 350 medications in 44 adults with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS). Some medications were relatively safe, whereas others, particularly haloperidol, risperidone, and chlorpromazine, were associated with neurologic worsening.

  4. Irradiation in the setting of collagen vascular disease: acute and late toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Monica; Powell, Simon

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Based upon reports of greater toxicity from radiation therapy, collagen vascular diseases have been considered a contraindication to irradiation. We assessed the acute and late complication rate of radiation therapy in patients with collagen vascular disease. Methods and Materials: A retrospective chart review was undertaken to analyze acute and late toxicity in the 96 patients with documented collagen vascular disease (CVD) who were irradiated between 1960 and 1995. The majority had rheumatoid arthritis (55); 14 had systemic lupus erythematosus; 7 polymyositis or dermatomyositis; 7 ankylosing spondylitis; 4 scleroderma; 2 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; and the remainder various mixed connective tissue disorders. Mean follow up of survivors was 6.3 years from time of irradiation. Treatment was megavoltage in all but 8 cases. Doses ranged from 6 to 70Gy, with an average of 41.7Gy. Treatment of 32 sites was combined with chemotherapy, 15 concurrent with irradiation. Surgery was involved in the treatment of 46 sites. Toxicity was scored using the RTOG acute and the RTOG/EORTC Late Effects on Normal Tissues radiation morbidity scoring scales. Results: Overall, 127 sites were evaluable in 96 patients. Significant (grade 3 or higher) acute complications were seen in 15 of 127 (11.8%) of irradiated sites. The actuarial incidence of significant late complications at 5 and 10 years was 16% and 24%, respectively. There was a single in-field sarcoma. 2 patients had treatment-related deaths, one from leukencephalopathy and the other from postoperative wound infection. Univariate analysis revealed late effects to be more severe in those receiving combined modality treatment (p=.03), and in those with significant acute reactions (p=.0001). Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had less severe late effects than those with other collagen vascular diseases (6% vs 37% at 5 years, p=.0001). We did not demonstrate a difference in late effects according to radiation dose, timing

  5. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight

  6. Antenatal Determinants of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Late Respiratory Disease in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Lindsey A; Wagner, Brandie D; Ingram, David A; Poindexter, Brenda B; Schibler, Kurt; Cotten, C Michael; Dagle, John; Sontag, Marci K; Mourani, Peter M; Abman, Steven H

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms contributing to chronic lung disease after preterm birth are incompletely understood. To identify antenatal risk factors associated with increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and respiratory disease during early childhood after preterm birth, we performed a prospective, longitudinal study of 587 preterm infants with gestational age less than 34 weeks and birth weights between 500 and 1,250 g. Data collected included perinatal information and assessments during the neonatal intensive care unit admission and longitudinal follow-up by questionnaire until 2 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, we found that maternal smoking prior to preterm birth increased the odds of having an infant with BPD by twofold (P = 0.02). Maternal smoking was associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and respiratory support during the neonatal intensive care unit admission. Preexisting hypertension was associated with a twofold (P = 0.04) increase in odds for BPD. Lower gestational age and birth weight z-scores were associated with BPD. Preterm infants who were exposed to maternal smoking had higher rates of late respiratory disease during childhood. Twenty-two percent of infants diagnosed with BPD and 34% of preterm infants without BPD had no clinical signs of late respiratory disease during early childhood. We conclude that maternal smoking and hypertension increase the odds for developing BPD after preterm birth, and that maternal smoking is strongly associated with increased odds for late respiratory morbidities during early childhood. These findings suggest that in addition to the BPD diagnosis at 36 weeks, other factors modulate late respiratory outcomes during childhood. We speculate that measures to reduce maternal smoking not only will lower the risk for preterm birth but also will improve late respiratory morbidities after preterm birth.

  7. Functional characterization of the recombinant antimicrobial peptide Trx-Ace-AMP1 and its application on the control of tomato early blight disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin; He, Yue; Ge, Xiaochun

    2011-05-01

    Ace-AMP1 is a potent antifungal peptide found in onion (Allium cepa) seeds with sequence similarity to plant lipid transfer proteins. Transgenic plants over-expressing Ace-AMP1 gene have enhanced disease resistance to some fungal pathogens. However, mass production in heterologous systems and in vitro application of this peptide have not been reported. In this study, Ace-AMP1 was highly expressed in a prokaryotic Escherichia coli system as a fusion protein. The purified protein inhibited the growth of many plant fungal pathogens, especially Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, and Verticillium dahliae. The inhibitory effect was accompanied by hyphal hyperbranching for V. dahliae but not for F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and A. solani, suggesting that the mode of action of Ace-AMP1 on different fungi might be different. Application of Ace-AMP1 on tomato leaves showed that the recombinant protein conferred strong resistance to the tomato pathogen A. solani and could be used as an effective fungicide.

  8. Mummy Berry Fruit Rot and Shoot Blight Incidence in Blueberry: Prediction, Ranking, and Stability in a Long-term Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated blueberry cultivar resistance to both phases of the disease and, utilizing ‘stan...

  9. Screening for resistance to Fusarium head blight in spring wheat cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, Dr. Olga E.; Steenhuis-Broers, Greet; Osman, Aart; Bremer, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium fungi cause Fusarium head blight in wheat. This disease is a problem that occurs both in organic and conventional farming systems. As Fusarium fungi produce mycotoxins in wheat kernels they are a threat to human and animal health. Breeding for disease resistance is the only way to prevent or reduce the occurrence of the disease. The aim of the current research project is to identify different mechanisms of resistance in cultivars and breeding lines to be used in further breeding pro...

  10. Classification of Rhinoentomophthoromycosis into Atypical, Early, Intermediate, and Late Disease: A Proposal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian G Blumentrath

    Full Text Available Rhinoentomophthoromycosis, or rhino-facial conidiobolomycosis, is a rare, grossly disfiguring disease due to an infection with entomophthoralean fungi. We report a case of rhinoentomophthoromycosis from Gabon and suggest a staging system, which provides information on the prognosis and duration of antifungal therapy.We present a case of rhinoentomophthoromycosis including the histopathology, mycology, and course of disease. For the suggested staging system, all cases on confirmed rhinoentomophthoromycosis published in the literature without language restriction were eligible. Exclusion criteria were missing data on (i duration of disease before correct diagnosis, (ii outcome, and (iii confirmation of entomophthoralean fungus infection by histopathology and/or mycology. We classified cases into atypical (orbital cellulitis, severe pain, fever, dissemination, early, intermediate, and late disease based on the duration of symptoms before diagnosis. The outcome was evaluated for each stage of disease.The literature search of the Medpilot database was conducted on January 13, 2014, (updated on January 18, 2015. The search yielded 8,333 results including 198 cases from 117 papers; of these, 145 met our inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Median duration of treatment was 4, 3, 4, and 5 months in atypical, early, intermediate, and late disease, respectively. Cure rates were clearly associated with stage of disease and were 57%, 100%, 82%, and 43% in atypical, early, intermediate, and late disease, respectively.We suggest a clinical staging system that underlines the benefit of early case detection and may guide the duration of antifungal treatment. The scientific value of this classification is its capacity to structure and harmonize the clinical and research approach towards rhinoentomophthoromycosis.

  11. Efficacy of different fungicides against Rhizoctonia brown patch and Pythium blight on turfgrass in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocioni, M; Titone, P; Garibaldi, A; Gullino, M L

    2003-01-01

    Brown patch, incited by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Pythium blight, caused by Pythium spp. are two of the diseases most frequently observed on turfgrass in high maintenance stands, as on golf courses. In such conditions the control strategies, based on chemicals, are particularly difficult due to the scarcity of fungicides registered for turf in Italy. The results obtained in experimental trials carried out to evaluate the efficacy of chemical and biological products against brown patch and Pythium blight are reported. On mature turfgrass, maintained under fairway conditions, azoxystrobin, and trifoxystrobin, not yet registered on turf, were very effective against brown patch. Tebuconazole, applied in three different formulations, was very effective against R. solani, while Trichoderma spp. and azadiractine did not control the pathogen. In greenhouse conditions on Agrostis stolonifera, in the presence of severe disease incidence, due to artificial inoculation, benalaxyl-M satisfactorily controlled Pythium blight; Trichoderma spp. as well as a commercial formulation of T. harzianum, applied one week before the inoculation, were not effective. Among the fungicides not yet registered for use on turfgrass in Italy, metalaxyl-M + mancozeb was effective against Pythium blight.

  12. Association of apolipoprotein E allele {epsilon}4 with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucotte, G.; David, F.; Berriche, S. [Regional Center of Neurogenetics, Reims (France)] [and others

    1994-09-15

    Apolipoprotein E, type {epsilon}4 allele (ApoE {epsilon}4), is associated with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease (AD) in French patients. The association is highly significant (0.45 AD versus 0.12 controls for {epsilon}4 allele frequencies). These data support the involvement of ApoE {epsilon}4 allele as a very important risk factor for the clinical expression of AD. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Novel species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with shoot blight of pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ShuaiFei; Li, GuoQing; Liu, FeiFei; Michailides, Themis J

    2015-01-01

    Various species of phytopathogenic Botryosphaeriaceae were identified previously from pistachio trees worldwide. Disease symptoms caused by pathogens in Botryosphaeriaceae on pistachio include panicle and shoot blight, leaf defoliation, fruit discoloration and decay. In this study species of Botryosphaeriaceae were collected from blighted pistachio shoots in Arizona, USA, and Greece. The aims of this study were to identify these Botryosphaeriaceae isolates and to test their pathogenicity to pistachio. The fungi were identified based on comparisons of DNA sequence data of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), a partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (TEF1), a partial β-tubulin gene (TUB2) and morphological characteristics. Results indicated that some isolates collected from pistachio represent two previously undescribed species, which we described here as Lasiodiplodia americana sp. nov. from the United States and Neofusicoccum hellenicum sp. nov. from Greece. Field inoculations of L. americana and N. hellenicum on branches of four pistachio cultivars showed that both L. americana and N. hellenicum are pathogenic on pistachio. The four pistachio cultivars differed in their susceptibility to the Botryosphaeriaceae species. Results of this study suggested that the two new species of Botryosphaeriaceae need to be monitored carefully to determine the distribution of these pathogens and the possible spread to other areas. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  14. Control of Late Blight of Tomato and Potato by Oilgochitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Ho Choi; Myoung Soo Park; Gyung Ja Choi; Jin-Cheol Kim; Kyoung Soo Jang; Mi Young Yoon; Byung Sup Kim

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4)-linked D-glucosamine and Nacetyl- D-glucosamine. There have been many reports on the induced systemic resistance and in vivo antifungal activities of higher molecular weight chitosans with molecular weights over 3,000 amu (atomatic mass unit), but there are few papers on in vivo antifungal activities of low molecular weight chitosans (oligochitosans) with molecular weights less than 3,000 amu. In our study, an oligoc...

  15. Late-onset Pompe disease with complicated intracranial aneurysm: a Chinese case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang B

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bin Zhang,1,2,* Yuying Zhao,1,3,* Junling Liu,1,4 Ling Li,1 Jingli Shan,1 Dandan Zhao,1 Chuanzhu Yan1,3 1Laboratory of Neuromuscular Disorders and Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 2Department of Neurology, Liaocheng People’s Hospital, Liaocheng, Shandong, 3Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of the Ministry of Education, Brain Science Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 4Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease caused by genetic defects of acid maltase. This disease could be divided into two forms: infantile and late-onset, which mainly affect cardiac, respiratory, and skeletal muscle systems. Late-onset patients mainly show symptoms of skeletal muscle involvement, but recent reports have found that the central nervous system was also affected in some patients. Herein, we report a case of a female, adolescent-onset Pompe patient, who was diagnosed with complicated intracranial aneurysm in adulthood. Keywords: Pompe disease, glycogen storage disease II, acid maltase, acid alpha-glucosidase, cerebrovascular disorders

  16. Variability of Late-Night Salivary Cortisol in Cushing Disease: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandouk, Zahrae; Johnston, Philip; Bunch, Dustin; Wang, Sihe; Bena, James; Hamrahian, Amir; Kennedy, Laurence

    2018-03-01

    The frequency of variable hormonogenesis in patients with Cushing disease (CD) but without cyclical symptoms is unclear. To assess the frequency of variable hormonogenesis in patients presenting with CD. Over a 6-month period, patients with confirmed or suspected CD provided late-night salivary samples for up to 42 consecutive nights. Of 19 patients confirmed to have CD, 16 provided at least 7 consecutive salivary samples, and 13 provided at least 21; these 16 patients are the subjects of this report. Twelve patients had at least three peak and two trough levels of late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) but in only two patients were strict criteria for cyclical hormonogenesis fulfilled; variation was assessed as random in the others. Eight patients had de novo CD, and eight had recurrent/persistent disease. All patients with recurrent/persistent CD had two or more normal results, and in four of these patients, >50% of LNSC were normal. In six patients with de novo disease with at least one normal LNSC level, the maximum levels ranged from 1.55 to 15.5 times the upper limit of normal. Extreme fluctuations of cortisol production, measured by sequential LNSC, are common in CD. In newly diagnosed disease, this may only occasionally impair diagnostic ability, whereas in most patients with recurrent/persistent disease after pituitary surgery, LNSC is frequently within the reference range, with potential to cause diagnostic problems.

  17. Resistant and susceptible responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) to bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is a common disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the central and western U.S. and has been reported in Australia and Europe. The disease is not always recognized because symptoms are often associated with frost damage. Two culti...

  18. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: phenotypic characterization and genotypic correlations in 21 affected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudorfer, Orit; Pastores, Gregory M; Zeng, Bai J; Gianutsos, John; Zaroff, Charles M; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the phenotype (and corresponding genotype) of adult patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease, a clinical variant of the GM2-gangliosidoses. A comprehensive physical examination, including neurological assessments, was performed to establish the current disease pattern and severity. In addition, the patients' past medical histories were reviewed. The patients' alpha-subunit mutations (beta-Hexosaminidase A genotype) were determined and correlated with their corresponding clinical findings and disease course. Twenty-one patients (current mean age: 27.0 years; range: 14-47 years) were identified. The pedigree revealed a relative with the "classic" infantile or late-onset form of Tay-Sachs disease in four (out of 18) unrelated families. The patients were predominantly male (15/21 individuals) and of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry (15/18 families). Mean age at onset was 18.1 years; balance problems and difficulty climbing stairs were the most frequent presenting complaints. In several cases, the diagnosis was delayed (mean age at diagnosis: 27.0 years). Analysis of the beta-hex A gene revealed the G269S mutation as the most common disease allele; found in homozygosity (N = 1) or heterozygosity (N = 18; including 2 sib pairs). Disease onset (age 36 years) was delayed and progression relatively slower in the homozygous G269S patient. Two siblings (ages 28 and 31 years), of non-Jewish ancestry, were compound heterozygotes (TATC1278/W474C); their clinical course is dominated by psychiatric problems. Brain imaging studies revealed marked cerebellar atrophy in all patients (N = 18) tested, regardless of disease stage. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease is an infrequent disorder and the diagnosis is often missed or delayed (by approximately 8 years). Early on, the majority of patients develop signs of either cerebellar or anterior motor neuron involvement. Affected individuals may also develop psychotic episodes. In most cases, the later

  19. Early and late scanning electron microscopy findings in diabetic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Sara; Perico, Norberto; Novelli, Rubina; Carrara, Camillo; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2018-03-20

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN), the single strongest predictor of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes, is characterized by initial glomerular hyperfiltration with subsequent progressive renal function loss with or without albuminuria, greatly accelerated with the onset of overt proteinuria. Experimental and clinical studies have convincingly shown that early interventions retard disease progression, while treatment if started late in the disease course seldom modifies the slope of GFR decline. Here we assessed whether the negligible renoprotection afforded by drugs in patients with proteinuric DN could be due to loss of glomerular structural integrity, explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In diabetic patients with early renal disease, glomerular structural integrity was largely preserved. At variance SEM documented that in the late stage of proteinuric DN, glomerular structure was subverted with nearly complete loss of podocytes and lobular transformation of the glomerular basement membrane. In these circumstances one can reasonably imply that any form of treatment, albeit personalized, is unlikely to reach a given cellular or molecular target. These findings should persuade physicians to start the putative renoprotective therapy soon after the diagnosis of diabetes or in an early phase of the disease before structural integrity of the glomerular filter is irreversibly compromised.

  20. Skin denervation and its clinical significance in late-stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chi-Chao; Wu, Vin-Cent; Tan, Chun-Hsiang; Wang, Yi-Mei; Tseng, Ming-Tsung; Wu, Pei-Chen; Lin, Yea-Huey; Lin, Whei-Min; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Hsieh, Sung-Tsang

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the skin innervation and its clinical significance in late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Case series. National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Forty consecutive nondiabetic patients with late-stage CKD (14 female and 26 male; mean [SD] age, 60.7 [12.3] years), including 2 cases with stage 3 CKD, 6 with stage 4 CKD, and 32 with stage 5 CKD, ie, end-stage kidney disease. Clinical evaluation of neurological deficits, nerve conduction study, autonomic function tests, and a 3-mm-diameter skin biopsy specimen taken from the distal leg. Quantitation of epidermal innervation, parameters of nerve conduction study, R-R interval variability, and sympathetic skin response. Clinically, 21 patients (52.5%) were symptomatic with paresthesia over the limbs or autonomic symptoms. The intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density was markedly reduced in patients with CKD compared with age- and sex-matched controls (mean [SD], 2.8 [2.0] vs 8.6 [2.8] fibers/mm; P Skin denervation was observed in 27 patients (67.5%). Fifteen patients (37.5%) had abnormalities on nerve conduction studies, and 29 patients (72.5%) had abnormal results on autonomic function tests. By analysis with multiple regression models, the IENF density was negatively correlated with the duration of renal disease (P = .02). Additionally, the R-R interval variability at rest was linearly correlated with the IENF density (P = .02) and the absence of sympathetic skin responses at the soles was associated with reduced IENF density (P = .03). Small-fiber sensory and autonomic neuropathies constitute the major form of neuropathy in late-stage CKD. Furthermore, skin denervation was associated with the duration of renal disease.

  1. Management of blight of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) caused by Drechslera bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadon, Kuldeep Singh; Shah, Rakesh; Gour, Hari Narayan; Sharma, Pankaj

    Sweet or bell pepper is a member of the Solanaceae family and is regarded as one of the most popular and nutritious vegetable. Blight, in the form of leaf and fruit blight, has been observed to infect bell pepper crops cultivated at the horticulture farm in Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur, India. Based on disease severity, we attempted to curb this newly emerged problem using different fungicides, plant extracts, bio-control agents, and commercial botanicals against the fungus in laboratory and pot experiments. Bio-control agent Trichoderma viride and plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolate Neist-2 were found to be quite effective against bell pepper blight. All evaluated fungicides, botanicals, commercial botanicals, and bio-control agents in vitro were further studied as seed dressers and two foliar sprays at ten days interval in pot experiments. The combinations of Vitavax, PGPR isolate Neist-2, and Mehandi extract were found to be very effective against bell pepper blight followed by Vitavax, T. viride, and Mehandi extract used individually. All treatments in the pot experiments were found to significantly reduce seedling mortality and enhance plant biomass of bell pepper. Thus, these experimental findings suggest that a better integrated management of bell pepper blight could be achieved by conducting field trials in major bell pepper- and chilli-cultivated areas of the state. Besides fungicides, different botanicals and commercial botanicals also seem to be promising treatment options. Therefore, the outcome of the present study provides an alternate option of fungicide use in minimizing loss caused by Drechslera bicolor. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Fat and carbohydrate metabolism during exercise in late-onset Pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Laforet, Pascal; Madsen, Karen Lindhardt

    2012-01-01

    forearm exercise testing, and peak work capacity was determined. Fat and carbohydrate metabolism during cycle exercise was examined with a combination of indirect calorimetry and stable isotope methodology. Finally, the effects of an IV glucose infusion on heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion...... examined the metabolic response to exercise in patients with late-onset Pompe disease, in order to determine if a defect in energy metabolism may play a role in the pathogenesis of Pompe disease. We studied six adult patients with Pompe disease and 10 healthy subjects. The participants underwent ischemic......, and work capacity during exercise were determined. We found that peak oxidative capacity was reduced in the patients to 17.6 vs. 38.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1) in healthy subjects (p = 0.002). There were no differences in the rate of appearance and rate of oxidation of palmitate, or total fat and carbohydrate...

  3. Neurocognitive testing in late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstein, D; Doniger, G M; Simon, E; Korn-Lubetzki, I; Navon, R; Zimran, A

    2008-08-01

    To test neurocognitive function in patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS) using a computerized system to assess whether cognition is a clinically relevant outcome measure of possible therapeutic intervention in LOTS. Ten adults with Tay-Sachs disease were administered at least one battery of the Mindstreams Neurotrax system for evaluation of cognitive function. Six sub-scores and a Global Cognitive Score (GCS) were tabulated. A disease specific severity score was also devised with six domains. Despite identical genotypes, all patients but the two oldest had > or = 3/6 sub-scores one standard deviation below normal mean (100); verbal and executive functions were most affected. The severity score measured other functions. Because of provocative findings on re-testing in patients exposed to miglustat, and despite the very small cohort, cognitive function may be an appropriate and clinically relevant outcome measure for future therapeutic interventions in LOTS.

  4. Cardiovascular disease in late survivors of tetralogy of fallot: a tertiary care center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elisa; Parker, Jeff; Novak, Eric; Ludbrook, Philip; Billadello, Joseph; Cedars, Ari

    2013-01-01

    Patients with tetralogy of Fallot can survive to late adulthood; however, there are few data on cardiovascular outcomes in this population. We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis of cardiovascular outcomes and risk factors in 208 patients with tetralogy of Fallot to better evaluate the burden of cardiovascular disease in this group. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence of relevant cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes, including a composite analysis of cardiovascular disease. Rates and mean values from the American Heart Association 2011 Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics Update were used as population estimates for comparison. In tetralogy of Fallot patients, cardiovascular disease prevalence was not different from that found in the general population (40% vs. 36%, P=0.3). However, there was significantly more cardiovascular disease in tetralogy of Fallot men aged 20 to 39 years (30% vs. 14%, P tetralogy of Fallot men aged 40 to 59 years (63% vs. 29%, P tetralogy of Fallot men aged 20 to 59 years. These data support the need to routinely screen young adult male survivors of tetralogy of Fallot for asymptomatic heart failure. Further studies are needed to determine the incidence, severity, and long-term effects of cardiovascular disease in the adult congenital heart disease population.

  5. Outcome and late complications of radiotherapy in patients with unicentric Castleman disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhof, Dirk; Debus, Juergen

    2006-01-01

    Castleman disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. Surgery is considered standard therapy for the unicentric type. However, case reports have documented favorable responses to radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical outcomes of five patients with unicentric Castleman disease treated with radiotherapy between 1991 and 2005. Mediastinal lymph nodes were the most common site of disease (four patients). Three patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, two patients with surgery and radiotherapy. Patients were treated with radiotherapy doses ranging from 40 Gy to 50 Gy. The median follow-up was 12 months (range, 3-175 months). During follow-up only one patient had progressive disease and died of Castleman disease. At the time of last follow-up two patients were in complete remission, one patient in partial remission, and one patient had stable disease. One patient showed serious acute and late toxicities. At the end of radiotherapy a paraneoplastic pemphigus vulgaris occurred, and eight to 11 months after radiotherapy a stenosis of the esophagus, of the left bronchus, and of the trachea due to scars. The study shows that unicentric Castleman disease is successfully treated with radiotherapy. However, for detection of possible complications as pemphigus vulgaris or stenosis of the esophagus or trachea an accurate follow-up is necessary

  6. Mechanism of interrupted saccades in patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optican, Lance M; Rucker, Janet C; Keller, Edward L; Leigh, R John

    2008-01-01

    In late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS), saccades are interrupted by one or more transient decelerations. Some saccades reaccelerate and continue on before eye velocity reaches zero, even in darkness. Intervals between successive decelerations are not regularly spaced. Peak decelerations of horizontal and vertical components of oblique saccades in LOTS is more synchronous than those in control subjects. We hypothesize that these decelerations are caused by dysregulation of the fastigial nuclei (FN) of the cerebellum, which fire brain stem inhibitory burst neurons (IBNs).

  7. Late complications of clinical clostridium histolyticum collagenase use in Dupuytren's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren M Rozen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While Dupuytren's disease can cause disabling contractures requiring open surgery, a less-invasive option using Clostridium Histolyticum collagenase (CHC via percutaneous injection was recently reported. A recent prospective, randomized trial demonstrated few complications during 90 days follow-up, however did not assess any longer term follow-up for these patients. Long-term outcomes in this setting have not been adequately reported, and the current manuscript aims to identify late complications from the clinical use of percutaneous CHC. METHODS: The current manuscript reports an extended 12-month follow-up for a cohort of twelve of patients enrolled in the original prospective, randomized trial, treated at a single institution. An analysis of complications requiring surgical intervention was undertaken. RESULTS: Two of twelve patients reported debilitating pain and triggering requiring surgical intervention. Extensive deep-tissue scarring and adhesions were identified, providing the first visual and qualitative analysis of the pathologic effects of CHC. CONCLUSION: Late complications from CHC use can and have occurred, outside the follow-up period of the initial phase III trials. Longer term follow-up of such patients is thus essential, and further investigation and characterization of the late effects of CHC use is warranted.

  8. Occurrence of Leaf Blight on Cosmos Caused by Alternaria cosmosa in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xin Deng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a leaf blight disease was observed on cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus leaves in Nonsan, Korea. The causal pathogen was isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular approaches. Morphological characteristics of the pathogen matched well with the Alternaria cosmosa and also easily distinguishable from Alternaria zinniae reported from cosmos seeds by producing branched beak. Phylogenetically, the pathogen could not be distinguished from A. passiflorae based on the sequence analysis of a combined data set of Alt a1 and gpd genes. However, A. passiflorae was distinguished from the present species by having conidiophores with 4 to 5 conidiogenous loci. The results indicate that the present Alternaria species is A. cosmosa. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the isolate was pathogenic to the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus. This is the first report of Alternaria blight disease caused by A. cosmosa on cosmos in Korea.

  9. Late toxicity of radiotherapy in Hodgkin's disease. The role of fraction size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosset, J.M.; Henry-Amar, M.; Girinski, T.; Malaise, E.; Dupouy, N.; Dutreix, J.

    1988-01-01

    From 1972 to 1976 patients were irradiated for Hodgkin's disease using a modified fractionation schedule (3 fractions of 3.3 Gy per week) for operational reasons. From 1964 to 1971 and from 1977 to 1981, a more conventional regimen (4 fractions of 2.5 Gy per week) was used. The rates of the late complications in these two subsets of patients treated with different fractionation schedules at the same total dose of 40 Gy during the same overall time were compared. Mediastinitis was observed in 19% of of the '4x2.5 Gy/week' group versus 56% in the '3x3.3 Gy/week' group. Pericarditis in 0% versus 9%, gastroduodenal ulceration and severe gastritis in 10 versus 21% and small bowel obstruction in 5 versus 8%. When using the linear quadratic model with an ..cap alpha../..beta.. of 2.5 Gy to evaluate the equivalent dose of 40 Gy given in 12 fractions of 3.3 Gy when delivered by fractions of 2.5 Gy, a value of 46.6 Gy is found. This difference of 6.6 Gy in the equivalent doses (for late toxicity) is likely to account for the significant increase of late radiation injuries, such as mediastinitis and pericarditis, in the present study. The local relapse rate was found to be slightly lower in the 3x3.3 Gy group. However, this possible benefit cannot offset the considerable increase of late complications.

  10. Late-Onset Glycogen Storage Disease Type II (Pompe's Disease) with a Novel Mutation: A Malaysian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu Liong, Hiew; Abdul Wahab, Siti Aishah; Yakob, Yusnita; Lock Hock, Ngu; Thong, Wong Kum; Viswanathan, Shanthi

    2014-01-01

    Pompe's disease (acid maltase deficiency, glycogen storage disease type II) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of lysosomal acid α-1,4-glucosidase, resulting in excessive accumulation of glycogen in the lysosomes and cytoplasm of all tissues, most notably in skeletal muscles. We present a case of adult-onset Pompe's disease with progressive proximal muscles weakness over 5 years and respiratory failure on admission, requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Electromyography showed evidence of myopathic process with small amplitudes, polyphasic motor unit action potentials, and presence of pseudomyotonic discharges. Muscle biopsy showed glycogen-containing vacuoles in the muscle fibers consistent with glycogen storage disease. Genetic analysis revealed two compound heterozygous mutations at c.444C>G (p.Tyr148∗) in exon 2 and c.2238G>C (p.Trp746Cys) in exon 16, with the former being a novel mutation. This mutation has not been reported before, to our knowledge. The patient was treated with high protein diet during the admission and subsequently showed good clinical response to enzyme replacement therapy with survival now to the eighth year. Conclusion. In patients with late-onset adult Pompe's disease, careful evaluation and early identification of the disease and its treatment with high protein diet and enzyme replacement therapy improve muscle function and have beneficial impact on long term survival.

  11. Late-Onset Glycogen Storage Disease Type II (Pompe’s Disease with a Novel Mutation: A Malaysian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiew Fu Liong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pompe’s disease (acid maltase deficiency, glycogen storage disease type II is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of lysosomal acid α-1,4-glucosidase, resulting in excessive accumulation of glycogen in the lysosomes and cytoplasm of all tissues, most notably in skeletal muscles. We present a case of adult-onset Pompe’s disease with progressive proximal muscles weakness over 5 years and respiratory failure on admission, requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Electromyography showed evidence of myopathic process with small amplitudes, polyphasic motor unit action potentials, and presence of pseudomyotonic discharges. Muscle biopsy showed glycogen-containing vacuoles in the muscle fibers consistent with glycogen storage disease. Genetic analysis revealed two compound heterozygous mutations at c.444C>G (p.Tyr148* in exon 2 and c.2238G>C (p.Trp746Cys in exon 16, with the former being a novel mutation. This mutation has not been reported before, to our knowledge. The patient was treated with high protein diet during the admission and subsequently showed good clinical response to enzyme replacement therapy with survival now to the eighth year. Conclusion. In patients with late-onset adult Pompe’s disease, careful evaluation and early identification of the disease and its treatment with high protein diet and enzyme replacement therapy improve muscle function and have beneficial impact on long term survival.

  12. TWIG BLIGHT AND DEFOLIATION CAUSED BY Colletotrichum horii IN PERSIMMONS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOUISE LARISSA MAY DE MIO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Persimmon anthracnose has been a great concern to Brazilian producers. This study aimed to identify and characterized the causal species from Brazilian persimmons byassessing morphological and molecular characteristics and pathogenicity tests. Five fungal isolatesobtained from diseased twigs and fruits were identified as Colletotrichum horii, based on morphologicalcharacteristics and nucleotide sequences of ITS region. Inoculation tests revealed that the fungal isolates caused necrotic spots followed by defoliation of leaves, blight of twigs and buds of potted persimmon plants.

  13. Causes and outcome of late referral of children who develop end-stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sean E; Bailey, Rohan; Kainer, Gad

    2012-03-01

    This study aims to characterise the timing of referral to a paediatric nephrology unit of children who develop end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). This study also aims to determine whether late referral (LR) influences outcomes and to explore factors that may lead to LR. A retrospective case review of all incident patients with ESKD who received renal replacement therapy (RRT) at a single paediatric centre. Time between referral to a paediatric nephrologist and commencement of RRT, demographic and clinical data were collated. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at referral was calculated using height and creatinine. LR was defined as having an eGFR ≤ 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) when first seen by a paediatric nephrologist. RRT was initiated for 74 patients Children referred before age 1 year (41%) had a more prolonged course before ESKD. Median (interquartile range) eGFR at referral of children > 1 year was 27.2 (9.0-52.0) mL/min/1.73 m(2) . Twenty-two (55%) of these children were referred late (LR) with an eGFR ≤ 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) . LR patients were more likely to have glomerulonephritis or haemolytic uraemic syndrome and to live in a remote or outer regional area. LR patients had higher urea, lower haemoglobin and were more likely to receive haemodialysis via a vascular catheter. A significant proportion of children who develop ESKD are referred late to nephrology units with potentially preventable complications. Aetiology of renal disease and geographic isolation contribute to LR. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Oromandibular Dyskinesia as the Initial Manifestation of Late-Onset Huntington Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Seok Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a triad of choreoathetosis, dementia and dominant inheritance. The cause of HD is an expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the HD gene. Typical age at onset of symptoms is in the 40s, but the disorder can manifest at any time. Late-onset (≥ 60 years HD is clinically different from other adult or juvenile onset HD and characterized by mild motor problem as the initial symptoms, shorter disease duration, frequent lack of family history, and relatively low CAG repeats expansion. We report a case of an 80-year-old female with oromandibular dyskinesia as an initial manifestation of HD and 40 CAG repeats.

  15. Extended tracts of homozygosity identify novel candidate genes associated with late onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalls, M. A.; Guerreiro, R. J.; Simon-Sanchez, J.; Bras, J. T.; Traynor, B. J.; Gibbs, J. R.; Launer, L.; Hardy, J.; Singleton, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Large tracts of extended homozygosity are more prevalent in outbred populations than previously thought. With the advent of high-density genotyping platforms, regions of extended homozygosity can be accurately located allowing for the identification of rare recessive risk variants contributing to disease. We compared measures of extended homozygosity (greater than 1 megabase in length) in a population of 837 late onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) cases and 550 controls. In our analyses, we identify one homozygous region on chromosome 8 that is significantly associated with LOAD after adjusting for multiple testing. This region contains seven genes from which the most biologically plausible candidates are STAR, EIF4EBP1 and ADRB3. We also compared the total numbers of homozygous runs and the total length of these runs between cases and controls, showing a suggestive difference in these measures (p-values 0.052-0.062). This research suggests a recessive component to the etiology of LOAD. PMID:19271249

  16. Slow late myocardial clearance of thallium: a characteristic phenomenon in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklar, J.; Kirch, D.; Johnson, T.; Hasegawa, B.; Peck, S.; Steele, P.

    1982-01-01

    Researchers extended the quantitative seven-pinhole method to follow the dynamics of thallium redistribution after exercise. Researchers observed a pattern of slow late thallium clearance that appears to be characteristic of myocardium supplied by obstructed coronary arteries. In 28 subjects, quantitative thallium scintigrams and blood samples for thallium concentration were taken immediately, 2 hours and 4 hours after maximal treadmill exercise. Twenty subjects had coronary artery disease (CAD) and eight were normal. The rate of thallium clearance from the blood (TCB) was compared with the rate of thallium clearance from each segmental region of myocardium between the 2- and 4-hour images. In seven of the eight normal subjects, TCM exceeded TCB in all regions of all images. Seventeen of the 20 CAD patients had at least one region where TCM was less than TCB. Of the 13 patients with multivessel CAD 11 had multiple regions with TCM less than TCB. Using this criterion, we detected 31 of 39 obstructed coronary arteries. Of the 37 regions that were abnormal by this analysis, 30 corresponded to obstructed coronary arteries. In contrast, while conventional circumferential count profile analysis also was abnormal in 17 of the 20 CAD patients, it diagnosed multivessel CAD in only five of the 13 patients that had it. These results show that slow late thallium clearance from myocardium is characteristic of regions of myocardium supplied by diseased coronary arteries and that observation of this phenomenon may improve diagnostic sensitivity for the presence of multivessel CAD

  17. Glycogen Reduction in Myotubes of Late-Onset Pompe Disease Patients Using Antisense Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goina, Elisa; Peruzzo, Paolo; Bembi, Bruno; Dardis, Andrea; Buratti, Emanuele

    2017-09-06

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) is a lysosomal disorder caused by the deficient activity of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme, leading to the accumulation of glycogen within the lysosomes. The disease has been classified in infantile and late-onset forms. Most late-onset patients share a splicing mutation c.-32-13T > G in intron 1 of the GAA gene that prevents efficient recognition of exon 2 by the spliceosome. In this study, we have mapped the splicing silencers of GAA exon 2 and developed antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMOs) to inhibit those regions and rescue normal splicing in the presence of the c.-32-13T > G mutation. Using a minigene approach and patient fibroblasts, we successfully increased inclusion of exon 2 in the mRNA and GAA enzyme production by targeting a specific silencer with a combination of AMOs. Most importantly, the use of these AMOs in patient myotubes results in a decreased accumulation of glycogen. To our knowledge, this is the only therapeutic approach resulting in a decrease of glycogen accumulation in patient tissues beside enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and TFEB overexpression. As a result, it may represent a highly novel and promising therapeutic line for GSDII. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of bacterial blight resistance genes Xa4 in Pakistani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo) is a major biotic constraint in the irrigated rice belts. Genetic resistance is the most effective and economical control for bacterial blight. Molecular survey was conducted to identify the rice germplasm/lines for the presence of Xa4, a.

  19. Late radiation-induced heart disease after radiotherapy. Clinical importance, radiobiological mechanisms and strategies of prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andratschke, Nicolaus; Maurer, Jean; Molls, Michael; Trott, Klaus-Ruediger

    2011-01-01

    The clinical importance of radiation-induced heart disease, in particular in post-operative radiotherapy of breast cancer patients, has been recognised only recently. There is general agreement, that a co-ordinated research effort would be needed to explore all the potential strategies of how to reduce the late risk of radiation-induced heart disease in radiotherapy. This approach would be based, on one hand, on a comprehensive understanding of the radiobiological mechanisms of radiation-induced heart disease after radiotherapy which would require large-scale long-term animal experiments with high precision local heart irradiation. On the other hand - in close co-operation with mechanistic in vivo research studies - clinical studies in patients need to determine the influence of dose distribution in the heart on the risk of radiation-induced heart disease. The aim of these clinical studies would be to identify the critical structures within the organ which need to be spared and their radiation sensitivity as well as a potential volume and dose effect. The results of the mechanistic studies might also provide concepts of how to modify the gradual progression of radiation damage in the heart by drugs or biological molecules. The results of the studies in patients would need to also incorporate detailed dosimetric and imaging studies in order to develop early indicators of impending radiation-induced heart disease which would be a pre-condition to develop sound criteria for treatment plan optimisation.

  20. Efficacy of Newer Molecules, Bioagents and Botanicals against Maydis Leaf Blight and Banded Leaf and Sheath Blight of Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Manjeet; Hooda, Karambir Singh; Yadav, Naresh Kumar; Chauhan, Prashant Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.; 2N=20) is major staple food crop grown worldwide adapted to several biotic and abiotic stresses. Maydis leaf blight (MLB) and banded leaf and sheath blight (BLSB) are serious foliar fungal diseases may cause up to 40% and 100% grain yield loss, respectively. The present studies were undertaken to work out the efficacy of chemicals, botanicals and bioagents for the management of MLB and BLSB under field condition for two seasons Kharif 2014 and 2015. Five molecules (propiconazole 25 EC, hexaconazole 25 EC, carbendazim 50 WP, mancozeb 75 WP and carbedazim 12 WP + mancozeb 63 WP), two bioagents i.e. Trichoderma harzianum and T. viridae and three botanicals namely azadirachtin, sarpagandha and bel pathar were tested for their efficacy against MLB. Eight newer fungicides viz., difenconazole 250 SC, hexaconazole 5 EC, carbendazim 50WP, validamycin 3 L, tebuconazole 250 EC, trifloxystrobin 50 WG + tebuconazole 50 WG, azoxystrobin 250 EC and pencycuron 250 SC were evaluated against BLSB. Analysis revealed significant effects of propiconazole at 0.1%, carbendazim 12 WP + mancozeb 63 WP at 0.125% and sarpagandha leaves at 10% against MLB pathogen, whereas validamycin at 0.1% and trifloxystrobin 25 WG + tebuconazole 50 WG at 0.05% were found effective against BLSB. The slow rate of disease control virtually by the bioagents might have not shown instant effect on plant response to the yield enhancing components. The identified sources of management can be used further in strengthening the plant protection in maize against MLB and BLSB. PMID:29628818

  1. Efficacy of Newer Molecules, Bioagents and Botanicals against Maydis Leaf Blight and Banded Leaf and Sheath Blight of Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Manjeet; Hooda, Karambir Singh; Yadav, Naresh Kumar; Chauhan, Prashant Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Maize ( Zea mays L.; 2N=20) is major staple food crop grown worldwide adapted to several biotic and abiotic stresses. Maydis leaf blight (MLB) and banded leaf and sheath blight (BLSB) are serious foliar fungal diseases may cause up to 40% and 100% grain yield loss, respectively. The present studies were undertaken to work out the efficacy of chemicals, botanicals and bioagents for the management of MLB and BLSB under field condition for two seasons Kharif 2014 and 2015. Five molecules (propiconazole 25 EC, hexaconazole 25 EC, carbendazim 50 WP, mancozeb 75 WP and carbedazim 12 WP + mancozeb 63 WP), two bioagents i.e. Trichoderma harzianum and T. viridae and three botanicals namely azadirachtin, sarpagandha and bel pathar were tested for their efficacy against MLB. Eight newer fungicides viz., difenconazole 250 SC, hexaconazole 5 EC, carbendazim 50WP, validamycin 3 L, tebuconazole 250 EC, trifloxystrobin 50 WG + tebuconazole 50 WG, azoxystrobin 250 EC and pencycuron 250 SC were evaluated against BLSB. Analysis revealed significant effects of propiconazole at 0.1%, carbendazim 12 WP + mancozeb 63 WP at 0.125% and sarpagandha leaves at 10% against MLB pathogen, whereas validamycin at 0.1% and trifloxystrobin 25 WG + tebuconazole 50 WG at 0.05% were found effective against BLSB. The slow rate of disease control virtually by the bioagents might have not shown instant effect on plant response to the yield enhancing components. The identified sources of management can be used further in strengthening the plant protection in maize against MLB and BLSB.

  2. Efficacy of Newer Molecules, Bioagents and Botanicals against Maydis Leaf Blight and Banded Leaf and Sheath Blight of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L.; 2N=20 is major staple food crop grown worldwide adapted to several biotic and abiotic stresses. Maydis leaf blight (MLB and banded leaf and sheath blight (BLSB are serious foliar fungal diseases may cause up to 40% and 100% grain yield loss, respectively. The present studies were undertaken to work out the efficacy of chemicals, botanicals and bioagents for the management of MLB and BLSB under field condition for two seasons Kharif 2014 and 2015. Five molecules (propiconazole 25 EC, hexaconazole 25 EC, carbendazim 50 WP, mancozeb 75 WP and carbedazim 12 WP + mancozeb 63 WP, two bioagents i.e. Trichoderma harzianum and T. viridae and three botanicals namely azadirachtin, sarpagandha and bel pathar were tested for their efficacy against MLB. Eight newer fungicides viz., difenconazole 250 SC, hexaconazole 5 EC, carbendazim 50WP, validamycin 3 L, tebuconazole 250 EC, trifloxystrobin 50 WG + tebuconazole 50 WG, azoxystrobin 250 EC and pencycuron 250 SC were evaluated against BLSB. Analysis revealed significant effects of propiconazole at 0.1%, carbendazim 12 WP + mancozeb 63 WP at 0.125% and sarpagandha leaves at 10% against MLB pathogen, whereas validamycin at 0.1% and trifloxystrobin 25 WG + tebuconazole 50 WG at 0.05% were found effective against BLSB. The slow rate of disease control virtually by the bioagents might have not shown instant effect on plant response to the yield enhancing components. The identified sources of management can be used further in strengthening the plant protection in maize against MLB and BLSB.

  3. First report of boxwood blight caused by Calonectria pseudonaviculata in Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxwood (Buxus spp.) are commercially important evergreen ornamental plants with an annual market value of over $103 million in the United States. The recent U.S. incursion of boxwood blight disease caused by the fungus Calonectria pseudonaviculata (syn. Cylindrocladium pseudonaviculatum, Cy. buxico...

  4. Discovering novel Alternaria solani succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors by in silico modeling and virtual screening strategies to combat early blight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iftikhar, Sehrish; Shahid, Ahmad A.; Halim, Sobia A.; Wolters, Pieter J.; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A.; Khan, Ajmal; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ahmad, Shahbaz

    2017-01-01

    Alternaria blight is an important foliage disease caused by Alternaria solani. The enzyme Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a potential drug target because of its role in tricarboxylic acid cycle. Hence targeting Alternaria solani SDH enzyme could be efficient tool to design novel fungicides against

  5. A simple culture method inducing sexual reproduction by Fusarium graminearum, the primary causal agent of Fusarium head blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    The homothallic ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum is the primary causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of wheat and barley worldwide. The fungus undergoes both asexual and sexual stages in its life cycle. The asexual stage produces conidiospores, whereas the sexual s...

  6. Bacterial blight (Pseudomonas pisi Sackett) of peas in South Africa, with special reference to frost as a predisposing factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelema, B.H.

    1972-01-01

    In the beginning of the nineteen fifties bacterial blight caused much damage to pea crops in South Africa, particularly to those grown for seed production. A study has been made of the causal organism and the conditioning factors of the disease, special attention being paid to frost as a

  7. Risk factors for late-stage HIV disease presentation at initial HIV diagnosis in Durban, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K Drain

    Full Text Available After observing persistently low CD4 counts at initial HIV diagnosis in South Africa, we sought to determine risk factors for late-stage HIV disease presentation among adults.We surveyed adults prior to HIV testing at four outpatient clinics in Durban from August 2010 to November 2011. All HIV-infected adults were offered CD4 testing, and late-stage HIV disease was defined as a CD4 count <100 cells/mm(3. We used multivariate regression models to determine the effects of sex, emotional health, social support, distance from clinic, employment, perceived barriers to receiving healthcare, and foregoing healthcare to use money for food, clothing, or housing ("competing needs to healthcare" on presentation with late-stage HIV disease.Among 3,669 adults screened, 830 were enrolled, newly-diagnosed with HIV and obtained a CD4 result. Among those, 279 (33.6% presented with late-stage HIV disease. In multivariate analyses, participants who lived ≥5 kilometers from the test site [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.7-4.7], reported competing needs to healthcare (AOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4, were male (AOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3, worked outside the home (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1, perceived health service delivery barriers (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1, and/or had poor emotional health (AOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9 had higher odds of late-stage HIV disease presentation.Independent risk factors for late-stage HIV disease presentation were from diverse domains, including geographic, economic, demographic, social, and psychosocial. These findings can inform various interventions, such as mobile testing or financial assistance, to reduce the risk of presentation with late-stage HIV disease.

  8. IMRT for Sinonasal Tumors Minimizes Severe Late Ocular Toxicity and Preserves Disease Control and Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprez, Fréderic; Madani, Indira; Morbée, Lieve; Bonte, Katrien; Deron, Philippe; Domján, Vilmos; Boterberg, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; De Neve, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report late ocular (primary endpoint) and other toxicity, disease control, and survival (secondary endpoints) after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for sinonasal tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2009, 130 patients with nonmetastatic sinonasal tumors were treated with IMRT at Ghent University Hospital. Prescription doses were 70 Gy (n = 117) and 60–66 Gy (n = 13) at 2 Gy per fraction over 6–7 weeks. Most patients had adenocarcinoma (n = 82) and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 23). One hundred and one (101) patients were treated postoperatively. Of 17 patients with recurrent tumors, 9 were reirradiated. T-stages were T1–2 (n = 39), T3 (n = 21), T4a (n = 38), and T4b (n = 22). Esthesioneuroblastoma was staged as Kadish A, B, and C in 1, 3, and 6 cases, respectively. Results: Median follow-up was 52, range 15–121 months. There was no radiation-induced blindness in 86 patients available for late toxicity assessment (≥6 month follow-up). We observed late Grade 3 tearing in 10 patients, which reduced to Grade 1–2 in 5 patients and Grade 3 visual impairment because of radiation-induced ipsilateral retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma in 1 patient. There was no severe dry eye syndrome. The worst grade of late ocular toxicity was Grade 3 (n = 11), Grade 2 (n = 31), Grade 1 (n = 33), and Grade 0 (n = 11). Brain necrosis and osteoradionecrosis occurred in 6 and 1 patients, respectively. Actuarial 5-year local control and overall survival were 59% and 52%, respectively. On multivariate analysis local control was negatively affected by cribriform plate and brain invasion (p = 0.044 and 0.029, respectively) and absence of surgery (p = 0.009); overall survival was negatively affected by cribriform plate and orbit invasion (p = 0.04 and <0.001, respectively) and absence of surgery (p = 0.001). Conclusions: IMRT for sinonasal tumors allowed delivering high doses to targets at minimized ocular toxicity, while maintaining disease control and

  9. IMRT for Sinonasal Tumors Minimizes Severe Late Ocular Toxicity and Preserves Disease Control and Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duprez, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.duprez@ugent.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Madani, Indira; Morbee, Lieve [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Bonte, Katrien; Deron, Philippe; Domjan, Vilmos [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Boterberg, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To report late ocular (primary endpoint) and other toxicity, disease control, and survival (secondary endpoints) after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for sinonasal tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2009, 130 patients with nonmetastatic sinonasal tumors were treated with IMRT at Ghent University Hospital. Prescription doses were 70 Gy (n = 117) and 60-66 Gy (n = 13) at 2 Gy per fraction over 6-7 weeks. Most patients had adenocarcinoma (n = 82) and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 23). One hundred and one (101) patients were treated postoperatively. Of 17 patients with recurrent tumors, 9 were reirradiated. T-stages were T1-2 (n = 39), T3 (n = 21), T4a (n = 38), and T4b (n = 22). Esthesioneuroblastoma was staged as Kadish A, B, and C in 1, 3, and 6 cases, respectively. Results: Median follow-up was 52, range 15-121 months. There was no radiation-induced blindness in 86 patients available for late toxicity assessment ({>=}6 month follow-up). We observed late Grade 3 tearing in 10 patients, which reduced to Grade 1-2 in 5 patients and Grade 3 visual impairment because of radiation-induced ipsilateral retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma in 1 patient. There was no severe dry eye syndrome. The worst grade of late ocular toxicity was Grade 3 (n = 11), Grade 2 (n = 31), Grade 1 (n = 33), and Grade 0 (n = 11). Brain necrosis and osteoradionecrosis occurred in 6 and 1 patients, respectively. Actuarial 5-year local control and overall survival were 59% and 52%, respectively. On multivariate analysis local control was negatively affected by cribriform plate and brain invasion (p = 0.044 and 0.029, respectively) and absence of surgery (p = 0.009); overall survival was negatively affected by cribriform plate and orbit invasion (p = 0.04 and <0.001, respectively) and absence of surgery (p = 0.001). Conclusions: IMRT for sinonasal tumors allowed delivering high doses to targets at minimized ocular toxicity, while maintaining disease control and survival

  10. Lifestyle Factors in Late Adolescence Associate With Later Development of Diverticular Disease Requiring Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järbrink-Sehgal, M Ellionore; Schmidt, Peter T; Sköldberg, Filip; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Hagström, Hannes; Andreasson, Anna

    2018-04-12

    The burden of diverticular disease on society is high and is increasing with an aging population. It is therefore important to identify risk factors for disease development or progression. Many lifestyle behaviors during adolescence affect risk for later disease. We searched for adolescent lifestyle factors that affect risk of diverticular disease later in life. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 43,772 men (age, 18-20 y) conscripted to military service in Sweden from 1969 through 1970, with a follow-up period of 39 years. All conscripts underwent an extensive mental and physical health examination and completed questionnaires covering alcohol consumption, smoking, and use of recreational drugs; cardiovascular fitness was assessed using an ergometer cycle at the time of conscription. Outcome data were collected from national registers to identify discharge diagnoses of diverticular disease until the end of 2009. We performed Cox regression analysis to determine whether body mass index, cardiovascular fitness, smoking, use of recreational drugs, alcohol consumption, and risky use of alcohol, at time of conscription are independent risk factors for development of diverticular disease. Overweight and obese men had a 2-fold increased risk of diverticular disease compared to normal-weight men (hazard ratio, 2.00; P diverticular disease requiring hospitalization (P = .009). Smoking (P = .003), but not use of recreational drugs (P = .11), was associated with an increased risk of diverticular disease requiring hospitalization. Risky use of alcohol, but not alcohol consumption per se, was associated with a 43% increase in risk of diverticular disease requiring hospitalization (P = .007). In a retrospective analysis of data from 43,772 men in Sweden, we associated being overweight or obese, a smoker, a high-risk user of alcohol, and/or having a low level of cardiovascular fitness in late adolescence with an increased risk of developing diverticular

  11. Effector genomics accelerates discovery and functional profiling of potato disease resistance and phytophthora infestans avirulence genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers

    Full Text Available Potato is the world's fourth largest food crop yet it continues to endure late blight, a devastating disease caused by the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Breeding broad-spectrum disease resistance (R genes into potato (Solanum tuberosum is the best strategy for genetically managing late blight but current approaches are slow and inefficient. We used a repertoire of effector genes predicted computationally from the P. infestans genome to accelerate the identification, functional characterization, and cloning of potentially broad-spectrum R genes. An initial set of 54 effectors containing a signal peptide and a RXLR motif was profiled for activation of innate immunity (avirulence or Avr activity on wild Solanum species and tentative Avr candidates were identified. The RXLR effector family IpiO induced hypersensitive responses (HR in S. stoloniferum, S. papita and the more distantly related S. bulbocastanum, the source of the R gene Rpi-blb1. Genetic studies with S. stoloniferum showed cosegregation of resistance to P. infestans and response to IpiO. Transient co-expression of IpiO with Rpi-blb1 in a heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana system identified IpiO as Avr-blb1. A candidate gene approach led to the rapid cloning of S. stoloniferum Rpi-sto1 and S. papita Rpi-pta1, which are functionally equivalent to Rpi-blb1. Our findings indicate that effector genomics enables discovery and functional profiling of late blight R genes and Avr genes at an unprecedented rate and promises to accelerate the engineering of late blight resistant potato varieties.

  12. Management of postural sensory conflict and dynamic balance control in late-stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colnat-Coulbois, S; Gauchard, G C; Maillard, L; Barroche, G; Vespignani, H; Auque, J; Perrin, P P

    2011-10-13

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is known to affect postural control, especially in situations needing a change in balance strategy or when a concurrent task is simultaneously performed. However, few studies assessing postural control in patients with PD included homogeneous population in late stage of the disease. Thus, this study aimed to analyse postural control and strategies in a homogeneous population of patients with idiopathic advanced (late-stage) PD, and to determine the contribution of peripheral inputs in simple and more complex postural tasks, such as sensory conflicting and dynamic tasks. Twenty-four subjects with advanced PD (duration: median (M)=11.0 years, interquartile range (IQR)=4.3 years; Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS): M "on-dopa"=13.5, IQR=7.8; UPDRS: M "off-dopa"=48.5, IQR=16.8; Hoehn and Yahr stage IV in all patients) and 48 age-matched healthy controls underwent static (SPT) and dynamic posturographic (DPT) tests and a sensory organization test (SOT). In SPT, patients with PD showed reduced postural control precision with increased oscillations in both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral planes. In SOT, patients with PD displayed reduced postural performances especially in situations in which visual and vestibular cues became predominant to organize balance control, as was the ability to manage balance in situations for which visual or proprioceptive inputs are disrupted. In DPT, postural restabilization strategies were often inefficient to maintain equilibrium resulting in falls. Postural strategies were often precarious, postural regulation involving more hip joint than ankle joint in patients with advanced PD than in controls. Difficulties in managing complex postural situations, such as sensory conflicting and dynamic situations might reflect an inadequate sensory organization suggesting impairment in central information processing. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Neuro-ophthalmology of late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, J C; Shapiro, B E; Han, Y H; Kumar, A N; Garbutt, S; Keller, E L; Leigh, R J

    2004-11-23

    Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS) is an adult-onset, autosomal recessive, progressive variant of GM2 gangliosidosis, characterized by involvement of the cerebellum and anterior horn cells. To determine the range of visual and ocular motor abnormalities in LOTS, as a prelude to evaluating the effectiveness of novel therapies. Fourteen patients with biochemically confirmed LOTS (8 men; age range 24 to 53 years; disease duration 5 to 30 years) and 10 age-matched control subjects were studied. Snellen visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis, and visual fields were measured, and optic fundi were photographed. Horizontal and vertical eye movements (search coil) were recorded, and saccades, pursuit, vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), vergence, and optokinetic (OK) responses were measured. All patients showed normal visual functions and optic fundi. The main eye movement abnormality concerned saccades, which were "multistep," consisting of a series of small saccades and larger movements that showed transient decelerations. Larger saccades ended earlier and more abruptly (greater peak deceleration) in LOTS patients than in control subjects; these changes can be attributed to premature termination of the saccadic pulse. Smooth-pursuit and slow-phase OK gains were reduced, but VOR, vergence, and gaze holding were normal. Patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS) show characteristic abnormalities of saccades but normal afferent visual systems. Hypometria, transient decelerations, and premature termination of saccades suggest disruption of a "latch circuit" that normally inhibits pontine omnipause neurons, permitting burst neurons to discharge until the eye movement is completed. These measurable abnormalities of saccades provide a means to evaluate the effects of novel treatments for LOTS.

  14. Dancing in the dark? The status of late-onset Alzheimer's disease genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, L; Tanzi, R E

    2001-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a genetically complex and heterogeneous disorder. Recent estimates suggest that possibly over 70% of the genetic variance for the disease remains unaccounted for by apolipoprotein E (APOE) and the three known early-onset AD genes (APP, PSEN1, PSEN2). Specifically, one recent segregation analysis predicted the existence of up to four additional susceptibility genes having a similar or greater effect than APOE. However, most of the nearly three dozen putative AD loci proposed to date have only been inconsistently replicated in follow up analyses and more studies are necessary to distinguish false-positive findings from genuine signals. Novel AD genes will not only provide valuable clues for the development of novel therapeutic approaches, but will also allow the development of new genetic risk-profiling strategies that are an essential prerequisite for early prediction/prevention of this devastating disease. In this review, we will present a brief overview of analytic tools in complex disease genetics, as well as a summary of recent linkage and association findings indicating the existence of novel late-onset AD genes on chromosomes 12, 10, and 9.

  15. Late-onset Alzheimer's disease is associated with inherent changes in bioenergetics profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Kai-C; Ryu, Woo-In; Amirault, Kristopher M; Healy, Ryan A; Siegel, Arthur J; McPhie, Donna L; Forester, Brent; Cohen, Bruce M

    2017-10-25

    Body-wide changes in bioenergetics, i.e., energy metabolism, occur in normal aging and disturbed bioenergetics may be an important contributing mechanism underlying late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). We investigated the bioenergetic profiles of fibroblasts from LOAD patients and healthy controls, as a function of age and disease. LOAD cells exhibited an impaired mitochondrial metabolic potential and an abnormal redox potential, associated with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism and altered citric acid cycle activity, but not with disease-specific changes in mitochondrial mass, production of reactive oxygen species, transmembrane instability, or DNA deletions. LOAD fibroblasts demonstrated a shift in energy production to glycolysis, despite an inability to increase glucose uptake in response to IGF-1. The increase of glycolysis and the abnormal mitochondrial metabolic potential in LOAD appeared to be inherent, as they were disease- and not age-specific. Our findings support the hypothesis that impairment in multiple interacting components of bioenergetic metabolism may be a key mechanism contributing to the risk and pathophysiology of LOAD.

  16. 7T T-2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooden, S.; Doan, N.T.; Versluis, M.J.; Goos, J.D.C.; Webb, A.G.; Oleksik, A.M.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Barkhof, F.; Weverlinge-Rynsburger, A.W.E.; Blauw, G. J.; Reiber, J.H.C.; van Buchem, M.A.; Milles, J.; van der Grond, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T

  17. Impact of Early Versus Late Diuretic Exposure on Metabolic Bone Disease and Growth in Premature Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Lucas E; O'Mara, Keliana L

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there are differences in the incidence of metabolic bone disease (MBD) between preterm neonates first exposed to diuretics prior to 2 weeks of life versus those exposed after 2 weeks. This study was a retrospective analysis of premature neonates born at a tertiary care center between 2011 and 2015 who received either furosemide or chlorothiazide. The primary outcome was incidence of MBD. Secondary outcomes included growth, electrolyte disturbances, oxygen requirement, and length of stay. A total of 147 patients were included. Early initiation (n = 90) and late initiation (n = 57) arms were balanced with respect to birth weight and gestational age. There was no difference in incidence of MBD in the early group (76%) versus the late group (65%; p = 0.164). Stratification by cumulative dose showed incidence of 85% in patients receiving ≥8 mg/kg of furosemide, compared with 68% and 64% of those in the <4 mg/kg and 4 to 7.9 mg/kg strata, respectively (p = 0.06). The early group experienced greater reductions in length-for-age growth during diuretic therapy (-70% versus -40%; p = 0.009). Electrolyte abnormalities were more prevalent in the early group. Although there was no difference in duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of supplemental oxygen requirement was reduced in the late group (75 versus 89 days; p = 0.003). Timing of diuretic initiation did not affect incidence of MBD. Increased cumulative furosemide exposure may be associated with higher incidence. Patients first exposed to diuretics within 2 weeks of life are at higher risk for electrolyte abnormalities and reduced growth velocity.

  18. Psychiatric disease in late adolescence and young adulthood. Foetal programming by maternal hypothyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chun Sen; Laurberg, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Lack of maternal thyroid hormones during foetal brain development may lead to structural abnormalities in the brain. We hypothesized that maternal hypothyroidism during the pregnancy could programme the foetus to development of psychiatric disease later in life. Danish nationwide register study. Singletons live-born 1980-1990. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval for offspring redemption of ≥2 prescriptions of a psychiatric drug from age 15 to 31 years. Among 542 100 adolescents and young adults included, altogether 3979 (0·7%) were born to mothers with hypothyroidism registered before 1996. In crude analyses, the use of a psychiatric drug was more frequent in late adolescence and young adulthood when the mother had hypothyroidism (P hypothyroidism often also had a psychiatric registration (38·5% vs 27·7%, P hypothyroidism was associated with an increased risk of having redeemed prescriptions of anxiolytics [aHR 1·23 (1·03-1·48)] and antipsychotics [aHR 1·22 (1·03-1·44)] in late adolescence and young adulthood. For antidepressants, aHR was 1·07 (0·98-1·17). The association between maternal hypothyroidism and the use of a psychiatric drug in late adolescence and young adulthood was partly confounded by maternal psychiatric history, but foetal programming by maternal hypothyroidism may be part of the mechanisms leading to the use of anxiolytics and antipsychotics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Reduction in bacterial ooze formation on immature fruitlets after preventive treatments of Fosethyl-Al against fire blight Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, T; Schoofs, H; Verjans, W; De Maeyer, L

    2010-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burill Winslow et al.), is a very important bacterial disease on apple and pear orchards with devastating effects in some production area and in some years. Fire blight control consists in a whole strategy of measures that should start with control measures in and around the fruit tree nurseries. Only the use of Vacciplant (Laminarin), an inducer of the self-defence mechanism, is registered in Belgium since 2009. In other European countries Fosethyl-Al has been registered for fire blight control. Recently, research trials have been done at Pcfruit research station for several years on the activity of ALiette (fosethyl-Al) against fire blight. Fosethyl-Al, also a plant defence enhancing molecule, applied preventively 3 times at a dose of 3.75 kg/ha standard orchard (3 x 3000 g a.i./ha standard orchard), showed a reduction in the host susceptibility and decreased the disease development on artificial inoculated flower clusters and shoots. Also a clear reduction in the ooze droplet formation on artificially inoculated immature fruitlets has been observed with this molecule. This reduction in the bacterial ooze formation is considered as a very important factor in the spread of the disease in the orchard.

  20. A systematic review of patient and health system characteristics associated with late referral in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloudat Sarah

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify patient and health system characteristics associated with late referral of patients with chronic kidney disease to nephrologists. Methods MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and CINAHL were searched using the appropriate MESH terms in March 2007. Two reviewers individually and in duplicate reviewed the abstracts of 256 articles and selected 18 observational studies for inclusion. The reasons for late referral were categorized into patient or health system characteristics. Data extraction and content appraisal were done using a prespecified protocol. Results Older age, the existence of multiple comorbidities, race other than Caucasian, lack of insurance, lower socioeconomic status and educational levels were patient characteristics associated with late referral of patients with chronic kidney disease. Lack of referring physician knowledge about the appropriate timing of referral, absence of communication between referring physicians and nephrologists, and dialysis care delivered at tertiary medical centers were health system characteristics associated with late referral of patients with chronic kidney disease. Most studies identified multiple factors associated with late referral, although the relative importance and the combined effect of these factors were not systematically evaluated. Conclusion A combination of patient and health system characteristics is associated with late referral of patients with chronic kidney disease. Overall, being older, belonging to a minority group, being less educated, being uninsured, suffering from multiple comorbidities, and the lack of communication between primary care physicians and nephrologists contribute to late referral of patients with chronic kidney disease. Both primary care physicians and nephrologists need to engage in multisectoral collaborative efforts that ensure patient education and enhance physician awareness to improve the care of patients with chronic kidney disease.

  1. Age by Disease Biological Interactions: Implications for Late-Life Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon eMcKinney

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Onset of depressive symptoms after the age of 65, or late-life depression (LLD, is common and poses a significant burden on affected individuals, caretakers and society. Evidence suggests a unique biological basis for LLD, but current hypotheses do not account for its pathophysiological complexity. Here we propose a novel etiological framework for LLD, the age-by-disease biological interaction hypothesis, based on the observations that the subset of genes that undergoes lifelong progressive changes in expression is restricted to a specific set of biological processes, and that a disproportionate number of these age-dependent genes have been previously and similarly implicated in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. The age-by-disease biological interaction hypothesis posits that age-dependent biological processes (i are pushed in LLD-promoting directions by changes in gene expression naturally occurring during brain aging, which (ii directly contribute to pathophysiological mechanisms of LLD, and (iii that individual variability in rates of age-dependent changes determines risk or resiliency to develop age-related disorders, including LLD. We review observations supporting this hypothesis, including consistent and specific age-dependent changes in brain gene expression, and their overlap with neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disease pathways. We then review preliminary reports supporting the genetic component of this hypothesis. Other potential biological mediators of age-dependent gene changes are proposed. We speculate that studies examining the relative contribution of these mechanisms to age-dependent changes and related disease mechanisms will not only provide critical information on the biology of normal aging of the human brain, but will inform our understanding our age-dependent diseases, in time fostering the development of new interventions for prevention and treatment of age-dependent diseases

  2. Allele doses of apolipoprotein E type {epsilon}4 in sporadic late-onset Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucotte, G.; Aouizerate, A.; Gerard, N. [Regional Center of Neurogenetics, Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    Apoliprotein E, type {epsilon}4 allele (ApoE-{epsilon}4) is associated with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease (AD). We have found that the cumulative probability of remaining unaffected over time decreases for each dose of ApoE-{epsilon}4 in sporadic, late-onset French AD. The effect of genotypes on age at onset of AD was analyzed using the product limit method, to compare unaffected groups during aging. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Signal averaging technique for noninvasive recording of late potentials in patients with coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, S.; Blatt, C. M.; Lown, B.; Graboys, T. B.; Sadeh, D.; Cohen, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    An advanced non invasive signal averaging technique was used to detect late potentials in two groups of patients: Group A (24 patients) with coronary artery disease (CAD) and without sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and Group B (8 patients) with CAD and sustained VT. Recorded analog data were digitized and aligned using a cross correlation function with fast Fourier transform schema, averaged and band pass filtered between 60 and 200 Hz with a non-recursive digital filter. Averaged filtered waveforms were analyzed by computer program for 3 parameters: (1) filtered QRS (fQRS) duration (2) interval between the peak of the R wave peak and the end of fQRS (R-LP) (3) RMS value of last 40 msec of fQRS (RMS). Significant change was found between Groups A and B in fQRS (101 -/+ 13 msec vs 123 -/+ 15 msec; p < .0005) and in R-LP vs 52 -/+ 11 msec vs 71-/+18 msec, p <.002). We conclude that (1) the use of a cross correlation triggering method and non-recursive digital filter enables a reliable recording of late potentials from the body surface; (2) fQRS and R-LP durations are sensitive indicators of CAD patients susceptible to VT.

  4. Association between QTLs and morphological traits toward sheath blight resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Kamal; Jena, Kshirod Kumar; Bhuiyan, Md Atiqur Rahman; Wickneswari, Ratnam

    2016-01-01

    Sheath blight is considered the most significant disease of rice and causes enormous yield losses over the world. Breeding for resistant varieties is the only viable option to combat the disease efficiently. Seventeen diverged rice genotypes along with 17 QTL-linked SSR markers were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Pearson’s correlation showed only the flag leaf angle had a significant correlation with sheath blight resistance under greenhouse screening. Multivariate analysis based on UPGMA clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the flag leaf angle, flag leaf length, and plant compactness were significantly associated with the following SSR marker alleles: RM209 (116,130), RM202 (176), RM224 (126), RM257 (156), RM426 (175), and RM6971 (196), which are linked to the SB QTLs: QRlh11, qSBR11-3, qSBR11-1, qSBR9-1, qShB3-2, and qSB-9. A Mantel test suggested a weak relationship between the observed phenotypes and allelic variation patterns, implying the independent nature of morphological and molecular variations. Teqing and Tetep were found to be the most resistant cultivars. IR65482-4-136-2-2, MR219-4, and MR264 showed improved resistance potentials. These results suggest that the morphological traits and QTLs which have been found to associate with sheath blight resistance are a good choice to enhance resistance through pyramiding either 2 QTLs or QTLs and traits in susceptible rice cultivars. PMID:27795687

  5. Perceptions of stigma among people affected by early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Rosalie

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this research was to explore perceptions of stigma among people with early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease and those who support them, using questionnaires ( n = 44) and semi-structured interviews ( n = 14). Perceived stigma reporting was low in the questionnaires, whereas interviews revealed higher levels of perceived stigma in the form of unpredictable reactions to diagnosis, feeling stupid and ignorance of the condition among the public. Perceived stigma was managed in similar ways across age groups, focusing on 'being the lucky ones'. Results support the need to further tackle stigma and challenge expectations, particularly given the drive to diagnose people and thereby expose them to stigma.

  6. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: the spectrum of peripheral neuropathy in 30 affected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Barbara E; Logigian, Eric L; Kolodny, Edwin H; Pastores, Gregory M

    2008-08-01

    Late-onset Tay-Sachs (LOTS) disease is a chronic, progressive, lysosomal storage disorder caused by a partial deficiency of beta-hexosaminidase A (HEXA) activity. Deficient levels of HEXA result in the intracellular accumulation of GM2-ganglioside, resulting in toxicity to nerve cells. Clinical manifestations primarily involve the central nervous system (CNS) and lower motor neurons, and include ataxia, weakness, spasticity, dysarthria, dysphagia, dystonia, seizures, psychosis, mania, depression, and cognitive decline. The prevalence of peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement in LOTS has not been well documented, but it has traditionally been thought to be very low. We examined a cohort of 30 patients with LOTS who underwent clinical and electrophysiologic examination, and found evidence of a predominantly axon loss polyneuropathy affecting distal nerve segments in the lower and upper extremities in eight patients (27%).

  7. Late phase cell cycle proteins in Alzheimer’s disease: a possible target for therapy?

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladan

    2017-02-22

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is represented by neuronal loss and this loss is correlated to a constant state of neuronal instability induced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper data is presented regarding the possible roles of late phase cell cycle proteins in normal and affected neurons with the goal that understanding the mechanisms involved in the regulation of these proteins may represent a novel strategy for AD treatment. The results demonstrate a relative differential pattern of expression of certain proteins (APC/C, Mad1 and Mad2, Bub R1, Bub1, CDK 11, cohesin subunit Rad 21 and astrin) in the AD brain versus age matched controls, and it is suggested that targeting these proteins might translate into potential treatments for AD. Although the data presented here is of some interest, the ability to translate such information into clinical applications is often a challenge.

  8. Late phase cell cycle proteins in Alzheimer’s disease: a possible target for therapy?

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladan; B. Bajic, Vladimir; Zivkovic, Lada; Arendt, Thomas; Perry, George; Spremo-Potparevic, Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is represented by neuronal loss and this loss is correlated to a constant state of neuronal instability induced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper data is presented regarding the possible roles of late phase cell cycle proteins in normal and affected neurons with the goal that understanding the mechanisms involved in the regulation of these proteins may represent a novel strategy for AD treatment. The results demonstrate a relative differential pattern of expression of certain proteins (APC/C, Mad1 and Mad2, Bub R1, Bub1, CDK 11, cohesin subunit Rad 21 and astrin) in the AD brain versus age matched controls, and it is suggested that targeting these proteins might translate into potential treatments for AD. Although the data presented here is of some interest, the ability to translate such information into clinical applications is often a challenge.

  9. Investigation of five polymorphic DNA markers associated with late onset Alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharesouran Jalal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory and cognitive impairment and is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. The aim of our study was to examine the polymorphic DNA markers CCR2 (+190 G/A, CCR5Δ32, TNF-α (-308 G/A, TNF-α (-863 C/A and CALHM1 (+394 C/T to determine the relationship between these polymorphisms and the risk of late onset Alzheimer's disease in the population of Eastern Azerbaijan of Iran. A total of 160 patient samples and 163 healthy controls were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and the results confirmed using bidirectional sequencing. Statistical analysis of obtained data revealed non-significant difference between frequency of CCR5Δ32 in case and control groups. The same result was observed for TNF-α (-863 C/A genotype and allele frequencies. Contrary to above results, significant differences were detected in frequency of TNF-α (-308 G/A and CCR2-64I genotypes between the cases and healthy controls. A weak significant difference observed between allele and genotype frequencies of rs2986017 in CALHM1 (+394 C/T; P86L in patient and control samples. It can be concluded that the T allele of P86L variant in CALHM1 & +190 G/A allele of CCR2 have a protective role against abnormal clinical features of Alzheimer's disease.

  10. MRI in late sequelae of Perthes' disease: imaging findings and symptomatology in ten hips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahdes-Vasama, T.T.; Lamminen, A.E.; Marttinen, E.J.; Merikanto, J.E.O.

    1996-01-01

    Five painful (group A) and five symptomless (group B) hips in nine patients with late sequelae of Perthes' disease were studied with plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to correlate MRI findings with symptomatology. The unaffected hips were also studied. In group A hips, poor congruence of the articular cartilage surfaces was present in three of five cases, whereas good congruence was found in all group B hips. In one spherical but painful hip (group A), MRI revealed a protuberance in the anterolateral cartilage of the femoral head. The joint cartilage in group A and B hips was, on average, 0.5 and 1.5 mm thicker, respectively, than the cartilage in the unaffected hips. The lateral joint capsule was, on average, 3.0 mm thicker in group A hips than in the unaffected hips (P < 0.05), which possibly reflects reactive changes due to chronic irritation in the painful hips. The mean joint capsule thickness differed by only 0.5 mm between the unaffected and group B hips. Mean anterior acetabular coverage by MRI was 97 % in group A and 98 % in group B, while in the unaffected hips mean anterior coverage was 102 %. In an aspherical painful hip, MRI revealed a juxta-articular cyst not visible by radiography. A symptomless intra-articular fragment, due to osteochondritis dissecans, was well visualized with MRI. MRI is recommended for evaluation of pain in hips with late sequelae of Perthes' disease. It may show abnormalities in bony structures, as well as in joint capsule and cartilage. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Age-specific epigenetic drift in late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Chong Wang

    Full Text Available Despite an enormous research effort, most cases of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD still remain unexplained and the current biomedical science is still a long way from the ultimate goal of revealing clear risk factors that can help in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of the disease. Current theories about the development of LOAD hinge on the premise that Alzheimer's arises mainly from heritable causes. Yet, the complex, non-Mendelian disease etiology suggests that an epigenetic component could be involved. Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in post-mortem brain samples and lymphocytes, we have performed an analysis of DNA methylation across 12 potential Alzheimer's susceptibility loci. In the LOAD brain samples we identified a notably age-specific epigenetic drift, supporting a potential role of epigenetic effects in the development of the disease. Additionally, we found that some genes that participate in amyloid-beta processing (PSEN1, APOE and methylation homeostasis (MTHFR, DNMT1 show a significant interindividual epigenetic variability, which may contribute to LOAD predisposition. The APOE gene was found to be of bimodal structure, with a hypomethylated CpG-poor promoter and a fully methylated 3'-CpG-island, that contains the sequences for the epsilon4-haplotype, which is the only undisputed genetic risk factor for LOAD. Aberrant epigenetic control in this CpG-island may contribute to LOAD pathology. We propose that epigenetic drift is likely to be a substantial mechanism predisposing individuals to LOAD and contributing to the course of disease.

  12. The role of the amygdala during emotional processing in Huntington's disease: from pre-manifest to late stage disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sarah L; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Begeti, Faye; Guzman, Natalie Valle; Lazar, Alpar S; Rowe, James B; Barker, Roger A; Hampshire, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Deficits in emotional processing can be detected in the pre-manifest stage of Huntington's disease and negative emotion recognition has been identified as a predictor of clinical diagnosis. The underlying neuropathological correlates of such deficits are typically established using correlative structural MRI studies. This approach does not take into consideration the impact of disruption to the complex interactions between multiple brain circuits on emotional processing. Therefore, exploration of the neural substrates of emotional processing in pre-manifest HD using fMRI connectivity analysis may be a useful way of evaluating the way brain regions interrelate in the period prior to diagnosis. We investigated the impact of predicted time to disease onset on brain activation when participants were exposed to pictures of faces with angry and neutral expressions, in 20 pre-manifest HD gene carriers and 23 healthy controls. On the basis of the results of this initial study went on to look at amygdala dependent cognitive performance in 79 Huntington's disease patients from a cross-section of disease stages (pre-manifest to late disease) and 26 healthy controls, using a validated theory of mind task: "the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test" which has been previously been shown to be amygdala dependent. Psychophysiological interaction analysis identified reduced connectivity between the left amygdala and right fusiform facial area in pre-manifest HD gene carriers compared to controls when viewing angry compared to neutral faces. Change in PPI connectivity scores correlated with predicted time to disease onset (r=0.45, pneural networks underlying social cognition and emotional processing can be detected prior to clinical diagnosis in Huntington's disease. Connectivity between the amygdala and other brain regions is impacted by the disease process in pre-manifest HD and may therefore be a useful way of identifying participants who are approaching a clinical diagnosis

  13. Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Arrests the Progression of Neurodegenerative Disease in Late-Onset Tay-Sachs Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Karolina M; Lum, Su Han; Wraith, J Edmond; Hendriksz, Christian J; Church, Heather J; Priestman, David; Platt, Frances M; Jones, Simon; Jovanovic, Ana; Wynn, Robert

    2017-12-07

    Tay-Sachs disease is a rare metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of hexosaminidase A that leads to accumulation of GM2 gangliosides predominantly in neural tissue. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease variant is associated with a higher level of residual HexA activity. Treatment options are limited, and there are a few described cases who have undergone haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with variable outcome.We describe a case of a 23-year-old male patient who presented with a long-standing tremor since 7 years of age. He had gait ataxia, a speech stammer and swallowing problems. His condition had had a static course apart from his tremor that had been gradually deteriorating. Because of the deterioration in his neurological function, the patient had an uneventful, matched-sibling donor bone marrow transplant at the age of 15 years. Eight years post-HSCT, at the age of 23, he retains full donor engraftment, and his white cell beta-HexA of 191 nmol/mg/h is comparable to normal controls (in-assay control = 187). He continues to experience some intentional tremor that is tolerable for daily life and nonprogressive since HSCT. HSCT is a potential treatment option which might arrest neurodegeneration in patients with LOTS.

  14. The histological basis of late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a patient with Anderson-Fabry disease

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, J. C.; Sheppard, M.; Reed, E.; Lee, P.; Elliott, P. M.; Pennell, D. J.

    2006-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry Disease (AFD) is a storage disease that mimics hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance occurs in approximately 50% of patients in the basal inferolateral LV wall, but how an intracellular storage disease causes focal LGE is unknown. We present a whole-heart histological validation that LGE is caused by focal myocardial collagen scarring. This scarring may be the substrate for electrical re-entry and sudden arrhythmic d...

  15. Global gene expression analysis in a mouse model for Norrie disease: late involvement of photoreceptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzner, Steffen; Prietz, Sandra; Feil, Silke; Nuber, Ulrike A; Ropers, H-Hilger; Berger, Wolfgang

    2002-09-01

    Mutations in the NDP gene give rise to a variety of eye diseases, including classic Norrie disease (ND), X-linked exudative vitreoretinopathy (EVRX), retinal telangiectasis (Coats disease), and advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The gene product is a cystine-knot-containing extracellular signaling molecule of unknown function. In the current study, gene expression was determined in a mouse model of ND, to unravel disease-associated mechanisms at the molecular level. Gene transcription in the eyes of 2-year-old Ndp knockout mice was compared with that in the eyes of age-matched wild-type control animals, by means of cDNA subtraction and microarrays. Clones (n = 3072) from the cDNA subtraction libraries were spotted onto glass slides and hybridized with fluorescently labeled RNA-derived targets. More than 230 differentially expressed clones were sequenced, and their expression patterns were verified by virtual Northern blot analysis. Numerous gene transcripts that are absent or downregulated in the eye of Ndp knockout mice are photoreceptor cell specific. In younger Ndp knockout mice (up to 1 year old), however, all these transcripts were found to be expressed at normal levels. The identification of numerous photoreceptor cell-specific transcripts with a reduced expression in 2-year-old, but not in young, Ndp knockout mice indicates that normal gene expression in these light-sensitive cells of mutant mice is established and maintained over a long period and that rods and cones are affected relatively late in the mouse model of ND. Obviously, the absence of the Ndp gene product is not compatible with long-term survival of photoreceptor cells in the mouse.

  16. Genetics and Improvement of Bacterial Blight Resistance of Hybrid Rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi

    2009-01-01

    Since 1980s, rice breeding for resistance to bacterial blight has been rapidly progressing in China. The gene Xa4 was mainly used in three-line indica hybrid and two-line hybrid rice. The disease has been 'quiet' for 20 years in China, yet in recent years it has gradually emerged and been prevalent in fields planted with newly released rice varieties in the Changjiang River valley. Under the circumstances, scientists inevitably raised several questions: what causes the resurgence and what should we do next? And/or is resistance breeding still one of the main objectives in rice improvement? Which approach do we take on resistance breeding so that the resistance will be more durable, and the resistance gene will be used more efficiently? A combined strategy involving traditional method, molecular marker-assisted selection, and transgenic technology should bring a new era to the bacterial blight resistance hybrid rice breeding program. This review also briefly discusses and deliberates on issues related to the broadening of bacterial blight resistance, and suitable utilization of resistance genes, alternate planting of available resistance genes; and understands the virulent populations of the bacterial pathogen in China even in Asia.

  17. Respiratory muscle training with enzyme replacement therapy improves muscle strength in late - onset Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevnikar, Mitja; Kodric, Metka; Cantarutti, Fabiana; Cifaldi, Rossella; Longo, Cinzia; Della Porta, Rossana; Bembi, Bruno; Confalonieri, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase. This deficiency leads to glycogen accumulation in the lysosomes of muscle tissue causing progressive muscular weakness particularly of the respiratory system. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has demonstrated efficacy in slowing down disease progression in infants. Despite the large number of studies describing the effects of physical training in juvenile and adult late onset Pompe disease (LOPD). There are very few reports that analyze the benefits of respiratory muscle rehabilitation or training. The effectiveness of respiratory muscle training was investigated using a specific appliance with adjustable resistance (Threshold). The primary endpoint was effect on respiratory muscular strength by measurements of MIP and MEP. Eight late-onset Pompe patients (aged 13 to 58 years; 4 female, 4 male) with respiratory muscle deficiency on functional respiratory tests were studied. All patients received ERT at the dosage of 20 mg/kg/every 2 weeks and underwent training with Threshold at specified pressures for 24 months. A significant increase in MIP was observed during the follow-up of 24 month: 39.6 cm H 2 O (+ 25.0%) at month 3; 39.5 cm H 2 O (+ 24.9%) at month 6; 39.1 cm H 2 O (+ 23.7%) at month 9; 37.3 cm H 2 O (+ 18.2%) at month 12; and 37.3 cm H 2 O (+ 17.8%) at month 24. Median MEP values also showed a significant increase during the first 9 months: 29.8 cm H 2 O, (+ 14.3%) at month 3; 31.0 cm H 2 O (+ 18.6) at month 6; and 29.5 cm H 2 O (+ 12.9) at month 9. MEP was then shown to be decreased at months 12 and 24; median MEP was 27.2 cm H 2 O (+ 4.3%) at 12 months and 26.6 cm H 2 O (+ 1.9%) at 24 months. The FVC remain stable throughout the study. An increase in respiratory muscular strength was demonstrated with Threshold training when used in combination with ERT.

  18. An Update on Genetic Resistance of Chickpea to Ascochyta Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ascochyta blight (AB caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass. Labr. is an important and widespread disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. worldwide. The disease is particularly severe under cool and humid weather conditions. Breeding for host resistance is an efficient means to combat this disease. In this paper, attempts have been made to summarize the progress made in identifying resistance sources, genetics and breeding for resistance, and genetic variation among the pathogen population. The search for resistance to AB in chickpea germplasm, breeding lines and land races using various screening methods has been updated. Importance of the genotype × environment (GE interaction in elucidating the aggressiveness among isolates from different locations and the identification of pathotypes and stable sources of resistance have also been discussed. Current and modern breeding programs for AB resistance based on crossing resistant/multiple resistant and high-yielding cultivars, stability of the breeding lines through multi-location testing and molecular marker-assisted selection method have been discussed. Gene pyramiding and the use of resistant genes present in wild relatives can be useful methods in the future. Identification of additional sources of resistance genes, good characterization of the host–pathogen system, and identification of molecular markers linked to resistance genes are suggested as the key areas for future study.

  19. Late-onset Alzheimer's risk variants in memory decline, incident mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Crook, Julia E; Pedraza, Otto; Thomas, Colleen S; Pankratz, V Shane; Allen, Mariet; Nguyen, Thuy; Malphrus, Kimberly G; Ma, Li; Bisceglio, Gina D; Roberts, Rosebud O; Lucas, John A; Smith, Glenn E; Ivnik, Robert J; Machulda, Mary M; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Petersen, Ronald C; Younkin, Steven G; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    We tested association of nine late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with memory and progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or LOAD (MCI/LOAD) in older Caucasians, cognitively normal at baseline and longitudinally evaluated at Mayo Clinic Rochester and Jacksonville (n>2000). Each variant was tested both individually and collectively using a weighted risk score. APOE-e4 associated with worse baseline memory and increased decline with highly significant overall effect on memory. CLU-rs11136000-G associated with worse baseline memory and incident MCI/LOAD. MS4A6A-rs610932-C associated with increased incident MCI/LOAD and suggestively with lower baseline memory. ABCA7-rs3764650-C and EPHA1-rs11767557-A associated with increased rates of memory decline in subjects with a final diagnosis of MCI/LOAD. PICALM-rs3851179-G had an unexpected protective effect on incident MCI/LOAD. Only APOE-inclusive risk scores associated with worse memory and incident MCI/LOAD. The collective influence of the nine top LOAD GWAS variants on memory decline and progression to MCI/LOAD appears limited. Discovery of biologically functional variants at these loci may uncover stronger effects on memory and incident disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Whole-body muscle MRI in 20 patients suffering from late onset Pompe disease: Involvement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Robert-Yves; Laforet, Pascal; Wary, Claire; Mompoint, Dominique; Laloui, Kenza; Pellegrini, Nadine; Annane, Djillali; Carlier, Pierre G; Orlikowski, David

    2011-11-01

    To describe muscle involvement on whole-body MRI scans in adult patients at different stages of late-onset Pompe disease. Twenty patients aged 37 to 75 were examined. Five were bedridden and required ventilatory support. Axial and coronal T1 turbo-spin-echo sequences were performed on 1.5T or 3T systems. MRI was scored for 47 muscles using Mercuri's classification. Whole-body scans were obtained with a mean in-room time of 29 min. Muscle changes consisted of internal bright signals of fatty replacement without severe retraction of the muscles' corpus. Findings were consistent with previous descriptions of spine extensors and pelvic girdle, but also provided new information on recurrent muscle changes particularly in the tongue and subscapularis muscle. Moreover thigh involvement was more heterogeneous than previously described, in terms of distribution across muscles as well as with respect to the overall clinical presentation. Whole-body MRI provides a very evocative description of muscle involvement in Pompe disease in adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Short term outcome of varus derotation osteotomy in late presenting perthes disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Joshi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Untreated Perthes disease can lead to osteoarthritis by the fourth decade. The treatment is conservative for children 10 years of age at presentation. All patients had limitation of abduction and internal rotation. Eight patients (53.33% had pain at the hip and 12 patients (80% had limp. Mean time between diagnosis and corrective surgery was 3 weeks. Results: The evaluation was done using caput index (CI and epiphyseal quotient (EQ and articulotrochanteric distance radiologically, range of motion and Harris Hip Score for clinical outcome. All the measurements were carried out on pre- and postoperative X-rays after 3 years followup and compared with the contralateral normal hip. After a mean followup period of 3.4 years, we noted the statistically significant difference between pre- and postoperative values. We noted that all (100% children in Stage IB, IIA and 50% children in Stage IIB achieved satisfactory results. There was a significant change (P = 0.000 in CI among all the patients after surgery. The final EQ after 3 years of VDRO was 0.606 and was significant (P = 0.0000. Conclusion: In our opinion, based on the encouraging short term radiological and clinical outcomes, VDRO may be regarded as a treatment procedure for late presenting Perthes disease in stage IB, IIA, IIB.

  2. Early- and late-onset Alzheimer disease: Are they the same entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellechea, P; Pujol, N; Esteve-Belloch, P; Echeveste, B; García-Eulate, M R; Arbizu, J; Riverol, M

    2018-05-01

    Early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD), which presents in patients younger than 65 years, has frequently been described as having different features from those of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD). This review analyses the most recent studies comparing the clinical presentation and neuropsychological, neuropathological, genetic, and neuroimaging findings of both types in order to determine whether EOAD and LOAD are different entities or distinct forms of the same entity. We observed consistent differences between clinical findings in EOAD and in LOAD. Fundamentally, the onset of EOAD is more likely to be marked by atypical symptoms, and cognitive assessments point to poorer executive and visuospatial functioning and praxis with less marked memory impairment. Alzheimer-type features will be more dense and widespread in neuropathology studies, with structural and functional neuroimaging showing greater and more diffuse atrophy extending to neocortical areas (especially the precuneus). In conclusion, available evidence suggests that EOAD and LOAD are 2 different forms of a single entity. LOAD is likely to be influenced by ageing-related processes. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. CDK5RAP2 gene and tau pathophysiology in late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Justin; Picard, Cynthia; Nilsson, Nathalie; Frappier, Josée; Dea, Doris; Théroux, Louise; Poirier, Judes

    2018-06-01

    Because currently known Alzheimer's disease (AD) single-nucleotide polymorphisms only account for a small fraction of the genetic variance in this disease, there is a need to identify new variants associated with AD. Our team performed a genome-wide association study in the Quebec Founder Population isolate to identify novel protective or risk genetic factors for late-onset sporadic AD and examined the impact of these variants on gene expression and AD pathology. The rs10984186 variant is associated with an increased risk of developing AD and with a higher CDK5RAP2 mRNA prevalence in the hippocampus. On the other hand, the rs4837766 variant, which is among the best cis-expression quantitative trait loci in the CDK5RAP2 gene, is associated with lower mild cognitive impairment/AD risk and conversion rate. The rs10984186 risk and rs4837766 protective polymorphic variants of the CDK5RAP2 gene might act as potent genetic modifiers for AD risk and/or conversion by modulating the expression of this gene. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early and Late Outcomes of Surgical Treatment in Carcinoid Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Heidi M; Schaff, Hartzell V; Abel, Martin D; Rubin, Joseph; Askew, J Wells; Li, Zhuo; Inda, Jacob J; Luis, Sushil A; Nishimura, Rick A; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2015-11-17

    Symptoms and survival of patients with carcinoid syndrome have improved, but development of carcinoid heart disease (CaHD) continues to decrease survival. This study aimed to analyze patient outcomes after valve surgery for CaHD during a 27-year period at 1 institution to determine early and late outcomes and opportunities for improved patient care. We retrospectively studied the short-term and long-term outcomes of all consecutive patients with CaHD who underwent valve replacement at our institution between 1985 and 2012. The records of 195 patients with CaHD were analyzed. Pre-operative New York Heart Association class was III or IV in 125 of 178 patients (70%). All had tricuspid valve replacement (159 bioprostheses, 36 mechanical), and 157 underwent a pulmonary valve operation. Other concomitant operations included mitral valve procedure (11%), aortic valve procedure (9%), patent foramen ovale or atrial septal defect closure (23%), cardiac metastasectomies or biopsy (4%), and simultaneous coronary artery bypass (11%). There were 20 perioperative deaths (10%); after 2000, perioperative mortality was 6%. Survival rates (95% confidence intervals) at 1, 5, and 10 years were 69% (63% to 76%), 35% (28% to 43%), and 24% (18% to 32%), respectively. Overall mortality was associated with older age, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and tobacco use; 75% of survivors had symptomatic improvement at follow-up. Presymptomatic valve operation was not associated with late survival benefit. Operative mortality associated with valve replacement surgery for CaHD has decreased. Symptomatic and survival benefit is noted in most patients when CaHD is managed by an experienced multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Renewal strategies and neighborhood participation on urban blight

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Hosseini; Ahmad Pourahmad; Ali Taeeb; Milad Amini; Sara Behvandi

    2017-01-01

    Urban blight had its own rational and hierarchical function in the past. Nowadays it is featured with structural and functional shortage. Therefore, it has lost the capacity to meet the residents’ needs. Along with intensification of urban blight problems in cities, and downtowns in particular, which affects different aspects of urban life, many urban planners have shown special attention to such districts. Laleh-Zar neighborhood is an example of these neighborhoods, which on the one hand due...

  6. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan G. Aćimović

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1-2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM, significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water- or non-injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2 and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control.

  7. Prevalence of Comorbidity in Patients With Young-Onset Alzheimer Disease Compared With Late-Onset: A Comparative Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.A.J.; Bakker, C.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Vugt, M.E. de; Melis, R.J.; Koopmans, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: With the lack of a cure for Alzheimer disease (AD), the identification of comorbidity is important to reduce the possibility of excess disability. Although comorbidity in patients with late-onset AD (LO-AD) is common, for people with young-onset AD (YO-AD), it is unclear how often

  8. Efficacy of a copper-based bactericide in controlling bacterial blight of grapevines caused by Xylophilus ampelinus

    OpenAIRE

    Komatsu, Tsutomu; Kondo, Norio

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of a microbial copper agent to protect against bacterial blight of grapevine caused by Xylophilus ampelinus from 2012 to 2014 in Hokkaido, Japan. A solution of the basic copper wettable powder sulfate was sprayed at 10-day intervals in two processing plots, using two application protocols: seven rounds of application immediately after leaf development and three or four applications at the initial onset of the disease. Due to the low disease incidence for the durat...

  9. Celiac disease and fulminant T lymphoma detected too late in a 35-year-old female patient: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinko Marušić

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is the most common chronic gastroenterological autoimmune disease characterized by gluten intolerance. The diagnosis of celiac disease and enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma is often made when it is too late.Case report describes a 35-year-old female patient managed for one year under the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease and admitted to our hospital for exacerbation of the underlying disease. However, inflammatory bowel disease was ruled out by diagnostic work-up, while the clinical picture and the findings obtained raised suspicion of lymphoma. The patient’s condition was additionally complicated by fulminant course of the disease and ileus.Conclusion:Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the disease, and follow up of family members are crucial to prevent intestinal lymphoma development.

  10. Midlife Healthy-Diet Index and Late-Life Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjo H. Eskelinen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study long-term effects of dietary patterns on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Methods: Of 525 subjects randomly selected from population-based cohorts surveyed at midlife, a total of 385 (73% subjects were re-examined 14 years later in the CAIDE study. A healthy-diet index (range 0–17 was constructed including both healthy and unhealthy dietary components. Results: Persons with a healthy diet (healthy-diet index >8 points had a decreased risk of dementia (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02–0.85 and AD (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01–0.89 compared with persons with an unhealthy diet (0–8 points, adjusting for several possible confounders. Conclusions: Healthy diet at midlife is associated with a decreased risk of dementia/AD in late life. These findings highlight the importance of dietary patterns and may make more effective measures for dementia/AD prevention or postponement possible.

  11. The Implication of the Brain Insulin Receptor in Late Onset Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Folch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by brain accumulation of the amyloid β peptide (Aβ, which form senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT and, eventually, neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Interestingly, epidemiological studies have described a relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and this pathology, being one of the risk factors for the development of AD pathogenesis. Information as it is, it would point out that, impairment in insulin signalling and glucose metabolism, in central as well as peripheral systems, would be one of the reasons for the cognitive decline. Brain insulin resistance, also known as Type 3 diabetes, leads to the increase of Aβ production and TAU phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, protein misfolding, and cognitive impairment, which are all hallmarks of AD. Moreover, given the complexity of interlocking mechanisms found in late onset AD (LOAD pathogenesis, more data is being obtained. Recent evidence showed that Aβ42 generated in the brain would impact negatively on the hypothalamus, accelerating the “peripheral” symptomatology of AD. In this situation, Aβ42 production would induce hypothalamic dysfunction that would favour peripheral hyperglycaemia due to down regulation of the liver insulin receptor. The objective of this review is to discuss the existing evidence supporting the concept that brain insulin resistance and altered glucose metabolism play an important role in pathogenesis of LOAD. Furthermore, we discuss AD treatment approaches targeting insulin signalling using anti-diabetic drugs and mTOR inhibitors.

  12. Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Polygenic Risk Profile Score Predicts Hippocampal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ena; Chen, Qiang; Goldman, Aaron L; Tan, Hao Yang; Healy, Kaitlin; Zoltick, Brad; Das, Saumitra; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Callicott, Joseph H; Dickinson, Dwight; Berman, Karen F; Weinberger, Daniel R; Mattay, Venkata S

    2017-11-01

    We explored the cumulative effect of several late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk loci using a polygenic risk profile score (RPS) approach on measures of hippocampal function, cognition, and brain morphometry. In a sample of 231 healthy control subjects (19-55 years of age), we used an RPS to study the effect of several LOAD risk loci reported in a recent meta-analysis on hippocampal function (determined by its engagement with blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging during episodic memory) and several cognitive metrics. We also studied effects on brain morphometry in an overlapping sample of 280 subjects. There was almost no significant association of LOAD-RPS with cognitive or morphometric measures. However, there was a significant negative relationship between LOAD-RPS and hippocampal function (familywise error [small volume correction-hippocampal region of interest] p risk score based on APOE haplotype, and for a combined LOAD-RPS + APOE haplotype risk profile score (p risk genes on hippocampal function even in healthy volunteers. The effect of LOAD-RPS on hippocampal function in the relative absence of any effect on cognitive and morphometric measures is consistent with the reported temporal characteristics of LOAD biomarkers with the earlier manifestation of synaptic dysfunction before morphometric and cognitive changes. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling Late-Onset Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease through BMI1 Deficiency

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    Anthony Flamier

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Late-onset sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most prevalent form of dementia, but its origin remains poorly understood. The Bmi1/Ring1 protein complex maintains transcriptional repression of developmental genes through histone H2A mono-ubiquitination, and Bmi1 deficiency in mice results in growth retardation, progeria, and neurodegeneration. Here, we demonstrate that BMI1 is silenced in AD brains, but not in those with early-onset familial AD, frontotemporal dementia, or Lewy body dementia. BMI1 expression was also reduced in cortical neurons from AD patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells but not in neurons overexpressing mutant APP and PSEN1. BMI1 knockout in human post-mitotic neurons resulted in amyloid beta peptide secretion and deposition, p-Tau accumulation, and neurodegeneration. Mechanistically, BMI1 was required to repress microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT transcription and prevent GSK3beta and p53 stabilization, which otherwise resulted in neurodegeneration. Restoration of BMI1 activity through genetic or pharmaceutical approaches could represent a therapeutic strategy against AD.

  14. Relationship between Adiponectin Gene Polymorphisms and Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available In recent years, researchers have found that adiponectin (ANP plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and low serum concentrations of ANP are associated with AD. Higher plasma ANP level have a protective effect against the development of cognitive decline, suggesting that ANP may affect AD onset. Meanwhile, accumulating evidence supports the crucial role of ANP in the pathogenesis of AD. To study the relationship between ANP gene polymorphisms (rs266729, -11377C>G and rs1501299, G276T and late-onset AD (LOAD, we carried out a case-control study that included 201 LOAD patients and 257 healthy control subjects. Statistically significant differences were detected in the genotype and allelotype frequency distributions of rs266729 and rs1501299 between the LOAD group and the control group, with a noticeable increase in the G and T allelotype frequency distributions in the LOAD group (P 0.05 between the LOAD group and control group, whereas the CG and GT haplotypes were significantly different (P < 0.05, suggesting a negative correlation between the CG haplotype and LOAD onset (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.96, P = 0.022, and a positive correlation between the GT haplotype and LOAD onset (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.42-3.68, P = 0.005. Therefore, we speculated that the rs266729 and rs1501299 of ANP gene polymorphisms and the GT and CG haplotypes were associated with LOAD.

  15. Rare Functional Variant in TM2D3 is Associated with Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Jakobsdottir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We performed an exome-wide association analysis in 1393 late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD cases and 8141 controls from the CHARGE consortium. We found that a rare variant (P155L in TM2D3 was enriched in Icelanders (~0.5% versus <0.05% in other European populations. In 433 LOAD cases and 3903 controls from the Icelandic AGES sub-study, P155L was associated with increased risk and earlier onset of LOAD [odds ratio (95% CI = 7.5 (3.5-15.9, p = 6.6x10-9]. Mutation in the Drosophila TM2D3 homolog, almondex, causes a phenotype similar to loss of Notch/Presenilin signaling. Human TM2D3 is capable of rescuing these phenotypes, but this activity is abolished by P155L, establishing it as a functionally damaging allele. Our results establish a rare TM2D3 variant in association with LOAD susceptibility, and together with prior work suggests possible links to the β-amyloid cascade.

  16. Late-onset Alzheimer disease genetic variants in posterior cortical atrophy and posterior AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Khan, Qurat ul Ain; Murray, Melissa E; Krishnan, Siddharth; Aakre, Jeremiah; Pankratz, V Shane; Nguyen, Thuy; Ma, Li; Bisceglio, Gina; Petersen, Ronald C; Younkin, Steven G; Dickson, Dennis W; Boeve, Bradley F; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer

    2014-04-22

    To investigate association of genetic risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) with risk of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), a syndrome of visual impairment with predominant Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in posterior cortical regions, and with risk of "posterior AD" neuropathology. We assessed 81 participants with PCA diagnosed clinically and 54 with neuropathologic diagnosis of posterior AD vs 2,523 controls for association with 11 significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from published LOAD risk genome-wide association studies. There was highly significant association with APOE ε4 and increased risk of PCA (p = 0.0003, odds ratio [OR] = 3.17) and posterior AD (p = 1.11 × 10(-17), OR = 6.43). No other locus was significant after corrections for multiple testing, although rs11136000 near CLU (p = 0.019, OR = 0.60) and rs744373 near BIN1 (p = 0.025, OR = 1. 63) associated nominally significantly with posterior AD, and rs3851179 at the PICALM locus had significant association with PCA (p = 0.0003, OR = 2.84). ABCA7 locus SNP rs3764650, which was also tested under the recessive model because of Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, also had nominally significant association with PCA risk. The direction of association at APOE, CLU, and BIN1 loci was the same for participants with PCA and posterior AD. The effects for all SNPs, except rs3851179, were consistent with those for LOAD risk. We identified a significant effect for APOE and nominate CLU, BIN1, and ABCA7 as additional risk loci for PCA and posterior AD. Our findings suggest that at least some of the genetic risk factors for LOAD are shared with these atypical conditions and provide effect-size estimates for their future genetic studies.

  17. Genetic Ancestry and Susceptibility to Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease (LOAD) in the Admixed Colombian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Diana J; Pino, Sebastián; Ríos, Ángela; Lopera, Francisco; Ostos, Henry; Via, Marc; Bedoya, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Differences in the prevalence of dementia among populations and in the effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) on the emergence of Alzheimer disease (AD), which is the main type of dementia, have been reported. This study estimated the ancestry of a group of individuals with late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) (N=280) and established whether there were any differences when compared with a control group (N=357) in a sample of the Colombian population. When the analyses were adjusted for known risk factors such as age, sex, presence of APOE[Latin Small Letter Open E]4, socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and place of birth, African ancestry was associated with an increased LOAD risk (odds ratio: 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.03; P=0.029), whereas Native American ancestry was associated with lower risk (odds ratio: 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.98; P=0.046), for every 10% increase in ancestry. In addition, there were significant differences in the proportion of Native American ancestry between carriers and noncarriers of the APOE[Latin Small Letter Open E]4 allele (Mann-Whitney U test, P=0.047), with noncarriers having higher mean Native American ancestry when compared with carriers. Our results are consistent with the presence of variants of African origin in the genome of the Colombian population and different from APOE[Latin Small Letter Open E]4 that represents a risk factor for the development of LOAD, whereas variants of Native American origin may be conferring protection. However, unknown environmental factors or epigenetic differences among continental groups could also explain the observed associations.

  18. IL-6 is Upregulated in Late-Stage Disease in Monkeys Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Nyawira Maranga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is constrained by lack of simple-to-use diagnostic, staging, and treatment tools. The search for novel biomarkers is, therefore, essential in the fight against HAT. The current study aimed at investigating the potential of IL-6 as an adjunct parameter for HAT stage determination in vervet monkey model. Four adult vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops were experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and treated subcuratively at 28 days after infection (dpi to induce late stage disease. Three noninfected monkeys formed the control group. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and blood samples were obtained at weekly intervals and assessed for various biological parameters. A typical HAT-like infection was observed. The late stage was characterized by significant (P<0.05 elevation of CSF IL-6, white blood cell count, and total protein starting 35 dpi with peak levels of these parameters coinciding with relapse parasitaemia. Brain immunohistochemical staining revealed an increase in brain glial fibrillary acidic protein expression indicative of reactive astrogliosis in infected animals which were euthanized in late-stage disease. The elevation of IL-6 in CSF which accompanied other HAT biomarkers indicates onset of parasite neuroinvasion and show potential for use as an adjunct late-stage disease biomarker in the Rhodesian sleeping sickness.

  19. Life-threatening intracranial bleeding in a newborn with congenital cytomegalovirus infection: late-onset neonatal hemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallar, Yildiz; Tiras, Ulku; Catakli, Tulin; Gulal, Gonul; Sayar, Yavuz; Selvar, Beray; Alioglu, Bulent

    2011-02-01

    The authors present a case of a 36-day-old infant with intracranial and intramuscular hemorrhage due to vitamin K deficiency bleeding, who received intramuscular vitamin K prophylaxis at birth. In this case, laboratory tests showed anemia, liver dysfunction with cholestasis, and coagulopathy, consistent with vitamin K deficiency abnormality. Serological analyses showed that cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG avidity were both positive. The infant was treated successfully with intravenous ganciclovir and blood products. This case suggests that it is imperative to meticulously investigate the etiology in neonates with late-onset hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. Cholestatic liver disease caused by congenital cytomegalovirus infection should be in mind in term infants who presented with late-onset hemorrhagic disease.

  20. Linguistic ability in early life and cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life. Findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, D A; Kemper, S J; Mortimer, J A; Greiner, L H; Wekstein, D R; Markesbery, W R

    1996-02-21

    To determine if linguistic ability in early life is associated with cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life. Two measures of linguistic ability in early life, idea density and grammatical complexity, were derived from autobiographies written at a mean age of 22 years. Approximately 58 years later, the women who wrote these autobiographies participated in an assessment of cognitive function, and those who subsequently died were evaluated neuropathologically. Convents in the United States participating in the Nun Study; primarily convents in the Milwaukee, Wis, area. Cognitive function was investigated in 93 participants who were aged 75 to 95 years at the time of their assessments, and Alzheimer's disease was investigated in the 14 participants who died at 79 to 96 years of age. Seven neuropsychological tests and neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease. Low idea density and low grammatical complexity in autobiographies written in early life were associated with low cognitive test scores in late life. Low idea density in early life had stronger and more consistent associations with poor cognitive function than did low grammatical complexity. Among the 14 sisters who died, neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease was present in all of those with low idea density in early life and in none of those with high idea density. Low linguistic ability in early life was a strong predictor of poor cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life.

  1. Effect of meteorological factors on the development of lentil stemphylium blight at different sowing dates in rampur, chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Subedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Stemphylium species are pathogenic to a number of crops under broad geography and diverse environments. Stemphylium blight of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik caused by Stemphylium botryosum Walr is becoming a serious emerging threat to lentil cultivation and become widespread throughout major legume growing areas in Nepal. Lentil was sown in different dates to observed incidence and severity of stemphylium blight in Rampur, Chitwan during two consecutive years 2012-2014. Lentil seeds sown up to middle of November escaped the disease severity and also resulted higher yield compared to other dates. Disease severity increased with the advancement of sowing date from November 1 to December 21 with decreased yields. The trends of disease development were similar in both years. The maximum and minimum temperatures, total rainfall and sunshine hour ranging from 22.42-24.23°C (mean 23.32°C, 4.12-13.00°C(mean 8.56°C, 9.6-30.5mm (mean 24.85mm and 200.05-309.85 hour (mean 254.95 hour respectively were favorable for disease development. A multiple linear regression model with temperature, rainfall and sunshine hours was developed to predict stemphylium blight disease severity on lentil plants.

  2. Transgenic expression of lactoferrin imparts enhanced resistance to head blight of wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jigang; Lakshman, Dilip K; Galvez, Leny C; Mitra, Sharmila; Baenziger, Peter Stephen; Mitra, Amitava

    2012-03-09

    The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Using the tools of plant genetic engineering, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial gene was tested for resistance against head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that reduces both grain yield and quality. A construct containing a bovine lactoferrin cDNA was used to transform wheat using an Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer system to express this antimicrobial protein in transgenic wheat. Transformants were analyzed by Northern and Western blots to determine lactoferrin gene expression levels and were inoculated with the head blight disease fungus F. graminearum. Transgenic wheat showed a significant reduction of disease incidence caused by F. graminearum compared to control wheat plants. The level of resistance in the highly susceptible wheat cultivar Bobwhite was significantly higher in transgenic plants compared to control Bobwhite and two untransformed commercial wheat cultivars, susceptible Wheaton and tolerant ND 2710. Quantification of the expressed lactoferrin protein by ELISA in transgenic wheat indicated a positive correlation between the lactoferrin gene expression levels and the levels of disease resistance. Introgression of the lactoferrin gene into elite commercial wheat, barley and other susceptible cereals may enhance resistance to F. graminearum.

  3. Transgenic expression of lactoferrin imparts enhanced resistance to head blight of wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jigang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Using the tools of plant genetic engineering, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial gene was tested for resistance against head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. that reduces both grain yield and quality. Results A construct containing a bovine lactoferrin cDNA was used to transform wheat using an Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer system to express this antimicrobial protein in transgenic wheat. Transformants were analyzed by Northern and Western blots to determine lactoferrin gene expression levels and were inoculated with the head blight disease fungus F. graminearum. Transgenic wheat showed a significant reduction of disease incidence caused by F. graminearum compared to control wheat plants. The level of resistance in the highly susceptible wheat cultivar Bobwhite was significantly higher in transgenic plants compared to control Bobwhite and two untransformed commercial wheat cultivars, susceptible Wheaton and tolerant ND 2710. Quantification of the expressed lactoferrin protein by ELISA in transgenic wheat indicated a positive correlation between the lactoferrin gene expression levels and the levels of disease resistance. Conclusions Introgression of the lactoferrin gene into elite commercial wheat, barley and other susceptible cereals may enhance resistance to F. graminearum.

  4. The histological basis of late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a patient with Anderson-Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, James C; Sheppard, Mary; Reed, Emma; Lee, Phillip; Elliott, Perry M; Pennell, Dudley J

    2006-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry Disease (AFD) is a storage disease that mimics hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance occurs in approximately 50% of patients in the basal inferolateral LV wall, but how an intracellular storage disease causes focal LGE is unknown. We present a whole-heart histological validation that LGE is caused by focal myocardial collagen scarring. This scarring may be the substrate for electrical re-entry and sudden arrhythmic death. The reasons for this distribution of fibrosis are unclear, but may reflect inhomogeneous left ventricular wall stress.

  5. Palaeopathological Evidence of Infectious Disease in a Skeletal Population from Late Medieval Riga, Latvia (15Th-17Th Centuries AD

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    Gerhards Guntis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of infectious disease in the Dome Church (Riga Cathedral Cemetery population, dating from the late medieval period (15th-17th centuries AD. A total of 274 individuals were macroscopically observed for evidence of infectious disease, and seven individuals with lesions possibly associated with a bacterial infection affecting the skeleton were selected for further analysis. Pathological changes on the outer table of the skull and in the long bones of legs characteristic of venereal syphilis were observed in four female and one male individual. Likewise, changes possibly related to late congenital syphilis were observed in a 14-15-year-old non-adult individual. All these individuals were buried in a small area adjacent to the northern wall of the Dome Church, which possibly belonged to a hospital or a shelter. The evidence for venereal syphilis from the cemetery complements historical data about the spread of the disease in Riga during the 16th-17th centuries AD. One adult male individual had destructive changes in the lower spine, which could be associated with tuberculosis (TB. So far, this is the first individual with possible TB from the archaeological populations of Riga. This research provides unique evidence about infectious disease in skeletal populations from the late medieval period in Latvia, and the results will be used as the basis for future research in the subject, including extraction of ancient pathogen DNA.

  6. Induction of bacterial blight resistance in elite Indian rice cultivars using gamma-rays and ethyl methanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, P.K.; Gosal, S.S.; Sidhu, G.S.

    2001-01-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop in the world feeding more than 50 percent of the human population. During the last 30 years, induced mutation breeding has played a significant role in rice breeding programmes. Rice mutants with higher yield, greater tolerance to diseases and pests and other agronomic qualities have been released for commercial cultivation in many countries. Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the second important disease in Southeast Asia. In the Basmati field sometime the yield loss is up to 100%. Moreover, there is no resistance source available. In Basmati rice, which is known for its quality and aroma. Induction of bacterial blight resistance in Basmati will help in developing high yielding Basmati type cultivars without compromising the quality

  7. Response of germinating barley seeds to Fusarium graminearum: The first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2011-01-01

    involved in primary metabolism and detoxification whereas the majority of down-regulated proteins were plant protease inhibitors. The results suggest that there is a link between increased energy metabolism and oxidative stress in the germinating barley seeds in response to F. graminearum infection, which......Fusarium seedling blight in cereals can result in significant reductions in plant establishment but has not received much attention. The disease often starts during seed germination due to sowing of the seeds infected by Fusarium spp. including Fusarium graminearum. In order to gain the first...

  8. Effects of Fungicides, Time of Application, and Application Method on Control of Sclerotinia Blight in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Woodward

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to evaluate the response of peanut cultivars to different fungicides, application timings, and methods. Overall, fungicides reduced Sclerotinia blight incidence and increased pod yields when applied to susceptible and partially resistant cultivars. Disease suppression was greater when full fungicide rates were applied preventatively; however, yields between fungicide treated plots were similar. Lower levels of disease and higher yields were achieved with the partially resistant cultivar Tamrun OL07 compared to the susceptible cultivars Flavor Runner 458 and Tamrun OL 02. Despite possessing improved resistance Tamrun OL07 responded to all fungicide applications. While similar levels of disease control were achieved with broadcast or banded applications made during the day or at night, the yield response for the different application methods was inconsistent among years. A negative relationship (slope = −73.8; R2=0.73; P<0.01 was observed between final disease incidence ratings and yield data from studies where a fungicide response was observed. These studies suggest that both boscalid and fluazinam are effective at controlling Sclerotinia blight in peanuts. Alternative management strategies such as nighttime and banded applications could allow for lower fungicide rates to be used; however, additional studies are warranted.

  9. Utilizing Bacillus to inhibit the growth and infection by sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctoniasolani in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margani, R.; Hadiwiyono; Widadi, S.

    2018-03-01

    Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn is a common pathogen of rice. The pathogen causes sheath blight of rice. The pathogen can cause loss in the production of rice up to 45%. So far, the disease however is still poorly taken care of by the farmers and researchers, so the control measures is nearly never practiced by the farmers in the fields. It due to the unavailability of effective control method of the disease. Therefore, development to control the disease is important. Bacillus is one of popular bacteria which is effective as biological control agent of a lot of pathogens in plants, but it has not been used for control sheath blight in rice yet. The current researches were aimed to study the potential of Bacillus collected from healthy rice as candidates of biological control agent of the disease. The results showed that some isolates showed indications to inhibit significantly the growth and infection of the pathogen. We obtained at least five isolates of Bacillus collected from leaves, sheath, and stem of healthy rice fields. All of the isolates could effectively inhibit the growth of R. solani in vitro on potato dextrose medium at range 30.33-58.00%, whereas in vivo B05 isolate was the most effective in inhibiting the infection of pathogen at 30.43%. It was not significantly different (P≥0.05) to application of hexaconazol with dosage of 2 ml L-1.

  10. Potential late-onset Alzheimer's disease-associated mutations in the ADAM10 gene attenuate {alpha}-secretase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Suh, Jaehong; Romano, Donna; Truong, Mimy H; Mullin, Kristina; Hooli, Basavaraj; Norton, David; Tesco, Giuseppina; Elliott, Kathy; Wagner, Steven L; Moir, Robert D; Becker, K David; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2009-10-15

    ADAM10, a member of a disintegrin and metalloprotease family, is an alpha-secretase capable of anti-amyloidogenic proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein. Here, we present evidence for genetic association of ADAM10 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as two rare potentially disease-associated non-synonymous mutations, Q170H and R181G, in the ADAM10 prodomain. These mutations were found in 11 of 16 affected individuals (average onset age 69.5 years) from seven late-onset AD families. Each mutation was also found in one unaffected subject implying incomplete penetrance. Functionally, both mutations significantly attenuated alpha-secretase activity of ADAM10 (>70% decrease), and elevated Abeta levels (1.5-3.5-fold) in cell-based studies. In summary, we provide the first evidence of ADAM10 as a candidate AD susceptibility gene, and report two potentially pathogenic mutations with incomplete penetrance for late-onset familial AD.

  11. Atypical Distribution of Late Gadolinium Enhancement of the Left Ventricle on Cardiac Magnetic Resonance in Classical Anderson-Fabry Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kasuya, Shusuke; Suzuki, Masayo; Inaoka, Tsutomu; Odashima, Masayuki; Nakatsuka, Tomoya; Ishikawa, Rumiko; Tokuyama, Wataru; Terada, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A. Approximately 50% of patients with AFD may have cardiac involvement. Gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is useful for the diagnosis of cardiac involvement of AFD by recognizing typical late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) patterns. We report a 48-year-old man with cardiac involvement in classical AFD, showing atypical distribution of the LGE at the mid-lateral...

  12. Clinical trials and late-stage drug development for Alzheimer’s disease: an appraisal from 1984 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lon S.; Mangialasche, Francesca; Andreasen, Niels; Feldman, Howard; Giacobini, Ezio; Jones, Roy; Mantua, Valentina; Mecocci, Patrizia; Pani, Luca; Winblad, Bengt; Kivipelto, Miia

    2014-01-01

    The modern era of drug development for Alzheimer’s disease began with the proposal of the cholinergic hypothesis of memory impairment and the 1984 research criteria for Alzheimer’s disease. Since then, despite the evaluation of numerous potential treatments in clinical trials, only four cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine have shown sufficient safety and efficacy to allow marketing approval at an international level. Although this is probably because the other drugs tested were ineffective, inadequate clinical development methods have also been blamed for the failures. Here we review the development of treatments for Alzheimer’s disease during the past 30 years, considering the drugs, potential targets, late-stage clinical trials, development methods, emerging use of biomarkers and evolution of regulatory considerations in order to summarize advances and anticipate future developments. We have considered late-stage Alzheimer’s disease drug development from 1984 to 2013, including individual clinical trials, systematic and qualitative reviews, meta-analyses, methods, commentaries, position papers and guidelines. We then review the evolution of drugs in late clinical development, methods, biomarkers and regulatory issues. Although a range of small molecules and biological products against many targets have been investigated in clinical trials, the predominant drug targets have been the cholinergic system and the amyloid cascade. Trial methods have evolved incrementally: inclusion criteria have largely remained focused on mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease criteria, recently extending to early or prodromal Alzheimer disease or ‘mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease’, for drugs considered to be disease modifying. The duration of trials has remained at 6 to 12 months for drugs intended to improve symptoms; 18- to 24-month trials have been established for drugs expected to attenuate clinical course. Cognitive performance, activities

  13. Efficacy of epiphytic bacteria to prevent northern leaf blight caused by Exserohilum turcicum in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Melina; Nesci, Andrea; García, Julián; Passone, María A; Montemarani, Analía; Etcheverry, Miriam

    Eight potential biological control agents (BCAs) were evaluated in planta in order to assess their effectiveness in reducing disease severity of northern leaf blight caused by Exserohilum turcicum. The assay was carried out in greenhouse. Twenty-six-day-old plants, V4 phenological stage, were inoculated with antagonists by foliar spray. Only one biocontrol agent was used per treatment. Ten days after this procedure, all treatments were inoculated with E. turcicum by foliar application. Treatments performed were: C-Et: control of E. turcicum; T1: isolate 1 (Enterococcus genus)+E. turcicum; T2: isolate 2 (Corynebacterium genus)+E. turcicum; T3: isolate 3 (Pantoea genus)+E. turcicum; T4: isolate 4 (Corynebacterium genus)+E. turcicum; T5: isolate 5 (Pantoea genus)+E. turcicum; T6: isolate 6 (Bacillus genus)+E. turcicum; T7: isolate 7 (Bacillus genus)+E. turcicum; T8: isolate 8 (Bacillus genus)+E. turcicum. Monitoring of antagonists on the phyllosphere was performed at different times. Furthermore, the percentage of infected leaves and, plant and leaf incidence were determined. Foliar application of different bacteria significantly reduced the leaf blight between 30-78% and 39-56% at 20 and 39 days respectively. It was observed that in the V10 stage of maize plants, isolate 8 (Bacillus spp.) caused the greatest effect on reducing the severity of northern leaf blight. Moreover, isolate 8 was the potential BCA that showed more stability in the phyllosphere. At 39 days, all potential biocontrol agents had a significant effect on controlling the disease caused by E. turcicum. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. EVALUATION OF TRICHODERMA SPP. ON BEAN CULTURE, IN ANTHRACNOSE, WEB BLIGHT AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. V. Aguiar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso is the third largest producer of bean from Brazil, being the third harvest (irrigated the most productive, but diseases such as anthracnose, web blight and nematodes of galls cause losses to producers. In addition, a measure widely used and little studied for the control of diseases and nematodes in Mato Grosso is the biological control, which consists of the action of other microorganisms on phytopathogens. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum and T. asperellum in the development (height of plants, chlorophyll and number of pods of culture of bean, in the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, web blight (Rhizoctonia solani and in the population of Meloidogyne spp. in the soil. The experiment was accomplished in area experimental of University Federal of Mato Grosso/Campus Sinop. The experimental design was of entirely randomized with 12 parcels of 5m² each, with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The cultivar used was Whitey, carioca group, and the seed treatment performed with product Pyraclostrobin + Thiophanate Methyl + Fipronil and after drying of the inoculation of biocontrol agents and manual seeding. It was observed that the application of T. harzianum and T. asperellum, not promoted increase of chlorophyll, height of plants in bean culture, without reducing the population of Meloidogyne spp.. However, biocontrol agents have reduced the severity of anthracnose and web blight and promoted an increase in the average number of plant pods-1. It is therefore concluded that biocontrol agents show potential for application in bean culture in the North of Mato Grosso.

  15. Approaching disturbed sleep in late Parkinson's Disease: first step toward a proposal for a revised UPDRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, J J

    2001-10-01

    A patient in stage 3-4 of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), or in stage 4-5 of Hoehn and Yahr staging scale, or a patient with 0-50% activities of daily living scale of Schwab and England is considered a Late Parkinson's Disease (LPD) patient. The prevalence of disturbed sleep in Parkinson's Disease (PD) was found to vary according to an objective rating, from 60 to 98%. The factors predicting the quality of life in PD patients are: depression, sleep disturbances and dependence. The present article proposes the insertion of the following items as a chapter in a revised UPDRS based on updated knowledge in sleep arousal disturbances in PD. V. SLEEP-AROUSAL DISTURBANCES: Sleep disturbances 43. Light fragment sleep (LFS) 44. Sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) 45. Restless legs-periodic leg movements during sleep (RLS-PLM) 46. REM behavioral disorders (RBD) 47. Sleep-related hallucinations (SRH) 48. Sleep-related psychotic behavior (SRPB) Arousal disturbances 49. Sleep attacks (SA) 50. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Approaching the treatment of disturbed sleep in LPD means postponement of the institutionalization of the LPD patient, allowing the spouse or the caregiver a quiet nights sleep. This approach consists of three steps, each one of major importance. (1) Correct diagnosis based on detailed anamnesis of the patient, of the spouse or of the caregiver; a one week recording on a symptom diary (log) by the patient or the caregiver; excluding co morbidities. Then choosing the most appropriate sleep test, if necessary: polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), multiple wake latency test (MWLT), actigraphy or video-PSG. This first step allows the diagnosis of one of the above mentioned sleep-arousal disturbances. (2) The non-specific therapeutic approach consists of: (a) checking the sleep effect on motor performance: beneficial, worse or neutral. (b) Dopaminergic adjustment is necessary due to the progression of the

  16. Whole-genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens EK007-RG4, a promising biocontrol agent against a broad range of bacteria, including the fire blight bacterium Erwinia amylovora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habibi, Roghayeh; Tarighi, Saeed; Behravan, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report the first draft whole-genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain EK007-RG4, which was isolated from the phylloplane of a pear tree. P. fluorescens EK007-RG4 displays strong antagonism against Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent for fire blight disease, in addition to several...

  17. Biological control of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto, causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat, using formulated antagonists under field conditions in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palazzini, Juan M.; Alberione, Enrique; Torres, Adriana; Donat, Christina; Kohl, Jurgen; Chulze, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease that causes extensive yield and quality losses to wheat in humid and semi-humid regions of the world. The biocontrol effect of two bacterial strains on FHB incidence, severity and deoxynivalenol (DON)

  18. Detection of gene expression changes in Capsicum annuum L. leaf foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici Leon. using qRT-PCR and leaf discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora capsici is responsible for multiple disease syndromes of Capsicum annuum but the resistance mechanism is still unknown. Evaluating gene expression during foliar blight can be used to identify expression patterns associated with resistance in Capsicum species. This study reports a direct...

  19. Systems and models of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kielak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents fire blight prediction models and systems, developed in Europe (system Billing - versions: BOS, BRS, BIS95 and originated from this system: Firescreen, FEUERBRA and ANLAFBRA and in United States (Californian system, model Maryblyt and system Cougarblight. Use of above models and systems in various climatic-geographic conditions and comparison of obtained prognostic data to real fire blight occurrence is reviewed. The newest trends in research on improvement of prognostic analyses parameters with their adjustment to particular conditions and consideration of infection source occurrence are also presented.

  20. Comparative study on the effect of chemicals on Alternaria blight in Indian mustard--a multi-location study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, P D; Chattopadhyay, C; Kumar, A; Awasthi, R P; Singh, R; Kaur, S; Thomas, L; Goyal, P; Chand, P

    2011-05-01

    High severity of Altemaria blight disease is a major constraint in production of rapeseed-mustard in India. The aim of this study was to investigate the suppressive potential of chemicals viz., zinc sulphate, borax, sulphur, potash and calcium sulphate, aqueous extracts viz., Eucalyptus globosus (50 g l-1) leaf extract and garlic (Allium sativum) bulb (20 g l-1) extract, cow urine and bio-agents Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescence in comparison with the recommended chemical fungicide (mancozeb), against foliar disease Alternaria blight of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. and Coss] under five different geographical locations of India. Mancozeb recorded the lowest mean severity (leaf: 33.1%; pod: 26.3%) of Alternaria blight with efficacy of garlic bulb extract alone (leaf = 34.4%; pod = 27.3%) or in combination with cow urine (leaf = 34.2%; pod = 28.6%) being statistically at par with the recommended chemical fungicide. Chemicals also proved effective in reducing Alternaria blight severity on leaves and pods of Indian mustard (leaf = 36.3-37.9%; pod = 27.5-30.1%). The effective treatments besides providing significant reduction in disease severity also enabled increase in dry seed yield of the crop (mancozeb = 2052 kg ha-1; garlic = 2006 kg ha-1; control = 1561 kg ha-1).

  1. Future prospects for ascochyta blight resistance breeding in cool season food legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego eRubiales

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation is strongly hampered by the occurrence of ascochyta blights. Strategies of control have been developed but only marginal successes have been achieved. Breeding for disease resistance is regarded the most cost efficient method of control. Significant genetic variation for disease resistance exists in most legume crops with numerous germplasm lines maintained, providing an excellent resource for plant breeders. Fast and reliable screening methods have been adjusted to fulfil breeding programmes needs. However, the complex inheritance controlled quantitatively by multiple genes, have been difficult to manipulate. Successful application of biotechnology to ascochyta blight resistance breeding in legume crops will facilitate both a good biological knowledge of the crops and of the mechanisms underlying resistance. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow. The limited saturation of the genomic regions bearing putative QTLs in legume crops makes difficult to identify the most tightly-linked markers

  2. Stemphylium Leaf Blight of Garlic (Allium sativum in Spain: Taxonomy and In Vitro Fungicide Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gálvez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The most serious aerial disease of garlic is leaf blight caused by Stemphylium spp. Geographical variation in the causal agent of this disease is indicated. Stemphylium vesicarium has been reported in Spain, whereas S. solani is the most prevalent species recorded in China. In this study, Stemphylium isolates were obtained from symptomatic garlic plants sampled from the main Spanish production areas. Sequence data for the ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 region enabled assignation of the isolates to the Pleospora herbarum complex and clearly distinguished the isolates from S. solani. Conidial morphology of the isolates corresponded to that of S. vesicarium and clearly discriminated them from S. alfalfae and S. herbarum on the basis of the size and septation pattern of mature conidia. Conidial morphology as well as conidial length, width and length:width ratio also allowed the Spanish isolates to be distinguished from S. botryosum and S. herbarum. Control of leaf blight of garlic is not well established. Few studies are available regarding the effectiveness of chemical treatments to reduce Stemphylium spp. incidence on garlic. The effectiveness of nine fungicides of different chemical groups to reduce Stemphylium mycelial growth in vitro was tested. Boscalid + pyraclostrobin (group name, succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors + quinone outside inhibitors, iprodione (dicar-boximide, and prochloraz (demethylation inhibitors were highly effective at reducing mycelial growth in S. vesicarium with EC₅₀ values less than 5 ppm. In general, the effectiveness of the fungicide was enhanced with increasing dosage.

  3. Stemphylium Leaf Blight of Garlic (Allium sativum ) in Spain: Taxonomy and In Vitro Fungicide Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Laura; Gil-Serna, Jéssica; García, Marta; Iglesias, Concepción; Palmero, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The most serious aerial disease of garlic is leaf blight caused by Stemphylium spp. Geographical variation in the causal agent of this disease is indicated. Stemphylium vesicarium has been reported in Spain, whereas S. solani is the most prevalent species recorded in China. In this study, Stemphylium isolates were obtained from symptomatic garlic plants sampled from the main Spanish production areas. Sequence data for the ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 region enabled assignation of the isolates to the Pleospora herbarum complex and clearly distinguished the isolates from S. solani. Conidial morphology of the isolates corresponded to that of S. vesicarium and clearly discriminated them from S. alfalfae and S. herbarum on the basis of the size and septation pattern of mature conidia. Conidial morphology as well as conidial length, width and length:width ratio also allowed the Spanish isolates to be distinguished from S. botryosum and S. herbarum. Control of leaf blight of garlic is not well established. Few studies are available regarding the effectiveness of chemical treatments to reduce Stemphylium spp. incidence on garlic. The effectiveness of nine fungicides of different chemical groups to reduce Stemphylium mycelial growth in vitro was tested. Boscalid + pyraclostrobin (group name, succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors + quinone outside inhibitors), iprodione (dicar-boximide), and prochloraz (demethylation inhibitors) were highly effective at reducing mycelial growth in S. vesicarium with EC50 values less than 5 ppm. In general, the effectiveness of the fungicide was enhanced with increasing dosage. PMID:27721688

  4. Putative resistance gene markers associated with quantitative trait loci for fire blight resistance in Malus ‘Robusta 5’ accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fire blight resistance has been reported on linkage group 3 of Malus ‘Robusta 5’. In this study we identified markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes associated with the QTL by integrating further genetic mapping studies with bioinformatics analysis of transcript profiling data and genome sequence databases. Results When several defined E.amylovora strains were used to inoculate three progenies from international breeding programs, all with ‘Robusta 5’ as a common parent, two distinct QTLs were detected on linkage group 3, where only one had previously been mapped. In the New Zealand ‘Malling 9’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora ICMP11176, the proximal QTL co-located with SNP markers derived from a leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like protein ( MxdRLP1) and a closely linked class 3 peroxidase gene. While the QTL detected in the German ‘Idared’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea222_JKI or ICMP11176 was approximately 6 cM distal to this, directly below a SNP marker derived from a heat shock 90 family protein gene ( HSP90). In the US ‘Otawa3’ X ‘Robusta5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea273 or E2002a, the position of the LOD score peak on linkage group 3 was dependent upon the pathogen strains used for inoculation. One of the five MxdRLP1 alleles identified in fire blight resistant and susceptible cultivars was genetically associated with resistance and used to develop a high resolution melting PCR marker. A resistance QTL detected on linkage group 7 of the US population co-located with another HSP90 gene-family member and a WRKY transcription factor

  5. Sensitivity of promising cherry hybrids and new cultivars to economically important fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vasileva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. As a result of years of developing the breeding programme for creating novel sweet cherry cultivars in the Fruit Growing Institute (FGI, Plovdiv, a reach hybrid fund from first and second hybrid generation is created. Of the selected and propagated hybrids at a more advanced stage of testing are 11 hybrids along with three new cultivars of the FGI Plovdiv ('Kossara', 'Rosalina' and 'Trakiiska hrushtyalka' grafted on three rootstocks were tested for sensitivity to causers of economically important fungal diseases in sweet cherry - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm Arx, shothole blight (Stigmina carpophila (Lev. Ellis and brown rot (Monilinia fructigena (G. Wint Honey. The degree of infestation under field conditions is reported by determining the index of attack on leaves and fruit, using the formula of McKinney. As the most sensitive elites are outlined elite El.17-31 (to cherry leaf spot and elite El.17-136 (to shothole blight. The cultivars 'Kossara' and 'Trakiiska hrushtyalka' exhibit an average resistance to the three diseases, as the values for the index of infestation are lower or similar to those of standard cultivars 'Van' and 'Bing', while 'Rosalina' demonstrated sensitivity to shothole blight and brown rot. Interesting is the elite El.17- 37 demonstrating the least infestation of Blumeriella jaapii - 7.33% and Monilinia fructigena - 6.67%. The same has a set of valuable qualities as late maturing date and very large fruits with excellent sensory profile, making it a potential candidate cultivar.

  6. Late radiation encephalopathy in the dog. A model for cerebral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelson, S.M.; Kramer, M.W.

    The Research Group on Industrial and Environmental Neurology has suggested that assessment of cerebral atherosclerosis should be considered as part of its purview of problems of interest. Although the present study is not related to the ordinary environmental or industrial situation, it can apply to accidental over-exposure to external ionizing radiation or radiation therapy and describes an animal model that can be used for fundamental study of cerebral vascular conditions and encephalomalacia. Ionizing radiation damage to nervous tissue may be apparent early after irradiation or may become evident after a variable latent period. The concept of late ionizing radiation-induced neuropathy, the subject of this study, is characterized by a long latent period between exposure and initial clinical signs, an inverse relationship between radiation dose and latency of appearance of late radiation encephalopathy, and an apparent lack of demonstrable physiological, biochemical, and morphological alterations until necrosis becomes manifest. (U.S.)

  7. Harnessing the microbiome to reduce Fusarium head blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium graminearum (Fg), the primary fungal pathogen responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB), reduces crop yield and contaminates grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that are deleterious to plant, human and animal health. In this presentation, we will discuss two different research projects tha...

  8. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Antagonists and Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora arose. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory activity of o...

  9. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Bacterial Antagonists and Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora were prevalent. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory acti...

  10. Cassava bacterial blight in Africa: the state of knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduced to Africa in the 1970s, cassava bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis (XCM) is present in almost all cropping areas. In the past fifteen years, advances have been made in knowledge of the biology and molecular genetics of XCM, host-parasite relationships and epidemiology of the ...

  11. Inhibitory activity of plant extracts on the early blight pathogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of two plant extracts, Ricinus communis and Chromolaena odorata on the control of the early blight pathogen, Alternaria solani (Ell. and Mart.). The study was conducted in the Laboratory of the Crop Production and Horticulture Department, Federal University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa ...

  12. The role of singing familiar songs in encouraging conversation among people with middle to late stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassa, Ayelet; Amir, Dorit

    2014-01-01

    Language deficits in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) manifest, among other things, in a gradual deterioration of spontaneous speech. People with AD tend to speak less as the disease progresses and their speech becomes confused. However, the ability to sing old tunes sometimes remains intact throughout the disease. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of singing familiar songs in encouraging conversation among people with middle to late stage AD. Six participants attended group music therapy sessions over a one-month period. Using content analysis, we qualitatively examined transcriptions of verbal and sung content during 8 group sessions for the purpose of understanding the relationship between specific songs and conversations that occurred during and following group singing. Content analysis revealed that songs from the participants' past-elicited memories, especially songs related to their social and national identity. Analyses also indicated that conversation related to the singing was extensive and the act of group singing encouraged spontaneous responses. After singing, group members expressed positive feelings, a sense of accomplishment, and belonging. Carefully selecting music from the participants' past can encourage conversation. Considering the failure in spontaneous speech in people with middle to late stage AD, it is important to emphasize that group members' responses to each other occurred spontaneously without the researcher's encouragement. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Late-onset Stargardt disease is associated with missense mutations that map outside known functional regions of ABCR (ABCA4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsenko, A N; Shroyer, N F; Lewis, R A; Lupski, J R

    2001-04-01

    Based on recent studies of the photoreceptor-specific ABC transporter gene ABCR (ABCA4) in Stargardt disease (STGD1) and other retinal dystrophies, we and others have developed a model in which the severity of retinal disease correlates inversely with residual ABCR activity. This model predicts that patients with late-onset STGDI may retain partial ABCR activity attributable to mild missense alleles. To test this hypothesis, we used late-onset STGDI patients (onset: > or =35 years) to provide an in vivo functional analysis of various combinations of mutant alleles. We sequenced directly the entire coding region of ABCR and detected mutations in 33/50 (66%) disease chromosomes, but surprisingly, 11/33 (33%) were truncating alleles. Importantly, all 22 missense mutations were located outside the known functional domains of ABCR (ATP-binding or transmembrane), whereas in our general cohort of STGDI subjects, alterations occurred with equal frequency across the entire protein. We suggest that these missense mutations in regions of unknown function are milder alleles and more susceptible to modifier effects. Thus, we have corroborated a prediction from the model of ABCR pathogenicity that (1) one mutant ABCR allele is always missense in late-onset STGD1 patients, and (2) the age-of-onset is correlated with the amount of ABCR activity of this allele. In addition, we report three new pseudodominant families that now comprise eight of 178 outbred STGD1 families and suggest a carrier frequency of STGD1-associated ABCR mutations of about 4.5% (approximately 1/22).

  14. Control of plant defense mechanisms and fire blight pathogenesis through the regulation of 6-thioguanine biosynthesis in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sébastien; Litomska, Agnieszka; Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Richter, Klaus; Beerhues, Ludger; Hertweck, Christian

    2014-02-10

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of Rosaceae plants, such as apple and pear trees. It is characterized by necrosis of plant tissue, caused by the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora. The plant pathogen produces the well-known antimetabolite 6-thioguanine (6TG), which plays a key role in fire blight pathogenesis. Here we report that YcfR, a member of the LTTR family, is a major regulator of 6TG biosynthesis in E. amylovora. Inactivation of the regulator gene (ycfR) led to dramatically decreased 6TG production. Infection assays with apple plants (Malus domestica cultivar Holsteiner Cox) and cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia (mountain ash, rowan) revealed abortive fire blight pathogenesis and reduced plant response (biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexin production). In the presence of the ΔycfR mutant, apple trees were capable of activating the abscission machinery to remove infected tissue. In addition to unveiling the regulation of 6TG biosynthesis in a major plant pathogen, we demonstrate for the first time that this antimetabolite plays a pivotal role in dysregulating the plant response to infection. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Data set from a comprehensive phosphoproteomic analysis of rice variety IRBB5 in response to bacterial blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxuan Hou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight (BB caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo has become one of the most devastating diseases for rice, a major food source for over half of the world populations. To investigate the roles of protein phosphorylation in rice bacterial blight resistance, a quantitative phosphoproteomic study was conducted in rice variety IRBB5 at 0 h and 24 h after Xoo infection. 2367 and 2223 phosphosites on 1334 and 1297 representative proteins were identified in 0 h and 24 h after Xoo infection, respectively, out of which 762 proteins were found to be differentially phosphorylated. In associated with the published article “A comprehensive quantitative phosphoproteome analysis of rice in response to bacterial blight” in BMC Plant Biology (Hou et al., 2015 [1], this dataset article provided the detailed information of experimental designing, methods, features as well as the raw data of mass spectrometry (MS identification. The MS proteomics data could be fully accessed from the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD002222. Keywords: Rice (Oryza sativa L., Bacterial blight, Phosphoproteome

  16. Gamma radiation-induced mutant of NSIC RC144 with broad-spectrum resistance to bacterial blight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso, A.A.; Avellanoza, E.S.; Miranda, R.T.; Espejo, E.O.; Garcia, N.S.

    2014-01-01

    Mutant lines derived from gamma radiation-treated commercial variety NSIC RC144 were produced and screened for novel resistance to bacterial blight, one of the most serious diseases of rice. Preliminary screening of a bulk M2 population through induced method using race 3 of the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) resulted in the selection of 89 resistant plants. Subsequent repeated bacterial blight screenings and generation advance for five seasons resulted in the selection of two highly resistant M7 sister lines whose origin can be traced to a single M2 plant. DNA fingerprinting using 63 genome-wide simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers revealed an identical pattern in these lines. Using the same set of markers, they also exhibited 98% similarity to wild type NSIC RC144 indicating that the resistance is due to mutation and not due to genetic admixture or seed impurity. Two seasons of bacterial blight screening using 14 local isolates representing ten races of Xoo revealed an identical reaction pattern in these lines. The reaction pattern was observed to be unique compared to known patterns in four IRBB isolines (IRBB 4, 5, 7 and 21) with strong resistant reaction to bacterial blight suggesting possible novel resistance. The susceptible reaction in F1 testcrosses using Xoo race 6 and the segregation patterns in two F2 populations that fit with the expected 3 susceptible: 1 resistant ratio (P = 0.4, ns) suggest a single-gene recessive mutation in these lines. These mutants are now being used as resistance donor in the breeding program while further molecular characterization to map and characterize the mutated gene is being pursued

  17. Biocontrol Activity of Myxococcus sp. KYC 1126 against Phytophthora Blight on Hot Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chul Yun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriolytic myxobacteria have been known to secrete various antifungal metabolites against several soilborne phytopathogens including Phytophthora. Among the three isolates of Myxococcus spp., KYC 1126 and KYC 1136 perfectly inhibited the mycelial growth of Phytophtora capsici in vitro. In order to show the biocontrol activity on Phytophthora blight of hot pepper, we tried to find the best way of application of myxobacterial isolate. Although KYC 1126 fruiting body was easily grown on the colony of Escherichia coli as a nutrient source, it did not control the disease when it was pre-applied in soil. Before the bioassay of a liquid culture filtrate of KYC 1126 was conducted, its antifungal activity was confirmed on the seedlings applying with the mixture of the pathogen`s zoospore suspension and KYC 1126 filtrate. On greenhouse experiments with five and four replications, the control value of KYC 1126 on phyllosphere and rhizosphere was 88% and 36%, respectively. Whereas, the control value of dimetnomorph+propineb on phyllosphere was 100% and that of propamorcarb on rhizosphere was 44%. There was a phytotoxicity of the myxobacterial filtrate when seedlings were washed and soaked for 24 hours. Gummy materials were covered with roots. And stem and petiole were constricted, then a whole seedling was eventually blighted.

  18. Deoxynivalenol in wheat and wheat products from a harvest affected by fusarium head blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Viera MACHADO

    Full Text Available Abstract Fusarium head blight is an important disease occurring in wheat, caused mainly by the fungus Fusarium graminearum. In addition to direct damage to crops, reduced quality and yield losses, the infected grains can accumulate mycotoxins (toxic metabolites originating from prior fungal growth, especially deoxynivalenol (DON. Wheat crops harvested in 2014/2015 in southern Brazil were affected by high levels of Fusarium head blight. In this context, the aim of this study was evaluate the mycotoxicological quality of Brazilian wheat grains and wheat products (wheat flour and wheat bran for DON. DON contamination was evaluated in 1,504 wheat and wheat product samples produced in Brazil during 2014. It was determined by high performance liquid chromatograph fitted to a mass spectrometer (LC-MS / MS. The results showed that 1,000 (66.5% out of the total samples tested were positive for DON. The mean level of sample contamination was 1047 µg.kg-1, but only 242 samples (16.1% had contamination levels above the maximum permissible levels (MPL - the maximum content allowed by current Brazilian regulation. As of 2017, MPL will be stricter. Thus, research should be conducted on DON contamination of wheat and wheat products, since wheat is a raw material widely used in the food industry, and DON can cause serious harm to public health.

  19. Late radiation side-effects in three patients undergoing parotid irradiation for benign disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, A; Ghanna, P; O'Rielly, B; Habeshaw, T; Symonds, P

    2000-01-01

    We report three patients in whom standard radiation therapy was given and serious late radiation damage was seen. The first patient suffered recurrent parotiditis and a parotid fistula. He was treated initially with 20 Gy in ten fractions via a 300 kV field. Further irradiation was required 1 year later and 40 Gy was given in 2 Gy fractions by an oblique anterior and posterior wedged photon pair. Ten years later he developed localized temporal bone necrosis. The second patient, with pleomorphic salivary adenoma, developed localized temporal bone necrosis 6 years after 60 Gy had been given using standard fractionation and technique. The third patient received 55 Gy in 25 fractions for a pleomorphic salivary adenoma and after 3 years developed temporal bone necrosis. Sixteen years later the same patient developed cerebellar and brainstem necrosis. All patients developed chronic persistent infection during or shortly after the radiation therapy, which increased local tissue sensitivity to late radiation damage. As a result, severe bone, cerebellar and brainstem necrosis was observed at doses that are normally considered safe. We therefore strongly recommend that any infection in a proposed irradiated area should be treated aggressively, with surgical debridement if necessary, before radiotherapy is administered, or that infection developing during or after irradiation is treated promptly.

  20. Late-onset hepatic veno-occlusive disease post autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation successfully treated with oral defibrotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mithun S; Jeevangi, Nandish Kumar S; Joshi, Amit; Khattry, Navin

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) remains one of the commonest and most serious complications after myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Clinical diagnosis of hepatic VOD is based on the finding of the triad of painful hepatomegaly, hyperbilirubinemia, and unexplained fluid retention occurring within 21 days of the transplant. However, the uncommon clinical entity of late-onset VOD can occur even beyond 20 days and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any liver disease of more than 3 weeks' duration. While mild cases usually resolve spontaneously, severe VOD is associated with a grim prognosis. Defibrotide, a polydisperse mixture of single-stranded oligonucleotide with antithrombotic and fibrinolytic effects on microvascular endothelium, has emerged as an effective and safe therapy for patients with severe VOD. We describe a patient who presented 55 days post transplant with clinical features suggestive of VOD. Upon treatment with oral defibrotide, he showed complete resolution of the VOD.

  1. Late-onset hepatic veno-occlusive disease post autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation successfully treated with oral defibrotide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Mithun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD remains one of the commonest and most serious complications after myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Clinical diagnosis of hepatic VOD is based on the finding of the triad of painful hepatomegaly, hyperbilirubinemia, and unexplained fluid retention occurring within 21 days of the transplant. However, the uncommon clinical entity of late-onset VOD can occur even beyond 20 days and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any liver disease of more than 3 weeks′ duration. While mild cases usually resolve spontaneously, severe VOD is associated with a grim prognosis. Defibrotide, a polydisperse mixture of single-stranded oligonucleotide with antithrombotic and fibrinolytic effects on microvascular endothelium, has emerged as an effective and safe therapy for patients with severe VOD. We describe a patient who presented 55 days post transplant with clinical features suggestive of VOD. Upon treatment with oral defibrotide, he showed complete resolution of the VOD.

  2. Diagnostic Utility of the Shortened Version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Patients With Sporadic Late Onset Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan Luis; Martín, Javier; López, Carolina

    2017-12-01

    The classic version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) consists of correctly sorting 128 cards according to changing sorting criteria. Its application is costly in terms of the time employed, with all the negative consequences this entails (decrease in motivation, frustration, and fatigue). The main objective of this study was to test the usefulness of the shortened version of the WCST as compared to the full test by analyzing the equivalence between the two decks comprising the full 128-card version on a sample of patients diagnosed with sporadic late onset Alzheimer disease (SLOAD) and to check its clinical usefulness. The variables showed equivalence between the two decks and their ability to differentiate between the control group (CG) and the Alzheimer disease (AD) group. The scores obtained suggest equivalence between decks and that the application of only the first deck is sufficient.

  3. Potential late-onset Alzheimer's disease-associated mutations in the ADAM10 gene attenuate α-secretase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Suh, Jaehong; Romano, Donna; Truong, Mimy H.; Mullin, Kristina; Hooli, Basavaraj; Norton, David; Tesco, Giuseppina; Elliott, Kathy; Wagner, Steven L.; Moir, Robert D.; Becker, K. David; Tanzi, Rudolph E.

    2009-01-01

    ADAM10, a member of a disintegrin and metalloprotease family, is an α-secretase capable of anti-amyloidogenic proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein. Here, we present evidence for genetic association of ADAM10 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as two rare potentially disease-associated non-synonymous mutations, Q170H and R181G, in the ADAM10 prodomain. These mutations were found in 11 of 16 affected individuals (average onset age 69.5 years) from seven late-onset AD families. Each mutation was also found in one unaffected subject implying incomplete penetrance. Functionally, both mutations significantly attenuated α-secretase activity of ADAM10 (>70% decrease), and elevated Aβ levels (1.5–3.5-fold) in cell-based studies. In summary, we provide the first evidence of ADAM10 as a candidate AD susceptibility gene, and report two potentially pathogenic mutations with incomplete penetrance for late-onset familial AD. PMID:19608551

  4. Prenatal Diagnosis of a Case of Norrie Disease with Late Development of Bilateral Ocular Malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li Hong; Chen, Li-Hong; Xie, Hongning; Xie, Ying-Jun

    2017-06-01

    We report a case of Norrie disease, diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound, confirmed by Sanger sequencing of the DNP gene from the aborted fetal cord blood and histologically. Prenatal ultrasound revealed no abnormality in either eye at 22 +1 and 31 +4 gestational weeks, but at 36 +5 gestational weeks both eyes had massive vitreous cavity opacities with complete retinal detachment. Norrie disease was initially suspected because of an older male sibling with the disease. To our knowledge, prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of Norrie disease has been previously described only one case in 1993 in a 34-week-old fetus. The normal eye development until after 31 + 4 gestational weeks provides insight into the first manifestation and then the rapid progression of the eye disease.

  5. Expression of C-Reactive Protein and Serum Amyloid A in Early to Late Manifestations of Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde, Melanie; Ajamian, Mary; Li, Xueting; Wormser, Gary P; Marques, Adriana; Alaedini, Armin

    2016-12-01

     Infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, triggers host immune responses that affect the clinical outcome and are a source of biomarkers with diagnostic utility. Although adaptive immunity to B. burgdorferi has been extensively characterized, considerably less information is available about the development of innate acute-phase responses in Lyme disease. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the expression of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA), the prototype acute-phase response proteins, in the context of the varying manifestations associated with Lyme borreliosis.  Circulating concentrations of CRP and SAA in patients with a range of early to late objective manifestations of Lyme disease and in individuals with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome were compared with those in healthy control groups.  CRP and SAA levels were significantly elevated in early localized and early disseminated Lyme disease but not in the later stages of active infection. Levels of CRP, but not SAA, were also found to be significantly increased in patients with antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis and in those with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome.  These findings indicate that circulating CRP and SAA levels are highest when the concentration of spirochetes is greatest in skin and/or blood and that levels decline after the dissemination of the organism to extracutaneous sites in subsequent stages of infection. The data also suggest that antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome are associated with elevated CRP responses that are driven by inflammatory mechanisms distinct from those in active infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Periodontal diseases at the transition from the late antique to the early mediaeval period in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodanović, Marin; Peroš, Kristina; Zukanović, Amila; Knežević, Marjana; Novak, Mario; Slaus, Mario; Brkić, Hrvoje

    2012-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the transition from the late antique to the early mediaeval period in Croatia had a negative impact on the periodontal health. 1118 skulls were examined for dental calculus, alveolar bone resorption, fenestrations, dehiscences and root furcation involvement. The prevalence of teeth with calculus varied from 40.7% in the LA sample of continental parts of Croatia to 50.3% in the LA sample of Adriatic Croatia. The prevalence of alveolar bone resorption ranged between 21.2% in the EM sample from continental Croatia and 32.3% in the LA sample from Adriatic Croatia. The prevalence of individuals with alveolar bone dehiscences varied from 8.6% in the LA sample from continental Croatia up to 15.0% in the EM sample from Adriatic Croatia. The prevalence of individuals with alveolar bone fenestrations varied from 21.5% in the LA sample from Adriatic Croatia up to 36.2% in the LA sample from continental Croatia. The prevalence of individuals with exposed root bifurcations or trifurcations varied from 9.0% in the EM sample from Adriatic Croatia up to 20.7% in the EM sample from continental Croatia. Statistically significant differences were found between samples. The transition from the late antique to the early mediaeval period in Croatia did not have a negative impact on periodontal health. Studies of periodontal health of ancient populations should be performed to provide a better and more reliable reconstruction of living conditions in the past. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between soil cellulolytic activity and suppression of seedling blight of barley in arable soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Knudsen, I.; Elmholt, S.

    2002-01-01

    the Hanes-Wolf transformation of the Michaelis-Menten equation. Soil samples from 6 to 13 cm depth were collected in the early spring as undisturbed blocks from 10 arable soils with different physico-chemical properties and cultivation history. Significant correlations were found between soil suppresiveness......The objective was to investigate the relationship between soil suppression of seedling blight of barley caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith) Sacc. and the soil cellulolytic activity of beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase and endocellulase. Disease suppression was investigated in bioassays...... with test soils mixed with sand, and barley seeds inoculated with F. culmorum. After 19 days, disease severity was evaluated on the barley seedlings. Soil cellulolytic activities were measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl-labelled fluorogenic substrates, and were expressed as V-max values obtained by using...

  8. Crohn's disease and smoking: is it ever too late to quit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrance, Ian C; Murray, Kevin; Batman, Birol; Gearry, Richard B; Grafton, Rachel; Krishnaprasad, Krupa; Andrews, Jane M; Prosser, Ruth; Bampton, Peter A; Cooke, Sharon E; Mahy, Gillian; Radford-Smith, Graham; Croft, Anthony; Hanigan, Katherine

    2013-12-01

    Smoking increases CD risk. The aim was to determine if smoking cessation at, prior to, or following, CD diagnosis affects medication use, disease phenotypic progression and/or surgery. Data on CD patients with disease for ≥5 yrs were collected retrospectively including the Montreal classification, smoking history, CD-related abdominal surgeries, family history, medication use and disease behaviour at diagnosis and the time when the disease behaviour changed. 1115 patients were included across six sites (mean follow-up-16.6 yrs). More non-smokers were male (p=0.047) with A1 (p3 cigarettes/day had an increased risk of developing B2/B3 disease (p=0.012: OR 3.8 95%CI 1.27-11.17). Progression to B2/B3 disease and surgery is reduced by smoking cessation. All CD patients regardless of when they were diagnosed, or how many surgeries, should be strongly encouraged to cease smoking. Copyright © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A signature of epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity and stromal activation in primary tumor modulates late recurrence in breast cancer independent of disease subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qing; Chang, Jeffrey T; Gwin, William R; Zhu, Jun; Ambs, Stefan; Geradts, Joseph; Lyerly, H Kim

    2014-07-25

    Despite improvements in adjuvant therapy, late systemic recurrences remain a lethal consequence of both early- and late-stage breast cancer. A delayed recurrence is thought to arise from a state of tumor dormancy, but the mechanisms that govern tumor dormancy remain poorly understood. To address the features of breast tumors associated with late recurrence, but not confounded by variations in systemic treatment, we compiled breast tumor gene expression data from 4,767 patients and established a discovery cohort consisting of 743 lymph node-negative patients who did not receive systemic neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. We interrogated the gene expression profiles of the 743 tumors and identified gene expression patterns that were associated with early and late disease recurrence among these patients. We applied this classification to a subset of 46 patients for whom expression data from microdissected tumor epithelium and stroma was available, and identified a distinct gene signature in the stroma and also a corresponding tumor epithelium signature that predicted disease recurrence in the discovery cohort. This tumor epithelium signature was then validated as a predictor for late disease recurrence in the entire cohort of 4,767 patients. We identified a novel 51-gene signature from microdissected tumor epithelium associated with late disease recurrence in breast cancer independent of the molecular disease subtype. This signature correlated with gene expression alterations in the adjacent tumor stroma and describes a process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor-stroma interactions. Our findings suggest that an EMT-related gene signature in the tumor epithelium is related to both stromal activation and escape from disease dormancy in breast cancer. The presence of a late recurrence gene signature in the primary tumor also suggests that intrinsic features of this tumor regulate the transition of disseminated tumor cells into a dormant phenotype with

  10. Conservative treatment for late-onset bleb leaks after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in patients with ocular surface disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagara H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hideto Sagara,1,2 Tomohiro Iida,2,3 Kimimori Saito,4 Hiroki Noji,2 Masashi Ogasawara,2 Hiroshi Oyamada21The Marui Eye Clinic, Fukushima, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, 3Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, 4Matuki Eye Clinic, Fukushima, JapanBackground: Sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum eye drops are used to treat ocular surface disease (OSD and are reported to prevent and treat late-onset bleb leaks following trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a combination of sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum eye drops and treatment for obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction as a therapy for late-onset bleb leaks after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C.Methods: This was a retrospective, interventional, nonsimultaneous study of 12 subjects (12 eyes of mean age of 64.3 ± 18.3 years with OSD and apparent late-onset bleb leaks following trabeculectomy with mitomycin C between 1998 and 2008. We compared patients diagnosed with leakages before July 2005, who had been treated with separate eye drop solutions containing 0.1% sodium hyaluronate, 50% autologous serum, and 0.3% ofloxacin (sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum group, n = 7, with patients diagnosed from August 2005 to December 2008, who were treated with a combination of eye drops (0.1% sodium hyaluronate, 50% autologous serum, and 0.08% levofloxacin hydrate and eyelid massage and warm compresses for obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction (combination eye drop group, n = 5.Results: Leakage was resolved in one patient (14.3% in the separately treated sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum eye drop group and in five patients (100% in the combination eye drop group (P = 0.015. The period after resolution of leakage with conservative treatment was 23 months in the one eye in the sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum group and 36–61 (mean 52.4 ± 10.1 months in the five eyes in the

  11. Factors associated with presenting late or with advanced HIV disease in the Netherlands, 1996–2014: results from a national observational cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op de Coul, Eline L M; van Sighem, Ard; Brinkman, Kees; van Benthem, Birgit H; van der Ende, Marchina E; Geerlings, Suzanne; Reiss, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Early testing for HIV and entry into care are crucial to optimise treatment outcomes of HIV-infected patients and to prevent spread of HIV. We examined risk factors for presentation with late or advanced disease in HIV-infected patients in the Netherlands. Methods HIV-infected patients registered in care between January 1996 and June 2014 were selected from the ATHENA national observational HIV cohort. Risk factors for late presentation and advanced disease were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. Furthermore, geographical differences and time trends were examined. Results Of 20 965 patients, 53% presented with late-stage HIV infection, and 35% had advanced disease. Late presentation decreased from 62% (1996) to 42% (2013), while advanced disease decreased from 46% to 26%. Late presentation only declined significantly among men having sex with men (MSM; p Netherlands), and location of HIV diagnosis (hospital 3.27; 2.94 to 3.63, general practitioner 1.66; 1.50 to 1.83, antenatal screening 1.76; 1.38 to 2.34 vs sexually transmitted infection clinic). No association was found for socioeconomic status or level of urbanisation. Compared with Amsterdam, 2 regions had higher adjusted odds and 2 regions had lower odds of late presentation. Results were highly similar for advanced disease. Conclusions Although the overall rate of late presentation is declining in the Netherlands, targeted programmes to reduce late HIV diagnoses remain needed for all risk groups, but should be prioritised for heterosexual males, migrant populations, people aged ≥50 years and certain regions in the Netherlands. PMID:26729389

  12. Factors associated with presenting late or with advanced HIV disease in the Netherlands, 1996-2014: results from a national observational cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op de Coul, Eline L M; van Sighem, Ard; Brinkman, Kees; van Benthem, Birgit H; van der Ende, Marchina E; Geerlings, Suzanne; Reiss, Peter

    2016-01-04

    Early testing for HIV and entry into care are crucial to optimise treatment outcomes of HIV-infected patients and to prevent spread of HIV. We examined risk factors for presentation with late or advanced disease in HIV-infected patients in the Netherlands. HIV-infected patients registered in care between January 1996 and June 2014 were selected from the ATHENA national observational HIV cohort. Risk factors for late presentation and advanced disease were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. Furthermore, geographical differences and time trends were examined. Of 20,965 patients, 53% presented with late-stage HIV infection, and 35% had advanced disease. Late presentation decreased from 62% (1996) to 42% (2013), while advanced disease decreased from 46% to 26%. Late presentation only declined significantly among men having sex with men (MSM; p Netherlands), and location of HIV diagnosis (hospital 3.27; 2.94 to 3.63, general practitioner 1.66; 1.50 to 1.83, antenatal screening 1.76; 1.38 to 2.34 vs sexually transmitted infection clinic). No association was found for socioeconomic status or level of urbanisation. Compared with Amsterdam, 2 regions had higher adjusted odds and 2 regions had lower odds of late presentation. Results were highly similar for advanced disease. Although the overall rate of late presentation is declining in the Netherlands, targeted programmes to reduce late HIV diagnoses remain needed for all risk groups, but should be prioritised for heterosexual males, migrant populations, people aged ≥ 50 years and certain regions in the Netherlands. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Early and late oral features of chronic graft-versus-host disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Oliveira Ferrari Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic graft-versus-host disease is a serious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, and the mouth is one of the affected sites. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral features of this disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study that enrolled patients submitted to transplantation. Oral evaluations used the National Institutes of Health criteria, salivary flow rates, and the range of mouth opening. Pain and xerostomia were evaluated through a visual analogue scale. Patients were divided into two groups based on the transplantation time (up to one year and more than one year. Results: Of the 57 evaluated recipients, 44 had chronic graft-versus-host disease: ten (22.72% in the group with less than one year after transplantation, and 34 (77.27% in the group with more than one year after transplantation. Lichenoid/hyperkeratotic plaques, erythematous lesions, xerostomia, and hyposalivation were the most commonly reported oral features. Lichenoid/hyperkeratotic plaques were significantly more common in patients within the first year after the transplant. The labial mucosa was affected more in the first year. No significant changes occurred in the frequency of xerostomia, hyposalivation, and reduced mouth opening regarding time after transplantation. Conclusion: Oral chronic graft-versus-host disease lesions were identified early in the course of the disease. The changes observed in salivary gland function and in the range of mouth opening were not correlated with the time after transplantation.

  14. Late onset ‘en coup de sabre’ following trauma: Rare presentation of a rare disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasleem Arif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En coup de sabre (linear scleroderma of face is a rare type of morphea (localized scleroderma involving frontoparietal area of the forehead and scalp. Many triggering factors have been implicated in the development of morphea like trauma, immobilization, bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG vaccination, injections of vitamin K, mechanical compression from clothing, etc. Linear scleroderma primarily affects the pediatric population, with 67% of patients diagnosed before 18 years of age. In this article, we describe a case of 26 year old female who presented with a three months history of brownish indurated plaque of skin on the frontal and forehead regions of the head. The patient gave a history of trauma at the same site six years back. The diagnosis of morphea was made clinically supported by histopathological features of the skin biopsy. Her neurological examination was normal. ANA was negative. Brain MRI didn’t reveal any abnormality. She was treated with topical tacrolimus 0.1% ointment. The late onset en coup de sabre is a rare presentation and hence reported.

  15. Classification of Rhinoentomophthoromycosis into Atypical, Early, Intermediate, and Late Disease: A Proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blumentrath, Christian G.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Matsiégui, Pierre-Blaise; Pahlke, Friedrich; Zoleko-Manego, Rella; Nzenze-Aféne, Solange; Mabicka, Barthélemy; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Kremsner, Peter G.; Schaumburg, Frieder

    2015-01-01

    Rhinoentomophthoromycosis, or rhino-facial conidiobolomycosis, is a rare, grossly disfiguring disease due to an infection with entomophthoralean fungi. We report a case of rhinoentomophthoromycosis from Gabon and suggest a staging system, which provides information on the prognosis and duration of

  16. Is early rheumatoid arthritis the same disease process as late rheumatoid arthritis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, P. P.

    2001-01-01

    Thoughts on treatment for the early control of synovitis have stimulated research on pathobiological events at the site of inflammation in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Several studies have thus been conducted to examine synovial biopsy samples at various stages of the disease. The most

  17. Cognition and Incident Coronary Heart Disease in Late Midlife: The Whitehall II Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Manoux, Archana; Sabia, Severine; Kivimaki, Mika; Shipley, Martin J.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Marmot, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive function in midlife predicts incident coronary heart disease (CHD), followed up over 6 years. Data on 5292 (28% women, mean age 55) individuals free from CHD at baseline were drawn from the British Whitehall II study. We used Cox regression to model the association between cognition…

  18. The genetic variation of SORCS1 is associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease in Chinese Han population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    Full Text Available The variations of SORCS1 gene may play potential key roles in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD. To evaluate the relationship between the polymorphism of SORCS1 gene and LOAD in the ethnic Han Chinese, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in intron 1 of SORCS1 and LOAD in Chinese Han population. Six reported SNPs in intron 1 of SORCS1 were analyzed by Snapshot, genotyping and haplotyping in 236 Chinese LOAD cases and 233 matched controls. The significant differences in frequencies of two SNPs (rs10884402, rs950809 were found between the two groups. In addition, haplotype analyses revealed that, in the LOAD group, the frequency of haplotypes C-C-G-T-C (alleles in order of rs17277986, rs6584777, rs10884402, rs7078098, rs950809 polymorphisms were significantly higher (Psim<0.0001 while haplotype C-C-A-T-C, C-C-A-C-C, T-T-A-C-C were significantly lower (Psim<0.0001. Our data suggested that the genetic variation of the rs10884402 and rs950809 in intron 1 of SORCS1 was associated with the late-onset AD in the Chinese Han population.

  19. Anti-Ge3 causes late-onset hemolytic disease of the newborn: the fourth case in three Hispanic families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Lisa Lee; Myers, Jessica C; Palma, Jonathan P; Viele, Maurene; Galel, Susan A; Ferrer, Zenaida; Gonzalez, Christopher L; Benitz, William E; Garratty, George; Fontaine, Magali J

    2013-10-01

    The Gerbich (Ge) blood group system consists of 11 antigens carried on red blood cell (RBC) membrane glycophorins C and D; of these, Ge:3 antigen is of high prevalence, and the anti-Ge3 is found to be clinically significant. A 34-week neonate born to a Hispanic mother with anti-Ge3 developed late-onset hemolysis with hyperbilirubinemia and was successfully treated with transfusions from her mother. Relevant clinical findings and laboratory results for this case are summarized and compared to three other previously reported cases; all babies were born from a mother of Hispanic ethnicity. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and new born associated with anti-Ge3 is rare but should be considered when working up a broadly reactive RBC antibody screen in women of Hispanic ethnicity. Early identification of pregnant women with anti-Ge3 is recommended for prenatal transfusion planning and close monitoring of the newborn infant for evidence of late-onset anemia. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  20. Health audit survey in the high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast: prevalence of congenital malformations, late onset diseases and untoward pregnancy outcomes in the study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheriyan, V.D.; Koya, P.K.M.; Jaikrishan, G.; Anil Kumar, V.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    A total population of 2,52,735 was surveyed (1,24,246 males, 1,28,489 females; (sex ratio 1000:1034). congenital malformation was reported among 2951 individuals with a frequency of 1.17%. The percentage of individuals with birth defects ranged from 1% in Oachira to 1.46% in Neendakara. At least one of the late onset diseases were reported in 33,199 (13.14%) individuals. Percentage of individuals with any of the late onset diseases ranged from 10.7% in Panmana to 17.9% in Alappad. The distribution of birth defects is the eight panchayats is similar (both Kruskal Wallis and median test P > .20) whereas the distribution of late onset disease does not appear to be similar in all the panchayats (Kruskal Wallis chi-square with 7 d.f = 32.3, P < .001; median test chi-square with 7 d.f. = 15.1; P= .035). The frequency of late onset diseases among males and females in different age groups suggest that females in the age group of 30-59 report more late onset disease than their male counterparts

  1. FIRE BLIGHT SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOME PEAR VARIETIES (ERWINIA AMYLOVORA, BURILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Jakab- Ilyefalv

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At Bistriţa Fruit Research and Development Station, in a pear collection, planted with 44 varieties, there has been studied the susceptibility to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora,Burill. During the vegetation period, phytosanitary treatments to control the disease have been applied using copper based products (copper sulfate, Champion, Funguran, Kocide. Erwinia amylovora infections have been influenced by the rainfall registered in April (70.9 mm and May (104.7 mm and the temperature fluctuations in April-May. The field observations on Erwinia amylvora attack demonstrate that the pear varieties have a different susceptibility to this dangerous bacterium. Evaluation of attack level in the pear collection was done using an evaluation scale with 9 scores using a reference resistance scale for : ‘Highly resistant’ , ‘Moderately resistant’, ‘Susceptible’, ‘Very susceptible’ cultivars . The most sensitive pear varieties in the collection were: ‘De Noiembrie’, ‘Abatele Fetel’, ’Daciana’, ’Triumf’, ’Williams Boway’, ’Margareta Marillat’, ’Beauty Tomme’, ‘Williams rosu’, ’Aromata de Bistrita’, ’Jeanne d`Arc’, ’Aramiu de Somes’, ’Belle des Arbres’, ’Zorka’ representing 13.64% of the total pear varieties. In several cultivars there have been observed increased symptoms, a very high susceptibility of infections leading to complete scorching of trees: Jeanne d`Arc’, Williams rosu’, ‘Triumf’, ‘Aromata de Bistrita’, ‘Zorka’. Strong attack symtoms were observed at the pear cultivars ‘Cure’, ‘Euras, ’Ciuda’ ‘Highland’, ‘Precoce Morettini’, ’Monica’, ’Cadillac’, ’Juliana’, ’Somesan’, ’Beurré Hardenpont’ these cultivars being susceptible to Erwinia amylovora , representing 40.91 % of total genotypes . Cultivars ‘Untoasa Geoagiu’, ‘Beurre Hardy’, ‘Trivale’ manifested a certain tolerance to Erwinia amylovora , no attack symptoms being

  2. Feasible Management of Southern Corn Leaf Blight via Induction of Systemic Resistance by Bacillus cereus C1L in Combination with Reduced Use of Dithiocarbamate Fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ru Lai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dithiocarbamate fungicides such as maneb and mancozeb are widely used nonsystemic protectant fungicides to control various plant fungal diseases. Dithiocarbamate fungicides should be frequently applied to achieve optimal efficacy of disease control and avoid either decline in effectiveness or wash-off from leaf surface. Dithiocarbamates are of low resistance risk but have the potential to cause human neurological diseases. The objective of this study was to develop a strategy to effectively control plant disease with reduced use of dithiocarbamtes. Southern corn leaf blight was the model pathosystem for the investigation. When corn plants were drench-treated with Bacillus cereus C1L, a rhizobacterium able to induce systemic resistance in corn plants against southern leaf blight, frequency of spraying dithiocarbamate fungicides could be decreased. The treatment of B. cereus C1L was able to protect maize from southern leaf blight while residues of dithiocarbamates on leaf surface were too low to provide sufficient protection. On the other hand, frequent sprays of mancozeb slightly but significantly reduced growth of corn plants under natural conditions. In contrast, application of B. cereus C1L can significantly promote growth of corn plants whether sprayed with mancozeb or not. Our results provide the information that plant disease can be well controlled by rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance in combination with reduced but appropriate application of dithiocarbamate fungicides just before a heavy infection period. An appropriate use of rhizobacteria can enhance plant growth and help plants overcome negative effects caused by dithiocarbamates.

  3. Cerebral hemodynamic difference between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease by circumferential profile analysis with 123I-IMP brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hisayuki; Hanyu, Haruo; Abe, Shinei; Asano, Tetsuichi; Takasaki, Masaru; Suzuki, Takanari; Abe, Kimihiko; Katsunuma, Hideyo.

    1992-01-01

    We conducted investigation to determine whether early- and late-onset Alzheimer's diseases differ pathophysiologically. Five patients with the early-onset (65 years and under) of the disease and 11 with the late-onset (65 years and over) of the disease were studied by single photon emission CT (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP). Circumferential profile analysis (CPA) was performed to examine differences in the predominant hypoperfusion in the temporoparietal lobe, which is considered to be functionally damaged the most in Alzheimer's disease. The Xm values, calculated from gradients between the motorsensory or occipital cortices and temporoparietal cortex in the circumferential profile curve, were compared in both groups. The Xm values for patients with early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease were 6.81±2.10 (counts/degree) and 3.28±1.58, respectively, the difference being significant. Our results suggest that functional abnormalities in the temporoparietal area severer in early- than late-onset Alzheimer's disease and that the application of CPA to IMP SPECT is useful to elucidate the pathophysiological difference between each of the disease. (author)

  4. Motor function and respiratory capacity in patients with late-onset pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illes, Zsolt; Mike, Andrea; Trauninger, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The relationship between skeletal muscle strength and respiratory dysfunction in Pompe disease has not been examined by quantitative methods. We investigated correlations among lower extremity proximal muscle strength, respiratory function, and motor performance. Methods: Concentric...... strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured with a dynamometer, and pulmonary function was evaluated using spirometry in 7 adult patients. The six-minute walk test and the four-step stair-climb test were used for assessing aerobic endurance and anaerobic power, respectively. Results......: Anaerobic motor performance correlated with strength of both thigh muscles. Respiratory function did not correlate with either muscle strength or motor function performance. Conclusions: Respiratory and lower extremity proximal muscles could be differentially affected by the disease in individual patients...

  5. Functional Marker Assisted Improvement of Stable Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines of Rice for Bacterial Blight Resistance

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    Jegadeesan Ramalingam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight (BB, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae is one among the major diseases in rice, which in severe condition cause losses up to 60% in total yield. Marker assisted pyramiding of three broad spectrum BB resistance genes (xa5, xa13, and Xa21 in prominent rice varieties is the most economical and effective strategy for the management of the BB disease. We report here the pyramiding of three genes (xa5, xa13, and Xa21 in maintainer lines (CO 2B, CO 23B, and CO 24B of three promising wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterile lines (CO 2A, CO 23A, and CO 24A through functional markers assisted back cross breeding. IRBB60 with xa5, xa13, and Xa21 genes is used as a donor parent. BC2F1 and BC2F2 generations from a cross of CO 2B, CO 23B, and CO 24B with IRBB60 were evaluated for bacterial blight and non-fertility restoration. In BC2F1, plants with all three resistance genes (xa5, xa13, and Xa21 and high parent genome recovery was identified. In BC2F2, plants with all resistance genes and without fertility restorer (Rf3 and Rf4 were selected. Based on agronomic traits, BB resistance and maintenance of sterility, two plants each in CO 2B × IRBB60, CO 24B × IRBB60 and one plant in CO 23B × IRBB60 combinations were identified. The identified lines were crossed with respective male sterile lines for conversion of improved B line into CMS line through back-crossing, in addition to selfing. The plants with high recurrent genome and phenotypically similar to parental lines and sterile are being used for the hybrid rice development program. Currently, using these lines (improved CMS line, test crosses were made to develop new rice hybrids. Hybrids combinations viz., CO 23A × AD08009R and CO 24A × IET20898R were found to be stable at different locations with high yield. The R line used in this study has been introgressed with xa5, xa13, and Xa21 genes in a separate breeding program. These new hybrids with resistance against bacterial blight

  6. 7T T₂*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooden, Sanneke; Doan, Nhat Trung; Versluis, Maarten J; Goos, Jeroen D C; Webb, Andrew G; Oleksik, Ania M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W E; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Reiber, Johan H C; van Buchem, Mark A; Milles, Julien; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T2(∗)-weighted scans were acquired in 12 EOAD patients and 17 LOAD patients with mild to moderate disease and 27 healthy elderly control subjects. Lobar peak-to-peak phase shifts and regional mean phase contrasts were computed. An increased peak-to-peak phase shift was found for all lobar regions in EOAD patients compared with LOAD patients (p < 0.05). Regional mean phase contrast in EOAD patients was higher than in LOAD patients in the superior medial and middle frontal gyrus, anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior and inferior parietal gyrus, and precuneus (p ≤ 0.042). These data suggest that EOAD patients have an increased iron accumulation, possibly related to an increased amyloid deposition, in specific cortical regions as compared with LOAD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical efficacy of Myozyme on one ventilator dependent patient with late-onset glycogen storage disease typeⅡ

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    Juan YANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effect of Myozyme on one ventilator dependent patient with late-onset glycogen storage disease typeⅡ (GSDⅡ.  Methods Myozyme infusion was administered based on manufacturer's recommendations at 20 mg/kg every 2 to 4 weeks, beginning at actual body weight, and was continuously treated for 6 times. No premedication was performed except 5 mg dexamethasone was administered at the first use of Myozyme. Clinical assessment was completed every day and was lasted for 16 months including motor function, the time free of ventilation, and the change of respiration parameters.  Results Myozyme was well tolerated without adverse reactions. Pain on shoulder began to alleviate the next day after taking Myozyme. With the prolonged time and increased number of taking drugs, the time free of ventilation and doing in-situ stepping prolonged, and the speed of stepping in-situ also increased. Besides, the strength of lifting the upper limbs increased, and both the time and speed of walking free of ventilation prolonged. The maximus curative effect occured at the 7th month (3 months after drug withdrawal after treatment and returned to pre-treatment levels at the 8th month (4 months after drug withdrawal. The pain on shoulder was the first symptom that got improved, and the fastest symptom that returned to baseline.  Conclusions Myozyme has positive effect on ventilated patients with late-onset glycogen storage disease type Ⅱ. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.05.009

  8. Rare variants in APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 increase risk for AD in late-onset Alzheimer's disease families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cruchaga

    Full Text Available Pathogenic mutations in APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, MAPT and GRN have previously been linked to familial early onset forms of dementia. Mutation screening in these genes has been performed in either very small series or in single families with late onset AD (LOAD. Similarly, studies in single families have reported mutations in MAPT and GRN associated with clinical AD but no systematic screen of a large dataset has been performed to determine how frequently this occurs. We report sequence data for 439 probands from late-onset AD families with a history of four or more affected individuals. Sixty sequenced individuals (13.7% carried a novel or pathogenic mutation. Eight pathogenic variants, (one each in APP and MAPT, two in PSEN1 and four in GRN three of which are novel, were found in 14 samples. Thirteen additional variants, present in 23 families, did not segregate with disease, but the frequency of these variants is higher in AD cases than controls, indicating that these variants may also modify risk for disease. The frequency of rare variants in these genes in this series is significantly higher than in the 1,000 genome project (p = 5.09 × 10⁻⁵; OR = 2.21; 95%CI = 1.49-3.28 or an unselected population of 12,481 samples (p = 6.82 × 10⁻⁵; OR = 2.19; 95%CI = 1.347-3.26. Rare coding variants in APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2, increase risk for or cause late onset AD. The presence of variants in these genes in LOAD and early-onset AD demonstrates that factors other than the mutation can impact the age at onset and penetrance of at least some variants associated with AD. MAPT and GRN mutations can be found in clinical series of AD most likely due to misdiagnosis. This study clearly demonstrates that rare variants in these genes could explain an important proportion of genetic heritability of AD, which is not detected by GWAS.

  9. Late cardiac, thyroid, and pulmonary sequelae of mantle radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, G.W.; Freeman, A.P.; McLean, R.G.; Jarvie, B.H.; Giles, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Cardiac, thyroid and pulmonary function were evaluated in 25 patients aged 35 years or under, treated for Hodgkin's disease by mantle radiotherapy 5-16 years previously. No patient had symptoms of heart disease. Although thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was normal in all patients, abnormalities of myocardial function were detected in 6 (24%) patients using gated equilibrium rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography. Resting left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was abnormal in 1 patient, and in 3 patients there was an abnormal LVEF response to exercise. All 6 patients had right ventricular dilatation. Apical hypokinesia was present in 4 of these patients. A small asymptomatic pericardial effusion was detected by M-Mode echocardiography in only 2 (8%) patients. Twenty-three (92%) patients had evidence of abnormal thyroid function. Two (8%) patients had become clinically hypothyroid. Serum TSH was elevated in 13 (52%) patients and TRH stimulation test was abnormal in a further 10 (40%) patients in whom TSH was normal. Pulmonary function studies showed a moderate decrease in diffusing capacity (72% of predicted) and a minor reduction in lung volume. Although a high incidence of cardiac, thyroid and pulmonary abnormalities was detected, only the 2 patients who had become hypothyroid were symptomatic. Modification of the irradiation technique may reduce the incidence of cardiac abnormalities, but is unlikely to alter significantly the thyroid or pulmonary sequelae

  10. A Classification Scheme for Analyzing Mobile Apps Used to Prevent and Manage Disease in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiguo; Lu, Xin; Chen, Hongtu; Li, Changqun; Levkoff, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several mobile apps that offer tools for disease prevention and management among older adults, and promote health behaviors that could potentially reduce or delay the onset of disease. A classification scheme that categorizes apps could be useful to both older adult app users and app developers. Objective The objective of our study was to build and evaluate the effectiveness of a classification scheme that classifies mobile apps available for older adults in the “Health & Fitness” category of the iTunes App Store. Methods We constructed a classification scheme for mobile apps according to three dimensions: (1) the Precede-Proceed Model (PPM), which classifies mobile apps in terms of predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors for behavior change; (2) health care process, specifically prevention versus management of disease; and (3) health conditions, including physical health and mental health. Content analysis was conducted by the research team on health and fitness apps designed specifically for older adults, as well as those applicable to older adults, released during the months of June and August 2011 and August 2012. Face validity was assessed by a different group of individuals, who were not related to the study. A reliability analysis was conducted to confirm the accuracy of the coding scheme of the sample apps in this study. Results After applying sample inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 119 apps were included in the study sample, of which 26/119 (21.8%) were released in June 2011, 45/119 (37.8%) in August 2011, and 48/119 (40.3%) in August 2012. Face validity was determined by interviewing 11 people, who agreed that this scheme accurately reflected the nature of this application. The entire study sample was successfully coded, demonstrating satisfactory inter-rater reliability by two independent coders (95.8% initial concordance and 100% concordance after consensus was reached). The apps included in the study sample

  11. Actinomycetes from Eucalyptus and their biological activities for controlling Eucalyptus leaf and shoot blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himaman, Winanda; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Duangmal, Kannika

    2016-01-01

    In Thailand, Eucalyptus plantations rapidly expand across the country. Leaf and shoot blight caused by Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans is a serious disease in Eucalyptus plantations. In this study, a total of 477 actinomycete strains were successfully isolated from roots and rhizosphere soil of Eucalyptus. Four hundred and thirty nine isolates were classified as streptomycetes and 38 isolates were non-streptomycetes. Among these isolates, 272 (57.0%), 118 (24.7%) and 241 (50.5%) isolates were antagonistic to Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans, respectively. All isolates were tested for their abilities to produce siderophores, indole acetic acid (IAA) and solubilise phosphate. Most isolates (464, 97.3%) produced siderophores. The majority of isolates (345, 72.3%) solubilised phosphate. In addition, almost half of these isolates (237, 49.7%) produced indole acetic acid. Strain EUSKR2S82 which showed the strongest inhibitory effect against all tested fungi with plant growth promoting ability was selected to test with Eucalyptus. This strain could colonize plant roots and increase Eucalyptus roots length. In a detached leaves bioassay, the disease severity of EUSKR2S82-inoculated Eucalyptus leaves was only 30% compared to 95% in the control treatment. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain EUSKR2S82 was related to Streptomyces ramulosus NRRL-B 2714(T) (99.44% similarity). Identification of non-streptomycete isolates using 16S rRNA gene sequences classified them into 9 genera: Actinoallomurus, Actinomadura, Amycolatopsis, Cryptosporangium, Microbispora, Micromonospora, Nocardia, Nonomuraea and Pseudonocardia. It is evident that Eucalyptus tree harbored several genera of actinomycetes. The selected isolate, EUSKR2S82 showed potential as a candidate for biocontrol agent of leaf and shoot blight of Eucalyptus and to promote growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Gmb

  12. Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Reflectance-Based Non-Invasive Quantification of Blast, Bacterial Blight and Drought Stresses in Rice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebela, David; Quiňones, C.; Cruz, C.; Ona, I.; Olejníčková, Julie; Jagadish, K. S. V.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2018), s. 30-43 ISSN 0032-0781 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284443 - EPPN Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : marker-assisted selection * oryza-sativa l. * water -stress * magnaporthe-grisea * disease resistance * photosynthetic efficiency * spectral reflectance * carotenoid content * eucalyptus leaves * diurnal changes * Bacterial blight * Chlorophyll fluorescence * Drought stress * Reflectance * Rice bast Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.760, year: 2016

  13. Factors influencing U.S. consumer support for genetic modification to prevent crop disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A; Besley, John C; Steinhardt, Joseph

    2014-07-01

    This study examines support for the genetic modification (GM) of crops in the context of preventing "late blight," a devastating potato and tomato disease that caused the Irish Potato Famine in the 1850s and results in substantial crop loss today. We surveyed U.S. adults who do the primary grocery shopping in their household (n = 859). Half of the respondents were randomly assigned to read a vignette describing late blight before responding to questions about GM, whereas the other half read a vignette about generic crop disease before responding to questions. We also examine how the perceived fairness of decision makers relates to GM support and the perceived legitimacy of GM decision making. We found that disease specificity mattered less to support and legitimacy than the perceived fairness of decision makers. The perceived risks of GM to human and environmental health negatively related to GM support and legitimacy, whereas the perceived benefits (e.g. reduced threats to crops and a more secure food supply) positively related to support and legitimacy. Objective knowledge about GM had a small, negative relationship with legitimacy whereas self-assessed familiarity with GM had a positive relationship. Overall, the results offer additional confirmation of past findings from more localized settings that perceived fairness of decision makers matters to support for GM and underscore the importance of considering how risk managers' behaviors and actions are perceived alongside individuals' perceptions about the risks and benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Marchiafava-Bignami disease with hyperintensity on late diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Takayasu; Matsuo, Koushun; Morii-Kitani, Fukiko; Azuma, Fumiko; Matsuo, Hisayasu; Takada, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Masanori; Mizuno, Toshiki; Yamada, Kei

    2014-01-01

    A 69-year-old man with a decades-long history of chronic alcohol consumption was admitted with gait disturbance (short steps and spasticity), deterioration of activity, and stuporous consciousness. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hyperintensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging in the corpus callosum and frontal white matter. The lesion later became more apparent on diffusion-weighted imaging. The clinical diagnosis was Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD). As temporary treatment, refraining from alcohol consumption and administration of vitamins were prescribed. The condition of the patient gradually improved. The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the clinical and radiological variety of MBD and to identify practical methods of treatment of this pathology

  15. Association Between Exercise Capacity and Late Onset of Dementia, Alzheimer Disease, and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan; Chan, Khin; Myers, Jonathan N

    2017-02-01

    To address the association between exercise capacity and the onset of dementia, Alzheimer disease, and cognitive impairment. For 6104 consecutive veteran patients (mean ± SD age: 59.2±11.4 years) referred for treadmill exercise testing, the combined end point of dementia, Alzheimer disease, and cognitive impairment was abstracted from the Veterans Affairs computerized patient record system. After mean ± SD follow-up of 10.3±5.5 years, 353 patients (5.8%) developed the composite end point at a mean ± SD age of 76.7±10.3 years. After correction for confounders in multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression, higher age at exercise testing (hazard ratio [HR]=1.08; 95% CI, 1.07-1.09; P<.001), current smoking (HR=1.44; 95% CI, 1.08-1.93; P=.01), and exercise capacity (HR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.89-0.96; P<.001) emerged as predictors of cognitive impairment. Each 1-metabolic equivalent increase in exercise capacity conferred a nearly 8% reduction in the incidence of cognitive impairment. Meeting the recommendations for daily activity was not associated with a delay in onset of cognitive impairment (HR=1.07; 95% CI, 0.86-1.32; P=.55). Exercise capacity is strongly associated with cognitive function; the inverse association between fitness and cognitive impairment provides an additional impetus for health care providers to promote physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Epidemiological study of hazelnut bacterial blight in central Italy by using laboratory analysis and geostatistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Ram Lamichhane

    Full Text Available Incidence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina, the causal agent of hazelnut bacterial blight, was analyzed spatially in relation to the pedoclimatic factors. Hazelnut grown in twelve municipalities situated in the province of Viterbo, central Italy was studied. A consistent number of bacterial isolates were obtained from the infected tissues of hazelnut collected in three years (2010-2012. The isolates, characterized by phenotypic tests, did not show any difference among them. Spatial patterns of pedoclimatic data, analyzed by geostatistics showed a strong positive correlation of disease incidence with higher values of rainfall, thermal shock and soil nitrogen; a weak positive correlation with soil aluminium content and a strong negative correlation with the values of Mg/K ratio. No correlation of the disease incidence was found with soil pH. Disease incidence ranged from very low (<1% to very high (almost 75% across the orchards. Young plants (4-year old were the most affected by the disease confirming a weak negative correlation of the disease incidence with plant age. Plant cultivars did not show any difference in susceptibility to the pathogen. Possible role of climate change on the epidemiology of the disease is discussed. Improved management practices are recommended for effective control of the disease.

  17. Fusarium proliferatum and fumonisin B1 co-occur with Fusarium species causing Fusarium Head Blight in durum wheat in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, Barbara; Pfohl, Katharina; Tonti, Stefano; Nipoti, Paola; Dastjerdi, Raana; Pisi, Annamaria; Karlovsky, Petr; Prodi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium Head Blight caused by phytopathogenic Fusarium spp. with Fusarium graminearum as main causal agent is a major disease of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Mycotoxins in wheat are dominated by trichothecenes B. Fumonisins have only occasionally been reported from wheat; their occurrence was attributed to Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium verticillioides. We investigated kernels of durum wheat grown in Italy in 2008 - 2010 for colonization with Fusarium spp. and for the content o...

  18. An Investigation of the Late Excitatory Potentials in the Hand following Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Early Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Balla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent neuroimaging studies in humans support the clinical observations that the motor cortex is affected early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Patients and Methods: We measured the silent period (SP induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation in AD patients in the very early stage of the disease, and we explored whether and in which way the pharmacologic manipulation of the cholinergic system could modify it. Results: An increase in the duration of the SP was observed in AD patients in the early stage in comparison to controls. After 2 months of treatment with donepezil, the duration did not differ significantly from that of normal subjects. The results of our study show a fragmentation and an enlargement of the SP in the presence of multiple late excitatory potentials (LEPs in early untreated AD patients. These LEPs were also modulated by donepezil. Conclusions: The results suggest an early functional impairment of cholinergic neurotransmission in AD. The disturbance in acetylcholine output in early AD leads to a decrease in excitability of the motor system.

  19. Differentiating needle blights of white pine in the interpretation of fume damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepting, G H; Berry, C R

    1961-01-01

    In white pines it is difficult to differentiate between needle blight caused by air pollution and numerous other causes. White pines are regarded as sensitive to sulfur dioxide and fluorine. The authors attempt to provide means of identifying and separating blights of white pines in the southern Appalachians.

  20. Prevalence of Comorbidity in Patients With Young-Onset Alzheimer Disease Compared With Late-Onset: A Comparative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Adrie A J; Bakker, Christian; Verhey, Frans R J; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Melis, René J F; Koopmans, Raymond T C M

    2016-04-01

    With the lack of a cure for Alzheimer disease (AD), the identification of comorbidity is important to reduce the possibility of excess disability. Although comorbidity in patients with late-onset AD (LO-AD) is common, for people with young-onset AD (YO-AD), it is unclear how often comorbidity occurs. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether comorbidity in patients with YO-AD differs from that in patients with LO-AD. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence, types of morbidity, and morbidity profiles in patients with YO-AD compared with those of patients with LO-AD. Explorative cohort study from 2 separate Dutch cohorts (Needs in Young-onset Dementia [NeedYD] and the Clinical Course of Cognition and Comorbidity-Dementia Study [4C-Dementia study]). Participants were recruited in 2007 and 2008 from (1) the memory clinics of 3 Dutch Alzheimer centers, (2) the memory clinics of general hospitals, (3) mental health services in the southern part of the Netherlands, and (4) young-onset dementia specialized day care facilities. A comparison group of community-dwelling, elderly patients with AD was selected from the 4C-Dementia study. Patients in this study were recruited in 2010 and 2011 from the aforementioned Alzheimer centers. The prevalence rates of comorbidity were compared between 177 patients with YO-AD and 155 patients with LO-AD. Comorbidity was classified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). The total amount of comorbidity was established by counting the number of existing diseases (ICD categories or chapters) and comorbidity was also dichotomized as present or absent. Furthermore, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to study clusters of comorbidity. Compared with LO-AD, patients with YO-AD showed less (P < .001) overall comorbidity (58.2% vs 86.5%) and had lower prevalence rates of diabetes, obesity, and circulatory diseases; however, the prevalence rates of diseases of the nervous system in YO-AD (6

  1. Selection on alleles affecting human longevity and late-life disease: the example of apolipoprotein E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotios Drenos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that genes affecting health in old age, such as cardiovascular and Alzheimer diseases, are beyond the reach of natural selection. We show in a simulation study based on known genetic (apolipoprotein E and non-genetic risk factors (gender, diet, smoking, alcohol, exercise that, because there is a statistical distribution of ages at which these genes exert their influence on morbidity and mortality, the effects of selection are in fact non-negligible. A gradual increase with each generation of the epsilon2 and epsilon3 alleles of the gene at the expense of the epsilon4 allele was predicted from the model. The epsilon2 allele frequency was found to increase slightly more rapidly than that for epsilon3, although there was no statistically significant difference between the two. Our result may explain the recent evolutionary history of the epsilon 2, 3 and 4 alleles of the apolipoprotein E gene and has wider relevance for genes affecting human longevity.

  2. Association between Mitofusin 2 Gene Polymorphisms and Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease in the Korean Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jong; Park, Jin Kyung; Kang, Won Sub; Kim, Su Kang; Han, Changsu; Na, Hae Ri; Park, Hae Jeong; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Young Youl; Park, Moon Ho

    2017-01-01

    Objective Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent and early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The morphologic changes observed in the AD brain could be caused by a failure of mitochondrial fusion mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of two genes involved in mitochondrial fusion mechanisms, optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2), were associated with AD in the Korean population by analyzing genotypes and allele frequencies. Methods One coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MFN2, rs1042837, and two coding SNPs in the OPA1, rs7624750 and rs9851685, were compared between 165 patients with AD (83 men and 82 women, mean age 72.3±4.41) and 186 healthy control subjects (82 men and 104 women, mean age 76.5±5.98). Results Among these three SNPs, rs1042837 showed statistically significant differences in allele frequency, and genotype frequency in the co-dominant 1 model and in the dominant model. Conclusion These results suggest that the rs1042837 polymorphism in MFN2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:28096879

  3. Pathways from childhood intelligence and socioeconomic status to late-life cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Mõttus, René; Craig, Leone C A; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2012-07-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase marker of systemic inflammation and considered an established risk marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in old age. Previous studies have suggested that low childhood intelligence, lower socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood or in later life, unhealthy behaviors, poor wellbeing, and high body mass index (BMI) are associated with inflammation. Life course models that simultaneously incorporate all these risk factors can explain how CVD risks accumulate over time, from childhood to old age. Using the data from 1,091 Scottish adults (Lothian Birth Cohort Study, 1936), a path model was constructed to predict CRP at age 70 from concurrent health behaviors, self-perceived quality of life, and BMI and adulthood SES as mediating variables, and from parental SES and childhood intelligence as distal risk factors. A well-fitting path model (CFI = .92, SRMR = .05) demonstrated significant indirect effects from childhood intelligence and parental social class to inflammation via BMI, health behaviors and quality of life (all ps intelligence, unhealthy behaviors, and higher BMI were also direct predictors of CRP. The life course model illustrated how CVD risks may accumulate over time, beginning in childhood and being both direct and transmitted indirectly via low adult SES, unhealthy behaviors, impaired quality of life, and high BMI. Knowledge on the childhood risk factors and their pathways to poor health can be used to identify high-risk individuals for more intensive and tailored behavior change interventions, and to develop effective public health policies.

  4. Late onset of atypical paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia with remote history of Graves′ disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qayyum Rana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD is a rare hyperkinetic movement disorder and falls under the category of paroxysmal movement disorders. In this condition, episodes are spontaneous, involuntary, and involve dystonic posturing with choreic and ballistic movements. Attacks last for minutes to hours and rarely occur more than once per day. Attacks are not typically triggered by sudden movement, but may be brought on by alcohol, caffeine, stress, fatigue, or chocolate. We report a patient with multiple atypical features of PNKD. She had a 7-year history of this condition with onset at the age of 59, and a remote history of Graves′ disease requiring total thyroidectomy. The frequency of attacks in our case ranged from five to six times a day to a minimum of twice per week, and the duration of episode was short, lasting not more than 2 min. Typically, PNKDs occur at a much younger age and have longer attack durations with low frequency. Administering clonazepam worked to reduce her symptoms, although majority of previous research suggests that pharmacological interventions have poor outcomes.

  5. Late onset of atypical paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia with remote history of Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Nadeem, Ambreen; Yousuf, Muhammad Saad; Kachhvi, Zakerabibi M

    2013-10-01

    Paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD) is a rare hyperkinetic movement disorder and falls under the category of paroxysmal movement disorders. In this condition, episodes are spontaneous, involuntary, and involve dystonic posturing with choreic and ballistic movements. Attacks last for minutes to hours and rarely occur more than once per day. Attacks are not typically triggered by sudden movement, but may be brought on by alcohol, caffeine, stress, fatigue, or chocolate. We report a patient with multiple atypical features of PNKD. She had a 7-year history of this condition with onset at the age of 59, and a remote history of Graves' disease requiring total thyroidectomy. The frequency of attacks in our case ranged from five to six times a day to a minimum of twice per week, and the duration of episode was short, lasting not more than 2 min. Typically, PNKDs occur at a much younger age and have longer attack durations with low frequency. Administering clonazepam worked to reduce her symptoms, although majority of previous research suggests that pharmacological interventions have poor outcomes.

  6. Association of Insulin Resistance With Cerebral Glucose Uptake in Late Middle-Aged Adults at Risk for Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette, Auriel A; Bendlin, Barbara B; Starks, Erika J; Birdsill, Alex C; Johnson, Sterling C; Christian, Bradley T; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; La Rue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce P; Koscik, Rebecca L; Jonaitis, Erin M; Sager, Mark A; Asthana, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    Converging evidence suggests that Alzheimer disease (AD) involves insulin signaling impairment. Patients with AD and individuals at risk for AD show reduced glucose metabolism, as indexed by fludeoxyglucose F 18-labeled positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). To determine whether insulin resistance predicts AD-like global and regional glucose metabolism deficits in late middle-aged participants at risk for AD and to examine whether insulin resistance-predicted variation in regional glucose metabolism is associated with worse cognitive performance. This population-based, cross-sectional study included 150 cognitively normal, late middle-aged (mean [SD] age, 60.7 [5.8] years) adults from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) study, a general community sample enriched for AD parental history. Participants underwent cognitive testing, fasting blood draw, and FDG-PET at baseline. We used the homeostatic model assessment of peripheral insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Regression analysis tested the statistical effect of HOMA-IR on global glucose metabolism. We used a voxelwise analysis to determine whether HOMA-IR predicted regional glucose metabolism. Finally, predicted variation in regional glucose metabolism was regressed against cognitive factors. Covariates included age, sex, body mass index, apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, AD parental history status, and a reference region used to normalize regional uptake. Regional glucose uptake determined using FDG-PET and neuropsychological factors. Higher HOMA-IR was associated with lower global glucose metabolism (β = -0.29; P factor scores. Our results show that insulin resistance, a prevalent and increasingly common condition in developed countries, is associated with significantly lower regional cerebral glucose metabolism, which in turn may predict worse memory performance. Midlife may be a critical period for initiating treatments to lower peripheral insulin resistance to maintain neural metabolism

  7. Circadian wheel running behavior is altered in an APP/E4 mouse model of late onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Katelyn N; Kakalec, Peter A; Smith, Meghann L; Howell, Stefanie N; Flinn, Jane M

    2017-12-01

    Circadian rhythms are altered in several diseases associated with aging, one of which is Alzheimer's disease (AD). One example of a circadian rhythm is the rest-activity cycle, which can be measured in mice by monitoring their wheel-running. The present study sought to investigate differences in light phase/dark phase activity between a mouse model of late onset AD (APP/E4) and control (C57Bl6J) mice, in both the pre-plaque and post-plaques stages of the disease. To assess activity level, 24-h wheel running behavior was monitored at six months (pre-plaque) and twelve months (post-plaque) for a period of nine days. The following measures were analyzed: counts (wheel rotations) during the dark phase, counts during the light phase, hour of activity onset, and hour of activity offset. Key findings indicate that activity onset is delayed in APP/E4 mice at six and twelve months, and activity profiles for APP/E4 and C57Bl6J mice differ during the light and dark phase in such a way that APP/E4 mice run less in the early hours of the dark phase and more in the later hours of the dark phase compared to C57Bl6J mice. These findings imply that rest-activity cycle is altered in the pre-plaque stages of AD in APP/E4 mice, as they show impairments as early as six months of age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Screening of Early and Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease Genetic Risk Factors in a Cohort of Dementia Patients from Liguria, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Ferrara, Michela; Alinani, Anwar; Sutton, Roger Brian; Famà, Francesco; Picco, Agnese; Rodriguez, Guido; Nobili, Flavio; Momeni, Parastoo

    2015-01-01

    Cohorts from a defined geographical area enable ad hoc genotype-phenotype correlation studies providing novel and unique insight into disease. We analysed genetic risk factors associated with early and late onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD and LOAD) in a population from Liguria (northern Italy), as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. We screened 37 AD, 8 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 3 AD and CVD (cerebrovascular disease), 3 MCI and CVD, 8 frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and 2 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) patients, and 28 normal controls (NCs).We sequenced PSEN1, PSEN2 and APP (EOAD risk factors), as well as MAPT, GRN and TARDBP for all cases and NCs, and analysed the APOE, CLU, CR1 and PICALM genotypes as well as the MAPT and ACE haplotypes (LOAD risk factors) for the AD (n = 37) and AD + MCI (n = 45) cases and NCs (n = 28).We identified variants in PSEN1, PSEN2 and TARDBP across a range of phenotypes (AD, AD and CVD, FTD and PSP), suggesting that screening of all known candidate genes of Alzheimer's and non-Alzheimer's forms of dementias in all dementia cases might be warranted. The analysis of the LOAD risk factors revealed no association with AD or AD + MCI status after Bonferroni correction. Lack of association with APOE is supported by previous studies in the Italian population. Our data also evidenced: 1) a potentially protective haplotype at the PSEN2 locus; 2) a nominal association with the GWAS-risk allele A for rs3818361 in CR1 and; 3) a threefold prevalence of AD in the female population compared to men.Our results will need to be further assessed and confirmed in larger cohorts from this area. 

  9. Influence of family history of dementia in the development and progression of late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarabino, Daniela; Gambina, Giuseppe; Broggio, Elisabetta; Pelliccia, Franca; Corbo, Rosa Maria

    2016-03-01

    Family history of dementia (FH) is a recognized risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). We asked whether having FH increases AD risk and influences disease severity (age at onset and cognitive impairment) in 420 AD patients and 109 controls with (FH+) or without (FH-). The relationships of APOE and other AD risk genes with FH were analyzed as well. The proportion of APOE e4 allele carriers was higher among the FH+ than the FH- AD patients (49.6% vs. 38.9%; P = 0.04). The distribution of the risk genotypes of nine AD susceptibility genes previously examined (CHAT, CYP17, CYP19, ESR1, FSHR, P53, P73, P21, PPARG) did not differ between the FH+ and the FH- AD patients, indicating that none contributed significantly to familial clustering of disease. FH was associated with an increased AD risk (odds ratio [OR] 2.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-5.09; P = 0.002) independent of carrying the APOE e4 allele (OR 2.61, 95%CI 1.53-4.44; P = 0.0004). Having a first-degree relative or a parent with dementia was significantly associated with AD risk (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.3-6.4; P = 0.009 and OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.1-6.2; P = 0.02) but having a sibling with dementia was not (OR 1.7, 95%CI 0.2 to 14.7; P = 0.6). Among the FH+ AD patients, having one or both parents affected seemed to raise the risk of earlier onset age (P = 0.02) and greater cognitive impairment (P = 0.02) than having only an affected sibling, whereas having two or more affected relatives did not. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effect of four growth-promoting rhizobacteria on crown blight caused by Phytophthora capsici in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ramírez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Crown blight, caused by Phytophthora capsici, is the most important disease of pepper (Capsicum annuum in the world and causes great economic losses in Costa Rica. Alternatives to chemical control against this disease are crucial to prevent damage to human health and the environment. The antagonism of Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on P. capsici, and its ability to reduce wilt in pepper plants were evaluated. PGPR strains previously isolated from sugarcane and rice were identified, using 16S RNA gene sequence, as Pseudomonas fluorescens PC4, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila PC9, Pseudomonas fragi PC11 and Azospirillum lipoferum PCJ2. The inhibition of P. capcisi growth was evaluated in vitro, in the presence of the PGPR. The effect of the four bacterial strains on pepper plants inoculated with P. capsici (100 zoospores.plant-1 was evaluated in the greenhouse. P. fluorescens PC4, S. rhizophila PC9 and A. lipoferum PCJ2, inhibited in vitro growth of the oomycete by 54%, 30% and 50 % respectively, while S. rhizophila PC9 increased by 14% shoot fresh weight of pepper plants at the greenhouse. Furthermore, PCJ2 and PC9 strains reduced the shoot and root severity of the disease, and PCJ2-inoculated plants showed no symptoms at all, indicating that PC9 and PCJ2 are promising rizobacteria for the control of crown blight in pepper.

  11. Limitations of Cassava Bacterial Blight: New Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo López

    2006-07-01

    genomics. The acquired knowledge in the last years for this pathosystem will help to establish better disease control strategies and generate, in a short term, resistant cassava varieties contributing to solve one of the main problems of poor cassava farmers and this effort will open a new horizon to the cassava crop in the world.

  12. 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT Imaging in Early and Late Onset Parkinson’s Disease

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    Payam Sasannezhad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: 99mTc-TRODAT-1, which binds to the dopamine transporter, could be used to image the dopaminergic system in diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD. PD can be classified into two groups: late onset Parkinson’s disease (LOPD and early onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD. In this study we tried to determine the TRODAT SPECT findings in EOPD as compared to LOPD.Methods: Fifteen patients were studied. The diagnosis of PD was defined by clinical criteria based on UK Parkinson’s Disease Society Brain Bank criteria. Six patients whose age at onset of PD were younger than 50 were defined as patients with EOPD and 9 patients with older than 50 years were defined as patients with LOPD. All patients underwent 99mTc-TRODAT Brain SPECT.Results: There was a significant decrease of striatal 99mTc-TRODAT-1 (TRODAT binding in PD patients in both EOPD and LOPD. No significant difference was noticed between EOPD and LOPD in disease stage and symptoms. In visual analysis, 20 (66.67% caudate nucleuses had decreased tracer uptake while all 30 (100% putamens had decreased or absent tracer uptake. No significant difference between EOPD and LOPD was noticed in visual analysis. Striatum, Caudate and Putamen uptake ratio to background were calculated. No significant difference was noticed between EOPD and LOPD in these ratios. However there was significant difference in visual analysis (tracer uptake as well as in uptake ratio between putamen and caudate nucleuses in both groups (P=0.001. On the other word, we found more diminished uptake in putamen as compared the caudate. Frequency and severity of putamen involvement were much more than caudate.Conclusion: 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging showed lower presynaptical dopami-nergical terminals density in both EOPD and LOPD. There was no difference between EOPD and LOPD in TRODAT uptake. Putamen showed more involvement and more diminished TRODAT uptake.

  13. Prospective exploratory muscle biopsy, imaging, and functional assessment in patients with late-onset Pompe disease treated with alglucosidase alfa: The EMBASSY Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans); Carlier, P.G. (Pierre G.); Carlier, R.-Y. (Robert-Yves); Kissel, J.T. (John T.); B. Schoser; Wenninger, S. (Stephan); Pestronk, A. (Alan); Barohn, R.J. (Richard J.); Dimachkie, M.M. (Mazen M.); Goker-Alpan, O. (Ozlem); Mozaffar, T. (Tahseen); Pena, L.D.M. (Loren D.M.); Simmons, Z. (Zachary); V. Straub; Guglieri, M. (Michela); Young, P. (Peter); Boentert, M. (Matthias); Baudin, P.-Y. (Pierre-Yves); S.C.A. Wens (Stephan); Shafi, R. (Raheel); Bjartmar, C. (Carl); B. Thurberg

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Late-onset Pompe disease is characterized by progressive skeletal myopathy followed by respiratory muscle weakness, typically leading to loss of ambulation and respiratory failure. In this population, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alfa has been shown to

  14. Very late relapse in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma represents clonally related disease and is marked by germinal center cell features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Daphne; Glas, Annuska M.; Boerrigter, Lucie; Hermus, Marie-Christine; Dalesio, Otilia; Willemse, Els; Nederlof, Petra M.; Kersten, Marie José

    2003-01-01

    Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) rarely show relapse after 4 years of complete remission (CR). In this study, we addressed the following questions: (1) Does late-relapsing DLBCL represent clonally related disease or a second malignancy; and (2) is there a characteristic biologic

  15. Moral transgression, disease and holistic health in the Livingstonia Mission in late nineteenth and early twenttieth-century Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hokkanen, Markku

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ideas of morality and health, and connections between moral transgression and disease in both Scottish missionary and Central African thought in the context of the Livingstonia Mission of the Presbyterian Free Church of Scotland in Malawi during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.2 By concentrating on debates, conflicts and co-operation between missionaries and Africans over the key issues of beer drinking and sexual morality, this article explores the emergence of a new ‘moral hygiene’ among African Christian communities in Northern Malawi.

    Este artículo analiza las ideas sobre moralidad y salud, así como las relaciones entre transgresión moral y enfermedad, tanto en el pensamiento misionero escocés como en el pensamiento del África central, en el contexto de la Misión de Livingstonia de la Iglesia Libre Presbiteriana de Escocia en Malawi entre finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Centrándose en las conversaciones, los conflictos y la colaboración entre los misioneros y los africanos sobre cuestiones clave como el consumo de cerveza y la moralidad sexual, este artículo estudia la aparición de una nueva «higiene moral» entre las comunidades cristianas africanas en Malawi del norte.

  16. Late radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tract in het H2 and H5 EORTC Hodgkin's disease trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosset, J.M.; Henry-Amar, M.; Burgers, J.M.V.; Noordijk, E.Ml.; Van der Schueren, E.

    1988-01-01

    Out of 516 patients who entered in the two succesive EORTC trials H2 and H5 for supra-diaphragmatic stages I and II Hodgkin's disease (HD), and who received an infra-diaphragmatic irradiation, 36 (7%) developed the late radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Twenty-five patients presented with ulcers (stomach or duodenum), 2 with severe gastritis, 6 with small bowel obstruction or perforation and 3 patients had both un ulcer and bowel obstruction. A previous laparotomy played an important role. While the complication rate was 2.7% without any previous abdominal surgery, it was 11.5% after laparotomy (p < 0.001). Fractionation was also found to be of importance in the occurrence of complications: three different weekly schedules were used - 5 x 2 Gy, 4 x 2.5 Gy and 3 x 3.3 Gy; the GIT complication rates were 4, 9 and 22%, respectively (p < 0.001). These data provide new arguments: (1) against the systematic use of laparotomy and splenectomy in the management of HD; (2) against the use of large fraction sizes (superior to 2 Gy) when irradiating those patients

  17. Evaluation of Gene-Based Family-Based Methods to Detect Novel Genes Associated With Familial Late Onset Alzheimer Disease

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    Maria V. Fernández

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene-based tests to study the combined effect of rare variants on a particular phenotype have been widely developed for case-control studies, but their evolution and adaptation for family-based studies, especially studies of complex incomplete families, has been slower. In this study, we have performed a practical examination of all the latest gene-based methods available for family-based study designs using both simulated and real datasets. We examined the performance of several collapsing, variance-component, and transmission disequilibrium tests across eight different software packages and 22 models utilizing a cohort of 285 families (N = 1,235 with late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD. After a thorough examination of each of these tests, we propose a methodological approach to identify, with high confidence, genes associated with the tested phenotype and we provide recommendations to select the best software and model for family-based gene-based analyses. Additionally, in our dataset, we identified PTK2B, a GWAS candidate gene for sporadic AD, along with six novel genes (CHRD, CLCN2, HDLBP, CPAMD8, NLRP9, and MAS1L as candidate genes for familial LOAD.

  18. Effect of Two Biological Formulations Based on Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Control of Didymella applanata, the Causal Agent of Red Raspberry Cane Spur Blight

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    Margarita Shternshis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to estimate the efficacy of the two microbial formulations based on Bacillus subtilis Cohn. and Pseudomonas fluorescens Mig. on the fungus Didymella applanata (Niessl. Sacc., the causal agent of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. spur blight. In vitro, both bacteria reduced the growth of D. applanata. In inoculation experiments with raspberry canes in two cultivars with different susceptibility to D. applanata, these antagonistic bacteria suppressed fungal development by reducing the lesions area and the number of D. applanata fruiting bodies. Field trials of two biological formulations under natural conditions showed a significant suppression of the disease. B. subtilis and P. fluorescens included in the formulations revealed antagonistic activity towards D. applanata that depended on the red raspberry cultivar and weather conditions. In all cases, B. subtilis showed better results than P. fluorescens in biocontrol of the raspberry spur blight. This study demonstrated for the first time the ability of the biocontrol agents B. subtilis and P. fluorescens to suppress red raspberry cane spur blight, a serious worldwide disease.

  19. Novel Chitinase Gene LOC_Os11g47510 from Indica Rice Tetep Provides Enhanced Resistance against Sheath Blight Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in Rice

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    Tilak R. Sharma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheath blight disease (ShB, caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is one of the most destructive diseases of rice (Oryza sativa L., causing substantial yield loss in rice. In the present study, a novel rice chitinase gene, LOC_Os11g47510 was cloned from QTL region of R. solani tolerant rice line Tetep and used for functional validation by genetic transformation of ShB susceptible japonica rice line Taipei 309 (TP309. The transformants were characterized using molecular and functional approaches. Molecular analysis by PCR using a set of primers specific to CaMv 35S promoter, chitinase and HptII genes confirmed the presence of transgene in transgenic plants which was further validated by Southern hybridization. Further, qRT-PCR analysis of transgenic plants showed good correlation between transgene expression and the level of sheath blight resistance among transformants. Functional complementation assays confirmed the effectiveness of the chitinase mediated resistance in all the transgenic TP309 plants with varying levels of enhanced resistance against R. solani. Therefore, the novel chitinase gene cloned and characterized in the present study from the QTL region of rice will be of significant use in molecular plant breeding program for developing sheath blight resistance in rice.

  20. Two-year, randomized, controlled study of safinamide as add-on to levodopa in mid to late Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgohain, Rupam; Szasz, Jozsef; Stanzione, Paolo; Meshram, Chandrashekhar; Bhatt, Mohit H; Chirilineau, Dana; Stocchi, Fabrizio; Lucini, Valentina; Giuliani, Rodolfo; Forrest, Emma; Rice, Patricia; Anand, Ravi

    2014-09-01

    In a 6-month double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Parkinson's disease patients with motor fluctuations, safinamide 50 and 100 mg/d significantly increased ON-time without increasing dyskinesia. Further long-term safinamide use in these patients was evaluated over an additional 18 months. Patients continued on their randomized placebo, 50, or 100 mg/d safinamide. The primary endpoint was change in Dyskinesia Rating Scale total score during ON-time over 24 months. Other efficacy endpoints included change in ON-time without troublesome dyskinesia, changes in individual diary categories, depressive symptoms, and quality of life measures. Change in Dyskinesia Rating Scale was not significantly different in safinamide versus placebo groups, despite decreased mean total Dyskinesia Rating Scale with safinamide compared with an almost unchanged score in placebo. Ad hoc subgroup analysis of moderate to severe dyskinetic patients at baseline (36% of patients) showed a decrease with safinamide 100 mg/d compared with placebo (P = 0.0317). Improvements in motor function, activities of daily living, depressive symptoms, clinical status, and quality of life at 6 months remained significant at 24 months. Adverse events and discontinuation rates were similar with safinamide and placebo. This 2-year, controlled study of add-on safinamide in mid-to-late Parkinson's disease with motor fluctuations, although not demonstrating an overall difference in dyskinesias between patients and controls, showed improvement in dyskinesia in patients at least moderately dyskinetic at baseline. The study additionally demonstrated significant clinical benefits in ON-time (without troublesome dyskinesia), OFF-time, activities of daily living, motor symptoms, quality of life, and symptoms of depression. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae the Causal Agent of Bacterial Leaf Blight of rice: Isolation, Characterization, and Study of Transposon Mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdjad Asih Nawangsih

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae the Causal Agent of Bacterial Leaf Blight of rice: Isolation, Characterization, and Study of Transposon Mutagenesis. X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo causes bacterial leaf blight (BLB of rice (Oryza sativa L., a major disease that constrains production of the staple crop in many countries of the world. Identification of X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo was conducted based on the disease symptoms, pathogenicity, morphological, physiological, and genetic characteristics of bacterial cultures isolated from the infected plants. Fifty bacterial isolates predicted as Xoo have been successfully isolated. They are aerobic, rod shaped, and Gram negative bacteria. The isolates were evaluated for their hypersensitivity in tobacco and pathogenicity in rice plant. Fifty isolates induced hypersensitive reaction in tobacco and showed pathogenicity symptom in rice in different length. Based on physiological test, hypersensitivity and pathogenicity reactions, three bacterial isolates strongly predicted as Xoo, i.e. STG21, STG42, and STG46, were non indole formation, non pigment fluorescent, hydrolyzed casein, catalase activity positive, but negative oxidase. Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of STG21 and STG42 showed 80% and 82% homology with X. oryzae, respectively, while STG46 showed 84% homology with X. campestris. Mini-Tn5 transposon mutagenesis of STG21 generated one of the mutants (M5 lossed it’s ability to induce hypersensitive reaction in tobacco plant and deficient in pathogenicity on rice. The lesion length of rice leaf caused by the mutant M5 decreased up to 80%.

  2. Correspondence of Charles Darwin on James Torbitt's project to breed blight-resistance potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArce, M

    2008-01-01

    The most prolific of Darwin's correspondents from Ireland was James Torbitt, an enterprising grocer and wine merchant of 58 North Street, Belfast. Between February 1876 and March 1882, 141 letters were exchanged on the feasibility and ways of supporting one of Torbitt's commercial projects, the large-scale production and distribution of true potato seeds (Solan um tuberosum) to produce plants resistant to the late blight fungus Phytophthora infestans, the cause of repeated potato crop failures and thus the Irish famines in the nineteenth century. Ninety-three of these letters were exchanged between Torbitt and Darwin, and 48 between Darwin and third parties, seeking or offering help and advice on the project. Torbitt's project required selecting the small proportion of plants in an infested field that survived the infection, and using those as parents to produce seeds. This was a direct application of Darwin's principle of selection. Darwin cautiously lobbied high-ranking civil servants in London to obtain government funding for the project, and also provided his own personal financial support to Torbit.

  3. R47H Variant of TREM2 Associated With Alzheimer Disease in a Large Late-Onset Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korvatska, Olena; Leverenz, James B.; Jayadev, Suman; McMillan, Pamela; Kurtz, Irina; Guo, Xindi; Rumbaugh, Malia; Matsushita, Mark; Girirajan, Santhosh; Dorschner, Michael O.; Kiianitsa, Kostantin; Yu, Chang-En; Brkanac, Zoran; Garden, Gwenn A.; Raskind, Wendy H.; Bird, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Importance The R47H variant in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 gene (TREM2), a modulator of the immune response of microglia, is a strong genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD) and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders. Objective To investigate a large family with late-onset AD (LOAD), in which R47H cosegregated with 75% of cases. Design, Setting, and Participants This study includes genetic and pathologic studies of families with LOAD from 1985 to 2014. A total of 131 families with LOAD (751 individuals) were included from the University of Washington Alzheimer Disease Research Center. To identify LOAD genes/risk factors in the LOAD123 family with 21 affected members and 12 autopsies, we sequenced 4 exomes. Candidate variants were tested for cosegregation with the disease. TREM2 R47H was genotyped in an additional 130 families with LOAD. We performed clinical and neuropathological assessments of patients with and without R47H and evaluated the variant's effect on brain pathology, cellular morphology, and expression of microglial markers. Main Outcomes and Measures We assessed the effect of TREM2 genotype on age at onset and disease duration. We compared Braak and Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease scores, presence of α-synuclein and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 aggregates, and additional vascular or Parkinson pathology in TREM2 R47H carriers vs noncarriers. Microglial activation was assessed by quantitative immunohistochemistry and morphometry. Results Twelve of 16 patients with AD in the LOAD123 family carried R47H. Eleven patients with dementia had apolipoprotein E 4 (ApoE4) and R47H genotypes. We also found a rare missense variant, D353N, in a nominated AD risk gene, unc-5 homolog C (UNC5C), in 5 affected individuals in the LOAD123 family. R47H carriers demonstrated a shortened disease duration (mean [SD], 6.7 [2.8] vs 11.1 [6.6] years; 2-tailed t test; P = .04) and more frequent α-synucleinopathy. The

  4. Automated Identification of Northern Leaf Blight-Infected Maize Plants from Field Imagery Using Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChant, Chad; Wiesner-Hanks, Tyr; Chen, Siyuan; Stewart, Ethan L; Yosinski, Jason; Gore, Michael A; Nelson, Rebecca J; Lipson, Hod

    2017-11-01

    Northern leaf blight (NLB) can cause severe yield loss in maize; however, scouting large areas to accurately diagnose the disease is time consuming and difficult. We demonstrate a system capable of automatically identifying NLB lesions in field-acquired images of maize plants with high reliability. This approach uses a computational pipeline of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) that addresses the challenges of limited data and the myriad irregularities that appear in images of field-grown plants. Several CNNs were trained to classify small regions of images as containing NLB lesions or not; their predictions were combined into separate heat maps, then fed into a final CNN trained to classify the entire image as containing diseased plants or not. The system achieved 96.7% accuracy on test set images not used in training. We suggest that such systems mounted on aerial- or ground-based vehicles can help in automated high-throughput plant phenotyping, precision breeding for disease resistance, and reduced pesticide use through targeted application across a variety of plant and disease categories.

  5. Behavioral characterization of A53T mice reveals early and late stage deficits related to Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina L Paumier

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD pathology is characterized by the formation of intra-neuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies, which are comprised of alpha-synuclein (α-syn. Duplication, triplication or genetic mutations in α-syn (A53T, A30P and E46K are linked to autosomal dominant PD; thus implicating its role in the pathogenesis of PD. In both PD patients and mouse models, there is increasing evidence that neuronal dysfunction occurs before the accumulation of protein aggregates (i.e., α-syn and neurodegeneration. Characterization of the timing and nature of symptomatic dysfunction is important for understanding the impact of α-syn on disease progression. Furthermore, this knowledge is essential for identifying pathways and molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. To this end, we examined various functional and morphological endpoints in the transgenic mouse model expressing the human A53T α-syn variant directed by the mouse prion promoter at specific ages relating to disease progression (2, 6 and 12 months of age. Our findings indicate A53T mice develop fine, sensorimotor, and synaptic deficits before the onset of age-related gross motor and cognitive dysfunction. Results from open field and rotarod tests show A53T mice develop age-dependent changes in locomotor activity and reduced anxiety-like behavior. Additionally, digigait analysis shows these mice develop an abnormal gait by 12 months of age. A53T mice also exhibit spatial memory deficits at 6 and 12 months, as demonstrated by Y-maze performance. In contrast to gross motor and cognitive changes, A53T mice display significant impairments in fine- and sensorimotor tasks such as grooming, nest building and acoustic startle as early as 1-2 months of age. These mice also show significant abnormalities in basal synaptic transmission, paired-pulse facilitation and long-term depression (LTD. Combined, these data indicate the A53T model exhibits early- and late-onset behavioral and synaptic

  6. Behavioral Characterization of A53T Mice Reveals Early and Late Stage Deficits Related to Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paumier, Katrina L.; Sukoff Rizzo, Stacey J.; Berger, Zdenek; Chen, Yi; Gonzales, Cathleen; Kaftan, Edward; Li, Li; Lotarski, Susan; Monaghan, Michael; Shen, Wei; Stolyar, Polina; Vasilyev, Dmytro; Zaleska, Margaret; D. Hirst, Warren; Dunlop, John

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology is characterized by the formation of intra-neuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies, which are comprised of alpha-synuclein (α-syn). Duplication, triplication or genetic mutations in α-syn (A53T, A30P and E46K) are linked to autosomal dominant PD; thus implicating its role in the pathogenesis of PD. In both PD patients and mouse models, there is increasing evidence that neuronal dysfunction occurs before the accumulation of protein aggregates (i.e., α-syn) and neurodegeneration. Characterization of the timing and nature of symptomatic dysfunction is important for understanding the impact of α-syn on disease progression. Furthermore, this knowledge is essential for identifying pathways and molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. To this end, we examined various functional and morphological endpoints in the transgenic mouse model expressing the human A53T α-syn variant directed by the mouse prion promoter at specific ages relating to disease progression (2, 6 and 12 months of age). Our findings indicate A53T mice develop fine, sensorimotor, and synaptic deficits before the onset of age-related gross motor and cognitive dysfunction. Results from open field and rotarod tests show A53T mice develop age-dependent changes in locomotor activity and reduced anxiety-like behavior. Additionally, digigait analysis shows these mice develop an abnormal gait by 12 months of age. A53T mice also exhibit spatial memory deficits at 6 and 12 months, as demonstrated by Y-maze performance. In contrast to gross motor and cognitive changes, A53T mice display significant impairments in fine- and sensorimotor tasks such as grooming, nest building and acoustic startle as early as 1–2 months of age. These mice also show significant abnormalities in basal synaptic transmission, paired-pulse facilitation and long-term depression (LTD). Combined, these data indicate the A53T model exhibits early- and late-onset behavioral and synaptic impairments

  7. A Rice CPYC-Type Glutaredoxin OsGRX20 in Protection against Bacterial Blight, Methyl Viologen and Salt Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Ning

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutaredoxins (GRXs belong to the antioxidants involved in the cellular stress responses. In spite of the identification 48 GRX genes in rice genomes, the biological functions of most of them remain unknown. Especially, the biological roles of members of GRX family in disease resistance are still lacking. Our proteomic analysis found that OsGRX20 increased by 2.7-fold after infection by bacterial blight. In this study, we isolated and characterized the full-length nucleotide sequences of the rice OsGRX20 gene, which encodes a GRX family protein with CPFC active site of CPYC-type class. OsGRX20 protein was localized in nucleus and cytosol, and its transcripts were expressed predominantly in leaves. Several stress- and hormone-related motifs putatively acting as regulatory elements were found in the OsGRX20 promoter. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that OsGRX20 was expressed at a significantly higher level in leaves of a resistant or tolerant rice genotype, Yongjing 50A, than in a sensitive genotype, Xiushui 11, exposed to bacterial blight, methyl viologen, heat, and cold. Its expression could be induced by salt, PEG-6000, 2,4-D, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid treatments in Yongjing 50A. Overexpression of OsGRX20 in rice Xiushui 11 significantly enhanced its resistance to bacterial blight attack, and tolerance to methyl viologen and salt stresses. In contrast, interference of OsGRX20 in Yongjing 50A led to increased susceptibility to bacterial blight, methyl viologen and salt stresses. OsGRX20 restrained accumulation of superoxide radicals in aerial tissue during methyl viologen treatment. Consistently, alterations in OsGRX20 expression affect the ascorbate/dehydroascorbate ratio and the abundance of transcripts encoding four reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes after methyl viologen-induced stress. Our results demonstrate that OsGRX20 functioned as a positive regulator in rice tolerance to multiple stresses

  8. Late onset Tay-Sachs disease in mice with targeted disruption of the Hexa gene: behavioral changes and pathology of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklyaeva, Elena I; Dong, Weijia; Bureau, Alexandre; Fattahie, Roya; Xu, Yongqin; Su, Meng; Fick, Gordon H; Huang, Jing-Qi; Igdoura, Suleiman; Hanai, Nobuo; Gravel, Roy A

    2004-03-19

    Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease resulting from a block in the hydrolysis of GM2 ganglioside, an intermediate in ganglioside catabolism. The mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease (Hexa -/-) has been described as behaviorally indistinguishable from wild type until at least 1 year of age due to a sialidase-mediated bypass of the metabolic defect that reduces the rate of GM2 ganglioside accumulation. In this study, we have followed our mouse model to over 2 years of age and have documented a significant disease phenotype that is reminiscent of the late onset, chronic form of human Tay-Sachs disease. Onset occurs at 11-12 months of age and progresses slowly, in parallel with increasing storage of GM2 ganglioside. The disease is characterized by hind limb spasticity, weight loss, tremors, abnormal posture with lordosis, possible visual impairment, and, late in the disease, muscle weakness, clasping of the limbs, and myoclonic twitches of the head. Immunodetection of GM2 ganglioside showed that storage varies widely in different regions, but is most intense in pyriform cortex, hippocampus (CA3 field, subiculum), amygdala, hypothalamus (paraventricular supraoptic, ventromedial and arcuate nuclei, and mammilary body), and the somatosensory cortex (layer V) in 1- to 2-year-old mutant mice. We suggest that the Tay-Sachs mouse model is a phenotypically valid model of disease and may provide for a reliable indicator of the impact of therapeutic strategies, in particular geared to the late onset, chronic form of human Tay-Sachs disease.

  9. Relations of Postload and Fasting Glucose With Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Late in Life: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Erika F; Shitole, Sanyog; Biggs, Mary Lou; Mukamal, Kenneth J; deBoer, Ian H; Thacker, Evan L; Barzilay, Joshua I; Djoussé, Luc; Ix, Joachim H; Smith, Nicholas L; Kaplan, Robert C; Siscovick, David S; Psaty, Bruce M; Kizer, Jorge R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Older adults have a high prevalence of postload hyperglycemia. Postload glucose has shown more robust associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death than fasting glucose, but data in the oldest old are sparse. Methods Fasting and 2-hour postload glucose were measured in community-dwelling older adults, mean age 78, at the 1996–1997 follow-up visit of the Cardiovascular Health Study. We evaluated their associations with atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) and mortality using standard Cox regression and competing-risks analyses and assessed improvement in prediction-model discrimination with the c-statistic. Results Among 2,394 participants without treated diabetes and available data on glycemic measures, there were 579 ASCVD events and 1,698 deaths during median follow-up of 11.2 years. In fully adjusted models, both fasting and 2-hour glucose were associated with ASCVD (HR per SD, 1.13 [1.03–1.25] and 1.17 [1.07–1.28], respectively) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.12 [1.07–1.18] and 1.14 [1.08–1.20]). After mutual adjustment, however, the associations for fasting glucose with both outcomes were abolished, but those for postload glucose were largely unchanged. Consistent findings were observed for ASCVD in competing-risks models. Conclusion In adults surviving to advanced old age, postload glucose was associated with ASCVD and mortality independently of fasting glucose, but fasting glucose was not associated with these outcomes independently of postload glucose. These findings affirm the robust association of postload glucose with ASCVD and death late in life. PMID:26314953

  10. Relations of Postload and Fasting Glucose With Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Late in Life: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Erika F; Shitole, Sanyog; Biggs, Mary Lou; Mukamal, Kenneth J; deBoer, Ian H; Thacker, Evan L; Barzilay, Joshua I; Djoussé, Luc; Ix, Joachim H; Smith, Nicholas L; Kaplan, Robert C; Siscovick, David S; Psaty, Bruce M; Kizer, Jorge R

    2016-03-01

    Older adults have a high prevalence of postload hyperglycemia. Postload glucose has shown more robust associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death than fasting glucose, but data in the oldest old are sparse. Fasting and 2-hour postload glucose were measured in community-dwelling older adults, mean age 78, at the 1996-1997 follow-up visit of the Cardiovascular Health Study. We evaluated their associations with atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) and mortality using standard Cox regression and competing-risks analyses and assessed improvement in prediction-model discrimination with the c-statistic. Among 2,394 participants without treated diabetes and available data on glycemic measures, there were 579 ASCVD events and 1,698 deaths during median follow-up of 11.2 years. In fully adjusted models, both fasting and 2-hour glucose were associated with ASCVD (HR per SD, 1.13 [1.03-1.25] and 1.17 [1.07-1.28], respectively) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.12 [1.07-1.18] and 1.14 [1.08-1.20]). After mutual adjustment, however, the associations for fasting glucose with both outcomes were abolished, but those for postload glucose were largely unchanged. Consistent findings were observed for ASCVD in competing-risks models. In adults surviving to advanced old age, postload glucose was associated with ASCVD and mortality independently of fasting glucose, but fasting glucose was not associated with these outcomes independently of postload glucose. These findings affirm the robust association of postload glucose with ASCVD and death late in life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Late acute graft-versus-host disease: a prospective analysis of clinical outcomes and circulating angiogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtan, Shernan G; Khera, Nandita; Levine, John E; Chai, Xiaoyu; Storer, Barry; Liu, Hien D; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Chen, George L; Mayer, Sebastian; Arora, Mukta; Palmer, Jeanne; Flowers, Mary E D; Cutler, Corey S; Lukez, Alexander; Arai, Sally; Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Newell, Laura F; Krupski, Christa; Jagasia, Madan H; Pusic, Iskra; Wood, William; Renteria, Anne S; Yanik, Gregory; Hogan, William J; Hexner, Elizabeth; Ayuk, Francis; Holler, Ernst; Watanaboonyongcharoen, Phandee; Efebera, Yvonne A; Ferrara, James L M; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Weisdorf, Daniel; Lee, Stephanie J; Pidala, Joseph

    2016-11-10

    Late acute (LA) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is persistent, recurrent, or new-onset acute GVHD symptoms occurring >100 days after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The aim of this analysis is to describe the onset, course, morbidity, and mortality of and examine angiogenic factors associated with LA GVHD. A prospective cohort of patients (n = 909) was enrolled as part of an observational study within the Chronic GVHD Consortium. Eighty-three patients (11%) developed LA GVHD at a median of 160 (interquartile range, 128-204) days after HCT. Although 51 out of 83 (61%) achieved complete or partial response to initial therapy by 28 days, median failure-free survival was only 7.1 months (95% confidence interval, 3.4-19.1 months), and estimated overall survival (OS) at 2 years was 56%. Given recently described alterations of circulating angiogenic factors in classic acute GVHD, we examined whether alterations in such factors could be identified in LA GVHD. We first tested cases (n = 55) and controls (n = 50) from the Chronic GVHD Consortium and then validated the findings in 37 cases from Mount Sinai Acute GVHD International Consortium. Plasma amphiregulin (AREG; an epidermal growth factor [EGF] receptor ligand) was elevated, and an AREG/EGF ratio at or above the median was associated with inferior OS and increased nonrelapse mortality in both cohorts. Elevation of AREG was detected in classic acute GVHD, but not chronic GVHD. These prospective data characterize the clinical course of LA GVHD and demonstrate alterations in angiogenic factors that make LA GVHD biologically distinct from chronic GVHD. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. Late Results of Cox Maze III Procedure in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Associated with Structural Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Gustavo Gir; Gali, Wagner Luis; Sarabanda, Alvaro Valentim Lima; Cunha, Claudio Ribeiro da; Kessler, Iruena Moraes; Atik, Fernando Antibas

    2017-07-01

    Cox-Maze III procedure is one of the surgical techniques used in the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). To determine late results of Cox-Maze III in terms of maintenance of sinus rhythm, and mortality and stroke rates. Between January 2006 and January 2013, 93 patients were submitted to the cut-and-sew Cox-Maze III procedure in combination with structural heart disease repair. Heart rhythm was determined by 24-hour Holter monitoring. Procedural success rates were determined by longitudinal methods and recurrence predictors by multivariate Cox regression models. Thirteen patients that obtained hospital discharge alive were excluded due to lost follow-up. The remaining 80 patients were aged 49.9 ± 12 years and 47 (58.7%) of them were female. Involvement of mitral valve and rheumatic heart disease were found in 67 (83.7%) and 63 (78.7%) patients, respectively. Seventy patients (87.5%) had persistent or long-standing persistent AF. Mean follow-up with Holter monitoring was 27.5 months. There were no hospital deaths. Sinus rhythm maintenance rates were 88%, 85.1% and 80.6% at 6 months, 24 months and 36 months, respectively. Predictors of late recurrence of AF were female gender (HR 3.52; 95% CI 1.21-10.25; p = 0.02), coronary artery disease (HR 4.73 95% CI 1.37-16.36; p = 0.01) and greater left atrium diameter (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09; p = 0.02). Actuarial survival was 98.5% at 12, 24 and 48 months and actuarial freedom from stroke was 100%, 100% and 97.5% in the same time frames. The Cox-Maze III procedure, in our experience, is efficacious for sinus rhythm maintenance, with very low late mortality and stroke rates. A operação de Cox-Maze III é uma das variantes técnicas no tratamento cirúrgico da fibrilação atrial (FA). Estudar os resultados tardios da operação de Cox-Maze III, quanto à eficácia na manutenção de ritmo sinusal e taxas de mortalidade e acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Entre janeiro de 2006 a janeiro de 2013, 93 pacientes

  13. Fire Blight Control: The Struggle Goes On. A Comparison of Different Fire Blight Control Methods in Switzerland with Respect to Biosafety, Efficacy and Durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusberti, Michele; Klemm, Urs; Meier, Matthias S; Maurhofer, Monika; Hunger-Glaser, Isabel

    2015-09-11

    Fire blight (FB), caused by Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most important pome fruit pathogens worldwide. To control this devastating disease, various chemical and biological treatments are commonly applied in Switzerland, but they fail to keep the infection at an acceptable level in years of heavy disease pressure. The Swiss authorities therefore currently allow the controlled use of the antibiotic streptomycin against FB in years that are predicted to have heavy infection periods, but only one treatment per season is permitted. Another strategy for controlling Erwinia is to breed resistant/tolerant apple cultivars. One way of accelerating the breeding process is to obtain resistant cultivars by inserting one or several major resistance genes, using genetic engineering. To date, no study summarizing the impact of different FB control measures on the environment and on human health has been performed. This study consequently aims to compare different disease-control measures (biological control, chemical control, control by antibiotics and by resistant/tolerant apple cultivars obtained through conventional or molecular breeding) applied against E. amylovora, considering different protection goals (protection of human health, environment, agricultural diversity and economic interest), with special emphasis on biosafety aspects. Information on each FB control measure in relation to the specified protection goal was assessed by literature searches and by interviews with experts. Based on our results it can be concluded that the FB control measures currently applied in Switzerland are safe for consumers, workers and the environment. However, there are several gaps in our knowledge of the human health and environmental impacts analyzed: data are missing (1) on long term studies on the efficacy of most of the analyzed FB control measures; (2) on the safety of operators handling streptomycin; (3) on residue analyses of Equisetum plant extract, the copper and aluminum

  14. Dissection of the major late blight resistance cluster on potato linkage group IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokossou, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Potato is consumed worldwide and represents the fourth most important staple food crop after rice and wheat. Potato cultivars display a large variety of color, shape, taste, cooking properties and starch content but are all derived from the same species; Solanum tuberosum. Potato breeding is an

  15. Lack of vigilance is the main factor of late diagnosis of glycogen storage disease type II in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kuzina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease is a hereditary autosomal recessive disease characterized by accumulation of glycogen due to decreased activity of acid α-glucosidase enzyme in lysosomes. The disease can develop at any age. Cases with onset after the 1st year of life are attributed to late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD. LOPD has a very wide age range when clinical manifestations appear which significantly complicates diagnosis in adults. A case of verified Pompe disease in the Republic of Kazakhstan is presented. A chronology of clinical manifestations and symptoms, results of paraclinical examinations helping to suspect LOPD and verify the diagnosis by decreased activity of acid α-glucosidase in dry blood spot are described.

  16. Neural stem cells for disease modeling and evaluation of therapeutics for infantile (CLN1/PPT1) and late infantile (CLN2/TPP1) neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Ni; Li, Rong; Huang, Wei; Xu, Miao; Beers, Jeanette; Zou, Jizhong; Titus, Steven; Ottinger, Elizabeth A; Marugan, Juan J; Xie, Xing; Zheng, Wei

    2018-04-10

    Infantile and late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are lysosomal storage diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS). The infantile NCL (INCL) is caused by mutations in the PPT1 gene and late-infantile NCL (LINCL) is due to mutations in the TPP1 gene. Deficiency in PPT1 or TPP1 enzyme function results in lysosomal accumulation of pathological lipofuscin-like material in the patient cells. There is currently no small-molecular drug treatment for NCLs. We have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from three patient dermal fibroblast lines and further differentiated them into neural stem cells (NSCs). Using these new disease models, we evaluated the effect of δ-tocopherol (DT) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) with the enzyme replacement therapy as the control. Treatment with the relevant recombinant enzyme or DT significantly ameliorated the lipid accumulation and lysosomal enlargement in the disease cells. A combination therapy of δ-tocopherol and HPBCD further improved the effect compared to that of either drug used as a single therapy. The results demonstrate that these patient iPSC derived NCL NSCs are valid cell- based disease models with characteristic disease phenotypes that can be used for study of disease pathophysiology and drug development.

  17. Engineering fire blight resistance into the apple cultivar 'Gala' using the FB_MR5 CC-NBS-LRR resistance gene of Malus × robusta 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggini, Giovanni A L; Wöhner, Thomas; Fahrentrapp, Johannes; Kost, Thomas D; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Maria-Viola; Richter, Klaus; Patocchi, Andrea; Gessler, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The fire blight susceptible apple cultivar Malus × domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala' was transformed with the candidate fire blight resistance gene FB_MR5 originating from the crab apple accession Malus × robusta 5 (Mr5). A total of five different transgenic lines were obtained. All transgenic lines were shown to be stably transformed and originate from different transgenic events. The transgenic lines express the FB_MR5 either driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter and the ocs terminator or by its native promoter and terminator sequences. Phenotyping experiments were performed with Mr5-virulent and Mr5-avirulent strains of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Significantly less disease symptoms were detected on transgenic lines after inoculation with two different Mr5-avirulent E. amylovora strains, while significantly more shoot necrosis was observed after inoculation with the Mr5-virulent mutant strain ZYRKD3_1. The results of these experiments demonstrated the ability of a single gene isolated from the native gene pool of apple to protect a susceptible cultivar from fire blight. Furthermore, this gene is confirmed to be the resistance determinant of Mr5 as the transformed lines undergo the same gene-for-gene interaction in the host-pathogen relationship Mr5-E. amylovora. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Preservation methods for isolates of ascochyta blight fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Marcinkowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolates of ascochyta blight fungi, two of Ascochyta pisi, four of Mycosphaerella pinodes and four of Phoma pinodella were stored: A - on slants under mineral oil, B - on CN's medium agar disks, and as conidial suspension: C - in glycerine, D · in water. Viability and pathogenicity of recovered cultures after each consecutive year were assesed from 1991 to 1999. The compared parameters were first of all strongly influenced by the preservation method, but fungus species and number of years had a minor importance. The best for longer storage was method "A" because after 9 years the isolates were viable, highly pathogenic, and cultures recovered from them were clean. Thc method "C'' is good for short keeping (2-3 years, as conidia in vials need only small space and gave clean cultures.

  19. Pengaruh Penggunaan Fungisida Sintetis Dan Trichoderma SP. Secara Tunggal Atau Gabungan Terhadap Penyakit Hawar Pelepah Daun Padi Effect of Synthetic Fungicidal Application Alone or Mixed with Trichoderma SP. on Sheat Blight of Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Susilo, Pambudi; Soesanto, Loekas; Wachjadi, Muljo

    2005-01-01

    This research aimed at knowing the application effect of synthetic fungicide tebuconazole 25% alone or mixed with Trichoderma sp. on sheath blight disease and rice yield. The research was carried out at the Plant Disease Laboratory and the experimental field, the Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Jenderal Soedirman. Split Plot Design was used with Trichoderma sp. as main factor consisted of without and with antagonistic Trichoderma sp. applied on rice at 15, 30, and 45 and 55 days aft...

  20. First record of Glomerella cingulata causing leaf blight on Talauma ovata (Magnoliaceae) Primeiro relato de Glomerella cingulata causando queima foliar em Talauma ovata (Magnoliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Sérgio Vieira; Olinto Liparini Pereira; Márcio Luiz Batista; Robert Weingart Barreto

    2005-01-01

    Glomerella cingulata was found causing severe leaf blight on Talauma ovata, a common tree species in the Atlantic tropical rain forest floodplains of Southern Brazil. The disease and pathogen are described and illustrated and patogenicity is also demonstrated. This is the first report of this disease.Glomerella cingulata foi encontrado causando severa queima-foliar em Talauma ovata, uma espécie arbórea comum em florestas úmidas tropicais do Sudeste do Brasil. A doença e o patógeno foram descr...

  1. Cultural Heritage in the Gulf: Blight or Blessing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Boussaa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Gulf and after gaining independence in the 1960s and 1970s many cities witnessed a staggering rapid urban growth. The urban centers, which formed the central parts of these cities, underwent continuous pressures of destruction and redevelopment. A large number of these centers have been often demolished and replaced by alien imported high-rise buildings. The urban cores which escaped complete demolition have survived as isolated pockets in the middle of hybrid environments. This dilemma raises important questions; is this surviving cultural heritage blight or blessing? Is it "blight" and obstacle that stifles our cities from moving forward to aspire for a bright and prosperous future, or is it "blessing" an asset that can form a major catalyst to promote our cities while maintaining strong roots with their past? Accordingly, what should be the future of these surviving historic centers? Will they be demolished to pave way for more ambitious growth or can they be conserved and sustained for present and future generations? Will the historic city, the heart of urban life and the main protector of our cities identities, survive and continue to be places for living within the emerging global cities of today and tomorrow? This paper attempts to highlight the importance of dealing with the conservation and development issue, by raising and discussing the following question: How can our cultural heritage be a setting of appropriate conservation and development in the emerging global environments? In order to discuss this issue, three historic cities from the Gulf; Old Dubai in UAE, Old Jeddah in Saudi Arabia and Old Doha in Qatar will form the setting of this research.

  2. Discovering Novel Alternaria solani Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors by in Silico Modeling and Virtual Screening Strategies to Combat Early Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehrish Iftikhar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria blight is an important foliage disease caused by Alternaria solani. The enzyme Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH is a potential drug target because of its role in tricarboxylic acid cycle. Hence targeting Alternaria solani SDH enzyme could be efficient tool to design novel fungicides against A. solani. We employed computational methodologies to design new SDH inhibitors using homology modeling; pharmacophore modeling and structure based virtual screening. The three dimensional SDH model showed good stereo-chemical and structural properties. Based on virtual screening results twelve commercially available compounds were purchased and tested in vitro and in vivo. The compounds were found to inhibit mycelial growth of A. solani. Moreover in vitro trials showed that inhibitory effects were enhanced with increase in concentrations. Similarly increased disease control was observed in pre-treated potato tubers. Hence the applied in silico strategy led us to identify novel fungicides.

  3. The cold-induced defensin TAD1 confers resistance against snow mold and Fusarium head blight in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kentaro; Kuwabara, Chikako; Umeki, Natsuki; Fujioka, Mari; Saburi, Wataru; Matsui, Hirokazu; Abe, Fumitaka; Imai, Ryozo

    2016-06-20

    TAD1 (Triticum aestivum defensin 1) is induced during cold acclimation in winter wheat and encodes a plant defensin with antimicrobial activity. In this study, we demonstrated that recombinant TAD1 protein inhibits hyphal growth of the snow mold fungus, Typhula ishikariensis in vitro. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TAD1 were created and tested for resistance against T. ishikariensis. Leaf inoculation assays revealed that overexpression of TAD1 confers resistance against the snow mold. In addition, the TAD1-overexpressors showed resistance against Fusarium graminearum, which causes Fusarium head blight, a devastating disease in wheat and barley. These results indicate that TAD1 is a candidate gene to improve resistance against multiple fungal diseases in cereal crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Incorporation of Bacterial Blight Resistance Genes Into Lowland Rice Cultivar Through Marker-Assisted Backcross Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sharat Kumar; Nayak, Deepak Kumar; Pandit, Elssa; Behera, Lambodar; Anandan, Annamalai; Mukherjee, Arup Kumar; Lenka, Srikanta; Barik, Durga Prasad

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial blight (BB) of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a major disease of rice in many rice growing countries. Pyramided lines carrying two BB resistance gene combinations (Xa21+xa13 and Xa21+xa5) were developed in a lowland cultivar Jalmagna background through backcross breeding by integrating molecular markers. In each backcross generation, markers closely linked to the disease resistance genes were used to select plants possessing the target genes. Background selection was continued in those plants carrying resistant genes until BC(3) generation. Plants having the maximum contribution from the recurrent parent genome were selected in each generation and hybridized with the recipient parent. The BB-pyramided line having the maximum recipient parent genome recovery of 95% was selected among BC3F1 plants and selfed to isolate homozygous BC(3)F(2) plants with different combinations of BB resistance genes. Twenty pyramided lines with two resistance gene combinations exhibited high levels of tolerance against the BB pathogen. In order to confirm the resistance, the pyramided lines were inoculated with different X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains of Odisha for bioassay. The genotypes with combination of two BB resistance genes conferred high levels of resistance to the predominant X. oryzae pv. oryzae isolates prevalent in the region. The pyramided lines showed similarity with the recipient parent with respect to major agro-morphologic traits.

  5. Salicylic acid regulates basal resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makandar, Ragiba; Nalam, Vamsi J; Lee, Hyeonju; Trick, Harold N; Dong, Yanhong; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-03-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of cereal crops such as wheat and barley. Previously, expression in wheat of the Arabidopsis NPR1 gene (AtNPR1), which encodes a key regulator of salicylic acid (SA) signaling, was shown to reduce severity of FHB caused by Fusarium graminearum. It was hypothesized that SA signaling contributes to wheat defense against F. graminearum. Here, we show that increased accumulation of SA in fungus-infected spikes correlated with elevated expression of the SA-inducible pathogenesis-related 1 (PR1) gene and FHB resistance. In addition, FHB severity and mycotoxin accumulation were curtailed in wheat plants treated with SA and in AtNPR1 wheat, which is hyper-responsive to SA. In support of a critical role for SA in basal resistance to FHB, disease severity was higher in wheat expressing the NahG-encoded salicylate hydroxylase, which metabolizes SA. The FHB-promoting effect of NahG was overcome by application of benzo (1,2,3), thiadiazole-7 carbothioic acid S-methyl ester, a synthetic functional analog of SA, thus confirming an important role for SA signaling in basal resistance to FHB. We further demonstrate that jasmonate signaling has a dichotomous role in wheat interaction with F. graminearum, constraining activation of SA signaling during early stages of infection and promoting resistance during the later stages of infection.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes involved in Blister Blight defense in Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaswall, Kuldip; Mahajan, Pallavi; Singh, Gagandeep; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Raina, Aparnashree; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shankar, Ravi; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2016-07-01

    To unravel the molecular mechanism of defense against blister blight (BB) disease caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus, Exobasidium vexans, transcriptome of BB interaction with resistance and susceptible tea genotypes was analysed through RNA-seq using Illumina GAIIx at four different stages during ~20-day disease cycle. Approximately 69 million high quality reads were assembled de novo, yielding 37,790 unique transcripts with more than 55% being functionally annotated. Differentially expressed, 149 defense related transcripts/genes, namely defense related enzymes, resistance genes, multidrug resistant transporters, transcription factors, retrotransposons, metacaspases and chaperons were observed in RG, suggesting their role in defending against BB. Being present in the major hub, putative master regulators among these candidates were identified from predetermined protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Further, confirmation of abundant expression of well-known RPM1, RPS2 and RPP13 in quantitative Real Time PCR indicates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, possibly induce synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, required to overcome the virulence of E. vexans. Compendiously, the current study provides a comprehensive gene expression and insights into the molecular mechanism of tea defense against BB to serve as a resource for unravelling the possible regulatory mechanism of immunity against various biotic stresses in tea and other crops.

  7. Changes in Cryphonectria parasitica populations affects natural biological control of chestnut blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježić, Marin; Mlinarec, Jelena; Vuković, Rosemary; Katanić, Zorana; Krstin, Ljiljana; Nuskern, Lucija; Poljak, Igor; Idžojtić, Marilena; Tkalec, Mirta; Curkovic-Perica, Mirna

    2018-02-14

    Invasive species, especially plant pathogens have a potential to completely eradicate native plant species and remodel landscapes. Tripartite interaction among sweet chestnut, Castanea sativa, chestnut blight-causing invasive fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, and a hyperparasitic virus, Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirus 1 (CHV1) were studied in two populations. The number of different vegetative compatibility (vc) types of C. parasitica more than doubled over the ten years, while the hypovirulence incidence dropped in one population, and slightly increased in the other one. Over the course of our short term, three year monitoring experiment, the prevalence of hypovirulent isolates obtained from monitored cankers increased slowly, i.e. more hypovirulent isolates were being obtained from the same cankers over time. Within studied cankers considerable changes in vc type and CHV1 presence were observed, indicating a highly dynamic system in which virulent and hypovirulent mycelia, sometimes of discordant vc types, often appeared together. The increase in hypovirulence prevalence did not have any observable curative effect on the cankers, and occasionally reactivation of healed cankers by new, virulent C. parasitica isolates was observed. Both, short and long term observations and revalidation of the infected plant populations are necessary to accurately estimate disease progress and formulate an adequate disease management strategy.

  8. The Effect of Freezing Temperatures on Microdochium majus and M. nivale Seedling Blight of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Haigh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to pre-emergent freezing temperatures significantly delayed the rate of seedling emergence (P<0.05 from an infected and a non-infected winter wheat cv. Equinox seed lot, but significant effects for timing of freezing and duration of freezing on final emergence were only seen for the Microdochium-infested seed lot. Freezing temperatures of −5∘C at post-emergence caused most disease on emerged seedlings. Duration of freezing (12 hours or 24 hours had little effect on disease index but exposure to pre-emergent freezing for 24 hours significantly delayed rate of seedling emergence and reduced final emergence from the infected seed lot. In plate experiments, the calculated base temperature for growth of M. nivale and M. majus was −6.3∘C and −2.2∘C, respectively. These are the first set of experiments to demonstrate the effects of pre-emergent and post-emergent freezing on the severity of Microdochium seedling blight.

  9. Screening of bacterial antagonists for biological control of Phytophthora blight of pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, M; Lee, Wang Hyu; Lee, Kui Jae

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of bacterial antagonists to control Phytophthora blight of pepper caused by P. capsici using different screening methods. Among a collection of fluorescent pseudomonas isolated from the rhizosphere of pepper, twelve isolates were initially selected based on dual culture assay on potato dextrose agar and corn meal agar. Further, these twelve isolates were screened for the reduction of disease severity caused by P. capsici using detached leaves and seedling assay. Most of the antagonists showed varying levels of antagonism against P. capsici in both detached leaves and seedlings assay. In addition, few isolates increased shoot and root length of pepper in seedling assays. Among them, isolate PS119 showing highest ability to reduce the disease severity in the in vitro seedling assay was found to be the most efficient antagonists against P. capsici in the in vivo biological control tests. These results indicate that the in vitro seedling assay can be used as a rapid and more accurate technique for the selection of promising biocontrol agents against P. capsici. ((c) 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  10. Studies on the cost-effective management of Alternaria blight of rapeseed-mustard (Brassica spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Khan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Three systemic fungicides: Topsin-M (Thiophanate methyl, 70%WP, Ridomil MZ (Mancozeb, 64% + Metalaxyl, 8%WP, and Bavistin (Carbendazim, 50%WP alone and in combination with four non-systemic fungicides Captaf (Captan, 50%WP, Indofil M-45 (Mancozeb, 75%WP, Indofil Z-78 (Zineb, 75%WP, and Thiram (Thiram, 75%WP were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for their effectiveness to manage Alternaria blight of rapeseedmustard caused by Alternaria brassicae. A pure culture of the pathogenic fungus was applied in the field at 2 g colonized sorghum seeds kg-1 soil. All the fungicides were evaluated for their efficacy at various concentrations, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 500 ppm, and were sprayed in the field at 0.2% a.i. l-1. All fungicides significantly reduced the severity of the disease but Ridomil MZ was most effective. Topsin-M at a concentration of 500 ppm was the most effective in reducing radial growth of the pathogenic fungi (74.2%. Ridomil MZ reduced disease severity by 32% and was followed in effectiveness by the combination Bavistin+Captaf (26.5%. Maximum yield was obtained in plots sprayed with Bavistin+Captaf (1198 kg ha-1 followed by Bavistin+Indofil Z-78 (1172 kg ha-1. It was worth noting that the highest net profit as well as the highest cost-benefit ratio was obtained with Bavistin+Indofil Z-78 (1:3.2, followed by Bavistin+Captaf (1:1.3.

  11. Screening of ten advanced chickpea lines for blight and wilt resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, F.F.; Haq, I.; Sarwar, N.; Alam, S.S.; Khan, J.A.; Hanif, M.; Khan, I.A.; Sarwar, M.; Haq, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Ten advanced chickpea lines developed at NIAB were screened for resistance to Ascochyta blight and Fusarium wilt diseases in different sets of experiments conducted under controlled environment. Inoculation of plants by spore suspension of virulent strains of Ascochyta rabiei revealed that one line (97313) was resistant tolerant, two lines (97305, 97392) were tolerant, six lines (97306, 97310, 97311, 97303, 97302, 97393) were tolerant/susceptible and one line (97301) was susceptible. Screening of the same lines against Fusarium wilt by water culture method showed that two lines (97301, 97313) were moderately resistant, four lines (97302, 97303, 97306, 97393) were tolerant and the remaining four lines were susceptible. Screening through phytotoxic culture filtrates revealed that two lines (97302, 97313) were less sensitive to culture filtrates of Ascochyta rabiei and Fusarium oxysporum than the resistant check (CM88). These lines were also analyzed spectrophotometrically for peroxidase enzyme activity. Maximum enzyme activity was detected after 48 hours of inoculation with A. rabiei in three lines (97305, 97311, 97313) and resistant check (CM88) while enzyme activity in the remaining lines reached its maximum after 72 hours of inoculation which was comparable to the susceptible check (Pb-1). These studies lead to the conclusion that one line (97313) exhibited resistance against both the diseases and can be used as a source of resistance for further improvement of chickpea germplasm. (author)

  12. Anthracnose Diseases of Eastern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick H. Berry

    1985-01-01

    Anthracnose diseases of hardwood trees are widespread throughout the Eastern United States. The most common symptom of these diseases is dead areas or blotches on the leaves. Because of the brown and black, scorched appearance of the leaves, the diseases are sometimes called leaf blight.

  13. Evaluating Sheath Blight Resistance in Rice Using Detached Tiller and Field Screening Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedanand Chaudhary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In present study physical resistance test on 12 rice varieties against sheath blight (ShB caused by Rhizoctonia solani was examined. A detached tiller test was used to measure components of ShB physiological resistance at Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS, Tarahara, Nepal. The varieties were evaluated in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications in year 2010-12. A sclerotium was inserted below the leaf collar of individual tillers maintained in tubes filled with water. Only the 56-day old susceptible plants were inoculated. After 7 days of inoculation, number of lesions, dead leaves, vertical sheath colonization and disease severity were measured. In 2011, field experiments were conducted with three replications to address morphological resistance in 28 rice genotypes. Disease incidence was recorded on 14, 21 and 28 days after inoculation. The number of dead leaves differed only numerically while disease variables significantly (P=0.004 varied among varieties. The other variables were highly correlated with each other. Cluster analysis of variables formed three varietal groups; Sabitri with lowest, and Jasmine-85 and Betichikon having highest values. Rice genotypes differed significantly (P=0.05 for disease incidence and area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC. Tetep and IAC-165 had the lowest and highest terminal disease incidences and AUDPC, respectively. Sabitri, MTU-1010 and IR-26 recorded lower AUDPC values. Hence, Tetep and Sabitri could be used as donors in hybridization and their plant morphology could be considered as selection guide for improving ShB resistance in rice.

  14. Women with breast cancer report substantially more disease- and treatment-related side or late effects than registered by clinical oncologists: a cross-sectional study of a standard follow-up program in an oncological department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegaard, Mai-Britt Bjørklund; Grau, Cai; Zachariae, Robert; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2017-08-01

    Follow-up after breast cancer treatment is standard due to the risk of development of new primary cancers and recurrent disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a standard follow-up program in an oncological department by assessing: (1) Symptoms or signs of new primary cancer or recurrent disease, (2) Disease- and treatment-related physical and psychosocial side or late effects, and (3) relevant actions by oncology staff. In a cross-sectional study, 194 women who came for follow-up visit after treatment for primary surgery were included. The clinical oncologists registered symptoms and signs of recurrent disease or new primary cancer. Side or late effects were both assessed by patient and the clinical oncologists. Loco-regional or distant signs of recurrent disease were suspected in eight (5%) patients. Further examinations revealed no disease recurrence. Most patients (93%) reported some degree of side or late effects. Statistically significant more side or late effects were reported by the women (average: 6.9) than registered by the clinical oncologists (average: 2.4), p effects were hot flushes (35%), fatigue (32%), and sleep disturbance (31%). None of the scheduled or additional visits resulted in detection of recurrent disease. Furthermore, the majority of patients reported side or late effects. Statistically significant more women reported side or late effects than registered by the clinical oncologists. This suggests the need for rethinking of the follow-up programs with more emphasis upon side or late effects of the treatment.

  15. Is type 2 diabetes mellitus a vascular disease (atheroscleropathy with hyperglycemia a late manifestation? The role of NOS, NO, and redox stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Suresh C

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease accounts for at least 85 percent of deaths for those patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Additionally, 75 percent of these deaths are due to ischemic heart disease. Hypothesis Is type 2 diabetes mellitus a vascular disease (atheroscleropathy with hyperglycemia a late manifestation? The role of NOS, NO, and redox stress. Testing of the hypothesis The vulnerable three arms of the eNOS reaction responsible for the generation of eNO is discussed in relation to the hypothesis: (1. The L-arginine substrate. (2. The eNOS enzyme. (3. The BH4 cofactor. Implications of the hypothesis If we view T2DM as a vascular disease initially with a later manifestation of hyperglycemia, we may be able to better understand and modify the multiple toxicities associated with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, overt T2DM, and accelerated atherosclerosis (atheroscleropathy. The importance of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, endothelial nitric oxide, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, L-arginine, and redox stress are discussed in relation to endothelial cell dysfunction and the development and progression of atheroscleropathy and T2DM. In addition to the standard therapies to restore endothelial cell dysfunction and stabilization of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, this article will discuss the importance of folic acid (5MTHF supplementation in this complex devastating disease process. Atheroscleropathy and hyperglycemia could be early and late manifestations, respectively, in the natural progressive history of T2DM.

  16. Chronic high Epstein-Barr viral load state and risk for late-onset posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease/lymphoma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingler, M A; Feingold, B; Miller, S A; Quivers, E; Michaels, M G; Green, M; Wadowsky, R M; Rowe, D T; Webber, S A

    2008-02-01

    Increased use of serial EBV-PCR monitoring after pediatric transplantation has led to the identification of asymptomatic patients who carry very high viral loads over prolonged periods. The significance of this high-load state is unknown. We speculated that this state may identify patients at high risk for development of late PTLD/lymphoma. We reviewed data on 71 pediatric heart recipients who had serial viral load monitoring since 1997. Chronic high-load state was defined as the presence of >16,000 genome copies/mL whole blood on > or =50% of samples over at least 6 months. Among 20 high-load carriers (eight following prior PTLD, seven with prior symptomatic EBV infection, five without previous EBV disease), 9 (45%) developed late-onset PTLD 2.5-8.4 years posttransplant (including with four Burkitt's lymphoma). Among 51 controls with low (n = 39) or absent (n = 12) loads, only 2 (4%; p < 0.001 absent/low vs. high load) developed late PTLD/lymphoma. By multivariable analysis, high-load carrier state (OR = 12.4, 95% CI 2.1-74.4) and prior history of PTLD (OR = 10.7, 95% CI 1.9-60.6) independently predicted late PTLD. A chronic high EBV-load state is not benign and is a predictor of de novo or recurrent PTLD.

  17. Women with breast cancer report substantially more disease- and treatment-related side or late effects than registered by clinical oncologists: a cross-sectional study of a standard follow-up program in an oncological department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Mai Britt Bjørklund; Grau, Cai; Zachariae, Robert

    2017-01-01

    effects were hot flushes (35%), fatigue (32%), and sleep disturbance (31%). CONCLUSION: None of the scheduled or additional visits resulted in detection of recurrent disease. Furthermore, the majority of patients reported side or late effects. Statistically significant more women reported side or late...... effects than registered by the clinical oncologists. This suggests the need for rethinking of the follow-up programs with more emphasis upon side or late effects of the treatment....

  18. Direct suppression of a rice bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) by monoterpene (S)-limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Woong; Chung, Moon-Soo; Kang, Mihyung; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, Sungbeom

    2016-05-01

    Rice bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is a severe disease of rice plants. Upon pathogen infection, rice biosynthesizes phytoalexins, including diterpenoids such as momilactones, phytocassanes, and oryzalexins. However, information on headspace volatiles in response to Xoo infection is limited. We have examined headspace volatile terpenes, induced by the infection of Xoo, and investigated their biological roles in the rice plant. Monoterpenes α-thujene, α-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, α-terpene, and (S)-limonene and sesquiterpenes cyclosativene, α-copaene, and β-elemene were detected from 1-week-old Xoo-infected rice seedlings, by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All monoterpenes were constitutively released from rice seedlings before Xoo infection. However, (S)-limonene emission was further elicited after exposure of the seedlings to Xoo in coincidence with upregulation of limonene synthase gene (OsTPS20) transcripts. Only the stereospecific (S)-limonene [and not (R)-limonene or other monoterpenes] severely inhibited Xoo growth, as confirmed by disc diffusion and liquid culture assays. Rice seedlings showed suppressed pathogenic symptoms suggestive of resistance to Xoo infection after foliar treatment with (S)-limonene. Collectively, our findings suggest that (S)-limonene is a volatile phytoanticipin, which plays a significant role in suppressing Xoo growth in rice seedlings.

  19. Leaf blight and defoliation of Eugenia spp. caused by Cylindrocladium candelabrum and C. spathiphylli in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sebastião Poltronieri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf blight and defoliation of Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh and Eugenia patrisii Vahl, caused respectively by Cylindrocladium candelabrum (Calonectria scoparia and C. spathiphylli (Calonectria spathiphylli are reported in the state of Pará, Brazil. On both host species, the disease is characterized by dark brown lesions of different sizes and shapes. A whitish bright sporulation, resembling Cylindrocladium is observed on the necrotic lesions by using a stereomycroscope or a pocket lense (10-20 X. Under favorable conditions and depending on the level of infection, intense premature tree defoliation may also be found.Although the conidial germination and mycelial growth were higher at 25ºC for both species, C. candelabrum was more sensitive to the variation of temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40 ºC than C. spathiphylli. This is the first report of C. candelabrum and C. spathiphylli on Eugenia stipitata (araçá-boi and on Eugenia patrisii (ubaia-da-amazônia, respectively in Brazil.

  20. An Endophytic Bacterial Strain Isolated from Eucommia ulmoides Inhibits Southern Corn Leaf Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ding

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis DZSY21 isolated from the leaves of Eucommia ulmoides oliv. was labeled by antibiotic marker and found to effectively colonize the leaves of maize plant. Agar diffusion assays and biocontrol effect experiments showed that strain DZSY21 and its lipopeptides had antagonistic activity against Bipolaris maydis, as well as high biocontrol effects on southern corn leaf blight caused by B. maydis. Using MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, we detected the presence of antimicrobial surfactin A, surfactin B, and fengycin in the strain DZSY21. Signaling pathways mediated by DZSY21 were analyzed by testing the expression of key plant genes involved in regulation of salicylic acid (SA or JA/ET pathways, the defense-related genes PR1 and LOX were concurrently expressed in the leaves of DZSY21-treated plants; this corresponded to slight increase in the expression level of PDF1.2 and decreases in ERF gene transcription levels. The results indicated an induced systemic response that is dependent on the SA and jasmonic acid (JA pathways. Thus, we hypothesized that the strain DZSY21 inhibits B. maydis by producing antifungal lipopeptides and activating an induced systemic response through SA- and JA-dependent signaling pathways. This work describes a mechanism behind reduced disease severity in plants inoculated with the endophytic bacteria DZSY21.

  1. A proteomics survey on wheat susceptibility to Fusarium head blight during grain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetouhi, Cherif; Bonhomme, Ludovic; Lecomte, Philippe; Cambon, Florence; Merlino, Marielle; Biron, David Georges; Langin, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    The mycotoxigenic fungal species Fusarium graminearum is able to attack several important cereal crops, such as wheat and barley. By causing Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) disease, F. graminearum induces yield and quality losses and poses a public health concern due to in planta mycotoxin production. The molecular and physiological plant responses to FHB, and the cellular biochemical pathways used by F. graminearum to complete its infectious process remain still unknown. In this study, a proteomics approach, combining 2D-gel approach and mass spectrometry, has been used to determine the specific protein patterns associated with the development of the fungal infection during grain growth on susceptible wheat. Our results reveal that F. graminearum infection does not deeply alter the grain proteome and does not significantly disturb the first steps of grain ontogeny but impacts molecular changes during the grain filling stage (impact on starch synthesis and storage proteins). The differentially regulated proteins identified were mainly involved in stress and defence mechanisms, primary metabolism, and main cellular processes such as signalling and transport. Our survey suggests that F. graminearum could take advantage of putative susceptibility factors closely related to grain development processes and thus provide new insights into key molecular events controlling the susceptible response to FHB in wheat grains.

  2. Genetic Divergence and Chemotype Diversity in the Fusarium Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium poae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Adriaan; De Boevre, Marthe; Moretti, Antonio; Scauflaire, Jonathan; Munaut, Françoise; De Saeger, Sarah; Bekaert, Boris; Haesaert, Geert; Waalwijk, Cees; van der Lee, Theo; Audenaert, Kris

    2017-08-23

    Fusarium head blight is a disease caused by a complex of Fusarium species. F. poae is omnipresent throughout Europe in spite of its low virulence. In this study, we assessed a geographically diverse collection of F. poae isolates for its genetic diversity using AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism). Furthermore, studying the mating type locus and chromosomal insertions, we identified hallmarks of both sexual recombination and clonal spread of successful genotypes in the population. Despite the large genetic variation found, all F. poae isolates possess the nivalenol chemotype based on Tri7 sequence analysis. Nevertheless, Tri gene clusters showed two layers of genetic variability. Firstly, the Tri1 locus was highly variable with mostly synonymous mutations and mutations in introns pointing to a strong purifying selection pressure. Secondly, in a subset of isolates, the main trichothecene gene cluster was invaded by a transposable element between Tri5 and Tri6 . To investigate the impact of these variations on the phenotypic chemotype, mycotoxin production was assessed on artificial medium. Complex blends of type A and type B trichothecenes were produced but neither genetic variability in the Tri genes nor variability in the genome or geography accounted for the divergence in trichothecene production. In view of its complex chemotype, it will be of utmost interest to uncover the role of trichothecenes in virulence, spread and survival of F. poae .

  3. Biological Efficacy of Streptomyces sp. Strain BN1 against the Cereal Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boknam Jung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB caused by the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is one of the most severe diseases threatening the production of small grains. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as zearalenone and trichothecences. During survey of contamination by FHB in rice grains, we found a bacterial isolate, designated as BN1, antagonistic to F. graminearum. The strain BN1 had branching vegetative hyphae and spores, and its aerial hyphae often had long, straight filaments bearing spores. The 16S rRNA gene of BN1 had 100% sequence identity with those found in several Streptomyces species. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS regions showed that BN1 grouped with S. sampsonii with 77% bootstrap value, suggesting that BN1 was not a known Streptomyces species. In addition, the efficacy of the BN1 strain against F. graminearum strains was tested both in vitro and in vivo. Wheat seedling length was significantly decreased by F. graminearum infection. However, this effect was mitigated when wheat seeds were treated with BN1 spore suspension prior to F. graminearum infection. BN1 also significantly decreased FHB severity when it was sprayed onto wheat heads, whereas BN1 was not effective when wheat heads were point inoculated. These results suggest that spraying of BN1 spores onto wheat heads during the wheat flowering season can be efficient for plant protection. Mechanistic studies on the antagonistic effect of BN1 against F. graminearum remain to be analyzed.

  4. Genetic architecture of fusarium head blight resistance in four winter triticale populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalih, R; Maurer, H P; Miedaner, T

    2015-03-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease that causes significant reductions in yield and quality in wheat, rye, and triticale. In triticale, knowledge of the genetic architecture of FHB resistance is missing but essential due to modern breeding requirements. In our study, four doubled-haploid triticale populations (N=120 to 200) were evaluated for resistance to FHB caused by artificial inoculation with Fusarium culmorum in four environments. DArT markers were used to genotype triticale populations. Seventeen quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FHB resistance were detected across all populations; six of them were derived from rye genome and located on chromosomes 4R, 5R, and 7R, which are here reported for the first time. The total cross-validated ratio of the explained phenotypic variance for all detected QTL in each population was 41 to 68%. In all, 17 QTL for plant height and 18 QTL for heading stage were also detected across all populations; 3 and 5 of them, respectively, were overlapping with QTL for FHB. In conclusion, FHB resistance in triticale is caused by a multitude of QTL, and pyramiding them contributes to higher resistance.

  5. Yield loss assessment due to Alternaria blight and its management in linseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R B; Singh, H K; Parmar, Arpita

    2014-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted during 2010-11 and 2011-12 to assess the yield losses due to Alternaria blight disease caused by Alternaria lini and A. linicola in recently released cultivars and their management with the integration of Trichoderma viride, fungicides and plant extract. Disease severity on leaves varied from 41.07% (Parvati) to 65.01% (Chambal) while bud damage per cent ranged between 23.56% (Shekhar) to 46.12% (T-397), respectively in different cultivars. Maximum yield loss of 58.44% was recorded in cultivar Neelum followed by Parvati (55.56%), Meera (55.56%) and Chambal (51.72%), respectively while minimum loss was recorded in Kiran (19.99%) and Jeevan (22.22%). Minimum mean disease severity (19.47%) with maximum disease control (69.74%) was recorded with the treatment: seed treatment (ST) with vitavax power (2 g kg(-1) seed) + 2 foliar sprays (FS) of Saaf (a mixture of carbendazim+mancozeb) 0.2% followed by ST with Trichoderma viride (4g kg(-1) seed) + 2 FS of Saaf (0.2%). Minimum bud damage (13.75%) with maximum control (60.94%) was recorded with treatment of ST with vitavax power+2 FS of propiconazole (0.2%). Maximum mean seed yield (1440 kg ha(-1)) with maximum net return (Rs. 15352/ha) and benefit cost ratio (1:11.04) was obtained with treatment ST with vitavax power + 2 FS of Neem leaf extract followed by treatment ST with vitavax power+2 FS of Saaf (1378 kg ha(-1)).

  6. Pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae Causing Bacterial Brown Spot and Halo Blight in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Are Distinguishable by Ribotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana J.; Landeras, Elena; Mendoza, M. Carmen

    2000-01-01

    Ribotyping was evaluated as a method to differentiate between Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and pv. syringae strains causing bacterial brown spot and halo blight diseases in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Ribotyping, with restriction enzymes BglI and SalI and using the Escherichia coli rrnB operon as the probe, differentiated 11 and 14 ribotypes, respectively, and a combination of data from both procedures yielded 19 combined ribotypes. Cluster analysis of the combined ribotypes differentiated the pathovars phaseolicola and syringae, as well as different clonal lineages within these pathovars. The potential of ribotyping to screen for correlations between lineages and factors such as geographical region and/or bean varieties is also reported. PMID:10653764

  7. A review of the Mycrocylus ulei Ascomycetes fungus, causative agent of South American rubber-leaf blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibonne Aydee García-Romero

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Microcyclus ulei Ascomycetes fungus is the causal agent of south-American leaf blight (SALB, this being one of the most important diseases affecting the natural rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis in Latina-America and has been responsible for numerous economic losses. This fungus has presented high physiological variability, suggesting its great adaptability. HCN tolerance has been described as being one of the mechanisms associated with its virulence. Resistant Hevea clones have been obtained by genetic improvement; however, the mechanisms associated with this are still not well known. Greater knowledge of this pathogen will lead to developing new control strategies and better understanding of the mechanisms associated with host resistance. Key words: Microcyclus ulei, SALB, Hevea brasiliensis.

  8. Introduction of a rice blight resistance gene, Xa21, into five Chinese rice varieties through an Agrobacterium-mediated system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A cloned gene, Xa21 was transferred into five widely-used Chinese rice varieties through an Agrobacterium-mediated system, and over 110 independent transgenic lines were obtained. PCR and Southern analysis of transgenic plants revealed the integration of the whole Xa21 gene into the host genomes. The integrated Xa21 gene was stably inherited, and segregated in a 3∶1 ratio in the selfed T1 generation when one copy of the gene was integrated in the transformants. Inoculation tests displayed that transgenic T0 plants and Xa21 PCR-positive T1 plants were highly resistant to bacterial blight disease. The selected Xa21 homozygous resistant transgenic lines with desirable qualities may be propagated as new varieties or utilized in hybrid rice breeding.

  9. Introduction of a rice blight resistance gene, Xa21, into five Chinese rice varieties through an Agrobacterium -mediated system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟文学; 李晓兵; 田文忠; 周永力; 潘学彪; 曹守云; 赵显峰; 赵彬; 章琦; 朱立煌

    2000-01-01

    A cloned gene, Xa21 was transferred into five widely-used Chinese rice varieties through an Agrobacterium-mediated system, and over 110 independent transgenic lines were obtained. PCR and Southern analysis of transgenic plants revealed the integration of the whole Xa21 gene into the host genomes. The integrated Xa21 gene was stably inherited, and segregated in a 3 : 1 ratio in the selfed T1 generation when one copy of the gene was integrated in the transfor-mants. Inoculation tests displayed that transgenic T0 plants and Xa21 PCR-positive T1 plants were highly resistant to bacterial blight disease. The selected Xa21 homozygous resistant transgenic lines with desirable qualities may be propagated as new varieties or utilized in hybrid rice breeding.

  10. Identification of the first large deletion in the CLDN16 gene in a patient with FHHNC and late-onset of chronic kidney disease: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguti, Paulo Marcio; dos Santos, Pollyanna Almeida Costa; Leal, Bruno Sakamoto; Santana, Viviane Brandão Bandeira de Mello; Mazzeu, Juliana Forte; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Neves, Francisco de Assis Rocha

    2015-07-02

    Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a rare autosomal recessive renal disease characterized by tubular disorders at the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. It is caused by mutations in the tight junction structural proteins claudin-16 or claudin-19, which are encoded by the CLDN16 and CLDN19 genes, respectively. Patients exhibit excessive wasting of calcium and magnesium, nephrocalcinosis, chronic kidney disease, and early progression to end-stage renal failure during infancy. We here report the phenotype and molecular analysis of a female Brazilian patient with a novel large homozygous deletion in the CLDN16 gene. The proband, born from consanguineous parents, presented the first symptoms at age 20. Clinical examination revealed hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, nephrocalcinosis, mild myopia, high serum levels of uric acid and intact parathyroid hormone, and moderate chronic kidney disease (stage 3). She and her mother were subjected to CLDN16 and CLDN19 mutational analysis. In addition, the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method was used to confirm a CLDN16 multi-exon deletion. Direct sequencing revealed a normal CLDN19 sequence and suggested a large deletion in the CLDN16 gene. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification showed a homozygous CLDN16 multi-exon deletion (E2_E5del). The patient initiated conventional treatment for familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis and progressed to end-stage kidney disease after five years. This study provides the first report of a large homozygous deletion in the CLDN16 gene causing familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis with late onset of the first symptoms. This description expands the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the disease. The late-onset chronic kidney disease in the presence of a homozygous deletion in the CLDN16 gene reinforces the great variability of genotype-phenotype manifestation in patients with

  11. Variants in the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter (ABCA7), Apolipoprotein E ε4, and the Risk of Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Christiane; Jun, Gyungah; Naj, Adam; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Vardarajan, Badri Narayan; Wang, Li-San; Valladares, Otto; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Larson, Eric B.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Evans, Denis; De Jager, Philip L.; Crane, Paul K.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Murrell, Jill R.; Raj, Towfique; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Logue, Mark; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Green, Robert C.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Cantwell, Laura B.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Go, Rodney C. P.; Griffith, Patrick; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Lopez, Oscar L.; Bennett, David A.; Hendrie, Hugh; Hall, Kathleen S.; Goate, Alison M.; Byrd, Goldie S.; Kukull, Walter A.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Mayeux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Importance Genetic variants associated with susceptibility to late-onset Alzheimer disease are known for individuals of European ancestry, but whether the same or different variants account for the genetic risk of Alzheimer disease in African American individuals is unknown. Identification of disease-associated variants helps identify targets for genetic testing, prevention, and treatment. Objective To identify genetic loci associated with late-onset Alzheimer disease in African Americans. Design, Setting, and Participants The Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC) assembled multiple data sets representing a total of 5896 African Americans (1968 case participants, 3928 control participants) 60 years or older that were collected between 1989 and 2011 at multiple sites. The association of Alzheimer disease with genotyped and imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was assessed in case-control and in family-based data sets. Results from individual data sets were combined to perform an inverse variance–weighted meta-analysis, first with genome-wide analyses and subsequently with gene-based tests for previously reported loci. Main Outcomes and Measures Presence of Alzheimer disease according to standardized criteria. Results Genome-wide significance in fully adjusted models (sex, age, APOE genotype, population stratification) was observed for a SNP in ABCA7 (rs115550680, allele = G; frequency, 0.09 cases and 0.06 controls; odds ratio [OR], 1.79 [95% CI, 1.47-2.12]; P = 2.2 × 10–9), which is in linkage disequilibrium with SNPs previously associated with Alzheimer disease in Europeans (0.8disease but not reaching significance in genome-wide analyses were replicated in gene-based analyses

  12. Variants in the ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA7), apolipoprotein E ϵ4,and the risk of late-onset Alzheimer disease in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Christiane; Jun, Gyungah; Naj, Adam; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Vardarajan, Badri Narayan; Wang, Li-San; Valladares, Otto; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Larson, Eric B; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Evans, Denis; De Jager, Philip L; Crane, Paul K; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Murrell, Jill R; Raj, Towfique; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Logue, Mark; Baldwin, Clinton T; Green, Robert C; Barnes, Lisa L; Cantwell, Laura B; Fallin, M Daniele; Go, Rodney C P; Griffith, Patrick; Obisesan, Thomas O; Manly, Jennifer J; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Lopez, Oscar L; Bennett, David A; Hendrie, Hugh; Hall, Kathleen S; Goate, Alison M; Byrd, Goldie S; Kukull, Walter A; Foroud, Tatiana M; Haines, Jonathan L; Farrer, Lindsay A; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Mayeux, Richard

    2013-04-10

    Genetic variants associated with susceptibility to late-onset Alzheimer disease are known for individuals of European ancestry, but whether the same or different variants account for the genetic risk of Alzheimer disease in African American individuals is unknown. Identification of disease-associated variants helps identify targets for genetic testing, prevention, and treatment. To identify genetic loci associated with late-onset Alzheimer disease in African Americans. The Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC) assembled multiple data sets representing a total of 5896 African Americans (1968 case participants, 3928 control participants) 60 years or older that were collected between 1989 and 2011 at multiple sites. The association of Alzheimer disease with genotyped and imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was assessed in case-control and in family-based data sets. Results from individual data sets were combined to perform an inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis, first with genome-wide analyses and subsequently with gene-based tests for previously reported loci. Presence of Alzheimer disease according to standardized criteria. Genome-wide significance in fully adjusted models (sex, age, APOE genotype, population stratification) was observed for a SNP in ABCA7 (rs115550680, allele = G; frequency, 0.09 cases and 0.06 controls; odds ratio [OR], 1.79 [95% CI, 1.47-2.12]; P = 2.2 × 10(-9)), which is in linkage disequilibrium with SNPs previously associated with Alzheimer disease in Europeans (0.8 Alzheimer disease but not reaching significance in genome-wide analyses were replicated in gene-based analyses accounting for linkage disequilibrium between markers and correcting for number of tests performed per gene (CR1, BIN1, EPHA1, CD33; 0.0005 Alzheimer disease was significantly associated with variants in ABCA7 and with other genes that have been associated with Alzheimer disease in individuals of European ancestry. Replication and functional

  13. Miglustat in late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: a 12-month, randomized, controlled clinical study with 24 months of extended treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Barbara E; Pastores, Gregory M; Gianutsos, John; Luzy, Cécile; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of miglustat in patients with GM2 gangliosidosis. A randomized, multicenter, open-label, 12-month study involving patients aged 18 years or older, randomized 2:1 to miglustat (200 mg TID) or "no miglustat treatment." This study was followed by 24 months of extended treatment during which all patients received miglustat. Primary efficacy endpoints were change in eight measures of isometric muscle strength in the limbs and isometric grip strength, evaluated at baseline, and months 12 and 36. Secondary efficacy endpoints included gait, balance, disability, and other neurological assessments. Safety evaluations included adverse event reporting. Thirty patients (67% male, age range 18-56 years) with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease were enrolled; 20 were randomized to miglustat and 10 to "no miglustat treatment." Muscle and grip strength generally decreased over the study period. No differences were observed between the two groups in any efficacy measure, either during the 12-month randomized phase or the full 36 months. The most common treatment-related adverse events were decrease in weight and diarrhea. Miglustat treatment was not shown to lead to measurable benefits in this cohort of patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease. The observed safety profile was consistent with that of the approved dose (100 mg TID) in type 1 Gaucher disease.

  14. In vivo assessment of plant extracts for control of plant diseases: A sesquiterpene ketolactone isolated from Curcuma zedoaria suppresses wheat leaf rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae Woo; Shim, Sang Hee; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Choi, Yong Ho; Dang, Quang Le; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja

    2018-02-01

    As an alternative to synthetic pesticides, natural materials such as plant extracts and microbes have been considered to control plant diseases. In this study, methanol extracts of 120 plants were explored for in vivo antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia triticina, and Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Of the 120 plant extracts, eight plant extracts exhibited a disease control efficacy of more than 90% against at least one of five plant diseases. In particular, a methanol extract of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes exhibited strong activity against wheat leaf rust caused by P. triticina. When the C. zedoaria methanol extracts were partitioned with various solvents, the layers of n-hexane, methylene chloride, and ethyl acetate showed disease control values of 100, 80, and 43%, respectively, against wheat leaf rust. From the C. zedoaria rhizome extracts, an antifungal substance was isolated and identified as a sesquiterpene ketolactone based on the mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data. The active compound controlled the development of rice sheath blight, wheat leaf rust, and tomato late blight. Considering the in vivo antifungal activities of the sesquiterpene ketolactone and the C. zedoaria extracts, these results suggest that C. zedoaria can be used as a potent fungicide in organic agriculture.

  15. Establishment of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line from a 75-year old patient with late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Táncos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were collected from a clinically characterised 75-year old woman with late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD. The PMBCs were reprogrammed with the human OSKM transcription factors using the Sendai-virus delivery system. The transgene-free iPSC showed pluripotency verified by immunocytochemistry for pluripotency markers and differentiated spontaneously towards the 3 germ layers in vitro. Furthermore, the iPSC line showed normal karyotype. Our model might offer a good platform to further study the pathomechanism of sporadic AD, to identify early biomarkers and also for drug testing and gene therapy studies.

  16. Assessment of Bacterial Blight Tolerance of Persian Walnut Based on Immature Nut Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila BANDI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight is one of the most serious diseases affecting Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.. Susceptibility to this disease was evaluated by artificial inoculation in an in vitro experiment for cultivars developed in Hungary and for selections from Transylvania. Thirty pieces of immature fruit of 11 walnut cultivars and 10 selections were inoculated by punction using a suspension containing a mixture of Xaj-isolates of controlled virulence. As control, a moderate resistant (mR ‘Pedro’ and a highly susceptible (hS ‘Milotai intenzív’ cultivars were used. After ten days the diameter of the necrotic area around the inoculation points was measured and the disease rate (DR was noted. For the calculation of indexes it was taken the structure of the lesions (diffuse or defined margin into consideration. None of the 21 cultivars/selections analysed were found to be hardly resistant, although all of them showed a higher degree of resistance than the susceptible control (‘Milotai intenzív’. The majority of the analysed cultivars fit into the moderate susceptible (mS and moderate resistant (mR group. ‘Milotai kései’ and SZEN-10, had a notable reaction as considered to be moderate resistant (mR, showed a similar degree of resistance compared to the control cultivar ‘Pedro’. It was concluded that these cultivars, based on their resistance to Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis, could be proposed as resistance gene sources, as well as for production purposes in the environmental conditions of the Carpathian Basin.

  17. Endophytic Streptomyces spp. as Biocontrol Agents of Rice Bacterial Leaf Blight Pathogen (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATIH DEWI HASTUTI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, a causal agent of bacterial leaf blight (BLB, is one of the most important pathogens of rice. The effectiveness of ten Streptomyces spp. isolates in suppressing Xoo disease was assessed in planta and in vitro. In planta experiments were carried out in a greenhouse and arranged in a randomized completely block design (RCBD with three replications. Twenty treatments were tested which included plants inoculated with both Streptomyces spp. and Xoo, and plants inoculated with only Streptomyces spp. Plants inoculated with Xoo and sprayed with a chemical bactericide, and plants inoculated with only Xoo served as positive controls, whereas plants not inoculated with either Streptomyces spp. or Xoo were used as negative controls. The results showed that the effect of endophytic Streptomyces spp. on BLB disease expressed as area under disease progress curve (AUDPC was not significantly different to that on control plants (P > 0.05. However, plants inoculated with endophytic Streptomyces spp. were significantly taller and produced higher tiller number than control plants (P < 0.05. Streptomyces spp. isolate AB131-1 gave the highest plant height. In vitro studies on biocontrol mechanisms of selected Streptomyces spp. isolates showed that isolate LBR02 gave the highest inhibition activity on Xoo growth, followed by AB131-1 and AB131-2. Two isolates (AB131-1 and LBR02 were able to produce chitinase, phosphatase, and siderophore which included biocontrol characteristics. Morphological and colonization studies under SEM and light microscopy confirmed that the three isolates were endophytic Streptomyces spp. from different species. These studies found that the paddy plant which was inoculated with endophytic Streptomyces spp. AB131-1 and infected by Xoo could increase the height of plant and number of tillers.

  18. Fire Blight Control: The Struggle Goes On. A Comparison of Different Fire Blight Control Methods in Switzerland with Respect to Biosafety, Efficacy and Durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Gusberti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight (FB, caused by Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most important pome fruit pathogens worldwide. To control this devastating disease, various chemical and biological treatments are commonly applied in Switzerland, but they fail to keep the infection at an acceptable level in years of heavy disease pressure. The Swiss authorities therefore currently allow the controlled use of the antibiotic streptomycin against FB in years that are predicted to have heavy infection periods, but only one treatment per season is permitted. Another strategy for controlling Erwinia is to breed resistant/tolerant apple cultivars. One way of accelerating the breeding process is to obtain resistant cultivars by inserting one or several major resistance genes, using genetic engineering. To date, no study summarizing the impact of different FB control measures on the environment and on human health has been performed. This study consequently aims to compare different disease-control measures (biological control, chemical control, control by antibiotics and by resistant/tolerant apple cultivars obtained through conventional or molecular breeding applied against E. amylovora, considering different protection goals (protection of human health, environment, agricultural diversity and economic interest, with special emphasis on biosafety aspects. Information on each FB control measure in relation to the specified protection goal was assessed by literature searches and by interviews with experts. Based on our results it can be concluded that the FB control measures currently applied in Switzerland are safe for consumers, workers and the environment. However, there are several gaps in our knowledge of the human health and environmental impacts analyzed: data are missing (1 on long term studies on the efficacy of most of the analyzed FB control measures; (2 on the safety of operators handling streptomycin; (3 on residue analyses of Equisetum plant extract, the copper

  19. Relationships between cognitive impairment on ADAS-cog and regional cerebral blood flow using SPECT in late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Michio; Oda, Yasunori; Okubo, Toshiyuki; Shirayama, Yukihiko

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine brain hypoperfusion and its relationship with cognitive dysfunction in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Forty patients with late-onset AD and not receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were recruited from outpatient clinics. We examined cognitive function using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) and brain perfusion using single-photon emission computed tomography, and analyzed classified gyrus level segments with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection and the stereotactic extraction estimation method level 3. ADAS-cog subscales were grouped into three domains: language, memory, and praxis. Patients with late-onset AD showed an apparent reduction in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with a z score >1.5 in the frontal, temporal, and limbic lobes, with lesser reduction in the parietal and occipital lobes. Although hypoperfusion in the orbital, rectal, and subcallosal gyri of the frontal lobe was prominent, rCBF in the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe was significantly correlated with ADAS-cog total and language and praxis subscale scores. The parahippocampal gyrus of the limbic lobe was also significantly correlated with the ADAS-cog total, language, and praxis subscale scores. Additionally, the cingulate of the limbic lobe was significantly related with ADAS-cog memory. In spite of lesser hypoperfusion, the posterior cingulate gyrus of the limbic lobe was significantly related with ADAS-cog total, language, and memory subscale scores. Further, each subdivision of ADAS-cog was found to be related with various brain regions.

  20. Leaf blight of catharanthus roseus (l). g. don caused by macrophomina phaseolina (tassi) goid and its in vitro control through bio-pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mridha, M.A.U.; Rehman, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.).G. Don, a highly valued medicinal plant suffers from a serious disease. A survey on the symptom and severity of the leaf blight of C. roseus was performed in the nurseries of the Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences (IFESCU), Bangladesh Council of Industrial Research (BCSIR) and Bangladesh Forest Research Institute (BFRI), Bangladesh. An observation was also made in the avenues and garden of King Saud University (KSU), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. No disease was recorded in KSU, but severe infections were found in all the locations surveyed in Bangladesh. The highest infection percentage and the highest disease index were found in BCSIR nursery followed by BFRI and the lowest was recorded in IFESCU nursery. Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid was isolated and it was proved to be pathogenic. This is the first report of leaf blight of C. roseus caused by M. phaseolina. Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum Vitex negundo, Mucuna pruriens, Calotropis procera, Terminalia arjuna, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinalis and Allium cepa were used as biopesticides. Out of the nine plant species screened, T. arjuna showed the highest (58.37%) inhibition percentage which was followed by A. indica (55.72%) and the lowest (27.4%) inhibition percentage were obtained with V. negundo whereas the rest of the plant extracts showed more or less same inhibitory effect. (author)

  1. Veterinary entomology, colonial science and the challenge of tick-borne diseases in South Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an historical overview of developments in veterinary entomology during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. During that period state employed entomologists and veterinary scientists discovered that ticks were responsible for transmitting a number of livestock diseases in South Africa. Diseases such as heartwater, redwater and gallsickness were endemic to the country. They had a detrimental effect on pastoral output, which was a mainstay of the national economy. Then in 1902 the decimating cattle disease East Coast fever arrived making the search for cures or preventatives all the more urgent. Vaccine technologies against tick-borne diseases remained elusive overall and on the basis of scientific knowledge, the South African state recommended regularly dipping animals in chemical solutions to destroy the ticks. Dipping along with quarantines and culls resulted in the eradication of East Coast fever from South Africa in the early 1950s. However, from the 1930s some ticks evolved a resistance to the chemical dips meaning that diseases like redwater were unlikely to be eliminated by that means. Scientists toiled to improve upon existing dipping technologies and also carried out ecological surveys to enhance their ability to predict outbreaks. Over the longer term dipping was not a panacea and ticks continue to present a major challenge to pastoral farming.

  2. The psychological complexity of predictive testing for late onset neurogenetic diseases and hereditary cancers: implications for multidisciplinary counselling and for genetic education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers-Kiebooms, G; Welkenhuysen, M; Claes, E; Decruyenaere, M; Denayer, L

    2000-09-01

    Increasing knowledge about the human genome has resulted in the availability of a steadily increasing number of predictive DNA-tests for two major categories of diseases: neurogenetic diseases and hereditary cancers. The psychological complexity of predictive testing for these late onset diseases requires careful consideration. It is the main aim of the present paper to describe this psychological complexity, which necessitates an adequate and systematic multidisciplinary approach, including psychological counselling, as well as ongoing education of professionals and of the general public. Predictive testing for neurogenetic diseases--in an adequate counselling context--so far elicits optimism regarding the short- and mid-term impact of the predictive test result. The psychosocial impact has been most widely studied for Huntington's disease. Longitudinal studies are of the utmost importance in evaluating the long-term impact of predictive testing for neurogenetic diseases on the tested person and his/her family. Given the more recent experience with predictive DNA-testing for hereditary cancers, fewer published scientific data are available. Longitudinal research on the mid- and long-term psychological impact of the predictive test result is essential. Decision making regarding health surveillance or preventive surgery after being detected as a carrier of one of the relevant mutations should receive special attention. Tailoring the professional approach--inside and outside genetic centres--to the families' needs is a continuous challenge. Even if a continuous effort is made, several important questions remain unanswered, last but not least the question regarding the best strategy to guarantee that the availability of predictive genetic testing results in a reduction of suffering caused by genetic disease and in an improvement of the quality of life of families confronted with genetic disease.

  3. Plant Growth Promotion and Suppression of Bacterial Leaf Blight in Rice by Inoculated Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumera Yasmin

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of rice rhizosphere associated antagonistic bacteria for growth promotion and disease suppression of bacterial leaf blight (BLB. A total of 811 rhizospheric bacteria were isolated and screened against 3 prevalent strains of BLB pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo of which five antagonistic bacteria, i.e., Pseudomonas spp. E227, E233, Rh323, Serratia sp. Rh269 and Bacillus sp. Rh219 showed antagonistic potential (zone of inhibition 1-19 mm. Production of siderophores was found to be the common biocontrol determinant and all the strains solubilized inorganic phosphate (82-116 μg mL-1 and produced indole acetic acid (0.48-1.85 mg L-1 in vitro. All antagonistic bacteria were non-pathogenic to rice, and their co-inoculation significantly improved plant health in terms of reduced diseased leaf area (80%, improved shoot length (31%, root length (41% and plant dry weight (60% as compared to infected control plants. Furthermore, under pathogen pressure, bacterial inoculation resulted in increased activity of defense related enzymes including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenol oxidase, along with 86% increase in peroxidase and 53% increase in catalase enzyme activities in plants inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 as well as co-inoculated plants. Bacterial strains showed good colonization potential in the rice rhizosphere up to 21 days after seed inoculation. Application of bacterial consortia in the field resulted in an increase of 31% in grain yield and 10% in straw yield over non-inoculated plots. Although, yield increase was statistically non-significant but was accomplished with overall saving of 20% chemical fertilizers. The study showed that Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 can be used to develop dual-purpose inoculum which can serve not only to suppress BLB but also to promote plant growth in rice.

  4. Construction of a recombinant Bacillus velezensis strain as an integrated control agent against plant diseases and insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jong Yul; Liu, Qin; Choi, Jae Young; Wang, Yong; Shim, Hee Jin; Xu, Hong Guang; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Je, Yeon Ho

    2009-10-01

    To construct a new recombinant strain of Bacillus velezensis that has antifungal and insecticidal activity via the expression of the insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein, a B. thuringiensis expression vector (pHT1K-1Ac) was generated that contained the B. thuringiensis cry1Ac gene under the control of its endogenous promoter in a minimal E. coli-B. thuringiensis shuttle vector (pHT1K). This vector was introduced into a B. velezensis isolate that showed high antifungal activities against several plant diseases, including rice blast (Magnaporthe grisea), rice sheath blight (Rhizotonia solani), tomato gray mold (Botrytis cinerea), tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans), and wheat leaf rust (Puccinia recondita), by electroporation. The recombinant B. velezensis strain was confirmed by PCR using cry1Ac-specific primers. Additionally, the recombinant strain produced a protein approximately 130 kDa in size and parasporal inclusion bodies similar to B. thuringiensis. The in vivo antifungal activity assay demonstrated that the activity of the recombinant B. velezensis strain was maintained at the same level as that of wild-type B. velezensis. Furthermore, it exhibited high insecticidal activity against a lepidopteran pest, Plutella xylostella, although its activity was lower than that of a recombinant B. thuringiensis strain, whereas wild-type B. velezensis strain did not show any insecticidal activity. These results suggest that this recombinant B. velezensis strain can be used to control harmful insect pests and fungal diseases simultaneously in one crop.

  5. Optimizing the radiation therapy dose prescription for pediatric medulloblastoma: minimizing the life years lost attributable to failure to control the disease and late complication risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, N Patrik; Vogelius, Ivan R; Björk-Eriksson, Thomas; Munck Af Rosenschöld, Per; Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Specht, Lena; Bentzen, Søren M

    2014-04-01

    A mathematical framework is presented for simultaneously quantifying and evaluating the trade-off between tumor control and late complications for risk-based radiation therapy (RT) decision-support. To demonstrate this, we estimate life years lost (LYL) attributable to tumor recurrence, late cardiac toxicity and secondary cancers for standard-risk pediatric medulloblastoma (MB) patients and compare the effect of dose re-distribution on a common scale. Total LYL were derived, based on the LYL attributable to radiation-induced late complications and the LYL from not controlling the primary disease. We compared the estimated LYL for three different treatments in 10 patients: 1) standard 3D conformal RT; 2) proton therapy; 3) risk-adaptive photon treatment lowering the dose to part of the craniospinal (CS) target volume situated close to critical risk organs. Late toxicity is important, with 0.75 LYL (95% CI 0.60-7.2 years) for standard uniform 24 Gy CS irradiation. However, recurrence risk dominates the total LYL with 14.2 years (95% CI 13.4-16.6 years). Compared to standard treatment, a risk-adapted strategy prescribing 12 Gy to the spinal volume encompassing the 1st-10th thoracic vertebrae (Th1-Th10), and 36 Gy to the remaining CS volume, estimated a LYL reduction of 0.90 years (95% CI -0.18-2.41 years). Proton therapy with 36 Gy to the whole CS volume was associated with significantly fewer LYL compared to the risk-adapted photon strategies, with a mean LYL difference of 0.50 years (95% CI 0.25-2.60 years). Optimization of RT prescription strategies considering both late complications and the risk of recurrence, an all-cause mortality dose painting approach, was demonstrated. The risk-adapted techniques compared favorably to the standard, and although in this context, the gain is small compared to estimated uncertainty, this study demonstrates a framework for all-cause mortality risk estimation, rather than evaluates direct clinical applicability of risk

  6. Survival of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Leplat , Johann; Friberg , Hanna; Abid , Muhammad; Steinberg , Christian

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Wheat is one of the most cultivated crops worldwide. In 2010, 20 % of wheat and durum wheat were cultivated in Europe, 17 % in China and 9 % in Russia and in North America. Wheat yield can be highly decreased by several factors. In particular Fusarium graminearum Schwabe is a worldwide fungal pest impacting wheat production. F. graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight, root and stem-base rot of cereals. Losses caused by Fusarium head blight in Northern a...

  7. Green tissue-specific co-expression of chitinase and oxalate oxidase 4 genes in rice for enhanced resistance against sheath blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Subhasis; Molla, Kutubuddin Ali; Chanda, Palas K; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2016-01-01

    Green tissue-specific simultaneous overexpression of two defense-related genes ( OsCHI11 & OsOXO4 ) in rice leads to significant resistance against sheath blight pathogen ( R. solani ) without distressing any agronomically important traits. Overexpressing two defense-related genes (OsOXO4 and OsCHI11) cloned from rice is effective at enhancing resistance against sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani. These genes were expressed under the control of two different green tissue-specific promoters, viz. maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene promoter, PEPC, and rice cis-acting 544-bp DNA element, immediately upstream of the D54O translational start site, P D54O-544 . Putative T0 transgenic rice plants were screened by PCR and integration of genes was confirmed by Southern hybridization of progeny (T1) rice plants. Successful expression of OsOXO4 and OsCHI11 in all tested plants was confirmed. Expression of PR genes increased significantly following pathogen infection in overexpressing transgenic plants. Following infection, transgenic plants exhibited elevated hydrogen peroxide levels, significant changes in activity of ROS scavenging enzymes and reduced membrane damage when compared to their wild-type counterpart. In a Rhizoctonia solani toxin assay, a detached leaf inoculation test and an in vivo plant bioassay, transgenic plants showed a significant reduction in disease symptoms in comparison to non-transgenic control plants. This is the first report of overexpression of two different PR genes driven by two green tissue-specific promoters providing enhanced sheath blight resistance in transgenic rice.

  8. Evidence that the Ceratobasidium-like white-thread blight and black rot fungal pathogens from persimmon and tea crops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem are two distinct phylospecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Ceresini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white-thread blight and black rot (WTBR caused by basidiomycetous fungi of the genus Ceratobasidium is emerging as an important plant disease in Brazil, particularly for crop species in the Ericales such as persimmon (Diospyros kaki and tea (Camellia sinensis. However, the species identity of the fungal pathogen associated with either of these hosts is still unclear. In this work, we used sequence variation in the internal transcribed spacer regions, including the 5.8S coding region of rDNA (ITS-5.8S rDNA, to determine the phylogenetic placement of the local white-thread-blight-associated populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea, in relation to Ceratobasidium species already described world-wide. The two sister populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem most likely represent distinct species within Ceratobasidium and are also distinct from C. noxium, the etiological agent of the first description of white-thread blight disease that was reported on coffee in India. The intraspecific variation for the two Ceratobasidium sp. populations was also analyzed using three mitochondrial genes (ATP6, nad1 and nad2. As reported for other fungi, variation in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was incongruent. Despite distinct variability in the ITS-rDNA region these two populations shared similar mitochondrial DNA haplotypes.

  9. Evidence that the Ceratobasidium-like white-thread blight and black rot fungal pathogens from persimmon and tea crops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem are two distinct phylospecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresini, Paulo C; Costa-Souza, Elaine; Zala, Marcello; Furtado, Edson L; Souza, Nilton L

    2012-04-01

    The white-thread blight and black rot (WTBR) caused by basidiomycetous fungi of the genus Ceratobasidium is emerging as an important plant disease in Brazil, particularly for crop species in the Ericales such as persimmon (Diospyros kaki) and tea (Camellia sinensis). However, the species identity of the fungal pathogen associated with either of these hosts is still unclear. In this work, we used sequence variation in the internal transcribed spacer regions, including the 5.8S coding region of rDNA (ITS-5.8S rDNA), to determine the phylogenetic placement of the local white-thread-blight-associated populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea, in relation to Ceratobasidium species already described world-wide. The two sister populations of Ceratobasidium sp. from persimmon and tea in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest agroecosystem most likely represent distinct species within Ceratobasidium and are also distinct from C. noxium, the etiological agent of the first description of white-thread blight disease that was reported on coffee in India. The intraspecific variation for the two Ceratobasidium sp. populations was also analyzed using three mitochondrial genes (ATP6, nad1 and nad2). As reported for other fungi, variation in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was incongruent. Despite distinct variability in the ITS-rDNA region these two populations shared similar mitochondrial DNA haplotypes.

  10. Understanding the biology of bone sarcoma from early initiating events through late events in metastasis and disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin eZhu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The two most common primary bone malignancies, osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are both aggressive, highly metastatic cancers that most often strike teens, though both can be found in younger children and adults. Despite distinct origins and pathogenesis, both diseases share several mechanisms of progression and metastasis, including neovascularization, invasion, anoikis resistance, chemoresistance and evasion of the immune response. Some of these processes are well-studies in more common carcinoma models, and the observation from adult diseases may be readily applied to pediatric bone sarcomas. Neovascularization, which includes angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, is a clear example of a process that is likely to be similar between carcinomas and sarcomas, since the responding cells are the same in each case. Chemoresistance mechanisms also may be similar between other cancers and the bone sarcomas. Since osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are mesenchymal in origin, the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation is largely absent in bone sarcomas, necessitating different approaches to study progression and metastasis in these diseases. One process that is less well-studied in bone sarcomas is dormancy, which allows micrometastatic disease to remain viable but not growing in distant sites – typically the lungs – for months or years before renewing growth to become overt metastatic disease. By understanding the basic biology of these processes, novel therapeutic strategies may be developed that could improve survival in children with osteosarcoma or Ewing sarcoma.

  11. Metabolic versatility and antibacterial metabolite biosynthesis are distinguishing genomic features of the fire blight antagonist Pantoea vagans C9-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo H M Smits

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pantoea vagans is a commercialized biological control agent used against the pome fruit bacterial disease fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Compared to other biocontrol agents, relatively little is currently known regarding Pantoea genetics. Better understanding of antagonist mechanisms of action and ecological fitness is critical to improving efficacy. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genome analysis indicated two major factors Contribute to biocontrol activity: competition for limiting substrates and antibacterial metabolite production. Pathways for utilization of a broad diversity of sugars and acquisition of iron were identified. Metabolism of sorbitol by P. vagans C9-1 may be a major metabolic feature in biocontrol of fire blight. Biosynthetic genes for the antibacterial peptide pantocin A were found on a chromosomal 28-kb genomic island, and for dapdiamide E on the plasmid pPag2. There was no evidence of potential virulence factors that could enable an animal or phytopathogenic lifestyle and no indication of any genetic-based biosafety risk in the antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying key determinants contributing to disease suppression allows the development of procedures to follow their expression in planta and the genome sequence contributes to rationale risk assessment regarding the use of the biocontrol strain in agricultural systems.

  12. Diagnostic performance of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT for early and late onset Alzheimer's disease. A clinical evaluation of linearization correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumoto, Tatsuya; Sakaguchi, Yuichi; Morishita, Junji; Sasaki, Masayuki; Ohya, Nobuyoshi; Abe, Koichiro; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Kiyota, Aya

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of linearization correction (LC) on brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The early onset group (<65 years old) consisted of 10 patients with AD, and the late onset group (≥65 years old) of 13 patients with AD. Age-matched controls included seven younger and seven older normal volunteers. Tc-99m hexamethyl propyleneamine oxine (HMPAO) SPECT images were reconstructed with or without LC [LC (+) or LC (-)] and a statistical analysis was performed using a three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP). In addition, a fully automatic diagnostic system was developed, which calculated the proportion of the number of abnormal pixels in the superior and inferior parietal lobule, as well as in the precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUCs) of the early onset group for conventional axial SPECT images, SPECT+3D-SSP images and the fully automatic diagnostic system were 0.71, 0.88, and 0.92 in LC (-) and 0.67, 0.85, and 0.91 in LC (+), respectively. The AUCs of the late onset group were 0.50, 0.61, and 0.79 in LC (-) and 0.49, 0.67, and 0.85 in LC (+), respectively. LC on Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT did not significantly influence the diagnostic performance for differentiating between AD and normal controls in either early or late onset AD. Further examination with individuals suffering from very mild dementia is, therefore, expected to elucidate the effect of LC on minimally hypoperfused areas. (author)

  13. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn with late-onset anemia due to anti-M: a case report and review of the Japanese literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Ohto, Hitoshi; Nollet, Kenneth E; Kawabata, Kinuyo; Saito, Shunnichi; Yagi, Yoshihito; Negishi, Yutaka; Ishida, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) attributed to M/N-incompatibility varies from asymptomatic to lethally hydropic. Case reports are rare, and the clinical significance of anti-M is not completely understood. A challenging case of HDFN due to anti-M prompted an investigation of the Japanese literature, in order to characterize the clinical spectrum of M/N-incompatibility pregnancies in Japan and report results to English-language readers. Japanese reports of HDFN attributed to M/N incompatibility were compiled. Abstracted data include maternal antibody titers at delivery, fetal direct antiglobulin test, hemoglobin, total bilirubin, reticulocyte count at birth, and therapeutic interventions. We investigated characteristics of HDFN due to M/N-incompatible pregnancies in Japan after encountering a case of severe HDFN along with late-onset anemia in an infant born to a woman carrying IgG anti-M with a titer of 1. In total, thirty-three babies with HDFN due to anti-M and one due to anti-N have been reported in Japan since 1975. The median maternal antibody titer was 64 at delivery and was 16 or less in 10 of 34 women (29%). Five of 34 babies (15%) were stillborn or died as neonates. Twenty-one of 29 survivors (72%) had severe hemolytic anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. The reticulocyte count of neonates with anemia stayed below the reference interval. Sixteen (55%) developed late-onset anemia and 14 (48%) were transfused with M-negative RBCs. Significant positive correlation (P hemolytic anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Low reticulocyte count in neonates with late-onset anemia is consistent with suppressed erythropoiesis due to anti-M. © 2013.

  14. Association of immune response to endothelial cell growth factor with early disseminated and late manifestations of Lyme disease but not posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kevin S; Klempner, Mark S; Wormser, Gary P; Marques, Adriana R; Alaedini, Armin

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial cell growth factor has been recently proposed as a potential autoantigen in manifestations of Lyme disease that are thought to involve immune-mediated mechanisms. Our findings indicate that a humoral immune response to this protein is not associated with posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  16. Late flooding combined with warm autumn – potential possibility for prolongation of transmission of mosquito-borne diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebesta, O.; Gelbič, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 11 (2016), s. 1292-1297 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aedes vexans * Aedes sticticus * autumn floods Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016

  17. Vascular Factors and Markers of Inflammation in Offspring With a Parental History of Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Exel, Eric; Eikelenboom, Piet; Comijs, Hannie; Frölich, Marijke; Smit, Johannes H.; Stek, Max L.; Scheltens, Philip; Eefsting, Jan E.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a complex disorder with a strong heritable component. Amyloid pathology, vascular factors, and inflammation are postulated to be involved in its pathogenesis, but causality has not been established unequivocally. Objective: To identify heritable traits in middle

  18. Continuous drug delivery in early- and late-stage Parkinson's disease as a strategy for avoiding dyskinesia induction and expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, P.; McCreary, A. C.; Scheller, D. K. A.

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) is dependent on the use of dopamine replacement therapy in the form of l-dopa and dopamine agonist drugs. However, the development of dyskinesia (chorea, dystonia, athetosis) can become treatment limiting. The initiation of dyskinesia

  19. Selective disruption of acetylcholine synthesis in subsets of motor neurons: a new model of late-onset motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Marie-José; Bertolus, Chloé; Santamaria, Julie; Bauchet, Anne-Laure; Herbin, Marc; Saurini, Françoise; Misawa, Hidemi; Maisonobe, Thierry; Pradat, Pierre-François; Nosten-Bertrand, Marika; Mallet, Jacques; Berrard, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    Motor neuron diseases are characterized by the selective chronic dysfunction of a subset of motor neurons and the subsequent impairment of neuromuscular function. To reproduce in the mouse these hallmarks of diseases affecting motor neurons, we generated a mouse line in which ~40% of motor neurons in the spinal cord and the brainstem become unable to sustain neuromuscular transmission. These mice were obtained by conditional knockout of the gene encoding choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the biosynthetic enzyme for acetylcholine. The mutant mice are viable and spontaneously display abnormal phenotypes that worsen with age including hunched back, reduced lifespan, weight loss, as well as striking deficits in muscle strength and motor function. This slowly progressive neuromuscular dysfunction is accompanied by muscle fiber histopathological features characteristic of neurogenic diseases. Unexpectedly, most changes appeared with a 6-month delay relative to the onset of reduction in ChAT levels, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms preserve muscular function for several months and then are overwhelmed. Deterioration of mouse phenotype after ChAT gene disruption is a specific aging process reminiscent of human pathological situations, particularly among survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis. These mutant mice may represent an invaluable tool to determine the sequence of events that follow the loss of function of a motor neuron subset as the disease progresses, and to evaluate therapeutic strategies. They also offer the opportunity to explore fundamental issues of motor neuron biology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Moving Beyond Too Little, Too Late: Managing Emerging Infectious Diseases in Wild Populations Requires International Policy and Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie Voyles; A. Marm Kilpatrick; James P. Collins; Matthew C. Fisher; Winifred F. Frick; Hamish McCallum; Craig K. R. Willis; David S. Blehert; Kris A. Murray; Robert Puschendorf; Erica Bree Rosenblum; Benjamin M. Bolker; Tina L. Cheng; Kate E. Langwig; Daniel L. Lindner; Mary Toothman; Mark Q. Wilber; Cheryl J. Briggs

    2015-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are on the rise due to multiple factors, including human facilitated movement of pathogens, broad-scale landscape changes, and perturbations to ecological systems (Jones et al. 2008; Fisher et al. 2012). Epidemics in wildlife are problematic because they can lead to pathogen spillover to new host organisms, erode biodiversity and...

  1. Comparison of the transcriptomes of American chestnut (Castanea dentata and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima in response to the chestnut blight infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler Nicholas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background1471-2229-9-51 American chestnut (Castanea dentata was devastated by an exotic pathogen in the beginning of the twentieth century. This chestnut blight is caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, a fungus that infects stem tissues and kills the trees by girdling them. Because of the great economic and ecological value of this species, significant efforts have been made over the century to combat this disease, but it wasn't until recently that a focused genomics approach was initiated. Prior to the Genomic Tool Development for the Fagaceae project, genomic resources available in public databases for this species were limited to a few hundred ESTs. To identify genes involved in resistance to C. parasitica, we have sequenced the transcriptome from fungal infected and healthy stem tissues collected from blight-sensitive American chestnut and blight-resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima trees using ultra high throughput pyrosequencing. Results We produced over a million 454 reads, totaling over 250 million bp, from which we generated 40,039 and 28,890 unigenes in total from C. mollissima and C. dentata respectively. The functions of the unigenes, from GO annotation, cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. In silico expression analyses showed that many of the stress response unigenes were expressed more in canker tissues versus healthy stem tissues in both American and Chinese chestnut. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either American or Chinese chestnut canker tissues. Conclusion Our study resulted in the identification of a large set of cDNA unigenes from American chestnut and Chinese chestnut. The ESTs and unigenes from this study constitute an important

  2. Late-Onset Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease after Allografting: Report of Two Cases with Atypical Clinical Features Successfully Treated with Defibrotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellino, Alessia; Guidi, Stefano; Dellacasa, Chiara Maria; Gozzini, Antonella; Donnini, Irene; Nozzoli, Chiara; Manetta, Sara; Aydin, Semra; Giaccone, Luisa; Festuccia, Moreno; Brunello, Lucia; Maffini, Enrico; Bruno, Benedetto; David, Ezio; Busca, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease (VOD) is a potentially severe complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Here we report two patients receiving an allogeneic HSCT who developed late onset VOD with atypical clinical features. The two patients presented with only few risk factors, namely, advanced acute leukemia, a myeloablative busulphan-containing regimen and received grafts from an unrelated donor. The first patient did not experience painful hepatomegaly and weight gain and both patients showed only a mild elevation in total serum bilirubin level. Most importantly, the two patients developed clinical signs beyond day 21 post-HSCT. Hepatic transjugular biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of VOD. Intravenous defibrotide was promptly started leading to a marked clinical improvement. Based on our experience, liver biopsy may represent a useful diagnostic tool when the clinical features of VOD are ambiguous. Early therapeutic intervention with defibrotide represents a crucial issue for the successful outcome of patients with VOD.

  3. Polymorphic sequence-characterized codominant loci in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Davis; Thomas L. Kubisiak; M. G. Milgroom

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the population biology of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, have previously been carried out with dominant restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) fingerprinting markers. In this study, we described the development of 11 condominant markers from randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). RAPD fragments were...

  4. IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ASSOCIATED WITH CITRUS BLIGHT (Citrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato de Abreu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the largest citrus producer in the world, being responsible for more than 20% of its production, which is, however still low due to phytosanitary issues such as citrus blight. Citrus blight is an anomaly whose causes still have not yet been determined, therefore there are no efficient control measures to minimize the production losses with the use of resistant varieties being considered the most appropriate method. However, little is known about the genes involved in the defense response of the plants to this anomaly. Considering that many physiological alterations associated with plant stress responses are controlled at a transcriptional level, in this study we sought the identification and characterization of the gene expression products differentially expressed in the response to the citrus blight. Through the suppressive subtractive hybridization technique, expressed cDNA libraries were built using mRNAs isolated from "Cravo" lemon tree roots (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck under "Pera" orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck of healthy and sick plants. 129 clones were obtained by subtraction and their sequences were compared in databases. 34 of them linked to proteins associated to stress processes, while the others were similar to sequences of unknown functions or did not present similarity with sequences deposited in the databases. 3 genes were selected and their expressions were studied by RT - qPCR in real-time. Plants with citrus blight presented an increase of the expression level in two of those genes, suggesting that these can be directly involved with this anomaly.

  5. Aspects of resistance to fusarium head blight caused by Fusarium culmorum in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, C.H.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the Netherlands, Fusarium head blight of wheat is predominantly caused by Fusarium culmorum . A low infection level leads to important yield losses and contaminates the grain with mycotoxins, particularly deoxynivalenol. This mycotoxin is suggested to have toxic

  6. Fusarium spp. associated with head blight of wheat in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields in the Northern...

  7. Toward positional cloning of Fhb1, a major QTL for Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, S. X.; Pumphrey, M. O.; Gill, B. S.; Trick, H. N.; Zhang, J. X.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Chalhoub, B.; Anderson, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 36, suppl. B (2008), s. 195-201 ISSN 0133-3720 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : map-based cloning * Fusarium head blight * Fhb1 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.190, year: 2007

  8. Investigation of the effect of nitrogen on severity of Fusarium Head Blight in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Spliid, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in a susceptible barley cultivar was investigated using gel-based proteomics. Barley grown with either 15 or 100 kg ha(-1)N fertilizer was inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (Fg). The storage protein fraction did not change significantly...

  9. Bringing Benefits and Warding off Blights in Due Commandment (Analytic Study Compared with the Jordanian Law)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Etoum, Niebal Mohd Ibrahim; Mowafi, Hanan Sami Mohammad; Al Zubaidi, Faraj Hamad Salem

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to highlight the benefits and blights of the due commandment (intestate law) under Jordanian law for the year (2010) in the article (279). The study came in two sections, the first one dealt with the concept of due commandment, its legitimacy, verdict and terms; in the second section, I've dealt with the persons entitled to due…

  10. Shoot Blight and Leaf Spot of Blueberry Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum

    OpenAIRE

    Shigenobu, YOSHIDA; Takao, TSUKIBOSHI; National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences; National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences

    2002-01-01

    Shoot blight and leaf spots were found on highbush blueberry trees in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, in 1999. The causal fungus was identified morphologically as Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds ex Simmonds. This is the first report of blueberry anthracnose caused by C. acutatum in Japan.

  11. Molecular mapping of resistance to blight in an interspecific cross in the genus Castanea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Kubisiak; F.V. Hebard; C. Dana Nelson; Jiansu Zhang; R. Bernatzky; H. Huang; S.L. Anagnostakis; R.L. Doudrick

    1997-01-01

    A three-generation American chestnut x Chinese chestnut pedigree was used to construct a genetic linkage map for chestnut and to investigate the control of resistance to Endothia parasitica (chestnut blight fungus). DNA genotypes for 241 polymorphic markers (eight isozymes, 17 restriction fragment length polymorphisms [RFLPs], and 216 random...

  12. Late-stage alpha-synuclein accumulation in TNWT-61 mouse model of Parkinson's disease detected by diffusion kurtosis imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khairnar, A.; Rudá-Kučerová, J.; Dražanová, Eva; Szabó, N.; Latta, P.; Arab, A.; Hutter-Paier, B.; Havas, D.; Windisch, M.; Šulcová, A.; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Király, A.; Rektorová, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 6 (2016), s. 1259-1269 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : diffusion kurtosis imaging * diffusion kurtosis imaging * Parkinson's disease * TBSS * TNWT-61 * transgenic mice Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.083, year: 2016

  13. A Bayesian Framework for Generalized Linear Mixed Modeling Identifies New Candidate Loci for Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xulong; Philip, Vivek M; Ananda, Guruprasad; White, Charles C; Malhotra, Ankit; Michalski, Paul J; Karuturi, Krishna R Murthy; Chintalapudi, Sumana R; Acklin, Casey; Sasner, Michael; Bennett, David A; De Jager, Philip L; Howell, Gareth R; Carter, Gregory W

    2018-03-05

    Recent technical and methodological advances have greatly enhanced genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The advent of low-cost whole-genome sequencing facilitates high-resolution variant identification, and the development of linear mixed models (LMM) allows improved identification of putatively causal variants. While essential for correcting false positive associations due to sample relatedness and population stratification, LMMs have commonly been restricted to quantitative variables. However, phenotypic traits in association studies are often categorical, coded as binary case-control or ordered variables describing disease stages. To address these issues, we have devised a method for genomic association studies that implements a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) in a Bayesian framework, called Bayes-GLMM Bayes-GLMM has four major features: (1) support of categorical, binary and quantitative variables; (2) cohesive integration of previous GWAS results for related traits; (3) correction for sample relatedness by mixed modeling; and (4) model estimation by both Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling and maximal likelihood estimation. We applied Bayes-GLMM to the whole-genome sequencing cohort of the Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP). This study contains 570 individuals from 111 families, each with Alzheimer's disease diagnosed at one of four confidence levels. With Bayes-GLMM we identified four variants in three loci significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease. Two variants, rs140233081 and rs149372995 lie between PRKAR1B and PDGFA The coded proteins are localized to the glial-vascular unit, and PDGFA transcript levels are associated with AD-related neuropathology. In summary, this work provides implementation of a flexible, generalized mixed model approach in a Bayesian framework for association studies. Copyright © 2018, Genetics.

  14. Moving beyond too little, too late: managing emerging infectious diseases in wild populations requires international policy and partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyles, Jamie; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Collins, James P.; Fisher, Matthew C.; Frick, Winifred F.; McCallum, Hamish I.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Blehert, David S.; Murray, Kris A.; Puschendorf, Robert; Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Bolker, Benjamin M.; Cheng, Tina L.; Langwig, Kate E.; Linder, Daniel L.; Toothman, Mary; Wilber, Mark Q.; Briggs, Cheryl J.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are on the rise due to multiple factors, including human facilitated movement of pathogens, broad-scale landscape changes, and perturbations to ecological systems (Jones et al. 2008; Fisher et al. 2012). Epidemics in wildlife are problematic because they can lead to pathogen spillover to new host organisms, erode biodiversity and threaten ecosystems that sustain human societies (Fisher et al. 2012; Kilpatrick 2011). There have been recent calls for large-scale research approaches to combat threats EIDs pose to wildlife (Sleeman 2013). While it is true that developing new analytical models, diagnostic assays and molecular tools will significantly avance outr abilities to respond to disease threats, we also propose that addressing difficult problems in EIDs will require considerable shofts in international health policy and infrastructure. While there are currently international organizations responsbile for rapidly initiating and coordinating preventative measures to control infectious diseases in human, livestock, and arable systems, there are few comparable instiutions that have the authority to implement transnational responses to EIDs in wildlife. This absence of well-developed infastructure hampers the rapid responses necessary to mitigate international spread of EIDs.

  15. Hodgkin's disease in children: Treatment with MOPP and low-dose, extended field irradiation without laparotomy. Late results and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, D.; Doyle, J.; Berry, M.; Blanchette, V.; Chan, H.; Doherty, M.; Freedman, M.; Greenberg, M.; Panzarella, T.; Saunders, F.

    1990-01-01

    The 10 year results of a trial of bimodal treatment of Hodgkin's disease in children with 6 cycles of MOPP and low-dose extended field irradiation, without staging laparotomy, were for 57 children in all stages as follows: survival 85%, relapse-free survival 80%, and survival-free of second relapse 86%. There were three fatal toxic events, two due to viral infection and one to a second malignant tumor (NHL). Three other patients developed a second malignant tumour, and one developed a thyroid adenoma. No patient developed acute leukemia. These results are compared with the results of treatment of surgically staged children by extended field irradiation alone, with bimodal treatment reserved for relapse or advanced disease at diagnosis. Initial bimodal treatment improved the overall 10 year survival free from a second relapse rate by 20% (86% vs. 66%). No major difference in treatment toxicity between these two groups has emerged during the first 10 years of follow-up. We conclude that, except for favourable CS-1 presentations, children with Hodgkin's disease confined to the lymphatic system should be given bimodal treatment, but that the least morbid effective combination remains to be determined

  16. Chronic kidney disease in lithium-treated older adults: a review of epidemiology, mechanisms, and implications for the treatment of late-life mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rej, Soham; Elie, Dominique; Mucsi, Istvan; Looper, Karl J; Segal, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Lithium is an important medication in the treatment of mood disorders. However, clinicians are hesitant to use lithium in older adults for fear of its medical effects, particularly kidney disease. This review describes the current understanding of the epidemiology and mechanisms underlying chronic kidney disease (CKD) in older lithium users, with recommendations for using lithium safely in late life. Prevalence estimates of CKD in older lithium users range from 42-50%, which does not differ greatly from the 37.8% rates seen in community-dwelling non-lithium using, non-psychiatric populations. Clinical and pre-clinical data suggest a variety of synergistic mechanisms contributing to CKD in older lithium users, including aging, cardiovascular factors, oxidative stress, inflammation, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, acute kidney injury, and medication interactions. With regards to CKD, lithium can be used safely in many older adults with mood disorders. Compared to patients with pre-existing CKD, those with an estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) are probably not as susceptible to lithium-associated renal decline. Using lithium concentrations kidney injury, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, and coronary artery disease can all help prevent CKD and further renal decline in older lithium users.

  17. Tendon Interposition and Ligament Reconstruction with ECRL Tendon in the Late Stages of Kienböck’s Disease: A Cadaver Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazım Karalezli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The optimal surgical treatment for Kienböck’s disease with stages IIIB and IV remains controversial. A cadaver study was carried out to evaluate the use of coiled extensor carpi radialis longus tendon for tendon interposition and a strip obtained from the same tendon for ligament reconstruction in the late stages of Kienböck’s disease. Methods. Coiled extensor carpi radialis longus tendon was used to fill the cavity of the excised lunate, and a strip obtained from this tendon was sutured onto itself after passing through the scaphoid and the triquetrum acting as a ligament to preserve proximal row integrity. Biomechanical tests were carried out in order to evaluate this new ligamentous reconstruction. Results. It was biomechanically confirmed that the procedure was effective against axial compression and distributed the upcoming mechanical stress to the distal row. Conclusion. Extensor carpi radialis longus tendon has not been used for tendon interposition and ligament reconstruction in the treatment of this disease before. In view of the biomechanical data, the procedure seems to be effective for the stabilization of scaphoid and carpal bones.

  18. [The clinical and microbiological characteristics of oropharyngeal candidiasis in the HIV-infected patients at the late stages of the disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charushin, A O; Elovikov, A M; Charushina, I P; Vorob'eva, N N; Katretskaya, G G

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis in 512 HIV-infected patients at the late stages of the disease was studied with special reference to the clinical and microbiological characteristics of this condition. The diagnosis was established based on the results of the clinical and microbiological examination of the patients including investigation of the tissue samples taken from the oral cavity and the throat with the use of the device specially developed for this purpose. It was shown that the disease existed in various clinical forms the most common of which were monocomponent pathology represented by pseudomembranous candidiasis in 37.5±2.14% of the patients, the two-component mixed form (pseudomembranous candidiasis with concomitant angular chelitis) diagnosed in 27.5±1.97% cases, and the ternary form (the combination of pseudomembranous candidiasis, acute atrophic process, and angular chelitis) documented in 11.9±1.43% patients. The main clinical features of the disease included the combination of its various forms, multiple localization of the pathological process, and its polymorphous manifestations. Changes in the clinical course of oropharyngeal candidiasis associated with the progression of HIV from the 4A to the 4B stage were detected for the first time. They were shown to be accompanied by variations in the species composition and concentration of fungal flora in the crypts of the palatine tonsils and its sensitivity to fluconazole therapy.

  19. Molecular basis for increased risk for late-onset Alzheimer disease due to the naturally occurring L28P mutation in apolipoprotein E4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyri, Letta; Dafnis, Ioannis; Theodossiou, Theodossis A; Gantz, Donald; Stratikos, Efstratios; Chroni, Angeliki

    2014-05-02

    The apolipoprotein (apo) E4 isoform has consistently emerged as a susceptibility factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD), although the exact mechanism is not clear. A rare apoE4 mutant, apoE4[L28P] Pittsburgh, burdens carriers with an added risk for late-onset AD and may be a useful tool for gaining insights into the role of apoE4 in disease pathogenesis. Toward this end, we evaluated the effect of the L28P mutation on the structural and functional properties of apoE4. ApoE4[L28P] was found to have significantly perturbed thermodynamic properties, to have reduced helical content, and to expose a larger portion of the hydrophobic surface to the solvent. Furthermore, this mutant is thermodynamically destabilized and more prone to proteolysis. When interacting with lipids, apoE4[L28P] formed populations of lipoprotein particles with structural defects. The structural perturbations brought about by the mutation were accompanied by aberrant functions associated with the pathogenesis of AD. Specifically, apoE4[L28P] promoted the cellular uptake of extracellular amyloid β peptide 42 (Aβ42) by human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells as well as by primary mouse neuronal cells and led to increased formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species that persisted for at least 24 h. Furthermore, lipoprotein particles containing apoE4[L28P] induced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and reduced SK-N-SH cell viability. Overall, our findings suggest that the L28P mutation leads to significant structural and conformational perturbations in apoE4 and can induce functional defects associated with neuronal Aβ42 accumulation and oxidative stress. We propose that these structural and functional changes underlie the observed added risk for AD development in carriers of apoE4[L28P].

  20. Systematic tissue-specific functional annotation of the human genome highlights immune-related DNA elements for late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongshi Lu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuing efforts from large international consortia have made genome-wide epigenomic and transcriptomic annotation data publicly available for a variety of cell and tissue types. However, synthesis of these datasets into effective summary metrics to characterize the functional non-coding genome remains a challenge. Here, we present GenoSkyline-Plus, an extension of our previous work through integration of an expanded set of epigenomic and transcriptomic annotations to produce high-resolution, single tissue annotations. After validating our annotations with a catalog of tissue-specific non-coding elements previously identified in the literature, we apply our method using data from 127 different cell and tissue types to present an atlas of heritability enrichment across 45 different GWAS traits. We show that broader organ system categories (e.g. immune system increase statistical power in identifying biologically relevant tissue types for complex diseases while annotations of individual cell types (e.g. monocytes or B-cells provide deeper insights into disease etiology. Additionally, we use our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations in an in-depth case study of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD. Our analyses suggest a strong connection between LOAD heritability and genetic variants contained in regions of the genome functional in monocytes. Furthermore, we show that LOAD shares a similar localization of SNPs to monocyte-functional regions with Parkinson's disease. Overall, we demonstrate that integrated genome annotations at the single tissue level provide a valuable tool for understanding the etiology of complex human diseases. Our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations are freely available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu/GenoSkyline.

  1. Effect of late-stage therapy on disease progression in AAV-mediated rescue of photoreceptor cells in the retinoschisin-deficient mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Andreas; Min, Seok H; Molday, Laurie L; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Seeliger, Mathias W; Hauswirth, William W; Molday, Robert S; Weber, Bernhard H F

    2008-06-01

    Proof-of-concept for a successful adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5)-mediated gene therapy in X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) has been demonstrated in an established mouse model for this condition. The initial studies concentrated on early time-points of treatment. In this study, we aimed to explore the consequences of single subretinal injections administered at various stages of more advanced disease. By electroretinogram (ERG), functional improvement in treated versus untreated eyes is found to be significant in retinoschisin-deficient mice injected at the time-points of 15 days (P15), 1 month (PM1), and 2 months (PM2) after birth. In mice treated at 7 months after birth (PM7), an age previously shown to exhibit advanced retinal disease, ERG responses reveal no beneficial effects of vector treatment. Generally, functional rescue is paralleled by sustained retinoschisin expression and significant photoreceptor survival relative to untreated eyes. Quantitative measures of photoreceptors and peanut agglutinin-labeled ribbon synapses demonstrate rescue effects even in mice injected as late as PM7. Taken together, AAV5-mediated gene replacement is beneficial in slowing disease progression in murine XLRS. In addition, we show the effectiveness of rescue efforts even if treatment is delayed until advanced signs of disease have developed. Human XLRS patients might benefit from these findings, which suggest that the effectiveness of treatment appears not to be restricted to the early stages of the disease, and that treatment may prove to be valuable even when administered at more advanced stages.

  2. Systematic tissue-specific functional annotation of the human genome highlights immune-related DNA elements for late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiongshi; Powles, Ryan L; Abdallah, Sarah; Ou, Derek; Wang, Qian; Hu, Yiming; Lu, Yisi; Liu, Wei; Li, Boyang; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Crane, Paul K; Zhao, Hongyu

    2017-07-01

    Continuing efforts from large international consortia have made genome-wide epigenomic and transcriptomic annotation data publicly available for a variety of cell and tissue types. However, synthesis of these datasets into effective summary metrics to characterize the functional non-coding genome remains a challenge. Here, we present GenoSkyline-Plus, an extension of our previous work through integration of an expanded set of epigenomic and transcriptomic annotations to produce high-resolution, single tissue annotations. After validating our annotations with a catalog of tissue-specific non-coding elements previously identified in the literature, we apply our method using data from 127 different cell and tissue types to present an atlas of heritability enrichment across 45 different GWAS traits. We show that broader organ system categories (e.g. immune system) increase statistical power in identifying biologically relevant tissue types for complex diseases while annotations of individual cell types (e.g. monocytes or B-cells) provide deeper insights into disease etiology. Additionally, we use our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations in an in-depth case study of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Our analyses suggest a strong connection between LOAD heritability and genetic variants contained in regions of the genome functional in monocytes. Furthermore, we show that LOAD shares a similar localization of SNPs to monocyte-functional regions with Parkinson's disease. Overall, we demonstrate that integrated genome annotations at the single tissue level provide a valuable tool for understanding the etiology of complex human diseases. Our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations are freely available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu/GenoSkyline.

  3. Systematic tissue-specific functional annotation of the human genome highlights immune-related DNA elements for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Sarah; Ou, Derek; Wang, Qian; Hu, Yiming; Lu, Yisi; Liu, Wei; Li, Boyang; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Crane, Paul K.; Zhao, Hongyu

    2017-01-01

    Continuing efforts from large international consortia have made genome-wide epigenomic and transcriptomic annotation data publicly available for a variety of cell and tissue types. However, synthesis of these datasets into effective summary metrics to characterize the functional non-coding genome remains a challenge. Here, we present GenoSkyline-Plus, an extension of our previous work through integration of an expanded set of epigenomic and transcriptomic annotations to produce high-resolution, single tissue annotations. After validating our annotations with a catalog of tissue-specific non-coding elements previously identified in the literature, we apply our method using data from 127 different cell and tissue types to present an atlas of heritability enrichment across 45 different GWAS traits. We show that broader organ system categories (e.g. immune system) increase statistical power in identifying biologically relevant tissue types for complex diseases while annotations of individual cell types (e.g. monocytes or B-cells) provide deeper insights into disease etiology. Additionally, we use our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations in an in-depth case study of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD). Our analyses suggest a strong connection between LOAD heritability and genetic variants contained in regions of the genome functional in monocytes. Furthermore, we show that LOAD shares a similar localization of SNPs to monocyte-functional regions with Parkinson’s disease. Overall, we demonstrate that integrated genome annotations at the single tissue level provide a valuable tool for understanding the etiology of complex human diseases. Our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations are freely available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu/GenoSkyline. PMID:28742084

  4. Glial alterations from early to late stages in a model of Alzheimer's disease: Evidence of autophagy involvement in Aβ internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomilio, Carlos; Pavia, Patricio; Gorojod, Roxana Mayra; Vinuesa, Angeles; Alaimo, Agustina; Galvan, Veronica; Kotler, Monica Lidia; Beauquis, Juan; Saravia, Flavia

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease without effective therapy. Brain amyloid deposits are classical histopathological hallmarks that generate an inflammatory reaction affecting neuronal and glial function. The identification of early cell responses and of brain areas involved could help to design new successful treatments. Hence, we studied early alterations of hippocampal glia and their progression during the neuropathology in PDAPP-J20 transgenic mice, AD model, at 3, 9, and 15 months (m) of age. At 3 m, before deposits formation, microglial Iba1+ cells from transgenic mice already exhibited signs of activation and larger soma size in the hilus, alterations appearing later on stratum radiatum. Iba1 immunohistochemistry revealed increased cell density and immunoreactive area in PDAPP mice from 9 m onward selectively in the hilus, in coincidence with prominent amyloid Congo red + deposition. At pre-plaque stages, GFAP+ astroglia showed density alterations while, at an advanced age, the presence of deposits was associated with important glial volume changes and apparently being intimately involved in amyloid degradation. Astrocytes around plaques were strongly labeled for LC3 until 15 m in Tg mice, suggestive of increased autophagic flux. Moreover, β-Amyloid fibrils internalization by astrocytes in in vitro conditions was dependent on autophagy. Co-localization of Iba1 with ubiquitin or p62 was exclusively found in microglia contacting deposits from 9 m onward, suggesting torpid autophagy. Our work characterizes glial changes at early stages of the disease in PDAPP-J20 mice, focusing on the hilus as an especially susceptible hippocampal subfield, and provides evidence that glial autophagy could play a role in amyloid processing at advanced stages. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Strong evidence for a genetic contribution to late-onset Alzheimer's disease mortality: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S K Kauwe

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is an international health concern that has a devastating effect on patients and families. While several genetic risk factors for AD have been identified much of the genetic variance in AD remains unexplained. There are limited published assessments of the familiality of Alzheimer's disease. Here we present the largest genealogy-based analysis of AD to date.We assessed the familiality of AD in The Utah Population Database (UPDB, a population-based resource linking electronic health data repositories for the state with the computerized genealogy of the Utah settlers and their descendants. We searched UPDB for significant familial clustering of AD to evaluate the genetic contribution to disease. We compared the Genealogical Index of Familiality (GIF between AD individuals and randomly selected controls and estimated the Relative Risk (RR for a range of family relationships. Finally, we identified pedigrees with a significant excess of AD deaths.The GIF analysis showed that pairs of individuals dying from AD were significantly more related than expected. This excess of relatedness was observed for both close and distant relationships. RRs for death from AD among relatives of individuals dying from AD were significantly increased for both close and more distant relatives. Multiple pedigrees had a significant excess of AD deaths.These data strongly support a genetic contribution to the observed clustering of individuals dying from AD. This report is the first large population-based assessment of the familiality of AD mortality and provides the only reported estimates of relative risk of AD mortality in extended relatives to date. The high-risk pedigrees identified show a true excess of AD mortality (not just multiple cases and are greater in depth and width than published AD pedigrees. The presence of these high-risk pedigrees strongly supports the possibility of rare predisposition variants not yet identified.

  6. Late effects of selected immunosuppressants on immunocompetence, disease incidence, and mean life-span. III. Disease incidence and life expectancy. [Mice, x radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, C P; Perkins, E H; Peterson, W J; Walburg, H E; Makinodan, T

    1975-01-01

    The effect of various immunosuppressive treatments on mean life-span and disease incidence have been studied. Significant life shortening was seen only in mice which received X-irradiation early in life and can be ascribed primarily to an increased incidence of certain malignancies. Marginal life shortening was seen in cyclophosphamide-treated animals, however, survival patterns between those and control animals did not differ until 30 months of age and the magnitude of life-shortening never approached that seen in X-irradiated animals. Thymectomy, splenectomy or cortisone treatment did not alter survival. All immunosuppressive treatments enhanced mortality due to non-neoplastic diseases, however, only a small percentage of animals die with these disease entities. With the exception of cortisone all immunosuppressive treatments increased the incidence of neoplastic disease. However, their effects on various neoplastic processes were variable and unpredictable. Four primary patterns in terms of relative immune competence, disease incidence and life expectancy were seen. Thus, immunodepression may or may not correlate with increased disease incidence, which in turn may or may not have a life-shortening effect. These findings are discussed in terms of the marked reduction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity normally seen in aged mice and the significance of postulated immune surveillance mechanisms to survival.

  7. The genome of the Erwinia amylovora phage PhiEaH1 reveals greater diversity and broadens the applicability of phages for the treatment of fire blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meczker, Katalin; Dömötör, Dóra; Vass, János; Rákhely, Gábor; Schneider, György; Kovács, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    The enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight. This study presents the analysis of the complete genome of phage PhiEaH1, isolated from the soil surrounding an E. amylovora-infected apple tree in Hungary. Its genome is 218 kb in size, containing 244 ORFs. PhiEaH1 is the second E. amylovora infecting phage from the Siphoviridae family whose complete genome sequence was determined. Beside PhiEaH2, PhiEaH1 is the other active component of Erwiphage, the first bacteriophage-based pesticide on the market against E. amylovora. Comparative genome analysis in this study has revealed that PhiEaH1 not only differs from the 10 formerly sequenced E. amylovora bacteriophages belonging to other phage families, but also from PhiEaH2. Sequencing of more Siphoviridae phage genomes might reveal further diversity, providing opportunities for the development of even more effective biological control agents, phage cocktails against Erwinia fire blight disease of commercial fruit crops.

  8. Bioefficacy, residue dynamics and safety assessment of the combination fungicide trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%-75 WG in managing early blight of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sujoy; Purath, Ahammed Shabeer Thekkum; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Loganathan, M; Banerjee, Kaushik; Rai, A B

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the in vitro and in vivo bioefficacy of a combination fungicide trifloxystrobin (25%) + tebuconazole (50%) against early blight disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Alternaria solani and their corresponding pre-harvest intervals (PHI) with reference to the maximum residue limits (European Union). Bioefficacy of the test fungicide combination revealed that in vitro conditions manifested the best control (75.1%) at 350 mg kg(-1) against 76.2% control under field conditions. A sample preparation method based on ethyl acetate extraction and estimation by LC-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was validated in tomato fruits at 0.01 mg/kg and dissipation studies were conducted in field at single and double doses. The residues of both the compounds on all the sampling days were below the European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRLs) and the maximum permissible intakes (MPIs) were calculated on the basis of prescribed acceptable daily intake (ADI). The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of this fungicide combination for the management of early blight in tomato.

  9. RNA-Seq analysis reveals insight into enhanced rice Xa7-mediated bacterial blight resistance at high temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Cohen

    Full Text Available Plant disease is a major challenge to agriculture worldwide, and it is exacerbated by abiotic environmental factors. During some plant-pathogen interactions, heat stress allows pathogens to overcome host resistance, a phenomenon which could severely impact crop productivity considering the global warming trends associated with climate change. Despite the importance of this phenomenon, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. To better understand host plant responses during simultaneous heat and pathogen stress, we conducted a transcriptomics experiment for rice plants (cultivar IRBB61 containing Xa7, a bacterial blight disease resistance (R gene, that were infected with Xanthomonas oryzae, the bacterial blight pathogen of rice, during high temperature stress. Xa7-mediated resistance is unusual relative to resistance mediated by other R genes in that it functions better at high temperatures. Using RNA-Seq technology, we identified 8,499 differentially expressed genes as temperature responsive in rice cultivar IRBB61 experiencing susceptible and resistant interactions across three time points. Notably, genes in the plant hormone abscisic acid biosynthesis and response pathways were up-regulated by high temperature in both mock-treated plants and plants experiencing a susceptible interaction and were suppressed by high temperature in plants exhibiting Xa7-mediated resistance. Genes responsive to salicylic acid, an important plant hormone for disease resistance, were down-regulated by high temperature during both the susceptible and resistant interactions, suggesting that enhanced Xa7-mediated resistance at high temperature is not dependent on salicylic acid signaling. A DNA sequence motif similar to known abscisic acid-responsive cis-regulatory elements was identified in the promoter region upstream of genes up-regulated in susceptible but down-regulated in resistant interactions. The results of our study suggest that the plant

  10. Development of the CHARIOT Research Register for the Prevention of Alzheimer's Dementia and Other Late Onset Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Larsen

    Full Text Available Identifying cognitively healthy people at high risk of developing dementia is an ever-increasing focus. These individuals are essential for inclusion in observational studies into the natural history of the prodromal and early disease stages and for interventional studies aimed at prevention or disease modification. The success of this research is dependent on having access to a well characterised, representative and sufficiently large population of individuals. Access to such a population remains challenging as clinical research has, historically, focussed on patients with dementia referred to secondary and tertiary services. The primary care system in the United Kingdom allows access to a true prodromal population prior to symptoms emerging and specialist referral. We report the development and recruitment rates of the CHARIOT register, a primary care-based recruitment register for research into the prevention of dementia. The CHARIOT register was designed specifically to support recruitment into observational natural history studies of pre-symptomatic or prodromal dementia stages, and primary or secondary prevention pharmaceutical trials or other prevention strategies for dementia and other cognitive problems associated with ageing.Participants were recruited through searches of general practice lists across the west and central London regions. Invitations were posted to individuals aged between 60 and 85 years, without a diagnosis of dementia. Upon consent, a minimum data set of demographic and contact details was extracted from the patient's electronic health record.To date, 123 surgeries participated in the register, recruiting a total of 24,509 participants-a response rate of 22.3%. The age, gender and ethnicity profiles of participants closely match that of the overall eligible population. Higher response rates tended to be associated with larger practices (r = 0.34, practices with a larger older population (r = 0.27, less

  11. Profitability of Integrated Management of Fusarium Head Blight in North Carolina Winter Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowger, Christina; Weisz, Randy; Arellano, Consuelo; Murphy, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most difficult small-grain diseases to manage, due to the partial effectiveness of management techniques and the narrow window of time in which to apply fungicides profitably. The most effective management approach is to integrate cultivar resistance with FHB-specific fungicide applications; yet, when forecasted risk is intermediate, it is often unclear whether such an application will be profitable. To model the profitability of FHB management under varying conditions, we conducted a 2-year split-plot field experiment having as main plots high-yielding soft red winter wheat cultivars, four moderately resistant (MR) and three susceptible (S) to FHB. Subplots were sprayed at flowering with Prosaro or Caramba, or left untreated. The experiment was planted in seven North Carolina environments (location-year combinations); three were irrigated to promote FHB development and four were not irrigated. Response variables were yield, test weight, disease incidence, disease severity, deoxynivalenol (DON), Fusarium-damaged kernels, and percent infected kernels. Partial profits were compared in two ways: first, across low-, medium-, or high-DON environments; and second, across environment-cultivar combinations divided by risk forecast into "do spray" and "do not spray" categories. After surveying DON and test weight dockage among 21 North Carolina wheat purchasers, three typical market scenarios were used for modeling profitability: feed-wheat, flexible (feed or flour), and the flour market. A major finding was that, on average, MR cultivars were at least as profitable as S cultivars, regardless of epidemic severity or market. Fungicides were profitable in the feed-grain and flexible markets when DON was high, with MR cultivars in the flexible or flour markets when DON was intermediate, and on S cultivars aimed at the flexible market. The flour market was only profitable when FHB was present if DON levels were intermediate and cultivar

  12. Frequency of the LRRK2 G2019S mutation in late-onset sporadic patients with Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin Fen Chien

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the LRRK2 gene, predominantly G2019S, have been reported in individuals with autosomal dominant inheritance and sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD. The G2019S mutation has an age-dependent penetrance and evidence shows common ancestry. The clinical manifestations are indistinguishable from idiopathic PD. Its prevalence varies according to the population studied ranging from less than 0.1% in Asians to 41% in North African Arabs. This study aimed to identify G2019S mutation in Brazilian idiopathic PD patients. Method: We sampled 100 PD patients and 100 age- and gender-matched controls. Genetical analysis was accomplished by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: No G2019S mutations were found in both patients with sporadic PD and controls. Conclusions: Our results may be explained by the relatively small sample size.

  13. "Boomerang Neuropathology" of Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease is Shrouded in Harmful "BDDS": Breathing, Diet, Drinking, and Sleep During Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulatzai, Mak Adam

    2015-07-01

    Brain damage begins years before substantial neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's dementia. Crucial fundamental activities of life are breathing, eating, drinking, and sleeping. When these pivotal functions are maligned over a prolonged period, they impart escalating dyshomeostasis. The latter may lead to disastrous consequences including cognitive dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current theme here is that multiple pathophysiological derangements are promoted over a prolonged period by the very fundamental activities of life-when "rendered unhealthy." They may converge on several regulating/modulating factors (e.g., mitochondrial energy production, oxidative stress, innate immunity, and vascular function) and promote insidious neuropathology that culminates in cognitive decline in the aged. This is of course associated with the accumulation of amyloid beta and phosphorylated tau in the brain. Epidemiological, biomarker, and neuroimaging studies have provided significant copious evidence on the presence of indolent prodromal AD neuropathology many years prior to symptomatic onset. Progressive oxidative damage to specific gene promoters may result in gene silencing. A mechanistic link may possibly exist between epigenomic state, DNA damage, and chronically unhealthy/dysfunctional body systems. This paper, therefore, addresses and delineates the deleterious pathophysiological impact triggered by dysfunctional breathing, harmful diet, excess of alcohol consumption, and sleep deprivation; indeed, their impact may alter epigenetic state. It is mandatory, therefore, to abrogate cognitive decline and attenuate AD pathology through adoption of a healthy lifestyle, in conjunction with combination therapy with known moderators of cognitive decline. This strategy may thwart multiple concurrent and synergistic pathologies, including epigenetic dysfunction. A multi-factorial therapeutic intervention is required to overcome wide ranging neuropathology and multi

  14. Nurses' role and care practices in decision-making regarding artificial ventilation in late stage pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerpseth, Heidi; Dahl, Vegard; Nortvedt, Per; Halvorsen, Kristin

    2017-11-01

    Decisions regarding whether or not to institute mechanical ventilation during the later stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is challenging both ethically, emotionally and medically. Caring for these patients is a multifaceted process where nurses play a crucial role. Research question and design: We have investigated how nurses experienced their own role in decision-making processes regarding mechanical ventilation in later stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and how they consider the patients' role in these processes. We applied a qualitative approach, with six focus-group interviews of nurses (n = 26). Ethical considerations: The Regional Committees for Medical and Health Research Ethics approved the study. Voluntary informed consent was obtained. The nurses found themselves operating within a cure-directed treatment culture wherein they were unable to stand up for the caring values. They perceived their roles and responsibilities in decision-making processes regarding mechanical ventilation to patients as unclear and unsatisfactory. They also experienced inadequate interdisciplinary cooperation. Lack of communication skills, the traditional hierarchical hospital culture together with operating in a medical-orientated treatment culture where caring values is rated as less important might explain the nurses' absence in participation in the decision about mechanical ventilation. To be able to advocate for the patients' and their own right to be included in decision-making processes, nurses need an awareness of their own responsibilities. This requires personal courage, leadership who are capable of organising common interpersonal meetings and willingness on the part of the physicians to include and value the nurses' participation in decision-making processes.

  15. Comparison between Early-Onset and Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Patients with Amnestic Presentation: CSF and 18F-FDG PET Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Chiaravalloti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the differences in brain glucose consumption between patients with early onset of Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, aged ≤65 years and patients with late onset of Alzheimer's disease (LOAD, aged >65 years. Methods: Differences in brain glucose consumption between the groups have been evaluated by means of Statistical Parametric Mapping version 8, with the use of age, sex, Mini-Mental State Examination and cerebrospinal fluid values of Aβ1-42, phosphorylated Tau and total Tau as covariates in the comparison between EOAD and LOAD. Results: As compared to LOAD, EOAD patients showed a significant decrease in glucose consumption in a wide portion of the left parietal lobe (BA7, BA31 and BA40. No significant differences were obtained when subtracting the EOAD from the LOAD group. Conclusions: The results of our study show that patients with EOAD show a different metabolic pattern as compared to those with LOAD that mainly involves the left parietal lobe.

  16. Comparison between Early-Onset and Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Patients with Amnestic Presentation: CSF and 18F-FDG PET Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Koch, Giacomo; Toniolo, Sofia; Belli, Lorena; Lorenzo, Francesco Di; Gaudenzi, Sara; Schillaci, Orazio; Bozzali, Marco; Sancesario, Giuseppe; Martorana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims To investigate the differences in brain glucose consumption between patients with early onset of Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, aged ≤65 years) and patients with late onset of Alzheimer's disease (LOAD, aged >65 years). Methods Differences in brain glucose consumption between the groups have been evaluated by means of Statistical Parametric Mapping version 8, with the use of age, sex, Mini-Mental State Examination and cerebrospinal fluid values of AΒ1-42, phosphorylated Tau and total Tau as covariates in the comparison between EOAD and LOAD. Results As compared to LOAD, EOAD patients showed a significant decrease in glucose consumption in a wide portion of the left parietal lobe (BA7, BA31 and BA40). No significant differences were obtained when subtracting the EOAD from the LOAD group. Conclusions The results of our study show that patients with EOAD show a different metabolic pattern as compared to those with LOAD that mainly involves the left parietal lobe. PMID:27195000

  17. Detection of rice sheath blight using an unmanned aerial system with high-resolution color and multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongyan; Zhou, Xingen; Zhang, Jian; Lan, Yubin; Xu, Chao; Liang, Dong

    2018-01-01

    Detection and monitoring are the first essential step for effective management of sheath blight (ShB), a major disease in rice worldwide. Unmanned aerial systems have a high potential of being utilized to improve this detection process since they can reduce the time needed for scouting for the disease at a field scale, and are affordable and user-friendly in operation. In this study, a commercialized quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with digital and multispectral cameras, was used to capture imagery data of research plots with 67 rice cultivars and elite lines. Collected imagery data were then processed and analyzed to characterize the development of ShB and quantify different levels of the disease in the field. Through color features extraction and color space transformation of images, it was found that the color transformation could qualitatively detect the infected areas of ShB in the field plots. However, it was less effective to detect different levels of the disease. Five vegetation indices were then calculated from the multispectral images, and ground truths of disease severity and GreenSeeker measured NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) were collected. The results of relationship analyses indicate that there was a strong correlation between ground-measured NDVIs and image-extracted NDVIs with the R2 of 0.907 and the root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.0854, and a good correlation between image-extracted NDVIs and disease severity with the R2 of 0.627 and the RMSE of 0.0852. Use of image-based NDVIs extracted from multispectral images could quantify different levels of ShB in the field plots with an accuracy of 63%. These results demonstrate that a customer-grade UAV integrated with digital and multispectral cameras can be an effective tool to detect the ShB disease at a field scale.

  18. Late Raphael

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Tom F. K.; Joannides, Paul; González Mozo, Ana; Martín, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Exhibition catalogue (co-authored with P. Joannides) in English, Spanish and French by the Museo del Prado and the Musée du Louvre, 2012. English edition, publisher: Museo Nacional del Prado (ISBN 978-84-8480-237-2). 382 pages, of which 300 were co-authored with P. Joannides. This publication was the catalogue of the major exhibtion of Raphael's late work which was at the Prado and the Louvre in 2012-13. The exhibition was seen by more than 650,000 visitors, and was widely reviewed in the int...

  19. [Severe hemolytic disease of the newborn as a result of late and undiagnosed alloimmunization--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowska-Szymczak, Agnieszka; Czaplińska, Natalia; Borek-Dziecioł, Beata; Kociszewska-Najman, Bozena; Bartkowiak, Robert; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of a hemolytic disease in a newborn from the first pregnancy due to anti-D antibodies. The maternal blood group was A Rhesus negative. She had an antibody screening test twice during the pregnancy (in the second trimester) and it was negative. The pregnancy was uneventful, without any invasive procedures and bleeding. The infant was born at 39 weeks of gestation in good overall condition. After the delivery the blood group of the neonate was indicated - A Rhesus positive, BOC positive. Anti-D antibodies were detected in maternal blood. Neonatal blood tests revealed severe anemia (hemoglobin level: 6.0g/dl, hematocrit: 22.2%, erythrocytes: 2.01T/L). During the first day of neonatal life, the newborn received two transfusions of red blood cells. Bilirubin level and rate of rise were not recommendation enough for exchange transfusion. The newborn was treated with continuous phototherapy since the delivery The perinatal period was complicated with intrauterine infection and respiratory failure. Hematopoietic vitamins and iron supplementation was initiated in the second week of neonatal life due to persistent anemia. The child remained under medical care of a hematologic clinic and received human recombinant erythropoietin treatment.

  20. Cerebrospinal Fluid Aβ43 Is Reduced in Early-Onset Compared to Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease, But Has Similar Diagnostic Accuracy to Aβ42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Lauridsen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amyloid beta 1–43 (Aβ43 may be a useful additional biomarker for diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease (AD. We have investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of Aβ43 in patients with early-onset AD in contrast to levels in late-onset AD. For comparison, in addition to the ‘core’ biomarkers, several other analytes were also determined [YKL-40, neurofilament light (NF-L, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, and progranulin].Material and Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained from patients with early-onset AD (age ≤ 62, n = 66, late-onset AD (age ≥ 68, n = 25, and groups of cognitively intact individuals (age ≤ 62, n = 41, age ≥ 68, n = 39. Core CSF AD biomarkers [amyloid beta 1–42 (Aβ42, total tau, phosphorylated tau] were analyzed, as well as levels of Aβ43 and other analytes, using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.Results: Cerebrospinal fluid Aβ43 was significantly reduced in early-onset AD compared to late-onset AD (14.8 ± 7.3 vs. 21.8 ± 9.4 pg/ml, respectively, whereas the levels of Aβ42 in the two AD groups were not significantly different (474.9 ± 142.0 vs. 539.6 ± 159.9 pg/ml, respectively. Aβ43 and all core biomarkers were significantly altered in patients with AD compared to corresponding controls. NF-L was significantly increased in early-onset AD compared to younger controls, an effect not found between the older groups. Relationships between the Aβ peptides and tau proteins, YKL-40, NF-L, GFAP and progranulin were also investigated without finding marked associations. However, age-associated increases in levels of tau proteins, YKL-40, NF-L and GFAP were found with respect to age in healthy controls. Results for these other analytes were similar to previously published data. Aβ43 did not improve diagnostic accuracy in either AD group compared to Aβ42. Discussion: Cerebrospinal fluid Aβ43, but not Aβ42 levels, varied significantly with age in patients with

  1. Fully automatic diagnostic system for early- and late-onset mild Alzheimer's disease using FDG PET and 3D-SSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazunari; Kono, Atsushi K.; Sasaki, Hiroki; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Sakamoto, Setsu; Mori, Etsuro

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a fully automatic computer-assisted diagnostic system for early- and late-onset mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Glucose metabolic images were obtained from mild AD patients and normal controls using positron emission tomography (PET) and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Two groups of 20 mild AD patients with different ages of onset were examined. A fully automatic diagnostic system using the statistical brain mapping method was established from the early-onset (EO) and late-onset (LO) groups, with mean ages of 59.1 and 70.9 years and mean MMSE scores of 23.3 and 22.8, respectively. Aged-matched normal subjects were used as controls. We compared the diagnostic performance of visual inspection of conventional axial FDG PET images by experts and beginners with that of our fully automatic diagnostic system in another 15 EO and 15 LO AD patients (mean age 58.4 and 71.7, mean MMSE 23.6 and 23.1, respectively) and 30 age-matched normal controls. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to compare data. The diagnostic performance of the automatic diagnostic system was comparable with that of visual inspection by experts. The area under the ROC curve for the automatic diagnostic system was 0.967 for EO AD patients and 0.878 for LO AD patients. The mean area under the ROC curve for visual inspection by experts was 0.863 and 0.881 for the EO and LO AD patients, respectively. The mean area under the ROC curve for visual inspection by beginners was 0.828 and 0.717, respectively. The fully automatic diagnostic system for EO and LO AD was able to perform at a similar diagnostic level to visual inspection of conventional axial images by experts. (orig.)

  2. Late-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    Late-onset asthma is common, associated with poor outcome, underdiagnosed and undertreated, possibly due to the modifying effect of ageing on disease expression. Although the diagnostic work-up in elderly individuals suspected of having asthma follows the same steps as in younger individuals (case......, to objectively confirm asthma. If necessary, a trial of oral or inhaled corticosteroid might be necessary. Asthma can be diagnosed when increased airflow variability is identified in a symptomatic patient, and if the patient does not have a history of exposure, primarily smoking, known to cause chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease, the diagnosis is asthma even if the patient does not have fully reversible airflow obstruction. Pharmacological therapy in patients with late-onset asthma follows international guidelines, including treatment with the lowest effective dose of inhaled corticosteroid to minimize...

  3. A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study of Cerebrovascular Disease and Late Effects After Radiation Therapy for Craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Andrea C; Howard, A Fuchsia; Nichol, Alan; Hasan, Haroon; Martin, Monty; Heran, Manraj; Goddard, Karen

    2016-05-01

    The study objective was to describe radiation-induced vascular abnormalities, stroke prevalence, and stroke risk factors in survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma. Twenty survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma who received radiotherapy (RT) were included in the study. A clinical history, quality of life assessment, cognitive functioning assessment, magnetic resonance angiogram or computed tomography angiogram, fasting lipid profile, and fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1c test were obtained. Median age at diagnosis was 10.3 years and median age at time of study was 29.0 years. Vascular abnormalities were detected in six (32%) of 19 patients' angiograms (vascular stenosis, decreased artery size, aneurysm, cavernoma, and small vessel disease). Five (25%) of 20 patients experienced a stroke after RT. Median time since RT was 27.8 versus 9.1 years in patients with versus without vascular abnormalities (P = 0.02). A low level of high-density lipoproteiin (HDL) was present in 100% (5/5) of patients who had a post-RT stroke as compared with 13% (2/15) of patients who did not have any post-RT stroke (P = 0.02). Previous stroke had occurred in 0% (0/5) of patients receiving growth hormone (GH) replacement at the time of study, compared to 40% (6/15) of patients who were not receiving GH replacement (P = 0.09). Patients with craniopharyngioma treated with RT have a high prevalence of stroke and vascular abnormalities, particularly those with low HDL and longer duration of time since RT. There is a trend to suggest that continual GH replacement may reduce the risk of stroke. These patients should undergo careful monitoring and aggressive modification of stroke risk factors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. First record of Glomerella cingulata causing leaf blight on Talauma ovata (Magnoliaceae Primeiro relato de Glomerella cingulata causando queima foliar em Talauma ovata (Magnoliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sérgio Vieira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Glomerella cingulata was found causing severe leaf blight on Talauma ovata, a common tree species in the Atlantic tropical rain forest floodplains of Southern Brazil. The disease and pathogen are described and illustrated and patogenicity is also demonstrated. This is the first report of this disease.Glomerella cingulata foi encontrado causando severa queima-foliar em Talauma ovata, uma espécie arbórea comum em florestas úmidas tropicais do Sudeste do Brasil. A doença e o patógeno foram descritos e ilustrados, e sua patogenicidade também foi demonstrada. Esse é o primeiro relato dessa doença.

  5. Fusarium head blight incidence and mycotoxin accumulation in three durum wheat cultivars in relation to sowing date and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, Anna; Oleksy, Andrzej; Gala-Czekaj, Dorota; Urbaniak, Monika; Laskowska, Magdalena; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz

    2018-02-01

    Durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum var. durum) is an important crop in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean countries. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is considered as one of the most damaging diseases, resulting in yield and quality reduction as well as contamination of grain with mycotoxins. Three winter durum wheat cultivars originating from Austria, Slovakia, and Poland were analyzed during 2012-2014 seasons for FHB incidence and Fusarium mycotoxin accumulation in harvested grain. Moreover, the effects of sowing density and delayed sowing date were evaluated in the climatic conditions of Southern Poland. Low disease severity was observed in 2011/2012 in all durum wheat cultivars analyzed, and high FHB occurrence was recorded in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons. Fusarium graminearum was the most abundant pathogen, followed by Fusarium avenaceum. Through all three seasons, cultivar Komnata was the most susceptible to FHB and to mycotoxin accumulation, while cultivars Auradur and IS Pentadur showed less symptoms. High susceptibility of cv. Komnata was reflected by the number of Fusarium isolates and elevated mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and moniliformin) content in the grain of this cultivar across all three seasons. Nivalenol was identified in the samples of cv. Komnata only. Genotype-dependent differences in FHB susceptibility were observed for the plants sown at optimal date but not at delayed sowing date. It can be hypothesized that cultivars bred in Austria and Slovakia show less susceptibility towards FHB than the cultivar from Poland because of the environmental conditions allowing for more efficient selection of breeding materials.

  6. Combining Ascochyta blight and Botrytis grey mould resistance in chickpea through interspecific hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livinder KAUR

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ascochyta blight (AB caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass. Labr. and Botrytis grey mould (BGM caused by Botrytis cinerea (Pers. ex Fr. are important diseases of the aerial plant parts of chickpea in most chickpea growing areas of the world. Although conventional approaches have contributed to reducing disease, the use of new technologies is expected to further reduce losses through these biotic stresses. Reliable screening techniques were developed: ‘field screening technique’ for adult plant screening, ‘cloth chamber technique’ and ‘growth chamber technique’ for the study of races of the pathogen and for segregating generations. Furthermore, the ‘cut twig technique’ for interspecific population for AB and BGM resistance was developed. For introgression of high levels of AB and BGM resistance in cultivated chickpea from wild relatives, accessions of seven annual wild Cicer spp. were evaluated and identified: C. judaicum accessions 185, ILWC 95 and ILWC 61, C. pinnatifidum accessions 188, 199 and ILWC 212 as potential donors. C. pinnatifidum accession188 was crossed with ICCV 96030 and 62 F9 lines resistant to AB and BGM were derived. Of the derived lines, several are being evaluated for agronomic traits and yield parameters while four lines, GL 29029, GL29206, GL29212, GL29081 possessing high degree of resistance were crossed with susceptible high yielding cultivars BG 256 to improve resistance and to undertake molecular studies. Genotyping of F2 populations with SSR markers from the chickpea genome was done to identify markers potentially linked with AB and BGM resistance genes. In preliminary studies, of 120 SSR markers used, six (Ta 2, Ta 110, Ta 139, CaSTMS 7, CaSTMS 24 and Tr 29 were identified with polymorphic bands between resistant derivative lines and the susceptible parent. The study shows that wild species of Cicer are the valuable gene pools of resistance to AB and BGM. The resistant derivative lines generated here can

  7. Jerusalem artichoke enriched diet on growth performance, immuno-hematological changes and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Raffic Ali, Sajjad; Ambasankar, Kondusamy; Saiyad Musthafa, Mohamed; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2017-11-01

    A 45 days feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of Jerusalem artichoke (JA) on growth performance, body composition, biochemical, immuno-hematological parameters and disease resistance in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) fingerlings against Aeromonas hydrophila. JA was supplemented at three different levels viz., control 0, 5, 10, and 20 g kg -1 in the commercial diet (403 g kg -1 protein and 89 g kg -1 lipid) in L. calcarifer. The results showed that there were no significant (P > 0.05) differences in various growth parameters, while the whole body composition showed significant differences (P  0.05) affected by dietary supplementation of JA at different concentration. However, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the fish fed with 20 g kg -1  JA supplemented diet. Biochemical parameters revealed that glucose, urea, cholesterol, and triglyceride showed significant (P < 0.05) differences between control and treatments groups. Interestingly, 20 g kg -1  JA supplemented diet significantly modulates the innate immune response and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila compared with control and other treatment groups. The results of the study revealed that 20 g kg -1  JA supplementation has a beneficial effect in the biochemical, immunological and disease resistance in L. calcarifer juveniles. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Late-in-life surgery associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a methodological outline for evidence-based guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing epidemiological evidence of etiological links between general surgery and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) with long incubation periods. The purpose of this study was to identify specific surgical procedures potentially associated with sCJD to be targeted for preventive presurgical-intervention guidance. Results We propose a three-step clinical guidance outline where surgical procedures associated with sCJD clinical onset – potentially more contaminant - are taken into account. Data on hospital discharges and surgical procedures were obtained from Danish and Swedish national in-patient hospital registries for 167 sCJD cases, onset 1987–2003, and for 835 matched and 2,224 unmatched population controls. Surgery was allocated to different life-time periods as previously reported, and frequencies were compared using logistic regression analysis. In the year preceding clinical onset, persons with sCJD underwent a statistically significant higher number of minor surgical interventions (OR (95% CI): 17.50 (3.64-84.24)), transluminal endoscopies (OR: 2.73 (1.01–7.37)) and gastrointestinal operations (OR: 3.51 (1.21–10.19)) compared to matched controls. Surgical discharges clustered towards clinical onset. These differences increased during the clinical period, with statistically significant higher frequencies for both endoscopies and minor surgery (OR: 13.91 (5.87-32.95), and for main surgical procedures (OR: 2.10 (1.00-4.39)), particularly gastrointestinal surgery (OR: 6.00 (1.83-19.66)), and surgery contacting skeletal muscle. Comparisons with unmatched controls yielded similar results for neurosurgery in the clinical period (OR: 19.40 (2.22-168.34)). Conclusions These results suggest that some types of surgical procedures are associated with sCJD, after clinical onset or particularly just before onset. Selective planning of such surgery to minimize instrument/device contamination or quarantining might be feasible

  9. Early Postnatal but Not Late Adult Neurogenesis Is Impaired in the Pitx3-Mutant Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz D. Brandt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The generation of new neurons in the adult dentate gyrus has functional implications for hippocampal formation. Reduced hippocampal neurogenesis has been described in various animal models of hippocampal dysfunction such as dementia and depression, which are both common non-motor-symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD. As dopamine plays an important role in regulating precursor cell proliferation, the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN in PD may be related to the reduced neurogenesis observed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain: subventricular zone (SVZ and dentate gyrus (DG. Here we examined adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the Pitx3-mutant mouse model of PD (aphakia mice, which phenotypically shows a selective embryonic degeneration of dopamine neurons within the SN and to a smaller extent in the ventral tegmental area (VTA. Proliferating cells were labeled with BrdU in aphakia mice and healthy controls from 3 to 42 weeks of age. Three weeks old mutant mice showed an 18% reduction of proliferating cells in the DG and of 26% in the SVZ. Not only proliferation but also the number of new neurons was impaired in young aphakia mice resulting in 33% less newborn cells 4 weeks after BrdU-labeling. Remarkably, however, the decline in the number of proliferating cells in the neurogenic regions vanished in older animals (8–42 weeks indicating that aging masks the effect of dopamine depletion on adult neurogenesis. Region specific reduction in precursor cells proliferation correlated with the extent of dopaminergic degeneration in mesencephalic subregions (VTA and SN, which supports the theory of age- and region-dependent regulatory effects of dopaminergic projections. Physiological stimulation of adult neurogenesis by physical activity (wheel running almost doubled the number of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus